WorldWideScience

Sample records for geologic media application

  1. Heterogeneity and Scaling in Geologic Media: Applications to Transport in the Vadose and Saturated Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Stephen R.

    2003-06-01

    Heterogeneity and Scaling in Geologic Media: Applications to Transport in the Vadose and Saturated Zones Stephen Brown, Gregory Boitnott, and Martin Smith New England Research In rocks and soils, the bulk geophysical and transport properties of the matrix and of fracture systems are determined by the juxtaposition of geometric features at many length scales. For sedimentary materials the length scales are: the pore scale (irregularities in grain surface roughness and cementation), the scale of grain packing faults (and the resulting correlated porosity structures), the scale dominated by sorting or winnowing due to depositional processes, and the scale of geomorphology at the time of deposition. We are studying the heterogeneity and anisotropy in geometry, permeability, and geophysical response from the pore (microscopic), laboratory (mesoscopic), and backyard field (macroscopic) scales. In turn these data are being described and synthesized for development of mathematical models. Eventually, we will perform parameter studies to explore these models in the context of transport in the vadose and saturated zones. We have developed a multi-probe physical properties scanner which allows for the mapping of geophysical properties on a slabbed sample or core. This device allows for detailed study of heterogeneity at those length scales most difficult to quantify using standard field and laboratory practices. The measurement head consists of a variety of probes designed to make local measurements of various properties, including: gas permeability, acoustic velocities (compressional and shear), complex electrical impedance (4 electrode, wide frequency coverage), and ultrasonic reflection (ultrasonic impedance and permeability). We can thus routinely generate detailed geophysical maps of a particular sample. With the exception of the acoustic velocity, we are testing and modifying these probes as necessary for use on soil samples. As a baseline study we have been

  2. Wave Propagation in Jointed Geologic Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoun, T

    2009-12-17

    Predictive modeling capabilities for wave propagation in a jointed geologic media remain a modern day scientific frontier. In part this is due to a lack of comprehensive understanding of the complex physical processes associated with the transient response of geologic material, and in part it is due to numerical challenges that prohibit accurate representation of the heterogeneities that influence the material response. Constitutive models whose properties are determined from laboratory experiments on intact samples have been shown to over-predict the free field environment in large scale field experiments. Current methodologies for deriving in situ properties from laboratory measured properties are based on empirical equations derived for static geomechanical applications involving loads of lower intensity and much longer durations than those encountered in applications of interest involving wave propagation. These methodologies are not validated for dynamic applications, and they do not account for anisotropic behavior stemming from direcitonal effects associated with the orientation of joint sets in realistic geologies. Recent advances in modeling capabilities coupled with modern high performance computing platforms enable physics-based simulations of jointed geologic media with unprecedented details, offering a prospect for significant advances in the state of the art. This report provides a brief overview of these modern computational approaches, discusses their advantages and limitations, and attempts to formulate an integrated framework leading to the development of predictive modeling capabilities for wave propagation in jointed and fractured geologic materials.

  3. Density-Driven Flow Simulation in Anisotropic Porous Media: Application to CO2 Geological Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah

    2014-04-21

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in saline aquifers is considered as one of the most viable and promising ways to reduce CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. CO2 is injected into deep saline formations at supercritical state where its density is smaller than the hosting brine. This motivates an upward motion and eventually CO2 is trapped beneath the cap rock. The trapped CO2 slowly dissolves into the brine causing the density of the mixture to become larger than the host brine. This causes gravitational instabilities that is propagated and magnified with time. In this kind of density-driven flows, the CO2-rich brines migrate downward while the brines with low CO2 concentration move upward. With respect to the properties of the subsurface aquifers, there are instances where saline formations can possess anisotropy with respect to their hydraulic properties. Such anisotropy can have significant effect on the onset and propagation of flow instabilities. Anisotropy is predicted to be more influential in dictating the direction of the convective flow. To account for permeability anisotropy, the method of multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) in the framework of finite differences schemes is used. The MPFA method requires more point stencil than the traditional two-point flux approximation (TPFA). For example, calculation of one flux component requires 6-point stencil and 18-point stencil in 2-D and 3-D cases, respectively. As consequence, the matrix of coefficient for obtaining the pressure fields will be quite complex. Therefore, we combine the MPFA method with the experimenting pressure field technique in which the problem is reduced to solving multitude of local problems and the global matrix of coefficients is constructed automatically, which significantly reduces the complexity. We present several numerical scenarios of density-driven flow simulation in homogeneous, layered, and heterogeneous anisotropic porous media. The numerical results emphasize the

  4. RANCH, Radionuclide Migration in Geological Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patry, J.; Hadermann, J.

    1991-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: One-dimensional transport of radionuclide chains through layered geological media, taking into account longitudinal dispersion, convection and retention. 2 - Method of solution: Semi-analytical solution by Laplace transform. Convolution integrals. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum 4 nuclides and 10 layers. Peclet number large compared to 1

  5. Solubility limited radionuclide transport through geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Susumu; Iwamoto, Fumio; Pigford, T.H.

    1980-11-01

    Prior analyses for the migration of radionuclides neglect solubility limits of resolved radionuclide in geologic media. But actually some of the actinides may appear in chemical forms of very low solubility. In the present report we have proposed the migration model with no decay parents in which concentration of radionuclide is limited in concentration of solubility in ground water. In addition, the analytical solutions of the space-time-dependent concentration are presented in the case of step release, band release and exponential release. (author)

  6. On the Theory of Solitons of Fluid Pressure and Solute Density in Geologic Porous Media, with Applications to Shale, Clay and Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserta, A.; Kanivetsky, R.; Salusti, E.

    2017-11-01

    We here analyze a new model of transients of pore pressure p and solute density ρ in geologic porous media. This model is rooted in the nonlinear wave theory, its focus is on advection and effect of large pressure jumps on strain. It takes into account nonlinear and also time-dependent versions of the Hooke law about stress, rate and strain. The model solutions strictly relate p and ρ evolving under the effect of a strong external stress. As a result, the presence of quick and sharp transients in low permeability rocks is unveiled, i.e., the nonlinear "Burgers solitons". We, therefore, show that the actual transport process in porous rocks for large signals is not only the linear diffusion, but also a solitons presence could control the process. A test of a presence of solitons is applied to Pierre shale, Bearpaw shale, Boom clay and Oznam-Mugu silt and clay. An application about the presence of solitons for nuclear waste disposal and salt water intrusions is also discussed. Finally, in a kind of "theoretical experiment" we show that solitons could also be present in higher permeability rocks (Jordan and St. Peter sandstones), thus supporting the idea of a possible occurrence of osmosis also in sandstones.

  7. UCBNE25, Radionuclide Migration in Geologic Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilshtok, G.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: UCBNE25 estimates the maximum concentration of nuclides occurring during the migration of three-member radionuclide chains in geologic media without axial dispersion. Unlike other migration codes, the release rate in UCBNE25 is the independent variable, and time is the dependent variable. The extrema in concentrations are determined without having to calculate the entire concentration history. The program assumes one-dimensional water transport and sorption equilibrium for the nuclides in the soil and in the water. The water velocity is held constant, and the leach times are smaller than the half-lives of the nuclides involved. UCBNE25 calculates for each nuclide the time of the maxima at a specified position, the maximum dimensionless concentration, the corresponding water dilution rate, and the contamination time for that position. The closed form solutions can be easily checked by hand, making it a useful calibration tool for other codes. 2 - Method of solution: The method concentrates on the estimation of the extrema positions in space at a fixed time and their occurrence at a fixed position

  8. Retardation characteristics of radionuclides in geologic media through batch and packed column experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hun Hwee; Han, Kyung Won; Han, Pil Soo; Lee, Jae Owan; Park, Chung Kyun; Yang, Ho Yeon

    1988-03-01

    Batch and packed column experiments are performed to investigate the retardation characteristics of radionuclide,i.e, Cs-137 in geologic media. In batch experiment, the effects of important parameters on the sorption of radionuclide in geologic media, such as nuclide concentration, pH, and particle size are examined. The Kd value obtained from breakthrough curve was compared with that from the batch sorption experiment to investigate the applicability of the Kd value from batch experiment to prediction of radionuclide migration in dynamic flow through porous media. The proposed model of radionuclide migration in porous media is also verified using the experimental results. (Author)

  9. Up-scaling of a two-phase flow model including gravity effect in geological heterogeneous media: application to CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Tri-Dat

    2016-01-01

    This work deals with the mathematical modeling and the numerical simulation of the migration under gravity and capillarity effects of the supercritical CO 2 injected into a geological heterogeneous sequestration site. The simulations are performed with the code DuMux. Particularly, we consider the up-scaling, from the cell scale to the reservoir scale, of a two-phase (CO 2 -brine) flow model within a periodic stratified medium made up of horizontal low permeability barriers, continuous or discontinuous. The up-scaling is done by the two-scale asymptotic method. First, we consider perfectly layered media. An homogenized model is developed and validated by numerical simulation for different values of capillary number and the incident flux of CO 2 . The homogenization method is then applied to the case of a two-dimensional medium made up of discontinuous layers. Due to the gravity effect, the CO 2 accumulates under the low permeability layers, which leads to a non-standard local mathematical problem. This stratification is modeled using the gravity current approach. This approach is then extended to the case of semi-permeable strata taking into account the capillarity. The up-scaled model is compared with numerical simulations for different types of layers, with or without capillary pressure, and its limit of validity is discussed in each of these cases. The final part of this thesis is devoted to the study of the parallel computing performances of the code DuMux to simulate the injection and migration of CO 2 in three-dimensional heterogeneous media (layered periodic media, fluvial media and reservoir model SPE 10). (author) [fr

  10. Review of heat dissipation in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, R.O.; Vandersande, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Existing data on the thermal conductivity of various rocks, e.g., rocksalt, granite, basalt, etc., will be critically reviewed, with the objective of determining the likely range of conductivity to be expected in a geologic repository. Research carried out at Cornell on the thermal conductivity of rocksalt from different sources, and from different horizons at the WIPP site in New Mexico will be described, as well as the search for the influence of ionizing radiation and of heat treatment. A few examples chosen from previously published calculations of expected temperature profiles will be presented; the considerable discrepancies demonstrate the need for more reliable calculations and for sensitivity analyses

  11. Plane shock wave studies of geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.D.; Larson, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    Plane shock wave experiments have been conducted on eight geologic materials in an effort to determine the importance of time-dependent mechanical behavior. Of the eight rocks studied, only Westerly granite and nugget sandstone appear to show time independence. In the slightly porous materials (1-5 percent), Blair dolomite and sodium chloride, and in the highly porous (15 to 40 percent) rock, Mt. Helen tuff and Indiana limestone, time-dependent behavior is associated with the time required to close the available porosity. In water-saturated rocks the time dependence arises because the water that is present shows no indication of transformation to the higher pressure ice phases, thus suggesting the possibility that a metastable form of water exists under dynamic conditions

  12. Multiscale Modeling of Poromechanics in Geologic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletto, N.; Hajibeygi, H.; Klevtsov, S.; Tchelepi, H.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a hybrid MultiScale Finite Element-Finite Volume (h-MSFE-FV) framework for the simulation of single-phase Darcy flow through deformable porous media that exhibit highly heterogeneous poromechanical properties over a wide range of length scales. In such systems, high resolution characterizations are a key requirement to obtain reliable modeling predictions and motivate the development of multiscale solution strategies to cope with the computational burden. A coupled two-field fine-scale mixed FE-FV discretization of the governing equations, namely conservation laws of linear momentum and mass, is first implemented based on a displacement-pressure formulation. After imposing a coarse-scale grid on the given fine-scale problem, for the MSFE displacement stage, the coarse-scale basis functions are obtained by solving local equilibrium problems within coarse elements. Such MSFE stage is then coupled with the MSFV method for flow, in which a dual-coarse grid is introduced to obtain approximate but conservative multiscale solutions. Robustness and accuracy of the proposed multiscale framework is demonstrated using a variety of challenging test problems.

  13. Geological entropy and solute transport in heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Marco; Pedretti, Daniele

    2017-06-01

    We propose a novel approach to link solute transport behavior to the physical heterogeneity of the aquifer, which we fully characterize with two measurable parameters: the variance of the log K values (σY2), and a new indicator (HR) that integrates multiple properties of the K field into a global measure of spatial disorder or geological entropy. From the results of a detailed numerical experiment considering solute transport in K fields representing realistic distributions of hydrofacies in alluvial aquifers, we identify empirical relationship between the two parameters and the first three central moments of the distributions of arrival times of solute particles at a selected control plane. The analysis of experimental data indicates that the mean and the variance of the solutes arrival times tend to increase with spatial disorder (i.e., HR increasing), while highly skewed distributions are observed in more orderly structures (i.e., HR decreasing) or at higher σY2. We found that simple closed-form empirical expressions of the bivariate dependency of skewness on HR and σY2 can be used to predict the emergence of non-Fickian transport in K fields considering a range of structures and heterogeneity levels, some of which based on documented real aquifers. The accuracy of these predictions and in general the results from this study indicate that a description of the global variability and structure of the K field in terms of variance and geological entropy offers a valid and broadly applicable approach for the interpretation and prediction of transport in heterogeneous porous media.

  14. Migration of radionuclide through two-layered geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Takagi, Ikuji; Nakai, Kunihiro; Higashi, Kunio

    1984-01-01

    For the safety assessment of geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, an analytical solution was obtained for one-dimensional migration of radionuclide through two-layered geologic media without dispersion. By applying it to geologic media composed of granite and soil layers, the effect of interlayer boundary on the discharge profile of radionuclides in decay chains into biological environment is examined. The time-space profiles of radionuclides in the vicinity of interlayer boundary are much complicated as shown in the results of calculation. Those profiles in case that the groundwater flows through granite followed by soil are quite different from those in case that the groundwater flows through soil followed by granite. Each of complicated dependence of profiles on time and space can be physically explained. The characteristic profiles in the vicinity of interlayer boundary have not been discussed previously. Recently, numerical computer codes has been developed to apply to much more realistic geologic situations. However, the numerical accuracies of the codes are necessary to be confirmed. This is achieved by comparing computational results with results from analytical solutions. The analytical solution presented will serve as a bench-mark for numerical accuracy. (author)

  15. Information needs for characterization of high-level waste repository sites in six geologic media. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-05-01

    Evaluation of the geologic isolation of radioactive materials from the biosphere requires an intimate knowledge of site geologic conditions, which is gained through precharacterization and site characterization studies. This report presents the results of an intensive literature review, analysis and compilation to delineate the information needs, applicable techniques and evaluation criteria for programs to adequately characterize a site in six geologic media. These media, in order of presentation, are: granite, shale, basalt, tuff, bedded salt and dome salt. Guidelines are presented to assess the efficacy (application, effectiveness, and resolution) of currently used exploratory and testing techniques for precharacterization or characterization of a site. These guidelines include the reliability, accuracy and resolution of techniques deemed acceptable, as well as cost estimates of various field and laboratory techniques used to obtain the necessary information. Guidelines presented do not assess the relative suitability of media. 351 refs., 10 figs., 31 tabs.

  16. Information needs for characterization of high-level waste repository sites in six geologic media. Volume 1. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    Evaluation of the geologic isolation of radioactive materials from the biosphere requires an intimate knowledge of site geologic conditions, which is gained through precharacterization and site characterization studies. This report presents the results of an intensive literature review, analysis and compilation to delineate the information needs, applicable techniques and evaluation criteria for programs to adequately characterize a site in six geologic media. These media, in order of presentation, are: granite, shale, basalt, tuff, bedded salt and dome salt. Guidelines are presented to assess the efficacy (application, effectiveness, and resolution) of currently used exploratory and testing techniques for precharacterization or characterization of a site. These guidelines include the reliability, accuracy and resolution of techniques deemed acceptable, as well as cost estimates of various field and laboratory techniques used to obtain the necessary information. Guidelines presented do not assess the relative suitability of media. 351 refs., 10 figs., 31 tabs

  17. Alternate nuclear waste forms and interactions in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boatner, L.A.; Battle, G.C. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    The primary purposes of the conference on Alternate Nuclear Waste Forms and Interactions in Geologic Media were: First, to provide an opportunity for a review of the status of the research on some of the candidate alternative waste forms; second, to provide an opportunity for comparing the characteristics of alternate waste forms to those of glasses; and third, to stimulate increased interactions between those research groups that were engaged in a more basic approach to characterizing waste forms and those who were concerned with more applied aspects such as the processing of these materials. The motivating philosophy behind this third purpose of the conference was based on the idea that by operating from the soundest possible fundamental base for any of the candidate waste forms, hopefully any future unpleasant surprise - such as that alluded to earlier in the case of glass waste forms - could be avoided. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  18. Geotrap: radionuclide migration in geologic, heterogeneous media. Summary of accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    GEOTRAP - the OECD/NEA Project on Radionuclide Migration in Geologic, Heterogeneous Media - was carried out in the context of site evaluation and safety assessment of deep repository systems for long-lived radioactive waste. The project was created in 1996 with the aim of developing an understanding of, and modelling capability for, potential radionuclide migration. This report provides an overview of the project's main findings and accomplishments over its five-year life. This summary should help make the valuable information collected and generated by the GEOTRAP project accessible to a wide readership both within and outside the radioactive waste community.It is a reflection of the careful attention paid by this community to the question of radionuclide transport. (authors)

  19. The Complex Conductivity Signature of Geobacter Species in Geological Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.; Atekwana, E. A.; Sarkisova, S.; Achang, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Complex Conductivity (CC) technique is a promising biogeophysical approach for sensing microbially-induced changes in geological media because of its low-invasive character and sufficient sensitivity to enhanced microbial activity in the near subsurface. Geobacter species have been shown to play important roles in the bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with petroleum and landfill leachate. This capability is based on the ability of Geobacter species to reduce Fe(III) by transferring of electrons from the reduced equivalents to Fe(III) rich minerals through respiration chain and special metallic-like conductors - pili. Only the cultivation of Geobacter species on Fe(III) oxides specifically express pili biosynthesis. Moreover, mutants that cannot produce pili are unable to reduce Fe(III) oxides. However, little is known about the contribution of these molecular conductors (nanowires) to the generation of complex conductivity signatures in geological media. Here, we present the results about the modulation of CC signatures in geological media by Geobacter sulfurreducens (G.s.). Cultures of wild strain G.s. and its pilA(-) mutant were anaerobically cultivated in the presence of the pair of such donors and acceptors of electrons: acetate - fumarate, and acetate - magnetite under anaerobic conditions. Each culture was injected in CC sample holders filled either with N2-CO2 mix (planktonic variant) or with this gases mix and glass beads, d=1 mm, (porous medium variant). Both strains of G.s. proliferated well in a medium supplemented with acetate-fumarate. However, pilA(-) mutant did not multiply in a medium supplemented with ox-red pair yeast extract - magnetite. This observation confirmed that only wild pilA(+) strain is capable of the dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) within magnetite molecule. The measurement of CC responses from planktonic culture of G.s. wild strain grown with acetate-fumarate did not show linear correlation with their magnitudes but

  20. Application of underwater radon measurements in geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varhegyi, A.; Baranyi, I.; Gerzson, I. (Mecsek Ore Mining Enterprise, Pecs (Hungary)); Somogyi, G.; Hakl, J.; Hunyadi, I. (Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Debrecen (Hungary). Atommag Kutato Intezete)

    1988-01-01

    Based on the observed phenomenon of geogas migration in microbubble form from deeper regions, the authors have developed a new model for the vertical transport of radon released from deeper sources. The physical properties of the rock relating to the upflow of microbubbles below the groundwater level are considered and the radon transport parameter of rocks is introduced. The vertical distribution of radon concentration in the case of a multi-layered geological model is given and the penetration depth of underwater radon measurements is examined. Aspects of underwater radon detection by the nuclear track detector technique are analyzed. The radon transport model gives a new theoretical basis for several applications of radon measurements in geology. The advantages of underwater radon detection have already been proved in uranium exploration. Further geological applications are proposed in earthquake prediction, in volcanology, in the survey of active faults and thermal waters. (author).

  1. Microstructural interactions of geologic media with waste radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkebein, T.E.; Hlava, P.F.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the microstructure of four geologic media was undertaken to examine the interaction of Cs, Sr, Gd and U with those media. Since K/sub D/ measurements often vary by more than an order of magnitude on rocks of the same strata separated by several feet, it was probable that minor rock components play an important role in radionuclide sorption. A qualitative analysis of the rock surfaces after equilibration with solutions of Cs + , Sr ++ , Gd +++ and UO 2 ++ revealed that clay minerals are responsible for all important sorption that takes place on the rocks studied (Magenta dolomite, Bell Canyon silt stone, Eleana shale and clay bearing halite). Thus it is concluded that a relatively small portion of these rocks is actively responsible for sorption characteristics. Gd was bound on all samples, probably as Fe bearing chlorites. Cs was strongly held on the Eleana shale, probably by an illite. Although uranium was associated with an unidentified clay in the halite sample, uranium sorption probably occurred as UO 2 CO 3 , which would not significantly retard uranium movement at trace concentrations. Similarly Sr was retained only as SrSO 4 on Magenta and this mechanism is not significant at trace levels. These analyses were performed by correlating electron microprobe elemental distribution photomicrographs with x-ray analyses of the four rocks. 13 figs., 2 tables

  2. Diffusion Dominant Solute Transport Modelling in Fractured Media Under Deep Geological Environment - 12211

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, S. [National Nuclear Laboratory (United Kingdom); Jivkov, A.P. [Research Centre for Radwaste and Decommissioning and Modelling and Simulation Centre, University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Deep geologic disposal of high activity and long-lived radioactive waste is gaining increasing support in many countries, where suitable low permeability geological formation in combination with engineered barriers are used to provide long term waste contaminant and minimise the impacts to the environment and risk to the biosphere. This modelling study examines the solute transport in fractured media under low flow velocities that are relevant to a deep geological environment. In particular, reactive solute transport through fractured media is studied using a 2-D model, that considers advection and diffusion, to explore the coupled effects of kinetic and equilibrium chemical processes. The effects of water velocity in the fracture, matrix porosity and diffusion on solute transport are investigated and discussed. Some illustrative modelled results are presented to demonstrate the use of the model to examine the effects of media degradation on solute transport, under the influences of hydrogeological (diffusion dominant) and microbially mediated chemical processes. The challenges facing the prediction of long term degradation such as cracks evolution, interaction and coalescence are highlighted. The potential of a novel microstructure informed modelling approach to account for these effects is discussed, particularly with respect to investigating multiple phenomena impact on material performance. The GRM code is used to examine the effects of media degradation for a geological waste disposal package, under the combined hydrogeological (diffusion dominant) and chemical effects in low groundwater flow conditions that are typical of deep geological disposal systems. An illustrative reactive transport modelling application demonstrates the use of the code to examine the interplay of kinetic controlled biogeochemical reactive processes with advective and diffusive transport, under the influence of media degradation. The initial model results are encouraging which show the

  3. Geological applications of synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, C. M. B.; Cressey, G.; Redfern, S. A. T.

    1995-03-01

    Synchrotron-based, Earth sciences research carried out over the last 5 years is reviewed with special attention being given to X-ray absorption studies; X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence microprobe applications are considered more briefly. A comprehensive bibliography is included. The main part of the paper summarizes recent work carried out at the Daresbury SRS. K-edge XAS studies of glasses as models for silicate melts provide information on the local structural environments of Si, Fe 2+ and Fe 3+. By analogy with synthetic "leucites" which contain Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ in tetrahedral framework sites, it seems that many model glasses also contain both oxidation states of Fe in the network, rather than as network modifiers. The structural sites occupied by the minor elements Mn, Zn and Ti in staurolite have been identified using XAFS; Mn and Zn substitute for Fe 2+ in the tetrahedral T2 site, while Ti occupies the distorted M2 octahedral site. L-edge spectroscopy is used to identify the valencies and electronic structures of Mn and Fe in minerals and the Fe 2+:Fe 3+ ratio in a natural spinel is determined. The polarized nature of the synchrotron beam is exploited in determining the Fe X-ray absorption anisotropy in single crystal tourmaline and epidote. XRD powder studies include Rietveld-refinement structure determination and compressibility studies. Synthetic "leucites" having the stoichiometry K 2MgSi 5O 12 have distinctly different structures. The dry-synthesized form is cubic Ia3d with Si and Mg fully disordered on tetrahedral framework sites, while the hydrothermally-synthesized polymorph is monoclinic P2 1/c with Si and Mg fully disordered on, respectively, 10 and 2 tetrahedral sites. The reversible tetragonal to orthorhombic phase transition in gillespite (BaFeSi 4O 10) has been studied in a diamond anvil cell using ED detection and found to occur at 1.2 ± 0.1 GPa. The anomalous compressibility observed has been interpreted in terms of ferroelastic and

  4. A model for the transport of radionuclides and their decay products through geological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkholder, H.C.; Rosinger, E.L.J.

    1979-09-01

    The one-dimensional trasport of radionuclides and their decay products from an underground nuclear waste isolation site through the surrounding geologic media to a surface environment is modeled. An ambiguity in the application of the previously-reported mathematical solution for this problem has been clarified. The results of applying the solution described here compare favorably with those of the former solution, but the present solution is computatonally more efficient and less subject to numerical errors. This solution is being used by the authors and others to evaluate the sensitivity of potential radoactivity releases into the environment to the characteristics of various nuclear waste isolation systems. (author)

  5. Use of space applications for geologic research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presnukhin, V I

    1981-01-01

    Overview of literature published in USSR during 1969-1977 shows broad potential and effectiveness for using satellite imaging of earth in the geologic sciences: geomorphology, tectonics, engineering geology, and searh for useful ore and minerals.

  6. Modelling of 3D fractured geological systems - technique and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacace, M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Cherubini, Y.; Kaiser, B. O.; Bloecher, G.

    2011-12-01

    All rocks in the earth's crust are fractured to some extent. Faults and fractures are important in different scientific and industry fields comprising engineering, geotechnical and hydrogeological applications. Many petroleum, gas and geothermal and water supply reservoirs form in faulted and fractured geological systems. Additionally, faults and fractures may control the transport of chemical contaminants into and through the subsurface. Depending on their origin and orientation with respect to the recent and palaeo stress field as well as on the overall kinematics of chemical processes occurring within them, faults and fractures can act either as hydraulic conductors providing preferential pathways for fluid to flow or as barriers preventing flow across them. The main challenge in modelling processes occurring in fractured rocks is related to the way of describing the heterogeneities of such geological systems. Flow paths are controlled by the geometry of faults and their open void space. To correctly simulate these processes an adequate 3D mesh is a basic requirement. Unfortunately, the representation of realistic 3D geological environments is limited by the complexity of embedded fracture networks often resulting in oversimplified models of the natural system. A technical description of an improved method to integrate generic dipping structures (representing faults and fractures) into a 3D porous medium is out forward. The automated mesh generation algorithm is composed of various existing routines from computational geometry (e.g. 2D-3D projection, interpolation, intersection, convex hull calculation) and meshing (e.g. triangulation in 2D and tetrahedralization in 3D). All routines have been combined in an automated software framework and the robustness of the approach has been tested and verified. These techniques and methods can be applied for fractured porous media including fault systems and therefore found wide applications in different geo-energy related

  7. Particle size distributions, size concentration relationships, and adherence to hands of selected geologic media derived from mining, smelting, and quarrying activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstrom, Carolyn; Shirai, Jeffry; Kissel, John, E-mail: jkissel@uw.edu

    2011-09-15

    Hand-to-mouth activity, especially in children, is a potentially significant pathway of exposure to soil contaminants. Hand-mouthing behavior is of particular concern in areas impacted by mining, smelting, and quarrying activities as these activities may lead to elevated levels of heavy metals in soil. In order to estimate potential exposures to contaminated geologic media attributable to hand-to-mouth contact, it is useful to characterize adherence of those media to skin, as contaminant concentrations in adhered media may differ greatly from unfractionated, whole media concentrations. Such an investigation has been undertaken to aid estimation of exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in nine different geologic media collected in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. After establishing the particle size distribution of each medium (fractions < 63 {mu}m, 63-150 {mu}m, 150-250 {mu}m, and 250 {mu}m-2 mm were determined) and target elemental concentrations within each particle size fraction, an active handling protocol involving six volunteers was conducted. Wet media always adhered to a greater extent than dry media and adhered media generally had higher elemental concentrations than bulk media. Regression analyses suggest smaller particle fractions may have higher elemental concentrations. Results of application of a maximum likelihood estimation technique generally indicate that handling of dry media leads to preferential adherence of smaller particle sizes, while handling of wet media does not. Because adhered material can differ greatly in particle size distribution from that found in bulk material, use of bulk concentrations in exposure calculations may lead to poor estimation of actual exposures. Since lead has historically been a metal of particular concern, EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model was used to examine the potential consequences of evaluating ingestion of the selected media assuming concentrations in

  8. Transport properties of nuclear wastes in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.; Rickert, P.; Fried, S.; Friedman, A.M.; Steindler, M.

    1977-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed with Cs, Pu, Np, and Am to examine the migratory characteristics of long-lived radionuclides that could be mobilized by groundwaters infiltrating a nuclear waste repository and the surrounding geologic body. In column infiltration experiments, the positions of peak concentrations of Cs in chalk or shale columns, Pu and Am in limestone, sandstone, or tuff and neptunium in a limestone column did not move when the columns were infiltrated with water. However, fractions of all of the nuclides were seen downstream from the peaks, indicating a large dispersion in the relative migration rates of the trace elements in the lithic materials studied. Static absorption experiments showed that plutonium and americium are strongly absorbed from solution by common rocks and that their migration relative to groundwater flow is thereby retarded. Reaction rates of these dissolved elements with rocks were found to vary considerably in different rock-element systems. Following a sorption step in batch experiments with granulated basalt and Am bearing water, Pu and Am were desorbed from rock and repartitioned between rock and solution to an extent comparable to their distribution during absorption. In contrast, when tablets of various rocks were allowed to dry between absorption and desorption tests, Pu and Am were not generally desorbed from the tablets.In batch experiments with Pu and Am-bearing water and granulated basalt of several different particle sizes, the partitioning of Am and Pu did not correlate with the calculated area of the fracture surfaces nor did the partitioning remain constant (as did the measured surface area). Partitioning is concluded to be a bulk phenomenon with complete penetration of 30 to 40 mesh and smaller particles. 9 tables, 4 figs

  9. Xenon adsorption on geological media and implications for radionuclide signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M J; Biegalski, S R; Haas, D A; Jiang, H; Daigle, H; Lowrey, J D

    2018-07-01

    The detection of radioactive noble gases is a primary technology for verifying compliance with the pending Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. A fundamental challenge in applying this technology for detecting underground nuclear explosions is estimating the timing and magnitude of the radionuclide signatures. While the primary mechanism for transport is advective transport, either through barometric pumping or thermally driven advection, diffusive transport in the surrounding matrix also plays a secondary role. From the study of primordial noble gas signatures, it is known that xenon has a strong physical adsorption affinity in shale formations. Given the unselective nature of physical adsorption, isotherm measurements reported here show that non-trivial amounts of xenon adsorb on a variety of media, in addition to shale. A dual-porosity model is then discussed demonstrating that sorption amplifies the diffusive uptake of an adsorbing matrix from a fracture. This effect may reduce the radioxenon signature down to approximately one-tenth, similar to primordial xenon isotopic signatures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of the geological streamflow and Muskingum Cunge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the geological streamflow and Muskingum Cunge models in the Yala River Basin, Kenya. ... can be represented by the application of hydrologic and hydraulic models. ... verification and streamflow routing based on a split record analysis.

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of radioactive contaminant transport in fractured geologic media: Disorder and long-range correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Cushman, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    The geologic media near Yucca mountain site consist of fractured welded tuffs along with less fractured unwelded tuff. Numerical simulation of flow and transport in such media poses a number of challenging problems, due mainly to the heterogeneities and disorder in the media. In addition, because of different dominant transport mechanisms in different regions of the media, investigations need to be carried out at different time-scales. Time-marching will pose a considerable problem in analyzing such multi-scale transient problems. The authors develop a field-scale network model of fractures and study transport of radionuclides through geologic media as a function of disorder and correlated fracture-permeabilities

  12. Focusing on clay formation as host media of HLW geological disposal in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hualing; Chen Shi; Sun Donghui

    2007-01-01

    Host medium is vitally important for safety for HLW geological disposal. Chinese HLW disposal effort in the past decades were mainly focused on granite formation. However, the granite formation has fatal disadvantage for HLW geological disposal. This paper reviews experiences gained and lessons learned in the international community and analyzes key factors affecting the site selection. It is recommended that clay formation should be taken into consideration and additional effort should be made before decision making of host media of HLW disposal in China. (authors)

  13. Analytic models of nuclide transport in saturated geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, R.D.; Treadway, A.H.; Hertel, E.S. Jr.; Garner, J.W.

    1987-05-01

    This report describes the TRION Series of computer programs which consists of two major programs, the core program TRION and the performance assessment program SEDTRN, and several special application programs. The results presented in the Derivations and Solutions to the Diffusion Equations section are used in TRION and SEDTRAN and are the basis for some of the special application programs. The solutions are for two-dimensional axisymmetric diffusion with point and line sources, instantaneous and pulse release, sorbtion, a zero-concentration upper sediment boundary simulating the ocean, and either an impermeable lower boundary or an infinitely thick sediment. An array of canisters can be simulated with an impermeable cylindrical boundary around the source

  14. Modeling non-isothermal multiphase multi-species reactive chemical transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tianfu Xu; Gerard, F.; Pruess, K.; Brimhall, G.

    1997-07-01

    The assessment of mineral deposits, the analysis of hydrothermal convection systems, the performance of radioactive, urban and industrial waste disposal, the study of groundwater pollution, and the understanding of natural groundwater quality patterns all require modeling tools that can consider both the transport of dissolved species as well as their interactions with solid (or other) phases in geologic media and engineered barriers. Here, a general multi-species reactive transport formulation has been developed, which is applicable to homogeneous and/or heterogeneous reactions that can proceed either subject to local equilibrium conditions or kinetic rates under non-isothermal multiphase flow conditions. Two numerical solution methods, the direct substitution approach (DSA) and sequential iteration approach (SIA) for solving the coupled complex subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes, are described. An efficient sequential iteration approach, which solves transport of solutes and chemical reactions sequentially and iteratively, is proposed for the current reactive chemical transport computer code development. The coupled flow (water, vapor, air and heat) and solute transport equations are also solved sequentially. The existing multiphase flow code TOUGH2 and geochemical code EQ3/6 are used to implement this SIA. The flow chart of the coupled code TOUGH2-EQ3/6, required modifications of the existing codes and additional subroutines needed are presented.

  15. PROCESS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT FOR THE GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOUGLAS M. FRANKS AND NORMAN C. HENDERSON

    1997-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), specifically the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has been charged by the U.S. Congress, through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), with the responsibility for obtaining a license to develop a geologic repository. The NRC is the licensing authority for geologic disposal, and its regulations pertinent to construction authorization and license application are specified in 10 CFR Part 60, Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in Geologic Repositories, (section)60.21ff and (section)60.31ff. This paper discusses the process the Yucca Mountain Site Site Characterization Project (YMP) will use to identify and apply regulatory and industry guidance to development of the license application (LA) for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This guidance will be implemented by the ''Technical Guidance Document for Preparation of the License Application'' (TGD), currently in development

  16. Process for license application development for the geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, D.M.; Henderson, N.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), specifically the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has been charged by the US Congress, through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), with the responsibility for obtaining a license to develop a geologic repository. The NRC is the licensing authority for geologic disposal, and its regulations pertinent to construction authorization and license application are specified in 10 CFR Part 60, Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in Geologic Repositories, section 60.21ff and section 60.31ff. This paper discusses the process the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) will use to identify and apply regulatory and industry guidance to development of the license application (LA) for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This guidance will be implemented by the Technical Guidance Document for Preparation of the License Application (TGD), currently in development

  17. Bounded fractional diffusion in geological media: Definition and Lagrangian approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Green, Christopher T.; LaBolle, Eric M.; Neupauer, Roseanna M.; Sun, HongGuang

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal Fractional-Derivative Models (FDMs) have been increasingly used to simulate non-Fickian diffusion, but methods have not been available to define boundary conditions for FDMs in bounded domains. This study defines boundary conditions and then develops a Lagrangian solver to approximate bounded, one-dimensional fractional diffusion. Both the zero-value and non-zero-value Dirichlet, Neumann, and mixed Robin boundary conditions are defined, where the sign of Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative (capturing non-zero-value spatial-nonlocal boundary conditions with directional super-diffusion) remains consistent with the sign of the fractional-diffusive flux term in the FDMs. New Lagrangian schemes are then proposed to track solute particles moving in bounded domains, where the solutions are checked against analytical or Eularian solutions available for simplified FDMs. Numerical experiments show that the particle-tracking algorithm for non-Fickian diffusion differs from Fickian diffusion in relocating the particle position around the reflective boundary, likely due to the non-local and non-symmetric fractional diffusion. For a non-zero-value Neumann or Robin boundary, a source cell with a reflective face can be applied to define the release rate of random-walking particles at the specified flux boundary. Mathematical definitions of physically meaningful nonlocal boundaries combined with bounded Lagrangian solvers in this study may provide the only viable techniques at present to quantify the impact of boundaries on anomalous diffusion, expanding the applicability of FDMs from infinite do mains to those with any size and boundary conditions.

  18. Analysis on fractal-like behaviour expected for migration of radionuclides in geologic sorbing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Masahiro; Harada, Makoto; Tsubata, Kyoichi; Sato, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    In earlier work, we showed that within nonhomogeneous sorbing media the desorption process becomes fractal-like. In migration of radionuclides in geologic media, the adsorption is an essential factor retardating the migration. Moreover, geologic media is inherently nonhomogeneous. It is therefore probable that the migration is significantly influenced by the fractal-like feature. Based on this idea, we have analyzed migration behaviours by employing a new model and compared the results with those obtained using conventional models. The nuclides migrate in the media with the flow of ground water being continually trapped on adsorption sites and released (desorbed) to the flow. The concept of the overall residence-time distribution function for nuclides on the adsorption sites is introduced in the new model. This function obeys the power form, ∼t -1-α (α > 0), for sufficiently large t (t denotes time). The migration behaviours predicted by our theory are qualitatively different from those by conventional theories, and the details of the differences are greatly dependent on the exponent α. In particular, the migration behaviour in cases of 0 < α < 1 is characterized by far larger retardation effects. (author)

  19. Social Media Applications for Unconventional Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    incorporation of social media in UW. The rise of social media constitutes the second significant and widely unforeseen event to emerge. This new phenomenon of...for this mission. 7 The application of my framework to UW constitutes experimental action to explore the whole range of possibilities of social...movement in the Chiapas region of Mexico that began in 1994. The implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) in Mexico in 1994

  20. Application of Moessbauer spectrum to geological and mineralogical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovushkin, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    Main parameters of γ-resonance spectra (resonance effect value, chemical isomer shift, quadrupole splitting, nuclear Zeeman splitting) are considered. Methods of the sample preparation and technique for geological sample analysis using nuclear gamma-resonance (NGR) spectroscopy are described in brief. Possibility of direct application of the above method to determine the iron valence in minerals, their diagnosis and determination of quantitative distribution of iron between the mineral forms in rocks in the process of uranium ore formation and destruction, are discussed. Prospects for NGR-spectroscopy application to geology and mineralogy are pointed out

  1. Evaluation of radar imagery for geological and cartographic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gerald K.; Sheehan, Cynthia A.

    1981-01-01

    The House/Senate conference report on H.R. 4930 (96th Congress), the Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations bill, 1980, stated that the U.S. Geological Survey should "begin the use of side-looking airborne radar imagery for topographic and geological mapping, and geological resource surveys in promising areas, particularly Alaska." In response to this mandate, the Survey acquired radar data and began scientific studies to analyze and interpret these data. About 70 percent of the project funding was used to acquire radar imagery and to evaluate Alaskan applications. Results of these studies indicate that radar images have a unique incremental value for certain geologic and cartographic applications but that the images are best suited for use as supplemental information sources or as primary data sources in areas of persistent cloud cover.The value of radar data is greatest for geologic mapping and resource surveys, particularly for mineral and petroleum exploration, where the objective is to locate any single feature or group of features that may control the occurrences of these resources. Radar images are considered by oil and gas companies to be worth the cost of data acquisition within a limited area of active exploration.Radar images also have incremental value for geologic site studies and hazard mapping. The need in these cases is TO inventory all geologic hazards to human life, property, resources, and the environment. For other geologic applications, radar images have a relatively small incremental value over a combination of Landsat images and aerial photographs.The value of radar images for cartographic applications is minimal, except when they are used as a substitute for aerial photographs and topographic maps in persistently cloud-covered areas. If conventional data sources are not available, radar images provide useful information on terrain relief, landforms, drainage patterns, and land cover. Screen less lithography is a low

  2. Approaches to large scale unsaturated flow in heterogeneous, stratified, and fractured geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ababou, R.

    1991-08-01

    This report develops a broad review and assessment of quantitative modeling approaches and data requirements for large-scale subsurface flow in radioactive waste geologic repository. The data review includes discussions of controlled field experiments, existing contamination sites, and site-specific hydrogeologic conditions at Yucca Mountain. Local-scale constitutive models for the unsaturated hydrodynamic properties of geologic media are analyzed, with particular emphasis on the effect of structural characteristics of the medium. The report further reviews and analyzes large-scale hydrogeologic spatial variability from aquifer data, unsaturated soil data, and fracture network data gathered from the literature. Finally, various modeling strategies toward large-scale flow simulations are assessed, including direct high-resolution simulation, and coarse-scale simulation based on auxiliary hydrodynamic models such as single equivalent continuum and dual-porosity continuum. The roles of anisotropy, fracturing, and broad-band spatial variability are emphasized. 252 refs

  3. The far field migration of radionuclides in two dimensional groundwater flows though geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, D.K.S.; Chambre, P.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical method to model the radionuclides migration in a two dimensional groundwater flor through geologic media has been developed and implemented into the computer code UCBNE21. Using this method, the potential hazard to the biosphere posed by the accidental release of radionuclides from a candidate repository site (WIPP) is determined. I-129 and Ra-226 are potentially the most hazardous nuclides in these sites but their discharge into the biosphere will not result in concentrations larger than their maximum permissible concentrations. (Author) [pt

  4. Applicability of neutron activation analysis to geological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebihara, Mitsuru [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The applicability of neutron activation analysis (NAA) to geological samples in space is discussed by referring to future space mission programs, by which the extraterrestrial samples are to be delivered to the earth for scientific inspections. It is concluded that both destructive and non-destructive NAA are highly effective in analyzing these samples. (author)

  5. Applicability of neutron activation analysis to geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    The applicability of neutron activation analysis (NAA) to geological samples in space is discussed by referring to future space mission programs, by which the extraterrestrial samples are to be delivered to the earth for scientific inspections. It is concluded that both destructive and non-destructive NAA are highly effective in analyzing these samples. (author)

  6. Investigating the impact of microbial interactions with geologic media on geophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline Ann

    The goals of this study were to investigate the effect of: (1) microbial metabolic byproducts, microbial growth, and biofilm formation on the low frequency electrical properties of porous media, (2) biofilm formation on acoustic wave properties, and (3) the natural electrical (self-potential) signatures associated with an in-situ biological permeable reactive barrier (PRB). The results suggest: (1) increases in electrolytic conductivity are consistent with increased concentrations of organic acids and biosurfactants; (2) mineral weathering promoted by organic acids causes increases in electrolytic conductivity, concomitant with increases in major cation concentrations; (3) interfacial conductivity generally parallels microbial cell concentrations and biofilm formation; (4) variations in microbial growth and biofilms causes spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the elastic properties of porous media; (5) SP signatures associated with the injection of groundwater into an in-situ biological PRB are dominated by diffusion potentials induced by the injections. The results suggest that electrolytic conductivity may be useful as an indicator of metabolism, while interfacial conductivity may be used as proxy indicator for microbial growth and biofilm formation in porous media. In addition, acoustic measurements may provide diagnostic spatiotemporal data for the validation of bioclogging models/simulations. Collectively, this study provides further evidence that geophysical measurements are sensitive to microbial-induced changes to geologic media, and may be useful for the detection and monitoring of subsurface microbial growth, activity, and distribution such as in microbial enhanced oil recovery, assessing biofilm barriers used for contaminant remediation, or as sealants for reservoirs in CO2 sequestration studies.

  7. The portable micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer for geological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Fang; Jia Wenyi; Zou Rongsheng; Ma Yingjie; Zhou Jianbin

    1999-01-01

    The portable micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer is based on the book computer and employs the A/D integrated circuit with 12 bits. It is a 2048 channel spectrometer which is consisted of hardware and software. The author analyzed the hardware circuit and software construction of the micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer which is suitable for filed geological application. The main technical specifications and application of the new multichannel spectrometer were also discussed

  8. The portable micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer for geological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Fang; Jia Wenyi; Zhou Rongsheng; Ma Yingjie; Zhou Jianbin

    1999-01-01

    The portable micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer is based on the book computer and employs the A/D integrated circuit with 12 bits. It is a 2048 channel spectrometer which consists of hardware and software. The author analyzed the hardware circuit and software construction of the micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer which is suitable for field geological application. The main technical specifications and application of the new multichannel spectrometer were also discussed

  9. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  10. Impact of Social Media Applications on Small Business Entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Shahzad Shabbir; Muhammad Saarim Ghazi; Atta Rasool Mehmood

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of social media applications on small business entrepreneurs. It also examines how small business owners are motivated to use social media applications. Social media has completely transformed the way businesses are done. Social media applications in the present time have become the most efficient and effective tool for small business entrepreneurs, and normally all small businesses use social media platforms for the advertising an...

  11. A constrained Delaunay discretization method for adaptively meshing highly discontinuous geological media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Ma, Guowei; Ren, Feng; Li, Tuo

    2017-12-01

    A constrained Delaunay discretization method is developed to generate high-quality doubly adaptive meshes of highly discontinuous geological media. Complex features such as three-dimensional discrete fracture networks (DFNs), tunnels, shafts, slopes, boreholes, water curtains, and drainage systems are taken into account in the mesh generation. The constrained Delaunay triangulation method is used to create adaptive triangular elements on planar fractures. Persson's algorithm (Persson, 2005), based on an analogy between triangular elements and spring networks, is enriched to automatically discretize a planar fracture into mesh points with varying density and smooth-quality gradient. The triangulated planar fractures are treated as planar straight-line graphs (PSLGs) to construct piecewise-linear complex (PLC) for constrained Delaunay tetrahedralization. This guarantees the doubly adaptive characteristic of the resulted mesh: the mesh is adaptive not only along fractures but also in space. The quality of elements is compared with the results from an existing method. It is verified that the present method can generate smoother elements and a better distribution of element aspect ratios. Two numerical simulations are implemented to demonstrate that the present method can be applied to various simulations of complex geological media that contain a large number of discontinuities.

  12. Study on experimental models to analyze radionuclide migration behaviors through porous geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tadao; Mukai, Masayuki

    2012-08-01

    The migration phenomenon of radionuclide through geological media such as soils and porous rocks, which is important in underground disposal of radioactive wastes, can be described by the advection-dispersion of groundwater and the interactions of radionuclide with geological media. On the other hand, to understand the migration phenomenon, actual migration data are experimentally acquired by a batch test, a column test and field trial. In the present study, experimental models about the interactions of radionuclide between the solid phase and the liquid phase were discussed systematically to interpret the migration data acquired by the various techniques and conditions. Equilibrium, reversibility, linearity, mechanism and chemistry in the interactions were considered in discussion of the experimental models. A calculation program, which can analyze migration data obtained under various conditions by applying the selected 9 types of experimental models, was maintained. The calculation program makes it be able to predict the migration behavior of radionuclide under various conditions and to decide the important parameter by a fitting analysis of the migration data. (author)

  13. Cloud computing and digital media fundamentals, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kuan-Ching; Shih, Timothy K

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Computing and Digital Media: Fundamentals, Techniques, and Applications presents the fundamentals of cloud and media infrastructure, novel technologies that integrate digital media with cloud computing, and real-world applications that exemplify the potential of cloud computing for next-generation digital media. It brings together technologies for media/data communication, elastic media/data storage, security, authentication, cross-network media/data fusion, interdevice media interaction/reaction, data centers, PaaS, SaaS, and more.The book covers resource optimization for multimedia clo

  14. Information collection and analysis of geological characterization and evaluation technology and application to geological characterization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hideki; Noda, Masaru; Nishikawa, Naohito; Sato, Shoko; Tanaka, Tatsuya

    2003-03-01

    Tono Geoscience Center (TGC) of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute has been conducting the Regional Groundwater Investigation and Mizunami Underground Laboratory (MIU) Project in order to develop investigation technologies and evaluation methods of geological environment. At present, towards the next progress reporting on research and development for geological disposal of HLW in Japan, based on the existing research and development results, the projects which are conducted by TGC are required for promoting smoothly and efficiently with regard to the current Japanese HLW program. According to such situation, for planning of the geological environment investigation and research at TGC and the next progress reporting, this study has investigated and summarizes overseas environmental impact assessments for final disposal, overseas site characterization and site selection, and overseas research plan of underground research laboratories. Based on the results of investigation, some technologies which have possibility to be applied to the MIU Project have been studied. Also overseas quality assurance programs have been investigated, and examples of the application of their concepts to MIU project have been considered. (author)

  15. Current status of application of Moessbauer effect in geology and mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Binfu

    1995-01-01

    The paper briefly introduces the current status of the application of Moessbauer effect in geology and mineralogy. It shows that geology and mineralogy are very active fields in the application of Moessbauer effect

  16. The partitioning of copper among selected phases of geologic media of two porphyry copper districts, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learned, R.E.; Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    In experiments designed to determine the manner in which copper is partitioned among selected phases that constitute geologic media, we have applied the five-step sequential extraction procedure of Chao and Theobald to the analysis of drill core, soils, and stream sediments of the Rio Vivi and Rio Tanama porphyry copper districts of Puerto Rico. The extraction procedure affords a convenient means of determining the trace-metal content of the following fractions: (1) Mn oxides and "reactive" Fe oxides; (2) "amorphous" Fe oxides; (3) "crystalline" Fe oxides; (4) sulfides and magnetite; and (5) silicates. An additional extraction between steps (1) and (2) was performed to determine organic-related copper in stream sediments. The experimental results indicate that apportionment of copper among phases constituting geologic media is a function of geochemical environment. Distinctive partitioning patterns were derived from the analysis of drill core from each of three geochemical zones: (a) the supergene zone of oxidation; (b) the supergene zone of enrichment; and (c) the hypogene zone; and similarly, from the analysis of; (d) soils on a weakly leached capping; (e) soils on a strongly leached capping; and (f) active stream sediment. The experimental results also show that geochemical contrasts (anomaly-to-background ratios) vary widely among the five fractions of each sampling medium investigated, and that at least one fraction of each medium provides substantially stronger contrast than does the bulk medium. Fraction (1) provides optimal contrast for stream sediments of the district; fraction (2) provides optimal contrast for soils on a weakly leached capping; fraction (3) provides optimal contrast for soils on a strongly leached capping. Selective extraction procedures appear to have important applications to the orientation and interpretive stages of geochemical exploration. Further investigation and testing of a similar nature are recommended. ?? 1981.

  17. SWIFT, 3-D Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer, Decay Chain Transport in Geological Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranwell, R.M.; Reeves, M.

    2003-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: SWIFT solves the coupled or individual equations governing fluid flow, heat transport, brine displacement, and radionuclide displacement in geologic media. Fluid flow may be transient or steady-state. One, two, or three dimensions are available and transport of radionuclides chains is possible. 4. Method of solution: Finite differencing is used to discretize the partial differential equations in space and time. The user may choose centered or backward spatial differencing, coupled with either central or backward temporal differencing. The matrix equations may be solved iteratively (two line successive-over-relaxation) or directly (special matrix banding and Gaussian elimination). 5. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: On the CDC7600 in direct solution mode, the maximum number of grid blocks allowed is approximately 1400

  18. Investigation of silicate surface chemistry and reaction mechanisms associated with mass transport in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.F.; Perry, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    The concentration and rate of transport of radionuclides through geologic media can be strongly influenced by the extent of sorption on aquifer surfaces. Over time intervals relevant to such transport processes, rock and mineral surfaces cannot be considered as inert, unreactive substrates but rather as groundwater/solidphase interfaces which are commonly in a state of natural or artificially induced disequilibrium. The goal of the present research is to define experimentally the type of water/rock interactions that will influence surface chemistry and hence sorption characteristics and capacities of natural aquifers. As wide a range of silicate minerals as possible was selected for study to represent rock-forming minerals in basalt, tuff, and granite. The minerals include K-feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, olivine, hornblende, biotite, and volcanic glass

  19. Correlation Between Fracture Network Properties and Stress Variability in Geological Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qinghua; Gao, Ke

    2018-05-01

    We quantitatively investigate the stress variability in fractured geological media under tectonic stresses. The fracture systems studied include synthetic fracture networks following power law length scaling and natural fracture patterns based on outcrop mapping. The stress field is derived from a finite-discrete element model, and its variability is analyzed using a set of mathematical formulations that honor the tensorial nature of stress data. We show that local stress perturbation, quantified by the Euclidean distance of a local stress tensor to the mean stress tensor, has a positive, linear correlation with local fracture intensity, defined as the total fracture length per unit area within a local sampling window. We also evaluate the stress dispersion of the entire stress field using the effective variance, that is, a scalar-valued measure of the overall stress variability. The results show that a well-connected fracture system under a critically stressed state exhibits strong local and global stress variabilities.

  20. Influence of Poroelasticity on the 3D Seismic Response of Complex Geological Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuttke Frank

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Elastic wave propagation in 3D poroelastic geological media with localized heterogeneities, such as an elastic inclusion and a canyon is investigated to visualize the modification of local site responses under consideration of water saturated geomaterial. The extended computational environment herein developed is a direct Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM, based on the frequency-dependent fundamental solution of the governing equation in poro-visco elastodynamics. Bardet’s model is introduced in the analysis as the computationally efficient viscoelastic isomorphism to Biot’s equations of dynamic poroelasticity, thus replacing the two-phase material by a complex valued single-phase one. The potential of Bardet’s analogue is illustrated for low frequency vibrations and all simulation results demonstrate the dependency of wave field developed along the free surface on the properties of the soil material.

  1. Smartphones for Geological Data Collection- an Android Phone Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F.; Weng, Y.; Grigsby, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    Recently, smartphones have attracted great attention in the wireless device market because of their powerful processors, ample memory capacity, advanced connectivity, and numerous utility programs. Considering the prominent new features a smartphone has, such as the large touch screen, speaker, microphone, camera, GPS receiver, accelerometer, and Internet connections, it can serve as a perfect digital aide for data recording on any geological field trip. We have designed and developed an application by using aforementioned features in an Android phone to provide functionalities used in field studies. For example, employing the accelerometer in the Android phone, the application turns the handset into a brunton-like device by which users can measure directions, strike and dip of a bedding plane or trend and plunge of a fold. Our application also includes functionalities of image taking, GPS coordinates tracking, videotaping, audio recording, and note writing. Data recorded from the application are tied together by the time log, which makes the task easy to track all data regarding a specific geologic object. The application pulls the GPS reading from the phone’s built-in GPS receiver and uses it as a spatial index to link up the other type of data, then maps them to the Google Maps/Earth for visualization. In this way, notes, pictures, audio or video recordings to depict the characteristics of the outcrops and their spatial relations, all can be well documented and organized in one handy gadget.

  2. Application of benchtop micro-XRF to geological materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flude, Stephanie; Haschke, Michael; Storey, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments in X-ray optics have allowed the development of a range of commercially available benchtop micro-XRF (μ-XRF) instruments that can produce X-ray spot sizes of 20–30 μm on the sample, allowing major- and trace-element analysis on a range of sample types and sizes with minimal......, by using a simple type-calibration against a reference material of similar matrix and composition. Qualitative analysis with micro-XRF can simplify and streamline sample characterization and processing for subsequent geochemical and isotopic analysis....... sample preparation. Such instruments offer quantitative analysis using fundamental parameter based 'standardless' quantification algorithms. The accuracy and precision of this quantitative analysis on geological materials, and application of micro-XRF to wider geological problems is assessed using...

  3. Current Events via Electronic Media: An Instructional Tool in a General Education Geology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, T. P.

    2008-12-01

    St. Norbert College (SNC) is a liberal arts college in the Green Bay Metropolitan area with an enrollment of approximately 2100 students. All students are required to take one science course with a laboratory component as part of the general education program. Approximately 40% of all SNC students take introductory geology. Class size for this course is approximately 35 students. Each faculty member teaches one section per semester in a smart classroom A synthesis of current events via electronic media is an excellent pedagogical tool for the introductory geology course. An on-going informal survey of my introductory geology class indicates that between 75- 85% of all students in the class, mostly freshman and sophomores, do not follow the news on a regular basis in any format, i.e. print, internet, or television. Consequently, most are unaware of current scientific topics, events, trends, and relevancy. To address this issue, and develop a positive habit of the mind, a technique called In-the-News-Making-News (INMN) is employed. Each class period begins with a scientifically-related (mostly geology) online news article displayed on an overhead screen. The articles are drawn from a variety of sources that include international sites such as the BBC and CBC; national sites such as PBS, New York Times, and CNN; and local sites such as the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel and the Green Bay Press Gazette. After perusing the article, additional information is often acquired by "Google" to help supplement and clarify the original article. An interactive discussion follows. Topics that are typically covered include: global climate change, basic scientific and technological discoveries, paleontology/evolution, natural disasters, mineral/ energy/ water resources, funding for science, space exploration, and other. Ancillary areas that are often touched on in the conversation include ethics, politics, economics, philosophy, education, geography, culture, or other. INMN addresses

  4. Database for Regional Geology, Phase 1: A Tool for Informing Regional Evaluations of Alternative Geologic Media and Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Richard E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Birdsell, Suzanne M. [Clark Univ., Worcester, MA (United States); Lugo, Alexander Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Houseworth, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-11-12

    Reported is progress in the following areas: Phase 1 and 2 websites for the regional geology GIS database; terrane maps of crystalline basement rocks; inventory of shale formations in the US; and rock properties and in-situ conditions for shale estimated from sonic velocity measurements.

  5. Typical Applications of Airborne LIDAR Technolagy in Geological Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X.; Xiao, C.

    2018-05-01

    The technology of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), also referred to as Airborne Laser Scanning, is widely used for high-resolution topographic data acquisition (even under forest cover) with sub-meter planimetric and vertical accuracy. This contribution constructs the real digital terrain model to provide the direct observation data for the landscape analysis in geological domains. Based on the advantage of LiDAR, the authors mainly deal with the applications of LiDAR data to such fields as surface land collapse, landslide and fault structure extraction. The review conclusion shows that airborne LiDAR technology is becoming an indispensable tool for above mentioned issues, especially in the local and large scale investigations of micro-topography. The technology not only can identify the surface collapse, landslide boundary and subtle faulted landform, but also be able to extract the filling parameters of collapsed surface, the geomorphic parameters of landslide stability evaluation and cracks. This technology has extensive prospect of applications in geological investigation.

  6. TYPICAL APPLICATIONS OF AIRBORNE LIDAR TECHNOLAGY IN GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zheng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The technology of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR, also referred to as Airborne Laser Scanning, is widely used for high-resolution topographic data acquisition (even under forest cover with sub-meter planimetric and vertical accuracy. This contribution constructs the real digital terrain model to provide the direct observation data for the landscape analysis in geological domains. Based on the advantage of LiDAR, the authors mainly deal with the applications of LiDAR data to such fields as surface land collapse, landslide and fault structure extraction. The review conclusion shows that airborne LiDAR technology is becoming an indispensable tool for above mentioned issues, especially in the local and large scale investigations of micro-topography. The technology not only can identify the surface collapse, landslide boundary and subtle faulted landform, but also be able to extract the filling parameters of collapsed surface, the geomorphic parameters of landslide stability evaluation and cracks. This technology has extensive prospect of applications in geological investigation.

  7. Teachers of Advertising Media Courses Describe Techniques, Show Computer Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kent M.; Martin, Thomas C.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on a survey of university advertising media teachers regarding textbooks and instructional aids used, teaching techniques, computer applications, student placement, instructor background, and faculty publishing. (SR)

  8. A nodal discontinuous Galerkin approach to 3-D viscoelastic wave propagation in complex geological media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, L.; Lamert, A.; Friederich, W.; Möller, T.; Boxberg, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    A nodal discontinuous Galerkin (NDG) approach is developed and implemented for the computation of viscoelastic wavefields in complex geological media. The NDG approach combines unstructured tetrahedral meshes with an element-wise, high-order spatial interpolation of the wavefield based on Lagrange polynomials. Numerical fluxes are computed from an exact solution of the heterogeneous Riemann problem. Our implementation offers capabilities for modelling viscoelastic wave propagation in 1-D, 2-D and 3-D settings of very different spatial scale with little logistical overhead. It allows the import of external tetrahedral meshes provided by independent meshing software and can be run in a parallel computing environment. Computation of adjoint wavefields and an interface for the computation of waveform sensitivity kernels are offered. The method is validated in 2-D and 3-D by comparison to analytical solutions and results from a spectral element method. The capabilities of the NDG method are demonstrated through a 3-D example case taken from tunnel seismics which considers high-frequency elastic wave propagation around a curved underground tunnel cutting through inclined and faulted sedimentary strata. The NDG method was coded into the open-source software package NEXD and is available from GitHub.

  9. Risk-assessment methodology development for waste isolation in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, C.A.; Fullwood, R.R.; Amirijafari, B.; Basin, S.L.; Cohen, J.

    1982-12-01

    A review of three documents prepared for the USNRC by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is presented. These are NUREG/CR-1634, Volume 4 concerned with the effects of variable hydrology on waste migration; NUREG/CR-2324, a user's manual for SWIFT; and NUREG/2343, a user's manual for DNET. This review completes Task 4 of the detailed technical review of the SNL program for Risk Assessment Methodology Development for Waste Isolation in Geologic Media. In general, these reports exhibit high technical quality that characterizes the SNL work. They are tersely written with little condescension to the non-expert reader for understanding the physical situation being modeled. Indeed, the emphasis is on the mathematical procedures rather than the repository physics, leaving the adequacy of the results presented in many computer plots, pretty much to the interpretation of the reader. Other general comments have been presented previously, such as the data conservatisms, need for data that cannot be measured without disturbing the geometry, and the overall plan for use of the many codes developed in the program

  10. 10 CFR 72.102 - Geological and seismological characteristics for applications before October 16, 2003 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geological and seismological characteristics for... WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.102 Geological and seismological characteristics for applications..., sites will be acceptable if the results from onsite foundation and geological investigation, literature...

  11. Impact of Social Media Applications on Small Business Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Shahzad Shabbir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of social media applications on small business entrepreneurs. It also examines how small business owners are motivated to use social media applications. Social media has completely transformed the way businesses are done. Social media applications in the present time have become the most efficient and effective tool for small business entrepreneurs, and normally all small businesses use social media platforms for the advertising and publicity of their products and services. They make fan pages for their followers, and they warmly welcome their suggestions and opinions, which help in improving their businesses. However, based on literature review, we conclude that there is a positive impact of social media applications on small business entrepreneurs as well as they are highly motivated to use these platforms.

  12. Application of GIS in hydrogeology and engineering geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Mihalová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogeology as a specific science discipline has a multi spectral interest focused to officiating sources in drink water and utilization water and also in area aimed for pure mineral water sources. Although engineering geology works exercise with piece of knowledge, geosciences are focused to territorial planning, investment construction and protection environment. Application of GIS in appointed problems purvey possibility quality, quick and high special analysis appointed problems and take advantage all accessible quality and quantity related information of water focused to hydrogeology, as to occurrence varied basement soil, appropriate for building activity, possibly appointed for protection. Solution of this probleme is on first name terms definite interest area, as to adjudication sources focused economic significance state.

  13. Social Media and Social Networking Applications for Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Michelle Mei Ling

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to better understand the experiences of the youth and the educators with the tapping of social media like YouTube videos and the social networking application of Facebook for teaching and learning. This paper is interested in appropriating the benefits of leveraging of social media and networking applications like YouTube and…

  14. Thermal property and density measurements of samples taken from drilling cores from potential geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagedrost, J.F.; Capps, W.

    1983-12-01

    Density, steady-state conductivity, enthalpy, specific heat, heat capacity, thermal diffusivity and linear thermal expansion were measured on 59 materials from core drill samples of several geologic media, including rock salt, basalt, and other associated rocks from 7 potential sites for nuclear waste isolation. The measurements were conducted from or near to room temperature up to 500 0 C, or to lower temperatures if limited by specimen cracking or fracturing. Ample documentation establishes the reliability of the property measurement methods and the accuracy of the results. Thermal expansions of salts reached 2.2 to 2.8 percent at 500 0 C. Associated rocks were from 0.6 to 1.6 percent. Basalts were close to 0.3 percent at 500 0 C. Specific heats of salts varied from 0.213 to 0.233 cal g -1 C -1 , and basalts averaged 0.239 cal g -1 C -1 . Thermal conductivities of salts at 50 0 C were from 0.022 to 0.046 wcm -1 C -1 , and at 500 0 C, from 0.012 to 0.027 wcm -1 C -1 . Basalts conductivities ranged from 0.020 to 0.022 wcm -1 C -1 at 100 0 C and 0.016 to 0.018 at 500 0 C. There were no obvious conductivity trends relative to source location. Room temperature densities of salts were from 2.14 to 2.29 gcm -3 , and basalts, from 2.83 to 2.90 gcm -3 . The extreme friability of some materials made specimen fabrication difficult. 21 references, 17 figures, 28 tables

  15. Oxidation state analyses of uranium with emphasis on chemical speciation in geological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervanne, H.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis focuses on chemical methods suitable for the determination of uranium redox species in geological materials. Nd-coprecipitation method was studied for the determination of uranium oxidation states in ground waters. This method is ideally suited for the separation of uranium oxidation states in the field, which means that problems associated with the instability of U(IV) during transport are avoided. An alternative method, such as ion exchange, is recommended for the analysis of high saline and calcium- and iron-rich ground waters. U(IV)/Utot was 2.8-7.2% in ground waters in oxidizing conditions and 60-93% in anoxic conditions. From thermodynamic model calculations applied to results from anoxic ground waters it was concluded that uranium can act as redox buffer in granitic ground waters. An ion exchange method was developed for the analysis of uranium oxidation states in different solid materials of geological origin. These included uranium minerals, uraniumbearing minerals, fracture coatings and bulk rock. U(IV)/Utot was 50-70% in uraninites, 5.8-8.7% in secondary uranium minerals, 15-49% in different fracture coatings and 64- 77% in samples from deep bedrock. In the uranium-bearing minerals, U(IV)/Utot was 33-43% (allanites), 5.9% (fergusonite) and 93% (monazite). Although the ion exchange method gave reliable results, there is a risk for the conversion of uranium oxidation states during analysis of heterogeneous samples due to the redox reactions that take place in the presence of some iron compounds. This risk was investigated in a study of several common iron-bearing minerals. The risk for conversion of uranium oxidation states can be screened by sample selection and minimized with use of a redox buffer compound such as polyacrylic acid (PAA). In studies of several carboxylic acids, PAA was found to be the most suitable for extending the application of the method. The stability of uranium oxidation states during analysis and the selectivity

  16. Principles of computer processing of Landsat data for geologic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranik, James V.

    1978-01-01

    The main objectives of computer processing of Landsat data for geologic applications are to improve display of image data to the analyst or to facilitate evaluation of the multispectral characteristics of the data. Interpretations of the data are made from enhanced and classified data by an analyst trained in geology. Image enhancements involve adjustments of brightness values for individual picture elements. Image classification involves determination of the brightness values of picture elements for a particular cover type. Histograms are used to display the range and frequency of occurrence of brightness values. Landsat-1 and -2 data are preprocessed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to adjust for the detector response of the multispectral scanner (MSS). Adjustments are applied to minimize the effects of striping, adjust for bad-data lines and line segments and lost individual pixel data. Because illumination conditions and landscape characteristics vary considerably and detector response changes with time, the radiometric adjustments applied at GSFC are seldom perfect and some detector striping remain in Landsat data. Rotation of the Earth under the satellite and movements of the satellite platform introduce geometric distortions in the data that must also be compensated for if image data are to be correctly displayed to the data analyst. Adjustments to Landsat data are made to compensate for variable solar illumination and for atmospheric effects. GeoMetric registration of Landsat data involves determination of the spatial location of a pixel in. the output image and the determination of a new value for the pixel. The general objective of image enhancement is to optimize display of the data to the analyst. Contrast enhancements are employed to expand the range of brightness values in Landsat data so that the data can be efficiently recorded in a manner desired by the analyst. Spatial frequency enhancements are designed to enhance boundaries between features

  17. Application of Synchrotron Radiation in the Geological and Environmental Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    A survey of some of the different ways that synchrotrons x-ray beams can be used to study geological materials is presented here. This field developed over a period of about 30 years, and it is clear that the geological community has made major use of the many synchrotrons facilities operating around the world during this time period. This was a time of rapid change in the operational performance of the synchrotrons facilities and this in itself has made it possible for geologists to develop new and more refined types of experiments that have yielded many important results. The advance in experimental techniques has proceeded in parallel with a revolution in computing techniques that has made it possible to cope with the great amount of data accumulated in the experiments. It is reasonable, although risky, to speculate about what might be expected to develop in the field during the next five- to ten-year period. It does seem plausible that the rate of change in the performance of what might now be called conventional x-ray storage rings will slow. There are no new facilities that are superior to the ESRF, ALS, APS, or SPring8 facilities under construction or about to come into operation. Thus, performance increments in the characteristics of the x-ray sources may come through the introduction of specialized devices in existing storage rings. The free electron laser is one example of a developing new technology that should take us into new regions of performance for radiation sources and stimulate new types of experimental applications. It is also likely that major advances will come through the introduction of more sophisticated experimental devices developed for use with the very recently operational undulator or wiggler sources at the newer rings. Improved x-ray optics and x-ray detectors and more powerful computation and high-speed data transmission can bring about more refined experiments and make the synchrotrons facilities more widely available to the

  18. Applicability of Social Media in Tourism Business

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thu Hang

    2010-01-01

    Social media is changing the traditional way of marketing and it has opened up tremendous opportunities for companies. The purpose of this research is to explain why small tourism enterprises should use social media and how they gain the benefits from it. The theoretical framework of the thesis aims to provide readers general understanding of social media and its impacts on the customers’ behaviour. The qualitative research consists of focus group and an in-depth interview used in this s...

  19. Field test facility for monitoring water/radionuclide transport through partially saturated geologic media: design, construction, and preliminary description. Appendix I. Engineering drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Campbell, A.C.; Campbell, M.D.; Gee, G.W.; Hoober, H.H.; Schwarzmiller, K.O.

    1979-11-01

    The engineering plans for a test facility to monitor radionuclide transport in water through partially saturated geological media are included. Drawings for the experimental set-up excavation plan and details, lysimeter, pad, access caisson, and caisson details are presented

  20. Disruptive media technologies : theories and application to the Czech media environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kyjonková, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Diploma thesis "Disruptive media technologies - theories and application to the Czech media environment" deals with a concept of disruptive technologies, which results from the economical model of creative destruction made by founder of innovation theories Joseph Alois Schumpter. Although he had described adverse impact on present market structure at the beginning of 20th century, media studies revealed them lately, precisely in the year 1995 in an economical model of another economist Clayto...

  1. Palaeomagnetism principles and applications in geology, geophysics and archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Tarling, D H

    1983-01-01

    Palaeomagnetism and archaeomagnetism are fascinating specialized studies because they are applicable to such a wide range of problems in geology, archaeology and geophysics. They can also be undertaken cheaply, when compared with most other geophysical techniques, and, at first sight, simply. In fact, real comprehension of the magnetic processes that have occurred in rocks and other types of material over several thousands or many millions of years is still extremely difficult to assess and measure. On this basis, this book cannot explain all such features, nor can it attempt to cover all the actual and potential applications of the method. All that can be attempted is to give an impression of the ways in which such techniques can be used in a wide variety of fields, and how these techniques are usually applied. The magnetization of rocks is, in fact, one of the earliest of the true sciences, but we are still not in a position to answer many of the problems posed. Consequently some of the examples given of ap...

  2. Preliminary discussion on the application of the geological conceptual model method of uranium ore formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Guangzhong; Wei Mingji; Luo Yiyue

    1992-01-01

    The geological conceptual model method of uranium ore formation is established on the basis of geological theory and apriorism. Variables are screened with the application of the method of mathematical geology to find out the variables which are more contributed. In combination with the practical situation in Xikang-Yunnan axis, the variables are compiled and graded so as to determine the optimal ore-controlling factor and to establish the statistical predictive model which is of geological significance. The resources evaluation work has been conducted in the Late Proterozoic geological terrain in Xikang-Yunnan axis

  3. Application of Learning Style in Media Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study that examined whether statistically significant differences existed among performance levels of college students in a beginning media writing class when compared according to cognitive style and learning style subgroups. Results are reported for five mass media formats--broadcast news, television copywriting, documentary,…

  4. Online Social Media Applications for Constructivism and Observational Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lydia Mbati

    2013-01-01

    Web 2.0 technologies have a range of possibilities for fostering constructivist learning and observational learning. This is due to the available applications which allow for synchronous and asynchronous interaction and the sharing of knowledge between users. Web 2.0 tools include online social media applications which have potential pedagogical benefits. Despite these potential benefits, there is inadequate utilization of online social media applications in learning management systems for pe...

  5. Ontological Encoding of GeoSciML and INSPIRE geological standard vocabularies and schemas: application to geological mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Vincenzo; Piana, Fabrizio; Mimmo, Dario; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    SimpleLithology CGI vocabulary and aligned as a subclass of the Substance class in NASA SWEET ontology), and 3) an ontology of the MappedFeatures (as defined in the Representation sub-taxonomy of the NASA SWEET ontology). The latter correspond to the concrete elements of the map, with their geometry (polygons, lines) and geographical coordinates. The ontology model has been developed by taking into account applications primarily concerning the needs of geological mapping; nevertheless, the model is general enough to be applied to other contexts. In particular, we show how the automatic reasoning capabilities of the ontology system can be employed in tasks of unit definition and input filling of the map database and for supporting geologists in thematic re-classification of the map instances (e.g. for coloring tasks). ---------------------------------------- [1] http://www.geosciml.org [2] http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/Data_Specifications/INSPIRE_DataSpecification_GE_v3.0rc3.pdf [3] http://www.cgi-iugs.org/tech_collaboration/geoscience_terminology_working_group.html [4] https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/subversion/CGI_CDTGVocabulary/trunk/OwlWork/CGI_Lithology.owl [5] We are currently neglecting the encoding of the geologic events, left as a future work. [6] http://resource.geosciml.org/vocabulary/cgi/201211/ [7] Web site: https://sweet.jpl.nasa.gov, Di Giuseppe et al., 2013, SWEET ontology coverage for earth system sciences, http://www.ics.uci.edu/~ndigiuse/Nicholas_DiGiuseppe/Research_files/digiuseppe14.pdf; S. Barahmand et al. 2009, A Survey on SWEET Ontologies and their Applications, http://www-scf.usc.edu/~taheriya/reports/csci586-report.pdf

  6. Virtual reality technology and discussion on its application to uranium geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Fawang; Liu Dechang; Zhang Baoju

    2004-01-01

    Based on the introduction to the concept, characteristics of virtual reality technology, and its current application situation, the application prospect of virtual reality technology to uranium geology is preliminarily discussed in this paper

  7. Simulation of Seismic Waves from Underground Explosions in Geologic Media: FY2009 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Sjogreen, B; Petersson, N A

    2009-11-09

    This report summarizes work done after one year on project LL09-Sim-NDD-02 entitled 'Exploratory Research: Advanced Simulation of Low Yield Underground Nuclear Explosions To Improve Seismic Yield Estimation and Source Identification'. Work on this effort proceeded in two thrusts: (1) parametric studies of underground explosion generated motions with GEODYN; and (2) coupling of GEODYN to WPP. GEODYN is a code for modeling hydrodynamic (shock-wave) motions in a wide variety of materials, including earth materials. WPP is an anelastic finite difference code for modeling seismic motions. The sensitivity of seismic motions to emplacement conditions was investigated with a series of parametric studies of low-yield (0.2-4 kiloton) chemical high-explosive shots at a range of burial depths in four canonical geologic media (granite, limestone, tuff and alluvium). Results indicate that the material has a strong impact on the seismic motions consistent with previous reports. Motions computed with GEODYN in realistically complex material models are very consistent with reported motions from nuclear tests by Perret and Bass (1975). The amplitude, frequency content and cavity size resulting from explosions are all strongly sensitive to the material strength. Explosions in high-strength (granite) resulted in the highest amplitude, shortest duration pulse and smallest cavities, whereas explosions in low-strength material (alluvium) resulted in the lowest amplitudes, longest duration pulse and larger cavities. The corner frequencies of P-wave motions at take-off angles corresponding to propagation to teleseismic distances show corresponding behavior, with high-strength materials having the highest corner frequency and low-strength materials having low corner frequency. Gravity has an important effect on the cavity size and outgoing motions due work done against lithostatic stress. In fact without gravity the cavity radius and elastic motions are largely insensitive to

  8. Assessment of effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems. The development and application of a geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.

    1982-03-01

    The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) developed under the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of a ground-water basin for a million years into the future. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach. The completed AEGIS GSM was used to generate 500 Monte Carlo simulations of the behavior of the geologic/hydrologic system affecting a hypothetical repository in the Pasco Basin over the next million years. These simulations used data which were not subjected to a review adequate to the needs of a real site performance assessment. However, the general care used in generating the data, and the overall behavior of the GSM suggest that the results are plausible at this time

  9. Application of Laser Scanning for Creating Geological Documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczek Michał

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A geological documentation is based on the analyses obtained from boreholes, geological exposures, and geophysical methods. It consists of text and graphic documents, containing drilling sections, vertical crosssections through the deposit and various types of maps. The surveying methods (such as LIDAR can be applied in measurements of exposed rock layers, presented in appendices to the geological documentation. The laser scanning allows obtaining a complete profile of exposed surfaces in a short time and with a millimeter accuracy. The possibility of verifying the existing geological cross-section with laser scanning was tested on the example of the AGH experimental mine. The test field is built of different lithological rocks. Scans were taken from a single station, under favorable measuring conditions. The analysis of the signal intensity allowed to divide point cloud into separate geological layers. The results were compared with the geological profiles of the measured object. The same approach was applied to the data from the Vietnamese hard coal open pit mine Coc Sau. The thickness of exposed coal bed deposits and gangue layers were determined from the obtained data (point cloud in combination with the photographs. The results were compared with the geological cross-section.

  10. Geology knowledge application in civil engineering realization: Gas Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techera, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Company manager for the building project of south gas pipeline contracted technical services to National Direction of Geology and Mining DINAMIGE for study the geology.It studied Colonia-Montevideo stretch s and then Colonia-Porto Alegre stretch s of gas pipeline.The main purpose was determine the physical and mechanics earthly characteristic for in a future to bury the gas pipe

  11. Concept on groundwater flow and mass transport through heterogeneous porous media and application to in-situ test analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, Koichiro; Umeki, Hiroyuki.

    1995-01-01

    Generally, geological media is modelled as porous or fractured media depending on their characteristics. Since the channels of groundwater flow and the transport paths are determined by the heterogeneity of the geological media, quantitative understanding of the heterogeneity is an important issue for modelling flow and transport processes through them. Therefore, it becomes popular way to develop statistical identification approaches of the heterogeneous field by using data from in-situ test and conduct validation studies of flow and transport models through the field by comparing with observed data. In this report, the theories of the identification approach and the concept on groundwater flow and mass transport are explained briefly and the application to tracer tests conducted at Grimsel test site, Switzerland, are described. (author)

  12. Regional Geology Web Map Application Development: Javascript v2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    This is a milestone report for the FY2017 continuation of the Spent Fuel, Storage, and Waste, Technology (SFSWT) program (formerly Used Fuel Disposal (UFD) program) development of the Regional Geology Web Mapping Application by the Idaho National Laboratory Geospatial Science and Engineering group. This application was developed for general public use and is an interactive web-based application built in Javascript to visualize, reference, and analyze US pertinent geological features of the SFSWT program. This tool is a version upgrade from Adobe FLEX technology. It is designed to facilitate informed decision making of the geology of continental US relevant to the SFSWT program.

  13. Regional Geology Web Map Application Development: Javascript v2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Glenn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-19

    This is a milestone report for the FY2017 continuation of the Spent Fuel, Storage, and Waste, Technology (SFSWT) program (formerly Used Fuel Disposal (UFD) program) development of the Regional Geology Web Mapping Application by the Idaho National Laboratory Geospatial Science and Engineering group. This application was developed for general public use and is an interactive web-based application built in Javascript to visualize, reference, and analyze US pertinent geological features of the SFSWT program. This tool is a version upgrade from Adobe FLEX technology. It is designed to facilitate informed decision making of the geology of continental US relevant to the SFSWT program.

  14. Application of social media tools by retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alarcon-del-Amo, M.d.C.; Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, Efthymios; Eldon, Y.L.; Loh, S.; Evans, C.; Lorenzi, F.

    2013-01-01

    The chapter explores the factors influencing the adoption process and the degree of engagement of the social media as part of the online marketing strategy by Spanish retailers. A retail industry survey identifies four different segments of retailers depending on the level of implementation of

  15. 10 CFR 72.103 - Geological and seismological characteristics for applications for dry cask modes of storage on or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geological and seismological characteristics for... § 72.103 Geological and seismological characteristics for applications for dry cask modes of storage on... foundation and geological investigation, literature review, and regional geological reconnaissance show no...

  16. A reevaluation of TDR propagation time determination in soils and geological media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is an established method for the determination of apparent dielectric permittivity and water content in soils. Using current waveform interpretation procedures, signal attenuation and variation in dielectric media properties along the transmission line can significant...

  17. Applications of Social Media to Indian Orthodontic Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrushikesh Aphale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The buzzword today is ′social media′. The growth of social media has enveloped the healthcare sector as well, and an online presence has today become mandatory for growth of an individual and the profession as well. This article therefore defines, classifies and explains social media, its importance, trends and use in our country. The article further explains the value and applications of the social media to the orthodontists and to the Indian Orthodontic Society at large. It explains how the orthodontic practitioners and the Indian Orthodontic Society today use social media and the effects it has on the orthodontic profession and on the orthodontic scenario in the country. It also attempts to understand the trends and etiquettes for using the social media as professionals and the advantages and risks it carries with it.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Natural Convection in Heterogeneous Porous media for CO2 Geological Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, P.; Farajzadeh, R.; Bruining, J.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2012-01-01

    We report a modeling and numerical simulation study of density-driven natural convection during geological CO2 storage in heterogeneous formations. We consider an aquifer or depleted oilfield overlain by gaseous CO2, where the water density increases due to CO2 dissolution. The heterogeneity of the

  19. A parallel FE-FV scheme to solve fluid flow in complex geologic media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumou, Dim; Matthäi, Stephan; Geiger, Sebastian; Driesner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Field data-based simulations of geologic systems require much computational time because of their mathematical complexity and the often desired large scales in space and time. To conduct accurate simulations in an acceptable time period, methods to reduce runtime are required. A parallelization

  20. Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    ABSTRACT Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage Rebecca Allen Geological CO2 storage is an engineering feat that has been undertaken around the world for more than two decades, thus accurate modeling of flow and transport behavior is of practical importance. Diffusive and convective transport are relevant processes for buoyancy-driven convection of CO2 into underlying fluid, a scenario that has received the attention of numerous modeling studies. While most studies focus on Darcy-scale modeling of this scenario, relatively little work exists at the pore-scale. In this work, properties evaluated at the pore-scale are used to investigate the transport behavior modeled at the Darcy-scale. We compute permeability and two different forms of tortuosity, namely hydraulic and diffusive. By generating various pore ge- ometries, we find hydraulic and diffusive tortuosity can be quantitatively different in the same pore geometry by up to a factor of ten. As such, we emphasize that these tortuosities should not be used interchangeably. We find pore geometries that are characterized by anisotropic permeability can also exhibit anisotropic diffusive tortuosity. This finding has important implications for buoyancy-driven convection modeling; when representing the geological formation with an anisotropic permeabil- ity, it is more realistic to also account for an anisotropic diffusivity. By implementing a non-dimensional model that includes both a vertically and horizontally orientated 5 Rayleigh number, we interpret our findings according to the combined effect of the anisotropy from permeability and diffusive tortuosity. In particular, we observe the Rayleigh ratio may either dampen or enhance the diffusing front, and our simulation data is used to express the time of convective onset as a function of the Rayleigh ratio. Also, we implement a lattice Boltzmann model for thermal convective flows, which we treat as an analog for

  1. Application of backpack Lidar to geological cross-section measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingyu; Wang, Ran; Xiao, Zhouxuan; Li, Lu; Yao, Weihua; Han, Wei; Zhao, Baolin

    2017-11-01

    As the traditional geological cross section measurement, the artificial traverse method was recently substituted by using point coordinates data. However, it is still the crux of the matter that how to acquire the high-precision point coordinates data quickly and economically. Thereby, the backpack Lidar is presented on the premise of the principle of using point coordinates in this issue. Undoubtedly, Lidar technique, one of booming and international active remote sensing techniques, is a powerful tool in obtaining precise topographic information, high-precision 3-D coordinates and building a real 3-D model. With field practice and date processing indoors, it is essentially accomplished that geological sections maps could be generated simply, accurately and automatically in the support of relevant software such as ArcGIS and LiDAR360.

  2. Preliminary research on thermoluminescence application in complicated geological situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Gelian; Liu Chunsheng

    2003-01-01

    Thermoluminescent phenomenon resulting from two kinds of complicated geological situation, Ordos Basin and Huainan deposits in Anhui Province, is studied by the means of thermoluminescence counting method. It is shown that: (1) there are no apparent abnormalities of natural TL detected from the rock samples selected in the first 1000 meter depth of the Earth, and these natural TL are accumulated through natural radiation effects; (2) the natural TL shows statistically obvious reducing trends for the rock samples selected under the 2000 meter depth, and even no detectable TL is found for those rocks selected at 4000 meter depth. (3) the natural TL peaks corresponding to high temperature generally shift to the direction of higher temperature for the quartz-related rock samples, and several thermal events which occurred during the geological times might be responsible for this case

  3. Technology development and application research of remote sensing in uranium geological prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dechang; Dong Xiuzhen; Wang Zitao

    2012-01-01

    From the application, the concept, the theory study and application effect, this article discusses technology development and application research of remote sensing in uranium geological prospecting. The prospecting way from 'information prospecting' to 'theoretical prospecting' to 'simulated prospecting' to 'technology prospecting' with remote sensing is provided and achieved significant prospecting effect. (authors)

  4. Effect of Social Media in a mHealth Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufte, Trond; Babic, Ankica

    2017-01-01

    In this project the potential of social media has been reviewed in terms how it can promote a healthy lifestyle utilized in an app. A mHealth app for smartphones has been developed using Design Science methodology, where various features from social media have been implemented with the goal of increasing physical activity. The application has been evaluated extensively in order to meet usability requirements. In addition, a focus group has contributed towards the application's potential to increase physical. The data collected is suggesting that social features have a positive impact on promoting physical activity.

  5. Calculation of media temperatures for nuclear sources in geologic depositories by a finite-length line source superposition model (FLLSSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kays, W M; Hossaini-Hashemi, F [Stanford Univ., Palo Alto, CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Busch, J S [Kaiser Engineers, Oakland, CA (USA)

    1982-02-01

    A linearized transient thermal conduction model was developed to economically determine media temperatures in geologic repositories for nuclear wastes. Individual canisters containing either high-level waste or spent fuel assemblies are represented as finite-length line sources in a continuous medium. The combined effects of multiple canisters in a representative storage pattern can be established in the medium at selected point of interest by superposition of the temperature rises calculated for each canister. A mathematical solution of the calculation for each separate source is given in this article, permitting a slow hand calculation. The full report, ONWI-94, contains the details of the computer code FLLSSM and its use, yielding the total solution in one computer output.

  6. Use of social media Edmodo in secondary education subjects: Biology and Geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rodríguez Ruibal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Social media have become one of the most powerful and innovating tools to encourage collaborative work and lifelong learning. This study shows the result obtained after using the social network Edmodo when teaching in a high school of Asturias. We intend to analyse the degree of student ́s acceptance of this blended learning strategy. This technology allows us take the teaching and learning process beyond the classroom space increasing the adquisition of knowledge and basic skills.

  7. The role of colloids in the transport of radionuclides in geological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, V.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this programme is to understand how colloids could influence the migration behaviour of radionuclides in geological formations. This is being achieved firstly, by identifying the retention mechanisms of colloids and pseudocolloids (association of radionuclides with colloids) on mineral surfaces by static and dynamic experiments, and secondly by investigating the formation of pseudocolloids. Moreover, these studies will be focused on model systems (surfaces, colloids) selected from studies carried out on the El Berrocal site (characterization of the granite, of the colloids). Two types of experiments are planned: for the study of pseudocolloid formation, sorption experiments (batch tests) with radionuclides will be conducted either with model inorganic colloidal suspensions or with mineral monoliths as macroscopic surfaces of colloids. Dynamic experiments will be performed using well-defined packings of both synthetic and natural minerals (major constituents of granite). Moreover, a particular attention will be devoted to the organic coatings (in static and dynamic conditions). These studies will provide data directly usable by migration models to predict colloid transport under conditions relevant to geological disposals. This programme will be carried out in collaboration with the different partners of this contract: CEA (Fontenay-aux-Roses/F), CIEMAT (Madrid/S), CNRS (Orsay/F), GERMETRAD (Nantes/F), GSF (Munich/G), INFM (Padua/I), INTERA (London/UK) with Dr V. Moulin, Dr P. Rivas, Dr J.C. Dran, Pr Pieri, Dr C. Wolfrum, Pr G. Della Mea and Dr P. Grindrod as project leaders respectively. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. Development of performance assessment methodology for nuclear waste isolation in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonano, E.J.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Cranwell, R.M.; Davis, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The burial of nuclear wastes in deep geologic formations as a means for their disposal is an issue of significant technical and social impact. The analysis of the processes involved can be performed only with reliable mathematical models and computer codes as opposed to conducting experiments because the time scales associated are on the order of tens of thousands of years. These analyses are concerned primarily with the migration of radioactive contaminants from the repository to the environment accessible to humans. Modeling of this phenomenon depends on a large number of other phenomena taking place in the geologic porous and/or fractured medium. These are gound-water flow, physicochemical interactions of the contaminants with the rock, heat transfer, and mass transport. Once the radionuclides have reached the accessible environment, the pathways to humans and health effects are estimated. A performance assessment methodology for a potential high-level waste repository emplaced in a basalt formation has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The approach followed consists of a description of the overall system (waste, facility, and site), scenario selection and screening, consequence modeling (source term, ground-water flow, radionuclide transport, biosphere transport, and health effects), and uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

  9. Development of performance assessment methodology for nuclear waste isolation in geologic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonano, E. J.; Chu, M. S. Y.; Cranwell, R. M.; Davis, P. A.

    The burial of nuclear wastes in deep geologic formations as a means for their disposal is an issue of significant technical and social impact. The analysis of the processes involved can be performed only with reliable mathematical models and computer codes as opposed to conducting experiments because the time scales associated are on the order of tens of thousands of years. These analyses are concerned primarily with the migration of radioactive contaminants from the repository to the environment accessible to humans. Modeling of this phenomenon depends on a large number of other phenomena taking place in the geologic porous and/or fractured medium. These are ground-water flow, physicochemical interactions of the contaminants with the rock, heat transfer, and mass transport. Once the radionuclides have reached the accessible environment, the pathways to humans and health effects are estimated. A performance assessment methodology for a potential high-level waste repository emplaced in a basalt formation has been developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  10. The geological basis and the representation of spatial variability in fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurek, M.; Gautschi, A.; Zuidema, P.

    1998-01-01

    Spatial variability of features and parameters relevant for contaminant transport modelling occurs on all scales of interest for the quantification of processes that govern solute migration, typically decimeters to hundreds of meters. Two types of spatial variability are distinguished, namely the internal heterogeneity of each individual water-conducting feature (e.g. the complex architecture of a fault) and the larger-scale heterogeneity that results from the groundwater flow through different types of water-conducting features along the flow-path from the repository to the discharge areas. An up-scaling procedure is required to obtain hydraulic parameters and the properties of the overall flow-path, whereas the heterogeneity of many other geologic features (geometry of flow and matrix porosity, mineralogy, etc.) can be fed directly into coupled codes that quantify radionuclide transport. The procedures needed to derive conceptual models integrating geological and hydraulic field measurements and observations at a given site are illustrated by examples from both crystalline and sedimentary rock formations. (author)

  11. GEOLOGICAL-GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE BAUXITE DEPOSITS APPLICATION OF THE SHALLOW SEIZMIC REFLECTION METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Dragičević; Miroslav Andrić; Ivan Blašković

    1991-01-01

    The exploration of bauxite deposits in the region of the carbonaceous Dinarides has been performed by using different geological and geophysical methods. Deposits laying shallower or deeper below the roof sediments have so far most often been discovered by expensive drilling methods in a corresponding grid. Complex geological explorations have led to a series of valuable data thus enabling the application of other much more economical methods as well. In the region of the bauxite sedimentary ...

  12. 78 FR 39271 - Applications for New Awards; Educational Technology, Media, and Materials Program for Individuals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Educational Technology, Media, and Materials...: Educational Technology, Media, and Materials Program for Individuals with Disabilities--Center on Technology... Description Purpose of Program: The purpose of the Educational Technology, Media, and Materials for...

  13. Review and update of the applications of organic petrology: Part 2, geological and multidisciplinary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel; Flores, Deolinda; Mendonça Filho, João Graciano; Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is focused on organic petrology applied to unconventional and multidisciplinary investigations and is the second part of a two part review that describes the geological applications and uses of this branch of earth sciences. Therefore, this paper reviews the use of organic petrology in investigations of: (i) ore genesis when organic matter occurs associated with mineralization; (ii) the behavior of organic matter in coal fires (self-heating and self-combustion); (iii) environmental and anthropogenic impacts associated with the management and industrial utilization of coal; (iv) archeology and the nature and geographical provenance of objects of organic nature such as jet, amber, other artifacts and coal from archeological sites; and (v) forensic science connected with criminal behavior or disasters. This second part of the review outlines the most recent research and applications of organic petrology in those fields.

  14. GeoSciML version 3: A GML application for geologic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Union of Geological Sciences., I. C.; Richard, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    After 2 years of testing and development, XML schema for GeoSciML version 3 are now ready for application deployment. GeoSciML draws from many geoscience data modelling efforts to establish a common suite of feature types to represent information associated with geologic maps (materials, structures, and geologic units) and observations including structure data, samples, and chemical analyses. After extensive testing and use case analysis, in December 2008 the CGI Interoperability Working Group (IWG) released GeoSciML 2.0 as an application schema for basic geological information. GeoSciML 2.0 is in use to deliver geologic data by the OneGeology Europe portal, the Geological Survey of Canada Groundwater Information Network (wet GIN), and the Auscope Mineral Resources portal. GeoSciML to version 3.0 is updated to OGC Geography Markup Language v3.2, re-engineered patterns for association of element values with controlled vocabulary concepts, incorporation of ISO19156 Observation and Measurement constructs for representing numeric and categorical values and for representing analytical data, incorporation of EarthResourceML to represent mineral occurrences and mines, incorporation of the GeoTime model to represent GSSP and stratigraphic time scale, and refactoring of the GeoSciML namespace to follow emerging ISO practices for decoupling of dependencies between standardized namespaces. These changes will make it easier for data providers to link to standard vocabulary and registry services. The depth and breadth of GeoSciML remains largely unchanged, covering the representation of geologic units, earth materials and geologic structures. ISO19156 elements and patterns are used to represent sampling features such as boreholes and rock samples, as well as geochemical and geochronologic measurements. Geologic structures include shear displacement structures (brittle faults and ductile shears), contacts, folds, foliations, lineations and structures with no preferred

  15. ICP-MS applications for the analysis of geological materials and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendl, J.

    1997-01-01

    This work deals with applications of inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry applications for the analysis of geological materials and environmental samples. There are instrumentation, calibration, alternatives of sample introduction, interferences, trace elements analysis, rare earth elements and uranium and thorium, precious metals, isotopic analysis and environmental analysis discussed

  16. Development of performance assessment methodology for nuclear waste isolation in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonano, E.J.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Cranwell, R.M.; Davis, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of the processes involved in the burial of nuclear wastes can be performed only with reliable mathematical models and computer codes as opposed to conducting experiments because the time scales associated are on the order of tens of thousands of years. These analyses are concerned primarily with the migration of radioactive contaminants from the repository to the environment accessible to humans. Modeling of this phenomenon depends on a large number of other phenomena taking place in the geologic porous and/or fractured medium. These are ground-water flow, physicochemical interactions of the contaminants with the rock, heat transfer, and mass transport. Once the radionuclides have reached the accessible environment, the pathways to humans and health effects are estimated. A performance assessment methodology for a potential high-level waste repository emplaced in a basalt formation has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  17. Studies of nuclear-waste migration in geologic media. Annual report, November 1976--October 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.; Rickert, P.G.; Fried, S.M.; Friedman, A.M.; Steindler, M.J.

    1978-03-01

    The confinement of nuclear wastes in geologic formations is being considered as a method of permanently disposing of the waste. Laboratory experiments (column infiltration, static absorption, and batch partitioning experiments) were performed with nuclides of Cs, Pu, Np, and Am to examine the migratory characteristics of long-lived radionuclides that could be mobilized by groundwaters infiltrating a nuclear waste repository and the surrounding geologic body. In column infiltration experiments, the positions of peak concentrations of Cs in chalk or shale columns; Pu in limestone; Am in limestone, sandstone, or tuff; and Np in a limestone column did not move when the columns were infiltrated with water. However, fractions of each of the nuclides were seen downstream from the peaks, indicating that there was a large dispersion in the relative migration rates of each of the trace elements in the lithic materials studied. The results of static absorption experiments indicate that Pu and Am are strongly absorbed from solution by the common rocks studied and that their migration relative to ground-water flow is thereby retarded. In addition, the reaction rates of dissolved nuclides with rocks were found to vary considerably in different rock-element systems. Batch partitioning experiments were performed to test whether absorption processes are reversible. After granulated basalt and americium-bearing water were contacted in an absorption step, part of the water was replaced with water free of Am and the Am repartitioned between rock and solution. The distribution of Am after desorption was comparable to its distribution after absorption. In cntrast, when tablets of various rocks were allowed to dry between absorption and desorption tests, Pu and Am were not generally desorbed from the tablets. This suggests that reversible reactions of nuclides, between waters and rocks may be upset by treatments such as drying

  18. Applications of geological labs on chip for CO_2 storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    CO_2 geological storage in deep saline aquifers represents a mediation solution for reducing the anthropogenic CO_2 emissions. Consequently, this kind of storage requires adequate scientific knowledge to evaluate injection scenarios, estimate reservoir capacity and assess leakage risks. In this context, we have developed and used high pressure/high temperature micro-fluidic tools to investigate the different mechanisms associated with CO_2 geological storage in deep saline aquifers. The silicon-Pyrex 2D porous networks (Geological Labs On Chips) can replicate the reservoir p,T conditions (25 ≤ T ≤ 50 C, 50 ≤ p ≤ 10 MPa), geological and topological properties. This thesis manuscript first highlights the strategies developed during this work to fabricate the GLoCs and to access to global characteristics of our porous media such as porosity and permeability, which are later compared to numerical modelling results. The carbon dioxide detection in GLoCs mimicking p,T conditions of geological reservoirs by using the direct integration of optical fiber for IR spectroscopy is presented. I then detail the strategies for following the dissolution of carbonates in GLoCs with X-rays laminography experiments.Then, the manuscript focuses on the use of GLoCs to investigate each CO_2 trapping mechanism at the pore scale. The direct optical visualization and image processing allow us to follow the evolution of the injected CO_2/aqueous phase within the reservoir, including displacement mechanisms and pore saturation levels. Eventually, I present the ongoing works such as experiments with reactive brines and hydrates formations in porous media [fr

  19. The geological basis and the representation of spatial variability in sedimentary heterogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliffe, K.A.; Franklin, D.J.; Jones, P.I.R.; Macleod, E.J.; Porter, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of different conceptual models was investigated of the heterogeneity of the Sherwood Sandstone Group (SSG) at Sellafield on calculations of flow and transport. Detailed models of the heterogeneity of the Undifferentiated St Bees Sandstone (USBS) of the SSG were produced. The models took into account directly the geological structures at the facies level. The software package STORM (STOchastic Reservoir Modelling), was used to construct the models. The data required by the model are those that characterise the geometry of the channel bodies and the properties of the various sub-facies within the channels. It was found that for the case in which all of the variability was within channels, the larger scale permeabilities did not exhibit any significant correlation structure. The up-scaled effective permeabilities also exhibited correlation lengths that were comparable with the channel dimensions. Flow and transport calculations were also performed on 90 realizations of a detailed facies scale three-dimensional representation of a larger block of the USBS. The results are broadly consistent with the analytical results for transport through a random permeability field. (R.P.)

  20. Vapor-transport of tungsten and its geologic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibue, Y [Hyogo Univ. of Teacher Education, Hyogo (Japan)

    1988-11-10

    The volatility of tungsten in a hydrous system at elevated temperatures and pressures was examined, and a tentative model for the enrichment of tungsten in hydrothermal solutions for the deposits related to granitic activities was proposed. To produce vapor-saturated solution, 17 or 15ml of 20wt% NaCl solution was introduced into an autoclave. Ca(OH){sub 2} for tungsten and H{sub 2}WO{sub 4} for base metals were used as vapor-captures, and run products were identified by X-ray powder diffractometry. The results suggested that the ratio of tungsten to base metals was higher in a vapor phase than in a liquid phase, and more enrichment of tungsten in the vapor phase occurred at higher temperature and pressure under the coexistence of the vapor and liquid phase. The tentative model emphasizing the vapor-transport of tungsten could explain the presence of tungsten deposits without large mineralization of base metals. Geological schematic model for the generation of the hydrothermal solution enriched in tungsten compared with base metals was illustrated based on above mentioned results. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  1. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earthquake Web Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, J.; Martinez, E.

    2015-12-01

    USGS Earthquake web applications provide access to earthquake information from USGS and other Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) contributors. One of the primary goals of these applications is to provide a consistent experience for accessing both near-real time information as soon as it is available and historic information after it is thoroughly reviewed. Millions of people use these applications every month including people who feel an earthquake, emergency responders looking for the latest information about a recent event, and scientists researching historic earthquakes and their effects. Information from multiple catalogs and contributors is combined by the ANSS Comprehensive Catalog into one composite catalog, identifying the most preferred information from any source for each event. A web service and near-real time feeds provide access to all contributed data, and are used by a number of users and software packages. The Latest Earthquakes application displays summaries of many events, either near-real time feeds or custom searches, and the Event Page application shows detailed information for each event. Because all data is accessed through the web service, it can also be downloaded by users. The applications are maintained as open source projects on github, and use mobile-first and responsive-web-design approaches to work well on both mobile devices and desktop computers. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/map/

  2. A study on the radionuclide transport by bacteria in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Byoung Sub

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology to develop a predictive model based on a conceptual three phase system and to investigate the influence of bacteria and their generation on the transport of radionuclide in porous and fractured media. The mass balance for bacteria, substrate and radionuclide were formulated. To illustrate the model simply, an equilibrium condition was assumed to partition the substrate, bacteria and radionuclide concentrations between the solid soil matrix, aqueous phase, rock matrix and bacterial surface. From the numerical calculation of the radionuclide transport in the presence of bacteria, it was found that the growth of bacteria and supplied primary substrate as limiting or stimulating growth factor of bacteria are the most important factors of the radionuclide transport. We also found that, depend on the transport of bacteria the temporal and spatial distribution of radionuclide concentration was significantly altered. The model proposed in this study will improve the evaluation of the role of the bacteria in the transport of radionuclide in groundwater systems. Furthermore, this model would be usefully utilized in analyzing the important role of colloidal particulate on the overall performance of radioactive waste safety

  3. Advances in Geologic Disposal System Modeling and Application to Crystalline Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fascitelli, D. G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-22

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology (OFCT) is conducting research and development (R&D) on geologic disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW). Two of the high priorities for UFDC disposal R&D are design concept development and disposal system modeling (DOE 2011). These priorities are directly addressed in the UFDC Generic Disposal Systems Analysis (GDSA) work package, which is charged with developing a disposal system modeling and analysis capability for evaluating disposal system performance for nuclear waste in geologic media (e.g., salt, granite, clay, and deep borehole disposal). This report describes specific GDSA activities in fiscal year 2016 (FY 2016) toward the development of the enhanced disposal system modeling and analysis capability for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The GDSA framework employs the PFLOTRAN thermal-hydrologic-chemical multi-physics code and the Dakota uncertainty sampling and propagation code. Each code is designed for massively-parallel processing in a high-performance computing (HPC) environment. Multi-physics representations in PFLOTRAN are used to simulate various coupled processes including heat flow, fluid flow, waste dissolution, radionuclide release, radionuclide decay and ingrowth, precipitation and dissolution of secondary phases, and radionuclide transport through engineered barriers and natural geologic barriers to the biosphere. Dakota is used to generate sets of representative realizations and to analyze parameter sensitivity.

  4. Application of low power X-ray tubes in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massalski, J.M.; Zaraska, W.

    1981-01-01

    Low power X-ray tubes with transmission anodes for X-ray fluorescence analysis with energy dispersion were elaborated. Paper contains experimental results of application of X-ray tubes in the apparatus for nondestructive measurements of the concentration of some elements in borehole cores. (author)

  5. Applications of social media and social network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kazienko, Przemyslaw

    2015-01-01

    This collection of contributed chapters demonstrates a wide range of applications within two overlapping research domains: social media analysis and social network analysis. Various methodologies were utilized in the twelve individual chapters including static, dynamic and real-time approaches to graph, textual and multimedia data analysis. The topics apply to reputation computation, emotion detection, topic evolution, rumor propagation, evaluation of textual opinions, friend ranking, analysis of public transportation networks, diffusion in dynamic networks, analysis of contributors to commun

  6. Some examples of application of activation analysis to geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiltz, Jean-Claude

    1969-10-01

    For some fifteen years, activation analysis knows a considerable development. New facilities have become to be done to research workers and industrials by the fitting up of special laboratories near high flux reactors, in the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay and Grenoble. Other laboratories apparatus and particles sources are also used (fast neutrons generators, accelerators, etc. ). For some years, our laboratory contributed to study activation analysis applications to the field of Earth Sciences, particularly to geochemistry. Collecting here our experience and that of other laboratories, we have wished to give a glimpse of the diversity of applications and their as well economical as purely technical interest. This job, initial web of a conference done to the ADERP week in February 1969, doesn't obviously pretend to the exhaustion of the subject. We have simply chosen examples among the 'ost typical of our works and among those which have shown a bibliographical interest for us. (author) [fr

  7. Thermoluminescence studies having applications to geology and archaeometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, P.N.

    1978-01-01

    Mineral thermoluminescence (TL) studies, undertaken as geophysics investigations, appear to have archaeometric applications. Measurements were made with equipment which records TL emission spectra at closely spaced temperatures. Carbonate rock containing lead-zinc deposits exhibit radiation induced TL against distance-from-ore patterns useful for mineral exploration and locating worked-out deposits. The feldspar albite has second-order TL kinetics, which can introduce dating errors. Heat induced changes in the albite TL emission spectra could be used as a paleotemperature indicator. Quartz remembers previous exposure to radiation, a property influencing TL intensity against dose curves but useful for uranium exploration

  8. Applications of in situ cosmogenic nuclides in the geologic site characterization of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosse, J.C.; Harrington, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    The gradual buildup of rare isotopes from interactions between cosmic rays and atoms in an exposed rock provides a new method of directly determining the exposure age of rock surfaces. The cosmogenic nuclide method can also provide constraints on erosion rates and the length of time surface exposure was interrupted by burial. Numerous successful applications of the technique have been imperative to the complete surface geologic characterization of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a potential high level nuclear waste repository. In this short paper, we summarize the cosmogenic nuclide method and describe with examples some the utility of the technique in geologic site characterization. We report preliminary results from our ongoing work at Yucca Mountain

  9. The geographic applications program of the U. S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Arch C.

    1969-01-01

    The fundamental objective of modern Geography is to improve man's level of living through a better understanding of man-environment inter actions. Related goals of the USGS program for applications of remote sensor data to Geographical research are: (1) the analysis and improvement of land use, with special emphasis on urban problems; and (2) more effective use of the total available energy budget, including insolation, mineral fuels, atomic energy, human resources, and mental energy, all of which are integrated into man-environment interactions. The collection of data through remote sensors in air craft and spacecraft is financed largely by funds from NASA, and is part of the much broader EROS Program of the Department of the Interior. Results to date have achieved much toward the identification of remote sensor signatures for Earth features and human activities, and toward evaluation of instruments for collecting essential information.

  10. DATA ACQUISITION AND APPLICATIONS OF SIDE-LOOKING AIRBORNE RADAR IN THE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John Edwin; Kover, Allan N.

    1985-01-01

    The Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) program encompasses a multi-discipline effort involving geologists, hydrologists, engineers, geographers, and cartographers of the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). Since the program began in 1980, more than 520,000 square miles of aerial coverage of SLAR data in the conterminous United States and Alaska have been acquired or contracted for acquisition. The Geological Survey has supported more than 60 research and applications projects addressing the use of this technology in the earth sciences since 1980. These projects have included preparation of lithographic reproductions of SLAR mosaics, research to improve the cartographic uses of SLAR, research for use of SLAR in assessing earth hazards, and studies using SLAR for energy and mineral exploration through improved geologic mapping.

  11. Utilizing HyspIRI Prototype Data for Geological Exploration Applications: A Southern California Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M. Calvin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the value of the proposed Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI instrument for geological mapping applications. HyspIRI-like data were collected as part of the HyspIRI airborne campaign that covered large regions of California, USA, over multiple seasons. This work focused on a Southern California area, which encompasses Imperial Valley, the Salton Sea, the Orocopia Mountains, the Chocolate Mountains, and a variety of interesting geological phenomena including fumarole fields and sand dunes. We have mapped hydrothermal alteration, lithology and thermal anomalies, demonstrating the value of this type of data for future geologic exploration activities. We believe HyspIRI will be an important instrument for exploration geologists as data may be quickly manipulated and used for remote mapping of hydrothermal alteration minerals, lithology and temperature anomalies.

  12. Liberation of plasma histamine after application of non-ionic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, H.D.; Jansen, O.; Schallock, J.

    1989-01-01

    In 94 patients the levels of plasmahistamine have been measured after application of three non-ionic contrast media (Iopromid, Iopamidol, Iohexol) and after application of blood-isotonic saline solution. A significant liberation of histamine could be observed after administration of contrast media and also after administration of saline solution. Neither between the three nonionic contrast media nor between the contrast media and the saline solution significant differences could be measured. Administering contrast media after subsequently saline solution the levels of histamine were lower than in case of pure contrast media application. A psychogen induced histamine liberation is discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Simulation of Tracer Transport in Porous Media: Application to Bentonites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bru, A.; Casero, D.

    2001-01-01

    We present a formal framework to describe tracer transport in heterogeneous media, such as porous media like bentonites. In these media, mean field approximation is not valid because there exist some geometrical constraints and the transport is anomalous. (Author)

  14. Detection and migration of gases in geological media: Experiments and numerical simulations at the Roselend Natural Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillon, S.

    2013-01-01

    Gas migration in rocks results from natural and artificial processes. Understanding gas migration matters for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), to improve the detection of underground nuclear explosions by their radioactive gases. This work concerns many other fields in Earth Sciences, for fundamental as well as applied science. Issues in improving the detection and the understanding of gas migration in geological media are the following. What are the driving forces of gas migration from depth to the surface? How much of the gases produced at depth do arrive at the surface? Does this migration lead to temporal delays and dilution between production and breakthrough at the surface? To answer these questions, this thesis is dedicated to the identification of gas transport mechanisms in fractured rocks, from both field experiments and numerical simulations. The Roselend Natural Laboratory (French Alps) is a unique facility for studying gas transport in the unsaturated zone at the field scale, representative of natural processes. Parameters and external forcings have been determined. A tunnel and an isolated chamber, at 55 m depth, as well as boreholes at depth and at the surface, allow to monitor gases that are present in the rocks. Pneumatic properties of the rocks, permeability and porosity, were determined at scales ranging from 1 to 55 m, from both pneumatic injection tests and pressure monitoring as well as from computational studies of fluid flow and transport in porous media. Inverse modeling was used to quantify the associated uncertainties. The results underline the strong spatial heterogeneity of fractured media. The natural dynamics of three gases, CO 2 , SF 6 and 222 Rn, was monitored continuously for more than one year. The results, interpreted with numerical simulations, determined that the processes controlling the natural dynamics, or baseline, of gases are atmospheric pressure fluctuations and water movements. Such water movements also

  15. Computational thermo-hydro-mechanics for freezing and thawing multiphase geological media in the finite deformation range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Na, S.

    2017-12-01

    A stabilized thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) finite element model is introduced to investigate the freeze-thaw action of frozen porous media in the finite deformation range. By applying the mixture theory, frozen soil is idealized as a composite consisting of three phases, i.e., solid grain, unfrozen water and ice crystal. A generalized hardening rule at finite strain is adopted to replicate how the elasto-plastic responses and critical state evolve under the influence of phase transitions and heat transfer. The enhanced particle interlocking and ice strengthening during the freezing processes and the thawing-induced consolidation at the geometrical nonlinear regimes are both replicated in numerical examples. The numerical issues due to lack of two-fold inf-sup condition and ill-conditioning of the system of equations are addressed. Numerical examples for engineering applications at cold region are analyzed via the proposed model to predict the impacts of changing climate on infrastructure at cold regions.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A WEB-BASED PROXIMITY BASED MEDIA SHARING APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Erol Ozan

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the development of Vissou, which is a location based web application that enables media recording and sharing among users who are in close proximity to each other. The application facilitates the automated hand-over of the recorded media files from one user to another. There are many social networking applications and web sites that provide digital media sharing and editing functionalities. What differentiates Vissou from other similar applications is the functions and us...

  17. Geologic database for digital geology of California, Nevada, and Utah: an application of the North American Data Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, David R.; Ludington, Steve; Nutt, Constance M.; Stone, Paul A.; Miller, David M.; Miller, Robert J.; Wagner, David L.; Saucedo, George J.

    2003-01-01

    The USGS is creating an integrated national database for digital state geologic maps that includes stratigraphic, age, and lithologic information. The majority of the conterminous 48 states have digital geologic base maps available, often at scales of 1:500,000. This product is a prototype, and is intended to demonstrate the types of derivative maps that will be possible with the national integrated database. This database permits the creation of a number of types of maps via simple or sophisticated queries, maps that may be useful in a number of areas, including mineral-resource assessment, environmental assessment, and regional tectonic evolution. This database is distributed with three main parts: a Microsoft Access 2000 database containing geologic map attribute data, an Arc/Info (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, California) Export format file containing points representing designation of stratigraphic regions for the Geologic Map of Utah, and an ArcView 3.2 (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, California) project containing scripts and dialogs for performing a series of generalization and mineral resource queries. IMPORTANT NOTE: Spatial data for the respective stage geologic maps is not distributed with this report. The digital state geologic maps for the states involved in this report are separate products, and two of them are produced by individual state agencies, which may be legally and/or financially responsible for this data. However, the spatial datasets for maps discussed in this report are available to the public. Questions regarding the distribution, sale, and use of individual state geologic maps should be sent to the respective state agency. We do provide suggestions for obtaining and formatting the spatial data to make it compatible with data in this report. See section ‘Obtaining and Formatting Spatial Data’ in the PDF version of the report.

  18. Applications of Micro-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in the Geological Sciences—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyan; Zou, Caineng; Mastalerz, Maria; Hu, Suyun; Gasaway, Carley; Tao, Xiaowan

    2015-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can provide crucial information on the molecular structure of organic and inorganic components and has been used extensively for chemical characterization of geological samples in the past few decades. In this paper, recent applications of FTIR in the geological sciences are reviewed. Particularly, its use in the characterization of geochemistry and thermal maturation of organic matter in coal and shale is addressed. These investigations demonstrate that the employment of high-resolution micro-FTIR imaging enables visualization and mapping of the distributions of organic matter and minerals on a micrometer scale in geological samples, and promotes an advanced understanding of heterogeneity of organic rich coal and shale. Additionally, micro-FTIR is particularly suitable for in situ, non-destructive characterization of minute microfossils, small fluid and melt inclusions within crystals, and volatiles in glasses and minerals. This technique can also assist in the chemotaxonomic classification of macrofossils such as plant fossils. These features, barely accessible with other analytical techniques, may provide fundamental information on paleoclimate, depositional environment, and the evolution of geological (e.g., volcanic and magmatic) systems. PMID:26694380

  19. Applications of Micro-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR in the Geological Sciences—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR can provide crucial information on the molecular structure of organic and inorganic components and has been used extensively for chemical characterization of geological samples in the past few decades. In this paper, recent applications of FTIR in the geological sciences are reviewed. Particularly, its use in the characterization of geochemistry and thermal maturation of organic matter in coal and shale is addressed. These investigations demonstrate that the employment of high-resolution micro-FTIR imaging enables visualization and mapping of the distributions of organic matter and minerals on a micrometer scale in geological samples, and promotes an advanced understanding of heterogeneity of organic rich coal and shale. Additionally, micro-FTIR is particularly suitable for in situ, non-destructive characterization of minute microfossils, small fluid and melt inclusions within crystals, and volatiles in glasses and minerals. This technique can also assist in the chemotaxonomic classification of macrofossils such as plant fossils. These features, barely accessible with other analytical techniques, may provide fundamental information on paleoclimate, depositional environment, and the evolution of geological (e.g., volcanic and magmatic systems.

  20. Forensic geoscience: applications of geology, geomorphology and geophysics to criminal investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer

    2005-03-01

    One hundred years ago Georg Popp became the first scientist to present in court a case where the geological makeup of soils was used to secure a criminal conviction. Subsequently there have been significant advances in the theory and practice of forensic geoscience: many of them subsequent to the seminal publication of "Forensic Geology" by Murray and Tedrow [Murray, R., Tedrow, J.C.F. 1975 (republished 1986). Forensic Geology: Earth Sciences and Criminal Investigation. Rutgers University Press, New York, 240 pp.]. Our review places historical development in the modern context of how the allied disciplines of geology (mineralogy, sedimentology, microscopy), geophysics, soil science, microbiology, anthropology and geomorphology have been used as tool to aid forensic (domestic, serious, terrorist and international) crime investigations. The latter half of this paper uses the concept of scales of investigation, from large-scale landforms through to microscopic particles as a method of categorising the large number of geoscience applications to criminal investigation. Forensic geoscience has traditionally used established non-forensic techniques: 100 years after Popp's seminal work, research into forensic geoscience is beginning to lead, as opposed to follow other scientific disciplines.

  1. GEOLOGICAL-GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE BAUXITE DEPOSITS APPLICATION OF THE SHALLOW SEIZMIC REFLECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dragičević

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of bauxite deposits in the region of the carbonaceous Dinarides has been performed by using different geological and geophysical methods. Deposits laying shallower or deeper below the roof sediments have so far most often been discovered by expensive drilling methods in a corresponding grid. Complex geological explorations have led to a series of valuable data thus enabling the application of other much more economical methods as well. In the region of the bauxite sedimentary basin Mesihovina-Rakitno, western Herzegovina, at the site of Studena vrila - after extensive geological explorations - a conclusion was drawn that the shallow seismic reflection geophysical method as well might be successfully applied in locating new bauxite deposits. In the paper, the geological framework of the bauxite deposits occurrences, stipulating the selection of this methode, will be presented. Measurements were performed on a known deposit (L-84, Povaljenica, completely defined by exploration drilling. The obtained results justify the selection of the shallow seismic reflection method as one of the methods for exploring bauxite deposits beneath the roof beds.

  2. Using Social Media Applications for Educational Outcomes in College Teaching: A Structural Equation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yingxia; Ajjan, Haya; Hong, Paul

    2013-01-01

    As more and more faculty members jump on the wagon of social media, an increasing number of publications began to investigate the adoption of social media applications and its motivators in and out of the classrooms. However, little research has paid close attention to the educational outcomes of social media utilization in college teaching. Thus,…

  3. A SOCIAL MEDIA CAMPAIGN APPLICATION IN A MARKETING FIELD EXPERIENCE COURSE

    OpenAIRE

    Mine Ucok Hughes

    2014-01-01

    Most university students today use social media daily, are knowledgeable about a myriad of applications, and can navigate numerous platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter. Despite their affinity for social media, however, it is not clear whether or not they understand how social media can be used to create effective marketing strategies. This paper describes a social media assignment that was incorporated into a marketing field experience course for undergraduate students. The aim of the pape...

  4. Application of social media to library service delivery: Perception of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed that few of the social media identified are rarely relevant to library service delivery. Reference services, current awareness services, and library news postings were the types of library services that social media are applied. Results also indicated that there were benefits derived from using social media in ...

  5. Application of modeling methods for an estimation of a specific activity 137Cs geologic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinovskij, A.K.; Batij, V.G.; Pravdivyj, A.A.; Krasnov, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    The manual application of methods of mathematical and physical modeling for an estimation of the specific activity 137 Cs in soils composing a geological profile of site of object 'Ukryttya' is demonstrated. The calculations are executed by the software packages of Micro Shield, CYCLON, MCNP5. The experimental measurements are carried out by logging radiometers of different type on the borehole models. The value of a conversion coefficient of infinite environment for quantitative interpretation of gamma-ray logging data is determined over calculations outcomes and experimental measurements. The calculated and experimental values have agreement among themselves. the error estimation of the obtained outcomes is executed. 26 refs., 3 tab., 10 figs

  6. TOUGHREACT User's Guide: A Simulation Program for Non-isothermal Multiphase Reactive geochemical Transport in Variably Saturated Geologic Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    Coupled modeling of subsurface multiphase fluid and heat flow, solute transport and chemical reactions can be used for the assessment of mineral alteration in hydrothermal systems, waste disposal sites, acid mine drainage remediation, contaminant transport, and groundwater quality. A comprehensive non-isothermal multi-component reactive fluid flow and geochemical transport simulator, TOUGHREACT, has been developed. A wide range of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes is considered under various thermohydrological and geochemical conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, and ionic strength. The program can be applied to one-, two- or three-dimensional porous and fractured media with physical and chemical heterogeneity. The model can accommodate any number of chemical species present in liquid, gas and solid phases. A variety of equilibrium chemical reactions are considered, such as aqueous complexation, gas dissolution/exsolution, and cation exchange. Mineral dissolution/precipitation can proceed either subject to local equilibrium or kinetic conditions. Changes in porosity and permeability due to mineral dissolution and precipitation can be considered. Linear adsorption and decay can be included. For the purpose of future extensions, surface complexation by double layer model is coded in the program. Xu and Pruess (1998) developed a first version of a non-isothermal reactive geochemical transport model, TOUGHREACT, by introducing reactive geochemistry into the framework of the existing multi-phase fluid and heat flow code TOUGH2 (Pruess, 1991). Xu, Pruess, and their colleagues have applied the program to a variety of problems such as: (1) supergene copper enrichment (Xu et al, 2001), (2) caprock mineral alteration in a hydrothermal system (Xu and Pruess, 2001a), and (3) mineral trapping for CO 2 disposal in deep saline aquifers (Xu et al, 2003b and 2004a). For modeling the coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical processes during heater

  7. Geologic and porous media factors affecting the 2007 production response characteristics of the JOGMEC/NRCan/AURORA Mallik gas hydrate production research well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallimore, S. R.; Wright, J. F.; Nixon, F. M. [Natural Resources Canada, Sidney, BC (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada; Kurihara, M. [Japan Oil Engineering, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, K.; Fujii, T.; Fujii, K.; Numasawa, M.; Yasuda, M. [Japan Oil, Gas, Metals National Corp., Chiba (Japan). Technical Research Centre; Imasato, Y. [Schlumberger K.K., Fuchinombe (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    The joint research project between Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC), Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) and the Aurora Research Institute was conducted in an effort to measure and monitor the response of a terrestrial gas hydrate reservoir to pressure draw down. This paper reviewed the geologic setting and porous media conditions of a concentrated gas hydrate production interval between 1093 and 1105 m. The short-duration production test was conducted at the Mallik site in Canada's Mackenzie Delta in April 2007. The production interval consists of a sand-dominated succession with occasional silty sand interbeds. Gas hydrate occurs primarily within the sediment pore spaces, with concentrations ranging between 50-90 per cent. Experiments on pore water salinity and porous media conditions on pressure-temperature stability suggest that the partition between gas hydrate stability and instability should be considered as a phase boundary zone rather than a discrete threshold. The experiment revealed that there are significant changes to the physical properties following gas hydrate dissociation, with sediments containing no hydrate behaving as unconsolidated sands. A strong reservoir response to pressure draw down was observed with increasing gas flow during the testing period. Sand inflow to the well during the test may be attributed to loss of sediment strength during gas hydrate dissociation, with the sediment behaving as a gasified slurry. It was concluded that the gas flow response observed during the 2007 production test at Mallik was highly influenced by porous media properties and by the geological heterogeneities which may initiate high permeability conduits in sediments within the production interval of the Mallik gas hydrate reservoir. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  8. An iPad and Android-based Application for Digitally Recording Geologic Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinconico, L. L.; Sunderlin, D.; Liew, C.; Ho, A. S.; Bekele, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    Field experience is a significant component in most geology courses, especially sed/strat and structural geology. Increasingly, the spatial presentation, analysis and interpretation of geologic data is done using digital methodologies (GIS, Google Earth, stereonet and spreadsheet programs). However, students and professionals continue to collect field data manually on paper maps and in the traditional "orange field notebooks". Upon returning from the field, data are then manually transferred into digital formats for processing, mapping and interpretation. The transfer process is both cumbersome and prone to transcription error. In conjunction with the computer science department, we are in the process of developing an application (App) for iOS (the iPad) and Android platforms that can be used to digitally record data measured in the field. This is not a mapping program, but rather a way of bypassing the field book step to acquire digital data directly that can then be used in various analysis and display programs. Currently, the application allows the user to select from five different structural data situations: contact, bedding, fault, joints and "other". The user can define a folder for the collection and separation of data for each project. Observations are stored as individual records of field measurements in each folder. The exact information gathered depends on the nature of the observation, but common to all pages is the ability to log date, time, and lat/long directly from the tablet. Information like strike and dip are entered using scroll wheels and formation names are also entered using scroll wheels that access easy-to-modify lists of the area's stratigraphic units. This insures uniformity in the creation of the digital records from day-to-day and across field teams. Pictures can also be taken using the tablet's camera that are linked to each record. Once the field collection is complete the data (including images) can be easily exported to a .csv file

  9. Magnetization behavior of nanomagnets for patterned media application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, S.; Kikuchi, N.; Kato, T.; Kitakami, O. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Mitsuzuka, K.; Shimatsu, T.; Muraoka, H.; Aoi, H. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Lodder, J.C. [Information Storage Group, MESA, University of Twente, Enschede 7500 AE (Netherlands)], E-mail: j.c.lodder@el.utwente.nl

    2008-11-15

    Bit patterned media (BPM) which utilize each magnetic nanostructured dot as one recorded bit has attracted much interest as a promising candidate for future high-density magnetic recording. In this study, the magnetization reversal behaviors of nanostructured L1{sub 0}-FePt, Co/Pt multilayer (ML), and CoPt/Ru dots are investigated. For Co/Pt and CoPt/Ru nanodots, the bi-stable state is maintained in a very wide size range up to several hundred nm, and the magnetization reversal is dominated by the nucleation of a small reversed nucleus with the dimension of domain wall width. On the other hand, the critical size for the bi-stability of L1{sub 0}-FePt is about 60 nm, and its magnetization reversal proceeds via domain wall displacement even for such a small dot size. These reversal behaviors, depending on the magnetic materials, might be attributed to the difference in structural inhomogeneity, such as defects. In addition to the magnetic properties, the structural uniformity of the material could be crucial for the BPM application.

  10. Semantically Enhanced Topic Modeling and Its Applications in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lifan

    2013-01-01

    As we witness the prosperity of the social media in the past few years, and feel the explosion of "user-generated content" on the Internet, there is little question that we have entered an era of Big Data. Those social media sites, such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Quora and Twitter have been important sources for a wide spectrum of users.…

  11. Application of CBERS-1 to monitoring of geological hazards in china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Y.

    China is a country with a great variety of wide and frequent geological disasters which is the most serious natural disasters bring damage to national economical construction and people's life and property and causes an annual direct economic loss over 200 hundred million Chinese yuan to China. In recent 20 years great work has been done to apply remote sensing to investigation and monitoring earthquake, collapse, landslide, mud-rock flow, river-band cave-in, lava collapse, earth crevise, ground coal bunker spontaneous combustion, and great contribution has been done for the control. The successful launch and operation of the China-Brazil Resources Satellite& "CBERS -1" provides us an even more convenient tool. In present paper it introduces the applications of CBERS remote sensing in monitoring of large scale slide in Yigong Tibet and in Yangyuan Shanxi for earthquake calamities combined with meteorological remote sensing data. The results demonstrate that CBERS data could get in time and accurate geo-disasters monitoring information and show us the actual happenings which supply reliable basis for control and release measures to the disaster. CBERS has played an unique important role in fighting against the slide disaster and sending relief to the area and the resulted floods. It is bond to play an active role to promote growth of Chinese national economy. Keywords: CBERS; Geological Hazards; Monimonitoring

  12. Application of ASTER SWIR bands in mapping anomaly pixels for Antarctic geological mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan; Park, Yongcheol

    2017-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands of ASTER satellite data for detailed mapping of alteration mineral zones in the context of polar environments, where little prior information is available. The Oscar II coast area north-eastern Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula (AP) was selected to conduct a remote sensing satellite-based mapping approach to detect alteration mineral assemblages. Anomaly pixels in the ICA image maps related to spectral features of Al-O-H, Fe, Mg-O-H and CO3 groups were detected using SWIR datasets of ASTER. ICA method provided image maps of alteration mineral assemblages and discriminate lithological units with little available geological data for poorly mapped regions and/or without prior geological information for unmapped regions in northern and southern sectors of Oscar II coast area, Graham Land. The results of this investigation demonstrated the applicability of ASTER spectral data for lithological and alteration mineral mapping in poorly exposed lithologies and inaccessible regions, particularly using the image processing algorithm that are capable to detect anomaly pixels targets in the remotely sensed images, where no prior information is available. (paper)

  13. The application of geological computer modelling systems to the characterisation and assessment of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.J.; Del Olmo, C.

    1996-01-01

    The deep disposal of radioactive waste requires the collection and analysis of large amounts of geological data. These data give information on the geological and hydrogeological setting of repositories and research sites, including the geological structure and the nature of the groundwater. The collection of these data is required in order to develop an understanding of the geology and the geological evolution of sites and to provide quantitative information for performance assessments. An integrated approach to the interpretation and provision of these data is proposed in this paper, via the use of computer systems, here termed geological modelling systems. Geological modelling systems are families of software programmes which allow the incorporation of site investigation data into integrated 3D models of sub-surface geology

  14. Advanced high-temperature thermal energy storage media for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claar, T. D.; Waibel, R. T.

    1982-02-01

    An advanced thermal energy storage media concept based on use of carbonate salt/ceramic composite materials is being developed for industrial process and reject heat applications. The composite latent/sensible media concept and its potential advantages over state of the art latent heat systems is described. Media stability requirements, on-going materials development efforts, and planned thermal energy storage (TES) performance evaluation tests are discussed.

  15. Geonucleus, the freeware application for managing geological mapping data in GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Gáspár

    2016-04-01

    Geological mapping is the most traditional way of collecting information from the deposits and rocks. The traditional technique of the documentation was refined by generations of geologists. These traditions were implemented into Geonucleus to create a tool for precise data-recording after fieldwork, but giving the freedom of pondering the details of the observation as well. In 2012 a general xml-based data structure was worked out for storing field observations for the Geological Institute of Hungary (Albert et al. 2012). This structure was implemented into the desktop version of Geonucleus, which creates a database of the recorded data on the client computer. The application saves the complete database in one file, which can be loaded into a GIS. The observations can be saved in simple text format as well, but primarily the kml (Keyhole Markup Languege) is supported. This way, the observations are visualized in comprehensible forms (e.g. on a 3D surface model with satellite photos in Google Earth). If the kml is directly visualized in Google Earth, an info-bubble will appear via clicking on a pinpoint. It displays all the metadata (e.g. index, coordinates, date, logger name, etc.), the descriptions and the photos of the observed site. If a more general GIS application is the aim (e.g. Global Mapper or QGIS), the file can be saved in a different format, but still in a kml-structure. The simple text format is recommended if the observations are to be imported in a user-defined relational database system (RDB). Report text-type is also available if a detailed description of one or more observed site is needed. Importing waypoint gpx-files can quicken the logging. The code was written in VisualBasic.Net. The app is freely accessible from the geonucleus.elte.hu site and it can be installed on any system, which has the .Net framework 4.0 or higher. The software is bilingual (English and Hungarian), and the app is designed for general geological mapping purposes (e

  16. TOUGHREACT User's Guide: A Simulation Program for Non-isothermal Multiphase Reactive Geochemical Transport in Variably Saturated Geologic Media, V1.2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    Coupled modeling of subsurface multiphase fluid and heat flow, solute transport, and chemical reactions can be applied to many geologic systems and environmental problems, including geothermal systems, diagenetic and weathering processes, subsurface waste disposal, acid mine drainage remediation, contaminant transport, and groundwater quality. TOUGHREACT has been developed as a comprehensive non-isothermal multi-component reactive fluid flow and geochemical transport simulator to investigate these and other problems. A number of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes are considered under various thermohydrological and geochemical conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, and ionic strength. TOUGHREACT can be applied to one-, two- or three-dimensional porous and fractured media with physical and chemical heterogeneity. The code can accommodate any number of chemical species present in liquid, gas and solid phases. A variety of equilibrium chemical reactions are considered, such as aqueous complexation, gas dissolution/exsolution, and cation exchange. Mineral dissolution/precipitation can take place subject to either local equilibrium or kinetic controls, with coupling to changes in porosity and permeability and capillary pressure in unsaturated systems. Chemical components can also be treated by linear adsorption and radioactive decay. The first version of the non-isothermal reactive geochemical transport code TOUGHREACT was developed (Xu and Pruess, 1998) by introducing reactive geochemistry into the framework of the existing multi-phase fluid and heat flow code TOUGH2 (Pruess, 1991). TOUGHREACT was further enhanced with the addition of (1) treatment of mineral-water-gas reactive-transport under boiling conditions, (2) an improved HKF activity model for aqueous species, (3) gas species diffusion coefficients calculated as a function of pressure, temperature, and molecular properties, (4) mineral reactive surface area formulations for fractured

  17. TOUGHREACT User's Guide: A Simulation Program for Non-isothermal Multiphase Reactive Geochemical Transport in Variably Saturated Geologic Media, V1.2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten

    2008-09-29

    Coupled modeling of subsurface multiphase fluid and heat flow, solute transport, and chemical reactions can be applied to many geologic systems and environmental problems, including geothermal systems, diagenetic and weathering processes, subsurface waste disposal, acid mine drainage remediation, contaminant transport, and groundwater quality. TOUGHREACT has been developed as a comprehensive non-isothermal multi-component reactive fluid flow and geochemical transport simulator to investigate these and other problems. A number of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes are considered under various thermohydrological and geochemical conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, and ionic strength. TOUGHREACT can be applied to one-, two- or three-dimensional porous and fractured media with physical and chemical heterogeneity. The code can accommodate any number of chemical species present in liquid, gas and solid phases. A variety of equilibrium chemical reactions are considered, such as aqueous complexation, gas dissolution/exsolution, and cation exchange. Mineral dissolution/precipitation can take place subject to either local equilibrium or kinetic controls, with coupling to changes in porosity and permeability and capillary pressure in unsaturated systems. Chemical components can also be treated by linear adsorption and radioactive decay. The first version of the non-isothermal reactive geochemical transport code TOUGHREACT was developed (Xu and Pruess, 1998) by introducing reactive geochemistry into the framework of the existing multi-phase fluid and heat flow code TOUGH2 (Pruess, 1991). TOUGHREACT was further enhanced with the addition of (1) treatment of mineral-water-gas reactive-transport under boiling conditions, (2) an improved HKF activity model for aqueous species, (3) gas species diffusion coefficients calculated as a function of pressure, temperature, and molecular properties, (4) mineral reactive surface area formulations for fractured

  18. Evaluation of portable Raman spectrometer with 1064 nm excitation for geological and forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítek, Petr; Ali, Esam M A; Edwards, Howell G M; Jehlička, Jan; Cox, Rick; Page, Kristian

    2012-02-01

    The development of miniaturized Raman instrumentation is in demand for applications relevant to forensic, pharmaceutical and art analyses, as well as geosciences, and planetary exploration. In this study we report on evaluation of a portable dispersive Raman spectrometer equipped with 1064 nm laser excitation. Selected samples from geological, geobiological and forensic areas of interest have been studied from which the advantages, disadvantages and the analytical potential of the instrument are assessed based on a comparison with bench instrumentation and other portable Raman spectrometers using 785 nm excitation. It is demonstrated that the instrument operating with 1064 nm excitation has potential for expanding the number and types of samples that can be measured by miniaturized Raman spectroscopy without interfering fluorescence background emission. It includes inorganic and organic minerals, biomolecules within living lichen and endolithic cyanobacteria as well as drugs of abuse and explosives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Uranium series radioactive disequilibria study using gamma spectrometry with low energy and application to the dating in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoukhi, T. El.

    1992-01-01

    In this work, the gamma spectrometry with low energy has been used with the help of Ge high purity planar detector, and the means and limits of this spectrometry in the applications to the dating in geology has been studied. A geological sample taken from the moroccan phosphatic deposit of Gantour, having a secondary mineralization wealth of uranium has principally been studied in application. In addition, physical models of uranium genesis have been elaborated in the course of this work in order to interpret the achieved results. 60 figs., 18 tabs., 53 refs. (F.M.)

  20. Application of iodic contrast media in roentgen examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielecki, T.; Januszkiewicz-Mielecka, K.; Kukula, A.; Szechinski, J.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of adverse reactions after administration of iodic contrast media in 1780 patients in 1952 various X-ray examinations is presented. Various preparations by different producers were used. As a rule, domestic contrast media were administered in non high-risk patients, whereas imported contrast media were applied in patients with documented high-risk factors (20%) and nonionic compounds were intended for patients of severe clinical condition (10%). Adverse reactions occurred in 6.9% of non high-risk patients and in 10.9% of high-risk patients. Nonionic preparations caused adverse reactions in 5.6%. Considering the significant differences in prices of domestic, imported and nonionic contrast media, authors advice to use safer but clearly more expensive preparations in patients with documented factors of increased risk. (author)

  1. Theory through Application: A Study in the Use of Social Media for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Mark A.; McGranahan, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing integration of social media in their personal and professional lives, many faculty remain uncertain about its application to the classroom. One barrier for the adoption of social media as a learning tool is continued uncertainty about effective practices and successful use cases. Anchored in a specific course implementation and…

  2. Use of Social Media to Find Suitable Applicants in the Advertising Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Gerina

    2015-01-01

    The research question of this study is; do firms in the advertising industry use social media to attract or find suitable applicants for jobs in their companies? The aim is to find out if social media is being used by companies as a part of recruitment in Advertising Agencies and also to find out what types of media are being used and what kind of positive and negative aspects of social media exists? From survey done though questionnaires, different answers were collected and it was fou...

  3. TOURGHREACT: A Simulation Program for Non-isothermal Multiphase Reactive Geochemical Transport in Variably Saturated Geologic Media

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    TOUGHREACT is a numerical simulation program for chemically reactive non-isothermal flows of multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media. The program was written in Fortran 77 and developed by introducing reactive geochemistry into the multiphase fluid and heat flow simulator TOUGH2. A variety of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes are considered under a wide range of conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, ionic strength, and pH and Eh. Interactions between ...

  4. Density-Driven Flow Simulation in Anisotropic Porous Media: Application to CO2 Geological Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in saline aquifers is considered as one of the most viable and promising ways to reduce CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. CO2 is injected into deep saline formations at supercritical state where its density

  5. Metamodeling-based approach for risk assessment and cost estimation: Application to geological carbon sequestration planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Alexander Y.; Jeong, Hoonyoung; González-Nicolás, Ana; Templeton, Thomas C.

    2018-04-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is being evaluated globally as a geoengineering measure for significantly reducing greenhouse emission. However, long-term liability associated with potential leakage from these geologic repositories is perceived as a main barrier of entry to site operators. Risk quantification and impact assessment help CCS operators to screen candidate sites for suitability of CO2 storage. Leakage risks are highly site dependent, and a quantitative understanding and categorization of these risks can only be made possible through broad participation and deliberation of stakeholders, with the use of site-specific, process-based models as the decision basis. Online decision making, however, requires that scenarios be run in real time. In this work, a Python based, Leakage Assessment and Cost Estimation (PyLACE) web application was developed for quantifying financial risks associated with potential leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites. PyLACE aims to assist a collaborative, analytic-deliberative decision making processes by automating metamodel creation, knowledge sharing, and online collaboration. In PyLACE, metamodeling, which is a process of developing faster-to-run surrogates of process-level models, is enabled using a special stochastic response surface method and the Gaussian process regression. Both methods allow consideration of model parameter uncertainties and the use of that information to generate confidence intervals on model outputs. Training of the metamodels is delegated to a high performance computing cluster and is orchestrated by a set of asynchronous job scheduling tools for job submission and result retrieval. As a case study, workflow and main features of PyLACE are demonstrated using a multilayer, carbon storage model.

  6. Ethical aspects of using medical social media in healthcare applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denecke, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The advances in internet and mobile technologies and their increased use in healthcare led to the development of a new research field: health web science. Many research questions are addressed in that field, starting from analysing social-media data, to recruiting participants for clinical studies and monitoring the public health status. The information provided through this channel is unique in a sense that there is no other written source of experiences from patients and health carers. The increased usage and analysis of health web data poses questions on privacy, and ethics. Through a literature review, the current awareness on ethical issues in the context of public health monitoring and research using medical social media data is determined. Further, considerations on the topic were collected from members of the IMIA Social Media Working group.

  7. Microscopic imaging through turbid media Monte Carlo modeling and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Min; Deng, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a systematic introduction to the principles of microscopic imaging through tissue-like turbid media in terms of Monte-Carlo simulation. It describes various gating mechanisms based on the physical differences between the unscattered and scattered photons and method for microscopic image reconstruction, using the concept of the effective point spread function. Imaging an object embedded in a turbid medium is a challenging problem in physics as well as in biophotonics. A turbid medium surrounding an object under inspection causes multiple scattering, which degrades the contrast, resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. Biological tissues are typically turbid media. Microscopic imaging through a tissue-like turbid medium can provide higher resolution than transillumination imaging in which no objective is used. This book serves as a valuable reference for engineers and scientists working on microscopy of tissue turbid media.

  8. Measuring the power consumption of social media applications on a mobile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunia, A. I. M.; Suherman; Rambe, A. H.; Fauzi, R.

    2018-03-01

    As fully connected social media applications become popular and require all time connection, the power consumption on mobile device battery increases significantly. As power supplied by a battery is limited, social media application should be designed to be less power consuming. This paper reports the power consumption measurement of social media running on a mobile device. Experimental circuit was developed by using a microcontroller measuring an android smartphone on a 802.11 controlled network. The experiment results show that whatsapp consumes the power less than others in stand by and chat. While other states are dominated by line. The blackberry consumes the power the worst.

  9. Impact of thermal constraints on the optimal design of high-level waste repositories in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malbrain, C; Lester, R K [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1982-12-01

    An approximate, semi-analytical heat conduction model for predicting the time-dependent temperature distribution in the region of a high-level waste repository has been developed. The model provides the basis for a systematic, inexpensive examination of the impact of several independent thermal design constraints on key repository design parameters and for determining the optimal set of design parameters which satisfy these constraints. Illustrative calculations have been carried out for conceptual repository designs for spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel and reprocessed PWR high-level waste in salt and granite media.

  10. On a theory of media processing systems behaviour, with applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weffers-Albu, M.A.; Lukkien, J.J.; Steffens, E.F.M.; Stok, van der P.D.V.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we provide a model for the dynamic behavior of media processing chains of tasks communicating via bounded buffers. The aim is to find the overall behavior of a chain from which performance parameters (such as start time and response time of individual tasks, chain end-to-end response

  11. Kodak phase-change media for optical tape applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyan, Yuan-Sheng; Preuss, Donald R.; Olin, George R.; Vazan, Fridrich; Pan, Kee-Chuan; Raychaudhuri, Pranab. K.

    1993-01-01

    The SbInSn phase-change write-once optical medium developed by Eastman Kodak Company is particularly suitable for development into the next generation optical tape media. Its performance for optical recording has already been demonstrated in some of the highest performance optical disk systems. Some of the key performance features are presented.

  12. Long time tails in stationary random media II: Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machta, J.; Ernst, M.H.; Dorfman, J.R.; Beijeren, H. van

    1984-01-01

    In a previous paper we developed a mode-coupling theory to describe the long time properties of diffusion in stationary, statistically homogeneous, random media. Here the general theory is applied to deterministic and stochastic Lorentz models and several hopping models. The mode-coupling theory

  13. Behavior of rare earth elements in fractured aquifers: an application to geological disposal criteria for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Gu; Kim, Yong Je; Lee, Kil Yong; Kim, Kun Han

    2003-01-01

    An understanding of the geochemistry of potential host rocks is very important in the site evaluation for construction of an underground geologic repository for radioactive waste. Because of similar valence and ionic radii and high similarity in electronic structure with trivalent actinides (such as Am 3+ and Cm 3+ ), the rare earth elements (REEs) have been used to predict the behavior of actinide-series elements in solution (Runde et al., 1992). For Am and Cm, which occur only in the trivalent states in most waste-disposal repository environments, the analogy with the REEs is particularly relevant. In order to discuss the behavior of REEs in geological media and to deduce the behavior of actinides in geological environments based on the REE abundance, and to provide an useful tool in deciding an optimum geological condition for radioactive disposal, we estimated the REE abundance from various kinds of fractured rock type. In fractured granitic aquifer, chondrite-normalized REE pattern show Eu positive anomaly due to fracture-filling calcite precipitation. However, in fractured meta-basaltic and volcanic tuffaceous aquifer, REE pattern do not show the change of Eu anomaly due to fracture-filling calcite precipitation. Eu shows very similar properties such as cohesive energy, ionic radii with coordination number compared to Am. Therefore, if we consider the Eu behavior in fractured rocks and the similar physical/chemical properties of Eu and Am, together, our results strongly suggest that Eu is a very useful analogue for predicting the behavior of Am in geological environment

  14. Multiscale modeling of high contrast brinkman equations with applications to deformable porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald

    2013-06-18

    Simulating porous media flows has a wide range of applications. Often, these applications involve many scales and multi-physical processes. A useful tool in the analysis of such problems in that of homogenization as an averaged description is derived circumventing the need for complicated simulation of the fine scale features. In this work, we recall recent developments of homogenization techniques in the application of flows in deformable porous media. In addition, homogenization of media with high-contrast. In particular, we recall the main ideas of the homogenization of slowly varying Stokes flow and summarize the results of [4]. We also present the ideas for extending these techniques to high-contrast deformable media [3]. These ideas are connected by the modeling of multiscale fluid-structure interaction problems. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  15. Development of an Android-based Learning Media Application for Visually Impaired Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Azmi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop the English for Disability (EFORD application, on Android-based learning english media for Visually Impaired students and determine its based this on assessment of matter expert, media expert, special needs teacher and students. The research method adopted in this research is Research and Development (R&D. The development of this application through five phases: (1 Analysis of problems, through observation and interviews. (2 Collecting information as product planning / analysis of the needs of the media as required of blind children. (3 The design phase of products such as the manufacture of flow and storyboard navigation map.(4 Design validation phase form of an expert assessment of the media is developed. (5 testing products phase, such as assessment of the application by blind students. The results of this research is EFORD application which is feasible to be used as English learning media for visual impairment application based on assessment: 1Media expert it's obtained a percentage scored 95%, include for very worthy category, 2Subject matter, expert its obtained percentage scored 75% include for worthy category and 3 Special needs teacher it's obtained a percentage scored 83% include for very worthy category. Upon demonstration, students indicated the positive response of ≥ 70% in each indicator. Therefore English learning media with Android based application English for Disability (EFORD is very feasible to be used as an English learning media especially grammar and speaking English content for students of visual impairment for a number of reasons. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

  16. Definition of a methodology for the management of geological heritage. An application to the Azores archipelago (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Eva; Nunes, João; Brilha, José; Calado, Helena

    2013-04-01

    The conservation of the geological heritage requires the support of appropriate policies, which should be the result of the integration of nature conservation, environmental and land-use planning, and environmental education perspectives. There are several papers about inventory methodologies for geological heritage and its scientific, educational and tourism uses (e.g. Cendrero, 2000, Lago et al., 2000; Brilha, 2005; Carcavilla et al., 2007). However, management methodologies for geological heritage are still poorly developed. They should be included in environmental and land-use planning and nature conservation policies, in order to support a holistic approach to natural heritage. This gap is explained by the fact that geoconservation is a new geoscience still needed of more basic scientific research, like any other geoscience (Henriques et al., 2011). It is necessary to establish protocols and mechanisms for the conservation and management of geological heritage. This is a complex type of management because it needs to address not only the fragile natural features to preserve but also legal, economic, cultural, educational and recreational aspects. In addition, a management methodology should ensure the geosites conservation, the local development and the dissemination of the geological heritage (Carcavilla et al., 2007). This work is part of a PhD project aiming to contribute to fill this gap that exists in the geoconservation domain, specifically in terms of establishing an appropriate methodology for the management of geological heritage, taking into account the natural diversity of geosites and the variety of natural and anthropic threats. The proposed methodology will be applied to the geological heritage of the Azores archipelago, which management acquires particular importance and urgency after the decision of the Regional Government to create the Azores Geopark and its application to the European and Global Geoparks Networks. Acknowledgment This work is

  17. Application of thermoluminescence dating on pressed crystalline samples to determine the geological age at some areas in Eastern South, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do Duy Khiem; Luu Anh Tuyen; Phan Trong Phuc; Nguyen Thi Ngoc Hue; Pham Thi Hue; La Ly Nguyen; Ha Quang Hai

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial part of eastern margin of the Mekong Basin is formed by outcrop of the pre-Holocen Cenozoic sequence. Almost previous studies concerned in using relative methods in geologic dating at the Mekong Basin, therefore, the ages of its stratigraphy are still unclear. The thermoluminescence (TL) dating was considered as one of the precise methods in geologic dating. In our study, we used TL dating for some areas at Eastern South, Vietnam including Ba Mieu Formation and the Thu Duc Formation at some areas in Dong Nai province and Ho Chi Minh City. This work has been the first application of TL for in geologic dating by a domestic laboratory. Experimental measurements of TL were performed using pressed crystalline quartz specimens from sediment samples. The results show that the Ba Mieu Formation was deposited about 238±22 ka and the Thu Duc Formation was deposited about 199±21 ka. (author)

  18. Parts-based geophysical inversion with application to water flooding interface detection and geological facies detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwei

    I built parts-based and manifold based mathematical learning model for the geophysical inverse problem and I applied this approach to two problems. One is related to the detection of the oil-water encroachment front during the water flooding of an oil reservoir. In this application, I propose a new 4D inversion approach based on the Gauss-Newton approach to invert time-lapse cross-well resistance data. The goal of this study is to image the position of the oil-water encroachment front in a heterogeneous clayey sand reservoir. This approach is based on explicitly connecting the change of resistivity to the petrophysical properties controlling the position of the front (porosity and permeability) and to the saturation of the water phase through a petrophysical resistivity model accounting for bulk and surface conductivity contributions and saturation. The distributions of the permeability and porosity are also inverted using the time-lapse resistivity data in order to better reconstruct the position of the oil water encroachment front. In our synthetic test case, we get a better position of the front with the by-products of porosity and permeability inferences near the flow trajectory and close to the wells. The numerical simulations show that the position of the front is recovered well but the distribution of the recovered porosity and permeability is only fair. A comparison with a commercial code based on a classical Gauss-Newton approach with no information provided by the two-phase flow model fails to recover the position of the front. The new approach could be also used for the time-lapse monitoring of various processes in both geothermal fields and oil and gas reservoirs using a combination of geophysical methods. A paper has been published in Geophysical Journal International on this topic and I am the first author of this paper. The second application is related to the detection of geological facies boundaries and their deforation to satisfy to geophysica

  19. Interaction with customers: The Application of Social Media within the Austrian Supply Chain for Food and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Meixner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media marketing has become a powerful tool of interaction with stakeholders. An increasing number of companies are using social media platforms to initiate active interaction and communication with current and prospective customers. Within this study, certain content and contact features, as well as social media activities of companies of the Austrian food and beverage industry were evaluated. Empirical findings concerning the threats, risks, and opportunities connected with the application of social media are presented. The results imply that social media applications are innovative alternatives for customer relationship management. However, more knowledge on how to properly use social media marketing seems to be necessary.

  20. Wave propagation in layered anisotropic media with application to composites

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, AH

    1995-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of the dynamic behavior of layered materials in general, and laminated fibrous composites in particular, are presented in this book. The need to understand the microstructural behavior of such classes of materials has brought a new challenge to existing analytical tools. This book explores the fundamental question of how mechanical waves propagate and interact with layered anisotropic media. The chapters are organized in a logical sequence depending upon the complexity of the physical model and its mathematical treatment.

  1. Particle retention in porous media: Applications to water injectivity decline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wennberg, Kjell Erik

    1998-12-31

    This thesis studies the problem of migration and deposition of colloidal particles within porous media, theoretically and by computerized simulation. Special emphasis is put on the prediction of injectivity decline in water injection wells due to inherent particles in the injection water. The study of particle deposition within porous media requires a correct prediction of the deposition rate or filtration coefficient. A thorough review of the modeling approaches used in the past are combined with new ideas in order to arrive at an improved model for the prediction of the filtration coefficient. A new way of determining the transition time for the dominant deposition mechanism to change from internal deposition to external cake formation is proposed. From this fundamental theory, equations are given for water injectivity decline predictions. A computer program called WID for water injectivity decline predictions was developed. Using water quality, formation properties, injection rate/pressure and completion information as input, WID predicts decline in vertical and horizontal injection wells with openhole, perforated and fractured completions. The calculations agree fairly well with field data; in some cases the agreement is excellent. A poor match in a few cases indicates that more mechanisms may be responsible for injectivity decline than those presently accounted for by the simulator. The second part of the study deals with a theoretical investigation of the multi-dimensional nature of particle deposition in porous media. 112 refs., 100 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Chemical Instabilities : Applications in Chemistry, Engineering, Geology, and Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    Baras, F

    1984-01-01

    On March 14-18, 1983 a workshop on "Chemical Instabilities: Applications in Chemistry, Engineering, Geology, and Materials Science" was held in Austin, Texas, U.S.A. It was organized jointly by the University of Texas at Austin and the Universite Libre de Bruxelles and sponsored qy NATO, NSF, the University of Texas at Austin, the International Solvay Institutes and the Ex­ xon Corporation. The present Volume includes most of the material of the in­ vited lectures delivered in the workshop as well as material from some posters, whose content was directly related to the themes of the invited lectures. In ,recent years, problems related to the stability and the nonlinear dynamics of nonequilibrium systems invaded a great num­ ber of fields ranging from abstract mathematics to biology. One of the most striking aspects of this development is that subjects reputed to be "classical" and "well-established" like chemistry, turned out to give rise to a rich variety of phenomena leading to multiple steady states and...

  3. TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.2 User's Manual: A Code for the Simulation of System Behavior in Hydrate-Bearing Geologic Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, George J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kowalsky, Michael B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pruess, Karsten [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.2 is a code for the simulation of the behavior of hydratebearing geologic systems, and represents the second update of the code since its first release [Moridis et al., 2008]. By solving the coupled equations of mass and heat balance, TOUGH+HYDRATE can model the non-isothermal gas release, phase behavior and flow of fluids and heat under conditions typical of common natural CH4-hydrate deposits (i.e., in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments) in complex geological media at any scale (from laboratory to reservoir) at which Darcy’s law is valid. TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.2 includes both an equilibrium and a kinetic model of hydrate formation and dissociation. The model accounts for heat and up to four mass components, i.e., water, CH4, hydrate, and water-soluble inhibitors such as salts or alcohols. These are partitioned among four possible phases (gas phase, liquid phase, ice phase and hydrate phase). Hydrate dissociation or formation, phase changes and the corresponding thermal effects are fully described, as are the effects of inhibitors. The model can describe all possible hydrate dissociation mechanisms, i.e., depressurization, thermal stimulation, salting-out effects and inhibitor-induced effects. TOUGH+HYDRATE is a member of TOUGH+, the successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1991] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase fluid and heat flow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is written in standard FORTRAN 95/2003, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available.

  4. TOUGH+Hydrate v1.0 User's Manual: A Code for the Simulation of System Behavior in Hydrate-Bearing Geologic Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, George; Moridis, George J.; Kowalsky, Michael B.; Pruess, Karsten

    2008-03-01

    TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.0 is a new code for the simulation of the behavior of hydrate-bearing geologic systems. By solving the coupled equations of mass and heat balance, TOUGH+HYDRATE can model the non-isothermal gas release, phase behavior and flow of fluids and heat under conditions typical of common natural CH{sub 4}-hydrate deposits (i.e., in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments) in complex geological media at any scale (from laboratory to reservoir) at which Darcy's law is valid. TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.0 includes both an equilibrium and a kinetic model of hydrate formation and dissociation. The model accounts for heat and up to four mass components, i.e., water, CH{sub 4}, hydrate, and water-soluble inhibitors such as salts or alcohols. These are partitioned among four possible phases (gas phase, liquid phase, ice phase and hydrate phase). Hydrate dissociation or formation, phase changes and the corresponding thermal effects are fully described, as are the effects of inhibitors. The model can describe all possible hydrate dissociation mechanisms, i.e., depressurization, thermal stimulation, salting-out effects and inhibitor-induced effects. TOUGH+HYDRATE is the first member of TOUGH+, the successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1991] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase fluid and heat flow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is written in standard FORTRAN 95, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available.

  5. The application of quadtree algorithm for information integration in the high-level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Min; Zhong Xia; Huang Shutao

    2008-01-01

    A multi-source database for high-level radioactive waste geological disposal, aims to promote the information process of the geological of HLW. In the periods of the multi-dimensional and multi-source and the integration of information and applications, it also relates to computer software and hardware, the paper preliminary analysises the data resources Beishan area, Gansu Province. The paper introduces a theory based on GIS technology and methods and open source code GDAL application, at the same time, it discusses the technical methods how to finish the application of the Quadtree algorithm in the area of information resources management system, fully sharing, rapid retrieval and so on. A more detailed description of the characteristics of existing data resources, space-related data retrieval algorithm theory, programming design and implementation of ideas are showed in the paper. (authors)

  6. Relationship between LIBS Ablation and Pit Volume for Geologic Samples: Applications for in situ Absolute Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devismes, D.; Cohen, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    In planetary sciences, in situ absolute geochronology is a scientific and engineering challenge. Currently, the age of the Martian surface can only be determined by crater density counting. However this method has significant uncertainties and needs to be calibrated with absolute ages. We are developing an instrument to acquire in situ absolute geochronology based on the K-Ar method. The protocol is based on the laser ablation of a rock by hundreds of laser pulses. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) gives the potassium content of the ablated material and a mass spectrometer (quadrupole or ion trap) measures the quantity of 40Ar released. In order to accurately measure the quantity of released 40Ar in cases where Ar is an atmospheric constituent (e.g., Mars), the sample is first put into a chamber under high vacuum. The 40Arquantity, the concentration of K and the estimation of the ablated mass are the parameters needed to give the age of the rocks. The main uncertainties with this method are directly linked to the measures of the mass (typically some µg) and of the concentration of K by LIBS (up to 10%). Because the ablated mass is small compared to the mass of the sample, and because material is redeposited onto the sample after ablation, it is not possible to directly measure the ablated mass. Our current protocol measures the ablated volume and estimates the sample density to calculate ablated mass. The precision and accuracy of this method may be improved by using knowledge of the sample's geologic properties to predict its response to laser ablation, i.e., understanding whether natural samples have a predictable relationship between laser energy deposited and resultant ablation volume. In contrast to most previous studies of laser ablation, theoretical equations are not highly applicable. The reasons are numerous, but the most important are: a) geologic rocks are complex, polymineralic materials; b) the conditions of ablation are unusual (for example

  7. Fractional Dynamics Applications of Fractional Calculus to Dynamics of Particles, Fields and Media

    CERN Document Server

    Tarasov, Vasily E

    2010-01-01

    "Fractional Dynamics: Applications of Fractional Calculus to Dynamics of Particles, Fields and Media" presents applications of fractional calculus, integral and differential equations of non-integer orders in describing systems with long-time memory, non-local spatial and fractal properties. Mathematical models of fractal media and distributions, generalized dynamical systems and discrete maps, non-local statistical mechanics and kinetics, dynamics of open quantum systems, the hydrodynamics and electrodynamics of complex media with non-local properties and memory are considered. This book is intended to meet the needs of scientists and graduate students in physics, mechanics and applied mathematics who are interested in electrodynamics, statistical and condensed matter physics, quantum dynamics, complex media theories and kinetics, discrete maps and lattice models, and nonlinear dynamics and chaos. Dr. Vasily E. Tarasov is a Senior Research Associate at Nuclear Physics Institute of Moscow State University and...

  8. Using EVT for Geological Anomaly Design and Its Application in Identifying Anomalies in Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilong Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A geological anomaly is the basis of mineral deposit prediction. Through the study of the knowledge and characteristics of geological anomalies, the category of extreme value theory (EVT to which a geological anomaly belongs can be determined. Associating the principle of the EVT and ensuring the methods of the shape parameter and scale parameter for the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD, the methods to select the threshold of the GPD can be studied. This paper designs a new algorithm called the EVT model of geological anomaly. These study data on Cu and Au originate from 26 exploration lines of the Jiguanzui Cu-Au mining area in Hubei, China. The proposed EVT model of the geological anomaly is applied to identify anomalies in the Jiguanzui Cu-Au mining area. The results show that the model can effectively identify the geological anomaly region of Cu and Au. The anomaly region of Cu and Au is consistent with the range of ore bodies of actual engineering exploration. Therefore, the EVT model of the geological anomaly can effectively identify anomalies, and it has a high indicating function with respect to ore prospecting.

  9. Mobile Media: Towards a Definition and Taxonomy of Contents and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Scolari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is grounded in the idea that a theory of mobile media, like that of any other scientific discourse, must be built on solid conceptual and taxonomical bases. Within this context the paper brings together previous fragmented approaches to studying mobile media, analyses them, and develops a set of definitions and classifications of contents and applications in order to consolidate the construction of a robust mobile media theory. The paper finishes with a reflection on the ongoing mutations of this field and their implications, suggesting that scholars need to rethink the basic concepts behind their theories.

  10. 3D magnetization vector inversion based on fuzzy clustering: inversion algorithm, uncertainty analysis, and application to geology differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J.; Li, Y.

    2017-12-01

    illustrate how to solve the inverse problem, assess uncertainty, and perform geology differentiation in practice. We will also discuss the potential applications of this new method to large scale crustal studies.

  11. Developing an Application to Increase the Accessibility of Planetary Geologic Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, R. E.; Fay, C.

    2018-06-01

    USGS planetary geologic maps are widely used digital products with text, raster, vector, and temporal data, within a highly standardized design. This tool will augment the user experience by improving accessibility among the various forms of data.

  12. Application of simplified models to CO2 migration and immobilization in large-scale geological systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, Sarah E.; Nordbotten, Jan M.; Celia, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term stabilization of injected carbon dioxide (CO 2) is an essential component of risk management for geological carbon sequestration operations. However, migration and trapping phenomena are inherently complex, involving processes that act

  13. REACTIVITY OF ANIONS IN INTERSTELLAR MEDIA: DETECTABILITY AND APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senent, M. L. [Departamento de Quimica y Fisica Teoricas, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-C.S.I.C., Serrano 121, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Hochlaf, M., E-mail: senent@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: hochlaf@univ-mlv.fr [Laboratoire de Modelisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, Universite Paris-Est, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 boulevard Descartes, F-77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France)

    2013-05-01

    We propose a general rule to distinguish between detectable and undetectable astronomical anions. We believe that only few anions live long enough in the interstellar medium and thus can be detected. Our method is based on quantum mechanical calculations capable of describing accurately the evolution of electronic states during chemical processes. The still not fully understood reactivity at low temperatures is discussed considering non-adiabatic effects. The role of excited states has usually been neglected in previous works which basically focused on the ground electronic state for interpretations of experimental observations. Here, we deal with unsaturated carbon chains (e.g., C{sub n} H{sup -}), which show a high density of electronic states close to their corresponding ground electronic states, complex molecular dynamics, and non-adiabatic phenomena. Our general rule shows that it is not sufficient that anions exist in the gas phase (in the laboratory) to be present in media such as astrophysical media, since formation and decomposition reactions of these anions may allow the population of anionic electronic states to autodetach, forming neutrals. For C{sub n} H, reactivity depends strongly on n, where long and short chains behave differently. Formation of linear chains is relevant.

  14. Using colloidal silica as isolator, diverter and blocking agent for subsurface geological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier, William L.; Roberts, Sarah K.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Ezzedine, Souheil M.; Hunt, Jonathan D.

    2018-03-06

    A system for blocking fast flow paths in geological formations includes preparing a solution of colloidal silica having a nonviscous phase and a solid gel phase. The solution of colloidal silica is injected into the geological formations while the solution of colloidal silica is in the nonviscous phase. The solution of colloidal silica is directed into the fast flow paths and reaches the solid gel phase in the fast flow paths thereby blocking flow of fluid in the fast paths.

  15. Application of PALSAR-2 remote sensing data for structural geology and topographic mapping in Kelantan river basin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2016-06-01

    Natural hazards of geological origin are one of major problem during heavy monsoons rainfall in Kelantan state, peninsular Malaysia. Several landslides occur in this region are obviously connected to geological and topographical features, every year. Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are particularly applicable for detection of geological structural and topographical features in tropical conditions. In this study, Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR-2), remote sensing data were used to identify high potential risk and susceptible zones for landslide in the Kelantan river basin. Adaptive Local Sigma filter was selected and applied to accomplish speckle reduction and preserving both edges and features in PALSAR-2 fine mode observation images. Different polarization images were integrated to enhance geological structures. Additionally, directional filters were applied to the PALSAR-2 Local Sigma resultant image for edge enhancement and detailed identification of linear features. Several faults, drainage patterns and lithological contact layers were identified at regional scale. In order to assess the results, fieldwork and GPS survey were conducted in the landslide affected zones in the Kelantan river basin. Results demonstrate the most of the landslides were associated with N-S, NNW-SSE and NE-SW trending faults, angulate drainage pattern and metamorphic and Quaternary units. Consequently, geologic structural map were produced for Kelantan river basin using recent PALSAR-2 data, which could be broadly applicable for landslide hazard assessment and delineation of high potential risk and susceptible areas. Landslide mitigation programmes could be conducted in the landslide recurrence regions for reducing catastrophes leading to economic losses and death.

  16. Time space domain decomposition methods for reactive transport - Application to CO2 geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeberlein, F.

    2011-01-01

    Reactive transport modelling is a basic tool to model chemical reactions and flow processes in porous media. A totally reduced multi-species reactive transport model including kinetic and equilibrium reactions is presented. A structured numerical formulation is developed and different numerical approaches are proposed. Domain decomposition methods offer the possibility to split large problems into smaller subproblems that can be treated in parallel. The class of Schwarz-type domain decomposition methods that have proved to be high-performing algorithms in many fields of applications is presented with a special emphasis on the geometrical viewpoint. Numerical issues for the realisation of geometrical domain decomposition methods and transmission conditions in the context of finite volumes are discussed. We propose and validate numerically a hybrid finite volume scheme for advection-diffusion processes that is particularly well-suited for the use in a domain decomposition context. Optimised Schwarz waveform relaxation methods are studied in detail on a theoretical and numerical level for a two species coupled reactive transport system with linear and nonlinear coupling terms. Well-posedness and convergence results are developed and the influence of the coupling term on the convergence behaviour of the Schwarz algorithm is studied. Finally, we apply a Schwarz waveform relaxation method on the presented multi-species reactive transport system. (author)

  17. Big five personality traits reflected in job applicants' social media postings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, J William; Thompson, Lori Foster; Meade, Adam W

    2013-11-01

    Job applicants and incumbents often use social media for personal communications allowing for direct observation of their social communications "unfiltered" for employer consumption. As such, these data offer a glimpse of employees in settings free from the impression management pressures present during evaluations conducted for applicant screening and research purposes. This study investigated whether job applicants' (N=175) personality characteristics are reflected in the content of their social media postings. Participant self-reported social media content related to (a) photos and text-based references to alcohol and drug use and (b) criticisms of superiors and peers (so-called "badmouthing" behavior) were compared to traditional personality assessments. Results indicated that extraverted candidates were prone to postings related to alcohol and drugs. Those low in agreeableness were particularly likely to engage in online badmouthing behaviors. Evidence concerning the relationships between conscientiousness and the outcomes of interest was mixed.

  18. Using a laser-based CO2 carbon isotope analyser to investigate gas transfer in geological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillon, S.; Pili, E.; Agrinier, P.

    2012-01-01

    CO 2 stable carbon isotopes are very attractive in environmental research to investigate both natural and anthropogenic carbon sources. Laser-based CO 2 carbon isotope analysis provides continuous measurement at high temporal resolution and is a promising alternative to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). We performed a thorough assessment of a commercially available CO 2 Carbon Isotope Analyser (CCIA DLT-100, Los Gatos Research) that allows in situ measurement of C-13 in CO 2 . Using a set of reference gases of known CO 2 concentration and carbon isotopic composition, we evaluated the precision, long-term stability, temperature sensitivity and concentration dependence of the analyser. Despite good precision calculated from Allan variance (5.0 ppm for CO 2 concentration, and 0.05 per thousand for δC-13 at 60 s averaging), real performances are altered by two main sources of error: temperature sensitivity and dependence of C-13 on CO 2 concentration. Data processing is required to correct for these errors. Following application of these corrections, we achieve an accuracy of 8.7 ppm for CO 2 concentration and 1.3 per thousand for δC-13, which is worse compared to mass spectrometry performance, but still allowing field applications. With this portable analyser we measured CO 2 flux degassed from rock in an underground tunnel. The obtained carbon isotopic composition agrees with IRMS measurement, and can be used to identify the carbon source. (authors)

  19. Geoethics and Forensic Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance

    2017-04-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  20. Design and Characterization of Electrospun Polyamide Nanofiber Media for Air Filtration Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Matulevicius

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun polyamide 6 (PA 6 and polyamide 6/6 (PA 6/6 nanofibers were produced in order to investigate their experimental characteristics with the goal of obtaining filtration relevant fiber media. The experimental design model of each PA nanofibers contained the following variables: polymer concentration, ratio of solvents, nanofiber media collection time, tip-to-collector distance, and the deposition voltage. The average diameter of the fibers, their morphology, basis weight, thickness, and resulting media solidity were investigated. Effects of each variable on the essential characteristics of PA 6/6 and PA 6 nanofiber media were studied. The comparative analysis of the obtained PA 6/6 and PA 6 nanofiber characteristics revealed that PA 6/6 had higher potential to be used in filtration applications. Based on the experimental results, the graphical representation—response surfaces—for obtaining nanofiber media with the desirable fiber diameter and basis weight characteristics were derived. Based on the modelling results the nanofiber filter media (mats were fabricated. Filtration results revealed that nanofiber filter media electrospun from PA6/6 8% (w/vol solutions with the smallest fiber diameters (62–66 nm had the highest filtration efficiency (PA6/6_30 = 84.9–90.9% and the highest quality factor (PA6/6_10 = 0.0486–0.0749 Pa−1.

  1. Diverse Geological Applications For Basil: A 2d Finite-deformation Computational Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseman, Gregory A.; Barr, Terence D.; Evans, Lynn

    Geological processes are often characterised by large finite-deformation continuum strains, on the order of 100% or greater. Microstructural processes cause deformation that may be represented by a viscous constitutive mechanism, with viscosity that may depend on temperature, pressure, or strain-rate. We have developed an effective com- putational algorithm for the evaluation of 2D deformation fields produced by Newto- nian or non-Newtonian viscous flow. With the implementation of this algorithm as a computer program, Basil, we have applied it to a range of diverse applications in Earth Sciences. Viscous flow fields in 2D may be defined for the thin-sheet case or, using a velocity-pressure formulation, for the plane-strain case. Flow fields are represented using 2D triangular elements with quadratic interpolation for velocity components and linear for pressure. The main matrix equation is solved by an efficient and compact conjugate gradient algorithm with iteration for non-Newtonian viscosity. Regular grids may be used, or grids based on a random distribution of points. Definition of the prob- lem requires that velocities, tractions, or some combination of the two, are specified on all external boundary nodes. Compliant boundaries may also be defined, based on the idea that traction is opposed to and proportional to boundary displacement rate. In- ternal boundary segments, allowing fault-like displacements within a viscous medium have also been developed, and we find that the computed displacement field around the fault tip is accurately represented for Newtonian and non-Newtonian viscosities, in spite of the stress singularity at the fault tip. Basil has been applied by us and colleagues to problems that include: thin sheet calculations of continental collision, Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the continental mantle lithosphere, deformation fields around fault terminations at the outcrop scale, stress and deformation fields in and around porphyroblasts, and

  2. Light propagation and emission in scattering media. Application to imaging of complex media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierrat, Romain

    2007-01-01

    In this manuscript, we raise different aspects of the propagation and emission of electromagnetic waves in a scattering medium. In the first part, we show that the Radiative Transfer Equation (rte) is a very good tool to study light propagation in a complex medium. Thanks to this formalism, we study the evolution of the spatial coherence of the beam inside the medium, which is seen as a signature of the different transport regimes of photons (single scattering, multiple scattering, diffusive regime). Next, we derive rigorously the diffusion approximation by using a modal approach of the rte. In particular, we obtain that the diffusion coefficient is independent of the level of absorption in the dynamic regime while it depends on absorption in the case of the steady-state regime. Finally, we study the temporal fluctuations of the scattered intensity and show that the use of the rte allows to go beyond the diffusive regime described by the diffusing-waves spectroscopy theory (dws). Comparisons between numerical computations and experiments are realized in reflexion to underline the fundamental role of the anisotropy of the scattering, which is not described by the standard theory. The second part is dedicated to the study of light emission in complex media. First, we study the amplification of scattered light in a gain system called random laser and show that it exists a laser threshold in the incoherent feedback regime. This threshold is quantified by using a modal approach of the rte. Thanks to this formalism, we highlight the limitations of the diffusion approximation in such a system. Next, we study the modification of the fluorescent decay rate of a single molecule embedded in a complex medium. We derive a model allowing the replacement of the scattering medium by an homogeneous equivalent medium taking into account the multiple scattering and the interactions between scatterers. This model is validated by comparison with the value of the decay rate of the

  3. The application effects of the dual-frequency IP method in the geological work of uranium and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Minghai.

    1991-01-01

    The dual-frequency IP method has obtained preliminary application in prospecting for uranium and gold in the central south region of China and has got certain geological effects in the application to deposits and prospects in Yaogou, Langquan and Deposit No.320 and its surrounding area. The fundamental advantages of the dual-frequency IP method are that the equipment system is portable, its anti-interference capability is strong and the observed accuracy is high, high speed in observation and suitable for the operation in the mine and its environs

  4. Application of Remote Sensing in Geological Mapping, Case Study al Maghrabah Area - Hajjah Region, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahmi, F.; Saddiqi, O.; Hilali, A.; Rhinane, H.; Baidder, L.; El arabi, H.; Khanbari, K.

    2017-11-01

    Remote sensing technology plays an important role today in the geological survey, mapping, analysis and interpretation, which provides a unique opportunity to investigate the geological characteristics of the remote areas of the earth's surface without the need to gain access to an area on the ground. The aim of this study is achievement a geological map of the study area. The data utilizes is Sentinel-2 imagery, the processes used in this study, the OIF Optimum Index Factor is a statistic value that can be used to select the optimum combination of three bands in a satellite image. It's based on the total variance within bands and correlation coefficient between bands, ICA Independent component analysis (3, 4, 6) is a statistical and computational technique for revealing hidden factors that underlie sets of random variables, measurements, or signals, MNF Minimum Noise Fraction (1, 2, 3) is used to determine the inherent dimensionality of image data to segregate noise in the data and to reduce the computational requirements for subsequent processing, Optimum Index Factor is a good method for choosing the best band for lithological mapping. ICA, MNF, also a practical way to extract the structural geology maps. The results in this paper indicate that, the studied area can be divided into four main geological units: Basement rocks (Meta volcanic, Meta sediments), Sedimentary rocks, Intrusive rocks, volcanic rocks. The method used in this study offers great potential for lithological mapping, by using Sentinel-2 imagery, the results were compared with existing geologic maps and were superior and could be used to update the existing maps.

  5. Social media: a review and tutorial of applications in medicine and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales, Francisco Jose; Sheps, Samuel; Ho, Kendall; Novak-Lauscher, Helen; Eysenbach, Gunther

    2014-02-11

    Social media are dynamic and interactive computer-mediated communication tools that have high penetration rates in the general population in high-income and middle-income countries. However, in medicine and health care, a large number of stakeholders (eg, clinicians, administrators, professional colleges, academic institutions, ministries of health, among others) are unaware of social media's relevance, potential applications in their day-to-day activities, as well as the inherent risks and how these may be attenuated and mitigated. We conducted a narrative review with the aim to present case studies that illustrate how, where, and why social media are being used in the medical and health care sectors. Using a critical-interpretivist framework, we used qualitative methods to synthesize the impact and illustrate, explain, and provide contextual knowledge of the applications and potential implementations of social media in medicine and health care. Both traditional (eg, peer-reviewed) and nontraditional (eg, policies, case studies, and social media content) sources were used, in addition to an environmental scan (using Google and Bing Web searches) of resources. We reviewed, evaluated, and synthesized 76 articles, 44 websites, and 11 policies/reports. Results and case studies are presented according to 10 different categories of social media: (1) blogs (eg, WordPress), (2) microblogs (eg, Twitter), (3) social networking sites (eg, Facebook), (4) professional networking sites (eg, LinkedIn, Sermo), (5) thematic networking sites (eg, 23andMe), (6) wikis (eg, Wikipedia), (7) mashups (eg, HealthMap), (8) collaborative filtering sites (eg, Digg), (9) media sharing sites (eg, YouTube, Slideshare), and others (eg, SecondLife). Four recommendations are provided and explained for stakeholders wishing to engage with social media while attenuating risk: (1) maintain professionalism at all times, (2) be authentic, have fun, and do not be afraid, (3) ask for help, and (4) focus

  6. Finite element code FENIA verification and application for 3D modelling of thermal state of radioactive waste deep geological repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butov, R. A.; Drobyshevsky, N. I.; Moiseenko, E. V.; Tokarev, U. N.

    2017-11-01

    The verification of the FENIA finite element code on some problems and an example of its application are presented in the paper. The code is being developing for 3D modelling of thermal, mechanical and hydrodynamical (THM) problems related to the functioning of deep geological repositories. Verification of the code for two analytical problems has been performed. The first one is point heat source with exponential heat decrease, the second one - linear heat source with similar behavior. Analytical solutions have been obtained by the authors. The problems have been chosen because they reflect the processes influencing the thermal state of deep geological repository of radioactive waste. Verification was performed for several meshes with different resolution. Good convergence between analytical and numerical solutions was achieved. The application of the FENIA code is illustrated by 3D modelling of thermal state of a prototypic deep geological repository of radioactive waste. The repository is designed for disposal of radioactive waste in a rock at depth of several hundred meters with no intention of later retrieval. Vitrified radioactive waste is placed in the containers, which are placed in vertical boreholes. The residual decay heat of radioactive waste leads to containers, engineered safety barriers and host rock heating. Maximum temperatures and corresponding times of their establishment have been determined.

  7. Study of an applicability of technologies developed in the conventional industries from the view point of developing the geological disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushio, Kazuhiro; Ando, Yasumasa; Kubota, Kazuo; Sokejima, Susumu

    1999-02-01

    The geological disposal study of HLW (High Level Wastes) is being developed in Japan. Especially, JNC has played the central role to proceed this project, while in the industries, from the viewpoint of the environmental measures, various technologies and materials have been developed. Some of them might be applied into the geological disposal. The purpose of this study is to investigate such technologies and their applicability to the geological disposal system. Firstly, the environmental technologies used for the repository of industrial wastes were studied. The concepts of management and the regulations for the repository are summarized, and compared with the current geological disposal concept. Secondly, concerning structural and durable materials, their properties and usage were overviewed and their applicability to the current geological disposal concept was studied. (J.P.N.)

  8. U.S. Geological Survey Emerging Applications of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    In anticipation of transforming the research methods and resource management techniques employed across the Department of the Interior, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office is conducting missions using small UAS- sUAS platforms (technology in support of scientific, resource and land management missions. UAS technology is currently being used by USGS and our partners to monitor environmental conditions, analyze the impacts of climate change, respond to natural hazards, understand landscape change rates and consequences, conduct wildlife inventories and support related land management and law enforcement missions. Our ultimate goal is to support informed decision making by creating the opportunity, via UAS technology, to gain access to an increased level of persistent monitoring of earth surface processes (forest health conditions, wildfires, earthquake zones, invasive species, etc.) in areas that have been logistically difficult, cost prohibitive or technically impossible to obtain consistent, reliable, timely information. USGS is teaming with the Department of the Interior Aviation Management Directorate to ensure the safe and cost effective adoption of UAS technology. While the USGS is concentrating on operating sUAS, the immense value of increased flight time and more robust sensor capabilities available on larger platforms cannot be ignored. We are partnering with several groups including the Department of Homeland Security, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Defense, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for access to data collected from their fleet of high altitude, long endurance (HALE) UAS. The HALE systems include state of the art sensors including Electro-Optical, Thermal Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The data being collected by High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) systems is can be routinely shared in near real time at several DOI- USGS locations. Analysis

  9. Application Development: AN Interactive, Non-Technical Perspective of the Geology and Geomorphology of the Ouray Perimeter Tail, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, H. M.; Giardino, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Each year people seek respite from their busy lifestyles by traveling to state or national parks, national forests or wilderness areas. The majority of these parks were established in order to help preserve our natural heritage, including wildlife, forests, and the beauty of landscapes formed from thousands of years of geologic/geomorphologic processes. Whilst being able to enjoy the tranquility of nature, tourists are being robbed of a more in-depth experience as a result of the lack of a geologic background. One such location that attracts a large number of summer tourists is the perimeter trail in Ouray, Colorado. Located in the Southwestern portion of Colorado, Ouray is situated in the beautiful San Juan Mountain range along the "Million Dollar Highway." The Perimeter trail is a six-mile trail loop that circles the city of Ouray. The city is a very popular place for summertime tourism because of its unparalleled scenery. Ouray is situated in an area that is riddled with textbook angular unconformities, metasedimentary, sedimentary, and volcanic rocks. In the study area, The San Juans have been beautifully sculpted by an array of major faulting events, glacial activity and volcanics. With the understanding that technology is ever expanding, we think there is no better way to experience the Perimeter Trail than to have an interactive application that will be both educational as well as interesting. This application is a non-technical way of looking at the geology and geomorphology of the perimeter trail. Additionally, a paper brochure shows the most noteworthy points of interest. The brochure contains a brief geologic history of the San Juan Mountains accompanied with annotated photographs to illustrate the complex geology/geomorphology encountered on the trail. The application is based on an interactive three-dimensional map, which can be zoomed to various scales. The app hosts a locational service that uses the phone's GPS to communicate location of the hiker

  10. QUESTDONE APPLICATION WITH SOCIAL NETWORKING FEATURES AS THE ACTUAL WORLD INTERACTION MEDIA ON ANDROID SMARTPHONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhio Sutoyo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the design and implementation of an application that allows users to play and socialize at the same time and directly with the environment around the Android-based smart phone. This application is also expected to be a campaign media for a new product or specific event. The used method consists of two ways: the methods of analysis and design. The method of analysis includes the study of literatures, questionnaires, and comparisons with similar applications. The design method used for this research is Scrum. The obtained results are an application that helps users of Android-based smart phone to do social interaction and provide knowledge about the route that users will be addressed. It is also used as a new campaign media for entrepreneurs who want to promote a product or event. Furthermore, this application is also built with interesting but not complex design, thus allowing users to easily use it. The conclusions are this application provides experience for users to visit various places and can be a media campaign for a new product or specific event. It also becomes a tool of social interaction and useful for finding location of friends.Keywords: Applications; Social Networking; Interaction; Real World; Smartphone; Android

  11. Alternative methods for ray tracing in uniaxial media. Application to negative refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver-Cebreros, Consuelo; Rodriguez-Danta, Marcelo

    2007-03-01

    In previous papers [C. Bellver-Cebreros, M. Rodriguez-Danta, Eikonal equation, alternative expression of Fresnel's equation and Mohr's construction in optical anisotropic media, Opt. Commun. 189 (2001) 193; C. Bellver-Cebreros, M. Rodriguez-Danta, Internal conical refraction in biaxial media and graphical plane constructions deduced from Mohr's method, Opt. Commun. 212 (2002) 199; C. Bellver-Cebreros, M. Rodriguez-Danta, Refraccion conica externa en medios biaxicos a partir de la construccion de Mohr, Opt. Pura AppliE 36 (2003) 33], the authors have developed a method based on the local properties of dielectric permittivity tensor and on Mohr's plane graphical construction in order to study the behaviour of locally plane light waves in anisotropic media. In this paper, this alternative methodology is compared with the traditional one, by emphasizing the simplicity of the former when studying ray propagation through uniaxial media (comparison is possible since, in this case, traditional construction becomes also plane). An original and simple graphical method is proposed in order to determine the direction of propagation given by the wave vector from the knowledge of the extraordinary ray direction (given by Poynting vector). Some properties of light rays in these media not described in the literature are obtained. Finally, two applications are considered: a description of optical birefringence under normal incidence and the study of negative refraction in uniaxial media.

  12. Advances in constructing regional geological voxel models, illustrated by their application in aggregate resource assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljers, D.; Stafleu, J.; Meulen, M.J. van der; Dambrink, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aggregate resource assessments, derived from three subsequent generations of voxel models, were compared in a qualitative way to illustrate and discuss modelling progress. We compared the models in terms of both methodology and usability. All three models were produced by the Geological Survey of

  13. The application of nuclear geophysics method to evaluate the geological environment of nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Fang; Xiaoqin, Wang; Kuanliang, Li; Xinsheng, Hou; Jingliang, Zhu; Binxin, Hu

    2002-01-01

    'Cleanly land should be given back ground.' This is a task while nuclear engineering have to be retired. We applied the nuclear geophysics methods and combined with geology, hydrology, geochemistry, and other methods, to evaluate the environment of nuclear waste repository. It is the important work to renovate environment and prepare technology before ex-service of the nuclear engineering

  14. Estimating the social value of geologic map information: A regulatory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.L.; Brookshire, D.S.; McKee, M.; Soller, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    People frequently regard the landscape as part of a static system. The mountains and rivers that cross the landscape, and the bedrock that supports the surface, change little during the course of a lifetime. Society can alter the geologic history of an area and, in so doing, affect the occurrence and impact of environmental hazards. For example, changes in land use can induce changes in erosion, sedimentation, and ground-water supply. As the environmental system is changed by both natural processes and human activities, the system's capacity to respond to additional stresses also changes. Information such as geologic maps describes the physical world and is critical for identifying solutions to land use and environmental issues. In this paper, a method is developed for estimating the economic value of applying geologic map information to siting a waste disposal facility. An improvement in geologic map information is shown to have a net positive value to society. Such maps enable planners to make superior land management decisions.

  15. Rheology of petrolatum-paraffin oil mixtures : Applications to analogue modelling of geological processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.; Cruden, Alexander R.

    2014-01-01

    Paraffins have been widely used in analogue modelling of geological processes. Petrolatum and paraffin oil are commonly used to lubricate model boundaries and to simulate weak layers. In this paper, we present rheological tests of petrolatum, paraffin oil and several homogeneous mixtures of the two.

  16. 76 FR 40712 - Reopening, Applications for New Awards; Technology and Media Services for Individuals With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [CFDA Number: 84.327U] Reopening, Applications for New Awards; Technology and Media Services for Individuals With Disabilities--Center on Online Learning and Students With Disabilities AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Department of Education. ACTION...

  17. B2B SME Management of Antecedents to the Application of Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2017-01-01

    This paper elucidates how business-to-business (B2B) small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can manage antecedents to the application of social media for potential contributions to their business. This in-depth qualitative research study was conducted at four plastic-producing SMEs from Octobe...

  18. 77 FR 31600 - Applications for New Awards; Technology and Media Services for Individuals With Disabilities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Technology and Media Services for Individuals With Disabilities--Stepping-Up Technology Implementation Correction In notice document 2012-12278 appearing on pages 29989 through 29995 in the issue of Monday, May 21, 2012 make the following correction...

  19. Learning Programming Technique through Visual Programming Application as Learning Media with Fuzzy Rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buditjahjanto, I. G. P. Asto; Nurlaela, Luthfiyah; Ekohariadi; Riduwan, Mochamad

    2017-01-01

    Programming technique is one of the subjects at Vocational High School in Indonesia. This subject contains theory and application of programming utilizing Visual Programming. Students experience some difficulties to learn textual learning. Therefore, it is necessary to develop media as a tool to transfer learning materials. The objectives of this…

  20. Integration of Study Abroad with Social Media Technologies and Decision-Making Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, P. Candace

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the design and delivery of a program, "Global Business in a Digital World." The program integrates the use of social media technologies and business applications in a series of courses that include short-term study abroad components that focus on emerging markets. The objectives are to: (1) provide additional…

  1. Pedagogical Applications of Social Media in Business Education: Student and Faculty Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There has been wide academic and research interest in the application of social media modalities, as pedagogical tools, in higher education. Recent research indicates that business-related topics are a major focus of study on this emerging educational issue. Yet a systematic review of outcome studies regarding instructional Web 2.0 adaptations in…

  2. Supporting continuous media communications and applications by exploiting their special characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, C.

    1998-01-01

    Distributed multimedia applications need end-to-end support from both the networks and the endsystems. The operating systems are critical both for accessing networking services and for controlling the activities on the endsystems. It is therefore vital to enhance the functionality and performance of the operating system in order to provide feasible support for multimedia communications and applications. The work proposes to support multimedia, especially continuous media, communications and a...

  3. Experimental demonstration of OpenFlow-enabled media ecosystem architecture for high-end applications over metro and core networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntofon, Okung-Dike; Channegowda, Mayur P; Efstathiou, Nikolaos; Rashidi Fard, Mehdi; Nejabati, Reza; Hunter, David K; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2013-02-25

    In this paper, a novel Software-Defined Networking (SDN) architecture is proposed for high-end Ultra High Definition (UHD) media applications. UHD media applications require huge amounts of bandwidth that can only be met with high-capacity optical networks. In addition, there are requirements for control frameworks capable of delivering effective application performance with efficient network utilization. A novel SDN-based Controller that tightly integrates application-awareness with network control and management is proposed for such applications. An OpenFlow-enabled test-bed demonstrator is reported with performance evaluations of advanced online and offline media- and network-aware schedulers.

  4. Social Media: A Review and Tutorial of Applications in Medicine and Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheps, Samuel; Ho, Kendall; Novak-Lauscher, Helen; Eysenbach, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    Background Social media are dynamic and interactive computer-mediated communication tools that have high penetration rates in the general population in high-income and middle-income countries. However, in medicine and health care, a large number of stakeholders (eg, clinicians, administrators, professional colleges, academic institutions, ministries of health, among others) are unaware of social media’s relevance, potential applications in their day-to-day activities, as well as the inherent risks and how these may be attenuated and mitigated. Objective We conducted a narrative review with the aim to present case studies that illustrate how, where, and why social media are being used in the medical and health care sectors. Methods Using a critical-interpretivist framework, we used qualitative methods to synthesize the impact and illustrate, explain, and provide contextual knowledge of the applications and potential implementations of social media in medicine and health care. Both traditional (eg, peer-reviewed) and nontraditional (eg, policies, case studies, and social media content) sources were used, in addition to an environmental scan (using Google and Bing Web searches) of resources. Results We reviewed, evaluated, and synthesized 76 articles, 44 websites, and 11 policies/reports. Results and case studies are presented according to 10 different categories of social media: (1) blogs (eg, WordPress), (2) microblogs (eg, Twitter), (3) social networking sites (eg, Facebook), (4) professional networking sites (eg, LinkedIn, Sermo), (5) thematic networking sites (eg, 23andMe), (6) wikis (eg, Wikipedia), (7) mashups (eg, HealthMap), (8) collaborative filtering sites (eg, Digg), (9) media sharing sites (eg, YouTube, Slideshare), and others (eg, SecondLife). Four recommendations are provided and explained for stakeholders wishing to engage with social media while attenuating risk: (1) maintain professionalism at all times, (2) be authentic, have fun, and do not be

  5. Hydromechanical coupling in geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Earth's porous crust and the fluids within it are intimately linked through their mechanical effects on each other. This paper presents an overview of such "hydromechanical" coupling and examines current understanding of its role in geologic processes. An outline of the theory of hydromechanics and rheological models for geologic deformation is included to place various analytical approaches in proper context and to provide an introduction to this broad topic for nonspecialists. Effects of hydromechanical coupling are ubiquitous in geology, and can be local and short-lived or regional and very long-lived. Phenomena such as deposition and erosion, tectonism, seismicity, earth tides, and barometric loading produce strains that tend to alter fluid pressure. Resulting pressure perturbations can be dramatic, and many so-called "anomalous" pressures appear to have been created in this manner. The effects of fluid pressure on crustal mechanics are also profound. Geologic media deform and fail largely in response to effective stress, or total stress minus fluid pressure. As a result, fluid pressures control compaction, decompaction, and other types of deformation, as well as jointing, shear failure, and shear slippage, including events that generate earthquakes. By controlling deformation and failure, fluid pressures also regulate states of stress in the upper crust. Advances in the last 80 years, including theories of consolidation, transient groundwater flow, and poroelasticity, have been synthesized into a reasonably complete conceptual framework for understanding and describing hydromechanical coupling. Full coupling in two or three dimensions is described using force balance equations for deformation coupled with a mass conservation equation for fluid flow. Fully coupled analyses allow hypothesis testing and conceptual model development. However, rigorous application of full coupling is often difficult because (1) the rheological behavior of geologic media is complex

  6. The Effects of Realistic Geological Heterogeneity on Seismic Modeling: Applications in Shear Wave Generation and Near-Surface Tunnel Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Christopher Scott

    Naturally occurring geologic heterogeneity is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of seismic wave propagation. This dissertation presents a strategy for modeling the effects of heterogeneity using a combination of geostatistics and Finite Difference simulation. In the first chapter, I discuss my motivations for studying geologic heterogeneity and seis- mic wave propagation. Models based upon fractal statistics are powerful tools in geophysics for modeling heterogeneity. The important features of these fractal models are illustrated using borehole log data from an oil well and geomorphological observations from a site in Death Valley, California. A large part of the computational work presented in this disserta- tion was completed using the Finite Difference Code E3D. I discuss the Python-based user interface for E3D and the computational strategies for working with heterogeneous models developed over the course of this research. The second chapter explores a phenomenon observed for wave propagation in heteroge- neous media - the generation of unexpected shear wave phases in the near-source region. In spite of their popularity amongst seismic researchers, approximate methods for modeling wave propagation in these media, such as the Born and Rytov methods or Radiative Trans- fer Theory, are incapable of explaining these shear waves. This is primarily due to these method's assumptions regarding the coupling of near-source terms with the heterogeneities and mode conversion. To determine the source of these shear waves, I generate a suite of 3D synthetic heterogeneous fractal geologic models and use E3D to simulate the wave propaga- tion for a vertical point force on the surface of the models. I also present a methodology for calculating the effective source radiation patterns from the models. The numerical results show that, due to a combination of mode conversion and coupling with near-source hetero- geneity, shear wave energy on the order of 10% of the

  7. Usability testing of gaming and social media applications for stroke and cerebral palsy upper limb rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Bulmaro A; Hilderman, Courtney G E; Hung, Chai-Ting; Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2014-01-01

    As part of the FEATHERS (Functional Engagement in Assisted Therapy Through Exercise Robotics) project, two motion tracking and one social networking applications were developed for upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors and teenagers with cerebral palsy. The project aims to improve the engagement of clients during therapy by using video games and a social media platform. The applications allow users to control a cursor on a personal computer through bimanual motions, and to interact with their peers and therapists through the social media. The tracking applications use either a Microsoft Kinect or a PlayStation Eye camera, and the social media application was developed on Facebook. This paper presents a usability testing of these applications that was conducted with therapists from two rehabilitation clinics. The "Cognitive Walkthrough" and "Think Aloud" methods were used. The objectives of the study were to investigate the ease of use and potential issues or improvements of the applications, as well as the factors that facilitate and impede the adoption of technology in current rehabilitation programs.

  8. Electromagnetic properties of metal-dielectric media and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animilli, Shravan Rakesh

    The main objective of this dissertation is to investigate nano-structured random composite materials, which exhibit anomalous phenomena, such as the extraordinary enhancements of linear and non-linear optical processes due to excitation of collective electronic states, surface plasmons (SP). The main goal is to develop a time and memory efficient novel numerical method to study the properties of these random media in three dimensions (3D) by utilization of multi core processing and packages such as MPI for parallel execution. The developed numerical studies are then utilized to provide a comprehensive characterization and optimization of a surface plasmon enhanced solar cell (SPESC) and to serve as a test bed for enhanced bio and chemical sensing. In this context, this thesis work develops an efficient and exact numerical algorithm here referred to as Block Elimination Method (BE) which provides the unique capability of modeling extremely large scale composite materials (with up to 1 million strongly interacting metal or dielectric particles). This capability is crucial in order to study the electromagnetic response of large scale inhomogeneous (fractal) films and bulk composites at critical concentrations (percolation). The developed numerical method is used to accurately estimate parameters that describe the composite materials, including the effective conductivity and correlation length scaling exponents, as well as density of states and localization length exponents at the band center. This works reveals, for a first time, a unique de-localization mechanism that plays an important role in the excitation of charge-density waves, i.e. surface plasmons (SP), in metal-dielectric composites. It also shows that in 3D metal-dielectric percolation systems the local fields distribution function for frequencies close to the single particle plasmon resonance is log-normal which is a signature of a metal-dielectric phase transition manifested in the optical response of the

  9. Application of contrast media in post-mortem imaging (CT and MRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabherr, Silke; Grimm, Jochen; Baumann, Pia; Mangin, Patrice

    2015-09-01

    The application of contrast media in post-mortem radiology differs from clinical approaches in living patients. Post-mortem changes in the vascular system and the absence of blood flow lead to specific problems that have to be considered for the performance of post-mortem angiography. In addition, interpreting the images is challenging due to technique-related and post-mortem artefacts that have to be known and that are specific for each applied technique. Although the idea of injecting contrast media is old, classic methods are not simply transferable to modern radiological techniques in forensic medicine, as they are mostly dedicated to single-organ studies or applicable only shortly after death. With the introduction of modern imaging techniques, such as post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) and post-mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR), to forensic death investigations, intensive research started to explore their advantages and limitations compared to conventional autopsy. PMCT has already become a routine investigation in several centres, and different techniques have been developed to better visualise the vascular system and organ parenchyma in PMCT. In contrast, the use of PMMR is still limited due to practical issues, and research is now starting in the field of PMMR angiography. This article gives an overview of the problems in post-mortem contrast media application, the various classic and modern techniques, and the issues to consider by using different media.

  10. Kinematics of the quasi-p wave in anisotropic media. Application to tomography; Cinematique de l'onde quasi p en milieux anisotropes. Application a la tomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensch, Th.

    2000-01-12

    The seismic anisotropy causes in the Earth are known. The anisotropy characterization can provide valuable informations on the structure, lithology or eventual deformation processes in geological media. The orthorhombic symmetry allows a more complete description and representation of the anisotropy than the transversely isotropy symmetry usually assumed. Moreover this symmetry is potentially common in sedimentary basins, and particularly in fractured reservoir. In anisotropic media of arbitrary symmetry (triclinic), there is no simple analytic expressions on the phase slowness surface. The weak anisotropy assumption, often reasonable in geological media, makes perturbation techniques relevant. An approximate first order analytical expression of the qP-wave slowness surface is obtained. Using an adequate parameterization, the forward problem is solved by the ray theory. The Hamiltonian formulation introduces by a simple way ray equations in anisotropic media. The rays, travel time and its Fruchet derivatives expressions, valid to first order, are given for orthorhombic inhomogeneous media. Perturbation method applied to the ray theory allows the development of fast ray tracing in these media. Synthetic examples illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed approach. A tomographic method is developed. The travel time are inverted by minimizing, in term of least-square, the misfit between the observed and calculated travel times. The solution is approached iteratively by using a singular value decomposition algorithm. The inversion stability is assured by introducing a priori constraints. Synthetics examples show the need of an acquisition geometry well conceived to take account of anisotropy. (author)

  11. Application of the Fourier descriptors method to the morphological classification of particles in geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzanas Lopez, J.; Santiago Buey, C.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the use of Fourier descriptors to quantitatively describe the morphology of particles aggregates or pores in geological materials. Firstly, the mathematical fundaments of the method are explained. Then, the Fourier descriptors method is applied to the Krumbein Scale, a system of measuring roundness and sphericity of particles. the analysis of the comparison shows that there is good correlation between the Sphericity parameter at the Krumbein classifications and the value of the modulus of the Fourier descriptor No-1. This good correlation, along with the mathematical precision which allows to prevent subjective valorisations in the morphological description, corroborates the validity of the method to quantify the sphericity elongation of particles in geological materials. (Author) 12 refs.

  12. Surface Exposure Geochronology Using Cosmogenic Nuclides: Applications in Antarctic Glacial Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    in rocks, are particularly promising for directly dating 1 geological surfaces . In 1934, Grosse et al. first suggested that cosmic rays produce rare...and muons produced by cosmic ray irteractions in the atmosphere and in rocks, and spallation by I neutrons produced in muon capture reactions (Kurz...stable isotopes are useful for surface 3 exposure studies because they can act as integrators of cosmic ray exposure on long time scales, potentially up

  13. Chemical methods for Sm-Nd separation and its application in isotopic geological dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Qifeng.

    1990-01-01

    Three chemical methods for Sm-Nd separation are mainly desribed: low chromatography of butamone-ammonium thiocyanate for hight concentration Sm and Nd separation, P 240 column chromatography for medium concentration Sm-Nd separation, and pressure ion exchange for low concentration Sm-Nd. The first Sm-Nd synchrone obtained in China with Sm-Nd methods is introduced and Sm-Nd isotopic geological dating in Early Archaean rocks in eastern Hebei has been determined

  14. Preliminary Safety and Risk HSE Assessment. Application to the Potential Locations of a CO2 Geological Storage Pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recreo, F.; Eguilior, S.; Ruiz, C.; Lomba, L.; Hurtado, A.

    2015-01-01

    The location of a site safe and able to sequester CO2 for long periods of time is essential to gain public acceptance. This requires a long-term safety assessment developed in a robust and reliable framework. Site selection is the first step and requires specific research. This paper describes the application of the Selection and Classification Method of Geological Formations (SCF) developed to assess the potential of geological formations to CO2 storage. This assessment is based in the analysis of risks to Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) derived from potential CO2 leakage. Comparisons of the results obtained from a number of potential sites can help to select the best candidate for CO2 injection. The potential impact will be related to three key potential features of CO2 geological storage: the potential of the target geological formation for long term CO2 containment; the potential for secondary containment on containment failure of the target formation; and the site's potential to mitigate and/or disperse CO2 leakage if the primary and secondary containments fail. The methodology assesses each of these three characteristics through an analysis and assessment of properties of certain attributes of them. Uncertainty will remain as an input and output value of the methodology due to the usual lack of data in most site selection processes. The global uncertainty reports on the trust on the knowledge of the site characteristics. Therefore, the methodology enables comparing sites taking into account both the HSE risk expectation and the estimation of the quality of knowledge concerning such risk. The objective is to contribute to the selection of potential sites for a CO2 injection pilot plant in the Iberian Peninsula from the perspective of Safety and Risk Analysis.

  15. U.S. Geological Survey Ecosystems science strategy: advancing discovery and application through collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.; Wingard, G. Lynn; Brewer, Gary; Cloern, James E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Jacobson, Robert B.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; McGuire, Anthony David; Nichols, James D.; Shapiro, Carl D.; van Riper, Charles; White, Robin P.

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystem science is critical to making informed decisions about natural resources that can sustain our Nation’s economic and environmental well-being. Resource managers and policymakers are faced with countless decisions each year at local, regional, and national levels on issues as diverse as renewable and nonrenewable energy development, agriculture, forestry, water supply, and resource allocations at the urbanrural interface. The urgency for sound decisionmaking is increasing dramatically as the world is being transformed at an unprecedented pace and in uncertain directions. Environmental changes are associated with natural hazards, greenhouse gas emissions, and increasing demands for water, land, food, energy, mineral, and living resources. At risk is the Nation’s environmental capital, the goods and services provided by resilient ecosystems that are vital to the health and wellbeing of human societies. Ecosystem science—the study of systems of organisms interacting with their environment and the consequences of natural and human-induced change on these systems—is necessary to inform decisionmakers as they develop policies to adapt to these changes. This Ecosystems Science Strategy is built on a framework that includes basic and applied science. It highlights the critical roles that U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists and partners can play in building scientific understanding and providing timely information to decisionmakers. The strategy underscores the connection between scientific discoveries and the application of new knowledge, and it integrates ecosystem science and decisionmaking, producing new scientific outcomes to assist resource managers and providing public benefits. We envision the USGS as a leader in integrating scientific information into decisionmaking processes that affect the Nation’s natural resources and human well-being. The USGS is uniquely positioned to play a pivotal role in ecosystem science. With its wide range of

  16. Study of abdominal CT angiography in low tube voltage setting combined with personalized contrast media application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jianxin; Wang Yiming; Zhang Yu; Tao Wei; Zhang Xiaodong; Wang Aijun; Liu Li; Wang Peng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of decreasing radiation dose and contrast media dose of abdominal CTA using low tube voltage setting combined with personalized contrast media application. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients were randomly divided into 3 groups, and there were 40 patients in each group. 120 kV tube voltage was used in group A, and 100 kV tube voltage was used in group B and C. Personalized injection flow rate of contrast media which determined according to patient's body mass (injection flow rate =λ × body mass) was used for all groups, and the λ values for group A, B and C were 0.07, 0.07 and 0.06 ml · kg -1 · s -1 respectively. CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) effective dose (ED) and contrast media dose were evaluated,and these parameters were all analyzed using one-way ANOVA analysis. Image quality of abdominal aorta and branch arteries was rated using a three-point ordinal for all 3 groups, and image quality score was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: CTDIvol were (8.2±0.8), (6.0 ±1.0) and (6.1 ±1.1)mGy for group A, B and C, ED were (5.2 ±0.8), (3.5 ± 0.7) and (3.6 ± 0.6) mSv, and contrast media dose were (72.3 ± 10.3),(73.5 ± 11.3) and (61.6 ±9.4) ml, respectively. There were significant differences in CTDIvol, ED and contrast media dose among 3 groups (F=66.094, 77.812,15.919; P=0.000). Compare with group A, the ED of group B was decreased 32.7%, and the ED and contrast media dose of group C were decreased 30.8% and 14.8%, respectively. Image quality was rated as excellent, good, and general for 20, 19 and 1 patients in group A, 25, 15 and 0 patients in group B, and 23, 17 and 0 patients in group C, respectively. There was no significant difference in image quality score among 3 groups (χ 2 =1.492, P=0.474). Conclusions: The radiation dose and contrast media dose can be decreased in abdominal CTA using low tube voltage and personalized contrast media application while image quality can be preserved

  17. Application of adobe flash media to optimize jigsaw learning model on geometry material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, P.; Imam, S.; Ikrar, P.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to determine and describe the effectiveness of the application of adobe flash media for jigsaw learning model on geometry material. In this study, the modified jigsaw learning with adobe flash media is called jigsaw-flash model. This research was conducted in Surakarta. The research method used is mix method research with exploratory sequential strategy. The results of this study indicate that students feel more comfortable and interested in studying geometry material taught by jigsaw-flash model. In addition, students taught using the jigsaw-flash model are more active and motivated than the students who were taught using ordinary jigsaw models. This shows that the use of the jigsaw-flash model can increase student participation and motivation. It can be concluded that the adobe flash media can be used as a solution to reduce the level of student abstraction in learning mathematics.

  18. Episodic events in long-term geological processes: A new classification and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Ruban

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term geological processes are usually described with curves reflecting continuous changes in the characteristic parameters through the geological history, and such curves can be employed directly for recognition of episodic (relatively long-term events linked to these changes. The episodic events can be classified into several categories according to their scale (ordinary and anomalous events, “shape” (positive, negative, and neutral events, and relation to long-term trend change (successive, interruptive, facilitative, stabilizing, transformative, increasing, and decreasing. Many types of these events can be defined depending on the combination of the above-mentioned patterns. Of course, spatial rank, duration, and origin can be also considered in description of these events. The proposed classification can be applied to events in some real long-term geological processes, which include global sea-level changes, biodiversity dynamics, lithospheric plate number changes, and palaeoclimate changes. Several case examples prove the usefulness of the classification. It is established that the Early Valanginian (Early Cretaceous eustatic lowstand (the lowest position of the sea level in the entire Cretaceous was negative, but ordinary and only interruptive event. In the other case, it becomes clear that the only end-Ordovician and the Permian/Triassic mass extinctions transformed the trends of the biodiversity dynamics (from increase to decrease and from decrease to increase respectively, and the only Cretaceous/Paleogene mass extinction was really anomalous event on the Phanerozoic biodiversity curve. The new palaeontological data are employed to reconstruct the diversity dynamics of brachiopods in Germany (without the Alps and the Swiss Jura Mountains. The further interpretation of the both diversity curves implies that the Early Toarcian mass extinction affected the regional brachiopod faunas strongly, but this event was only decreasing

  19. Homogenization of complex flows in porous media and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutridurga-Ramaiah, Harsha

    2013-01-01

    Our work is a contribution to the understanding of transport of solutes in a porous medium. It has applications in groundwater contaminant transport, CO 2 sequestration, underground storage of nuclear waste, oil reservoir simulations. We derive expressions for the effective Taylor dispersion taking into account convection, diffusion, heterogeneous geometry of the porous medium and reaction phenomena. Microscopic phenomena at the pore scale are up-scaled to obtain effective behaviour at the observation scale. Method of two-scale convergence with drift from the theory of homogenization is employed as an up-scaling technique. In the first part of our work, we consider reactions of mass exchange type, adsorption/desorption, at the fluid-solid interface of the porous medium. Starting with coupled convection-diffusion equations for bulk and surface concentrations of a single solute, coupled via adsorption isotherms, at a microscopic scale we derive effective equations at the macroscopic scale. We consider the microscopic system with highly oscillating coefficients in a strong convection regime i.e., large Peclet regime. The presence of strong convection in the microscopic model leads to the induction of a large drift in the concentration profiles. Both linear and nonlinear adsorption isotherms are considered and the results are compared. In the second part of our work we generalize our results on single component flow to multicomponent flow in a linear setting. In the latter case, the effective parameters are obtained using Factorization principle and two-scale convergence with drift. The behaviour of effective parameters with respect to Peclet number and Damkohler number are numerically studied. Freefem++ is used to perform numerical tests in two dimensions. (author)

  20. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1979. [Pyrochemical/dry processing; waste encapsulation in metal; transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    For pyrochemical and dry processing materials development included exposure to molten metal and salt of Mo-0.5% Ti-0.07% Ti-0.01% C, Mo-30% W, SiC, Si/sub 2/ON/sub 2/, ZrB/sub 2/-SiC, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, HfB/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, nickel nitrate-infiltrated W, W-coated Mo, and W-metallized alumina-yttria. Work on Th-U salt transport processing included solubility of Th in liquid Cd, defining the Cd-Th and Cd-Mg-Th phase diagrams, ThO/sub 2/ reduction experiments, and electrolysis of CaO in molten salt. Work on pyrochemical processes and associated hardware for coprocessing U and Pu in spent FBR fuels included a second-generation computer model of the transport process, turntable transport process design, work on the U-Cu-Mg system, and U and Pu distribution coefficients between molten salt and metal. Refractory metal vessels are being service-life tested. The chloride volatility processing of Th-based fuel was evaluated for its proliferation resistance, and a preliminary ternary phase diagram for the Zn-U-Pu system was computed. Material characterization and process analysis were conducted on the Exportable Pyrochemical process (Pyro-Civex process). Literature data on oxidation of fissile metals to oxides were reviewed. Work was done on chemical bases for the reprocessing of actinide oxides in molten salts. Flowsheets are being developed for the processing of fuel in molten tin. Work on encapsulation of solidified radioactive waste in metal matrix included studies of leach rate of crystalline waste materials and of the impact resistance of metal-matrix waste forms. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, adsorption of Sr on oolitic limestone was studied, as well as the migration of Cs in basalt. Fitting of data on the adsorption of iodate by hematite to a mathematical model was attempted.

  1. Using improved technology for widespread application of a geological carbon sequestration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Kansas Geological Survey is part of an ongoing collaboration between DOE-NETL, academia, and the petroleum industry to investigate the feasibility of carbon utilization and storage in Kansas. Latest findings in the 25,000 mi2 study area in southern Kansas estimate CO2 storage capacity ranges from 8.8 to 75.5 billion metric tons in a deep Lower Orodovican-age Arbuckle saline aquifer. In addition, an estimated 100 million tonnes of CO2 could be used for extracting additional oil from Kansas' fields, making transitions to carbon management economic. This partnership has a rare opportunity to synchronize abundant, yet previously disseminated knowledge into a cohesive scientific process to optimize sequestration site selection and implementation strategies. Following a thorough characterization, a small-scale CO2 injection of 70,000 tonnes will be implemented in Wellington Field in Sumner County, including a five-plot miscible CO2-EOR flood of a Mississippian reservoir followed by the underlying Arbuckle saline aquifer. Best practices and lessons learned from the field study will improve estimates on CO2 storage capacity, plume migration models, and identify potential leakage pathways to pursue safe and effective geological carbon sequestration at commercial scales. A highly accessible and multifunctional online database is being developed throughout the study that integrates all acquired geological, physical, chemical, and hydrogeologic knowledge. This public database incorporates tens of thousands of data points into easily viewable formats for user downloads. An Interactive Project Map Viewer is a key mechanism to present the scientific research, and will delineate compartment candidates and reservoirs matching reference criteria or user defined attributes. This tool uses a familiar pan and zoom interface to filter regional project data or scale down to detailed digitized information from over 3,300 carefully selected preexisting Kansas wells. A Java-based log

  2. A contactless positioning system for monitoring discontinuities in three dimensions with geological and geotechnical applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rinaldi-Montes, N.; Rowberry, Matthew David; Frontera, C.; Baroň, I.; Garcés, G.; Blahůt, Jan; Pérez-López, R.; Pennos, C.; Martí, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 7 (2017), č. článku 074501. ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : mechanical discontinuities * contactless positioning system * magnetoresistive sensing * geotechnical engineering * structural health monitoring Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Environmental and geological engineering , geotechnics; Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.515, year: 2016

  3. Application of AMT in detecting deep geological structures in Lejia district of Xiangshan uranium ore field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Shuxin; Liu Hu

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, exploration in Xiangshan uranium ore field shows that the intersection of faults and the interface of different rock formation and the basement is an important sign of deep ore- prospecting. In order to evaluate deep uranium resource in Lejia district, audio magnetotelluric method (AMT) was undertaken to carry out profile investigation. With that method, we discerned the interface of different rock formation and the basement successfully, and faults in the deep, which provides a good basis for the prediction of deep uranium resource. Drilling results show that AMT method has an obvious advantage in detecting deep geological structures in Xiangshan. (authors)

  4. Proceedings of the symposium on isotope geology progress: technology, methods, theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    The symposium was held in Beijing, Nov. 7-11, and the proceedings collects 122 articles, the contents include: new technology and new methods on isotopic test; isotope fractionation mechanism; the early evolution of the solar system and the Earth; continental dynamics and evolution of orogenic belts; minerals, energy and water; major history events on life origin, evolution and geology; changes in the Earth's global and modern environment--the oceans, the atmosphere, rivers and lakes, karst and soil, ecological agriculture and modern environment

  5. Interaction with customers: The Application of Social Media within the Austrian Supply Chain for Food and Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Meixner; Rainer Haas; Helmut Moosbrugger; Philipp Magdits

    2013-01-01

    Social media marketing has become a powerful tool of interaction with stakeholders. An increasing number of companies are using social media platforms to initiate active interaction and communication with current and prospective customers. Within this study, certain content and contact features, as well as social media activities of companies of the Austrian food and beverage industry were evaluated. Empirical findings concerning the threats, risks, and opportunities connected with the applic...

  6. Application research on remote sensing geology of sandstone-type uranium deposit in Yili basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huaiwu

    2002-01-01

    Based on remote sensing images and practical materials, and new ideas of laying particular emphasis on the research of regional geologic structures, and large in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits, applying the theory of plate tectonics, the author makes a comprehensive analysis on the uranium metallogenic environments, characteristics of regional geologic structures, the ore-controlling mechanism and factors, and uranium metallogeny. Authors propose that large interlayer oxidation zone sandstone-type uranium deposits are controlled by the combination of the stable block in Meso-Cenozoic compressive-shearing faulted subsided basin on the Yili multiphase massif in Tianshan paleo-island arc system, and the specific paleo-geographic environments and its' structural terrace'. The origin of hydrogenic sandstone-type uranium deposits is summarized by the authors as the 'mixing and neutralization' genetic model, and the 'eight ore-controlling factors merge into an organic whole' prospecting model. The above mentioned provides clear prospecting direction and new ideas for the forecasting direction for prospecting large sandstone-type uranium deposits

  7. Hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell: Application to studies of geologic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming

    2003-01-01

    The hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC) was designed to simulate the geologic conditions of crustal processes in the presence of water or other fluids. The HDAC has been used to apply external pressure to both synthetic and natural fluid inclusions in quartz to minimize problems caused by stretching or decrepitation of inclusions during microthermometric analysis. When the HDAC is loaded with a fluid sample, it can be considered as a large synthetic fluid inclusion and therefore, can be used to study the PVTX properties as well as phase relations of the sample fluid. Because the HDAC has a wide measurement pressure-temperature range and also allows in-situ optical observations, it has been used to study critical phenomena of various chemical systems, such as the geologically important hydrous silicate melts. It is possible, when the HDAC is combined with synchrotron X-ray sources, to obtain basic information on speciation and structure of metal including rare-earth elements (REE) complexes in hydrothermal solutions as revealed by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra. Recent modifications of the HDAC minimize the loss of intensity of X-rays due to scattering and absorption by the diamonds. These modifications are especially important for studying elements with absorption edges below 10 keV and therefore particularly valuable for our understanding of transport and deposition of first-row transition elements and REE in hydrothermal environments.

  8. Application of social media in crisis management advanced sciences and technologies for security applications

    CERN Document Server

    Staniforth, Andrew; Waddington, David

    2017-01-01

    This book explores how social media and its advances enables citizens to empower themselves during a crisis. The book addresses the key issues related to crises management and social media as the new platform to assist citizens and first responders dealing with multiple forms of crisis, from major terrorist attacks, larger scale public disorder, large-scale movement of people across borders, and natural disasters. The book is based on the results and knowledge gained during the European Commission ATHENA project which has been addressing critical issues in contemporary crisis management and social media and smart mobile communications. This book is authored by a mix of global contributors from across the landscape of academia, emergency response and experts in government policy and private industry. This title explores and explains that during a modern crisis, the public self-organizes into voluntary groups, adapt quickly to changing circumstances, emerge as leaders and experts and perform life-saving actions...

  9. Surfactant media for constant-current coulometry. Application for the determination of antioxidants in pharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziyatdinova, Guzel, E-mail: Ziyatdinovag@mail.ru [Analytical Chemistry Department, A.M. Butlerov Institute of Chemistry, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kremlyevskaya, 18, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Ziganshina, Endzhe; Budnikov, Herman [Analytical Chemistry Department, A.M. Butlerov Institute of Chemistry, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kremlyevskaya, 18, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applicability of surfactants in constant-current coulometry is shown for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reactions of antioxidants with electrogenerated titrants in surfactant media are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water insoluble antioxidants can be determined in water media with addition of surfactants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coulometric determination of antioxidants in pharmaceutical dosage forms using surfactants media is developed. - Abstract: Effect of surfactant presence on electrochemical generation of titrants has been evaluated and discussed for the first time. Cationic (1-dodecylpyridinium and cetylpyridinium bromide), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate) and nonionic (Triton X100 and Brij{sup Registered-Sign} 35) surfactants as well as nonionic high molecular weight polymer (PEG 4000) do not react with the electrogenerated bromine, iodine and hexacyanoferrate(III) ions. The electrogenerated chlorine chemically interact with Triton X100 and Brij{sup Registered-Sign} 35. The allowable range of surfactants concentrations providing 100% current yield has been found. Chain-breaking low molecular weight antioxidants (ascorbic acid, rutin, {alpha}-tocopherol and retinol) were determined by reaction with the electrogenerated titrants in surfactant media. Nonionic and cationic surfactants can be used for the determination of antioxidants by reaction with the electrogenerated halogens. On contrary, cationic surfactants gives significantly overstated results of antioxidants determination with electrogenerated hexacyanoferrate(III) ions. The use of surfactants in coulometry of {alpha}-tocopherol and retinol provides their solubilization and allows to perform titration in water media. Simple, express and reliable coulometric approach for determination of {alpha}-tocopherol, rutin and ascorbic acid in pharmaceuticals using surfactant media has been developed. The relative standard deviation of the

  10. Mechanics of layered anisotropic poroelastic media with applications to effective stress for fluid permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, J.G.

    2010-06-01

    The mechanics of vertically layered porous media has some similarities to and some differences from the more typical layered analysis for purely elastic media. Assuming welded solid contact at the solid-solid interfaces implies the usual continuity conditions, which are continuity of the vertical (layering direction) stress components and the horizontal strain components. These conditions are valid for both elastic and poroelastic media. Differences arise through the conditions for the pore pressure and the increment of fluid content in the context of fluid-saturated porous media. The two distinct conditions most often considered between any pair of contiguous layers are: (1) an undrained fluid condition at the interface, meaning that the increment of fluid content is zero (i.e., {delta}{zeta} = 0), or (2) fluid pressure continuity at the interface, implying that the change in fluid pressure is zero across the interface (i.e., {delta}p{sub f} = 0). Depending on the types of measurements being made on the system and the pertinent boundary conditions for these measurements, either (or neither) of these two conditions might be directly pertinent. But these conditions are sufficient nevertheless to be used as thought experiments to determine the expected values of all the poroelastic coefficients. For quasi-static mechanical changes over long time periods, we expect drained conditions to hold, so the pressure must then be continuous. For high frequency wave propagation, the pore-fluid typically acts as if it were undrained (or very nearly so), with vanishing of the fluid increment at the boundaries being appropriate. Poroelastic analysis of both these end-member cases is discussed, and the general equations for a variety of applications to heterogeneous porous media are developed. In particular, effective stress for the fluid permeability of such poroelastic systems is considered; fluid permeabilities characteristic of granular media or tubular pore shapes are treated

  11. A B2C Digital Media Marketing Communications Plan for a Mobile Application Commercial Launch

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The thesis focuses on a B2C Digital Marketing Communications plan on a mobile gamification application. The marketing communications plan takes a clear step away from the traditional views on marketing planning and PR, above all because of the evolvement of social media and the massive cultural shift that has deeply affected the way societies use the most widely spread communications platform ever invented, the Internet. The project for which the marketing communications plan is made, is ...

  12. Big Data Analytics: Challenges And Applications For Text, Audio, Video, And Social Media Data

    OpenAIRE

    Jai Prakash Verma; Smita Agrawal; Bankim Patel; Atul Patel

    2016-01-01

    All types of machine automated systems are generating large amount of data in different forms like statistical, text, audio, video, sensor, and bio-metric data that emerges the term Big Data. In this paper we are discussing issues, challenges, and application of these types of Big Data with the consideration of big data dimensions. Here we are discussing social media data analytics, content based analytics, text data analytics, audio, and video data analytics their issues and expected applica...

  13. Applications of 14C-AMS on archaeology, climate, environment, geology, oceanography and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, P.R.S.; Anjos, R.M.; Macario, K.D.; Santos, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The first experiment discusses the chronology of prehistoric settlements of the central-south Brazilian coast. In the southern Brazilian coast there is a high density of these shellmounds, dated in general between 6,000 and 2,000 BP. A charcoal sample from a coastal shellmound of Rio de Janeiro State was dated by 14 C-AMS to 7,860±80 years BP. This is an unexpected result that pulls back by some two thousand years the antiquity consensually accepted for the settlement of that region. We performed an experiment concerning the isotopic signature of the local waters of an important Brazilian coastal upwelling, located in Arraial do Cabo, R.J., with applications in the fields of Oceanography and Marine Ecology. We assess the contribution of the wind-driven coastal upwelling of Arraial do Cabo to the local biological production. The variation of the carbon isotopic compositions was investigated in a population of a seaweed. Upwelling events were simulated in the laboratory, in order to study three regimes: total upwelling (SACW), partial upwelling (mixed water) and no-upwelling (TW). Water samples were collected at 70 m depth (SACW) and at 10 m (TW). The seaweed was cultivated during seven days, in controlled conditions, into the three mentioned types of water. The results of 14 C-AMS measurements in the seaweed tissue show a clear indication of difference in the isotopic signature of the water sources, allowing to infer the differences of the water sources. We believe that the present results contribute to opening new perspectives for the use of 14 C as a tracer of the biological production in upwelling areas all over the world. The next reported experiment is on climate at the Amazon region. An increase in the Hg flux is a strong indicator of disturbance in a forest ecosystem related to abrupt changes in the water balance, and its changes reflect changes in the ocean and average regional temperatures. In regions where the geological background of mercury is

  14. PENGEMBANGAN MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN MENGGUNAKAN POWERPOINT DISERTAI VISUAL BASIC FOR APPLICATION MATERI JARAK PADA BANGUN RUANG KELAS X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Marfuah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan : (1 menghasilkan media pembelajaran menggunakan powerpoint disertai visual basic for application materi jarak pada bangun ruang yang valid dan praktis di kelas X, dan (2 mengetahui efek potensial dari pengembangan media pembelajaran menggunakan powerpoint disertai visual basic for application materi jarak pada bangun ruang di kelas X. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah Design Research tipe Development Study. Subjek penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas X SMA Negeri 4 Palembang tahun ajaran 2014/2015. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah dengan walkthrough,, tes, angket, dan wawancara. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah: (1 Penelitian ini telah menghasilkan media pembelajaran menggunakan powerpoint disertai visual basic for application materi jarak pada bangun ruang yang valid dan praktis. (2 media pembelajaran  yang dikembangkan memiliki efek potensial terhadap hasil belajar dan sikap positif siswa. Kata Kunci : Pengembangan, Media Pembelajaran, Powerpoint, Jarak pada Bangun Ruang This design research typed Development Study aims to: (1 develop valid and practical learning media using power point and visual basic for application for Distance in three-dimensional objects topic in class X, and (2 to determine the potential effects media developed by using power point and visual basic for application for Distance in three-dimensional objects topic in class X. The subjects were students of class X SMA Negeri 4 Palembang academic year 2014/2015. Data were collected through walkthrough, tests, questionnaires, and interviews. The study results show that (1 This research has produced valid and practical learning media using power point and visual basic for application for Distance in three-dimensional objects topic; (2 the learning media developed has potential effects on students learning outcomes and students positive attitude. Keywords: development, learning media, powerpoint, distance in three-dimensional object

  15. 21 CFR 876.5885 - Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. 876.5885 Section 876.5885 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5885 Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture...

  16. Development of an Android Application in the Form of a Simulation Lab as Learning Media for Senior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astra, I Made; Nasbey, Hadi; Nugraha, Aditiya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to create learning media for senior high school students through an android application in the form of a simulation lab. The method employed in the study is research and development. A simulation lab which has been made subsequently validated by concept and media experts, further empirical testing by teachers and…

  17. LANDSAT-4 Science Characterization Early Results. Volume 4: Applications. [agriculture, soils land use, geology, hydrology, wetlands, water quality, biomass identification, and snow mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The excellent quality of TM data allows researchers to proceed directly with applications analyses, without spending a significant amount of time applying various corrections to the data. The early results derived of TM data are discussed for the following applications: agriculture, land cover/land use, soils, geology, hydrology, wetlands biomass, water quality, and snow.

  18. Applications of Real Space Crystallography in Characterization of Dislocations in Geological Materials in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboli, S.; Burnley, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    new approach in microstructure characterization of deformed geologic materials in FE-SEM, without the use of etching or decoration techniques, has valuable applications to both experimentally deformed and naturally deformed specimens.

  19. Bio-composite Nonwoven Media Based on Chitosan and Empty Fruit Bunches for Wastewater Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadikin, Aziatul Niza; Nawawi, Mohd Ghazali Mohd; Othman, Norasikin

    2011-01-01

    Fibrous filter media in the form of non-woven filters have been used extensively in water treatment as pre-filters or to support the medium that does the separation. Lignocellulosic such as empty fruit bunches have potential to be used as a low cost filter media as they represent unused resources, widely available and are environmentally friendly. Laboratory filtration tests were performed to investigate the potential application of empty fruit bunches that enriched with chitosan as a fiber filter media to remove suspended solids, oil and grease, and organics in terms of chemical oxygen demand from palm oil mill effluent. The present paper studies the effect of chitosan concentration on the filter media performance. Bench-scaled experiment results indicated that pre-treatment using the fiber filtration system removed up to 67.3% of total suspended solid, 65.1% of oil and grease and 46.1% of chemical oxygen demand. The results show that the lignocellulosic fiber filter could be a potential technology for primary wastewater treatment.

  20. The determination of initial ratio of strontium isotope in rocks and its geological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Junlong; Zhao Puyun; Lin Xiulan

    1989-04-01

    The method to determine the initial ratio of strontium isotopes existed in rocks of poor rubidium and rich strontium and main carrier minerals is introduced. The initial ratio obtained from this method is equivalent to that acquired by Rb-Sr isochrone. Based on this result, information on regional rock genesis and mineralization regularities can be provided. It has great significance in the research on activities of ancient continental margin and material sources as well as their evolution. The migration of rock, and ore-forming materials, matallogenetic mechanism and its distribution in the space and time evolution are studied by using these data. In conclusion, the determination of strontium isotopes has broad prospects in the geological research

  1. Progress on 129I analysis and its application in environmental and geological researches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Yukun; Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian

    2013-01-01

    of dispersion and migration of short-lived radioisotopes of iodine released from nuclear accidents. This article aims to summarize and critically compare the analytical techniques used for 129I measurement and chemical methods for separation of iodine from various sample matrices, purification from......Iodine-129 is a naturally generated isotope, but anthropogenic releases are the dominated source of 129I in the present environment. Among many measurement techniques, neutron activation analysis (NAA) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) are only methods used for measurement of 129I...... in environmental level. Based on its source terms, chemical properties and environmental behaviors, 129Ican be applied for geological dating in a range of 2–80Ma, investigation of formation and migration of hydrocarbon, circulation of ocean water, atmospheric process of iodine, as well as reconstruction...

  2. Study of gamma ray analysis software's. Application to activation analysis of geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luiz Roberto Nogueira da

    1998-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the gamma-ray analysis software VISPECT, in relation to two commercial gamma-ray analysis software packages, OMNIGAM (EG and G Ortec) and SAMPO 90 (Canberra) was performed. For this evaluation, artificial gamma ray spectra were created, presenting peaks of different intensities and located at four different regions of the spectrum. Multiplet peaks with equal and different intensities, but with different channel separations, were also created. The results obtained showed a good performance of VISPECT in detecting and analysing single and multiplet peaks of different intensities in the gamma-ray spectrum. Neutron activation analysis of the geological reference material GS-N (IWG-GIT) and of the granite G-94, used in a Proficiency Testing Trial of Analytical Geochemistry Laboratories, was also performed , in order to evaluate the VISEPCT software in the analysis of real samples. The results obtained by using VISPECT were as good or better than the ones obtained using the other programs. (author)

  3. Probabilistic modelling of rock damage: application to geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, N.

    2010-01-01

    The storage of CO 2 in deep geological formations is considered as a possible way to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The condition of the rocks constituting the reservoir is a key parameter on which rely both storage safety and efficiency. The objective of this thesis is to characterize the risks generated by a possible change of mechanical and transfer properties of the material of the basement after an injection of CO 2 . Large-scale simulations aiming at representing the process of injection of CO 2 at the supercritical state into an underground reservoir were performed. An analysis of the obtained stress fields shows the possibility of generating various forms of material degradation for high injection rates. The work is devoted to the study of the emergence of opened cracks. Following an analytical and simplified study of the initiation and growth of opened cracks based on a probabilistic model, it is shown that the formation of a crack network is possible. The focus is then to develop in the finite element code Code Aster a numerical tool to simulate the formation of crack networks. A nonlocal model based on stress regularization is proposed. A test on the stress intensity factor is used to describe crack propagation. The initiation of new cracks is modeled by a Poisson-Weibull process. The used parameters are identified by an experimental campaign conducted on samples from an actual geological site for CO 2 storage. The model developed is then validated on numerical cases, and also against experimental results carried out herein. (author)

  4. Application of simplified models to CO2 migration and immobilization in large-scale geological systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, Sarah E.

    2012-07-01

    Long-term stabilization of injected carbon dioxide (CO 2) is an essential component of risk management for geological carbon sequestration operations. However, migration and trapping phenomena are inherently complex, involving processes that act over multiple spatial and temporal scales. One example involves centimeter-scale density instabilities in the dissolved CO 2 region leading to large-scale convective mixing that can be a significant driver for CO 2 dissolution. Another example is the potentially important effect of capillary forces, in addition to buoyancy and viscous forces, on the evolution of mobile CO 2. Local capillary effects lead to a capillary transition zone, or capillary fringe, where both fluids are present in the mobile state. This small-scale effect may have a significant impact on large-scale plume migration as well as long-term residual and dissolution trapping. Computational models that can capture both large and small-scale effects are essential to predict the role of these processes on the long-term storage security of CO 2 sequestration operations. Conventional modeling tools are unable to resolve sufficiently all of these relevant processes when modeling CO 2 migration in large-scale geological systems. Herein, we present a vertically-integrated approach to CO 2 modeling that employs upscaled representations of these subgrid processes. We apply the model to the Johansen formation, a prospective site for sequestration of Norwegian CO 2 emissions, and explore the sensitivity of CO 2 migration and trapping to subscale physics. Model results show the relative importance of different physical processes in large-scale simulations. The ability of models such as this to capture the relevant physical processes at large spatial and temporal scales is important for prediction and analysis of CO 2 storage sites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The Swedish radiological environmental protection regulations applied in a review of a license application for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Pål; Stark, Karolina; Xu, Shulan; Nordén, Maria; Dverstorp, Björn

    2017-11-01

    For the first time, a system for specific consideration of radiological environmental protection has been applied in a major license application in Sweden. In 2011 the Swedish Nuclear Fuel & Waste Management Co. (SKB) submitted a license application for construction of a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel at the Forsmark site. The license application is supported by a post-closure safety assessment, which in accordance with regulatory requirements includes an assessment of environmental consequences. SKB's environmental risk assessment uses the freely available ERICA Tool. Environmental media activity concentrations needed as input to the tool are calculated by means of complex biosphere modelling based on site-specific information gathered from site investigations, as well as from supporting modelling studies and projections of future biosphere conditions in response to climate change and land rise due to glacial rebound. SKB's application is currently being reviewed by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). In addition to a traditional document review with an aim to determine whether SKB's models are relevant, correctly implemented and adequately parametrized, SSM has performed independent modelling in order to gain confidence in the robustness of SKB's assessment. Thus, SSM has used alternative stylized reference biosphere models to calculate environmental activity concentrations for use in subsequent exposure calculations. Secondly, an alternative dose model (RESRAD-BIOTA) is used to calculate doses to biota that are compared with SKB's calculations with the ERICA tool. SSM's experience from this review is that existing tools for environmental dose assessment are possible to use in order to show compliance with Swedish legislation. However, care is needed when site representative species are assessed with the aim to contrast them to generic reference organism. The alternative modelling of environmental concentrations resulted in much lower

  6. Rapid Calibration of High Resolution Geologic Models to Dynamic Data Using Inverse Modeling: Field Application and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2008-03-31

    Streamline-based assisted and automatic history matching techniques have shown great potential in reconciling high resolution geologic models to production data. However, a major drawback of these approaches has been incompressibility or slight compressibility assumptions that have limited applications to two-phase water-oil displacements only. We propose an approach to history matching three-phase flow using a novel compressible streamline formulation and streamline-derived analytic sensitivities. First, we utilize a generalized streamline model to account for compressible flow by introducing an 'effective density' of total fluids along streamlines. Second, we analytically compute parameter sensitivities that define the relationship between the reservoir properties and the production response, viz. water-cut and gas/oil ratio (GOR). These sensitivities are an integral part of history matching, and streamline models permit efficient computation of these sensitivities through a single flow simulation. We calibrate geologic models to production data by matching the water-cut and gas/oil ratio using our previously proposed generalized travel time inversion (GTTI) technique. For field applications, however, the highly non-monotonic profile of the gas/oil ratio data often presents a challenge to this technique. In this work we present a transformation of the field production data that makes it more amenable to GTTI. Further, we generalize the approach to incorporate bottom-hole flowing pressure during three-phase history matching. We examine the practical feasibility of the method using a field-scale synthetic example (SPE-9 comparative study) and a field application. Recently Ensemble Kalman Filtering (EnKF) has gained increased attention for history matching and continuous reservoir model updating using data from permanent downhole sensors. It is a sequential Monte-Carlo approach that works with an ensemble of reservoir models. Specifically, the method

  7. Integrating Personalized Technology in Toxicology: Sensors, Smart Glass, and Social Media Applications in Toxicology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiro, Stephanie; Chai, Peter R; Carey, Jennifer; Chapman, Brittany; Boyer, Edward W

    2017-06-01

    Rapid proliferation of mobile technologies in social and healthcare spaces create an opportunity for advancement in research and clinical practice. The application of mobile, personalized technology in healthcare, referred to as mHealth, has not yet become routine in toxicology. However, key features of our practice environment, such as frequent need for remote evaluation, unreliable historical data from patients, and sensitive subject matter, make mHealth tools appealing solutions in comparison to traditional methods that collect retrospective or indirect data. This manuscript describes the features, uses, and costs associated with several of common sectors of mHealth research including wearable biosensors, ingestible biosensors, head-mounted devices, and social media applications. The benefits and novel challenges associated with the study and use of these applications are then discussed. Finally, opportunities for further research and integration are explored with a particular focus on toxicology-based applications.

  8. Vector calculus in non-integer dimensional space and its applications to fractal media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2015-02-01

    We suggest a generalization of vector calculus for the case of non-integer dimensional space. The first and second orders operations such as gradient, divergence, the scalar and vector Laplace operators for non-integer dimensional space are defined. For simplification we consider scalar and vector fields that are independent of angles. We formulate a generalization of vector calculus for rotationally covariant scalar and vector functions. This generalization allows us to describe fractal media and materials in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. As examples of application of the suggested calculus, we consider elasticity of fractal materials (fractal hollow ball and fractal cylindrical pipe with pressure inside and outside), steady distribution of heat in fractal media, electric field of fractal charged cylinder. We solve the correspondent equations for non-integer dimensional space models.

  9. Digimarc MediaBridge: the birth of a consumer product from concept to commercial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Burt; MacIntosh, Brian; Cushman, David

    2002-04-01

    This paper examines the issues encountered in the development and commercial deployment of a system based on digital watermarking technology. The paper provides an overview of the development of digital watermarking technology and the first applications to use the technology. It also looks at how we took the concept of digital watermarking as a communications channel within a digital environment and applied it to the physical print world to produce the Digimarc MediaBridge product. We describe the engineering tradeoffs that were made to balance competing requirements of watermark robustness, image quality, embedding process, detection speed and end user ease of use. Today, the Digimarc MediaBridge product links printed materials to auxiliary information about the content, via the Internet, to provide enhanced informational marketing, promotion, advertising and commerce opportunities.

  10. Application of magnetic printing method to hard-disk media with double recording layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Takuya; Kuboki, Yoshiyuki; Ajishi, Yoshifumi; Saito, Akira

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic printing method, which can duplicate soft magnetic patterns containing digital information such as servosignals formed on a master disk onto recording media, enables signals to be written to hard-disk media having high coercivities above 6000 Oe. We propose the application of the magnetic printing method to a hard-disk medium having double recording layers, one layer of which has high coercivity and is to be printed with digital information. This double recording layer medium is a hard-disk medium that has a magnetic read-only-memory (MROM) layer. In this study, we demonstrated a method for printing to this medium, which has MROM, and discussed the magnetic properties and recording performances of this medium

  11. Safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal into geological formations; a preliminary application of fault tree analysis to salt deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertozzi, B.; D'Alessandro, M.; Girardi, F.; Vanossi, M.

    1978-01-01

    The methodology of the fault tree analysis (FTA) has been widely used at the Joint Research Centre of Ispra in nuclear reactor safety studies. The aim of the present work consisted in studying the applicability of this methodology to geological repositories of radioactive wastes, including criteria and approaches for the quantification of probalities of primary events. The present work has just an illustrative purpose. Two ideal cases of saline formations, I.E. a bedded salt and a diapir were chosen as potential disposal sites for radioactive waste. On the basis of arbitrarily assumed hydrogeological features of the salt formations and their surrounding environment, possible phenomena capable of causing the waste to be released from each formation have been discussed and gathered following the logical schemes of the FTA. The assessment of probability values for release events due to natural causes as well as to human actions, over different time periods, up to one million years, has been discussed

  12. Depth geological model building: application to the 3D high resolution 'ANDRA' seismic block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari, J.L.; Yven, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. 3D seismic blocks and logging data, mainly acoustic and density logs, are often used for geological model building in time. The geological model must be then converted from time to depth. Geostatistical approach for time-to-depth conversion of seismic horizons is often used in many geo-modelling projects. From a geostatistical point of view, the time-to-depth conversion of seismic horizons is a classical estimation problem involving one or more secondary variables. Bayesian approach [1] provides an excellent estimator which is more general than the traditional kriging with external drift(s) and fits very well to the needs for time-to-depth conversion of seismic horizons. The time-to-depth conversion of the selected seismic horizons is used to compute a time-to-depth conversion model at the time sampling rate (1 ms). The 3D depth conversion model allows the computation of an interval velocity block which is compared with the acoustic impedance block to estimate a density block as QC. Non realistic density values are edited and the interval velocity block as well as the depth conversion model is updated. The proposed procedure has been applied on a 3D data set. The dataset comes from a High Resolution 3D seismic survey recorded in France at the boundary of the Meuse and Haute-Marne departments in the vicinity of the Andra Center (National radioactive waste management Agency). The 3D design is a cross spread. The active spread is composed of 12 receiver lines with 120 stations each. The source lines are perpendicular to the receiver lines. The receiver and source line spacings are respectively 80 m and 120 m. The receiver and source point spacings are 20 m. The source is a Vibroseis source generating a signal in the 14 - 140 Hz frequency bandwidth.. The bin size is 10 x 10 m 2 . The nominal fold is 60. A conventional seismic sequence was applied to the data set. It includes amplitude recovery, deconvolution and wave

  13. Application of lifecycle management to design of the UK geological disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendell, Philip G.P.; O'Grady, Henry J.P.; Currie, Malcolm F.

    2011-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD) of the United Kingdom's (UK) Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has been given the responsibility for delivery of a Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) for the UK's higher activity wastes in accordance with government policy. As part of this process, the RWMD has developed a project lifecycle, which addresses the overall lifecycle of the GDF in terms of five phases, from Preparatory Studies through to Operation and finally Closure, and is developing a staged approach to engineering design. The Engineering Design Process is broken down into seven stages, encompassing option development, requirements definition and preliminary and detailed design through to 'design development during closure'. Each stage finishes with a formally defined milestone (a 'gate') comprising a technical review and a specific set of engineering deliverables. This paper describes the background to the UK GDF development programme, the organisational issues associated with the RWMD's evolving role, the relationship between the top-level UK Government's Managing Radioactive Waste Safely programme and the RWMD engineering lifecycle, the formal reviews, the milestones and the overall contribution this makes to RWMD organisational development and UK regulatory approval. It also describes some of the lessons learnt. (author)

  14. 3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.

  15. Preparing to review the license application of the French geological disposal facility - Issues, challenges and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandrieux, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the French context for GDR authorization, the French dedicated legislative framework (28 June 2006 Act on sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste), the challenges (regulatory issues, long-term project supervision, technical issues, procedural issues), and the preparing for the review of the DGR license application. A planning schedule is propose with Andra to submit license application for DGR in 2015

  16. Geometry-coupled reactive fluid transport at the fracture scale -Application to CO 2 geologic storage

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Seunghee

    2015-08-19

    Water acidification follows CO2 injection and leads to reactive fluid transport through pores and rock fractures, with potential implications to reservoirs and wells in CO2 geologic storage and enhanced oil recovery. Kinetic rate laws for dissolution reactions in calcite and anorthite are combined with Navier-Stokes law and advection-diffusion transport to perform geometry-coupled numerical simulations in order to study the evolution of chemical reactions, species concentration and fracture morphology. Results are summarized as a function of two dimensionless parameters: the Damköhler number Da which is the ratio between advection and reaction times, and the transverse Peclet number Pe defined as the ratio between the time for diffusion across the fracture and the time for advection along the fracture. Reactant species are readily consumed near the inlet in a carbonate reservoir when the flow velocity is low (low transverse Peclet number and Da>10-1). At high flow velocities, diffusion fails to homogenize the concentration field across the fracture (high transverse Peclet number Pe>10-1). When the reaction rate is low as in anorthite reservoirs (Da<10-1) reactant species are more readily transported towards the outlet. At a given Peclet number, a lower Damköhler number causes the flow channel to experience a more uniform aperture enlargement along the length of the fracture. When the length-to-aperture ratio is sufficiently large, say l/d>30, the system response resembles the solution for 1-D reactive fluid transport. A decreased length-to-aperture ratio slows the diffusive transport of reactant species to the mineral fracture surface, and analyses of fracture networks must take into consideration both the length and slenderness of individual fractures in addition to Pe and Da numbers.

  17. Approximate Seismic Diffusive Models of Near-Receiver Geology: Applications from Lab Scale to Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Thomas; Benson, Philip; De Siena, Luca; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a novel and simple method of seismic envelope analysis that can be applied at multiple scales, e.g. field, m to km scale and laboratory, mm to cm scale, and utilises the diffusive approximation of the seismic wavefield (Wegler, 2003). Coefficient values for diffusion and attenuation are obtained from seismic coda energies and are used to describe the rate at which seismic energy is scattered and attenuated into the local medium around a receiver. Values are acquired by performing a linear least squares inversion of coda energies calculated in successive time windows along a seismic trace. Acoustic emission data were taken from piezoelectric transducers (PZT) with typical resonance frequency of 1-5MHz glued around rock samples during deformation laboratory experiments carried out using a servo-controlled triaxial testing machine, where a shear/damage zone is generated under compression after the nucleation, growth and coalescence of microcracks. Passive field data were collected from conventional geophones during the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens volcano (MSH), USA where a sudden reawakening of the volcanic activity and a new dome growth has occurred. The laboratory study shows a strong correlation between variations of the coefficients over time and the increase of differential stress as the experiment progresses. The field study links structural variations present in the near-surface geology, including those seen in previous geophysical studies of the area, to these same coefficients. Both studies show a correlation between frequency and structural feature size, i.e. landslide slip-planes and microcracks, with higher frequencies being much more sensitive to smaller scale features and vice-versa.

  18. Comparison of INTERA and WISAP consequence model application. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) is being conducted to develop, for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the methodology necessary to perform long-term safety assessments of deep geologic repositories. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program is developing a nuclear waste storage facility and is performing assessments of that site. WISAP and WIPP have similar, though independent, methodologies for assessing the consequences of a repository breach subsequent to closure. Intera Environmental Consultants are under contract to Sandia Laboratories to conduct the hydrologic and transport modeling for the WIPP Site Release Consequence Analysis (WIPP EIS/ER 1978). To provide a mutual benchmark check of the radionuclide and ground-water transport models of these two programs, ONWI has requested WISAP to perform a release consequence analysis based on the WIPP site, utilizing the same data and conceptual model which the WIPP program used for its environmental assessments. Therefore, only a portion of the WISAP methodology was used; specifically, only WISAP geotransport models were exercised. The other important parts of WISAP assessment methodology were not used, so that WISAP did not develop the scenario nor did WISAP interpret the field data to develop the conceptual model of the geohydrology of the WIPP site. The results of the comparative assessment are presented. Although the different models required slightly different input parameters, the results of the hydrologic simulations show a very close correspondence between the WISAP and WIPP predictions. This was as expected, since the various hydrologic codes available essentially utilize and solve the same basic flow equations. In addition, this report presents the results of the WISAP radionuclide transport model simulations. These results will provide the basis for comparison with WIPP results when these become available

  19. Geometry-coupled reactive fluid transport at the fracture scale -Application to CO 2 geologic storage

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Seunghee; Santamarina, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Water acidification follows CO2 injection and leads to reactive fluid transport through pores and rock fractures, with potential implications to reservoirs and wells in CO2 geologic storage and enhanced oil recovery. Kinetic rate laws for dissolution reactions in calcite and anorthite are combined with Navier-Stokes law and advection-diffusion transport to perform geometry-coupled numerical simulations in order to study the evolution of chemical reactions, species concentration and fracture morphology. Results are summarized as a function of two dimensionless parameters: the Damköhler number Da which is the ratio between advection and reaction times, and the transverse Peclet number Pe defined as the ratio between the time for diffusion across the fracture and the time for advection along the fracture. Reactant species are readily consumed near the inlet in a carbonate reservoir when the flow velocity is low (low transverse Peclet number and Da>10-1). At high flow velocities, diffusion fails to homogenize the concentration field across the fracture (high transverse Peclet number Pe>10-1). When the reaction rate is low as in anorthite reservoirs (Da<10-1) reactant species are more readily transported towards the outlet. At a given Peclet number, a lower Damköhler number causes the flow channel to experience a more uniform aperture enlargement along the length of the fracture. When the length-to-aperture ratio is sufficiently large, say l/d>30, the system response resembles the solution for 1-D reactive fluid transport. A decreased length-to-aperture ratio slows the diffusive transport of reactant species to the mineral fracture surface, and analyses of fracture networks must take into consideration both the length and slenderness of individual fractures in addition to Pe and Da numbers.

  20. AEGIS geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) is used by the AEGIS (Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems) program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to simulate the dynamic geology and hydrology of a geologic nuclear waste repository site over a million-year period following repository closure. The GSM helps to organize geologic/hydrologic data; to focus attention on active natural processes by requiring their simulation; and, through interactive simulation and calibration, to reduce subjective evaluations of the geologic system. During each computer run, the GSM produces a million-year geologic history that is possible for the region and the repository site. In addition, the GSM records in permanent history files everything that occurred during that time span. Statistical analyses of data in the history files of several hundred simulations are used to classify typical evolutionary paths, to establish the probabilities associated with deviations from the typical paths, and to determine which types of perturbations of the geologic/hydrologic system, if any, are most likely to occur. These simulations will be evaluated by geologists familiar with the repository region to determine validity of the results. Perturbed systems that are determined to be the most realistic, within whatever probability limits are established, will be used for the analyses that involve radionuclide transport and dose models. The GSM is designed to be continuously refined and updated. Simulation models are site specific, and, although the submodels may have limited general applicability, the input data equirements necessitate detailed characterization of each site before application

  1. Waves and Structures in Nonlinear Nondispersive Media General Theory and Applications to Nonlinear Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Gurbatov, S N; Saichev, A I

    2012-01-01

    "Waves and Structures in Nonlinear Nondispersive Media: General Theory and Applications to Nonlinear Acoustics” is devoted completely to nonlinear structures. The general theory is given here in parallel with mathematical models. Many concrete examples illustrate the general analysis of Part I. Part II is devoted to applications to nonlinear acoustics, including specific nonlinear models and exact solutions, physical mechanisms of nonlinearity, sawtooth-shaped wave propagation, self-action phenomena, nonlinear resonances and engineering application (medicine, nondestructive testing, geophysics, etc.). This book is designed for graduate and postgraduate students studying the theory of nonlinear waves of various physical nature. It may also be useful as a handbook for engineers and researchers who encounter the necessity of taking nonlinear wave effects into account of their work. Dr. Gurbatov S.N. is the head of Department, and Vice Rector for Research of Nizhny Novgorod State University. Dr. Rudenko O.V. is...

  2. Biosphere modeling for safety assessment to high-level radioactive waste geological disposal. Application of reference biosphere methodology to safety assesment of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Tomoko; Ishihara, Yoshinao; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Yuji; Naito, Morimasa

    2000-01-01

    In the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste disposal system, it is required to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings. Consideration of living habits and the human environment in the future involves a large degree of uncertainty. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, an approach is applied for identifying and justifying a 'reference biosphere' for use in safety assessment in Japan. considering a wide range of Japanese geological environments, saline specific reference biospheres' were developed using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II reference biosphere methodology. (author)

  3. Geologic repositories for radioactive waste: the nuclear regulatory commission geologic comments on the environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justus, P.S.; Trapp, J.S.; Westbrook, K.B.; Lee, R.; Blackford, M.B.; Rice, B.

    1985-01-01

    The NRC staff completed its review of the Environmental Assessments (EAs) issued by the Department of Energy (DOE) in December, 1984, in support of the site selection processes established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). The EAs contain geologic information on nine sites that DOE has identified as potentially acceptable for the first geologic repository in accordance with the requirements of NWPA. The media for the sites vary from basalt at Hanford, Washington, tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, bedded salt in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas and Paradox Basin, Utah, to salt domes in Mississippi and Louisiana. Despite the diversity in media there are common areas of concern for all sites. These include; structural framework and pattern, rates of tectonic and seismic activity, characterization of subsurface features, and stratigraphic thickness, continuity and homogeneity. Site-specific geologic concerns include: potential volcanic and hydrothermal activity at Yucca Mountain, potential hydrocarbon targets and deep basalt and sub-basalt structure at Hanford, and potential dissolution at all salt sites. The NRC comments were influenced by the performance objectives and siting criteria of 10 CFR Part 60 and the environmental protection criteria in 40 CFR Part 191, the applicable standards proposed by EPA. In its review the NRC identified several areas of geologic concern that it recommended DOE re-examine to determine if alternative or modified conclusions are appropriate

  4. Assessment of offshore New Jersey sources of Beach replenishment sand by diversified application of geologic and geophysical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, J.S.; Hall, D.W.; Uptegrove, J.; Sheridan, R.E.; Ashley, G.M.; Esker, D.

    1999-01-01

    . The seismograms are then correlated to the digital seismic profile to confirm reflected events. They are particularly useful where individual reflection events cannot be detected but a waveform generated by several thin lithologic units can be recognized. Progress in application of geologic and geophysical methods provides advantages in detailed sediment analysis and volumetric estimation of offshore sand ridges. New techniques for current and ongoing beach replenishment projects not only expand our knowledge of the geologic processes involved in sand ridge origin and development, but also improve our assessment of these valuable resources. These reconnaissance studies provide extensive data to the engineer regarding the suitability and quantity of sand and can optimize placement and analysis of vibracore samples.Beach replenishment serves the dual purpose of maintaining a source of tourism and recreation while protecting life and property. Research has improved both data collection and interpretation of seismic surveys and vibracore analysis for projects investigating sand ridges offshore of New Jersey. The New Jersey Geological Survey in cooperation with Rutgers University is evaluating the capabilities of digital seismic data to analyze sand ridges. The printing density of analog systems limits the dynamic range to about 24 dB. Digital acquisition systems with dynamic ranges about 100 dB can permit enhanced seismic profiles by trace static correction, deconvolution, automatic gain scaling, horizontal stacking and digital filtering.

  5. Stochastic theory of polarized light in nonlinear birefringent media: An application to optical rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Satoshi; Kuratsuji, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    A stochastic theory is developed for the light transmitting the optical media exhibiting linear and nonlinear birefringence. The starting point is the two-component nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). On the basis of the ansatz of “soliton” solution for the NLSE, the evolution equation for the Stokes parameters is derived, which turns out to be the Langevin equation by taking account of randomness and dissipation inherent in the birefringent media. The Langevin equation is converted to the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation for the probability distribution by employing the technique of functional integral on the assumption of the Gaussian white noise for the random fluctuation. The specific application is considered for the optical rotation, which is described by the ellipticity (third component of the Stokes parameters) alone: (i) The asymptotic analysis is given for the functional integral, which leads to the transition rate on the Poincaré sphere. (ii) The FP equation is analyzed in the strong coupling approximation, by which the diffusive behavior is obtained for the linear and nonlinear birefringence. These would provide with a basis of statistical analysis for the polarization phenomena in nonlinear birefringent media.

  6. Application of a nitrocellulose immunoassay for quantitation of proteins secreted in cultured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaDuca, F.M.; Dang, C.V.; Bell, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    A macro immunoassay was developed to quantitate proteins (antigens) secreted in the culture media of primary rat hepatocytes. Dilutions of protein standards and undiluted spent culture media were applied to numbered sheets of nitrocellulose (NC) paper by vacuum filtration (in volumes up to 1 ml) through a specially designed macrofiltration apparatus constructed of plexiglas. Sequential incubation of the NC with bovine serum albumin blocking buffer, monospecific antibody, and 125 I Protein A enabled quantitation of protein concentration by determination of NC bound radioactivity. Linear and reproducible standard curves were obtained with fibrinogen, albumin, transferrin, and haptoglobin. A high degree of coefficient of correlation between radioactivity (cmp) and protein concentration was found. Intra- and inter-test reproducibility was excellent. By using monospecific antibodies, single proteins (i.e., fibrinogen), as low as 32 ng/ml, could be quantified in heterogeneous protein mixtures and in spent culture media. The assay was sensitive to the difference of fibrinogen secretion under nonstimulatory (serum-free hormonally define medium, SFHD) and stimulatory (SFHD plus hydrocortisone) culture conditions. The procedure and techniques described are applicable to the quantitation of any protein in a suitable buffer

  7. Paraplegia after contrast media application: a transient or devastating rare complication? Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Dorothee; Kallenberg, Kai; Hartmann, Marius; Rohde, Veit

    2016-05-01

    The authors report the case of a 76-year-old man with a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula. The patient suffered from sudden repeated reversible paraplegia after spinal digital subtraction angiography as well as CT angiography. Neurotoxicity of contrast media (CM) is the most probable cause for this repeated short-lasting paraplegia. Intolerance to toxicity of CM to the vulnerable spinal cord is rare, and probably depends on the individual patient. This phenomenon is transient and can occur after both intraarterial and intravenous CM application.

  8. Locative media

    CERN Document Server

    Wilken, Rowan

    2014-01-01

    Not only is locative media one of the fastest growing areas in digital technology, but questions of location and location-awareness are increasingly central to our contemporary engagements with online and mobile media, and indeed media and culture generally. This volume is a comprehensive account of the various location-based technologies, services, applications, and cultures, as media, with an aim to identify, inventory, explore, and critique their cultural, economic, political, social, and policy dimensions internationally. In particular, the collection is organized around the perception that the growth of locative media gives rise to a number of crucial questions concerning the areas of culture, economy, and policy.

  9. A statistical method linking geological and historical eruption time series for volcanic hazard estimations: Applications to active polygenetic volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Rosas, Ana Teresa; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando

    2008-09-01

    The probabilistic analysis of volcanic eruption time series is an essential step for the assessment of volcanic hazard and risk. Such series describe complex processes involving different types of eruptions over different time scales. A statistical method linking geological and historical eruption time series is proposed for calculating the probabilities of future eruptions. The first step of the analysis is to characterize the eruptions by their magnitudes. As is the case in most natural phenomena, lower magnitude events are more frequent, and the behavior of the eruption series may be biased by such events. On the other hand, eruptive series are commonly studied using conventional statistics and treated as homogeneous Poisson processes. However, time-dependent series, or sequences including rare or extreme events, represented by very few data of large eruptions require special methods of analysis, such as the extreme-value theory applied to non-homogeneous Poisson processes. Here we propose a general methodology for analyzing such processes attempting to obtain better estimates of the volcanic hazard. This is done in three steps: Firstly, the historical eruptive series is complemented with the available geological eruption data. The linking of these series is done assuming an inverse relationship between the eruption magnitudes and the occurrence rate of each magnitude class. Secondly, we perform a Weibull analysis of the distribution of repose time between successive eruptions. Thirdly, the linked eruption series are analyzed as a non-homogeneous Poisson process with a generalized Pareto distribution as intensity function. As an application, the method is tested on the eruption series of five active polygenetic Mexican volcanoes: Colima, Citlaltépetl, Nevado de Toluca, Popocatépetl and El Chichón, to obtain hazard estimates.

  10. Accounting for Model Uncertainties Using Reliability Methods - Application to Carbon Dioxide Geologic Sequestration System. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, Chin Man; Doughty, Christine; Zhang, Keni; Pruess, Karsten; Kiureghian, Armen; Zhang, Miao; Kaback, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    A new computer code, CALRELTOUGH, which uses reliability methods to incorporate parameter sensitivity and uncertainty analysis into subsurface flow and transport models, was developed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California at Berkeley. The CALREL reliability code was developed at the University of California at Berkely for geotechnical applications and the TOUGH family of codes was developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for subsurface flow and tranport applications. The integration of the two codes provides provides a new approach to deal with uncertainties in flow and transport modeling of the subsurface, such as those uncertainties associated with hydrogeology parameters, boundary conditions, and initial conditions of subsurface flow and transport using data from site characterization and monitoring for conditioning. The new code enables computation of the reliability of a system and the components that make up the system, instead of calculating the complete probability distributions of model predictions at all locations at all times. The new CALRELTOUGH code has tremendous potential to advance subsurface understanding for a variety of applications including subsurface energy storage, nuclear waste disposal, carbon sequestration, extraction of natural resources, and environmental remediation. The new code was tested on a carbon sequestration problem as part of the Phase I project. Phase iI was not awarded.

  11. The characteristics and application of sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) as novel filter media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Shuxin; Yue Qinyan; Yue Min; Gao Baoyu; Li Qian; Yu Hui; Zhao Yaqin; Qi Yuanfeng

    2009-01-01

    Novel filter media-sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) were prepared using dewatered sludge, fly ash and clay with a mass ratio of 1:1:1. Compared with commercial ceramic particles (CCP), SFCP had higher total porosity, larger total surface area and lower bulk and apparent density. Tests of heavy metal elements in lixivium proved that SFCP were safe for wastewater treatment. A lab-scale upflow anaerobic bioreactor was employed to ascertain the application of SFCP in denitrification process using acetate as carbon source. The results showed that SFCP reactor brought a relative superiority to CCP reactor in terms of total nitrogen (TN) removal at the optimum C/N ratio of 4.03 when volumetric loading rates (VLR) ranged from 0.33 to 3.69 kg TN (m 3 d) -1 . Therefore, SFCP application, as a novel process of treating wastes with wastes, provided a promising way in sludge and fly ash utilization.

  12. The new Schonland PIXE microprobe and applications to geological and archaeological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przybylowicz, W J; Watterson, J I.W.; Annegarn, H J; Connell, S H; Fearick, R W; Andeweg, A H; Sellschop, J P.F. [Schonland Research Centre for Nuclear Sciences, Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    1993-04-01

    The new positive ion microprobe at the Schonland Centre is described and details are given of its configuration, its imaging system and software. In a unique configuration, the microprobe has access to two accelerators, a 6 MV EN tandem and a 2.5 MV single-ended machine. The imaging system uses a CAMAC based system and runs on a personal computer under OS/2. The implementation of PIXE and treatment of thick-target data are presented. Applications discussed are analysis of tin artifacts from the prehistory of metallurgy in South Africa; a diamond-containing rock; carbonado, gold contained in pyrite and cogenetic minerals included in diamond. (orig.).

  13. The new Schonland PIXE microprobe and applications to geological and archaeological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybylowicz, W.J.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Annegarn, H.J.; Connell, S.H.; Fearick, R.W.; Andeweg, A.H.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    1993-01-01

    The new positive ion microprobe at the Schonland Centre is described and details are given of its configuration, its imaging system and software. In a unique configuration, the microprobe has access to two accelerators, a 6 MV EN tandem and a 2.5 MV single-ended machine. The imaging system uses a CAMAC based system and runs on a personal computer under OS/2. The implementation of PIXE and treatment of thick-target data are presented. Applications discussed are analysis of tin artifacts from the prehistory of metallurgy in South Africa; a diamond-containing rock; carbonado, gold contained in pyrite and cogenetic minerals included in diamond. (orig.)

  14. Development of grouting technologies for geological disposal of high level waste in Japan (1). Overall program and application of developed technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomoo; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Sugita, Yutaka; Matsui, Hiroya

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency started a grout project for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in 2007. The aim of the project was to develop new grouting technologies and grout materials and also to develop models for performance assessments, prediction of the long-term radionuclide migration and identify detrimental changes in the host rock by the grout material leachate. This study presents the overall program and the application of key engineering technologies to the construction and operation of an underground facility for the geological disposal of HLW, with particular emphasis on the long-term effects of grout materials. (author)

  15. Acoustic Doppler current profiler applications used in rivers and estuaries by the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; Oberg, Kevin A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has collected streamflow information for the Nation's streams since 1889. Streamflow information is used to predict floods, manage and allocate water resources, design engineering structures, compute water-quality loads, and operate water-control structures. The current (2007) size of the USGS streamgaging network is over 7,400 streamgages nationwide. The USGS has progressively improved the streamgaging program by incorporating new technologies and techniques that streamline data collection while increasing the quality of the streamflow data that are collected. The single greatest change in streamflow measurement technology during the last 100 years has been the development and application of high frequency acoustic instruments for measuring streamflow. One such instrument, the acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), is rapidly replacing traditional mechanical current meters for streamflow measurement (Muste and others, 2007). For more information on how an ADCP works see Simpson (2001) or visit http://hydroacoustics.usgs.gov/. The USGS has used ADCPs attached to manned or tethered boats since the mid-1990s to measure streamflow in a wide variety of conditions (fig. 1). Recent analyses have shown that ADCP streamflow measurements can be made with similar or greater accuracy, efficiency, and resolution than measurements made using conventional current-meter methods (Oberg and Mueller, 2007). ADCPs also have the ability to measure streamflow in streams where traditional current-meter measurements previously were very difficult or costly to obtain, such as streams affected by backwater or tides. In addition to streamflow measurements, the USGS also uses ADCPs for other hydrologic measurements and applications, such as computing continuous records of streamflow for tidally or backwater affected streams, measuring velocity fields with high spatial and temporal resolution, and estimating suspended-sediment concentrations. An overview

  16. Log ASCII Standard (LAS) Files for Geophysical Wireline Well Logs and Their Application to Geologic Cross Sections Through the Central Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crangle, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses geophysical wireline well logs for a variety of purposes, including stratigraphic correlation (Hettinger, 2001, Ryder, 2002), petroleum reservoir analyses (Nelson and Bird, 2005), aquifer studies (Balch, 1988), and synthetic seismic profiles (Kulander and Ryder, 2005). Commonly, well logs are easier to visualize, manipulate, and interpret when available in a digital format. In recent geologic cross sections E-E' and D-D', constructed through the central Appalachian basin (Ryder, Swezey, and others, in press; Ryder, Crangle, and others, in press), gamma ray well log traces and lithologic logs were used to correlate key stratigraphic intervals (Fig. 1). The stratigraphy and structure of the cross sections are illustrated through the use of graphical software applications (e.g., Adobe Illustrator). The gamma ray traces were digitized in Neuralog (proprietary software) from paper well logs and converted to a Log ASCII Standard (LAS) format. Once converted, the LAS files were transformed to images through an LAS-reader application (e.g., GeoGraphix Prizm) and then overlain in positions adjacent to well locations, used for stratigraphic control, on each cross section. This report summarizes the procedures used to convert paper logs to a digital LAS format using a third-party software application, Neuralog. Included in this report are LAS files for sixteen wells used in geologic cross section E-E' (Table 1) and thirteen wells used in geologic cross section D-D' (Table 2).

  17. Application of X-ray CT investigation of CO{sub 2}-brine flow in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Lanlan; Liu, Yu; Song, Yongchen; Yang, Mingjun; Zhao, Yuechao; Zhao, Jiafei; Zhang, Yi; Shen, Zijian [Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, Dalian (China); Xue, Ziqiu [Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kizugawa City, Kyoto (Japan); Suekane, Tetsuya [Tokyo Institute Technology, Department of Energy Sciences, Nagatsuta, Yokohama (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    A clear understanding of two-phase flows in porous media is important for investigating CO{sub 2} geological storage. In this study, we conducted an experiment of CO{sub 2}/brine flow process in porous media under sequestration conditions using X-ray CT technique. The flow properties of relative permeability, porosity heterogeneity, and CO{sub 2} saturation were observed in this experiment. The porous media was packed with glass beads having a diameter of 0.2 mm. The porosity distribution along the flow direction is heterogeneous owing to the diameter and shape of glass beads along the flow direction. There is a relationship between CO{sub 2} saturation and porosity distribution, which changes with different flow rates and fractional flows. The heterogeneity of the porous media influences the distribution of CO{sub 2}; moreover, gravity, fractional flows, and flow rates influence CO{sub 2} distribution and saturation. The relative permeability curve was constructed using the steady-state method. The results agreed well with the relative permeability curve simulated using pore-network model. (orig.)

  18. Thermoluminescence studies in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.V.; Sunta, C.M.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Bapat, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    Even though the phenomenon of thermoluminescence is well studied, particularly over last 3 decades, its potentialities in the field of geology have not been adequately evaluated. In this report several useful applications of TL in mineralogy, petrogenesis, stratigraphy, tectonics, ore-prospecting and other branches have been identified with particular emphasis to the Indian scene. Important areas in the country that may provide the basic material for such studies are indicated at the end along with brief geological or mineralogical accounts. (auth.)

  19. Application of the geological surveying methods employed at Gorleben to cavern projects in the central European zechstein basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, F.; Bornemann, O.; Behlau, J.; Mingerzahn, G.

    2002-01-01

    The investigations at Gorleben date back more than 20 years. New methods were developed and applied, especially for detailed stratigraphic and geochemical characterization of the zechstein formation and also geophysical survey methods and geological mapping of complex folds in saline structures. The greatest feat was the 3D imaging of all geological information accompanied by visualization of complex stratigraphic entities [de

  20. Application of Blog For Media Learning of Online Marketing courses/ Penerapan Blog Sebagai Media Pembelajaran Mata Pelajaran Pemasaran Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Erfianto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to: 1 describe the implementation of blog as a learning medium for online marketing subject; 2 determine students' response on the implementation of blog as a learning medium for online marketing subject; and 3 know the advantages and disadvantages after the implementation the implementation of blog as a learning medium for online marketing subject. This research is a qualitative descriptive research. Data that were taken for this study is based on the observation sheet and questionnaire. In addition, the data sources that are taken are 26 tenth grade students of Marketing 2 at SMKN 1 Probolinggo. The research finding showed that: 1 the implementation of a blog can help students to learn online marketing materials; 2 the results of the questionnaire showed that students responded positively on the implementation of blogs as a learning medium; and 3 the advantages and disadvantages after the implementation of blogs as a learning medium are: a advantages: teachers can operate a blog, students can be more active in the learning activities and creating innovative and creative learning; b dissadvantages: there is one student who did not like the virtual world and if there is a blackout, the teaching and learning activities is disrupted. Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk 1 mendeskripsikan penerapan blog sebagai media pembelajaran mata pelajaran pemasaran online, 2 mengetahui respon siswa terhadap penerapan blog sebagai media pembelajaran mata pelajaran pemasaran online, 3  mengetahui kelebihan dan kekurangan setelah penerapan blog sebagai media pembelajaran mata pelajaran pemasaran online. Jenis penelitian ini adalah deskriptif kualitatif. Data yang diambil untuk penelitian ini berdasarkan pada lembar observasi dan angket. Sedangkan sumber data yang diambil yaitu 26 siswa kelas X PMS 2 di SMKN 1 Probolinggo. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 1 penerapan blog dapat membantu siswa dalam belajar materi pemasaran online, 2 hasil

  1. Geologic Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  2. Feasibility of smartphone application and social media intervention on breast cancer survivors' health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Zachary; Lee, Jung Eun; Zeng, Nan; Lee, Hee Yun; Gao, Zan

    2018-02-17

    Breast cancer survivors are at risk for poor health, with physical activity a possible treatment. Little research has examined how technology might promote breast cancer survivor physical activity or health. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of employing a commercially available mobile health application- and social media-based health education intervention to improve breast cancer survivor physical activity or health.Ten breast cancer survivors (X̅ age = 45.80 ± 10.23 years; X̅ weight = 79.51 ± 20.85 kg) participated in this 10-week single-group pilot study from 2015 to 2016. Participants downloaded the MapMyFitness application, documented all physical activity with MapMyFitness, and were enrolled in a Social Cognitive Theory-based, Facebook-delivered health education intervention. Objectively measured physical activity, weight or body composition, cardiovascular fitness, psychosocial constructs, and quality of life indices were measured at baseline and 10 weeks. Intervention use and acceptability was evaluated during and following the intervention. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all study outcomes, with qualitative analyses performed regarding use and acceptability. At postintervention, average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and steps increased by 2.6 min and 1,657, respectively, with notable decreases in weight (2.4 kg) and body fat percentage (2.3%). Physical activity-related social support and ability to engage in social roles or activity demonstrated the greatest improvements among all psychosocial and quality of life indices, respectively. Participants enjoyed the feedback and tracking features of MapMyFitness, with most finding the Facebook component helpful. All participants recommended the intervention for future use.Physical activity interventions combining commercially available mobile health applications and theoretically based social media-delivered health interventions may promote certain

  3. Modelling of water-gas-rock geo-chemical interactions. Application to mineral diagenesis in geological reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bildstein, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Mineral diagenesis in tanks results from interactions between minerals, water, and possibly gases, over geological periods of time. The associated phenomena may have a crucial importance for reservoir characterization because of their impact on petrophysical properties. The objective of this research thesis is thus to develop a model which integrates geochemical functions necessary to simulate diagenetic reactions, and which is numerically efficient enough to perform the coupling with a transport model. After a recall of thermodynamic and kinetic backgrounds, the author discusses how the nature of available analytic and experimental data influenced choices made for the formalization of physical-chemical phenomena and for behaviour laws to be considered. Numerical and computational aspects are presented in the second part. The model is validated by using simple examples. The different possible steps during the kinetic competition between two mineral are highlighted, as well the competition between mineral reaction kinetics and water flow rate across the rock. Redox reactions are also considered. In the third part, the author reports the application of new model functions, and highlights the contribution of the modelling to the understanding of some complex geochemical phenomena and to the prediction of reservoir quality. The model is applied to several diagenetic transformations: cementation of dolomitic limestone by anhydride, illite precipitation, and thermal reduction of sulphates [fr

  4. Coupling between corrosion and biphasic transport in porous media: Application to the evolution of a radioactive wastes disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dridi, W.

    2005-04-01

    In the actual concepts of geological disposal, high level radioactive wastes are packed in metallic containers surrounded by a partially or totally saturated clay media. In contact with the interstitial water, anoxic corrosion of this container will start producing hydrogen. In the scope of safety assessment, the present study deals with two main topics: prediction of the long-term corrosion of carbon steel with respect to clay water content and evaluation of the risk of damage of the clay barrier related to gas production. Elementary processes controlling the kinetics of corrosion are limited to oxide growth and mass transfer through the porosity of this film. Thanks to a macroscopic description of theses processes, followed by an interfacial kinetic law, a mechanistic modeling of the anoxic corrosion in partially saturated porous media is proposed. This approach is validated when confronted to the long-term corrosion tests performed in saturated clay. Both modeling and laboratory experiments have confirmed that kinetics of anoxic corrosion in partially saturated clay is mainly controlled by the surrounding relative humidity as in the case of aerated or atmospheric corrosion. In the gas generation topic, some numerical simulations are performed concerning the oedometric and triaxial test dealing with gas migration in saturated clay. Finally, long-term calculations are conducted concerning hydro-mechanical impact of corrosion in deep geological repositories. Due to a more realistic prediction of the long-term corrosion, the risks of gas overpressures, local desaturation and mechanical damage are reduced. (author)

  5. Correspondence between sound propagation in discrete and continuous random media with application to forest acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostashev, Vladimir E; Wilson, D Keith; Muhlestein, Michael B; Attenborough, Keith

    2018-02-01

    Although sound propagation in a forest is important in several applications, there are currently no rigorous yet computationally tractable prediction methods. Due to the complexity of sound scattering in a forest, it is natural to formulate the problem stochastically. In this paper, it is demonstrated that the equations for the statistical moments of the sound field propagating in a forest have the same form as those for sound propagation in a turbulent atmosphere if the scattering properties of the two media are expressed in terms of the differential scattering and total cross sections. Using the existing theories for sound propagation in a turbulent atmosphere, this analogy enables the derivation of several results for predicting forest acoustics. In particular, the second-moment parabolic equation is formulated for the spatial correlation function of the sound field propagating above an impedance ground in a forest with micrometeorology. Effective numerical techniques for solving this equation have been developed in atmospheric acoustics. In another example, formulas are obtained that describe the effect of a forest on the interference between the direct and ground-reflected waves. The formulated correspondence between wave propagation in discrete and continuous random media can also be used in other fields of physics.

  6. AR-KIO: Augmented Reality-based Application as Instructional Media on Input and Output Device Component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hidayattur Rohmah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid technology development can be utilized in various fields, especially in education. For example, is augmented reality-based learning media. The learning media can be applied to all the subject matter, including the subject of input and output component devices. Based on the observations that already made, there are some problems such as there is no interactive learning media and limited props in the laboratory. Though the subject of input and output component devices require three-dimensional visualization, especially input output components that are difficult to find in the school environment. The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility of instructional media applications that have been developed. The research method used is research development method. The tests conducted by media experts, content experts, users and smartphone devices with different specifications. Media expert testing using instruments that refer to aspects of the functionality of ISO 9126 with the percentage acquisition of 100%. Content expert testing using the instrument that refers aspects of learning design with the acquisition percentage of 88%. Meanwhile, user testing uses an instrument that refers to the usability aspect of ISO 9126 with a percentage gain of 83.4%. In addition, there are testing the software with android smartphone platform that has different specifications. The advantages of this application can run on a smartphone with minimum 512 MB RAM specs, Android OS Jelly Bean 4.3 and qHD screen resolution.

  7. Text Stream Trend Analysis using Multiscale Visual Analytics with Applications to Social Media Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Beaver, Justin M [ORNL; BogenII, Paul L. [Google Inc.; Drouhard, Margaret MEG G [ORNL; Pyle, Joshua M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new visual analytics system, called Matisse, that allows exploration of global trends in textual information streams with specific application to social media platforms. Despite the potential for real-time situational awareness using these services, interactive analysis of such semi-structured textual information is a challenge due to the high-throughput and high-velocity properties. Matisse addresses these challenges through the following contributions: (1) robust stream data management, (2) automated sen- timent/emotion analytics, (3) inferential temporal, geospatial, and term-frequency visualizations, and (4) a flexible drill-down interaction scheme that progresses from macroscale to microscale views. In addition to describing these contributions, our work-in-progress paper concludes with a practical case study focused on the analysis of Twitter 1% sample stream information captured during the week of the Boston Marathon bombings.

  8. Application, advantages and limitations of high-density gravimetric surveys compared with three-dimensional geological modelling in dolomite stability investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Breytenbach, I J; Bosch, P J A

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the nature of the gravimetric survey as applied and used in dolomite stability investigations on areas underlain by the Chuniespoort Group in South Africa. A short discussion is given on the gravimetric survey procedure along with its uses and alternative methods. Finally, two case studies illustrate the application of the method on a high-density survey grid spacing in comparison with three-dimensional geological modelling based on the lithology and karst weathering hor...

  9. Developing an Android Based Application as Balinese Shadow Puppet Educational Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gede Doni Agustina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Instead of being a barrier in preserving the culture, the development of technology is supposed to be an effective strategy of cultural preservation and protection. Modern and update technology provides an effective media of culture campaign. This study presented the development process of an android based Balinese shadow puppet educational media as both an effective learning media and a strategy to preserve Balinese shadow puppet. This study was categorized as research and development. The media was developed by using waterfall model and implemented by using the Lua Programming language with editor and Corona SDK simulator.  The collected data were the users’ response to the developed media resulted from questionnaires. The user’s response to the media was categorized as positive. Based on the results of this study, the media were equipped with well operated features and functions and user friendly interface.

  10. Study on the impact of marketing through social media, online games and mobile applications on children's behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupiáñez-Villanueva, F.; Gaskell, G.; Veltri, G.A.; Theben, A.; Folkvord, F.; Bonatti, L; Bogliacino, F.; Fernández, L.; Codagnone, C.

    2016-01-01

    The European Online Games, Social Media and Mobile Application sector has grown substantially in recent years and children are exposed to increasingly sophisticated marketing techniques online which are often outside the purview of existing regulatory frameworks. This study aims to provide a better

  11. Social media in health professional education: a student perspective on user levels and prospective applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Stephen; Moss, Alan; Ilic, Dragan

    2014-12-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNS) have seen exponential growth in recent years. The high utilisation of SNS by tertiary students makes them an attractive tool for educational institutions. This study aims to identify health professional students' use and behaviours with SNS, including students' perspectives on potential applications within health professional curricula. Students enrolled in an undergraduate physiotherapy program were invited to take part in an anonymous, online questionnaire at the end of 2012. The survey consisted of 20 items, gathering demographic data, information on current use of SNS, and opinions regarding the application of SNS into education. Both quantitative and qualitative data were gathered. A total of 142 students, from all years of study, completed the online questionnaire. Only two participants were not current users of social media. Facebook and YouTube had been utilised for educational purposes by 97 and 60 % of participants respectively; 85 % believed that SNS could benefit their learning experience. Only five respondents were not interested in following peers, academic staff, clinicians or professional associations on Facebook. Four key themes emerged: peer collaboration, need for separation between personal and professional realms, complimentary learning and enhanced communication. Students wish to make educational connections via SNS, yet expressed a strong desire to maintain privacy, and a distinction between personal and professional lives. Educational utilisation of SNS may improve communication speed and accessibility. Any educator involvement should be viewed with caution.

  12. Measuring adsorption, diffusion and flow in chemical engineering: applications of magnetic resonance to porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, Lynn F; Mitchell, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques are increasingly used to improve our understanding of the multi-component, multi-phase processes encountered in chemical engineering. This review brings together many of the MR techniques used, and often developed specifically, to study chemical engineering systems and, in particular, processes occurring within porous media. Pulse sequences for relaxometry, pulsed field gradient measurements of diffusion, imaging and velocimetry measurements are described. Recent applications of these MR pulse sequences to microporous, mesoporous and macroporous structures are then reviewed. Considering the microporous and mesoporous systems, we focus attention on studies of rock cores, manufactured materials such as cement and gypsum plaster, and catalysts. When considering macroporous structures, the transport through packed beds of particles typical of fixed-bed catalytic reactors is reviewed; a brief overview of the increasing research interest in gas-solid fluidized beds is also presented. We highlight the field of sparse k-space sampling as an area that is in its infancy and suggest that, combined with Bayesian methods, it will offer new opportunities in both extending the application of high-field MR techniques to chemical engineering and increasing the range of measurements that can be carried out using low-field hardware.

  13. Social Media Used by Government Institutions in Iceland: Application, Role and Aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Már Einarsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the use and role of social media hosted by government institutions in Iceland. The research was conducted using quantitative and qualitative research methods. A survey was sent electronically to all government institutions in Iceland and semi-structured interviews were conducted with specialists working for institutions. No research has been conducted on this subject in Iceland before. It was therefore considered timely that a research was conducted on the use of social media in public institutions, with the intention of adding new knowledge to the field. No similar research from outside of Iceland was found, but this research was based on related studies and sources from abroad. A little less than half of government institutions used social media as part of their activities and Facebook and YouTube were most widely used. Popularity, circulation, usefulness and convenience were the most important factors when choosing social media. The majority of institutions had neither defined social media goals nor the role and responsibility of employees when using social media. The institutions placed strong emphasis on publishing adverts and news items on the institutions’ activities via social media pages and there were a considerable number of references to material on other web pages. Among other things the interviewees said that the purpose of using social media was information dissemination, reception of information, more visibility, the opening of institutions to the public and increased transparency. They talked about the importance of being informal on social media, but they also pointed out that there had been some fear among institutions of using them, in particular fear of employees showing a human side via social media. There was minimal use of original material on institutions’ social media pages, while institutions were quite systematic in posting material from their website through social media

  14. Destination: Geology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  15. Media Pembelajaran Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Tham, Fikri Jufri; Liliana, Liliana; Purba, Kristo Radion

    2016-01-01

    Computer based learning media is one of the media has an important role in learning. Learning media will be attractive when packaged through interactive media , such as interactive media created in paper manufacture " instructional media global warming" . The advantage gained is that it can increase knowledge, generally educate people to be more concerned about the environment , and also can be a means of entertainment. This application is focused to learn about global warming and packaged in...

  16. Convection in Porous Media

    CERN Document Server

    Nield, Donald A

    2013-01-01

    Convection in Porous Media, 4th Edition, provides a user-friendly introduction to the subject, covering a wide range of topics, such as fibrous insulation, geological strata, and catalytic reactors. The presentation is self-contained, requiring only routine mathematics and the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer. The book will be of use not only to researchers and practicing engineers as a review and reference, but also to graduate students and others entering the field. The new edition features approximately 1,750 new references and covers current research in nanofluids, cellular porous materials, strong heterogeneity, pulsating flow, and more. Recognized as the standard reference in the field Includes a comprehensive, 250-page reference list Cited over 2300 times to date in its various editions Serves as an introduction for those entering the field and as a comprehensive reference for experienced researchers Features new sections on nanofluids, carbon dioxide sequestration, and applications...

  17. Moisture dependent thermal properties of hydrophilic mineral wool: application of the effective media theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Antepara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of mineral wool based materials appear to be of particular importance for their practical applications because the majority of them is used in the form of thermal insulation boards. Every catalogue list of any material producer of mineral wool contains thermal conductivity, sometimes also specific heat capacity, but they give only single characteristic values for dry state of material mostly. Exposure to outside climate or any other environment containing moisture can negatively affect the thermal insulation properties of mineral wool. Nevertheless, the mineral wool materials due to their climatic loading and their environmental exposure contain moisture that can negatively affect their thermal insulation properties. Because the presence of water in mineral wool material is undesirable for the majority of applications, many products are provided with hydrophobic substances. Hydrophilic additives are seldom used in mineral wool products. However, this kind of materials has a good potential for application for instance in interior thermal insulation systems, masonry desalination, green roofs, etc. For these materials, certain moisture content must be estimated and thus their thermal properties will be different than for the dry state. On this account, moisture dependent thermal properties of hydrophilic mineral wool (HMW are studied in a wide range of moisture content using a pulse technique. The experimentally determined thermal conductivity data is analysed using several homogenization formulas based on the effective media theory. In terms of homogenization, a porous material is considered as a mixture of two or three phases. In case of dry state, material consists from solid and gaseous phase. When moistened, liquid phase is also present. Mineral wool consists of the solid phase represented by basalt fibers, the liquid phase by water and the gaseous phase by air. At first, the homogenization techniques are applied for the

  18. Geologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, T.E.; Rood, A.

    1983-01-01

    The modern Great Divide Basin is the end product of natural forces influenced by the Green River lake system, Laramide tectonism, and intermittent volcanic events. It ranks as one of the most complex structural and stratigtaphic features within the Tertiary basins of Wyoming. Portions of the Great Divide Basin and adjoining areas in Wyoming have been investigated by applying detailed and region exploration methods to known uranium deposits located within the Red Desert portions of the basin. Geologic field investigations conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporaton (Bendix) were restricted to reconnaissance observations made during infrequent visits to the project area by various Bendix personnel. Locations of the most comprehensive field activities are shown in Figure II-1. The principal source fo data for geologic studies of the Red Desert project area has been information and materials furnished by industry. Several hundred holes have been drilled by various groups to delineate the uranium deposits. Results from Bendix-drilled holes at selected locations within the project area are summarized in Table II-1. Additional details and gross subsurface characteristics are illustrated in cross sections; pertinent geologic features are illustrated in plan maps. Related details of continental sedimentation that pertain to the Wyoming Basins generally, and the project area specificially, are discussed in subsections of this Geologic Studies section

  19. The application of structure from motion (SfM) to identify the geological structure and outcrop studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Aditya; Rahardianto, Trias; Gomez, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Adequate knowledge of geological structure is an essential for most studies in geoscience, mineral exploration, geo-hazard and disaster management. The geological map is still one the datasets the most commonly used to obtain information about the geological structure such as fault, joint, fold, and unconformities, however in rural areas such as Central Java data is still sparse. Recent progress in data acquisition technologies and computing have increased the interest in how to capture the high-resolution geological data effectively and for a relatively low cost. Some methods such as Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS), Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been widely used to obtain this information, however, these methods need a significant investment in hardware, software, and time. Resolving some of those issues, the photogrammetric method structure from motion (SfM) is an image-based method, which can provide solutions equivalent to laser technologies for a relatively low-cost with minimal time, specialization and financial investment. Using SfM photogrammetry, it is possible to generate high resolution 3D images rock surfaces and outcrops, in order to improve the geological understanding of Indonesia. In the present contribution, it is shown that the information about fault and joint can be obtained at high-resolution and in a shorter time than with the conventional grid mapping and remotely sensed topographic surveying. The SfM method produces a point-cloud through image matching and computing. This task can be run with open- source or commercial image processing and 3D reconstruction software. As the point cloud has 3D information as well as RGB values, it allows for further analysis such as DEM extraction and image orthorectification processes. The present paper describes some examples of SfM to identify the fault in the outcrops and also highlight the future possibilities in terms of earthquake hazard assessment, based on

  20. Leveraging Collection Structure in Information Retrieval with Applications to Search in Conversational Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsas, Jonathan L.

    2011-01-01

    Social media collections are becoming increasingly important in the everyday life of Internet users. Recent statistics show that sites hosting social media and community-generated content account for five of the top ten most visited websites in the United States [4] are visited regularly by a broad cross-section of Internet users [61, 67, 115] and…

  1. Characteristics of growing media mixes and application for open-field production of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathogen-free growing media are widely used for strawberry production in protected structures in Europe but not common in the United States. There is a need to investigate the feasibility of producing strawberry fruits in open fields with the pathogen-free media in the U.S. The objective of the stud...

  2. Influence of the transversal diffusion/dispersion on the radionuclide migration in porous media - investigation of analytically solvable problems for geological layer structures. Der Einfluss der transversalen Diffusion/Dispersion auf die Migration von Radionukliden in poroesen Medien - Untersuchung analytisch loesbarer Probleme fuer geolog. Schichtstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmocker, U

    1980-07-01

    Repositories in geological formations are planned for the final disposal of radioactive wastes produced by nuclear power. Generally, water entry leading to leaching of the waste matrix is considered as the critical process which can result in release of radionuclides from a waste repository. In risk analyses for waste repositories the migration of radionuclides through the geosphere is usually described mathematically by a one-dimensional transport model. On the other hand the hydrological calculational models used for determining the critical migration paths are invariably two- or three-dimensional. A one-dimensional transport calculation always gives conservative results for a specific migration path because the influence of the transverse dispersion/diffusion effect is neglected. This effect results in an additional decrease of the nuclide concentration along the migration path. On the other hand radionuclides can spread to adjacent geological formations which are not taken into account in a one-dimensional model. If the water velocities in these formations are higher than along the original (one-dimensional) migration path or if the distance to the biosphere (e.g. lake, river or well) is shorter, then the process of the transverse diffusion/dispersion can represent an additional risk. The present work deals with the influence of the transverse diffusion/dispersion effect on the migration of radionuclides through the geosphere. We restrict ourselves to migration in porous media which is the standard approach of most existing transport models. For modelling the transport of radionuclides in fissured systems there exist only a few preliminary calculational approaches to date. We are mainly interested in analytically soluble problems which take into account the transverse diffusion/dispersion effect. This procedure permits investigation of the most important effects in a simple and direct manner. 17 refs., 36 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Media Accountability Online in Israel. An application of Bourdieu’s field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronja Kniep

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to structural changes in journalism, such as deregulation, privatisation and the influence of new technologies, it has become increasingly important to study media accountability (MA. By applying Bourdieu’s theory of social fields, this paper proposes a new approach to do so: MA is defined as a function of both journalistic autonomy and influence in the media field. Here, online communication potentially widens the scope of action for media’s transparency, responsiveness as well as the articulation of media criticism by a variety of actors. In Israel, media criticism is driven by the agent’s struggle for interpretive authority over public discourse in a politically polarized society. Semi-structured interviews with Israeli journalists, media activists and experts suggest that journalistic agents who have yet to earn credibility and reputation exploit online communication to its full potential, while agents in the field of power tend to dismiss online criticism. The influence of the audience’s media criticism is not solely dependent on the technical ability of connecting and hearing the voices of the masses; it has to be in combination with symbolic or political capital. However, the demand for media’s social responsibility is also related to being more careful and less critical, which is very evident in Israel. Thus, it is important to critically reflect on what happens when media accountability practices become more efficient and a stronger sense for “being watched” develops.

  4. A workflow for handling heterogeneous 3D models with the TOUGH2 family of codes: Applications to numerical modeling of CO 2 geological storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigane, Pascal; Chiaberge, Christophe; Mathurin, Frédéric; Lions, Julie; Picot-Colbeaux, Géraldine

    2011-04-01

    This paper is addressed to the TOUGH2 user community. It presents a new tool for handling simulations run with the TOUGH2 code with specific application to CO 2 geological storage. This tool is composed of separate FORTRAN subroutines (or modules) that can be run independently, using input and output files in ASCII format for TOUGH2. These modules have been developed specifically for modeling of carbon dioxide geological storage and their use with TOUGH2 and the Equation of State module ECO2N, dedicated to CO 2-water-salt mixture systems, with TOUGHREACT, which is an adaptation of TOUGH2 with ECO2N and geochemical fluid-rock interactions, and with TOUGH2 and the EOS7C module dedicated to CO 2-CH 4 gas mixture is described. The objective is to save time for the pre-processing, execution and visualization of complex geometry for geological system representation. The workflow is rapid and user-friendly and future implementation to other TOUGH2 EOS modules for other contexts (e.g. nuclear waste disposal, geothermal production) is straightforward. Three examples are shown for validation: (i) leakage of CO 2 up through an abandoned well; (ii) 3D reactive transport modeling of CO 2 in a sandy aquifer formation in the Sleipner gas Field, (North Sea, Norway); and (iii) an estimation of enhanced gas recovery technology using CO 2 as the injected and stored gas to produce methane in the K12B Gas Field (North Sea, Denmark).

  5. Fluid dynamics and mass transfer in variably saturated porous media: formulation and applications of a mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the formulation and applications of a mathematical model designed to predict the fluid dynamics and associated mass transfers in variably saturated porous media. Novelties in the formulation are emphasized and demonstrated to provide several computational advantages. The numerical procedure employed is of the integrated finite-difference variety which employs a hybrid differencing scheme. This procedure, while solving the coupled governing equations in conservative form, permits accommodation of substantial heterogeneities and anisotropies in material properties of the porous media. Accordingly, it is capable of making reliable predictions of steeply varying moisture and chemical-specie concentration fronts. The paper provides several examples of application of the model to the solution of practical problems. It is demonstrated that economical solutions to highly non-linear problems associated with solid and liquid waste disposal practices can be obtained

  6. Investigating lithological and geophysical relationships with applications to geological uncertainty analysis using Multiple-Point Statistical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Adrian

    The PhD thesis presents a new method for analyzing the relationship between resistivity and lithology, as well as a method for quantifying the hydrostratigraphic modeling uncertainty related to Multiple-Point Statistical (MPS) methods. Three-dimensional (3D) geological models are im...... is to improve analysis and research of the resistivity-lithology relationship and ensemble geological/hydrostratigraphic modeling. The groundwater mapping campaign in Denmark, beginning in the 1990’s, has resulted in the collection of large amounts of borehole and geophysical data. The data has been compiled...... in two publicly available databases, the JUPITER and GERDA databases, which contain borehole and geophysical data, respectively. The large amounts of available data provided a unique opportunity for studying the resistivity-lithology relationship. The method for analyzing the resistivity...

  7. Analyzing the collective intelligence application software Wisdom Professional for (social) media planning: Case study Coca-Cola

    OpenAIRE

    Fayezioghani, Elham

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, the main goal is set to demonstrate how a collective intelligence application software works and can be used for marketing purposes. Following this objective, it is aimed to optimize advertising in Social media for a company or enterprise by using a collective intelligence software. To this end, the Wisdom Professional software from MicroStrategy Company is utilized to derive required information. These data are kind of raw data that are derived from the information of Faceboo...

  8. Application of neem (Azadirachta indica) as biological pesticides in cocoa seed (Theobroma cacao) storage using various local adsorbent media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiyani, S. A.; Sunawan; Pawestri, A. E.

    2018-03-01

    Cocoa seeds are recalcitrant (the water content is more than 40%) that require special handling. The use of adsorbent media to reduce the decrease in the quality of cocoa seeds and extend their shelf life in this storage has not been widely done. Local adsorbent media such as sawdust, sand and ash have the potential to maintain the viability of cocoa seeds. The objective of this research was to determine the interaction of the application of neem (Azadirachta indica) as biological pesticides and the use of various natural adsorbent media in the storage of cocoa seeds (Theobroma cacao). It was an experimental study with a factorial design composed of three factors. The first factor was the medium adsorbent type for the storage of cocoa seed, which consists of three levels (river sand, ash, and sawdust). The second factor was the concentration of neem leaves for pre-storage treatment with three levels (10, 20, and 30%). The third factor was the storage time (10 and 20 days). The results of the study indicated that the combination of the three factors showed a significant interaction in the height of the plant and the diameter of the stem of the seedling at 28 days after sowing. The fresh weight of the seedlings of the seeds that were stored in ash media gave a better result than the seedlings of seeds that had been stored in the river sand and the sawdust as adsorbent media. The application of 20% extract of neem leaves gave the best influence for the seeds that were stored for 20 days.

  9. Public views of different sources of health advice: pharmacists, social media and mobile health applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilly, Philip; Jair, Sophia; Mahmood, Zahra; Moin Khan, Armineh; Munir, Aneesah; Osei-Bediako, Irene; Samir, Mustafa; Kayyali, Reem

    2018-05-06

    Investigating public perceptions of community pharmacists (CP) in public health and their use of social media (SM) and mobile health applications (MH apps) in that regard. Two surveys were created. One sought public perceptions of SM and the other of MH apps for health advice. Both included a section on perceptions of the role of CPs in public health. A convenience sampling strategy, based on proximity, was used.The study population was the public (n = 8 500 000) living in Greater London. The general public were recruited face-to-face in public spaces. A minimum sample (95% confidence interval/5% margin of error) of 385 was needed. Ethical approval was obtained from the university ethics committee. Responses were analysed in SPSS. About 820/1800 (45.6%) completed one/both surveys. Respondents seek health advice primarily from GPs, followed by digital mediums and then CPs. Under 35s use digital mediums more frequently (P = 0.039). Those who had used SM (41.7%) or MH apps (61.8%) for health information did not confirm its accuracy with a healthcare professional (HCP). Of those that did (MH apps = 39.2%; SM = 58.3%), the HCP disagreed with the information on MH apps and SM on 19.6% and 36.7% of occasions, respectively. Nevertheless, 64.5% stated that if a SM page was maintained by an HCP they would use it. The public are using digital mediums for health advice instead of speaking to an HCP. If CPs want to have an impact on public health they must start imbedding digital mediums into their services. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Analysis of Nonlinear Periodic and Aperiodic Media: Application to Optical Logic Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yisheng

    This dissertation is about the analysis of nonlinear periodic and aperiodic media and their application to the design of intensity controlled all optical logic gates: AND, OR, and NOT. A coupled nonlinear differential equation that characterizes the electromagnetic wave propagation in a nonlinear periodic (and aperiodic) medium has been derived from the first principle. The equations are general enough that it reflects the effect of transverse modal fields and can be used to analyze both co-propagating and counter propagating waves. A numerical technique based on the finite differences method and absorbing boundary condition has been developed to solve the coupled differential equations here. The numerical method is simple and accurate. Unlike the method based on characteristics that has been reported in the literature, this method does not involve integration and step sizes of time and space coordinates are decoupled. The decoupling provides independent choice for time and space step sizes. The concept of "gap soliton" has also been re-examined. The dissertation consists of four manuscripts. Manuscript I reports on the design of all optical logic gates: AND, OR, and NOT based on the bistability property of nonlinear periodic and aperiodic waveguiding structures. The functioning of the logic gates has been shown by analysis. The numerical technique that has been developed to solve the nonlinear differential equations are addressed in manuscript II. The effect of transverse modal fields on the bistable property of nonlinear periodic medium is reported in manuscript III. The concept of "gap soliton" that are generated in a nonlinear periodic medium has been re-examined. The details on the finding of the re-examination are discussed in manuscript IV.

  11. Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, M., E-mail: kangm@ornl.gov [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bilheux, H.Z., E-mail: bilheuxhn@ornl.gov [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Voisin, S. [Computational Sciences and Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cheng, C.L.; Perfect, E. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Horita, J. [Department of Geosciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Warren, J.M. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-04-21

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

  12. The Extended Likeability Framework: A Theoretical Framework for and a Practical Case of Designing Likeable Media Applications for Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vero vanden Abeele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical framework and practical case for designing likeable interactive media applications for preschoolers in the home environment are introduced. First, we elaborate on the theoretical framework. We introduce the uses and gratifications paradigm (U&G. We argue that U&G is a good approach to researching likeability of media applications. Next, we complete the U&G framework with expectancy-value (EV theory. EV theory helps us move from theoretical insights to concrete design guidelines. Together, the U&G framework and the EV model form the foundation of our extended likeability framework for the design and evaluation of interactive media applications, for preschoolers in the home environment. Finally, we demonstrate a practical case of our extended likeability framework via the research project CuTI. The CuTI project aims at revealing those particular user gratifications and design attributes that are important to support playful behaviour and fun activities of preschoolers in the home environment.

  13. Porous media fluid transport and pore structure

    CERN Document Server

    Dullien, F A L

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the relationship between transport properties and pore structure of porous material. Models of pore structure are presented with a discussion of how such models can be used to predict the transport properties of porous media. Portions of the book are devoted to interpretations of experimental results in this area and directions for future research. Practical applications are given where applicable, and are expected to be useful for a large number of different fields, including reservoir engineering, geology, hydrogeology, soil science, chemical process engineering, biomedica

  14. Application of specific extraction chromatographic methods to the Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd isotope study of geological samples: The Hombreiro-Santa Eulalia Granite (Lugo, NW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Zalduegui, J. F.; Pin, C.; Aranguren, A.; Gil Ibarguchi, José Ignacio

    1996-01-01

    The analytical application to geological samples of three new chromatographic resins, TRU-Spec ®, Sr-Spec ® and LN-Spec ®) has been investigated. Seven samples of the Hombreiro massif (Lugo, NW Spain) have been studied, that yield a Rb-Sr age of 298 ±5 Ma (SrQ = 0.7086, MSWD = 7.64) for the magma crystallization. Sm-Nd data results for the same massif give eNd values dose to -2 at 300 Ma. This suggests that the origin of the magma might be related to the partial melting of immature sediments,...

  15. Information dissemination analysis of different media towards the application for disaster pre-warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the information dissemination mechanisms of different media and having an efficient information dissemination plan for disaster pre-warning plays a very important role in reducing losses and ensuring the safety of human beings. In this paper we established models of information dissemination for six typical information media, including short message service (SMS), microblogs, news portals, cell phones, television, and oral communication. Then, the information dissemination capability of each medium concerning individuals of different ages, genders, and residential areas was simulated, and the dissemination characteristics were studied. Finally, radar graphs were used to illustrate comprehensive assessments of the six media; these graphs show directly the information dissemination characteristics of all media. The models and the results are essential for improving the efficiency of information dissemination for the purpose of disaster pre-warning and for formulating emergency plans which help to reduce the possibility of injuries, deaths and other losses in a disaster.

  16. Application of perturbation theory to a P-wave eikonal equation in orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, Alexey; Masmoudi, Nabil; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-01-01

    The P-wave eikonal equation for orthorhombic (ORT) anisotropic media is a highly nonlinear partial differential equation requiring the solution of a sixth-order polynomial to obtain traveltimes, resulting in complex and time-consuming numerical

  17. Multispectral Thermal Imagery and Its Application to the Geologic Mapping of the Koobi Fora Formation, Northwestern Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Mary K. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2005-12-01

    The Koobi Fora Formation in northwestern Kenya has yielded more hominin fossils dated between 2.1 and 1.2 Ma than any other location on Earth. This research was undertaken to discover the spectral signatures of a portion of the Koobi Fora Formation using imagery from the DOE's Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite. Creation of a digital geologic map from MTI imagery was a secondary goal of this research. MTI is unique amongst multispectral satellites in that it co-collects data from 15 spectral bands ranging from the visible to the thermal infrared with a ground sample distance of 5 meters per pixel in the visible and 20 meters in the infrared. The map was created in two stages. The first was to correct the base MTI image using spatial accuracy assessment points collected in the field. The second was to mosaic various MTI images together to create the final Koobi Fora map. Absolute spatial accuracy of the final map product is 73 meters. The geologic classification of the Koobi Fora MTI map also took place in two stages. The field work stage involved location of outcrops of different lithologies within the Koobi Fora Formation. Field descriptions of these outcrops were made and their locations recorded. During the second stage, a linear spectral unmixing algorithm was applied to the MTI mosaic. In order to train the linear spectra unmixing algorithm, regions of interest representing four different classes of geologic material (tuff, alluvium, carbonate, and basalt), as well as a vegetation class were defined within the MTI mosaic. The regions of interest were based upon the aforementioned field data as well as overlays of geologic maps from the 1976 Iowa State mapping project. Pure spectra were generated for each class from the regions of interest, and then the unmixing algorithm classified each pixel according to relative percentage of classes found within the pixel based upon the pure spectra values. A total of four unique combinations of geologic

  18. Application of radiation grafted media for lectin affinity separation and urease immobilization: a novel approach to tumor therapy and renal disease diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Schulte, D.; Daschek, W.

    1995-01-01

    Carriers modified by synergistic radiation grafting are used as affinity media for the separation of a lectin from a mistletoe extract. The grafted supports show distinctly superior properties when compared to conventional affinity media. The application of these carriers as urease immobilization support incorporated in a conductimetric bioreactor for urea analysis as potential diagnostic device in renal diseases is also described. (Author)

  19. The application of ethnographic method in the study of digital media

    OpenAIRE

    Amelia Capobianco

    2015-01-01

    Digital media raise methodological issues of some relevance. The following article tries to be a contribution to the qualitative analysis of Social Networks through the use of media ethnography. We deal with issues such as time and space and with how these dimension get transformed in digital environments; the very definition of environment and social network; an effective communication; the constant flow between online and off-line activities; the role of the “digital” researcher, his/her in...

  20. Information Dissemination Analysis of Different Media towards the Application for Disaster Pre-Warning

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the information dissemination mechanisms of different media and having an efficient information dissemination plan for disaster pre-warning plays a very important role in reducing losses and ensuring the safety of human beings. In this paper we established models of information dissemination for six typical information media, including short message service (SMS), microblogs, news portals, cell phones, television, and oral communication. Then, the information dissemination capability ...

  1. System identification of propagating wave segments in excitable media and its application to advanced control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Hisatoshi; Konishi, Keiji; Hara, Naoyuki

    2018-04-01

    The present paper proposes a scheme for controlling wave segments in excitable media. This scheme consists of two phases: in the first phase, a simple mathematical model for wave segments is derived using only the time series data of input and output signals for the media; in the second phase, the model derived in the first phase is used in an advanced control technique. We demonstrate with numerical simulations of the Oregonator model that this scheme performs better than a conventional control scheme.

  2. SOCIAL MEDIA USAGE AS A PUBLIC RELATIONS APPLICATION:CHANGE.ORG ZEYTINHAYATTIR SIGNATURE CAMPAIGNRESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    TEZCAN, Elif Tuba

    2017-01-01

    Social media is most basic common way of socializing in the field of public relations; Using social media to create a common thought on common interest or joke, they gave birth to online signature campaigns. Signature campaigns used in Public Relation have an important place in creating a social platform. That individuals can freely share their emotions and thoughts, build crowdsourcing, act towards a certain goal and support signature campaigns is a social phenomenon. Individuals can freely ...

  3. Methods, media and systems for managing a distributed application running in a plurality of digital processing devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laadan, Oren; Nieh, Jason; Phung, Dan

    2012-10-02

    Methods, media and systems for managing a distributed application running in a plurality of digital processing devices are provided. In some embodiments, a method includes running one or more processes associated with the distributed application in virtualized operating system environments on a plurality of digital processing devices, suspending the one or more processes, and saving network state information relating to network connections among the one or more processes. The method further include storing process information relating to the one or more processes, recreating the network connections using the saved network state information, and restarting the one or more processes using the stored process information.

  4. Thermochemical convection in porous media : an application to hydrothermal systems and magmetic intrusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoofs, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The motion of aqueous and magmatic liquids has a large influence on the evolution of the cooling and chemically differentiating Earth. In many geological environments, these fluids percolate through the pores and fractures of a solid matrix, which is composed of (un)conso-lidated rocks or

  5. Study on geology and geological structure based on literature studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funaki, Hironori; Ishii, Eiichi; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Kazuharu

    2005-03-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is proceeding with underground research laboratory (URL) project for the sedimentary rock in Horonobe, Hokkaido. This project is an investigation project which is planned over 20 years. Surface-based investigations (Phase 1) have been conducted for the present. The purposes of the Phase 1 are to construct the geological environment model (geological-structural, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical models) and to confirm the applicability of investigation technologies for the geological environment. The geological-structural model comprises the base for the hydrogeological and hydrochemical models. We constructed the geological-structural model by mainly using data obtained from literature studies. Particulars regarding which data the model is based on and who has performed the interpretation are also saved for traceability. As a result, we explain the understanding of degree and the need of information on stratigraphy and discontinuous structure. (author)

  6. Widespread use of internet, applications, and social media in the professional life of urology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Johannes; Borgmann, Hendrik; Baunacke, Martin; Boehm, Katharina; Hanske, Julian; Macneily, Andrew; Meyer, Christian; Nestler, Tim; Schmid, Marianne; Huber, Johannes

    2017-09-01

    Digital media have revolutionized communication and information dissemination in healthcare. We aimed to quantify and evaluate professional digital media use among urology residents. We designed a 17-item survey to assess usage and perceived usefulness of digital media, as well as communication type and device type and distributed it via email to 143 Canadian and 721 German urology residents. In total, 58 (41% response rate) residents from Canada and 170 (24% response rate) from Germany reported professional usage rates of 100% on the internet, 89% on apps, and 46% on social media (SoMe). For professional use, residents spent a median of 30 minutes per day on the internet, 10 minutes on apps, and 15 minutes on SoMe. 100% rated the internet, 89% apps, and 31% SoMe as useful for clinical practice. Most (94%) used digital media for communication with colleagues and 23% for communication with patients. Digital media use was allocated to desktop computers (55%) and mobile devices (45%). Canadian residents had higher usage rates of apps (96% vs. 86%; p=0.042) and SoMe (65% vs. 39%; p=0.002) and longer daily usage times for the internet, apps, and SoMe than German residents (pmedia are an integral part of the daily professional practice of urology residents, reflected by high usage rates and perceived usefulness of the internet and apps, and the growing importance of SoMe. Urologists should strive to progressively exhaust the vast potential of digital media for academic and clinical practice.

  7. Widespread use of internet, applications, and social media in the professional life of urology residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Johannes; Borgmann, Hendrik; Baunacke, Martin; Boehm, Katharina; Hanske, Julian; MacNeily, Andrew; Meyer, Christian; Nestler, Tim; Schmid, Marianne; Huber, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Digital media have revolutionized communication and information dissemination in healthcare. We aimed to quantify and evaluate professional digital media use among urology residents. Methods We designed a 17-item survey to assess usage and perceived usefulness of digital media, as well as communication type and device type and distributed it via email to 143 Canadian and 721 German urology residents. Results In total, 58 (41% response rate) residents from Canada and 170 (24% response rate) from Germany reported professional usage rates of 100% on the internet, 89% on apps, and 46% on social media (SoMe). For professional use, residents spent a median of 30 minutes per day on the internet, 10 minutes on apps, and 15 minutes on SoMe. 100% rated the internet, 89% apps, and 31% SoMe as useful for clinical practice. Most (94%) used digital media for communication with colleagues and 23% for communication with patients. Digital media use was allocated to desktop computers (55%) and mobile devices (45%). Canadian residents had higher usage rates of apps (96% vs. 86%; p=0.042) and SoMe (65% vs. 39%; p=0.002) and longer daily usage times for the internet, apps, and SoMe than German residents (pmedia are an integral part of the daily professional practice of urology residents, reflected by high usage rates and perceived usefulness of the internet and apps, and the growing importance of SoMe. Urologists should strive to progressively exhaust the vast potential of digital media for academic and clinical practice. PMID:29382458

  8. Application of Cutting-Edge 3D Seismic Attribute Technology to the Assessment of Geological Reservoirs for CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Liner; Jianjun Zeng; Po Geng Heather King Jintan Li; Jennifer Califf; John Seales

    2010-03-31

    The goals of this project were to develop innovative 3D seismic attribute technologies and workflows to assess the structural integrity and heterogeneity of subsurface reservoirs with potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration. Our specific objectives were to apply advanced seismic attributes to aide in quantifying reservoir properies and lateral continuity of CO{sub 2} sequestration targets. Our study area is the Dickman field in Ness County, Kansas, a type locality for the geology that will be encountered for CO{sub 2} sequestration projects from northern Oklahoma across the U.S. midcontent to Indiana and beyond. Since its discovery in 1962, the Dickman Field has produced about 1.7 million barrels of oil from porous Mississippian carbonates with a small structural closure at about 4400 ft drilling depth. Project data includes 3.3 square miles of 3D seismic data, 142 wells, with log, some core, and oil/water production data available. Only two wells penetrate the deep saline aquifer. Geological and seismic data were integrated to create a geological property model and a flow simulation grid. We systematically tested over a dozen seismic attributes, finding that curvature, SPICE, and ANT were particularly useful for mapping discontinuities in the data that likely indicated fracture trends. Our simulation results in the deep saline aquifer indicate two effective ways of reducing free CO{sub 2}: (a) injecting CO{sub 2} with brine water, and (b) horizontal well injection. A tuned combination of these methods can reduce the amount of free CO{sub 2} in the aquifer from over 50% to less than 10%.

  9. Nurses and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Rory

    Nurses' use of social media and other electronic communications has increased significantly with growing numbers of social media opportunities, platforms and applications including blogs, social networking sites, video sites and online chat rooms and forums.

  10. Possible applications of energy-dispersive powder diffractometry in the phase analysis of metallurgical and geological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, S.; Jugelt, P.

    1978-01-01

    Energy-dispersive powder diffractometry renders possible nondestructive quantitative determination of both α and γ phases of iron with shorter measuring time as compared to angle-dispersive techniques. In investigating geological specimens above all the possibility of obtaining qualitative survey analyses within short time is advantageous. The comparatively lower separability leads to difficulties because of increased line density. Therefore, quantitative phase analysis requires the use of spectra unfolding programmes. For laboratory analyses it is advantageous that the same measuring equipment allows the performance of multi-element analyses. (author)

  11. Compact Micro-Imaging Spectrometer (CMIS): Investigation of Imaging Spectroscopy and Its Application to Mars Geology and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staten, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    Future missions to Mars will attempt to answer questions about Mars' geological and biological history. The goal of the CMIS project is to design, construct, and test a capable, multi-spectral micro-imaging spectrometer use in such missions. A breadboard instrument has been constructed with a micro-imaging camera and Several multi-wavelength LED illumination rings. Test samples have been chosen for their interest to spectroscopists, geologists and astrobiologists. Preliminary analysis has demonstrated the advantages of isotropic illumination and micro-imaging spectroscopy over spot spectroscopy.

  12. Social media modeling and computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hoi, Steven CH; Boll, Susanne; Xu, Dong; Jin, Rong; King, Irwin

    2011-01-01

    Presents contributions from an international selection of preeminent experts in the field Discusses topics on social-media content analysis, and examines social-media system design and analysis Describes emerging applications of social media

  13. Personal health and consumer informatics. The impact of health oriented social media applications on health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, M C

    2013-01-01

    The rapid evolution in the world-wide use of Social Media tools suggests the emergence of a global phenomenon that may have implications in the Personal Health and Consumer Health Informatics domains. However the impact of these tools on health outcomes is not known. The goal of this research was to review the randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence of the impact of health oriented Social Media informatics tools on health outcomes. Evaluations of Social Media consumer health tools were systematically reviewed. Research was limited to studies published in the English language, published in Medline, published in the calendar year 2012 and limited to studies that utilized a RCT methodological design. Two high quality Randomized Controlled Trials among over 600 articles published in Medline were identified. These studies indicate that Social Media interventions may be able to significantly improve pain control among patients with chronic pain and enhance weight loss maintenance among individuals attempting to lose weight. Significantly more research needs to be done to confirm these early findings, evaluate additional health outcomes and further evaluate emerging health oriented Social Media interventions. Chronic pain and weight control have both socially oriented determinants. These studies suggest that understanding the social component of a disease may ultimately provide novel therapeutic targets and socio-clinical interventional strategies.

  14. Learning theory and its application to the use of social media in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Leslie; Jalali, Alireza; Moreau, Katherine A

    2015-10-01

    There is rapidly increasing pressure to employ social media in medical education, but a review of the literature demonstrates that its value and role are uncertain. To determine if medical educators have a conceptual framework that informs their use of social media and whether this framework can be mapped to learning theory. Thirty-six participants engaged in an iterative, consensus building process that identified their conceptual framework and determined if it aligned with one or more learning theories. The results show that the use of social media by the participants could be traced to two dominant theories-Connectivism and Constructivism. They also suggest that many medical educators may not be fully informed of these theories. Medical educators' use of social media can be traced to learning theories, but these theories may not be explicitly utilised in instructional design. It is recommended that formal education (faculty development) around learning theory would further enhance the use of social media in medical education. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Application of VSP to geological investigation; P ha oyobi S ha VSP wo mochiita shinso chishitsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinugasa, Y [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Feng, S; Sugiyama, T; Ishikawa, K [Chuoh Kaihatsu Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Discussed in this paper are the P-wave and S-wave zero-offset VSPs carried out utilizing boreholes located in Nada Ward, Kobe City, and Hokudan-cho, Hyogo Prefecture, as part of the deep layer boring survey following Hanshin Earthquake Disaster. This effort aims at the elucidation of P-wave and S-wave velocity structures, high-precision identification of data obtained by the surface reflection method, and collection of basic data for active faults investigation in the future. Among the velocity structures obtained for various layers, the S-wave velocity structures in particular agree with the stratigraphy excellently and may be utilized in seismic analyses to be conducted in the future. Reflection from geological boundaries is received with precision, providing accurate information about correlation between reflection and geological cross sections. The records will be useful in formulating plans for reflection surveys for instance of the boundary between the Osaka group and Kobe group. Generally speaking, reflection coefficients are large when the reflection is from a boundary where difference is great in elastic wave impedance (mainly difference in velocity). In the case of the boundary between the Kobe group and granite in Awaji Island, however, no strong reflection is found despite the great difference in velocity. This is attributed to the complicated, sharp inclination of the basement rock and to its weathering. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Multi-pathway model of nuclide transport in fractured media and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xun; Yang Zeping; Li Jinxuan

    2010-01-01

    In order to know the law of nuclide transport in fracture system, the basic differential equations of nuclide transport in fracture and matrix were obtained based on the dual media theory, and the general analytic solutions of nuclide transport in single fractured media with exponential attenuation source in fracture were deduced by Laplace transform, and one-dimensional multi-pathway model of nuclide transport was proposed based on dual media theory and stochastic distribution of fracture parameters. The transport of Th-229, Cs-135 and Se-79 were simulated with this model, the relative concentration of these nuclides in fracture system were predicted. Further more, it was deduced that aperture and velocity can distinctly influence transport of nuclide by comparing with the results which were simulated by single fracture model. (authors)

  17. Application of infrared thermography for temperature distributions in fluid-saturated porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Muhammad; Nick, Hamid; Schotting, Ruud J.

    2016-01-01

    is achieved with a combination of invasive sensors which are inserted into the medium and non-invasive thermal sensors in which sensors are not inserted to measure temperatures but it works through the detection of infrared radiation emitted from the surface. Thermocouples of relatively thin diameter are used......Infrared thermography has increasingly gained importance because of environmental and technological advancements of this method and is applied in a variety of disciplines related to non-isothermal flow. However, it has not been used so far for quantitative thermal analysis in saturated porous media....... This article suggests infrared thermographic approach to obtain the entire surface temperature distribution(s) in water-saturated porous media. For this purpose, infrared thermal analysis is applied with in situ calibration for a better understanding of the heat transfer processes in porous media. Calibration...

  18. DEVELOPING GUIDED DISCOVERY LEARNING MATERIALS USING MATHEMATICS MOBILE LEARNING APPLICATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE MEDIA FOR THE STUDENTS CALCULUS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunismi .

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The development research aims to develop guided-discovery learning materials of Calculus II by implementing Mathematics Mobile Learning (MML. The products to develop are MML media of Calculus II using guided discovery model for students and a guide book for lecturers. The study employed used 4-D development model consisting of define, design, develop, and disseminate. The draft of the learning materials was validated by experts and tried-out to a group of students. The data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by using a descriptive technique and t-test. The findings of the research were appropriate to be used ad teaching media for the students. The students responded positively that the MML media of Calculus II using the guided-discovery model was interestingly structured, easily operated through handphones (all JAVA, android, and blackberry-based handphones to be used as their learning guide anytime. The result of the field testing showed that the guided-discovery learning materials of Calculus II using the Mathematics Mobile Learning (MML application was effective to adopt in learning Calculus II. Keywords: learning materials, guided-discovery, mathematics mobile learning (MML, calculus II PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR MODEL GUIDED DISCOVERY DENGAN APLIKASI MATHEMATICS MOBILE LEARNING SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN MAHASISWA MATAKULIAH KALKULUS II Abstrak: Penelitian pengembangan ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan bahan ajar matakuliah Kalkulus II model guided discovery dengan aplikasi Mathematics Mobile Learning (MML. Produk yang dikembangkan berupa media MML Kalkulus II dengan model guided discovery untuk mahasiswa dan buku panduan dosen. Model pengembangan menggunakan 4-D yang meliputi tahap define, design, develop, dan dissemination. Draf bahan ajar divalidasi oleh pakar dan diujicobakan kepada sejumlah mahasiswa. Data dianalisis secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif dengan teknik deskriptif dan uji t. Temuan penelitian

  19. Planetary geology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasselt, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date interdisciplinary geoscience-focused overview of solid solar system bodies and their evolution, based on the comparative description of processes acting on them. Planetary research today is a strongly multidisciplinary endeavor with efforts coming from engineering and natural sciences. Key focal areas of study are the solid surfaces found in our Solar System. Some have a direct interaction with the interplanetary medium and others have dynamic atmospheres. In any of those cases, the geological records of those surfaces (and sub-surfaces) are key to understanding the Solar System as a whole: its evolution and the planetary perspective of our own planet. This book has a modular structure and is divided into 4 sections comprising 15 chapters in total. Each section builds upon the previous one but is also self-standing. The sections are:  Methods and tools Processes and Sources  Integration and Geological Syntheses Frontiers The latter covers the far-reaching broad topics of exo...

  20. Beyond Social Media: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Other Internet and Mobile Phone Applications in a Community Psychiatry Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colder Carras, Michelle; Mojtabai, Ramin; Cullen, Bernadette

    2018-03-01

    Popular media applications have been shown to benefit people with severe mental illness by facilitating communication and social support, helping patients cope with or manage symptoms, and providing a way to monitor or predict mental health states. Although many studies of technology use by individuals with severe mental illness have focused primarily on use of social media, this study provides additional information about use of Internet applications such as blogs, wikis (websites that allow collaborative editing of content and structure by users), video games, and Skype by a community psychiatry population. All English-speaking patients attending an outpatient program during a 4-week period in 2011 (N=274) were surveyed about their technology use and demographic information; 189 patients provided demographic data and comprised the sample. Among Internet users (n=112), rates of use of message boards, wikis, Skype, role-playing games, and blogs ranged from 26.8% to 34.8%. Among mobile phone users (n=162), 41.4% used their phones to access the Internet and 25.3% used Twitter on their phones. In multivariate analysis, patients who had attended or completed college had much greater odds of accessing the Internet on mobile phones. Older patients were much less likely to access the Internet or use Twitter. Our findings indicate that use of several popular forms of media is not uncommon in a community psychiatry population, but that rates of use differ on the basis of age and education. As the digital divide between people with severe mental illness and the general population is lessening, further research is needed to determine how to best leverage various types of media to support mental health recovery and complement clinical care.

  1. Strategy for selecting disposable bags for cell culture media applications based on a root-cause investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joseph; Mahajan, Ekta; Shiratori, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    The use of disposable bags for cell culture media storage has grown significantly in the past decade. Some of the key advantages of using disposable bags relative to non-disposable containers include increased product throughput, decreased cleaning validation costs, reduced risk of cross contamination and lower facility costs. As the scope of use of disposable bags for cell culture applications increases, problematic bags and scenarios should be identified and addressed to continue improving disposables technologies and meet the biotech industry's needs. In this article, we examine a cell culture application wherein media stored in disposable bags is warmed at 37°C before use for cell culture operations. A problematic bag film was identified through a prospective and retrospective cell culture investigation. The investigation provided information on the scope and variation of the issue with respect to different Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines, cell culture media, and application-specific parameters. It also led to the development of application-specific test methods and enabled a strategy for disposable bag film testing. The strategy was implemented for qualifying an alternative bag film for use in our processes. In this test strategy, multiple lots of 13 bag film types, encompassing eight vendors were evaluated using a three round, cell culture-based test strategy. The test strategy resulted in the determination of four viable bag film options based on the technical data. The results of this evaluation were used to conclude that a volatile or air-quenched compound, likely generated by gamma irradiation of the problematic bag film, negatively impacted cell culture performance. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  2. k0-NAA implementation and application at IPEN neutron activation laboratory by using the k0-IAEA software: application to geological sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, Davi Brigatto

    2011-01-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN-IPEN) has been analysing geological samples such as rocks, soils and sediments, for many years with the INAA comparative method, for geochemical and environmental research. This study presents the results obtained in the implementation of the k 0 -standardization method at LAN - IPEN, for geological sample analysis, by using the program k 0 - IAEA, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The thermal to epithermal flux ratio f and the shape factor α of the epithermal flux distribution of the IPEN IEA-R1 nuclear reactor were determined for the pneumatic irradiation facility and one selected irradiation position, for short and long irradiations, respectively. To obtain these factors, the 'are triple-monitor' method with 197 Au- 96 Zr- 94 Zr was used. In order to validate the methodology, the geological reference materials basalts JB-1 (GSJ) and BE-N (IWG-GIT), andesite AGV-1 (USGS), granite GS-N (ANRT), SOIL-7 (IAEA) and sediment Buffalo River Sediment (NIST - BRS-8704), which represent different geological matrices, were analysed. The concentration results obtained agreed with assigned values, with bias less than 10% except for Zn in AGV-1 (11.4%) and Mg in GS-N (13.4%). Three different scores were used to evaluate the results: z-score, zeta-score and Uscore. The z-score showed that the results can be considered satisfactory (z 3) for Mn in BE-N, Mg, Ce and La in GS-N, Mg in JB-1, and Th and Eu in Buffalo River Sediment. The U-score test showed that all results, except Mg in JB-1, were within 95% confidence interval. These results indicate excellent possibilities of using this parametric method at the LAN-IPEN for geological samples analysis in geochemical and environmental studies. (author)

  3. Flow in fissured porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stichel, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The flow simulation in fissured porous media is of importance for hydro-geological applications like ground water contamination in the neighborhood of waste disposal sites, radioactive waste repositories, fossil fuel mining or underground CO2 storage facilities. The permeability within the fissures - that are preferred transport paths - could influence the flow profile. The anisotropic geometry and the excursive parameter changes produce enormous challenges to numerical methods. A low-dimensional approach is used to model then processes within the fissures, acceptable results were reached. Based on the properties of the fissure and flow parameters a criterion was defined that allows to judge whether the application of the low-dimensional approach is sufficient. A dimension-adapting approach is presented that allow the change tp a full-dimensional model according to the criterion.

  4. Ionised media and fractures: application to cartilaginous tissues and oil industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyghe, J.M.R.J.; Kraaijeveld, F.; Remmers, J.J.C.; Borst, de R.; Denier, J; Finn, M.D.; Mattner, T

    2008-01-01

    ionized media are ubiquitous in nature. Our body holds onto water through ionised macromolecules that bind water up to a 1000 times their own mass. Clays and shales do a similar trick in the geoworld. Localization of deformation and fractures are very common. Bore hole instability through fracture

  5. Continuum description of thermodynamic processes in porous media: Fundament als and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassanizadeh SM

    1987-01-01

    Dit is de tekst van een aantal lezingen die door de auteur zijn gegeven bij de afdeling civiele techniek van de Universiteit van Notre Dame te Indiana, U.S.A. Uitgangspunten en principes die ten grondslag liggen aan de beschrijving van de continue poreuze media worden gepresenteerd en

  6. Towards a social media-based model of trust and its application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Gerrits, B.M.; Kooij, R.E.; Maanen, P.P. van; Raaijmakers, S.A.; Wit, J.J. de

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development of a model for measuring consumer trust in certain topics on the basis of social media. Specifically, we propose a model for trust that takes into account both textually expressed sentiment and source authority, and illustrate it on a specific case: the

  7. Climate Change Discourse in Mass Media: Application of Computer-Assisted Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana O.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of mass media publications has become a major scientific method used to analyze public discourse on climate change. We propose a computer-assisted content analysis method to extract prevalent themes and analyze discourse changes over an extended period in an objective and quantifiable manner. The method includes the following: (1)…

  8. Bullying and Mobbing in Academe: Challenges for Distance Education and Social Media Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravec, Jo Ann

    2012-01-01

    Bullying and mobbing are migrating to online realms, intensifying the damage involved and increasing the complexities of these issues. Social media (such as Facebook and Twitter) are intensely communal in many senses; they may serve to increase the negative aspects of bullying and mobbing as well as provide community-oriented tools for mitigation.…

  9. High resolution magnetic force microscopy: instrumentation and application for recording media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porthun, Steffen; Porthun, S.

    This thesis describes aspects of the use of magnetic force microscopy for the study of magnetic recording media. The maximum achievable storage density in magnetic recording is limited by the magnetic reversal behaviour of the medium and by the stability of the written information. The shape and

  10. Fractional and fractal dynamics approach to anomalous diffusion in porous media: application to landslide behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelloni, Gianluca; Bagnoli, Franco

    2016-04-01

    and physical applications, Physics reports, 195(4-5), 127293, 1990. [27] P.-G. de Gennes, Scaling Concepts in Polymer Physics, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1979. [28] M. Doi, S.F. Edwards, The Theory of Polymer Dynamics, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1986. [29] M. Porto, A. Bunde, S. Havlin, H.E. Roman, Phys. Rev. E 56 (2), 1997. [30] P. Allegrini, M. Buiatti, P. Grigolini, B. J. West, Non-Gaussian statistics of anomalous diffusion: The DNA sequences of prokaryotes, Physical Review E 58(3), 1998. [31] M. Bologna, C. Tsallis, P. Grigolini, Anomalous diffusion associated with nonlinear fractional derivative Fokker-Planck-like equation: Exact time-dependent solutions, Physical Review E, 62(2), 2000. [32] W. Chen, H. Sun, X. Zhang, D. Korosak, Anomalous diffusion modeling by fractal and fractional derivatives, Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 59, 1754-1758, 2010. [33] V.E. Tarasov, Fractional Hydrodynamic Equations for Fractal Media, Annals of Physics, 318(2), 286-307, 2005. [34] G. Martelloni, S. Segoni, R. Fanti, F. Catani, Rainfall thresholds for the forecasting of landslide occurrence at regional scale. Landslides Journal, 9(4), 485-495, 2012. [35] M.G. Anderson, S. Howes, Development and application of a combined soil water-slope stability model, Q. J. Eng. Geol. London, 18: 225-236, 1985. [36] R.M. Iverson, Landslide triggering by rain infiltration, Water Resources Research 36(7): 1897-1910, 2000. [37] N. Lu, J. Godt, Infinite slope stability under steady unsaturated seepage conditions, Water Resources Research, Vol. 44, W11404, doi:10.1029/2008WR006976, 2008. [38] W. Wu, R.C. Sidle, A Distributed Slope Stability Model for Steep Forested Basins, Water Resour. Res., 31(8), 2097-2110, doi:10.1029/95WR01136, 1995. [39] G.B. Crosta, P. Frattini, Distributed modelling of shallow landslides triggered by intense rainfall, Natural Hazards and System Sciences 3: 81-93, 2003. [40] A. Patra, A. Bauer, C. Nichita, E. Pitman, M. Sheridan, M. Bursik, et al., Parallel

  11. A novel numerical approach for the solution of the problem of two-phase, immiscible flow in porous media: Application to LNAPL and DNAPL

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2012-06-17

    The flow of two immiscible fluids in porous media is ubiquitous particularly in petroleum exploration and extraction. The displacement of one fluid by another immiscible with it represents a very important aspect in what is called enhanced oil recovery. Another example is related to the long-term sequestration of carbon dioxide, CO2 , in deep geologic formations. In this technique, supercritical CO2 is introduced into deep saline aquifer where it displaces the hosting fluid. Furthermore, very important classes of contaminants that are very slightly soluble in water and represent a huge concern if they get introduced to groundwater could basically be assumed immiscible. These are called light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL) and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). All these applications necessitate that efficient algorithms be developed for the numerical solution of these problems. In this work we introduce the use of shifting matrices to numerically solving the problem of two-phase immiscible flows in the subsurface. We implement the cell-center finite difference method which discretizes the governing set of partial differential equations in conservative manner. Unlike traditional solution methodologies, which are based on performing the discretization on a generic cell and solve for all the cells within a loop, in this technique, the cell center information for all the cells are obtained all at once without loops using matrix oriented operations. This technique is significantly faster than the traditional looping algorithms, particularly for larger systems when coding using languages that require repeating interpretation each time a loop is called like Mat Lab, Python and the like. We apply this technique to the transport of LNAPL and DNAPL into a rectangular domain.

  12. TOUGH2Biot - A simulator for coupled thermal-hydrodynamic-mechanical processes in subsurface flow systems: Application to CO2 geological storage and geothermal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hongwu; Xu, Tianfu; Jin, Guangrong

    2015-04-01

    Coupled thermal-hydrodynamic-mechanical processes have become increasingly important in studying the issues affecting subsurface flow systems, such as CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers and geothermal development. In this study, a mechanical module based on the extended Biot consolidation model was developed and incorporated into the well-established thermal-hydrodynamic simulator TOUGH2, resulting in an integrated numerical THM simulation program TOUGH2Biot. A finite element method was employed to discretize space for rock mechanical calculation and the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was used to determine if the rock undergoes shear-slip failure. Mechanics is partly coupled with the thermal-hydrodynamic processes and gives feedback to flow through stress-dependent porosity and permeability. TOUGH2Biot was verified against analytical solutions for the 1D Terzaghi consolidation and cooling-induced subsidence. TOUGH2Biot was applied to evaluate the thermal, hydrodynamic, and mechanical responses of CO2 geological sequestration at the Ordos CCS Demonstration Project, China and geothermal exploitation at the Geysers geothermal field, California. The results demonstrate that TOUGH2Biot is capable of analyzing change in pressure and temperature, displacement, stress, and potential shear-slip failure caused by large scale underground man-made activity in subsurface flow systems. TOUGH2Biot can also be easily extended for complex coupled process problems in fractured media and be conveniently updated to parallel versions on different platforms to take advantage of high-performance computing.

  13. Application and evaluation of the mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique in the determination of rare earths in geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, N.M.P. de.

    1988-01-01

    Establishment of the experimental procedures employed in the rare earth element determination of geological samples by mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis is discussed in the present work. The procedures involve preparation and calibration of the isotope tracers isotope dilution, dissolution in a teflon pressure vessel, chemical separation and isotope analysis using a fully automated Micromass VG ISOTOPES model 354 thermal ionization mass spectrometer. For the initial chemical separation of total rare earths the cationic resin was employed and HC1 and HNO 3 acids as eluents. In the second step rare earths elements were separated into individual (La, Ce and Nd) and subgroups (Sm-Eu-Gd, Yb-Er-Dy) fractions using the same cationic resin and α-HIBA as eluent. Nine elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er and Yb are determined by this method in the ''United States Geological Survey'' (USGS) standard samples GSP-1, AGV-1 and G-2, with an overall precision of +- 1 to 2% and an accuracy of 5%. The concentration of rare earth element determined in the standard sample PCC-1 showed that the total analytical blanks are in submicrogram levels. The concentration of rare earth elements in the same USGS standard samples were also determined by Instrumental neutron activation analysis, neutron activation analysis with chemical separation before irradiation and inductively coupled argon plasma spectroscopy. The chemical procedures employed for these methods are the same as that used for mass spectrometric isotope dilution. Based on the results obtained, each method was evaluated pointing out their merits and defects. The study clearly showed that the chemical procedure employed for all these techniques was satisfactory. (author) [pt

  14. Lead accumulation by jabon seedling (Anthocephalus cadamba) on tailing media with application of compost and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyaningsih, L.; Setiadi, Y.; Budi, S. W.; Hamim; Sopandie, D.

    2017-03-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the dangerous heavy metal contained in tailing that needs remediation activity. This study aimed to investigate the potency of jabon to take up and accumulate lead in its tissue by the application of compost and arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF) on pot observation. In Pb-containing tailing media, the average levels of Pb in roots seedling was 50% greater as compared to the levels of Pb in the stem and leaves of seedlings. Application of compost in tailings media significantly increased (p ≤ 0.5) the average levels of Pb in the roots and stems, but decreased Pb levels in leaves. Applications AMF significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.5) the average levels of Pb in the roots, stem and leaves of seedlings by approximately 18-33%. The combination applications of compost and AMF significantly (p ≤ 0.5) increased the level of Pb in the roots, stems and leaves of seedlings at 6, 16 and 27 fold respectively than that in control plant (without compost and AMF). After 12 weeks exposure, lead bioconcentration factor varied from 0.1-1.6 in seedling tissue with transport factor varied from 0.1-1.0. The application of active compost and AMF increased 1-15 fold lead accumulation from control, and the biggest accumulation was 452.9 x10-2 mg/plant with Pb concentration of 1.5 mM. Active compost and AMF application supported jabon seedling to act as lead phytostabilizer and to remove lead from the tailing to the above part of the plant.

  15. Identifying New Strategies to Assess and Promote Online Health Communication and Social Media Outreach: An Application in Bullying Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, Elizabeth; Reiney, Erin; Mueller, Siobhan; Reicherter, Barry; Curtis, Katherine; Waties, Stephanie; Limber, Susan P

    2016-05-01

    Every day in classrooms, playgrounds and school hallways, through text messages and mobile technology apps, children are bullied by other children. Conversations about this bullying-what it is, who is involved, and how to stop it-are taking place online. To fill a need for relevant, research-based materials on bullying, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Health Resources and Services Administration worked with Widmeyer Communications to investigate the scope of media conversations about bullying and discover new strategies for promoting appropriate public health messages about bullying to intended audiences. Key components of the methodology included: analyzing common search terms and aligning social media content with terms used in searches rather than technical language; identifying influencers in social media spheres, cultivating relationships with them, and sharing their positive, relevant content; examining which digital formats are most popular for sharing and creating content across platforms; tracking and reporting on a wide variety of metrics (such as click-through and engagement rates and reach, resonance, relevance, and Klout scores) to understand conversations around bullying; and looking at online conversations and engaging participants using applicable resources and calls to action. A key finding included a significant gap between search terms and online content and has led to recommendations and comprehensive ideas for improving the reach and resonance of StopBullying.gov content and communications. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  16. Lectures in isotope geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, E.; Hunziker, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Designed for a introductory course in geochronology and the geochemistry of stable isotopes, this text has been written by recognized experts in the field. Emphasis is on the interpretation and on applications, and examples of these are offered along with each technique. Extraterrestrial applications have been avoided and the treatment of pure experimentation has been kept at a minimum. This text will be appreciated by geologists who want to learn more about methods used in isotope geology, how they can be applied, and how to gauge their usefulness. (orig.) [de

  17. 2D resistivity survey in complex geological structure area. Application to the volcanic area; Fukuzatsuna chishitsu kozo chiiki ni okeru hiteiko nijigen tansa. Kazangan chiiki deno tekiorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, S; Ikuma, T; Tanifuji, R [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Introduced herein is an application of 2D resistivity survey to a volcanic rock area where the survey result is difficult to interpret because of its complex geological structure. In a dam site survey, main problems involve the permeability of water through faults and weathered, altered zones. At this site, a 2D resistivity survey was conducted, a 2D geological structure was deduced from the resistivity section, and the result was examined. It was found that resistivity distribution was closely related to hydrographic factors, but no obvious correlation was detected between rock classes and R, Q, and D. In conducting investigations into a section planned for a highway tunnel, it was learned that the problem was a volcanic ash layer to collapse instantly upon absorbing water, and the distribution of the ash layer, not to be disclosed by boring, was subjected to a 2D resistivity survey. The survey was conducted into the structure above where the tunnel would run, and further into the face, and studies were made about what layer was reflected by the resistivity distribution obtained by analysis. The result of the analysis agreed with the details of the layer that was disclosed afterward. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Development of the methodology on priority of element-specific biosphere parameters for geological disposal applicable to any proposed repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoko; Ohi, Takao; Suzuki, Yuji

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult to acquire all of biosphere parameters for geological disposal at the repository site because several hundreds of the parameters have to be dealt with in one calculation case of the biosphere assessment. Before site-specific activities, it is important to develop the data acquisition methodology of biosphere parameters applicable to any proposed repository site. The methodology for identification of the priority of the parameters was developed for the effective data acquisition of biosphere parameters at the site. First of all, flow diagram was constructed to evaluate the availability of the existing generic biosphere dataset. It was found to be effective for the data acquisition at the site to focus on the element-specific parameters with the existing dataset. Secondly, the priority of the data acquisition was identified for element-specific parameters at the site, with considering the variation of dose rate by combining the significant element-specific parameters. The availability of the existing generic biosphere dataset and the priority on data acquisition were identified for the element-specific parameters of key radionuclides in the safety assessment of geological disposal that should be acquired at the site. This priority list would be useful for effective data acquisition at the site. (author)

  19. Application of Multi-level Grey Evaluation on Geological Tourism Resources’ Economic Values of Geopark: A Case Study of Huashan Geopark in Shaanxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Gong, Xianjie

    2018-01-01

    Geo-park gives priority to geographical relic landscapes. It has not only rich geological touristic resources but also extraordinarily high values for economic development. Taking Huashan Geological Park as an example, the thesis systematically analyzes the characteristics of the geological touristic resources in this park. It applies the method of multilevel grey evaluation to establish the evaluation model for the economic values of the touristic resources in the geological park and presents detailed result of the assessment. The result concludes an excellent grade for the comprehensive evaluation of the economic values of Huashan geological touristic resources, reflecting the outstanding natural advantages of the park in geological resources. Moreover, in the single-item evaluations, the scientific evaluation ranks the highest in score, indicating that the geological touristic resources of the park have extraordinary geologically science-popularizing values as a significant condition for the development of scientific tours. It shows that the park is endowed with excellent prospects for economic development.

  20. Stability Analysis of Algebraic Reconstruction for Immersed Boundary Methods with Application in Flow and Transport in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadeh, M.; Battiato, I.

    2017-12-01

    Flow and reactive transport problems in porous media often involve complex geometries with stationary or evolving boundaries due to absorption and dissolution processes. Grid based methods (e.g. finite volume, finite element, etc.) are a vital tool for studying these problems. Yet, implementing these methods requires one to answer a very first question of what type of grid is to be used. Among different possible answers, Cartesian grids are one of the most attractive options as they possess simple discretization stencil and are usually straightforward to generate at roughly no computational cost. The Immersed Boundary Method, a Cartesian based methodology, maintains most of the useful features of the structured grids while exhibiting a high-level resilience in dealing with complex geometries. These features make it increasingly more attractive to model transport in evolving porous media as the cost of grid generation reduces greatly. Yet, stability issues and severe time-step restriction due to explicit-time implementation combined with limited studies on the implementation of Neumann (constant flux) and linear and non-linear Robin (e.g. reaction) boundary conditions (BCs) have significantly limited the applicability of IBMs to transport in porous media. We have developed an implicit IBM capable of handling all types of BCs and addressed some numerical issues, including unconditional stability criteria, compactness and reduction of spurious oscillations near the immersed boundary. We tested the method for several transport and flow scenarios, including dissolution processes in porous media, and demonstrate its capabilities. Successful validation against both experimental and numerical data has been carried out.

  1. Application of the lattice Boltzmann method to transient conduction and radiation heat transfer in cylindrical media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaabane, Raoudha; Askri, Faouzi; Ben Nasrallah, Sassi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is applied to solve the energy equation of a transient conduction-radiation heat transfer problem in a two-dimensional cylindrical enclosure filled with an emitting, absorbing and scattering media. The control volume finite element method (CVFEM) is used to obtain the radiative information. To demonstrate the workability of the LBM in conjunction with the CVFEM to conduction-radiation problems in cylindrical media, the energy equation of the same problem is also solved using the finite difference method (FDM). The effects of different parameters, such as the grid size, the scattering albedo, the extinction coefficient and the conduction-radiation parameter on temperature distribution within the medium are studied. Results of the present work are compared with those available in the literature. LBM-CVFEM results are also compared with those given by the FDM-CVFEM. In all cases, good agreement has been obtained.

  2. Application of perturbation theory to a P-wave eikonal equation in orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, Alexey

    2016-10-12

    The P-wave eikonal equation for orthorhombic (ORT) anisotropic media is a highly nonlinear partial differential equation requiring the solution of a sixth-order polynomial to obtain traveltimes, resulting in complex and time-consuming numerical solutions. To alleviate this complexity, we approximate the solution of this equation by applying a multiparametric perturbation approach. We also investigated the sensitivity of traveltime surfaces inORT mediawith respect to three anelliptic parameters. As a result, a simple and accurate P-wave traveltime approximation valid for ORT media was derived. Two different possible anelliptic parameterizations were compared. One of the parameterizations includes anelliptic parameters defined at zero offset: η1, η2, and ηxy. Another parameterization includes anelliptic parameters defined for all symmetry planes: η1, η2, and η3. The azimuthal behavior of sensitivity coefficients with different parameterizations was used to analyze the crosstalk between anelliptic parameters. © 2016 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  3. High-resolution room-temperature sample scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscope configurable for geological and biomagnetic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, L. E.; Holzer, J. R.; McBride, K. K.; Lima, E. A.; Baudenbacher, F.; Radparvar, M.

    2005-05-01

    We have developed a scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope system with interchangeable sensor configurations for imaging magnetic fields of room-temperature (RT) samples with submillimeter resolution. The low-critical-temperature (Tc) niobium-based monolithic SQUID sensors are mounted on the tip of a sapphire and thermally anchored to the helium reservoir. A 25μm sapphire window separates the vacuum space from the RT sample. A positioning mechanism allows us to adjust the sample-to-sensor spacing from the top of the Dewar. We achieved a sensor-to-sample spacing of 100μm, which could be maintained for periods of up to four weeks. Different SQUID sensor designs are necessary to achieve the best combination of spatial resolution and field sensitivity for a given source configuration. For imaging thin sections of geological samples, we used a custom-designed monolithic low-Tc niobium bare SQUID sensor, with an effective diameter of 80μm, and achieved a field sensitivity of 1.5pT/Hz1/2 and a magnetic moment sensitivity of 5.4×10-18Am2/Hz1/2 at a sensor-to-sample spacing of 100μm in the white noise region for frequencies above 100Hz. Imaging action currents in cardiac tissue requires a higher field sensitivity, which can only be achieved by compromising spatial resolution. We developed a monolithic low-Tc niobium multiloop SQUID sensor, with sensor sizes ranging from 250μm to 1mm, and achieved sensitivities of 480-180fT /Hz1/2 in the white noise region for frequencies above 100Hz, respectively. For all sensor configurations, the spatial resolution was comparable to the effective diameter and limited by the sensor-to-sample spacing. Spatial registration allowed us to compare high-resolution images of magnetic fields associated with action currents and optical recordings of transmembrane potentials to study the bidomain nature of cardiac tissue or to match petrography to magnetic field maps in thin sections of geological samples.

  4. Opinion dynamics: kinetic modelling with mass media, application to the Scottish independence referendum

    OpenAIRE

    Boudin , Laurent; Salvarani , Francesco

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We consider a kinetic model describing some mechanisms of opinion formation in the framework of referendums, by allowing that the individuals, who can interact between themselves and modify their opinion by means of spontaneous self-thinking, are moreover under the influence of mass media. After proving the main properties of the model, such as existence of solutions and conservation properties, we study, at the numerical level, both the transient and the asymptotic re...

  5. Geology and bedrock engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with geology of Korea which includes summary, geology in central part and southern part in Korea and characteristic of geology structure, limestone like geology property of limestone, engineered property of limestone, and design and construction case in limestone area. It also introduces engineered property of the cenozoic, clay rock and shale, geologic and engineered property of phyllite and stratum.

  6. The application of ethnographic method in the study of digital media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Capobianco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital media raise methodological issues of some relevance. The following article tries to be a contribution to the qualitative analysis of Social Networks through the use of media ethnography. We deal with issues such as time and space and with how these dimension get transformed in digital environments; the very definition of environment and social network; an effective communication; the constant flow between online and off-line activities; the role of the “digital” researcher, his/her influence on the subjects’ actions, his/her actual competence about the media and the balance of the management of situations that cross online and off-line environments, ethics and the protection of privacy. The figure of the ethnographic researcher changes, while ethnography represents – perhaps – one of the most effective methods for a research that maintains a phenomenological basis, helping to understand the meaning and value that certain tools, used for specific purposes, can take on for the youngest users.

  7. THE WAN-IFRA DISCOURSE: ADVICE, APPLICATION, AND DISQUALIFICATION OF ORGANISATIONAL MODELS IN MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Langonné

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the multiple exhortations made on the liberating - even saviour-type - role of the digital era over the past ten years in the field of journalism, one constant has remained: criticism of managerial models and dialectic of economic ones in the media which have defined the spheres of action, resulting in these discourses without ever sealing their fate. A fate that for several years now has been marked by a process in which journalists are being cast aside in favour of a managerial standpoint that broadly integrates 'convergence' as a tool of governance. This paper aims to question (as one of many mediations instituting convergence as a structuring model WAN-IFRA's discursive and ideological materiality. This international organisation of newspapers and news publishers has set its sights on convincing the print media of the necessity to switching to multiformat; to convergence. This work investigates the stability and/or instability of the WAN-IFRA discourse, as well as its ability to absorb other discourses. Lastly, through a cloud of prescriptive discourse it will indicate those discourses enforced by some managers in the media business.

  8. Non-parametric causality detection: An application to social media and financial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapeli, Fani; Musolesi, Mirco; Tino, Peter

    2017-10-01

    According to behavioral finance, stock market returns are influenced by emotional, social and psychological factors. Several recent works support this theory by providing evidence of correlation between stock market prices and collective sentiment indexes measured using social media data. However, a pure correlation analysis is not sufficient to prove that stock market returns are influenced by such emotional factors since both stock market prices and collective sentiment may be driven by a third unmeasured factor. Controlling for factors that could influence the study by applying multivariate regression models is challenging given the complexity of stock market data. False assumptions about the linearity or non-linearity of the model and inaccuracies on model specification may result in misleading conclusions. In this work, we propose a novel framework for causal inference that does not require any assumption about a particular parametric form of the model expressing statistical relationships among the variables of the study and can effectively control a large number of observed factors. We apply our method in order to estimate the causal impact that information posted in social media may have on stock market returns of four big companies. Our results indicate that social media data not only correlate with stock market returns but also influence them.

  9. The WAN-IFRA discourse: advice, application, and disqualification of organisational models in media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Langonné

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the multiple exhortations made on the liberating - even saviour-type - role of the digital era over the past ten years in the field of journalism, one constant has remained: criticism of managerial models and dialectic of economic ones in the media which have defined the spheres of action, resulting in these discourses without ever sealing their fate. A fate that for several years now has been marked by a process in which journalists are being cast aside in favour of a managerial standpoint that broadly integrates 'convergence' as a tool of governance. This paper aims to question (as one of many mediations instituting convergence as a structuring model WAN-IFRA's discursive and ideological materiality. This international organisation of newspapers and news publishers has set its sights on convincing the print media of the necessity to switching to multiformat; to convergence. This work investigates the stability and/or instability of the WAN-IFRA discourse, as well as its ability to absorb other discourses. Lastly, through a cloud of prescriptive discourse it will indicate those discourses enforced by some managers in the media business.

  10. Old Geology and New Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 May 2003Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Application of the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) in the rare earth elements determination in reference geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Moraes, Noemia M.P. de; Shihomatsu, Helena M.

    1997-01-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were applied to the determination of rare earth elements (REE) in the geological reference materials AGV-1, G-2 and GSP-1 (USGS). Results obtained by both techniques showed good agreement with certified values, giving relative errors less than 10%. The La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu REE elements were determined. All the REE except Dy and Y were determined by HPLC. The reference material G94, employed in the International Proficiency Test for Analytical Geochemistry Laboratories (GeoTP1) was analysed. The results obtained are a contribution to REE contents in this sample. The INAA and HPLC application to the determination of REE in this kind of matrix is also discussed. (author). 10 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  12. Regulatory aspects, an important factor for geothermal energy application for district heating development. European insurance scheme to cover geological risk related to geothermal operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, Kiril

    2000-01-01

    District heating is one of the most interesting fields of geothermal energy application development in Europe. However, besides the technical/technological/economical and organizational aspects of the problem in question, the related legal and regulatory aspects influence very much the real possibilities for wider introduction of this energy source in the state energy balances in most of the countries. Based on the official EU report for the State-of-the-art of the problem of the insurance to cover geological risks and necessary aspects to be developed and resolved in a better and 'common' way in order to enable higher investments in bigger projects (district heating) development, the paper presents the situation in different European countries in relation to the Macedonian one. Conclusions extracted should give a positive contribution to the process of the Macedonian laws accommodation to the common EU practice. (Author)

  13. The plumbing system of the Pagosa thermal Springs, Colorado: Application of geologically constrained geophysical inversion and data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revil, A.; Cuttler, S.; Karaoulis, M.; Zhou, J.; Raynolds, B.; Batzle, M.

    2015-06-01

    Fault and fracture networks usually provide the plumbing for movement of hydrothermal fluids in geothermal fields. The Big Springs of Pagosa Springs in Colorado is known as the deepest geothermal hot springs in the world. However, little is known about the plumbing system of this hot spring, especially regarding the position of the reservoir (if any) or the position of the major tectonic faults controlling the flow of the thermal water in this area. The Mancos shale, a Cretaceous shale, dominates many of the surface expressions around the springs and impede an easy recognition of the fault network. We use three geophysical methods (DC resistivity, self-potential, and seismic) to image the faults in this area, most of which are not recognized in the geologic fault map of the region. Results from these surveys indicate that the hot Springs (the Big Spring and a warm spring located 1.8 km further south) are located at the intersection of the Victoire Fault, a major normal crustal fault, and two north-northeast trending faults (Fault A and B). Self-potential and DC resistivity tomographies can be combined and a set of joint attributes defined to determine the localization of the flow of hot water associated with the Eight Miles Mesa Fault, a second major tectonic feature responsible for the occurrence of warm springs further West and South from the Big Springs of Pagosa Springs.

  14. Review of Environmental and Geological Microgravity Applications and Feasibility of Its Employment at Archaeological Sites in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev V. Eppelbaum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgravity investigations are widely applied at present for solving various environmental and geological problems. Unfortunately, microgravity survey is comparatively rarely used for searching for hidden ancient targets. It is caused mainly by small geometric size of the desired archaeological objects and various types of noise complicating the observed useful signal. At the same time, development of modern generation of field gravimetric equipment allows to register promptly and digitally microGal (10-8 m/s2 anomalies that offer a new challenge in this direction. An advanced methodology of gravity anomalies analysis and modern 3D modeling, intended for ancient targets delineation, is briefly presented. It is supposed to apply in archaeological microgravity the developed original methods for the surrounding terrain relief computing. Calculating second and third derivatives of gravity potential are useful for revealing some closed peculiarities of the different Physical-Archaeological Models (PAMs. It is underlined that physical measurement of vertical gravity derivatives in archaeological studying has a significant importance and cannot be replaced by any transformation methods. Archaeological targets in Israel have been ranged by their density/geometrical characteristics in several groups. The performed model computations indicate that microgravity investigations might be successfully applied at least in 20–25% of archaeological sites in Israel.

  15. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Mixed-Valence Compounds : Theory and Applications in Chemistry, Physics, Geology, and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    It has been a decade since two seminal reviews demonstrated that mixed-valence compounds share many unique and fascinating features. The insight pro­ vided by those early works has promoted a great deal of both experimental and theoretical study. As a result of extensive efforts, our understanding of the bonding and properties of mixed-valence compounds has advanced substantially. There has been no compre­ hensive treatment of mixed-valence compounds since 1967, and the meeting convened at Oxford in September, 1979, provided a unique opportunity to examine the subject and its many ramifications. Mixed-valence compounds play an important role in many fields. Although the major impact of the subject has been in chemistry, its importance has become increasingly clear in solid state physics, geology, and biology. Extensive interest and effort in the field of molecular metals has demonstrated that mixed-valency is a prerequisite for high elec­ trical conductivity. The intense colors of many minerals have been s...

  16. Effect of damage on water retention and gas transport properties geo-materials: Application to geological storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M'Jahad, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of geological disposal of radioactive waste, this work contributes to the characterization of the effect of diffuse damage on the water retention and gas transfer properties of concrete (CEM I and CEM V) selected by Andra, Callovo-Oxfordian argillite (host rock) and argillite / concrete interfaces. This study provides information on the concrete microstructure from Mercury porosimetry intrusion and water retention curves: each concrete has a distinct microstructure, CEM I concrete is characterized by a significant proportion of capillary pores while CEM V concrete has a large proportion of C-S-H pores. Several protocols have been developed in order to damage concrete. The damage reduces water retention capacity of CEM I concrete and increases its gas permeability. Indeed, gas breakthrough pressure decreases significantly for damaged concrete, and this regardless of the type of concrete. For argillite, the sample mass increases gradually at RH = 100%, which creates and increases damage in the material. This reduces its ability to retain water. Otherwise, water retention and gas transport properties of argillite are highly dependent of its initial water saturation, which is linked to its damage. Finally, we observed a clogging phenomenon at the argillite/concrete interfaces, which is first mechanical and then hydraulic (and probably chemical) after water injection. This reduces the gas breakthrough pressure interfaces. (author)

  17. Location-based social networking media for restaurant promotion and food review using mobile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhur, H. S.; Widjaja, N. D.

    2014-03-01

    This paper is focusing on the development of a mobile application for searching restaurants and promotions with location based and social networking features. The main function of the application is to search restaurant information. Other functions are also available in this application such as add restaurant, add promotion, add photo, add food review, and other features including social networking features. The restaurant and promotion searching application will be developed under Android platform. Upon completion of this paper, heuristic evaluation and usability testing have been conducted. The result of both testing shows that the application is highly usable. Even though there are some usability problems discovered, the problems can be eliminated immediately by implementing the recommendations from the expert evaluators and the users as the testers of the application. Further improvement made to the application will ensure that the application can really be beneficial for the users of the application.

  18. Location-based social networking media for restaurant promotion and food review using mobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhur H.S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focusing on the development of a mobile application for searching restaurants and promotions with location based and social networking features. The main function of the application is to search restaurant information. Other functions are also available in this application such as add restaurant, add promotion, add photo, add food review, and other features including social networking features. The restaurant and promotion searching application will be developed under Android platform. Upon completion of this paper, heuristic evaluation and usability testing have been conducted. The result of both testing shows that the application is highly usable. Even though there are some usability problems discovered, the problems can be eliminated immediately by implementing the recommendations from the expert evaluators and the users as the testers of the application. Further improvement made to the application will ensure that the application can really be beneficial for the users of the application.

  19. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  20. DESIGN APPLICATIONS BASED ON WEB MOBILE AT GAYA BARU SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, CENTRAL LAMPUNG REGENCY AS PROMOTIONAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Yudi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gaya Baru Senior High School is one of the educational institutions in Lampung which is a less favorite institution in the area is precisely located in the district of Seputih Surabaya Central Lampung Regency. Gaya Baru Senior High School has already had a website but not many known. This Senior High School is also no information system through mobile web to promote the institution. Nevertheless, in its development, students or community want to find information about the school can be directly through the mobile web application. So in its development requires fast service. From research that conducted in Gaya Baru High School, existence of new mobile web application system will facilitate student or society of that area, especially in subdistrict Seputih Surabaya district Central Lampung, and present information about the info about situation in high school of new style it can be accessed directly through the mobile web media.

  1. Location-based social networking media for restaurant promotion and food review using mobile application

    OpenAIRE

    Luhur H.S.; Widjaja N.D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is focusing on the development of a mobile application for searching restaurants and promotions with location based and social networking features. The main function of the application is to search restaurant information. Other functions are also available in this application such as add restaurant, add promotion, add photo, add food review, and other features including social networking features. The restaurant and promotion searching application will be developed under Android pl...

  2. UT-CT: A National Resource for Applications of High-Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography in the Geological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, W. D.; Ketcham, R. A.; Rowe, T. B.

    2002-12-01

    An NSF-sponsored (EAR-IF) shared multi-user facility dedicated to research applications of high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) in the geological sciences has been in operation since 1997 at the University of Texas at Austin. The centerpiece of the facility is an industrial CT scanner custom-designed for geological applications. Because the instrument can optimize trade-offs among penetrating ability, spatial resolution, density discrimination, imaging modes, and scan times, it can image a very broad range of geological specimens and materials, and thus offers significant advantages over medical scanners and desktop microtomographs. Two tungsten-target X-ray sources (200-kV microfocal and 420-kV) and three X-ray detectors (image-intensifier, high-sensitivity cadmium tungstate linear array, and high-resolution gadolinium-oxysulfide radiographic line scanner) can be used in various combinations to meet specific imaging goals. Further flexibility is provided by multiple imaging modes: second-generation (translate-rotate), third-generation (rotate-only; centered and variably offset), and cone-beam (volume CT). The instrument can accommodate specimens as small as about 1 mm on a side, and as large as 0.5 m in diameter and 1.5 m tall. Applications in petrology and structural geology include measuring crystal sizes and locations to identify mechanisms governing the kinetics of metamorphic reactions; visualizing relationships between alteration zones and abundant macrodiamonds in Siberian eclogites to elucidate metasomatic processes in the mantle; characterizing morphologies of spiral inclusion trails in garnet to test hypotheses of porphyroblast rotation during growth; measuring vesicle size distributions in basaltic flows for determination of elevation at the time of eruption to constrain timing and rates of continental uplift; analysis of the geometry, connectivity, and tortuosity of migmatite leucosomes to define the topology of melt flow paths, for numerical

  3. The precise measurement of TL isotopic compositions by MC-ICPMS: Application to the analysis of geological materials and meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkämper, Mark; Halliday, Alex N.

    1999-07-01

    The precision of Tl isotopic measurements by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) is severely limited by the fact that Tl possesses only two naturally occurring isotopes, such that there is no invariant isotope ratio that can be used to correct for instrumental mass discrimination. In this paper we describe new chemical and mass spectrometric techniques for the determination of Tl isotopic compositions at a level of precision hitherto unattained. Thallium is first separated from the geological matrix using a two-stage anion-exchange procedure. Thallium isotopic compositions are then determined by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with correction for mass discrimination using the known isotopic composition of Pb that is admixed to the sample solutions. With these procedures we achieve a precision of 0.01-0.02% for Tl isotope ratio measurements in geological samples and this is a factor of ≥3-4 better than the best published results by TIMS. However, without adequate precautions, experimental artifacts can be generated that result in apparent Tl isotopic fractionations of up to one per mil. Analysis of five terrestrial samples indicate the existence of Tl isotopic variations related to natural fractionation processes on the Earth. Two of the three igneous rocks analyzed in this study display Tl isotopic compositions indistinguishable from our laboratory standard, the reference material NIST-997 Tl. A third sample, however, is characterized by ɛ Tl ≈ 2.5 ± 1.5, where ɛ Tl represents the deviation of the 205Tl/ 203Tl ratio of the sample relative to NIST-997 Tl in parts per 10 4. Even larger deviations were identified for two ferromanganese crusts from the Pacific Ocean, which display ɛ Tl-values of +5.0 ± 1.5 and +11.7 ± 1.3. We suggest that the large variability of Tl isotopic compositions in the latter samples are caused by low-temperature processes related to the formation of the Fe-Mn crusts by precipitation and

  4. Integration of Remote Sensing and Geophysical Applications for Delineation of Geological Structures: Implication for Water Resources in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, L.; Farag, A. Z. A.

    2017-12-01

    North African countries struggle with insufficient, polluted, oversubscribed, and increasingly expensive water. This natural water shortage, in addition to the lack of a comprehensive scheme for the identification of new water resources challenge the political settings in north Africa. Groundwater is one of the main water resources and its occurrence is controlled by the structural elements which are still poorly understood. Integration of remote sensing images and geophysical tools enable us to delineate the surface and subsurface structures (i.e. faults, joints and shear zones), identify the role of these structures on groundwater flow and then to define the proper locations for groundwater wells. This approach were applied to three different areas in Egypt; southern Sinai, north eastern Sinai and the Eastern Desert using remote sensing, geophysical and hydrogeological datasets as follows: (1) identification of the spatial and temporal rainfall events using meteorological station data and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission data; (2) delineation of major faults and shear zones using ALOS Palsar, Landsat 8 and ASTER images, geological maps and field investigation; (3) generation of a normalized difference ratio image using Envisat radar images before and after the rain events to identify preferential water-channeling discontinuities in the crystalline terrain; (4) analysis of well data and derivations of hydrological parameters; (5) validation of the water-channeling discontinuities using Very Low Frequency, testing the structural elements (pre-delineated by remote sensing data) and their depth using gravity, magnetic and Vertical Electrical Sounding methods; (6) generation of regional groundwater flow and isotopic (18O and 2H) distribution maps for the sedimentary aquifer and an approximation flow map for the crystalline aquifer. The outputs include: (1) a conceptual/physical model for the groundwater flow in fractured crystalline and sedimentary aquifers; (2

  5. The Application of Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) Method as a New Rock Mass Classification Technique in Engineering Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Samsuddin; Abdul Ghani Rafek; Umar Hamzah; Suharsono; Khairul Anuar Mohd Nayan

    2008-01-01

    Spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is a seismic method that uses the dispersive characteristics of Rayleigh waves propagating through layered material to evaluate S-wave velocity profile. The SASW is an in situ non intrusive method for geotechnical site characterization which is cost effective as compared to the conventional drilling method. In this study, a total of 20 stations from 13 sites were selected. A software (WINSASW 2.0) was used for the inversion process to produce S-wave velocity versus depth profiles. These profiles were then separately analyzed in relation to several engineering rock mass geological parameters such as stiffness, rock quality designation (RQD), anisotropy and the excavability properties. The analysis of the SASW data was based on the assumption that the rock mass is an isotropic homogeneous material with various intensity of discontinuity which influenced the velocity of surface wave propagation within the rock mass. Measurement of dynamic soil properties was carried out employing the shear wave velocities and the N values of the Standard Penetration Test (N SPT ) from borehole data. A new linear equation V s = 4.44 N SPT + 213.84 which relates S-wave and N SPT was deduced. An empirical equation is also proposed to calculate Rock Quality Designation (RQD) values based on S-wave velocity derived from SASW and that of ultrasonic tests. The result of this equation was found to be less than 10% in comparison to the RQD obtained from actual borehole data. An isotropic analysis of the rock mass was carried out using S-wave velocities derived from SASW measurements in four directions. The plots of S-wave - ultrasonic velocity ratio versus ultrasonic velocity were used to evaluate the excavability properties of rock mass. Five classes of rock mass excavability curves were finally proposed in relation to easy digging, easy ripping, hard ripping, hydraulic breaking and blasting. (author)

  6. Applications of geomorphology, tectonics, geology and geophysical interpretation of, East Kom Ombo depression, Egypt, using Landsat images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sayed A. El Gammal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Southern Eastern Desert of Egypt, A NW–SE oriented structural graben extends from the North of Aswan to the Red Sea coast with a length of about 400 km and an average width of 30 km. The area has significant potential for development as it may be provided with water from surface and subsurface sources and is the site of prospection for petroleum. The present paper is an attempt to understand the structural evolution and genetic development of the geomorphologic features of the area and constructing presently a new geomorphological map at a scale of 1:250,000 using Landsat ETM images and field checks. Available geological maps and the produced geomorphological map are digitized by using the ARC-GIS software. The same program is also used to produce a 3D DEM for surface and subsurface features. Based on new interpretations of aeromagnetic and radiometric data, the subsurface features of the basement cover were illustrated on a 3D map. Geological–geomorphological profiles have been constructed in different directions in the area to identify present and ancient geomorphologic features. The place and shape of subsurface deep seated NW–SE trending faults have been determined. The faults, which generated the graben have downthrows in the order of 900–5800 m. The surface and subsurface observations delineate the dominant downthrow of about 3750 m. Three E–W subsurface faults have been detected under Nubia sandstone, one of them, displaying a downthrow of about 845 m, cuts through the basement rocks.

  7. On homogenization of stokes flow in slowly varying media with applications to fluid–structure interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald L.

    2011-09-11

    In this paper we establish corrector estimates for Stokes flow in slowly varying perforated media via two scale asymptotic analysis. Current methods and techniques are often not able to deal with changing geometries prevalent in applied problems. For example, in a deformable porous medium environment, the geometry does not remain periodic under mechanical deformation and if slow variation in the geometry occurs. For such problems, one cannot use classical homogenization results directly and new homogenization results and estimates are needed. Our work uses asymptotic techniques of Marusic-Paloka and Mikelic (Bollettino U. M. I 7:661-671, 1996) where the authors constructed a downscaled velocity which converges to the fine-scale velocity at a rate of ε1/6 where ε is the characteristic length scale. We assume a slowly varying porous medium and study homogenization and corrector estimates for the Stokes equations. Slowly varying media arise, e. g., in fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems (Popov et al. in Iterative upscaling of flows in deformable porous media, 2008), carbonation of porous concrete (Peter in C. R. Mecanique 335:357-362, 2007a; C. R. Mecanique 335:679-684, 2007b), and various other multiphysics processes. To homogenize Stokes flows in such media we restate the cell problems of Marusic-Paloka and Mikelic (Bollettino U. M. I 7:661-671, 1996) in a moving RVE framework. Further, to recover the same convergence properties it is necessary to solve an additional cell problem and add one more corrector term to the downscaled velocity. We further extend the framework of Marusic-Paloka and Mikelic (Bollettino U. M. I 7:661-671, 1996) to three spatial dimensions in both periodic and variable pore-space cases. Next, we also propose an efficient algorithm for computing the correctors by solving a limited number of cell problems at selected spatial locations. We present two computational examples: one for a constructed medium of elliptical perforations, and

  8. Laser-assisted molecular orientation in gaseous media: new possibilities and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, Dmitry V; Zadkov, Victor N

    2009-01-01

    It was shown recently by us that an isotropic distribution of molecules in gaseous media can be drastically effected via their orientation-dependent selective excitation by a strong femtosecond multicomponent laser pulse. In the present paper, we analyze the specific effects accompanying the dynamical orientation of molecules driven this way. It is demonstrated that the peculiarities of the post-pulse transient angular distribution of molecules allow original proposals for the generation of pulsed terahertz radiation and also for the determination of the molecular rotational constants.

  9. Technique of application of contrast media in computed tomography of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, L.; Friedmann, G.

    1982-01-01

    Cardiac imaging by means of CT requires administration of intravenous contrast medium which can be applied by infusion or by rapid bolus injection. Contrast infusion is easier in performance and yields opacification of all cardiac cavities. Using bolus technique selective enhancement of cardiac chambers can be obtained which provides increased image quality and better resolution of cardiac structures. Both techniques are described and the results of 221 examinations are analysed with special respect to image quality, technical amount and contrast media side effects. (orig.) [de

  10. Clinical application and side effects of non-ionic, low-osmolar contrast media: Iopromide (Ultavist)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Tae; Suh, Jung Ho; Suh, Jin Suk; Lee, Yeon Hee

    1988-01-01

    Generally non-ionic, water-soluble contrast media has been known to be considerably better than the conventional ionic contrast agents, because of its physiochemical properties which are more hydrophilic, lower in osmolality than the ionic agents of equivalent iodine concentration. It means that the non-ionic agent has less side reaction and better general tolerance. Iopromide (Ultavist) is a newly developed non-ionic contrast media that is suitable for angiography. Some non-ionic contrast media such as Metrizamide and lopamidol were clinically introduced and proved tobe the most compromising agents for neuroradiographic study, but lopromide is not yet freely available in the vascular study. In order to evaluate the clinical fitness and its side effects of lopromide for angiography various type of angiography were done in 136 patients using lopromide and 51 received Diatrizoate meglumine (DTM). Similar volumes of the contrast media was administered at similar rate to both groups. The results were as the follows: 1. In celiac angiography of 31 patients with lopromide (Ultravist 370) and 18 with DTM 60, there were observed 9.7% mild pain and 25.8% mild heat sensation in lopromide. In DTM 60 mild pain was approximately 3 times more frequently observed than lopromide. Heat sensation is mild and similar in frequency of both groups. There was no clinically significant side effects related to the osmolality and its difference between two groups. 2. In peripheral angiography of 47 patients with lopromide 300 and 24 with DTM 60, there were observed 19.1% mild, 6.4 moderate in pain and 46.8% mild, 1% moderate heat sensation in lopromide. But in DTM there were 33.3% mild, 58.3% moderate and 8.3% severe pain, and also 70.8% mild and 16.7% moderate heat sensation in DTM were observed. lopromide is more advantageous and better contrast agents than the DTM for peripheral vascular study on the point of low side effect related to osmolality. 3. In renal angiography, there was no

  11. The application of thermoluminescent dosimeters to the measurement of thermal neutron distributions in bulk media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, I.F.; Tang, J.C.N.

    1981-01-01

    The work described was designed to investigate the suitability of measuring neutron flux distributions in bulk media using neutron sensitive thermoluminescent dosimeters, with the initial interest being in wet coal matrices. The phosphors used were 6 LiF and 7 LiF 3.2mmx3.2mmx0.9mm chips. As 7 LiF is sensitive to gamma rays only it was used to correct for the gamma-ray response of 6 LiF

  12. Working with Specify in a Paleo-Geological Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineux, A.; Thompson, A. C.; Appleton, L.

    2014-12-01

    For geological collections with limited funding an open source relational database provides an opportunity to digitize specimens and related data. At the Non-vertebrate Paleontology Lab, a large mixed paleo and geological repository on a restricted budget, we opted for one such database, Specify. Initially created at Kansas University for neontological collections and based on a single computer, Specify has moved into the networked scene and will soon be web-based as Specify 7. We currently use the server version of Specify 6, networked to all computers in the lab each running a desktop client, often with six users at any one time. Along with improved access there have been great efforts to broaden the applicability of this database to other disciplines. Current developments are of great importance to us because they focus on the geological aspects of lithostratigraphy and chronostratigaphy and their relationship to other variables. Adoption of this software has required constant change as we move to take advantage of the great improvements. We enjoy the interaction with the developers and their willingness to listen and consider our issues. Here we discuss some of the ways in which we have fashioned Specify into a database that provides us with the flexibility that we need without removing the ability to share our data with other aggregators through accepted protocols. We discuss the customization of forms, the attachment of media and tracking of original media files, our efforts to incorporate geological specimens, and our plans to link the individual specimen record GUIDs to an IGSN numbers and thence to future connections to data derived from our specimens.

  13. Geology behind nuclear fission technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhana Raju, R.

    2005-01-01

    Geology appears to have played an important role of a precursor to Nuclear Fission Technology (NFT), in the latter's both birth from the nucleus of an atom of and most important application as nuclear power extracted from Uranium (U), present in its minerals. NFT critically depends upon the availability of its basic raw material, viz., nuclear fuel as U and/ or Th, extracted from U-Th minerals of specific rock types in the earth's crust. Research and Development of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) depends heavily on 'Geology'. In this paper, a brief review of the major branches of geology and their contributions during different stages of NFC, in the Indian scenario, is presented so as to demonstrate the important role played by 'Geology' behind the development of NFT, in general, and NFC, in particular. (author)

  14. 3D Virtual Itinerary for Education Using Google Earth as a Tool for the Recovery of the Geological Heritage of Natural Areas: Application in the “Las Batuecas Valley” Nature Park (Salamanca, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miguel Martínez-Graña

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop a methodology that enhances the value and position of the geological heritage of any natural area in the world using a 3D virtual itinerary. Field applications of this geological itinerary enable students to participate actively in teaching and learning theoretical concepts in the earth sciences and engineering. The educational resources, which include a virtual itinerary, a flight simulator, a field notebook with questionnaires, videos, and an augmented reality developed with Google Earth, provide a familiar and effective learning environment that can be implemented by students daily using new technologies (smartphones, tablets, and iPods and can leverage the power of computer games to achieve the objectives of a specific curriculum. The implementation of geological content in an interactive, educational game has been employed in compulsory levels of secondary education, high school, and college in Batuecas Valley. The geomatic applications are free as they can be accessed from existing computer labs.

  15. Research on geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing reliability and suitability of the result from Preliminary Investigations to be submitted by the implementer, and to establish a basic policy for safety review. For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Preliminary Investigations, we evaluated the uncertainties and their influence from limited amount of investigations, as well as we identified important procedures during investigations and constructions of models, as follows: (1) uncertainties after limited amount of geological exploration and drilling, (2) influence of uncertainties in regional groundwater flow model, (3) uncertainties of DFN (Discrete Fracture Network) models in the fractured rock, (4) analyzed investigation methods described in implementer's report, and (5) identified important aspects in investigation which need to be reviewed and follow QA (Quality Assurance). For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Detailed Investigations, we analyzed important aspects in investigation which supplies data to design and safety assessment, as well as studied the applicability of pressure interference data during excavation to verify hydrogeological model. Regarding the research for safety review, uncertainties of geologic process in long time-scale was studied. In FY2012, we started to evaluate the structural stabilities of concrete and bentonite in disposal environment. Finally, we continued to accumulate the knowledge on geological disposal into the database system. (author)

  16. Application of geometric probability to the existence of faults in anisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranwell, R.M.; Donath, F.A.

    1980-01-01

    Three primary aspects of faults which relate to their potential for degradation of a repository site are: the possibility of an existing but undetected fault intersecting the repository site; the potential for a new fault occurring and propagating through the repository site; the ability of any such fault to transmit groundwater. Given that a fault might be present in the region surrounding the site, the probability that it intersects the site depends primarily on its orientation and on the density of faulting in the area. Once these parameters are known, a model can be developed to determine the probability that an existing but undetected fault will intersect the repository site. Similar techniques can be used to estimate the potential for new faults occurring and intersecting site, or intersection from propagation along existing faults. However, additional data includng in situ stress measurements and records of seismic activity would be needed. One can estimate the stress level at which the strength in the surrounding media will be exceeded, and thus determine a time-dependent probability of movement along a pre-existing fault or of a new fault occurring, from a predicted rate of change in local stresses. In situ stress measurements taken at intervals of time could aid in determining the rate of stress change in the surrounding media, although measurable changes might not occur over the available period of observation. In situ stress measurements might also aid in assessing the ability of existing faults to transmit fluids

  17. Dynamic programming in parallel boundary detection with application to ultrasound intima-media segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Cheng, Xinyao; Xu, Xiangyang; Song, Enmin

    2013-12-01

    Segmentation of carotid artery intima-media in longitudinal ultrasound images for measuring its thickness to predict cardiovascular diseases can be simplified as detecting two nearly parallel boundaries within a certain distance range, when plaque with irregular shapes is not considered. In this paper, we improve the implementation of two dynamic programming (DP) based approaches to parallel boundary detection, dual dynamic programming (DDP) and piecewise linear dual dynamic programming (PL-DDP). Then, a novel DP based approach, dual line detection (DLD), which translates the original 2-D curve position to a 4-D parameter space representing two line segments in a local image segment, is proposed to solve the problem while maintaining efficiency and rotation invariance. To apply the DLD to ultrasound intima-media segmentation, it is imbedded in a framework that employs an edge map obtained from multiplication of the responses of two edge detectors with different scales and a coupled snake model that simultaneously deforms the two contours for maintaining parallelism. The experimental results on synthetic images and carotid arteries of clinical ultrasound images indicate improved performance of the proposed DLD compared to DDP and PL-DDP, with respect to accuracy and efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Applicability of Different Fluid Media to Measure Effective Stress Coefficient for Rock Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective stress coefficient for permeability (ESCK is the key parameter to evaluate the properties of reservoir stress sensitivity. So far, little studies have clarified which ESCK is correct for a certain reservoir while rock ESCK is measured differently by different fluid media. Thus, three different fluids were taken to measure a fine sandstone sample’s ESCK, respectively. As a result, the ESCK was measured to be the smallest by injecting nitrogen, the largest by injecting water, and between the two by brine. Besides, those microcharacteristics such as rock component, clay mineral content, and pore structure were further analyzed based on some microscopic experiments. Rock elastic modulus was reduced when water-sensitive clay minerals were encountered with aqua fluid media so as to enlarge the rock ESCK value. Moreover, some clay minerals reacting with water can spall and possibly block pore throats. Compared with water, brine can soften the water sensitivity; however, gas has no water sensitivity effects. Therefore, to choose which fluid medium to measure reservoir ESCK is mainly depending on its own exploitation conditions. For gas reservoirs using gas to measure ESCK is more reliable than water or brine, while using brine is more appropriate for oil reservoirs.

  19. Application of distributed point source method (DPSM) to wave propagation in anisotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooladi, Samaneh; Kundu, Tribikram

    2017-04-01

    Distributed Point Source Method (DPSM) was developed by Placko and Kundu1, as a technique for modeling electromagnetic and elastic wave propagation problems. DPSM has been used for modeling ultrasonic, electrostatic and electromagnetic fields scattered by defects and anomalies in a structure. The modeling of such scattered field helps to extract valuable information about the location and type of defects. Therefore, DPSM can be used as an effective tool for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT). Anisotropy adds to the complexity of the problem, both mathematically and computationally. Computation of the Green's function which is used as the fundamental solution in DPSM is considerably more challenging for anisotropic media, and it cannot be reduced to a closed-form solution as is done for isotropic materials. The purpose of this study is to investigate and implement DPSM for an anisotropic medium. While the mathematical formulation and the numerical algorithm will be considered for general anisotropic media, more emphasis will be placed on transversely isotropic materials in the numerical example presented in this paper. The unidirectional fiber-reinforced composites which are widely used in today's industry are good examples of transversely isotropic materials. Development of an effective and accurate NDT method based on these modeling results can be of paramount importance for in-service monitoring of damage in composite structures.

  20. Rock fracture dynamics research at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory: applications to geological disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R.P. [Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Haycox, J.R. [Applied Seismology Consultants Limited, Shrewsbury, Shropshire (United Kingdom); Martino, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, MB (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Studies of rock fracture dynamics at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) have helped to provide a fundamental understanding of how crystalline rock responds to stresses induced from excavation, pressurization and temperature changes. The data acquired continue to provide insights into how a facility for the future geological disposal of radioactive waste could be engineered. Research into microseismic (MS), acoustic emission (AE), and ultrasonic velocity measurements has been performed on the full-scale sealed, pressurized, and heated horizontal elliptical tunnel at the Tunnel Sealing Experiment (TSX). The continuous monitoring of the experiment for 8 years provides a unique dataset for the understanding of the medium-term performance of an engineered disposal facility. This paper summarizes the results, interpretations and key findings of the experiment paying particular focus to the heating and cooling/depressurization of the chamber. Initial drilling of the tunnel and bulkheads causes microfracturing around the tunnel, mapped by MS and AEs, and is used as a benchmark for fracturing representing the excavated damaged zone (EDZ). There is no further extension to the volume during pressurization or heating of the tunnel suggesting an increase in crack density and coalescence of cracks rather than extension into unfractured rock. The dominant structure within the seismic cloud has been investigated using a statistical approach applying the three-point method. MS events in the roof exhibit a dominant pattern of sub-horizontal and shallow-dipping well defined planar features, but during cooling and depressurization a 45 degree dip normal to the tunnel axis is observed, which may be caused by movement in the rock-concrete interface due to differential cooling of the bulkhead and host rock. Cooling and depressurization of the TSX have not led to a significant increase in the number of MS or AE events. Ultrasonic results suggest the rock gets even stiffer

  1. Inverse Problem for 3D coupled Flow-Geomechanics Models and Induced Seismicity: Application to Subsurface Characterization and Seismicity Forecasting in Geologic CO2 Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castineira, D.; Jha, B.; Juanes, R.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is regarded as a promising technology to mitigate rising CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere from industrial emissions. However, as a result of the inherent uncertainty that is present in geological structures, assessing the stability of geological faults and quantifying the potential for induced seismicity is a fundamental challenge for practical implementation of CCS. Here we present a formal framework for the solution of the inverse problem associated with coupled flow and geomechanics models of CO2 injection and subsurface storage. Our approach builds from the application of Gaussian Processes, MCMC and posterior predictive analysis to evaluate relevant earthquake attributes (earthquake time, location and magnitude) in 3D synthetic models of CO2 storage under geologic, observational and operational uncertainty. In our approach, we first conduct hundreds of simulations of a high-fidelity 3D computational model for CO2 injection into a deep saline aquifer, dominated by an anticline structure and a fault. This ensemble of realizations accounts for uncertainty in the model parameters (including fault geomechanical and rock properties) and observations (earthquake time, location and magnitude). We apply Gaussian processes (GP) to generate a valid surrogate that closely approximates the behavior of the high fidelity (and computationally intensive) model, and apply hyperparameter optimization and cross-validation techniques in the solution of this multidimensional data-fit problem. The net result of this process is the generation of a fast model that can be effectively used for Bayesian analysis. We then implement Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to determine the posterior distribution of the model uncertain parameters (given some prior distributions for those parameters and given the likelihood defined in this case by the GP model). Our results show that the resulting posterior distributions correctly converge towards the "true

  2. Statistical treatment of geochemical data and its application in the geologic mapping and in the definition of the geochemical anomalies in the Alvo 2-Corpo 4 -Provincia Mineral de Carajas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, C.A.V.

    1982-01-01

    It was given a statistical treatment for the geochemical data about soil in the are named Alvo2 - Corpo4- in the Provincia Mineral de Carajas, Para, Brazil, for application of the geological mapping and definition of geochemical anomalies. (A.B.) [pt

  3. Study of numerical schemes for two-phase flow in porous media for any meshes: application to storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, O.

    2010-01-01

    The two-phase flow in porous media is a complex phenomenon and which relate to many industrial problems. EDF works on the feasibility and the safety of a storage in deep geologic layer of nuclear waste. In this domain the simulation of the two-phase flow in porous media is particularly important in at least three domains: first of all during the phase of ventilation of the galleries of the storage which could de-saturate the rock and so modify its properties, but also during the phase of re-saturation of the materials and finally during the arrival of the water on the metal parts contained in the storage which will then involve phenomena of corrosion and a hydrogen release. In this context, EDF wishes to obtain robust numerical methods without restrictive condition on the mesh. This work is dedicated at first to the development of the finite volume scheme SUSHI (Scheme Using Stabilization and Hybrid Interfaces) in the code of mechanics of EDF, Code Aster in order to simulate the two-phase flow in porous media. This scheme was developed in 2D and in 3D. At the same time a new formulation which allows to simulate in a uniform way the flows in saturated and unsaturated porous media for miscible and immiscible problems is proposed. Various studies simulating difficulties related to the problems of the storage of nuclear waste in deep geological layers were study. We can quote the study of a bi-material which advances the capillary re-balancing of a material by an other one possessing properties and initial very heterogeneous conditions in saturation. We will also quote the study of the injection of hydrogen in an porous media initially saturated in pure water which is proposed by the benchmark 'two-phase Flow' proposed by the GNR MOMAS. This study had for objective to bring to light the good treatment of the appearance of a phase in a saturated porous media and thus the relevance of our new formulation to study with a way unified a problem of saturated flow and a

  4. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of ...

  5. The application of expandable polystyrene pellets as filter media to controlled filter in a uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Ruiguo; Liu Mingde; Li Chunhua

    1987-11-01

    Expandable polystyrene pellets as filter media are used for controlled filter of uranium ore processing. Results from bench scale tests, pilot plant tests and full scale tests are satisfactory. The filter used in the full scale tests is 4 m in diameter, and the capacity is from 75 to 100 m 3 per hour. The soild content in the pregnant solution which overflowing the first thichener contains about 250 ppm of suspended solid can be reduced to 5 ∼ 10 ppm. The filter bed is backflushed with the feed liquors and the backflush returns to the countercurrent decantation circuit. The entrainment loss of the organic phase in the raffinate from solvnet extraction can be decreased by about 60% with treating the filtrated solution

  6. Casimir-Lifshitz force for nonreciprocal media and applications to photonic topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sebastian; Lindel, Frieder; Krems, Roman V.; Hanson, George W.; Antezza, Mauro; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2017-12-01

    Based on the theory of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics, we generalize the expression of the Casimir force for nonreciprocal media. The essential ingredient of this result is the Green's tensor between two nonreciprocal semi-infinite slabs, including a reflexion matrix with four coefficients that mixes optical polarizations. This Green's tensor does not obey Lorentz's reciprocity and thus violates time-reversal symmetry. The general result for the Casimir force is analyzed in the retarded and nonretarded limits, concentrating on the influences arising from reflections with or without change of polarization. In a second step, we apply our general result to a photonic topological insulator whose nonreciprocity stems from an anisotropic permittivity tensor, namely InSb. We show that there is a regime for the distance between the slabs where the magnitude of the Casimir force is tunable by an external magnetic field. Furthermore, the strength of this tuning depends on the orientation of the magnetic field with respect to the slab surfaces.

  7. Learning Media Application Based On Microcontroller Chip Technology In Early Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ika Hidayati, Permata

    2018-04-01

    In Early childhood cognitive intelligence need right rncdia learning that can help a child’s cognitive intelligence quickly. The purpose of this study to design a learning media in the form of a puppet can used to introduce human anatomy during early childhood. This educational doll utilizing voice recognition technology from EasyVR module to receive commands from the user to introduce body parts on a doll, is used as an indicator TED. In addition to providing the introduction of human anatomy, this dolljut. a user can give a shout out to mainly play previously stored voice module sound recorder. Results obtained from this study is that this educational dolls can detect more than voice and spoken commands that can be random detected. Distance concrete of this doll in detecting the sound is up to a distance of 2.5 meters.

  8. Mechanism governing nanoparticle flow behaviour in porous media: insight for enhanced oil recovery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agi, Augustine; Junin, Radzuan; Gbadamosi, Afeez

    2018-06-01

    Nanotechnology has found its way to petroleum engineering, it is well-accepted path in the oil and gas industry to recover more oil trapped in the reservoir. But the addition of nanoparticles to a liquid can result in the simplest flow becoming complex. To understand the working mechanism, there is a need to study the flow behaviour of these particles. This review highlights the mechanism affecting the flow of nanoparticles in porous media as it relates to enhanced oil recovery. The discussion focuses on chemical-enhanced oil recovery, a review on laboratory experiment on wettability alteration, effect of interfacial tension and the stability of emulsion and foam is discussed. The flow behaviour of nanoparticles in porous media was discussed laying emphasis on the physical aspect of the flow, the microscopic rheological behaviour and the adsorption of the nanoparticles. It was observed that nanofluids exhibit Newtonian behaviour at low shear rate and non-Newtonian behaviour at high shear rate. Gravitational and capillary forces are responsible for the shift in wettability from oil-wet to water-wet. The dominant mechanisms of foam flow process were lamellae division and bubble to multiple bubble lamellae division. In a water-wet system, the dominant mechanism of flow process and residual oil mobilization are lamellae division and emulsification, respectively. Whereas in an oil-wet system, the generation of pre-spinning continuous gas foam was the dominant mechanism. The literature review on oil displacement test and field trials indicates that nanoparticles can recover additional oil. The challenges encountered have opened new frontier for research and are highlighted herein.

  9. Pain Research Forum: Application of Scientific Social Media Frameworks in Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshna eDas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social media has the potential to accelerate the pace of biomedical research through online collaboration, discussions and faster sharing of information. Focused web-based scientific social collaboratories such as the Alzheimer Research Forum have been successful in engaging scientists in open discussions of the latest research and identifying gaps in knowledge. However, until recently, tools to rapidly create such communities and provide high-bandwidth information exchange between collaboratories in related fields did not exist. Methods: We have addressed this need by constructing a reusable framework to build online biomedical communities, based on Drupal, an open-source content management system. The framework incorporates elements of Semantic Web technology combined with social media. Here we present, as an exemplar of a web community built on our framework, the Pain Research Forum (PRF. PRF is a community of chronic pain researchers, established with the goal of fostering collaboration and communication among pain researchers. Results: Launched in 2011, PRF has over 1,300 registered members with permission to submit content. It currently hosts over 150 topical news articles on research; more than 30 active or archived forum discussions and journal club features; a webinar series; an editor-curated weekly updated listing of relevant papers; and several other resources for the pain research community. All content is licensed for reuse under a Creative Commons license; the software is freely available. The framework was reused to develop other sites, notably the Multiple Sclerosis Discovery Forum and StemBook.Discussion: Web-based collaboratories are a crucial integrative tool supporting rapid information transmission and translation in several important research areas. In this article, we discuss the success factors, lessons learned and ongoing challenges in using PRF as a driving force to develop tools for online collaboration in

  10. Pain Research Forum: application of scientific social media frameworks in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudeshna; McCaffrey, Patricia G; Talkington, Megan W T; Andrews, Neil A; Corlosquet, Stéphane; Ivinson, Adrian J; Clark, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Social media has the potential to accelerate the pace of biomedical research through online collaboration, discussions, and faster sharing of information. Focused web-based scientific social collaboratories such as the Alzheimer Research Forum have been successful in engaging scientists in open discussions of the latest research and identifying gaps in knowledge. However, until recently, tools to rapidly create such communities and provide high-bandwidth information exchange between collaboratories in related fields did not exist. We have addressed this need by constructing a reusable framework to build online biomedical communities, based on Drupal, an open-source content management system. The framework incorporates elements of Semantic Web technology combined with social media. Here we present, as an exemplar of a web community built on our framework, the Pain Research Forum (PRF) (http://painresearchforum.org). PRF is a community of chronic pain researchers, established with the goal of fostering collaboration and communication among pain researchers. Launched in 2011, PRF has over 1300 registered members with permission to submit content. It currently hosts over 150 topical news articles on research; more than 30 active or archived forum discussions and journal club features; a webinar series; an editor-curated weekly updated listing of relevant papers; and several other resources for the pain research community. All content is licensed for reuse under a Creative Commons license; the software is freely available. The framework was reused to develop other sites, notably the Multiple Sclerosis Discovery Forum (http://msdiscovery.org) and StemBook (http://stembook.org). Web-based collaboratories are a crucial integrative tool supporting rapid information transmission and translation in several important research areas. In this article, we discuss the success factors, lessons learned, and ongoing challenges in using PRF as a driving force to develop tools for

  11. Porous media experience applicable to field evaluation for compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Gutknecht, P.J.

    1980-06-01

    A survey is presented of porous media field experience that may aid in the development of a compressed air energy storage field demonstration. Work done at PNL and experience of other groups and related industries is reviewed. An overall view of porous media experience in the underground storage of fluids is presented. CAES experience consists of site evaluation and selection processes used by groups in California, Kansas, and Indiana. Reservoir design and field evaluation of example sites are reported. The studies raised questions about compatibility with depleted oil and gas reservoirs, storage space rights, and compressed air regulations. Related experience embraces technologies of natural gas, thermal energy, and geothermal and hydrogen storage. Natural gas storage technology lends the most toward compressed air storage development, keeping in mind the respective differences between stored fluids, physical conditions, and cycling frequencies. Both fluids are injected under pressure into an aquifer to form a storage bubble confined between a suitable caprock structure and partially displaced ground water. State-of-the-art information is summarized as the necessary foundation material for field planning. Preliminary design criteria are given as recommendations for basic reservoir characteristics. These include geometric dimensions and storage matrix properties such as permeability. Suggested ranges are given for injection air temperature and reservoir pressure. The second step in developmental research is numerical modeling. Results have aided preliminary design by analyzing injection effects upon reservoir pressure, temperature and humidity profiles. Results are reported from laboratory experiments on candidate sandstones and caprocks. Conclusions are drawn, but further verification must be done in the field.

  12. Engineering Geology | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska's Mineral Industry Reports AKGeology.info Rare Earth Elements WebGeochem Engineering Geology Alaska content Engineering Geology Additional information Engineering Geology Posters and Presentations Alaska Alaska MAPTEACH Tsunami Inundation Mapping Engineering Geology Staff Projects The Engineering Geology

  13. 3D Imaging of Porous Media Using Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy with Application to Microscale Transport Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrich, J.T.

    1999-02-10

    We present advances in the application of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) to image, reconstruct, and characterize statistically the microgeometry of porous geologic and engineering materials. We discuss technical and practical aspects of this imaging technique, including both its advantages and limitations. Confocal imaging can be used to optically section a material, with sub-micron resolution possible in the lateral and axial planes. The resultant volumetric image data, consisting of fluorescence intensities for typically {approximately}50 million voxels in XYZ space, can be used to reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of the two-phase medium. We present several examples of this application, including studying pore geometry in sandstone, characterizing brittle failure processes in low-porosity rock deformed under triaxial loading conditions in the laboratory, and analyzing the microstructure of porous ceramic insulations. We then describe approaches to extract statistical microgeometric descriptions from volumetric image data, and present results derived from confocal volumetric data sets. Finally, we develop the use of confocal image data to automatically generate a three-dimensional mesh for numerical pore-scale flow simulations.

  14. The social media revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubose, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    The growing popularity and use of social media tools such as Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, blogging, and wikis have led to a social media revolution. Given this widespread influence, it is important for educators, administrators, and technologists to understand the risks of using social media in the classroom and workplace. To investigate popular social media sites and their effect on radiologic technology education and business practices. A comprehensive search of literature was performed to examine social media and its applications in education, health care, and business. Social media use is on the rise, affecting all aspects of mainstream society. Leaders in the radiologic sciences should be familiar with social media and cognizant of its risks. Future studies regarding social media use in the radiologic sciences are necessary to determine its effect on the radiologic science community. ©2011 by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  15. Study of passive films formed on mild steel in alkaline media by the application of anodic potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, L. [Universidade de Vigo, E.T.S.E.I., Campus Universitario, 36310 Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: lorenafp@uvigo.es; Novoa, X.R. [Universidade de Vigo, E.T.S.E.I., Campus Universitario, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Montemor, M.F. [ICEMS - Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049 - 001 Lisboa (Portugal); Carmezim, M.J. [ICEMS - Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049 - 001 Lisboa (Portugal); EST Setubal, DEM, Instituto Politecnico de Setubal, Campus IPS, 2910 Setubal (Portugal)

    2009-04-15

    In this paper, iron oxide thin layers formed on mild steel substrates in alkaline media by the application of different anodic potentials were studied in order to characterize their morphology, composition and electrochemical behaviour, in particular under conditions of cathodic protection. The surface composition was evaluated by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). The morphology of the surface oxides was studied via Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The electrochemical behaviour of the surface oxides was studied using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that the surface film is composed by Fe{sup 2+}oxides and Fe{sup 3+} oxides and/or hydroxides. The contribution of Fe{sup 2+} species vanishes when the potential of film formation increases in the passive domain. Two distinct phases were differentiated in the outer layers of the surface film, which proves that film growing is topotactic in nature.

  16. Study of passive films formed on mild steel in alkaline media by the application of anodic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, L.; Novoa, X.R.; Montemor, M.F.; Carmezim, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, iron oxide thin layers formed on mild steel substrates in alkaline media by the application of different anodic potentials were studied in order to characterize their morphology, composition and electrochemical behaviour, in particular under conditions of cathodic protection. The surface composition was evaluated by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). The morphology of the surface oxides was studied via Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The electrochemical behaviour of the surface oxides was studied using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that the surface film is composed by Fe 2+ oxides and Fe 3+ oxides and/or hydroxides. The contribution of Fe 2+ species vanishes when the potential of film formation increases in the passive domain. Two distinct phases were differentiated in the outer layers of the surface film, which proves that film growing is topotactic in nature

  17. 65 nm LP/GP mix low cost platform for multi-media wireless and consumer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavel, B.; Duriez, B.; Gwoziecki, R.; Basso, M. T.; Julien, C.; Ortolland, C.; Laplanche, Y.; Fox, R.; Sabouret, E.; Detcheverry, C.; Boeuf, F.; Morin, P.; Barge, D.; Bidaud, M.; Biénacel, J.; Garnier, P.; Cooper, K.; Chapon, J. D.; Trouiller, Y.; Belledent, J.; Broekaart, M.; Gouraud, P.; Denais, M.; Huard, V.; Rochereau, K.; Difrenza, R.; Planes, N.; Marin, M.; Boret, S.; Gloria, D.; Vanbergue, S.; Abramowitz, P.; Vishnubhotla, L.; Reber, D.; Stolk, P.; Woo, M.; Arnaud, F.

    2006-04-01

    A complete 65 nm CMOS platform, called LP/GP Mix, has been developed employing thick oxide transistor (IO), Low Power (LP) and General Purpose (GP) devices on the same chip. Dedicated to wireless multi-media and consumer applications, this new triple gate oxide platform is low cost (+1mask only) and saves over 35% of dynamic power with the use of the low operating voltage GP. The LP/GP mix shows competitive digital performance with a ring oscillator (FO = 1) speed equal to 7 ps per stage (GP) and 6T-SRAM static power lower than 10 pA/cell (LP). Compatible with mixed-signal design requirements, transistors show high voltage gain, low mismatch factor and low flicker noise. Moreover, to address mobile phone demands, excellent RF performance has been achieved with FT = 160 GHz for LP and 280 GHz for GP nMOS transistors.

  18. SOCIAL MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    RESPONSIBILITY CENTCOM COALITION MEDIA SOCIAL MEDIA NEWS ARTICLES PRESS RELEASES IMAGERY VIDEOS TRANSCRIPTS VISITORS AND PERSONNEL FAMILY CENTER FAMILY READINESS CENTCOM WEBMAIL SOCIAL MEDIA SECURITY ACCOUNTABILITY HomeMEDIASOCIAL MEDIA Social Media CENTCOM'S ENGLISH SOCIAL MEDIA ACCOUNTS There are many U.S. military commands

  19. Safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattah, A.

    2000-01-01

    Direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel in geological repositories is a recognised option for closing nuclear fuel cycles. Geological repositories are at present in stages of development in a number of countries and are expected to be built and operated early next century. A State usually has an obligation to safely store any nuclear material, which is considered unsuitable to re-enter the nuclear fuel cycle, isolated from the biosphere. In conjunction with this, physical protection has to be accounted for to prevent inadvertent access to such material. In addition to these two criteria - which are fully under the State's jurisdiction - a third criterion reflecting international non-proliferation commitments needs to be addressed. Under comprehensive safeguards agreements a State concedes verification of nuclear material for safeguards purposes to the IAEA. The Agency can thus provide assurance to the international community that such nuclear material has been used for peaceful purposes only as declared by the State. It must be emphasised that all three criteria mentioned constitute a 'unit'. None can be sacrificed for the sake of the other, but compromises may have to be sought in order to make their combination as effective as possible. Based on comprehensive safeguards agreements signed and ratified by the State, safeguards can be terminated only when the material has been consumed or diluted in such a way that it can no longer be utilised for any nuclear activities or has become practicably irrecoverable. As such safeguards for nuclear material in geological repositories have to be continued even after the repository has been back-filled and sealed. The effective application of safeguards must assure continuity-of-knowledge that the nuclear material in the repository has not been diverted for an unknown purpose. The nuclear material disposed in a geological repository may eventually have a higher and long term proliferation risk because the inventory is

  20. Heat transfer through particulated media in stagnant gases model and laboratory measurements: Application to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueux, Sylvain Loic Lucien

    The physical characterization of the upper few centimeters to meters of the Martian surface has greatly benefited from remote temperature measurements. Typical grain sizes, rock abundances, subsurface layering, soil cementation, bedrock exposures, and ice compositions have been derived and mapped using temperature data in conjunction with subsurface models of heat conduction. Yet, these models of heat conduction are simplistic, precluding significant advances in the characterization of the physical nature of the Martian surface. A new model of heat conduction for homogeneous particulated media accounting for the grain size, porosity, gas pressure and composition, temperature, and the effect of any cementing phase is presented. The incorporation of the temperature effect on the bulk conductivity results in a distortion of the predicted diurnal and seasonal temperatures when compared to temperatures predicted with a temperature-independent conductivity model. Such distortions have been observed and interpreted to result from subsurface heterogeneities, but they may simply be explained by a temperature-dependency of the thermal inertia, with additional implications on the derived grain sizes. Cements are shown to significantly increase the bulk conductivity of a particulated medium and bond fractions duricrust. A laboratory setup has been designed, built, calibrated and used to measure the thermal conductivity of particulated samples in order to test and refine the models mentioned above. Preliminary results confirm the influence of the temperature on the bulk conductivity, as well as the effect of changing the gas composition. Cemented samples are shown to conduct heat more efficiently than their uncemented counterparts.

  1. Crack deflection in brittle media with heterogeneous interfaces and its application in shale fracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaguang; Wei, Yujie

    Driven by the rapid progress in exploiting unconventional energy resources such as shale gas, there is growing interest in hydraulic fracture of brittle yet heterogeneous shales. In particular, how hydraulic cracks interact with natural weak zones in sedimentary rocks to form permeable cracking networks is of significance in engineering practice. Such a process is typically influenced by crack deflection, material anisotropy, crack-surface friction, crustal stresses, and so on. In this work, we extend the He-Hutchinson theory (He and Hutchinson, 1989) to give the closed-form formulae of the strain energy release rate of a hydraulic crack with arbitrary angles with respect to the crustal stress. The critical conditions in which the hydraulic crack deflects into weak interfaces and exhibits a dependence on crack-surface friction and crustal stress anisotropy are given in explicit formulae. We reveal analytically that, with increasing pressure, hydraulic fracture in shales may sequentially undergo friction locking, mode II fracture, and mixed mode fracture. Mode II fracture dominates the hydraulic fracturing process and the impinging angle between the hydraulic crack and the weak interface is the determining factor that accounts for crack deflection; the lower friction coefficient between cracked planes and the greater crustal stress difference favor hydraulic fracturing. In addition to shale fracking, the analytical solution of crack deflection could be used in failure analysis of other brittle media.

  2. Expanded Mixed Multiscale Finite Element Methods and Their Applications for Flows in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, L.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a family of expanded mixed multiscale finite element methods (MsFEMs) and their hybridizations for second-order elliptic equations. This formulation expands the standard mixed multiscale finite element formulation in the sense that four unknowns (hybrid formulation) are solved simultaneously: pressure, gradient of pressure, velocity, and Lagrange multipliers. We use multiscale basis functions for both the velocity and the gradient of pressure. In the expanded mixed MsFEM framework, we consider both separable and nonseparable spatial scales. Specifically, we analyze the methods in three categories: periodic separable scales, G-convergent separable scales, and a continuum of scales. When there is no scale separation, using some global information can significantly improve the accuracy of the expanded mixed MsFEMs. We present a rigorous convergence analysis of these methods that includes both conforming and nonconforming formulations. Numerical results are presented for various multiscale models of flow in porous media with shale barriers that illustrate the efficacy of the proposed family of expanded mixed MsFEMs. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  3. Social Media in Health Professional Education: A Student Perspective on User Levels and Prospective Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Stephen; Moss, Alan; Ilic, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNS) have seen exponential growth in recent years. The high utilisation of SNS by tertiary students makes them an attractive tool for educational institutions. This study aims to identify health professional students' use and behaviours with SNS, including students' perspectives on potential applications within…

  4. Stream-Dashboard: A Big Data Stream Clustering Framework with Applications to Social Media Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawwash, Basheer

    2013-01-01

    Data mining is concerned with detecting patterns of data in raw datasets, which are then used to unearth knowledge that might not have been discovered using conventional querying or statistical methods. This discovered knowledge has been used to empower decision makers in countless applications spanning across many multi-disciplinary areas…

  5. Long-term integrity of waste package final closure for HLW geological disposal, (2). Applicability of TIG welding method to overpack final closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hidekazu; Sawa, Shuusuke; Aritomi, Masanori

    2005-01-01

    Overpack, a high-level radioactive waste package for geological disposal, seals vitrified waste and in line with Japan's waste management program is required to isolate it from contact with groundwater for 1,000 years. In this study, TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding method, a typical arc welding method and widely used in various industries, was examined for its applicability to seal a carbon steel overpack lid with a thickness of 190 mm. Welding conditions and welding parameters were examined for multi-layer welding in a narrow gap for four different groove depths. Weld joint tests were conducted and weld flaws, macro- and microstructure, and mechanical properties were assessed within tentatively applied criteria for weld joints. Measurement and numerical calculation for residual stress were also conducted and the tendency of residual stress distribution was discussed. These test results were compared with the basic requirements of the welding method for overpack which were pointed out in our first report. It is assessed that the TIG welding method has the potential to provide the necessary requirements to complete the final closure of overpack with a maximum thickness of 190 mm. (author)

  6. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. ?? 2006 MDPI. All rights reserved.

  7. The U.S. Geological Survey Ecosystem Science Strategy, 2012-2022 - Advancing discovery and application through collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.; Wingard, G. Lynn; Brewer, Gary; Cloern, James E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; McGuire, Anthony David; Nichols, James D.; Shapiro, Carl D.; van Riper, Charles; White, Robin P.

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem science is critical to making informed decisions about natural resources that can sustain our Nation’s economic and environmental well-being. Resource managers and policy-makers are faced with countless decisions each year at local, state, tribal, territorial, and national levels on issues as diverse as renewable and non-renewable energy development, agriculture, forestry, water supply, and resource allocations at the urban-rural interface. The urgency for sound decision-making is increasing dramatically as the world is being transformed at an unprecedented pace and in uncertain directions. Environmental changes are associated with natural hazards, greenhouse gas emissions, and increasing demands for water, land, food, energy, mineral, and living resources. At risk is the Nation’s environmental capital, the goods and services provided by resilient ecosystems that are vital to the health and well-being of human societies. Ecosystem science—the study of systems of organisms interacting with their environment and the consequences of natural and human-induced change on these systems—is necessary to inform decision-makers as they develop policies to adapt to these changes.This Ecosystems Science Strategy is built on a framework that includes basic and applied science. It highlights the critical roles that USGS scientists and partners can play in building scientific understanding and providing timely information to decision-makers. The strategy underscores the connection between scientific discoveries and the application of new knowledge. The strategy integrates ecosystem science and decision-making, producing new scientific outcomes to assist resource managers and providing public benefits.The USGS is uniquely positioned to play an important role in ecosystem science. With its wide range of expertise, the agency can bring holistic, cross-scale, interdisciplinary capabilities to the design and conduct of monitoring, research, and modeling and to new

  8. Heat as a groundwater tracer in shallow and deep heterogeneous media: Analytical solution, spreadsheet tool, and field applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylyk, Barret L.; Irvine, Dylan J.; Carey, Sean K.; Briggs, Martin A.; Werkema, Dale D.; Bonham, Mariah

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater flow advects heat, and thus, the deviation of subsurface temperatures from an expected conduction‐dominated regime can be analysed to estimate vertical water fluxes. A number of analytical approaches have been proposed for using heat as a groundwater tracer, and these have typically assumed a homogeneous medium. However, heterogeneous thermal properties are ubiquitous in subsurface environments, both at the scale of geologic strata and at finer scales in streambeds. Herein, we apply the analytical solution of Shan and Bodvarsson (2004), developed for estimating vertical water fluxes in layered systems, in 2 new environments distinct from previous vadose zone applications. The utility of the solution for studying groundwater‐surface water exchange is demonstrated using temperature data collected from an upwelling streambed with sediment layers, and a simple sensitivity analysis using these data indicates the solution is relatively robust. Also, a deeper temperature profile recorded in a borehole in South Australia is analysed to estimate deeper water fluxes. The analytical solution is able to match observed thermal gradients, including the change in slope at sediment interfaces. Results indicate that not accounting for layering can yield errors in the magnitude and even direction of the inferred Darcy fluxes. A simple automated spreadsheet tool (Flux‐LM) is presented to allow users to input temperature and layer data and solve the inverse problem to estimate groundwater flux rates from shallow (e.g., regimes.

  9. Strategic analysis of companies offering technology services to farmers for mobile applications media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo da Silva Riquena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of smart-phones and tablets is increasing the farming community before these fact companies that offer products and services to this sector are mobilizing to be active in this new reality. However, companies that operate in the rural market, not only have the aim of helping farmers in providing services through mobile technology applications, it was necessary to identify the strategic performance of these companies as a market opportunity in selling their products in the agricultural sector. Therefore, this article aimed to identify the strategic planning of technology companies to provide services through applications to farmers. The methodological approach used is a qualitative approach with the exploratory and descriptive aim of the use of content analysis of the websites of those companies studied. This study concluded that companies by offering technology services to farmers, use these services strategically to your advantage without the knowledge of the real needs of farmers.

  10. Validation of a physically based catchment model for application in post-closure radiological safety assessments of deep geological repositories for solid radioactive wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, M C; Degnan, P; Ewen, J; Parkin, G

    2000-12-01

    The physically based river catchment modelling system SHETRAN incorporates components representing water flow, sediment transport and radionuclide transport both in solution and bound to sediments. The system has been applied to simulate hypothetical future catchments in the context of post-closure radiological safety assessments of a potential site for a deep geological disposal facility for intermediate and certain low-level radioactive wastes at Sellafield, west Cumbria. In order to have confidence in the application of SHETRAN for this purpose, various blind validation studies have been undertaken. In earlier studies, the validation was undertaken against uncertainty bounds in model output predictions set by the modelling team on the basis of how well they expected the model to perform. However, validation can also be carried out with bounds set on the basis of how well the model is required to perform in order to constitute a useful assessment tool. Herein, such an assessment-based validation exercise is reported. This exercise related to a field plot experiment conducted at Calder Hollow, west Cumbria, in which the migration of strontium and lanthanum in subsurface Quaternary deposits was studied on a length scale of a few metres. Blind predictions of tracer migration were compared with experimental results using bounds set by a small group of assessment experts independent of the modelling team. Overall, the SHETRAN system performed well, failing only two out of seven of the imposed tests. Furthermore, of the five tests that were not failed, three were positively passed even when a pessimistic view was taken as to how measurement errors should be taken into account. It is concluded that the SHETRAN system, which is still being developed further, is a powerful tool for application in post-closure radiological safety assessments.

  11. A crowdsourced valuation of recreational ecosystem services using social media data: An application to a tropical wetland in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael; Ghermandi, Andrea; Sheela, Albert M

    2018-06-12

    Online social media represent an extensive, opportunistic source of behavioral data and revealed preferences for ecosystem services (ES) analysis. Such data may allow to advance the approach, scale and timespan to which ES are assessed, mapping and valued. This is especially relevant in the context of developing regions whose decision support tools are often limited by a lack of resources and funding. This research presents an economic valuation tool for recreational ES, suitable at wide spatial scales, relying on crowdsourced metadata from social media with a proof of concept tested on an Indian tropical Ramsar wetland. We demonstrate how geotagged photographs from Flickr can be used in the context of a developing country to (i) map nature-based recreation patterns, (ii) value recreational ecosystem services, and (iii) investigate how recreational benefits are affected by changes in ecosystem quality. The case-study application is the Vembanad Lake in Kerala, India, and the adjacent backwaters. Geographic Information Systems are implemented to extract 4328 Flickr photographs that are used to map hot spots of recreation and infer the home location of wetland visitors from within Kerala state with good accuracy. An individual, single-site travel cost demand function is generated and estimated using both Poisson and Negative Binomial regressions, which results in mean consumer surplus estimates between Rs. 2227-3953 ($34-$62) per visit and annual domestic recreation benefits of Rs. 7.53-13.37 billion ($115.5-$205 million) in the investigated wetlands. Improvement in water quality to a level that supports wildlife and fisheries is projected to result in a Rs. 260 million ($4 million) annual increase in recreational benefits, while restoring previously encroached lake area would result in almost Rs. 50 million ($760,000) in yearly value increase. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Experimental study of the application of two trickle media for inlet air pre-cooling of natural draft dry cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Suoying; Guan, Zhiqiang; Gurgenci, Hal; Hooman, Kamel; Lu, Yuanshen; Alkhedhair, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two trickle media were experimentally studied in a low-speed wind tunnel. • Correlations for cooling efficiency and pressure drop were developed. • Both trickle media were proven to have relatively low pressure drops. • Both trickle media had severe water entrainment at large air velocities. - Abstract: This paper is part two of a broader investigation into pre-cooling the air that enters natural draft dry cooling towers. Evaporative cooling of air is to some extent different from evaporative cooling of water. Two trickle media (Trickle125 and Trickle100) originally designed for evaporative cooling of water were studied in an open-circuit wind tunnel for evaporative cooling of air. Three medium thicknesses (200, 300 and 450 mm) and two water flow rates (10 and 5 l/min per m 2 horizontally exposed surface area) were used in the tests. The air velocities ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 m/s. The cooling efficiency and the pressure drop of the two media were curve fitted to yield a set of correlations. The pressure drop ranges for Trickle125 and Trickle100 were 0.7–50 Pa and 0.6–41.6 Pa, respectively. The cooling efficiencies of Trickle125 and Trickle100 fell within 15.7–55.1% and 11–44.4%, respectively. Generally, media with large effective surfaces provide high cooling efficiencies and high pressure drops; there is a trade-off between cooling efficiency and pressure drop when selecting a particular medium for a specific application. The water entrainment off the media was detected with water-sensitive papers, and both media had severe water entrainment at large air velocities

  13. Use of scattered media to determine lanthanides and actinides in natural water: application to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiller, P.

    1993-11-01

    This thesis has three parts; in the first one we present the general knowledge necessary to the understanding of phenomena to which we are going to be confronted: analysis by laser spectrofluorimetry with temporal resolution, chemistry in aqueous solution of uranium, fluorescence properties of uranium, chemistry of surfactants and their appliance in fluorescence exaltation; principle of ultrafiltration and application to ultrafiltration assisted by micella. In the second part, we will study the spectral and temporal properties of fluorescence with surfactants in the framework of using laser spectrofluorimetry with temporal resolution. In the last part, we will interest in the coupling of spectrofluorimetry and ultrafiltration assisted by micella

  14. ARS-Media for excel instruction manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is the instruction manual that explains how to use the Excel spreadsheet ARS-Media for Excel application. ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is provided as a pdf file....

  15. Simulation of coupled geochemical reactions and hydrodynamical processes in porous media - application to CO2 storage and uranium exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagneau, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    This report is a snapshot after sixteen years of research in the field of reactive transport, since the beginning of my Ph.D. in 1997. The research revolves around two poles: on the one hand the development of the reactive transport code Hytec, on the other hand application of the code in different fields of the Earth Sciences. The first two parts of the report detail several key points from this research work, most of them published or being published, following the dual development/application logic. The last part opens towards interesting future work. Development of a reactive transport code: The first part, mostly numeric analysis, details the main features of the code Hytec, in which I have been heavily involved since I joined the laboratory. The underlying equations of the model are given. The resolution methods rely on a finite volume discretization over a Voronoi mesh for the whole hydrodynamic part (flow, transport, heat). Coupling between chemistry and transport is performed through a sequential iterative scheme. Specific developments are then presented. The feedback of chemistry on transport requires specific coupling treatment to ensure convergence to the correct solution: the effects need to be taken care of within the coupling iterations. Dual porosity simulation can be elegantly simulated by duplicating the chemical nodes. Integrating the simulation of gases have implications on the flow (simultaneous resolution of the pressure and saturation equations), and transport-solver (species in the gas phase independently of the water phase), and finally coupling with chemistry and gas-water equilibrium. Applications The Hytec code is used in various domains of the Earth Sciences, in and out our laboratory notably by the members of the consortium Pole Geochimie Transport (Reactive transport group). The document details two families of applications I have been particularly interested in over these years. The geologic storage of CO 2 is a potential technology

  16. Geology of Uruguay review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.

    2011-01-01

    This work is about the Uruguay geology review.This country has been a devoted to breeding cattle and agriculture.The evolution of geological knowledge begun with Dr. Karl Walther who published 53 papers between 1909 and 1948.

  17. Geological Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers use computed tomography (CT) scanners at NETL’s Geological Services Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, to peer into geologic core samples to determine how...

  18. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  19. Isotope analysis of hydrogen and oxygen by infrared spectrometry and activation. Applications to biological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botter, F.; Darras, R.; Engelmann, C.; Scaringella, M.; Basset, G.; Moreau, F.; Marsac, J.

    1977-01-01

    Two methods for the analysis of biological fluids are presented: the γ activation of blood samples in order to determine their 18 O content, and the infrared spectrometry, applied to the circulating blood, in order to evaluate the heavy water concentration. Measurements of pulmonary extravascular, water performed in rat and man, are presented. Favorable conditions for clinical research in pulmonary diseases are obtained by combining the use of a dye (as intravascular indicator) and heavy water (as a diffusible indicator) with their continuous measurement). The method has several major advantages: it is simple, inexpensive safe for the patient, accurate and allows data acquisition and data processing to be immediately performed. Other medical applications are considered [fr

  20. Cohesive granular media modelization with non-convex particles shape: Application to UO2 powder compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Cyr, B.

    2011-01-01

    We model in this work granular materials composed of non-convex and cohesive aggregates, in view of application to the rheology of UO 2 powders. The effect of non convexity is analyzed in terms of bulk quantities (Coulomb internal friction and cohesion) and micromechanical parameters such as texture anisotropy and force transmission. In particular, we find that the packing fraction evolves in a complex manner with the shape non convexity and the shear strength increases but saturates due to interlocking between the aggregates. We introduce simple models to describe these features in terms of micro-mechanical parameters. Furthermore, a systematic investigation of shearing, uniaxial compaction and simple compression of cohesive packings show that bulk cohesion increases with non-convexity but is strongly influenced by the boundary conditions and shear bands or stress concentration. (author) [fr

  1. A geological and geophysical data collection system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sudhakar, T.; Afzulpurkar, S.

    A geological and geophysical data collection system using a Personal Computer is described below. The system stores data obtained from various survey systems typically installed in a charter vessel and can be used for similar applications on any...

  2. Applicability of geostatistical methods and optimization of data for assessing hydraulic and geological conditions as a basis for remediation measures in the Ronneburg ore mining district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, C.

    2001-01-01

    reliability, which is one of the most important advantages provided by the geostatistical methods. As a result of the application of the geostatistical interpolation methods in conjunction with the regional geology the potential outlet-places are calculated and presented in a map. (orig.)

  3. Media Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Pötzsch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution maps materialist advances in media studies. Based on the assumption that matter and materiality constitute significant aspects of communication processes and practices, I introduce four fields of inquiry - technology, political economy, ecology, and the body - and argue that these perspectives enable a more comprehensive understanding of the implications of contemporary technologically afforded forms of interaction. The article shows how each perspective can balance apologetic and apocalyptic approaches to the impact of in particular digital technologies, before it demonstrates the applicability of an integrated framework with reference to the techno-politics of NSA surveillance and the counter-practices of WikiLeaks.

  4. Geological terrain models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.

    1981-01-01

    The initial phase of a program to determine the best interpretation strategy and sensor configuration for a radar remote sensing system for geologic applications is discussed. In this phase, terrain modeling and radar image simulation were used to perform parametric sensitivity studies. A relatively simple computer-generated terrain model is presented, and the data base, backscatter file, and transfer function for digital image simulation are described. Sets of images are presented that simulate the results obtained with an X-band radar from an altitude of 800 km and at three different terrain-illumination angles. The simulations include power maps, slant-range images, ground-range images, and ground-range images with statistical noise incorporated. It is concluded that digital image simulation and computer modeling provide cost-effective methods for evaluating terrain variations and sensor parameter changes, for predicting results, and for defining optimum sensor parameters.

  5. Determination of Thermal Conductivity of Silicate Matrix for Applications in Effective Media Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Lukáš; Jerman, Miloš; Reiterman, Pavel; Černý, Robert

    2018-02-01

    Silicate materials have an irreplaceable role in the construction industry. They are mainly represented by cement-based- or lime-based materials, such as concrete, cement mortar, or lime plaster, and consist of three phases: the solid matrix and air and water present in the pores. Therefore, their effective thermal conductivity depends on thermal conductivities of the involved phases. Due to the time-consuming experimental determination of the effective thermal conductivity, its calculation by means of homogenization techniques presents a reasonable alternative. In the homogenization theory, both volumetric content and particular property of each phase need to be identified. For porous materials the most problematic part is to accurately identify thermal conductivity of the solid matrix. Due to the complex composition of silicate materials, the thermal conductivity of the matrix can be determined only approximately, based on the knowledge of thermal conductivities of its major compounds. In this paper, the thermal conductivity of silicate matrix is determined using the measurement of a sufficiently large set of experimental data. Cement pastes with different open porosities are prepared, dried, and their effective thermal conductivity is determined using a transient heat-pulse method. The thermal conductivity of the matrix is calculated by means of extrapolation of the effective thermal conductivity versus porosity functions to zero porosity. Its practical applicability is demonstrated by calculating the effective thermal conductivity of a three-phase silicate material and comparing it with experimental data.

  6. Towards an Automatic Framework for Urban Settlement Mapping from Satellite Images: Applications of Geo-referenced Social Media and One Class Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zelang

    2017-04-01

    Currently, urban dwellers comprise more than half of the world's population and this percentage is still dramatically increasing. The explosive urban growth over the next two decades poses long-term profound impact on people as well as the environment. Accurate and up-to-date delineation of urban settlements plays a fundamental role in defining planning strategies and in supporting sustainable development of urban settlements. In order to provide adequate data about urban extents and land covers, classifying satellite data has become a common practice, usually with accurate enough results. Indeed, a number of supervised learning methods have proven effective in urban area classification, but they usually depend on a large amount of training samples, whose collection is a time and labor expensive task. This issue becomes particularly serious when classifying large areas at the regional/global level. As an alternative to manual ground truth collection, in this work we use geo-referenced social media data. Cities and densely populated areas are an extremely fertile land for the production of individual geo-referenced data (such as GPS and social network data). Training samples derived from geo-referenced social media have several advantages: they are easy to collect, usually they are freely exploitable; and, finally, data from social media are spatially available in many locations, and with no doubt in most urban areas around the world. Despite these advantages, the selection of training samples from social media meets two challenges: 1) there are many duplicated points; 2) method is required to automatically label them as "urban/non-urban". The objective of this research is to validate automatic sample selection from geo-referenced social media and its applicability in one class classification for urban extent mapping from satellite images. The findings in this study shed new light on social media applications in the field of remote sensing.

  7. Geologic disposal of radioactive waste, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1983-10-01

    Geologic repositories for radioactive waste are evolving from conceptualization to the development of specific designs. Estimates of long-term hazards must be based upon quantitative predictions of environmental releases over time periods of hundreds of thousands of years and longer. This paper summarizes new techniques for predicting the long-term performance of repositories, it presents estimates of future environmental releases and radiation doses that may result for conceptual repositories in various geologic media, and it compares these predictions with an individual dose criterion of 10 -4 Sv/y. 50 references, 11 figures, 6 tables

  8. THE MEDIA COVERAGE OF “7D” IN THE ARGENTINE PRESS. APPLICATION OF GENERIC NEWS FRAMES TO MAJOR NATIONAL NEWSPAPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Aruguete

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to compare the type of coverage that three Argentine newspapers (Clarín, La Nación and Página/12 performed of the so-called "7D" referring to December 7th, 2012, during the month before and the month after that date (from November 7th to January 7th. The Supreme Court of Argentina had established December 7th as a key step in the implementation process of Law of Audiovisual Communication Services (LSCA. From then on, the most important media conglomerate in the country, Grupo Clarín, would have to start the divestment process necessary to comply with the requirements of the new communication law, which had been enacted in 2009. The conceptual basis of the study is the Framing theory. Therefore, a deductive application of generic news frames defined in previous works will be made with the aim of putting in discussion if such frames are effectively adaptable to various topics throughout time and in different cultural contexts or if it is necessary to consider the distinctive features of these scenarios for the definition and persistence of the predominant frames in the news.

  9. Genetic and geological classification wetlands proposed. Application to the spanish wetlands included in the Ramsar convention; Propuesta de clasificacion genetico-geologica de humedales. Aplicacion a los humedales espanoles incluidos en el Convenio de Ramsar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Valsero, J. J.; Garcia de Domingo, A.; Robledo Ardila, P.

    2009-07-01

    The classification represents the first step in the research of the wetlands. There are several types of classifications established according different criteria: geographic, genetic, geologic, functional, hydric, biologic and others. In this work we considered the genetic and geologic classifications criteria are the more suitable because the criteria used are very concrete, descriptive and its application should be easier to put into practice. Every group established in this type of classification determines the develop naturals conditions allowing us to establish the evolution guidelines and same main management lines. The criteria used to develop this classification have been fundamentally: geologic, geomorphologic, tectonics, stratigraphic, and hydrogeologic because these determine greatly the physical wetland characteristics (geometric parameters, hydric nourishment system, hydrochemical characteristics and others). The general characteristics, guidelines behavior of the wetland, and the early evolution of every group of wetland could be essentials to detect and identified those actuations modifying the natural evolution in each concrete wetland. In this work we are applying these classification criteria to the Spanish wetlands included in the Ramsar Convention (until February 2006), defining twelve types of basic wetlands according the geologic and genetic characteristics. (Author) 19 refs.

  10. The geological attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.G.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses geological activity which takes place mainly in response to industrial and social pressures. Past geological reaction to these pressures profoundly altered popular conceptions of time, the Church, man, and the balance of nature. The present-day circumstances of geology are not essentially different from those of the past. Petroleum geology in North American illustrates the role of technology in determining the style and scope of geological work. Peaks of activity cluster obviously on the introduction from time to time of new instrumental capabilities (geophysical apparatus, for example), although not infrequently such activity is testing concepts or relationships perceived long before. Organic metamorphism and continental drift provide two examples. The petroleum industry now faces the dilemma of satisfying predicted demands for fuel, without doing irreparable injury to its environment of operation. Awareness of man's place in nature, which is a fundamental perception of geology, governs the geological attitude

  11. The Use of Social Media and Mobile applications in content delivery for the MY NASA DATA and SCOOL Projects in support of Education and Outreach Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, P. M.; Oostra, D.; Moore, S. W.; Crecelius, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    MND project. This brings in the need for the proper selection of a social media tool that is age-appropriate for the students, should they choose to participate. As with the MND project, there has been proper utilization of social media through careful selection and monitoring of the associated metrics. The NASA CERES S'COOL project utilizes YouTube, Flickr, and is also included in the Observe Your World blog to reach out to current and perspective participants. Through the utilization of social media tools, the MY NASA DATA and S'COOL projects are able to keep the participating audiences involved and informed. In general, the use of Web 2.0 and mobile applications has allowed the projects to keep participants engaged in and up-to-date with current information. With the planned implementation of mobile applications to assist in content delivery and data submission, participants will have a mobile, easy to utilize source of scientific data and information. By monitoring current media tools metrics, we are able to monitor use and ingestion of information. The use of such tools and metrics allows us to better serve our target audience and shift focus, if needed, to the most up-to-date and popular social media tools.

  12. Hydrodynamic parameters of micro porous media for steady and oscillatory flow: Application to cryocooler regenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jeesung Jeff

    Pulse Tube Cryocoolers (PTC) are a class of rugged and high-endurance refrigeration systems that operate without a moving part at their low temperature ends, and are capable of easily reaching 120°K. These devices can also be configured in multiple stages to reach temperatures below 10 °K. PTCs are particularly suitable for applications in space, missile guiding systems, cryosurgery, medicine preservation, superconducting electronics, magnetic resonance imaging, weather observation, and liquefaction of nitrogen. Although various designs of PTCs have been in use for a few decades, they represent a dynamic and developmental field. PTCs ruggedness comes at the price of relatively low efficiency, however, and thus far they have been primarily used in high-end applications. They have the potential of extensive use in consumer products, however, should sufficiently higher efficiencies be achieved. Intense research competition is underway worldwide, and newer designs are continuously introduced. Some of the fundamental processes that are responsible for their performance are at best not fully understood, however, and consequently systematic modeling of PTC systems is difficult. Among the challenges facing the PTC research community, besides improvement in terms of system efficiency, is the possible miniaturization (total fluid volume of few cubic centimeters (cc)) of these systems. The operating characteristics of a PTC are significantly different from the conventional refrigeration cycles. A PTC implements the theory of oscillatory compression and expansion of the gas within a closed volume to achieve desired refrigeration. Regenerators and pulse tubes are often viewed as the two most complex and essential components in cryocoolers. An important deficiency with respect to the state of art models dealing with PTCs is the essentially total lack of understanding about the directional hydrodynamic and thermal transport parameters associated with periodic flow in

  13. Performance assessment of river sand versus ceramic grinding media on the Fimiston Ultra-fine Grinding application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, Guillaume; Clermont, Benoit; Gianatti, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-fine grinding increases the amenability of the refractory concentrate to direct cyanide leaching. Low cost media such as silica river sand gives very fine product grind sizes, however the sand media is quite angular and is often supplied with a broad size distribution. It is generally accepted that the use of a ceramic grinding media will result in a finer product size or allow an increase in the mill throughput. The capacity of a mill is known to increase with decreasing grinding media diameter, the mill wear can be decreased and efficiency of grinding increased. Magotteaux Keramax-MTX Ceramic grinding media was purchased for a plant trial, to assess its' performance.

  14. TIME TO ABANDON INTERNET ADDICTION? PREDICTING PROBLEMATIC INTERNET, GAME, AND SOCIAL MEDIA USE FROM PSYCHOSOCIAL WELL-BEING AND APPLICATION USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius J. van Rooij

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There have long been indications that those with problems controlling their Internet use manifest those problems in relation to specific applications. The current study empirically explores the option of abandoning a unified approach to problematic ‘Internet use’, by splitting the concept into more specific application level measurement. Method: The current study used self-report survey data, collected from Dutch adolescents (aged 12-15, N=3945. Two Structural Equation Models predicted either problematic Internet use (model 1 or both problematic game use and problematic social media use (model 2. Problematic use of the Internet/games/social media was assessed with three abbreviated 6-item versions of the CIUS. Predictors included computer-activity use type in hours per week, depressive mood, loneliness, social anxiety, negative self-esteem, and general life-satisfaction. Results: Problematic Internet use was associated with both social and gaming activities, as well as depressive mood. In the split model, problematic social media use was associated with three types of social, Internet behavior (social networking, Twitter, and instant messenger and depressive mood, while problematic gaming was associated with both online (Internet and offline gaming, as well as by gender (male and depressive mood. Conclusions: The more specific problematic social media use and problematic game use measures provide a less ambiguous and clearer picture that also reveals the role of gender within problematic game use. This provides some evidence to support splitting up measures of problematic Internet use into more specific measures in the future.

  15. A practical application of the geological and mining characterization method to the “Rosa Porriño” deposit (Galicia, Spain). Quality cartography and estimation of the distribution of reserves for mining exploitation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero Arias, A.; Taboada Castro, J.; Iglesias Comesaña, C.; Baltuille Martín, J.M.; Giráldez Pérez, E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the “Rosa Porriño” granite, which is known worldwide and has been marketed for more than 50 years, through the application of geologic-mining techniques. These techniques are widely used for analysing rock masses with the aim of commercially exploiting them. The basis is the general criteria for the characterization of geological and mining parameters: the lithologies present and their distribution, types and location of fractures, the industrial quality of the rock and the location of the exploitable rock volumes, previous activity, planning possibilities and rationalization of the exploitation, to name a few. This geological and mining information was used to make a map of the industrial qualities, forming the basis for the estimation of reserves and their distribution within the deposit. The application of geostatistical techniques allowed the definition of the three dimensions and thus the existing volumes corresponding to each industrial quality (defined in the geological-mining cartography). Four different qualities were defined and their volumes estimated, namely first and second qualities for granite suitable for its use as ornamental stone or other applications of high added value; third quality for the granite suitable for its use as a construction material (generally of smaller volume than the previous qualities) and the fourth quality for the granite for aggregates. The overburden zones were determined as well. Once the reserves of the qualities and their spatial distribution within the deposit are known, different alternatives for a rational exploitation can be considered for the existing operating units. This modelling enables a more effective and efficient mining operation, with controlled, lower environmental impact and thus with a more sustainable exploitation of the mining resources. [es

  16. Geologic flow characterization using tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, R.D.; Tyner, C.E.; Hertel, E.S. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    A new tracer flow-test system has been developed for in situ characterization of geologic formations. This report describes two sets of test equipment: one portable and one for testing in deep formations. Equations are derived for in situ detector calibration, raw data reduction, and flow logging. Data analysis techniques are presented for computing porosity and permeability in unconfined isotropic media, and porosity, permeability and fracture characteristics in media with confined or unconfined two-dimensional flow. The effects of tracer pulse spreading due to divergence, dispersion, and porous formations are also included

  17. Verification study on technology for site investigation for geological disposal. Confirmation of the applicability of survey methods through establishing site descriptive models in accordance with stepwise investigation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Koichi; Hasegawa, Takuma; Hamada, Takaomi; Yoshimura, Kimitaka

    2014-01-01

    The Yokosuka Demonstration and Validation Project, which uses the Yokosuka Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) site, a Neogene sedimentary and coastal environment, has been conducted since the 2006 fiscal year as a cooperative research project between NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) and CRIEPI. The objectives of this project were to examine and refine the basic methodology of the investigation and assessment in accordance with the conditions of geological environment at each stage of investigations from the surface (Preliminary Investigation and the first half of Detailed Investigation conducted by NUMO) for high level radioactive waste geological disposal. Within investigation technologies at these early stages, a borehole survey is an important means of directly obtaining various properties of the deep geological environment. On the other hand, surface geophysical prospecting data provide information about the geological and resistivity structures at depth for planning borehole surveys. During the 2006-2009 fiscal years, a series of on-site surveys and tests, including borehole surveys of YDP-1 (depth: 350 m) and YDP-2 (depth: 500 m), were conducted in this test site. Furthermore, seismic surveys (including seismic reflection method) and electromagnetic surveys (including magnetotelluric method) were conducted within the expanded CRIEPI site in the 2010 fiscal year to obtain information about the geological structure, and the resistivity structure reflecting the distribution of the salt water/fresh water boundary, respectively, to a depth of over several hundred meters. The validity of existing survey and testing methods for stepwise investigations (from surface to borehole surveys) for obtaining properties of the geological environment (in various conditions relating to differences in the properties of the Miura and the Hayama Groups at this site) was confirmed through establishing site descriptive models based on

  18. Social media for movie lovers

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hieu

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis project is to develop a basic social media application which targets a specific group of users – movie lovers. So the project aim is to firstly develop a basic social media application, which is a web application that has basic features of social media such as user authentication, user relationship, news feed, etc. Secondly, the website should provide special features such as movie information, movie reviewing, recommendation system. to target the group of mo...

  19. Drupal 7 media

    CERN Document Server

    Tal, Liran

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical, hands-on guide packed with examples that will help you build rich Drupal 7 media web applications.If you are a Drupal site builder and you wish to spice up your web applications with rich media content, then this book is for you. A basic understanding of HTML, JavaScript, and basic PHP module development in Drupal would be helpful, but is not necessary.

  20. Media education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents.

  1. Ethics and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Constance L

    2014-10-01

    Nurses' use of social media has increased significantly with growing numbers of media-sharing opportunities, platforms, and emerging forms of electronic applications. With the proliferation, opportunities and limitations surface regarding the responsibilities and accountability that nurses have in choosing technology applications with an embedded philosophical ethos that is consistent with the discipline's societal mandate of serving humankind in ways that honor human dignity. This article begins a discussion addressing possible disciplinary obligations and responsibilities for the implementation of social media platforms and possible implications for its future use in the discipline of nursing. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Environmental geology and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakić, Zoran; Mileusnić, Marta; Pavlić, Krešimir; Kovač, Zoran

    2017-10-01

    Environmental geology is scientific discipline dealing with the interactions between humans and the geologic environment. Many natural hazards, which have great impact on humans and their environment, are caused by geological settings. On the other hand, human activities have great impact on the physical environment, especially in the last decades due to dramatic human population growth. Natural disasters often hit densely populated areas causing tremendous death toll and material damage. Demand for resources enhanced remarkably, as well as waste production. Exploitation of mineral resources deteriorate huge areas of land, produce enormous mine waste and pollute soil, water and air. Environmental geology is a broad discipline and only selected themes will be presented in the following subchapters: (1) floods as natural hazard, (2) water as geological resource and (3) the mining and mineral processing as types of human activities dealing with geological materials that affect the environment and human health.

  3. Application of Iranian natural zeolite and blast furnace slag as slow sand filters media for water softening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdolahnejad

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: It is concluded from this study that modified filter media, SMF and ZMF, are very good options for total hardness and turbidity removals in communities that have some problem with this parameter.

  4. Geology of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderblom, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The geology of Mars and the results of the Mariner 4, 6/7, and 9 missions and the Viking mission are reviewed. The Mars chronology and geologic modification are examined, including chronological models for the inactive planet, the active planet, and crater flux. The importance of surface materials is discussed and a multispectral map of Mars is presented. Suggestions are given for further studies of the geology of Mars using the Viking data. 5 references

  5. Application of Mortar Coupling in Multiscale Modelling of Coupled Flow, Transport, and Biofilm Growth in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laleian, A.; Valocchi, A. J.; Werth, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Multiscale models of reactive transport in porous media are capable of capturing complex pore-scale processes while leveraging the efficiency of continuum-scale models. In particular, porosity changes caused by biofilm development yield complex feedbacks between transport and reaction that are difficult to quantify at the continuum scale. Pore-scale models, needed to accurately resolve these dynamics, are often impractical for applications due to their computational cost. To address this challenge, we are developing a multiscale model of biofilm growth in which non-overlapping regions at pore and continuum spatial scales are coupled with a mortar method providing continuity at interfaces. We explore two decompositions of coupled pore-scale and continuum-scale regions to study biofilm growth in a transverse mixing zone. In the first decomposition, all reaction is confined to a pore-scale region extending the transverse mixing zone length. Only solute transport occurs in the surrounding continuum-scale regions. Relative to a fully pore-scale result, we find the multiscale model with this decomposition has a reduced run time and consistent result in terms of biofilm growth and solute utilization. In the second decomposition, reaction occurs in both an up-gradient pore-scale region and a down-gradient continuum-scale region. To quantify clogging, the continuum-scale model implements empirical relations between porosity and continuum-scale parameters, such as permeability and the transverse dispersion coefficient. Solutes are sufficiently mixed at the end of the pore-scale region, such that the initial reaction rate is accurately computed using averaged concentrations in the continuum-scale region. Relative to a fully pore-scale result, we find accuracy of biomass growth in the multiscale model with this decomposition improves as the interface between pore-scale and continuum-scale regions moves downgradient where transverse mixing is more fully developed. Also, this

  6. Social Media and the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    interaction and create dialogue at the click of a mouse. Social media has had an undeniable effect on the way we live, work, and communicate... benefits of social media applications, a bevy of opportunities present themselves when accurately strategized. Planning might include— Your Strategy...in establishing a positive social media presence. Trust enables leaders to open up their organizations to social media , and training provides

  7. Summary on several key techniques in 3D geological modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Several key techniques in 3D geological modeling including planar mesh generation, spatial interpolation, and surface intersection are summarized in this paper. Note that these techniques are generic and widely used in various applications but play a key role in 3D geological modeling. There are two essential procedures in 3D geological modeling: the first is the simulation of geological interfaces using geometric surfaces and the second is the building of geological objects by means of various geometric computations such as the intersection of surfaces. Discrete geometric surfaces that represent geological interfaces can be generated by creating planar meshes first and then spatially interpolating; those surfaces intersect and then form volumes that represent three-dimensional geological objects such as rock bodies. In this paper, the most commonly used algorithms of the key techniques in 3D geological modeling are summarized.

  8. Application de la théorie des graphes au traitement de la carte géologique Applying the Theory of Graphs to the Treatment of Geological Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillé F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La saisie des informations d'une carte géologique par les méthodes classiques (grilles ou relevés aléatoires de courbes ne constitue pas une base de données opérationnelle. Par contre, l'assimilation des limites géologiques à un graphe orienté répond aux critères d'optimalité (encombrement très réduit, temps minimal, fiabilité, et permet une digitalisation rationnelle de la carte, une bonne structuration du fichier, et la réalisation d'applications intéressantes : restitutions graphiques sélectives à toutes échelles, calculs de pendages, surfaces, volumes, études de corrélation. Nous avons donc établi une chaîne de traitement de la carte géologique dont chaque maillon (saisie des informations; contrôle, mise à jour, consultation, application opère sur un ou plusieurs graphes. Obtaining data from geological maps by conventional methods (grids or random curve plotting is not an operational data base. However, the comparison of geological boundaries with a directional graph meets criteria of optimalness (very small bulk, minimum time, reliability and makes it possible to digitize the map rationally, to structure the file properly and to achieve significant applications such as selective graph plotting on all scales, calculating dips, areas and volumes, and making correlotion analyses. Therefore, we worked out a geological map processing sequence in which each element (data acquisition, checking, updating, consulting, applications operates on one or several graphs.

  9. Geology's Impact on Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most people consider geology boring, static and difficult. The fields of astronomy and physics have "rebranded" themselves with exciting programs formatted so as to be readily understandable to the general public. The same thing can be done for geology. My research on geology's influence on other disciplines has resulted in a book, Tweeting da Vinci, in which I was able to show how geology affected Italy's art, architecture, medicine, religion, literature, engineering and just about everything else. The reaction to the book and my lectures by both students and the general public has been very positive, including four gold medals, with reviews and comments indicating that they never knew geology could be so exciting. The book is very user friendly, packed with facts, full-color photos, paintings, sketches and illustrations. Complex aspects of geology are presented in an easily understandable style. Widely diverse topics—such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion—are stitched together using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. The book can be used in classes such as physics, chemistry, literature, art history, medicine, Classical Studies, Latin, Greek and Italian. By incorporating a "geologic perspective" in these courses, it can be perceived as a more "all encompassing" discipline and encourage more students to study it. The lectures I have given on college campuses have resulted in students seeing their own majors from a different perspective and some have even signed up for introductory geology courses. One college organized summer course to the Bay of Naples based on the book. We followed the geology as well as the culture of the area and the students were profoundly moved. To encourage dialog, the book is linked to Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. This has enabled followers from

  10. Media Komunitas dan Media Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawito .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This essay deals with community media in relation to media literacy. After a short discussion on a number of community media characters is made the essay goes further with somewhat detail theoretical presumptions of the roles of media community with respect primarily to the development as Amartya Sen mentioned about. The author suggests that community media may play some significant roles in the development including (a disseminating information (from varieties of perspective, (b facilitating public discussion, (c helping to reach solutions of problems, (d encouraging participations, and (e encouraging the development of media literacy. Regarding the last point the author remarks that media community may have a dual-roles i.e facilitating community’s member in media participation and facilitating community’s member in media education.

  11. Evaluation of radon occurrence in groundwater from 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania, 1986–2015, with application to potential radon exposure from groundwater and indoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eliza L.

    2017-05-11

    Results from 1,041 groundwater samples collected during 1986‒2015 from 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania, associated with 25 or more groundwater samples with concentrations of radon-222, were evaluated in an effort to identify variations in radon-222 activities or concentrations and to classify potential radon-222 exposure from groundwater and indoor air. Radon-222 is hereafter referred to as “radon.” Radon concentrations in groundwater greater than or equal to the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) for public-water supply systems of 300 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) were present in about 87 percent of the water samples, whereas concentrations greater than or equal to the proposed alternative MCL (AMCL) for public water-supply systems of 4,000 pCi/L were present in 14 percent. The highest radon concentrations were measured in groundwater from the schists, gneisses, and quartzites of the Piedmont Physiographic Province.In this study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, groundwater samples were aggregated among 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania to identify units with high median radon concentrations in groundwater. Graphical plots and statistical tests were used to determine variations in radon concentrations in groundwater and indoor air. Median radon concentrations in groundwater samples and median radon concentrations in indoor air samples within the 16 geologic units were classified according to proposed and recommended regulatory limits to explore potential radon exposure from groundwater and indoor air. All of the geologic units, except for the Allegheny (Pa) and Glenshaw (Pcg) Formations in the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province, had median radon concentrations greater than the proposed EPA MCL of 300 pCi/L, and the Peters Creek Schist (Xpc), which is in the Piedmont

  12. Field Geology/Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  13. Global Journal of Geological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Geological Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Geological Sciences including geochemistry, geophysics, engineering geology, hydrogeology, petrology, mineralogy, geochronology, tectonics, mining, structural geology, marine geology, space science etc. Visit the Global Journal Series ...

  14. Quality assurance for geologic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvin, W.L.; Gustafson, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    A quality assurance handbook was written to provide guidance in the application of quality assurance to geologic work activities associated with the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. It is intended to help geoscientists and NWTS program managers in applying quality assurance to their work activities and projects by showing how technical and quality assurance practices are integrated to provide control within those activities and projects. The use of the guidance found in this handbook should help provide consistency in the interpretation of quality assurance requirements across the various geologic activities wihtin the NWTS Program. This handbook also can assist quality assurance personnel in understanding the relationships between technical and quality assurance practices. This paper describes the handbook

  15. Shock compression of geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, S; Braithwaite, C; Williamson, D; Jardine, A

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the shock compression of geological materials is important for many applications, and is particularly important to the mining industry. During blast mining the response to shock loading determines the wave propagation speed and resulting fragmentation of the rock. The present work has studied the Hugoniot of two geological materials; Lake Quarry Granite and Gosford Sandstone. For samples of these materials, the composition was characterised in detail. The Hugoniot of Lake Quarry Granite was predicted from this information as the material is fully dense and was found to be in good agreement with the measured Hugoniot. Gosford Sandstone is porous and undergoes compaction during shock loading. Such behaviour is similar to other granular material and we show how it can be described using a P-a compaction model.

  16. Personnel monitoring in geologic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanova, I.N.; Seredin, Yu.V.

    1981-01-01

    State of radiation safety for the personnel of geologic crews carrying out neutron logging of wells using Po-Be sources has been evaluated. Given are results of development of methods for the evaluation of individual radiation loads for personnel when working with Po-Be neutron sources useful for the application in practice by a geologic logging crew as well as a quantitative evaluation of profissional radiation loads during this kind of work. The following methods are recommended for personnel monitoring: 1) calculation of whole-body irradiation doses and hands from averaged values of radiation dose rate; 2) calculational tabulated determination of irradiation doses during recharging of shanks of well instruments. Personnel monitoring by means of instrumental methods is not necessary in the considered case [ru

  17. Quality assurance for geologic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvin, W.L.; Gustafson, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    A quality assurance handbook was written to provide guidance in the application of quality assurance to geologic work activities associated with the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. It is intended to help geoscientists and NWTS program managers in applying quality assurance to their work activitie and projects by showing how technical and quality assurance practices are integrated to provide control within those activities and projects. The use of the guidance found in this handbook should help provide consistency in the interpretation of quality assurance requirements across the various geologic activities within the NWTS Program. This handbook also can assist quality assurance personnel in understanding the relationships between technical and quality assurance practices. This paper describes the handbook

  18. Hanford Site Guidelines for Preparation and Presentation of Geologic Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanigan, David C.; Last, George V.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Thorne, Paul D.; Webber, William D.

    2010-04-30

    A complex geology lies beneath the Hanford Site of southeastern Washington State. Within this geology is a challenging large-scale environmental cleanup project. Geologic and contaminant transport information generated by several U.S. Department of Energy contractors must be documented in geologic graphics clearly, consistently, and accurately. These graphics must then be disseminated in formats readily acceptable by general graphics and document producing software applications. The guidelines presented in this document are intended to facilitate consistent, defensible, geologic graphics and digital data/graphics sharing among the various Hanford Site agencies and contractors.

  19. Gamma-ray application to the measurement of a media distribution at the catalyst cooler of a residue fluid catalytic cracking unit (RFCCU) in the petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Seop; Jung, Sung Hee; Kim, Jong Bum

    2006-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of the process media in the petrochemical industry can hardly be observed during its operation. Because the information on the process media is directly related to the processes efficiency, therefore it is necessary to establish what is actually happening inside the process unit. For this purpose, a field experiment was performed to study the fluidized catalyst patterns and confirm the internal conditions by using a sealed gamma-ray source. From the results, the areas showing a different pattern from the surrounding vicinity were found successfully. Especially at the upper part of the connection point at which the pipeline from are generator was joined, a relatively low amount of catalyst was distributed. Sealed gamma-ray application to the catalyst cooler is considered as a worthwhile technique for a measurement of the catalyst distribution at the RFCCU.

  20. Gamma-ray application to the measurement of a media distribution at the catayst cooler of a residue fluid catalytic cracking unit (RFCCU) in the petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Seop; Jung, Sung Hee; Kim, Jong Bum

    2006-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of the process media in the petrochemical industry can hardly be observed during its operation. Because the information on the process media is directly related to the processes efficiency, therefore it is necessary to establish what is actually happening inside the process unit. For this purpose, a field experiment was performed to study the fluidized catalyst patterns and confirm the internal conditions by using a sealed gamma-ray source. From the results, the areas showing a different pattern from the surrounding vicinity were found successfully. Especially at the upper part of the connection point at which the pipeline from are generator was joined, a relatively low amount of catalyst was distributed. Sealed gamma-ray application to the catalyst cooler is considered as a worthwhile technique for a measurement of the catalyst distribution at the RFCCU.