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Sample records for geologic deposits

  1. Geological factors of deposit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grushevoj, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    Geologic factors of hydrogenic uranium deposit formation are considered. Structural, formation and lithological-facies factors of deposit formation, connected with zones of stratal oxidation, are characterized. Peculiarities of deposit localization, connected with orogenic structures of Mesozoic and lenozoic age, are described. It is noted that deposits of anagenous group are widely spread in Paleozoic formations, infiltration uranium deposits are localized mainly in Cenozoic sediments, while uranium mineralization both anagenous and infiltration groups are widely developed in Mesozoic sediments. Anagenous deposits were formed in non-oxygen situation, their age varies from 200 to 55 mln years. Infiltration deposit formation is determined by asymmetric oxidation zonation, their age varies from 10 - 40 mln years to dozens of thousand years [ru

  2. Geological aspects of acid deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricker, O.P.

    1984-01-01

    The general pattern of rain falling on the earth and reacting with the materials of the lithosphere (the weathering reactions so familiar to every beginning geology student) began soon after the earth was formed and has continued to the present. Anthropogenic additions to the natural acidic components of the atmosphere have increased since the time of the industrial revolution until they now rival or exceed those of the natural system. The severity of the environmental perturbations caused by these anthropogenic additions to the atmosphere has become a hotly debated topic in scientific forums and in the political arena. The six chapters in this book address various aspects of the acid deposition phenomenon from a geological perspective. It is hoped that the geological approach will be useful in bringing the problem more clearly into focus and may shed light on the geochemical processes that modify the chemical composition of acid deposition after it encounters and reacts with the materials of the lithosphere

  3. Study on geologic structure of hydrogenic deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The problem of studying geologic structure of hydrogenic uranium deposits developed by underground leaching (UL), is elucidated. Geologic maps of the surface are used to characterize engineering and geologic conditions. Main geologoic papers are maps drawn up according to boring data. For total geologic characteristic of the deposit 3 types of maps are usually drawn up: structural maps of isohypses or isodepths, lithologic-facies maps on the horizon and rhythm, and maps of epigenetic alterations (geochemmcal). Besides maps systems of sections are drawn up. Problems of studying lithologic-facies and geohemical peculiarities of deposits, epigenotic alterations, substance composition of ores and enclosing rocks, documentation and core sampting, are considered in details

  4. Mathematical geology studies of deposit prospect types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangping

    1998-08-01

    Exact certainty prospect type of uranium deposit, not only can assure the quality of deposit prospects, but also increase economic benefits. Based on the standard of geological prospect of uranium deposit, the author introduces a method of Fuzzy Synthetical Comment for dividing prospect type of uranium deposit. The practical applications demonstrate that the regression accuracy, discriminated by Zadeh operator, of 15 known deposits is 100%

  5. Uranium ore deposits: geology and processing implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyk, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    There are fifteen accepted types of uranium ore deposits and at least forty subtypes readily identified around the world. Each deposit type has a unique set of geological characteristics which may also result in unique processing implications. Primary uranium production in the past decade has predominantly come from only a few of these deposit types including: unconformity, sandstone, calcrete, intrusive, breccia complex and volcanic ones. Processing implications can vary widely between and within the different geological models. Some key characteristics of uranium deposits that may have processing implications include: ore grade, uranium and gangue mineralogy, ore hardness, porosity, uranium mineral morphology and carbon content. Processing difficulties may occur as a result of one or more of these characteristics. In order to meet future uranium demand, it is imperative that innovative processing approaches and new technological advances be developed in order that many of the marginally economic traditional and uneconomic non-traditional uranium ore deposits can be exploited. (author)

  6. Geological-genetic classification for uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terentiev, V.M.; Naumov, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes a system for classification uranium deposits based on geological and genetic characteristics. The system is based on the interrelation and interdependence of uranium ore formation processes and other geological phenomena including sedimentation, magmatism and tectonics, as well as the evolution of geotectonic structures. Using these aspects, deposits are classified in three categories: endogenic - predominately hydrothermal and hydrothermal-metasomatic; exogenic - sedimentary diagenetic, biogenic sorption, and infiltrational; and polygenetic or composite types. The latter complex types includes: sedimentary/metamorphic and metamorphic and sedimentary/hydrothermal, where different ore generating processes have prevailed over a rock unit at different times. The 3 page classification is given in both the English and Russian languages. (author). 3 tabs

  7. Radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic deposits. Associated research problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the research associated problems for radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic deposits such granites, clays or salt deposits. After a brief description of the underground disposal, the author studies the rheology of sedimentary media and proposes rheological models applied to radioactive wastes repositories. Waste-rock interactions, particularly thermal effects and temperature distribution versus time. 17 refs., 14 figs

  8. Geological Classification of Uranium Deposits and Description of Selected Examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-04-01

    With the increased level of investigation into uranium deposits in recent years, a wealth of new information has become available, which has made it possible to investigate some of the least understood aspects of uranium metallogeny. This publication defines a new classification scheme, which is simple and descriptive, but flexible enough to encompass the recent advances in our understanding of uranium geology and deposit genesis. It contains improved definition of the deposit types, supported by type examples of those deposits for which good data are available, but not well described in previous literature. Along with the descriptive information, new data on uranium resources available for each deposit type are also provided.

  9. Study of hydrogeological and engineering-geological conditions of deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Methods for hydrogeological and engineering-geological studies are considered as a part of the complex works dUring eXploration of hydrogenic uranium deposits to develop them by Underground ieaching (UL). Problems are enumerated and peculiarities Of hydrogeologic and engipeering-geological works at different stages are outlined (prospeccing - evaluating works, preliminary and detailed survey). Attention is paid to boring and equipment for hydrogeological and engineering - geological boreholes. Testing-filtering works are described, the latter includes: evacuations, fulnesses ( forcings), and tests of fulness-evacuation. The problem on steady-state observations in boreholes and laboratory studies of rocks and underground waters is discussed. Geological and geophysical methods for evaluation of rock and ore filtering properties are presented. Necessity of hydrogeological zonation of deposits as applied to UL is marked

  10. Geology and fluorspar deposits, Northgate district, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Thomas A.

    1960-01-01

    The fluorspar deposits in the Northgate district, Jackson County, Colo., are among the largest in Western United States. The mines were operated intermittently during the 1920's and again during World War II, but production during these early periods of operation was not large. Mining was begun on a larger scale in 1951, and the district has assumed a prominent position among the fluorspar producers in the United States. Within the Northgate district, Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks crop out largely in the Medicine Bow Mountains, and later sedimentary rocks underlie North Park and fill old stream valleys in the mountains. The metamorphic rocks constitute a gneiss complex that formed under progressively changing conditions of regional metamorphism. They consist principally of hornblende-plagioclase gneiss (hornblende gneiss), quartz monzonite gneiss, pegmatite, biotite-garnet-quartz-plagioclase gneiss (biotite-garnet gneiss), hornblende-biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneiss (hornblende-biotite gneiss) and mylonite gneiss. The igneous rocks comprise some local fine-grained dacite porphyry dikes near the west margin of the district, and a quartz monzonitic stock and associated dikes in the central and eastern parts of the district. The sedimentary rocks in the district range in age from Permian to Recent. Folded Permian and Mesozoic rocks underlie the basin of North Park, and consist in sequence from oldest to youngest, of Satanka(?) shale (0-50 feet of brick-red shale) and Forelle(?) limestone (8-15 feet of pink to light-gray laminated limestone) of Permian age, Chugwater formation of Permian and Triassic age (690 feet of red silty shale and sandstone), Sundance formation of Late Jurassic age (145 feet of sandstone containing some shale and limestone), Morrison formation of Late Jurassic age (445 feet of variegated shale and minor sandstone and limestone), Dakota group as used by Lee (1927), now considered to be of Early Cretaceous age in this area (200

  11. Thorium Occurrences, Geological Deposits and Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, F.H.; Tulsidas, H.

    2014-01-01

    Availability of Thorium: • Monazite production can be used as a measure for Th availability. • Without commercial rare earth requirements recovery of Th from monazite is not economic. • Extraction of Th from deposits containing e.g. Nb,Ta, may become economic by-product once commercial Th requirements progress.• Monazite is extracted in India, Brazil, Malaysia. • Annually 6 300 to 7 400 t monazite between 2004 and 2008. • Largest producer: India, ~5 000 t monazite /a. • Later figures are not available (Chinese competition on the rare earth market?). • Other monazite producers (unknown amounts): China, Indonesia, Nigeria, North and South Korea, CIS. • Theoretical content of Th in the above reported monazite: 300 to 600 t Th. • Th production reported: Brazil, Canada, India and others, details are not available.

  12. Brazil's uranium/thorium deposits: geology, reserves, potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, M.

    1979-01-01

    With its area of 8.5 million square kilometers (3.3 million square miles) Brazil is the world's fifth largest nation, occupying almost one half of the continent of South America. Its vastness and its wide variety of geological terrain suggest that parts of Brazil may be favorable for many kinds of uranium deposits. The nation's favorability for uranium is indicated by the high correspondence between discoveries and the amount of exploration done to date. For the first time, the uranium and thorium resources of Brazil and their geologic setting are described here in a single volume. 270 refs

  13. Geology and salt deposits of the Michigan Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.S.; Gonzales, S.

    1976-07-01

    The Silurian-age Salina salt, one of the greatest deposits of bedded rock salt in the world, underlies most of the Michigan basin and parts of the Appalachian basin in Ohio. Pennsylvania, New York, and West Virginia. Interest in this salt deposit has increased in recent years because there may be one or more areas where it could be used safely as a repository for the underground storage of high-level radioactive wastes. The general geology of the Michigan basin is summarized and the major salt deposits are described in the hope that these data will be useful in determining whether there are any areas in the basin that are sufficiently promising to warrant further detailed study. Distribution of the important salt deposits in the basin is limited to the Southern Peninsula of Michigan

  14. Geology and mineral deposits of Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willden, Ronald; Speed, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Churchill County, in west-central Nevada, is an area of varied topography and geology that has had a rather small total mineral production. The western part of the county is dominated by the broad low valley of the Carson Sink, which is underlain by deposits of Lake Lahontan. The bordering mountain ranges to the west and south are of low relief and underlain largely by Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary units. Pre-Tertiary rocks are extensively exposed east of the Carson Sink in the Stillwater Range, Clan Alpine Mountains, Augusta Mountains, and New Pass Mountains. The eastern valleys are underlain by Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine deposits contemporaneous with the western deposits of Lake Lahontan. The eastern mountain ranges are more rugged than the western ranges and have higher relief; the eastern valleys are generally narrower.

  15. Global Tsunami Database: Adding Geologic Deposits, Proxies, and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocko, V. R.; Varner, J.

    2007-12-01

    A result of collaboration between NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences (CIRES), the Global Tsunami Database includes instrumental records, human observations, and now, information inferred from the geologic record. Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) data, historical reports, and information gleaned from published tsunami deposit research build a multi-faceted view of tsunami hazards and their history around the world. Tsunami history provides clues to what might happen in the future, including frequency of occurrence and maximum wave heights. However, instrumental and written records commonly span too little time to reveal the full range of a region's tsunami hazard. The sedimentary deposits of tsunamis, identified with the aid of modern analogs, increasingly complement instrumental and human observations. By adding the component of tsunamis inferred from the geologic record, the Global Tsunami Database extends the record of tsunamis backward in time. Deposit locations, their estimated age and descriptions of the deposits themselves fill in the tsunami record. Tsunamis inferred from proxies, such as evidence for coseismic subsidence, are included to estimate recurrence intervals, but are flagged to highlight the absence of a physical deposit. Authors may submit their own descriptions and upload digital versions of publications. Users may sort by any populated field, including event, location, region, age of deposit, author, publication type (extract information from peer reviewed publications only, if you wish), grain size, composition, presence/absence of plant material. Users may find tsunami deposit references for a given location, event or author; search for particular properties of tsunami deposits; and even identify potential collaborators. Users may also download public-domain documents. Data and information may be viewed using tools designed to extract and

  16. New approaches in geological studies of tsunami deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczucinski, Witold

    2017-04-01

    During the last dozen of years tsunamis have appeared to be the most disastrous natural process worldwide. The dramatic, large tsunamis on Boxing Day, 2004 in the Indian Ocean and on March 11, 2011 offshore Japan caused catastrophes listed as the worst in terms of the number of victims and the economic losses, respectively. In the aftermath, they have become a topic of high public and scientific interest. The record of past tsunamis, mainly in form of tsunami deposits, is often the only way to identify tsunami risk at a particular coast due to relatively low frequency of their occurrence. The identification of paleotsunami deposits is often difficult mainly because the tsunami deposits are represented by various sediment types, may be similar to storm deposits or altered by post-depositional processes. There is no simple universal diagnostic set of criteria that can be applied to interpret tsunami deposits with certainty. Thus, there is a need to develop new methods, which would enhance 'classical', mainly sedimentological and stratigraphic approach. The objective of the present contribution is to show recent progress and application of new approaches including geochemistry (Chagué-Goff et al. 2017) and paleogenetics (Szczuciński et al. 2016) in studies of geological impacts of recent tsunamis from various geographical regions, namely in monsoonal-tropical, temperate and polar zones. It is mainly based on own studies of coastal zones affected by 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Thailand, 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami and older paleotsunamis in Japan, catastrophic saltwater inundations at the coasts of Baltic Sea and 2000 landslide-generated tsunami in Vaigat Strait (west Greenland). The study was partly funded by Polish National Science Centre grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10/01553. Chagué-Goff C., Szczuciński W., Shinozaki T., 2017. Applications of geochemistry in tsunami research: A review. Earth-Science Reviews 165: 203-244. Szczuciński W., Pawłowska J., Lejzerowicz F

  17. Geological investigation of uranium deposits at southwest of Chungju area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Park, J.W.; Kim, J.T.; Kim, D.E.; Im, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    A geologic investigation has been carried out at the southwest of Chungju area for the exploration of uranium ore deposit. A trace element geochemistry was supplemented to study the genesis of uranium ore deposit. The uraniferous black slate is interbedded with meta-argillaceous rock formation correlative to the Munjuri formation of Ogcheon group. The uranium rich carbonaceous slate is distributed discontinuously in three places. The discontinuity of the slate is probably due to the deformation of Daebo Orogeny. The grade of the ore bodies is 396-495 ppm U 3 O 8 , Vanadium 1.47-0.48%V 2 O 5 and fixed carbon 18.16-8.54%. The width of outcrop is 10.3m-2.5m. The semiquantitative spectrographic analysis of 4 samples in the above ore zone revealed that the average of minor elements contents are Ba 3025, Be 1.5, Cd 131, Cu53, Co 12, Cr 155, Ga<10, Mo 83, Pb 66, Ni 183, Sr 22, and Zr 196 in ppm. Analysed the 33 major and trace elements in 20 samples including above are samples from drill-cores and trenched rocks from Ogcheon black slate indicates that the uranium has positive correlation with Fe(0.47), Mo (0.45) and Ba(0.38). In the uranium deposits of Ogcheon black slate, we can accept the theory of syngenitic origin where uranium occurs with unusually high content of minor elements in black slate. The elements were introduced at the same time with the mud deposition without significant later addition. Mechanism of emplacement might be fixation of living organisms and absorption of decaying organic matter from sea water. An intensive study is necessary for futher understanding of redistribution and recrystallization of uranium by metamorphism. (Author)

  18. Potash—A vital agricultural nutrient sourced from geologic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Douglas B.

    2016-11-15

    This report summarizes the primary sources of potash in the United States. Potash is an essential nutrient that, along with phosphorus and nitrogen, is used as fertilizer for growing crops. Plants require sufficient potash to activate enzymes, which in turn catalyze chemical reactions important for water uptake and photosynthesis. When potassium is available in quantities necessary for healthy plant growth, disease resistance and physical quality are improved and crop yield and shelf life are increased. Potash is a water-soluble compound of potassium formed by geologic and hydrologic processes. The principal potash sources discussed are the large, stratiform deposits that formed during retreat and evaporation of intracontinental seas. The Paradox, Delaware, Holbrook, Michigan, and Williston sedimentary basins in the United States are examples where extensive potash beds were deposited. Ancient marine-type potash deposits that are close to the surface can be mined using conventional underground mining methods. In situ solution mining can be used where beds are too deep, making underground mining cost-prohibitive, or where underground mines are converted to in situ solution mines. Quaternary brine is another source of potash that is recovered by solar evaporation in manmade ponds. Groundwater from Pleistocene Lake Bonneville (Wendover, Utah) and the present-day Great Salt Lake in Utah are sources of potashbearing brine. Brine from these sources pumped to solar ponds is evaporated and potash concentrated for harvesting, processing, and refinement. Although there is sufficient potash to meet near-term demand, the large marine-type deposits are either geographically restricted to a few areas or are too deep to easily mine. Other regions lack sources of potash brine from groundwater or surface water. Thus, some areas of the world rely heavily on potash imports. Political, economic, and global population pressures may limit the ability of some countries from securing

  19. Deposit Mariovo geological characteristics coal quality and quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreevski, Borche

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of the actual situation with energy resources, in a global scale, shows negative trends, which is result from the numerous complex factors influences. Special influence over these trends has increased requirement and consumption of the fossil fuels, driven by the intensive technological development and unplanned long-term exploitation, which causes huge reduction of the available fossil fuels deposits and significant price oscillations. Additional contribution to this tendency has the fact that potential fossil fuels reserves are controlled from limited number of owners, which allows them to have global geo-strategic control over the energy resources, world politics and other types of influences. In such conditions underdevelopment countries will feel the biggest consequences and they will be forced to provide(conditionally, if there is an energy surplus at the market) and to save considerable financial resources for satisfying their needs. Maximal usage of country's own possessed energy raw material bases the only way out from this situation and it is also used by the countries which are at he greatest development level then ours. If we want to incorporate these reserves into the energetic strategy and energy balances they must be exactly defined and determined. According to the presented approach, paper has aim to make synthesis of previous investigations, through argumentation of geological specifics and quantitative-qualitative characteristics of deposit Mariovo coal given in the available documentation, and also has intention to point out its respectable characteristics. (Author)

  20. Deposit Mariovo geological characteristics coal quality and quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreevski, Borche

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation of the actual situation with energy resources, in a global scale, shows negative trends, which is result from the numerous complex factors influences. Special influence over these trends has increased requirement and consumption of the fossil fuels, driven by the intensive technological development and unplanned long-term exploitation, which causes huge reduction of the available fossil fuels deposits and significant price oscillations. Additional contribution to this tendency has the fact that potential fossil fuels reserves are controlled from limited number of owners, which allows them to have global geo-strategic control over the energy resources, world politics and other types of influences. In such conditions underdevelopment countries will feel the biggest consequences and they will be forced to provide(conditionally, if there is an energy surplus at the market) and to save considerable financial resources for satisfying their needs. Maximal usage of country's own possessed energy raw material bases the only way out from this situation and it is also used by the countries which are at he greatest development level then ours. If we want to incorporate these reserves into the energetic strategy and energy balances they must be exactly defined and determined. According to the presented approach, paper has aim to make synthesis of previous investigations, through argumentation of geological specifics and quantitative-qualitative characteristics of deposit Mariovo coal given in the available documentation, and also has intention to point out its respectable characteristics. (Author)

  1. GEOLOGY OF NIŽNÁ SLANÁ DEPOSIT AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihók Ján

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbonates in Early Paleozoic complexes appear in the upper part of the thick black phyllites forma-tion (Betliar Formation. They are present in the Holec Beds containing black metapelites with lydite and the upper carbonatic horizon with a slight admixture of basic volcanism. From the genetic point of view the stratiform and ankerite deposits of Gemericum are regarded to be f the hydrothermal - metasomatic origin. Owing to the positive results of the geological survey, the Nižná Slaná region has become the most important basis of Fe - ore in the Spiš - Gemer Ore Mts. but in Western Carpathinas as well. The potential of industrial siderite was 63 mil ton. Mano deposit surfaces on the southeren slope of Rimberg hill, where are the superficial parts of forma-tion of black phyllites with carbonatic bodies. The formation, thick to 450 m,contains carbonatic and lyditic ho-rizons with carbonates metasomatically changed to ankerite and siderite. The biggest siderite bodies have maxi-mal directional length of 300 m and thikness of 100 m.The accumulation of metasomatic siderite near obe-liarovo is located in the northern limb of anticline in Betliar Formation. Ore bodies are a typical example of the blind deposit. The average quality of economic ores is following: Fe 33,5 %, Mn 2,18 %, SiO2 8,5 %, As 0,001 – 0,2 %, Pb 0,001 - 0,03 %, Zn 0,002 - 0,009 %, S 0,5 - 1,5 %. Basicity of siderite is 1,4 - 1,7.

  2. Geologic appraisal of Paradox basin salt deposits for water emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hite, Robert J.; Lohman, Stanley William

    1973-01-01

    Thick salt deposits of Middle Pennsylvanian age are present in an area of 12,000 square miles in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah and southwest Colorado. The deposits are in the Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation. The greatest thickness of this evaporite sequence is in a troughlike depression adjacent to the Uncompahgre uplift on the northeast side of the basin.The salt deposits consist of a cyclical sequence of thick halite units separated by thin units of black shale, dolomite, and anhydrite. Many halite units are several hundred feet thick and locally contain economically valuable potash deposits.Over much of the Paradox basin the salt deposits occur at depths of more than 5,000 feet. Only in a series of salt anticlines located along the northeastern side of the basin do the salt deposits rise to relatively shallow depths. The salt anticlines can be divided geographically and structurally into five major systems. Each system consists of a long undulating welt of thickened salt over which younger rocks are arched in anticlinal form. Locally there are areas along the axes of the anticlines where the Paradox Member was never covered by younger sediments. This allowed large-scale migration of Paradox strata toward and up through these holes in the sediment cover forming diapiric anticlines.The central or salt-bearing cores of the anticlines range in thickness from about 2,500 to 14,000 feet. Structure in the central core of the salt anticlines is the result of both regional-compression and flowage of the Paradox Member into the anticlines from adjacent synclines. Structure in the central cores of the salt anticlines ranges from relatively undeformed beds to complexly folded and faulted masses, in which stratigraphic continuity is undemonstrable.The presence of thick cap rock .over many of the salt anticlines is evidence of removal of large volumes of halite by groundwater. Available geologic and hydrologic information suggests that this is a relatively slow

  3. Using geological information to develop new exploration project for uranium deposits in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Osamu

    1992-01-01

    Unconformity related uranium deposits which contain a large amount of resources with higher grades will be economically superior to other types of deposits. This paper presents the integrated use of geological information, which includes compilation data for the Precambrian geology in southern Africa and selected structural geologic data for some analogues of unconformity related uranium deposit in Canada (e.g. Key Lake deposit in Athabasca Basin) and the Precambrian rock hosted uranium deposit in Africa (e.g. Oklo-Munana, Rossing, Shinkolobwe and Dome deposits). Finally, some favourable geological terrains for unconformity related uranium deposit and the Precambrian rock hosted uranium deposit were selected on the basis of geological information. Further significant discoveries are likely in the following geological terrains. 1. Both the unconformity related and Oklo-Munana type deposits are favourable at (a) and (b). (a) the Lower Proterozoic Eburnian belts which are unconformably overlain by sequences of Kibaran and also the unmetamorphosed sequences in Pan-African. The age and paleoenvironment of the unmetamorphosed sequences in Pan-African is comparable to Kibaran. (b) the unmetamorphosed sequences in Eburnian. 2. The Rossing, Shinkolobwe and Dome type deposits are favourable at the Upper Proterozoic Pan-African Belts. (author)

  4. The geology of the Cluff Lake uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, C.T.

    1978-01-01

    The uranium deposits discovered by Amok (Canada) Ltd. in the Cluff Lake area of northwestern Saskatchewan occur at or near the southern edge of the uplifted basement core of the Carswell circular structure. Two types of mineralization, distinguishable by their geological and structural setting and mineral paragenesis, have been recognized. The N-Claude type is characterized by a relatively simple mineral assemblage, consisting of uraninite or pitchblende with coffinite, and is accompanied by variable amounts of graphite and organic matter, and Fe, Cu, Pb and Mo sulphides. Both N and Claude orebodies occur within quartzofeldpathic gneisses of the basement core. On the other hand, the D-type ore has a complex mineral assemblage consisting of: uraninite, pitchblende, tucholite and coffinite, along with native gold and selenium; gold tellurides, and selenides of Pb, Bi, Ni and Co; sulphides of Fe, Cu and Pb; and organic matter. The D orebody occurs within carbonaceous shales at the base of the Athabasca Formation as well as in fault zones in regolithic quartzofeldspathic gneisses above the inverted unconformity. An age of 1050 m.y., which is consistent with a period (circa 1200-1000 m.y.) of widespread hydrothermal activity and uranium mineralization or reworking within and adjacent to the Athabasca Basin, has been obtained from uranium mineralization from the D orebody. Later reworking (circa 470 m.y.) of the mineralization occurred at the intersection of older mineralized shear zones with radial faults produced during meteorite impact. (auth)

  5. Geology and ore deposits of the Pioche district, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, L.G.; Knopf, Adolph

    1932-01-01

    near the range but finer and making a clay flat along the west side of the Bristol Range and Highland quadrangles. The valley east of the Bristol-Highland Range, however, has outside drainage by way of Meadow Valley to the Virgin and Colorado Rivers. The stream in upper Meadow Valley and its tributaries have cut through the surface wash from the mountains and laid bare several hundred feet of white, yellow, and red water-laid Pliocene tuffs that lie in nearly the position in which they were laid down. This erosion has developed a striking badland topography in the Pliocene beds. HISTORICAL SUMMARY The general succession of events may be summarized as follows: 1. Sedimentation during most of Paleozoic time from Cambrian to Pennsylvanian. 2. Uplift, slight warping, and erosion. 3. Volcanism of perhaps late Mesozoic or early Tertiary time, producing lavas and tuffs. This period of volcanism may have lasted a long time and spanned one or more of the epochs of faulting. 4. Tilting and normal faulting. 5. Thrust faulting. 6. Quartz monzonite intrusions at Blind Mountain. 7. Normal block faulting of the Basin Range type. 8. Erosion of the faulted blocks to maturity and to essen-. tially the topography of to-day. 9. Outbursts of volcanic ash, probably in late Pliocene time, and the deposition of several hundred feet of water-laid tuffs in the valleys. 10. In Meadow Valley, valley cutting, which has produced a badland topography in the soft Pliocene tuffs and canyons where the streams cross the harder Paleozoic limestones. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY The Pioche district during four years in the early seventies was second only to the Comstock district in output of silver. The bonanza ore of those stirring times came from fissure veins in the Prospect Mountain quartzite, of Lower Cambrian age. In recent years the main interest has shifted to the bedded replacement deposits of silver-bearing lead-zinc sulphide ore occurring in the limestone members of the Pioche shale a type of ore body

  6. Geology of uranium vein-deposits in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarcia, J.A.; Carrat, J.; Poughon, A.; Sanselme, H.

    1958-01-01

    This paper gives an outline of the characteristics of the main uranium vein deposits in France; it underlines the structural, petrographic and metallogenic similarities of these deposits. (author) [fr

  7. Selected bibliography on the geology of Canadian deposits and occurrences of uranium and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garneau, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is an update to one published in 1956. References are principally geological and mineralogical. Geophysical and geochemical literature is included only if it deals with specific deposits or occurrences. (E.C.B.)

  8. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits. A selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garland, P.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Brock, M.L.; Daniel, E.W. (comps.)

    1980-06-01

    A bibliography of 479 references encompassing the fields of uranium and thorium geochemistry and mineralogy, geology of uranium deposits, uranium mining, and uranium exploration techniques has been compiled by the Ecological Sciences Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The bibliography was produced for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, which is funded by the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy. The references contained in the bibliography have been divided into the following eight subject categories: (1) geology of deposits, (2) geochemistry, (3) genesis O deposits, (4) exploration, (5) mineralogy, (6) uranium industry, (7) reserves and resources, and (8) geology of potential uranium-bearing areas. All categories specifically refer to uranium and thorium; the last category contains basic geologic information concerning areas which the Grand Junction Office feels are particularly favorable for uranium deposition. The references are indexed by author, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational feature, taxonomic name, and keyword.

  9. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits. A selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, P.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Brock, M.L.; Daniel, E.W.

    1980-06-01

    A bibliography of 479 references encompassing the fields of uranium and thorium geochemistry and mineralogy, geology of uranium deposits, uranium mining, and uranium exploration techniques has been compiled by the Ecological Sciences Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The bibliography was produced for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, which is funded by the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy. The references contained in the bibliography have been divided into the following eight subject categories: (1) geology of deposits, (2) geochemistry, (3) genesis O deposits, (4) exploration, (5) mineralogy, (6) uranium industry, (7) reserves and resources, and (8) geology of potential uranium-bearing areas. All categories specifically refer to uranium and thorium; the last category contains basic geologic information concerning areas which the Grand Junction Office feels are particularly favorable for uranium deposition. The references are indexed by author, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational feature, taxonomic name, and keyword

  10. GEOLOGICAL-GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE BAUXITE DEPOSITS APPLICATION OF THE SHALLOW SEIZMIC REFLECTION METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Dragičević; Miroslav Andrić; Ivan Blašković

    1991-01-01

    The exploration of bauxite deposits in the region of the carbonaceous Dinarides has been performed by using different geological and geophysical methods. Deposits laying shallower or deeper below the roof sediments have so far most often been discovered by expensive drilling methods in a corresponding grid. Complex geological explorations have led to a series of valuable data thus enabling the application of other much more economical methods as well. In the region of the bauxite sedimentary ...

  11. Analysis on metallogenetic geological and physicochemical conditions in uranium deposit No.138

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Qitao

    1996-01-01

    The uranium deposit No.138 is of Mesozoic volcano-sedimentary transformation type. This paper discusses such geological conditions as source of uranium, stratigraphy and lithology, lithofacies and paleogeography, paleoclimate, structure and reworking-regeneration, and such physicochemical conditions as uranium adsorbent and reductant, effective porosity, chemical compositions, pH and Eh of rocks in the deposit

  12. The geology of the gold deposits of Prestea gold belt of Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the geology of the gold deposits along the Prestea gold belt of Ghana to assist exploration work for new orebodies along the belt. Prestea district is the third largest gold producer in West Africa after Obuasi and Tarkwa districts (over 250 metric tonnes Au during the last century). The gold deposits are ...

  13. Mineralogical and geological study of quaternary deposits and weathering profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gi Young; Lee, Bong Ho [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-01-15

    Movement history of a quaternary reverse fault cutting marine terrace deposit and tertiary bentonite in the Yangnammyon, Gyoungju city was studied by the mineralogical and microtextural analysis of the fault clays and weathered terrace deposits. Two types of fault clays were identified as greenish gray before the deposition of the marine terrace deposits and reddish brown after deposition. Greenish gray fault clay is composed mostly of smectite probably powdered from bentonite showing at least two events of movement from microtextures. After the bentonite was covered by quaternary marine gravel deposits, the reverse fault was reactivated cutting marine gravel deposits to form open spaces along the fault plane which allowed the hydrological infiltration of soil particles and deposition of clays in deep subsurface. The reddish brown 'fault' clays enclosed the fragments of dark brown ultrafine varved clay, proving two events of faulting, and slicken sides bisecting reddish brown clays suggest another faulting event in the final stage. Mineralogical and microtextural analysis of the fault clay show total five events of faulting, which had not been recognized even by thorough conventional paleoseismological investigation using trench, highlighting the importance of microtextural and mineralogical analysis in paleoseismology.

  14. Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    As one of the most valuable gemstones, emeralds are known to occur in several countries of the world, such as Colombia, Zambia, Brazil, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Russia, Madagascar and Zimbabwe. The emerald deposits at Sandawana, Zimbabwe, are described, the emeralds from this deposit characterised and

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL AND GEOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF THE POSSIBLE BAUXITE DEPOSITS IN THE KARST REGION OF WESTERN HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Blašković

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation results of morphological and geological potential bauxite deposit indicators in the Mesihovina-Rakitno bauxitebearing sedimentary basin in Western Herzegovina are presented. Region with carbonate and clastic hangingwalls as well as those without overlying sediments have been studied. It was established that the expression and number of the indicators depend size as well as on character and thickness of hangingwall sediments. The morphological indicators are expressed as a particular relief forms situated right above the deposits or nearby and are a consequence of geological relations and exodynamic processes. Ihe numerous geological indicators resulted from complex geological events. The most important are: preore structural relations, the formation of paleorelief, peculiar way of hangingwall rocks sedimentation, lithification processes and the formation of the recent structural pattern. It has been observed that particular indicators should be recognized within a relatively thick succession of the overlying sediments which is of the great importance in the exploration of bauxite deposits.

  16. Discussion on geological characteristics and types of uranium deposit of Mesozoic-cenozoic basin in Guangdong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kesheng; Deng Shihua

    1992-01-01

    Systematic summary is briefly made of the distribution, classification, formation, regional geological setting, uranium deposit type, ore-controlling geological conditions of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin in Guangdong area, and on this basis it is proposed that there exist different ore-controlling conditions in different types of basin and different types of deposit can be formed in them, thus indicating the direction for exploration of the basin type uranium deposit from now on and expanding the prospect of ore-finding in the basins in Guangdong area

  17. High-Resolution Geologic Mapping of Martian Terraced Fan Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, J. M.; Patterson, A. B.; Smith, S. D.; Robbins, N. N.

    2018-06-01

    This abstract documents our initial progress (year 1) mapping terraced fan features on Mars. Our objective is to investigate the role of fluids during fan formation and produce the first high-resolution geologic map (1:18k) of a terraced fan.

  18. Geology of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit near Meli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VMS) deposit near Meli/Rahwa, northern Ethiopia are presented in the paper. The study area forms part of Neoproterozoic basement of northern Ethiopia and southern part of the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS). Selected surface rock samples of ...

  19. Geology and recognition criteria for uraniferous humate deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.S.; Saucier, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    The geology of the uraniferous humate uranium deposits of the Grants Uranium Region, northwestern New Mexico, is summarized. The most important conclusions of this study are enumerated. Although the geologic characteristics of the uraniferous humate deposits of the Grants Uranium Region are obviously not common in the world, neither are they bizarre or coincidental. The source of the uranium in the deposits of the Grants Uranium Region is not known with certainty. The depositional environment of the host sediments was apparently the mid and distal portions of a wet alluvial fan system. The influence of structural control on the location and accumulation of the host sediments is now supported by considerable data. The host sediments possess numerous important characteristics which influenced the formation of uraniferous humate deposits. Ilmenite-magnetite distribution within potential host sandstones is believed to be the simplest and most useful regional alteration pattern related to this type of uranium deposit. A method is presented for organizing geologic observations into what is referred to as recognition criteria. The potential of the United States for new districts similar to the Grants Uranium Region is judged to be low based upon presently available geologic information. Continuing studies on uraniferous humate deposits are desirable in three particular areas

  20. GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEOGENE BASINS HOSTING BORATE DEPOSITS: AN OVERVIEW OF DEPOSITS AND FUTURE FORECAST, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahit HELVACI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The geometry, stratigraphy, tectonics and volcanic components of the borate bearing Neogene basins in western Anatolia offer some important insights into on the relationship between basin evolution, borate formation and mode of extension in western Anatolia. Some of the borate deposits in NE-SW trending basins developed along the İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone (İBTZ (e.g. Bigadiç, Sultançayır and Kestelek basins, and other deposits in the NE-SW trending basins which occur on the northern side of the Menderes Core Complex (MCC are the Selendi and Emet basins. The Kırka borate deposit occurs further to the east and is located in a completely different geological setting and volcanostratigraphic succession. Boron is widely distributed; including in soil and water, plants and animals. The element boron does not exist freely by itself in nature, but rather it occurs in combination with oxygen and other elements in salts, commonly known as borates. Approximately 280 boron-bearing minerals have been identified, the most common being sodium, calcium and magnesium salts. Four main continental metallogenic borate provinces are recognized at a global scale. They are located in Anatolia (Turkey, California (USA, Central Andes (South America and Tibet (Central Asia. The origin of borate deposits is related to Cenozoic volcanism, thermal spring activity, closed basins and arid climate. Borax is the major commercial source of boron, with major supplies coming from Turkey, USA and Argentina. Colemanite is the main calcium borate and large scale production is restricted to Turkey. Datolite and szaibelyite are confined to Russia and Chinese sources. Four Main borax (tincal deposits are present in Anatolia (Kırka, California (Boron, and two in the Andes (Tincalayu and Loma Blanca. Kırka, Boron and Loma Blanca have similarities with regard to their chemical and mineralogical composition of the borate minerals. Colemanite deposits with/without probertite and

  1. Geological principles of exploration for sandstone-hosted uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, J.P.

    1982-10-01

    Although the importance of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits has seemingly faded in recent years due to the discovery of large, high -grade deposits elsewhere, a forecasted energy shortage in the near future will probably necessitate a new look at sedimentary basins as a source of uranium. Back-arc basins adjacent to calcalkaline source areas are especially favourable if they are filled with fluvial, post-Devonian sediments. Syn- and post-depositional tectonics play an important role in the sedimentation-mineralisation process and should be investigated. The oxidation-reduction state of the sandstones is a valid prospecting tool. Sedimentological environments govern the permeability and vegetal matter content of sandstones and directly control uranium mineralisation

  2. The geology of the Collins Bay uranium deposit, Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Collins Bay deposit lies within the Churchill Province on the western edge of the Wollaston lithostructural domain where it underlies the eastern edge of the Helikian Athabasca Formation. It is 6 miles north-northeast of the Rabbit Lake mine. Two principal zones of uranium mineralization are described. The A zone, a partly eroded, high-grade pod of metal oxide and arsenides sheathed by clay-like minerals, which trends north-northeast and lies under 25 to 40 feet of water; and the B zone, which lies 6 000 ft south of the A, subcrops under till cover and is a partly eroded zone composed of metal oxide and arsenides which occur within variably altered Athabasca Formation. The deposit is typical of the unconformity-type uranium-nickel deposits of the Athabasca Basin. Observed features fit well with the diagenetic-hydrothermal model for such deposts. (auth)

  3. GEOLOGICAL-GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE BAUXITE DEPOSITS APPLICATION OF THE SHALLOW SEIZMIC REFLECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dragičević

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of bauxite deposits in the region of the carbonaceous Dinarides has been performed by using different geological and geophysical methods. Deposits laying shallower or deeper below the roof sediments have so far most often been discovered by expensive drilling methods in a corresponding grid. Complex geological explorations have led to a series of valuable data thus enabling the application of other much more economical methods as well. In the region of the bauxite sedimentary basin Mesihovina-Rakitno, western Herzegovina, at the site of Studena vrila - after extensive geological explorations - a conclusion was drawn that the shallow seismic reflection geophysical method as well might be successfully applied in locating new bauxite deposits. In the paper, the geological framework of the bauxite deposits occurrences, stipulating the selection of this methode, will be presented. Measurements were performed on a known deposit (L-84, Povaljenica, completely defined by exploration drilling. The obtained results justify the selection of the shallow seismic reflection method as one of the methods for exploring bauxite deposits beneath the roof beds.

  4. Geological characteristics of the main deposits in the world. Geological characteristics of French uranium deposits; their consequences on the different stages of valorisation. The uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, A.; Lenoble, A.; Mabile, J.

    1958-07-01

    This document gathers three contributions. In the first one, after having recalled data regarding uranium ore and metal reserves in Canada, USA, South Africa and France, the author describes and discusses the geological and mineral characteristics of the main deposits in Canada (Great Bear Lake, Ace-Verna and other deposits of the Beaverlodge district, Gunnar, Blind River and Bancroft), in the USA (New Mexico, Colorado and Arizona), and in South Africa (similar structure as observed in Blind River). The second contribution addresses the French uranium deposits by firstly presenting, describing and classifying vein deposits (five types are distinguished) and sedimentary deposits in different geological formations, and by secondly discussing the impacts of these characteristics on exploration, surface exploration works, and mining works. The third contribution proposes an overview of the uranium market: comments of world productions (conventional extraction processes and technical peculiarities, costs and prices, reserves and production in Canada, USA, South Africa, France, Australia and others), presentation of the French program (location and production capacity of uranium production plants, locations of ore extraction), overview of the current situation of the world market (price levels, possible prices after 1962), discussion of the comparison between demands and supplies, overview of the French uranium policy

  5. Geology and uranium deposits of the Cochetopa and Marshall Pass districts, Saguache and Gunnison Counties, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The geology of two districts in southwestern Colorado is described, particularly geologic features bearing on the uranium deposits, which are mainly fault controlled and localized near an unconformity beneath Tertiary volcanics. A genetic model for uranium ore formation is proposed to aid in exploration and evaluation of uranium potential; this model involves Tertiary siliceous tuffs as source rocks, leaching and solution of uranium by supergene ground waters, and localization of ore in favorable structural environments along faults and other permeable zones

  6. Geology and ore deposits of the Klondike Ridge area, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, John David

    1960-01-01

    The region described in this report is in the northeastern part of the Colorado Plateau and is transitional between two major structural elements. The western part is typical of the salt anticline region of the Plateau, but the eastern part has features which reflect movements in the nearby San Juan Mountains. There are five major structural elements in the report area: the Gypsum Valley anticline, Dry Creek Basin, the Horse Park fault block, Disappointment Valley, and the Dolores anticline. Three periods of major uplift are recognized In the southeastern end of the Gypsum Valley anticline. Each was followed by collapse of the overlying strata. Erosion after the first two periods removed nearly all topographic relief over the anticline; erosion after the last uplift has not yet had a profound effect on the topography except where evaporite beds are exposed at the surface. The first and greatest period of salt flow and anticlinal uplift began in the late Pennsylvanian and continued intermittently and on an ever decreasing scale into the Early Cretaceous. Most movement was in the Permian and Triassic periods. The second period of uplift and collapse was essentially contemporaneous with widespread tectonic activity on. the northwestern side of the San Juan Mountains and may have Occurred in the Oligocene and Miocene epochs. Granogabbro sills and dikes were intruded during the middle or upper Tertiary in Disappointment Valley and adjoining parts of the Gypsum Valley and Dolores anticlines. The third and mildest period of uplift occurred in the Pleistocene and was essentially contemporaneous with the post-Hinsdale uplift of the San Juan Mountains. This uplift began near the end of the earliest, or Cerro, stage of glaciation. Uranium-vanadium, manganese, and copper ore as well as gravel have been mined in the Klondike district. All deposits are small, and few have yielded more than 100 tons of ore. Most of the latter are carnotite deposits. Carnotite occurs in the lower

  7. Geology and recognition criteria for uranium deposits of the quartz-pebble conglomerate type. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, A.; Adams, S.S.

    1981-03-01

    This report is concerned with Precambrian uraniferous conglomerates. This class of deposit has been estimated to contain between approximately 16 and 35 percent of the global uranium reserve in two rather small areas, one in Canada, the other in South Africa. Similar conglomerates, which are often gold-bearing, are, however, rather widespread, being found in parts of most Precambrian shield areas. Data have been synthesized on the geologic habitat and character of this deposit type. The primary objective has been to provide the most relevant geologic observations in a structural fashion to allow resource studies and exploration to focus on the most prospective targets in the shortest possible time.

  8. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits: a selected, annotated bibliography. [474 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Garland, P.A.; White, M.B.; Daniel, E.W.

    1980-09-01

    This bibliography, a compilation of 474 references, is the fourth in a series compiled from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Bibliographic Data Base. This data base was created for the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation Project by the Ecological Sciences Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The references in the bibliography are arranged by subject category: (1) geochemistry, (2) exploration, (3) mineralogy, (4) genesis of deposits, (5) geology of deposits, (6) uranium industry, (7) geology of potential uranium-bearing areas, and (8) reserves and resources. The references are indexed by author, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational feature, and keyword.

  9. Geology and recognition criteria for uranium deposits of the quartz-pebble conglomerate type. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Button, A.; Adams, S.S.

    1981-03-01

    This report is concerned with Precambrian uraniferous conglomerates. This class of deposit has been estimated to contain between approximately 16 and 35 percent of the global uranium reserve in two rather small areas, one in Canada, the other in South Africa. Similar conglomerates, which are often gold-bearing, are, however, rather widespread, being found in parts of most Precambrian shield areas. Data have been synthesized on the geologic habitat and character of this deposit type. The primary objective has been to provide the most relevant geologic observations in a structural fashion to allow resource studies and exploration to focus on the most prospective targets in the shortest possible time

  10. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits: a selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Garland, P.A.; White, M.B.; Daniel, E.W.

    1980-09-01

    This bibliography, a compilation of 474 references, is the fourth in a series compiled from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Bibliographic Data Base. This data base was created for the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation Project by the Ecological Sciences Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The references in the bibliography are arranged by subject category: (1) geochemistry, (2) exploration, (3) mineralogy, (4) genesis of deposits, (5) geology of deposits, (6) uranium industry, (7) geology of potential uranium-bearing areas, and (8) reserves and resources. The references are indexed by author, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational feature, and keyword

  11. Geology and genesis of NORM industrial links and depositional processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) has now been found to be associated with many industrial activities that extends far beyond oil and gas production. There are approximately 59 naturally occurring radionuclides that might end up in a train of NORM contamination, which could impact at least 13 industries. It is appropriate and indeed necessary to examine the geological roots of NORM and its concentration in various industries. Impacted NORM industries and their associated problems are presented. Some plant and environmental managers may not even suspect they have NORM problems, because one cannot ''sense'' NORM without instrumentation, until it might be too late for the health and safety of the effected employees and surrounding community. Others want to ''see no evil, hear no evil or speak any evil'' until they are forced into ''reactive'' environmental management, rather than ''proactive'' management. It has been the experience of many that reactive management is far more costly than proactive management

  12. The geological characteristics and forming conditions of granite type uranium-rich ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiangang; Tong Hangshou; Feng Mingyue; Li Yuexiang; Xu Zhan

    1993-03-01

    The forming conditions and concentration mechanism of rich ore, criteria of ore prospecting and selection of uranium-rich ore target area are introduced in the article that is based on the studying of geological characteristics and conditions of granite type uranium-rich ore deposits of No 201 and 361 and on the comparisons of rich and poor ore deposits in geological conditions. Some new view points are also presented as the separate deposition of uranium minerals and gangue minerals is the main mechanism to form rich ore, for rich ore formation the ore enrichment by superimposition is not a universal regularity and most uranium-rich ore deposits are formed within one mineralization stage or mainly in one mineralization stage

  13. The geological characteristics and forming conditions of granite type uranium-rich ore deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiangang, Li; Hangshou, Tong; Mingyue, Feng; Yuexiang, Li; Zhan, Xu [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology (China)

    1993-03-01

    The forming conditions and concentration mechanism of rich ore, criteria of ore prospecting and selection of uranium-rich ore target area are introduced in the article that is based on the studying of geological characteristics and conditions of granite type uranium-rich ore deposits of No 201 and 361 and on the comparisons of rich and poor ore deposits in geological conditions. Some new view points are also presented as the separate deposition of uranium minerals and gangue minerals is the main mechanism to form rich ore, for rich ore formation the ore enrichment by superimposition is not a universal regularity and most uranium-rich ore deposits are formed within one mineralization stage or mainly in one mineralization stage.

  14. Main geologic characteristics and metallogenic models of uranium deposits in Zhejiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Qitao

    2000-01-01

    Uranium resources in Zhejiang is abundant with numerous mineralization types. According to the genesis they can be classified into: sedimentary-reworking type, hydrothermal type and infiltration type. The author briefly describes main geologic characteristics and metallogenic models of different type uranium deposits

  15. The large uranium deposits, their position in the geological cycle, their distribution in the world and their economic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.; Cathelineau, M.; Nguyen Trung, C.; Pagel, M.; Poty, B.; Aumaitre, R.; Leroy, J.; Ruhlman, F.

    1994-01-01

    The nine types of geological formations with uranium deposits (superficial, precambrian conglomerates, sandstones...) are reviewed. U ore deposits are generally the product of successive enrichments during the geological cycle. Two main mechanisms control U fractionation during the cycle: partial melting followed or not by fractional crystallization and redox reactions. Most of the U ore deposits were formed in relation with major geodynamic events. The most interesting deposits from an economical point of view are the Proterozoic unconformity related deposits which contain very large reserves at a much higher grade than in other deposits

  16. The geology and geochemistry of some epigenetic uranium deposits near the Swakop River, South West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambleton-Jones, B.B.

    1983-10-01

    This study comprises a geological and geochemical investigation of the uranium deposits in the region near the Swakop River which extends from the Langer Heinrich Mountain in the east to the end of the Tumas River in the west. The general geology of the basement rocks in the Langer Heinrich region only is discussed. The general geology of the younger duricrust formations is discussed. Analytical methods were developed for the separation of thorium, protactinium and uranium from geological materials using various chromatographic procedures. Alpha spectrometry, neutron activation analysis and delayed neutron counting were the main techniques used. The occurrence of uranium in the region of study follows a unique geochemical cycle, and the geochemistry at each stage in the cycle was examined. The first stage in the uranium-geochemical cycle was the basement rocks. The second stage in the geochemical cycle of uranium was the subsurface water. The third stage in the geochemical cycle of uranium concerns its occurrence in the duricrust deposits. Isotopic disequilibrium measurements showed that uranium is still migrating, and that the age of the carnotite precipitation is 30 000 years, based on the open-system model of uranium migration. In the final stage of the geochemical cycle, the geochemistry of uranium in seawater and the diatomaceous muds is discussed. A classification system for the uranium deposits near the Swakop River, based on genetic relationships, is proposed and described in terms of the geochemical cycle of uranium, the mode of transport and mode of deposition. The relationships between the duricrust uranium deposits and the other uranium deposits of South Africa are compared

  17. Reviews on the metallogenic and geological features of sandstone-type uranium deposits in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Chengkai; Huang Xianfang; Zhang Baoju

    2006-01-01

    Regional geologic settings of sandstone-type uranium deposits in Japan are firstly analyzed. The regional tectonic evolution characteristics of 'Green tuff region' and 'Non green tuff region' and their relationship with uranium mineralization are elaborated in depth. Based on those mentioned above, the uranium sources of sandstone-type uranium deposits in Japan are discussed deeply and the most favorable uranium sources are considered to come from the basement and the surrounding granites. Their intrusive epochs range from Later Cretaceous to Palaeogene (about 60 to 70 Ma ago). The characteristics of ore-bearing host rocks, matter compositions of the deposits, ore formation enrichment factors, the hydrogeologic conditions and so on are described by taking Ningyo-Toge and Tono deposits as examples. Finally, the prospecting measures for the palaeo-channel sandstone-type uranium deposits (basal type) are reviewed. (authors)

  18. Geological characteristics and genesis of Niangnianggong gold-silver deposit in Liaoning Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Zhenyuan

    2013-01-01

    Based on the analysis of geological characteristics and genesis of Niangnianggong deposit, this paper suggested that the deposit is controlled by the EW direction faults and belongs to quartz vein type. Average value of δ 34 S of the ore is 2.19‰, and the variation ranges from 1.6‰ to 4.9‰, which shows the feature of hydrothermal sulfur. The result of lead isotope is fall into original lead zone, which shows the feature of primeval lead system. The result of H-O isotope is close to meteoric line, which means the participation of precipitations. Rb-Sr age of ore is 186.6 Ma, which is similar to the age of diorite dike. Multi-disciplinary analysis concludes that the deposit is a quartz vein type deposit with composite hydrothermal origin. (author)

  19. Geologic characteristics of sediment- and volcanic-hosted disseminated gold deposits - Search for an occurrence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Donald E.; Fournier, Robert O.; Rytuba, James J.; Rye, Robert O.; Cunningham, Charles G.; Berger, Byron R.; Silberman, Miles L.; Bonham, Harold F.; Strachan, Donald G.; Birak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Robert J.; Tooker, Edwin W.; Tooker, Edwin W.

    1985-01-01

    The current expansion of resource information, particularly on "disseminated" gold, and the improved technologies now available for resource investigations should place us in an enhanced position for developing a better predictive methodology for meeting one of the important responsibilities of the U.S. Geological Survey-to examine and assess the mineral resources of the geologic terranes composing the public (and privately owned) lands of the United States. The first step is systematic organization of these data. Geologic-occurrence models are an effective systematic method by which to organize large amounts of resource information into a logical sequence facilitating its use more effectively in meeting several industry and Survey objectives, which include the exploration for resources and the assessment of resource potential for land-use decisions. Such models also provide a scientific basis for metallogenesis research, which considers the observable features or attributes of ore occurrence and their "fit" into the Earth's resource puzzle. The use of models in making resource assessments/appraisals was addressed by Shawe (1981), who reported the results of a workshop on methods for resource appraisal of Wilderness and Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program (CUSMAP; 1:250,000-scale quadrangles) areas. The Survey's main objective in the 1982 workshop was to evaluate the status of knowledge about disseminated or very fine grained gold deposits and, if possible, to develop an occurrence model(s).This report on the workshop proceedings has three main objectives: (1) Education through the publication of a summary review and presentation of new thinking and observations about the scientific bases for those geologic processes and environments that foster disseminated gold-ore formation; (2) systematic organization of available geologic, geochemical, and geophysical information for a range of typical disseminated gold deposits (including recognition of gaps

  20. Geological Structure and Gold Mineralization of Carbonaceous Deposits of the Tyotechnaya Mountain (South Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Snachev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the geological structure of the northern part of the East-Urals Trough. Particular attention is paid to the Kosobrodskaya Formation, where the carbonaceous deposits are most abundant. It was found that the gold in the black shales of the Tyotechnaya Mountain is associated with the intensively dislocated, silicified and sulfidised rocks struck with the diorite porphyry of the Birgildin-Tomino Complex. Channel sampling on the number of wells showed the gold grades up to 1.5 g/t that allows suggesting the setting up of new gold deposit.

  1. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits: a selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Brock, M.L.; Garland, P.A.; White, M.B.; Daniel, E.W. (comps.)

    1978-06-01

    A compilation of 490 references is presented which is the second in a series compiled from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Bibliographic Data Base. This data base is one of six created by the Ecological Sciences Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy. Major emphasis for this volume has been placed on uranium geology, encompassing deposition, genesis of ore deposits, and ore controls; and prospecting techniques, including geochemistry and aerial reconnaissance. The following indexes are provided to aid the user in locating references of interest: author, geographic location, quadrangel name, geoformational feature, taxonomic name, and keyword.

  2. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits: a selected, annotated bibliography. Vol. 2, Rev. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Brock, M.L.; Garland, P.A.; White, M.B.; Daniel, E.W.

    1979-07-01

    This bibliography, a compilation of 490 references, is the second in a series compiled from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Bibliographic Data Base. This data base is one of six data bases created by the Ecological Sciences Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy. Major emphasis for this volume has been placed on uranium geology, encompassing deposition, genesis of ore deposits, and ore controls; and prospecting techniques, including geochemistry and aerial reconnaissance. The following indexes are provided to aid the user in locating references of interest: author, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational feature, taxonomic name, and keyword

  3. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits: a selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Brock, M.L.; Garland, P.A.; White, M.B.; Daniel, E.W.

    1978-06-01

    A compilation of 490 references is presented which is the second in a series compiled from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Bibliographic Data Base. This data base is one of six created by the Ecological Sciences Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy. Major emphasis for this volume has been placed on uranium geology, encompassing deposition, genesis of ore deposits, and ore controls; and prospecting techniques, including geochemistry and aerial reconnaissance. The following indexes are provided to aid the user in locating references of interest: author, geographic location, quadrangel name, geoformational feature, taxonomic name, and keyword

  4. Volcanogenic Uranium Deposits: Geology, Geochemical Processes, and Criteria for Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Felsic volcanic rocks have long been considered a primary source of uranium for many kinds of uranium deposits, but volcanogenic uranium deposits themselves have generally not been important resources. Until the past few years, resource summaries for the United States or the world generally include volcanogenic in the broad category of 'other deposits' because they comprised less than 0.5 percent of past production or estimated resources. Exploration in the United States from the 1940s through 1982 discovered hundreds of prospects in volcanic rocks, of which fewer than 20 had some recorded production. Intensive exploration in the late 1970s found some large deposits, but low grades (less than about 0.10 percent U3O8) discouraged economic development. A few deposits in the world, drilled in the 1980s and 1990s, are now known to contain large resources (>20,000 tonnes U3O8). However, research on ore-forming processes and exploration for volcanogenic deposits has lagged behind other kinds of uranium deposits and has not utilized advances in understanding of geology, geochemistry, and paleohydrology of ore deposits in general and epithermal deposits in particular. This review outlines new ways to explore and assess for volcanogenic deposits, using new concepts of convection, fluid mixing, and high heat flow to mobilize uranium from volcanic source rocks and form deposits that are postulated to be large. Much can also be learned from studies of epithermal metal deposits, such as the important roles of extensional tectonics, bimodal volcanism, and fracture-flow systems related to resurgent calderas. Regional resource assessment is helped by genetic concepts, but hampered by limited information on frontier areas and undiscovered districts. Diagnostic data used to define ore deposit genesis, such as stable isotopic data, are rarely available for frontier areas. A volcanic environment classification, with three classes (proximal, distal, and pre-volcanic structures

  5. Geological Structure and Gold Mineralization of Carbonaceous Deposits of the Tyotechnaya Mountain (South Urals)

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Snachev; E. P. Shchulkin

    2018-01-01

    This paper considers the geological structure of the northern part of the East-Urals Trough. Particular attention is paid to the Kosobrodskaya Formation, where the carbonaceous deposits are most abundant. It was found that the gold in the black shales of the Tyotechnaya Mountain is associated with the intensively dislocated, silicified and sulfidised rocks struck with the diorite porphyry of the Birgildin-Tomino Complex. Channel sampling on the number of wells showed the gold grades up to 1.5...

  6. Ruthenium concentrations in geological boundary deposits and their correlation with Iridium by RIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X. Y.; Xin, X. B.; Ji, W. X.; Mao, X. Y.; Chai, C. F.

    1995-04-01

    The reason the biological mass extinctions in the earth history is a great concern of geologists. A method using RIMS to determine the concentration of Ru has been developed. The Ru/Ir concentration ratios favour the impact model of extraterrestrial material on the earth to explain the dinosaur extinction at the end of the Cretaceous. This is the first data on Ru abundances in geological boundary deposits analyzed by RIMS.

  7. Ruthenium concentrations in geological boundary deposits and their correlation with Iridium by RIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X. Y.; Xin, X. B.; Ji, W. X.; Mao, X. Y.; Chai, C. F.

    1995-01-01

    The reason the biological mass extinctions in the earth history is a great concern of geologists. A method using RIMS to determine the concentration of Ru has been developed. The Ru/Ir concentration ratios favour the impact model of extraterrestrial material on the earth to explain the dinosaur extinction at the end of the Cretaceous. This is the first data on Ru abundances in geological boundary deposits analyzed by RIMS

  8. Geology of uranium deposits in the southern part of the Rocky Mountain province of Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malan, R.C.

    1983-07-01

    This report summarizes the geology of uranium deposits in the southern part of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, an area of about 20,000 square miles. In January 1966, combined ore reserves and ore production at 28 uranium deposits were about 685,000 tons of ore averaging 0.24 percent U 3 O 8 (3.32 million pounds U 3 O 8 ). About half of these deposits each contain <1,000 tons of ore. The two largest deposits, the Pitch in the Marshall Pass locality southwest of Salida and the T-1 in the Cochetopa locality southeast of Gunnison, account for about 90 percent of all production and available reserves. The probability in excellent for major expansion of reserves in Marshall Pass and is favorable at a few other vein localities. There are six types of uranium deposits, and there were at least four ages of emplacement of these deposits in the southern part of the Colorado Rockies. There are eight types of host rocks of eight different ages. Veins and stratiform deposits each account for about 40 percent of the total number of deposits, but the veins of early and middle Tertiary age account for nearly all of the total reserves plus production. The remaining 20 percent of the deposits include uraniferous pegmatites, irregular disseminations in porphyry, and other less important types. The wall rocks at the large Tertiary vein deposits in the southern part of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado are Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, whereas Precambrian metamorphic wall rocks predominate at the large veins in the Front Range of the northern Colorado Rockies. Metallogenetic considerations and tectonic influences affecting the distribution of uranium in Colorado and in adjacent portions of the western United States are analyzed

  9. Application research on remote sensing geology of sandstone-type uranium deposit in Yili basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huaiwu

    2002-01-01

    Based on remote sensing images and practical materials, and new ideas of laying particular emphasis on the research of regional geologic structures, and large in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits, applying the theory of plate tectonics, the author makes a comprehensive analysis on the uranium metallogenic environments, characteristics of regional geologic structures, the ore-controlling mechanism and factors, and uranium metallogeny. Authors propose that large interlayer oxidation zone sandstone-type uranium deposits are controlled by the combination of the stable block in Meso-Cenozoic compressive-shearing faulted subsided basin on the Yili multiphase massif in Tianshan paleo-island arc system, and the specific paleo-geographic environments and its' structural terrace'. The origin of hydrogenic sandstone-type uranium deposits is summarized by the authors as the 'mixing and neutralization' genetic model, and the 'eight ore-controlling factors merge into an organic whole' prospecting model. The above mentioned provides clear prospecting direction and new ideas for the forecasting direction for prospecting large sandstone-type uranium deposits

  10. Geological-geochemical evidence for deep fluid action in Daqiaowu uranium deposit, Zhejiang province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Linfei; Ou Guangxi; Zhang Jianfeng; Zhang Min; Jin Miaozhang; Wang Binghua

    2009-01-01

    Through the contrast study of petrography, micro thermometry and laser Raman ingredient analysis of fluid inclusion, this paper has verified the basic nature of ore-forming fluid (temperature, salinity and ingredient) in daqiaowu uranium deposit, discussed the origin of the ore-forming fluid with its structure character and geology-geochemistry character. The testing results indicats that ore-forming temperature of this deposit is between 200 degree C and 250 degree C in main metallogenetic period, which belongs to middle temperature hydrothermal. The ore-forming fluids are of middle-high salinity and rich in valatility suchas CO 2 , H 2 , CH 4 . To sum up, the deposit mineralization process should be affected by the deep fluid primarily, and the ore-forming fluid is mainly the mantle fluid.(authors)

  11. Use of structural geology in exploration for and mining of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen G.

    2001-01-01

    Structural geology is an important component in regional-, district- and orebody-scale exploration and development of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits.Identification of timing of important structural events in an ore district allows analysis and classification of fluid conduits and construction of genetic models for ore formation.The most practical uses of structural geology deal with measurement and definition of various elements that comprise orebodies, which can then be directly applied to ore-reserve estimation,ground control,grade control, safety issues,and mine planning.District- and regional-scale structural studies are directly applicable to long-term strategic planning,economic analysis,and land ownership. Orebodies in sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits are discrete, hypogene, epigenetic masses usually hosted in a fault zone,breccia mass, or lithologic bed or unit. These attributes allow structural geology to be directly applied to the mining and exploration of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits. Internal constituents in orebodies reflect unique episodes relating to ore formation.The main internal constituents in orebodies are ore minerals, gangue, and alteration minerals that usually are mixed with one another in complex patterns, the relations among which may be used to interpret the processes of orebody formation and control.Controls of orebody location and shape usually are due to structural dilatant zones caused by changes in attitude, splays, lithologic contacts,and intersections of the host conduit or unit.In addition,conceptual parameters such as district fabric,predictable distances, and stacking also are used to understand the geometry of orebodies.Controls in ore districts and location and geometry of orebodies in ore districts can be predicted to various degrees by using a number of qualitative concepts such as internal and external orebody plunges,district plunge, district stacking, conduit classification, geochemical, geobarometric and

  12. Geology and recognition criteria for roll-type uranium deposits in continental sandstones. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harshman, E.N.; Adams, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The study of roll-type deposits during the past 20 years, since the first description of a deposit in the United States, has developed general concepts of ore formation which are accepted widely and are compatible with available data. If this were not the case the concepts would not have endured and could not have been so successfully applied to exploration using the relations of altered-unaltered sandstone. The comparative simplicity of the model, and the ease with which it has been applied to exploration have, oddly enough, probably inhibited detailed studies of ore districts that would have provided data now needed for refinement of ore controls for exploration and resource assessment programs. The most thorough study of a roll-type district was that of the Shirley Basin which is drawn on heavily in this report. The general concept of roll-type formation provides a strong basis for the development of geological observations and guides, or recognition criteria, for resource studies and exploration. Indeed, industry has been developing and using them for 20 years. As the objective of this study was to identify the most useful recognition criteria and develop a method for their systematic use in resource studies and exploration, the study is best summarized by reference to the important geological observations about roll-type deposits

  13. Geological modeling of a stratified deposit with CAD-Based solid model automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Eser

    Full Text Available Abstract The planning stages of mining activities require many comprehensive and detailed analyses. Determining the correct orebody model is the first stage and one of the most important. Three-dimensional solid modeling is one of the significant methods that can examine the position and shape of the ore deposit. Although there are many different types of mining software for determining a solid model, many users try to build geological models in the computer without knowing how these software packages work. As researchers on the subject, we wanted to answer the question "How would we do it". For this purpose, a system was developed for generating solid models using data obtained from boreholes. Obtaining this model in an AutoCAD environment will be important for geologists and engineers. Developed programs were first tested with virtual borehole data belonging to a virtual deposit. Then the real borehole data of a cement raw material site were successfully applied. This article allows readers not only to see a clear example of the programming approach to layered deposits but also to produce more complicated software in this context. Our study serves as a window to understanding the geological modeling process.

  14. Geology, geochemistry, and genesis of the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit, Admiralty Island, southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Johnson, Craig A.

    2010-01-01

    In 1996, a memorandum of understanding was signed by representatives of the U.S. Geological Survey and Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company to initiate a cooperative applied research project focused on the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit in southeastern Alaska. The goals of the project were consistent with the mandate of the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program to maintain a leading role in national mineral deposits research and with the need of Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company to further development of the Greens Creek deposit and similar deposits in Alaska and elsewhere. The memorandum enumerated four main research priorities: (1) characterization of protoliths for the wall rocks, and elucidation of their alteration histories, (2) determination of the ore mineralogy and paragenesis, including metal residences and metal zonation within the deposit, (3) determination of the ages of events important to ore formation using both geochronology and paleontology, and (4) development of computer models that would allow the deposit and its host rocks to be examined in detail in three dimensions. The work was carried out by numerous scientists of diverse expertise over a period of several years. The written results, which are contained in this Professional Paper, are presented by 21 authors: 13 from the U.S. Geological Survey, 4 from Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company, 2 from academia, and 2 from consultants. The Greens Creek deposit (global resource of 24.2 million tons at an average grade of 13.9 percent zinc, 5.1 percent lead, 0.15 troy ounce per ton gold, and 19.2 troy ounces per ton silver at zero cutoff) formed in latest Triassic time during a brief period of rifting of the Alexander terrane. The deposit exhibits a range of syngenetic, diagenetic, and epigenetic features that are typical of volcanogenic (VMS), sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX), and Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) genetic models. In the earliest stages of rifting, formation of

  15. Possibilities of reducing radiocesium transfer to hen eggs. II. Using bentonite from Polish geological deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachubik, J.; Kowalski, B.

    2000-01-01

    The decontamination effectiveness of bentonite from Polish geological deposits in reducing the radiocesium transfer to hen eggs was examined. The egg white radiocesium concentration was higher than that in egg yolk. The highest decontamination efficacy in all egg components was noticed in animals treated with bentonite from the first day of radionuclide administration. Generally, the radioactivity concentration in hens treated simultaneously with 137CsCl and a cesium binder were lower by 50% than those in the controls. The decontamination efficiency lowered with the delayed bentonite treatment. In Poland bentonite seems to be an alternative to other decontamination agents. (author)

  16. Review on geological character and exploration methods of Daqiaowu volcanic-type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jiangwei

    2009-01-01

    Through a new round of exploration work from 2006 to 2008 on exploration practice and studies, it is suggested that ore host rock in Daqiaowu volcanic rock-type uranium deposit is volcanic breccias which can be classified into two types, one is cryptoexplosion breccias of vent facies,the other is lens-like breccias of crater facies controlled by interlayer structure. Main ore-controlling structure is NW-trending faults, uranium ore bodies in all the mineralized belts of the deposit are mainly NW-trending. The layout of exploration projects in reconnaissance stage should be with flexible principles, so that project arrangement can be adjusted timely with the deepening and changes of geological understanding. (authors)

  17. Main geologic characteristics of paleochannel-type sandstone-hosted uranium deposits and relevant prospecting and exploration policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuyi

    1999-01-01

    The author summarizes main prospecting and exploration-related geologic characteristics of paleochannel-type sandstone-hosted uranium deposits such as the structural control over the spatial emplacement of the deposit, the near-source occurrence, the phreatic oxidation origin, the occurrence of the uranium mineralization mostly in one horizon etc. On the basis of analyzing the above characteristics the prospecting and exploration policy of such uranium deposits is proposed

  18. Research of geological technologic condition in laboratory about the ore of 501 deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Guoxiang; Yu Baoli; Gao Yuyou; Li Changhua

    2009-01-01

    501 deposits of uranium ore grade is 0.052%. The radio of U +6 /U 4+ is 1.7-4.6. there is less content of sarbonate, such as sulfide and organic matter which disservice baptist uranium geological process, and the uranium and oxygen with a high level in the water of seam. The content of [HCO 3 ] - is lower. By conducting the static leaching test, the important technical parameters of uranium ore extraction are determined: with 7.91 g/L H 2 SO 4 , to soak uranium ore which the grade is between 0.007% and 0.216% for 48 hours, the uranium extraction rate of 64.69-99.17%, and extract uranium concentration 9.51-427.6 mg/L; the formula of infusion solution is obtained by using percolation leaching test: 6-8 g/L H 2 SO 4 , the rate of uranium extraction is 95.71%-96.33%, an average of leaching solution uranium concentration of 88.33-111.32 mg/L, leaching liquid-solid ratio of 4.46-5.66, ore tons of sulfuric acid consumption to 27.58-29.83 kg/t, extraction of uranium 1 kg of sulfuric acid consumption to 55.17-60.06 kg. That indicate the geological technologic conditions which the leaching of uranium ore deposits is better. (authors)

  19. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  20. The "chessboard" classification scheme of mineral deposits: Mineralogy and geology from aluminum to zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Harald G.

    2010-06-01

    Economic geology is a mixtum compositum of all geoscientific disciplines focused on one goal, finding new mineral depsosits and enhancing their exploitation. The keystones of this mixtum compositum are geology and mineralogy whose studies are centered around the emplacement of the ore body and the development of its minerals and rocks. In the present study, mineralogy and geology act as x- and y-coordinates of a classification chart of mineral resources called the "chessboard" (or "spreadsheet") classification scheme. Magmatic and sedimentary lithologies together with tectonic structures (1 -D/pipes, 2 -D/veins) are plotted along the x-axis in the header of the spreadsheet diagram representing the columns in this chart diagram. 63 commodity groups, encompassing minerals and elements are plotted along the y-axis, forming the lines of the spreadsheet. These commodities are subjected to a tripartite subdivision into ore minerals, industrial minerals/rocks and gemstones/ornamental stones. Further information on the various types of mineral deposits, as to the major ore and gangue minerals, the current models and the mode of formation or when and in which geodynamic setting these deposits mainly formed throughout the geological past may be obtained from the text by simply using the code of each deposit in the chart. This code can be created by combining the commodity (lines) shown by numbers plus lower caps with the host rocks or structure (columns) given by capital letters. Each commodity has a small preface on the mineralogy and chemistry and ends up with an outlook into its final use and the supply situation of the raw material on a global basis, which may be updated by the user through a direct link to databases available on the internet. In this case the study has been linked to the commodity database of the US Geological Survey. The internal subdivision of each commodity section corresponds to the common host rock lithologies (magmatic, sedimentary, and

  1. Mineralogy and geological significance of hydrothermal deposits from the Okinawa Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Zhai, Shikui; Yu, Zenghui; Wang, Shujie; Cai, Zongwei

    2018-04-01

    The study of hydrothermal deposits in the Okinawa Trough can help us to uncover the hydrothermal mineralization characteristics in the back-arc basin during the early expanding stage. Mineralogy and geological significance of hydrothermal deposits from both the middle and southern trough are studied in this paper. First of all, using optical microscope to confirm the mineral compositions, characteristics of crystal shape, paragenetic relationship and minerals crystallization order. Then the minerals chemical composition were analyzed in virtue of electron microprobe. On these basis, the paragenetic sequence and the mineralization characteristics of the hydrothermal deposits were discussed. The results show that the hydrothermal deposit from the mid-Okinawa Trough belongs to Zn-Cu-rich type, consisting dominantly of sulfide minerals such as sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, etc. The minerals crystallization order is first generation pyrite(PyI)-sphalerite-chalcopyrite-galena-second generation pyrite(PyII)-amorphous silica. While the deposit from the southern Okinawa Trough is Ba-Zn-Pb-rich type mainly composing of barite, sphalerite, galena, etc. The minerals crystallization order is barite-pyrite-sphalerite-tetrahedrite-galena-chalcopyrite-amorphous silica. Hydrothermal fluid temperature in the mid-Okinawa Trough undergoes a process from high to low, which is high up to 350 °C in the early stage, but decreasing gradually with the evolution of hydrothermal fluid. On the contrary, the hydrothermal activity in the southern Okinawa Trough is low temperature dominated, but the mineralization environment is unstable and the fluid temperature changes drastically during the period of hydrothermal activity.

  2. Underground geologic evaluation of the Grossschloppen vein-uranium deposit, West Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, S.C.; Erickson, A.J.; Kolb, S.G.; Maclean, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Grossschloppen vein-uranium deposit, Bavaria, West Germany, was examined utilizing underground workings during 1980-82 by Esso Er/ZETA/ GMbH, an affiliate of Exxon Minerals Company (EMC). Geologic evaluation entailed dense drilling of a portion of the deposit from workings constructed specifically for the program. Discovered in 1977, the deposit was initially explored by surface diamond drillholes which allowed definition of a 30-60 m wide vein system discontinuously mineralized along a 1000 m strike length and to at least a 450 m depth. The underground program was conceived as a cost effective procedure to answer questions on vein correlation, grade continuity and variability. A 1200 m decline allowed access for detailed sampling of approximately 10% of the known area of mineralization. Fanned drillholes, logged by gamma probe, were spaced to provide intersections of veins at 10 to 20 m intervals. Six cross cuts also penetrate the pitchblende and uranophane mineralization which occurs in 0.1 to 2.5 m thick quartz veins. Detailed cross-sections and level plans were constructed for resource estimates of the intensively studied portion of the vein system. The program resulted in the discovery of local, high grade areas and an average grade in the evaluated area nearly double that expected from surface drilling

  3. Geological and Geochemical Characteristics of Skarn Type Lead-Zinc Deposit in Baoshan Block, Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xue; Wang, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Baoshan block is an important Pb-Zn-Fe-Cu polymetallic ore-concentration area which is located in southern of the Sanjiang metallogenic belt in western Yunnan. The article is studying about the geological and geochemical characteristics of the skarn type lead-zinc deposit in Baoshan block. The skarn-type lead-zinc deposit Baoshan block is characterized by skarn and skarn marble, and the orebodies are layered, or bedded along the interlayer fault, which are significantly controlled by structure. The research about Stable isotope S, H and O indicates that the ore-forming fluids are mainly derived from magmatic water, partly mixed with parts of metamorphic water and atmospheric precipitation. The initial Sr isotopic Sr87/Sr86 ratio suggests that the ore-forming materials derived from deep concealed magmatic rock, age of Rb-Sr mineralization is similar to that of Yanshanian granite. In conclusion, the Yanshanian tectonic-magmatic-fluid coupling mineralization of Yanshan formation is the main reason for the skarn-type lead-zinc deposit in the Baoshan block.

  4. Metallogenic geologic prerequisites of sandstone-type uranium deposits and target area selection. Taking Erlian and Ordos basins as examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fazheng

    2002-01-01

    Sandstone-type uranium deposit is the main target of recent uranium prospecting and exploration. According to the metallogenic characteristics, sandstone-type uranium deposits are divided into three groups: paleo-channel type, interlayer oxidation zone type and phreatic interlayer oxidation type. The author makes an analysis on the geologic prerequisites of the three types of uranium deposits, the similarities and difference, and preliminarily summarizes genetic models of different types of uranium deposits. Finally, taking Erlian and Ordos basins as examples, the author makes an evaluation and a strategic analysis on the uranium metallogenic prospect of the above two basins

  5. Analyzing regional geological setting of DS uranium deposit based on the extensional research of remote sensing information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dechang; Ye Fawang; Zhao Yingjun

    2006-01-01

    Through analyzing remote sensing image, a special geological environment for uranium ore-formation in Dongsheng-Hangjinqi area consisting of fault-uplift, southern margin fault and annular structure is discovered in this paper. Then the extensional researches on fault-uplift, southern margin fault as well as annular structure are made by using the information-integrated technologies to overlap the remote sensing information with other geoscientific information such as geophysics, geology and so on. Finally, the unusual regional geological setting is analyzed in the view of uranium ore formation, and its influences on the occurrence of DS uranium deposit are also discussed. (authors)

  6. Database for geologic maps of pyroclastic-flow and related deposits of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furze, Andrew J.; Bard, Joseph A.; Robinson, Joel; Ramsey, David W.; Kuntz, Mel A.; Rowley, Peter D.; MacLeod, Norman S.

    2017-10-31

    This publication releases digital versions of the geologic maps in U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map 1950 (USGS I-1950), “Geologic maps of pyroclastic-flow and related deposits of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington” (Kuntz, Rowley, and MacLeod, 1990) (https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/i1950). The 1980 Mount St. Helens eruptions on May 18, May 25, June 12, July 22, August 7, and October 16–18 produced pyroclastic-flow and related deposits. The distribution and morphology of these deposits, as determined from extensive field studies and examination of vertical aerial photographs, are shown on four maps in I-1950 (maps A–D) on two map sheets. Map A shows the May 18, May 25, and June 12 deposits; map B shows the July 22 deposits; map C shows the August 7 deposits; and map D shows the October 16–18 deposits. No digital geospatial versions of the geologic data were made available at the time of publication of the original maps. This data release consists of attributed vector features, data tables, and the cropped and georeferenced scans from which the features were digitized, in order to enable visualization and analysis of these data in GIS software. This data release enables users to digitally re-create the maps and description of map units of USGS I-1950; map sheet 1 includes text sections (Introduction, Physiography of Mount St. Helens at the time of the 1980 eruptions, Processes of the 1980 eruptions, Deposits of the 1980 eruptions, Limitations of the maps, Preparation of the maps, and References cited) and associated tables and figures that are not included in this data release.

  7. Current status and prospects of uranium geology developments of foreign in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengbang

    2002-01-01

    Firstly, with emphasis on in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits, the prospecting history of uranium deposits worldwide and its scientific research development are generally reviewed in four steps, and their basic historical experience is also summarized. Secondly, based on the detailed description of current development status of uranium geology of foreign in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits the important strategic position of sandstone-type uranium deposits in overall uranium resources all-over-the-world and its classification, spatial-temporal distribution and regulation, and metallogenic condition of sandstone-type uranium deposits are analysed thoroughly in five aspects: techtonics, paleo-climate, hydrogeology, sedimentary facies and lithology, as well as uranium sources: Afterwards, evaluation principles of three type of hyper-genic, epigenetic infiltrated sandstone-type uranium deposits are summarized. Based on sandstone-type uranium deposits located two important countries: the United States and Russia, the current development status of prospecting technology for in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits in foreign countries is outlined. Finally, according to the prospects of supply-demand development of global uranium resources, the author points out seriously that Chinese uranium geology is faced with a severe challenge, and proposes directly four strategic measures that should be taken

  8. Geology, mineralization, geochemistry and petrology of intrusions in the Kuh Zar Au-Cu deposit, Damghan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Roohbakhsh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Kuh Zar Au-Cu deposit is located in the central part of the Torud-Chah Shirin Volcanic-Plutonic Belt, 100 km southeast of the city of Damghan. Mineralization including quartz-base metal veins are common throughout this Cenozoic volcano-plutonic belt (Liaghat et al., 2008; Mehrabi and Ghasemi Siani, 2010. The major part of the study area is covered with Cenozoic pyroclastic and volcanic rocks that are intruded by subvolcanic rocks. This paper aims to study the geological, geochemical and petrogenesis of the area using exploration keys for new mineral deposits in the Torud-Chah Shirin zone. Materials and methods To better understand the geological units and identify the alteration zones of the area, 200 rock samples were collected from the field and 132 thin sections with 15 polished thin sections were prepared for petrography and mineralization studies. Ten samples of intrusions with the least alteration were analyzed using the XRF at the East Amethyst Laboratory in Mashhad, Iran. These samples were also analyzed for trace and rare earth elements using ICP-MS, following a lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion in the Acme Analytical Laboratories Ltd, Vancouver, Canada. 137 geochemistry samples were prepared by the chip composite method of alteration and mineralization zones and were analyzed in the Acme laboratory by Aqua Regia AQ250. Results The geology of the area consists of pyroclastic (crystal tuff and volcanic rocks with andesite and latite composition, which were intruded by subvolcanic intrusive rocks with porphyritic texture and monzonitic composition. Monzonite rocks were intruded by younger subvolcanic units with dioritic composition. The intrusion of monzonitic pluton and stocks led to the formation of QSP, propylitic, carbonate and silicification-tourmaline broad alteration zones in the area. Monzonite rocks accompanied with disseminated mineralization of about 1 to 10% of pyrite and these sulfides have been converted to

  9. Long-term evolution of radio-active waste storage in geological formations: analogy with the weathering of mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantinolle, P.; Griffault, L.; Jebrak, M.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select examples of mineral deposits and their weathering environment, showing the long-term behaviour, in geological time, measuring (area, volume) some constituent elements of radio-active waste storage subject to the hazards of hydrogeochemical weathering. Initially, a feasibility study was made to collate data available within the BRGM (mining group and public service) and from literature dealing with weathering of deposits. It was thus discovered that the analogy between radio-active waste storage and mineral deposits could be approached in two different yet complementary ways: - one approach is to observe the behaviour of a mineral deposit in relation to the country rocks. For this a bibliographic metallogenic study was made. The other approach is to observe the behaviour of chemical elements during deposition of a mineral deposit whose genesis is similar to the spatial and thermal environment of a deposit of radio-active waste in a geological formation. For this two sites were selected corresponding to hydrothermal systems showing strong analogies to those expected in the neighbourhood of the storage sites. These two sites, Langenberg in the Vosges and La Telhaie in Brittany, were the subject of complementary analytical work [fr

  10. Geology and ore deposits of the Section 23 Mine, Ambrosia Lake District, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, H.C.; Santos, E.S.

    1982-01-01

    uraninite. They also contain vanadium and selenium but are virtually devoid of molybdenum. Although much has been learned about these deposits since the time this study was conducted, in 1966, a great deal more study will by required to completely elucidate their geologic history.

  11. Geology, Geochemistry and Ground Magnetic Survey on Kalateh Naser Iron Ore Deposit, Khorasan Jonoubi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Saadat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Ground magnetometer surveys is one of the oldest geophysical exploration methods used in identifying iron reserves. The correct interpretation of ground magnetic surveys, along with geological and geochemical data will not only reduce costs but also to indicate the location, depth and dimensions of the hidden reserves of iron (Robinson and Coruh, 2005; Calagari, 1992. Kalateh Naser prospecting area is located at 33° 19َ to 33° 19ََ 42" latitude and 60° 0' to 60° 9َ 35" longitude in the western side of the central Ahangaran mountain range, eastern Iran (Fig.1. Based on primary field evidences, limited outcrops of magnetite mineralization were observed and upon conducting ground magnetic survey, evidence for large Iron ore deposits were detected (Saadat, 2014. This paper presents the geological and geochemical studies and the results of magnetic measurements in the area of interest and its applicability in exploration of other potential Iron deposits in the neighboring areas. Materials and methods To better understand the geological units of the area, samples were taken and thin sections were studied. Geochemical studies were conducted through XRF and ICP-Ms and wet chemistry analysis. The ground magnetic survey was designed to take measurements from grids of 20 meter apart lines and 10 meter apart points along the north-south trend. 2000 points were measured during a 6-day field work by expert geophysicists. Records were made by Canadian manufactured product Magnetometer Proton GSM19T (Fig. 2. Properties of Proton Magnetometer using in magnetic survey in Kalateh Naser prospecting area is shown in Table 1. Total magnetic intensity map, reduced to pole magnetic map, analytic single map, first vertical derivative map and upward continuation map have been prepared for this area. Results The most significant rock units in the area are cretaceous carbonate rocks (Fig. 3. The unit turns to shale and thin bedded limestone in the

  12. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits: a selected, annotated bibliography. Vol. 2, Rev. 1. [490 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Brock, M.L.; Garland, P.A.; White, M.B.; Daniel, E.W. (comps.)

    1979-07-01

    This bibliography, a compilation of 490 references, is the second in a series compiled from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Bibliographic Data Base. This data base is one of six data bases created by the Ecological Sciences Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy. Major emphasis for this volume has been placed on uranium geology, encompassing deposition, genesis of ore deposits, and ore controls; and prospecting techniques, including geochemistry and aerial reconnaissance. The following indexes are provided to aid the user in locating references of interest: author, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational feature, taxonomic name, and keyword.

  13. Geological modeling by an indicator kriging approach applied to a limestone deposit in Indiara city - Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Elias Carneiro Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract The mineral exploration activity consists of a set of successive stages that are interdependent on each other, in which the main goal is to discover and subsequently evaluate a mineral deposit for the feasibility of its extraction. This process involves setting the shape, dimensions and grades for eventual production. Geological modeling determines the orebody's possible format in subsoil, which can be done by two approaches: vertical sections (deterministic methods or geostatistical methods. The latter approach is currently being preferred, as it is a more accurate alternative and therefore, more reliable for establishing the physical format of orebodies, especially in instances where geologic boundaries are soft and/or with widely spaced sample information. This study uses the concept of indicator kriging (IK to model the geologic boundaries of a limestone deposit located at Indiara city, Goiás State, Brazil. In general, the results indicated a good adherence in relation to samples. However, there are reasonable differences, particularly in lithological domains with a small number of samples in relation to the total amount sampled. Therefore, the results showed that there is a need for additional sampling to better delineate the geological contacts, especially between carbonate and non-carbonate rocks. Uncertainty maps confirmed this necessity and also indicated potential sites for future sampling; information that would not be obtained by usage of deterministic methods.

  14. Pedo-geological activities with exploration of lignite deposits and their value for soil reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuensche, M.; Richter, H.; Oehme, W.D.

    1983-10-01

    A description is presented of geological conditions facilitating soil reclamation and of the overburden removal technologies to be applied. Pedo-geological pre-exploitation studies are indispensable for soil reclamation and their methods and results are described with a final reference to the value of land reclamation for national economy.

  15. Spatial Databases of Geological, Geophysical, and Mineral Resource Data Relevant to Sandstone-Hosted Copper Deposits in Central Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syusyura, Boris; Box, Stephen E.; Wallis, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Central Kazakhstan is host to one of the world's giant sandstone-hosted copper deposits, the Dzhezkazgan deposit, and several similar, smaller deposits. The United Stated Geological Survey (USGS) is assessing the potential for other, undiscovered deposits of this type in the surrounding region of central Kazakhstan. As part of this effort, Syusyura compiled and partially translated an array of mostly unpublished geologic, geophysical, and mineral resource data for this region in digital format from the archives of the former Union of Soviet Socialists Republics (of which Kazakhstan was one of the member republics until its dissolution in 1991), as well as from later archives of the Republic of Kazakhstan or of the Kazakhstan consulting firm Mining Economic Consulting (MEC). These digital data are primarily map-based displays of information that were transmitted either in ESRI ArcGIS, georeferenced format, or non-georeferenced map image files. Box and Wallis reviewed all the data, translated Cyrillic text where necessary, inspected the maps for consistency, georeferenced the unprojected map images, and reorganized the data into the filename and folder structure of this publication.

  16. Three-dimensional geological modelling of anthropogenic deposits at small urban sites: a case study from Sheepcote Valley, Brighton, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tame, C; Cundy, A B; Royse, K R; Smith, M; Moles, N R

    2013-11-15

    Improvements in computing speed and capacity and the increasing collection and digitisation of geological data now allow geoscientists to produce meaningful 3D spatial models of the shallow subsurface in many large urban areas, to predict ground conditions and reduce risk and uncertainty in urban planning. It is not yet clear how useful this 3D modelling approach is at smaller urban scales, where poorly characterised anthropogenic deposits (artificial/made ground and fill) form the dominant subsurface material and where the availability of borehole and other geological data is less comprehensive. This is important as it is these smaller urban sites, with complex site history, which frequently form the focus of urban regeneration and redevelopment schemes. This paper examines the extent to which the 3D modelling approach previously utilised at large urban scales can be extended to smaller less well-characterised urban sites, using a historic landfill site in Sheepcote Valley, Brighton, UK as a case study. Two 3D models were generated and compared using GSI3D™ software, one using borehole data only, one combining borehole data with local geological maps and results from a desk study (involving collation of available site data, including ground contour plans). These models clearly delimit the overall subsurface geology at the site, and allow visualisation and modelling of the anthropogenic deposits present. Shallow geophysical data collected from the site partially validate the 3D modelled data, and can improve GSI3D™ outputs where boundaries of anthropogenic deposits may not be clearly defined by surface, contour or borehole data. Attribution of geotechnical and geochemical properties to the 3D model is problematic without intrusive investigations and sampling. However, combining available borehole data, shallow geophysical methods and site histories may allow attribution of generic fill properties, and consequent reduction of urban development risk and

  17. Identification of mineralized zones in the Zardu area, Kushk SEDEX deposit (Central Iran, based on geological and multifractal modeling

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    Dahooei Ahmad Heidari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to delineate the different lead–zinc mineralized zones in the Zardu area of the Kushk zinc–lead stratabound SEDEX deposit, Central Iran, through concentration–volume (C–V modeling of geological and lithogeochemical drillcore data. The geological model demonstrated that the massive sulfide and pyrite+dolomite ore types as main rock types hosting mineralization. The C–V fractal modeling used lead, zinc and iron geochemical data to outline four types of mineralized zones, which were then compared to the mineralized rock types identified in the geological model. ‘Enriched’ mineralized zones contain lead and zinc values higher than 6.93% and 19.95%, respectively, with iron values lower than 12.02%. Areas where lead and zinc values were higher than 1.58% and 5.88%, respectively, and iron grades lower than 22% are labelled “high-grade” mineralized zones, and these zones are linked to massive sulfide and pyrite+dolomite lithologies of the geological model. Weakly mineralized zones, labelled ‘low-grade’ in the C– V model have 0–0.63% lead, 0–3.16% zinc and > 30.19% iron, and are correlated to those lithological units labeled as gangue in the geological model, including shales and dolomites, pyritized dolomites. Finally, a log-ratio matrix was employed to validate the results obtained and check correlations between the geological and fractal modeling. Using this method, a high overall accuracy (OA was confirmed for the correlation between the enriched and high-grade mineralized zones and two lithological units — the massive sulfide and pyrite+dolomite ore types.

  18. Mineral deposits of the Silica plateau – evaluation of selected geological factors of the environment

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    BalហBartolomej

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Silica plateau is a part of a greatest karst area in the Slovak republic - Protected Landscape Area Slovak karst (CHKO Slovenský kras. Karst areas belong to the most sensitive environments, from the point of view of impacts caused by anthropogenous activities. This area reacts sensitively, disturbing the environmental balance caused by mining of mineral deposits. Three mineral deposits of industrial rocks: one deposit of decorative stone - Silická Brezová and two deposits of building stone – Silická Brezová I and Lipovník, respectively, were registered on January 1-st, 2001 in the territory of the Silica plateau. Some deposits utilized in the past namely two deposits of building raw materials (Hrušov and Krásnohorská Dlhá Lúka and one Pb-Zn ore deposit (Ardovo are also mentioned and evaluated in the paper. From the point of view of economical potential of the area, mineral deposits have a character of geopotentials. However the utilization of deposits represents negative anthropogenous impact. When compared with another forms of optimal and rational utilization of the country, e.g. agriculture, forestry, water management, construction, tourism etc., mineral deposits have a character of geobarriers. This research was carried out in the frame of the VEGA Grant No. 1/6090/1999.

  19. Geology and recognition criteria for veinlike uranium deposits of the lower to middle Proterozoic unconformity and strata-related types. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlkamp, F.J.; Adams, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The discovery of the Rabbit Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, in 1968 and the East Alligator Rivers district, Northern Territory, Australia, in 1970 established the Lower-Middle Proterozoic veinlike-type deposits as one of the major types of uranium deposits. The term veinlike is used in order to distinguish it from the classical magmatic-hydrothermal vein or veintype deposits. The veinlike deposits account for between a quarter and a third of the Western World's proven uranium reserves. Lower-Middle Proterozoic veinlike deposits, as discussed in this report include several subtypes of deposits, which have some significantly different geologic characteristics. These various subtypes appear to have formed from various combinations of geologic processes ranging from synsedimentary uranium precipitation through some combination of diagenesis, metamorphism, metasomatism, weathering, and deep burial diagenesis. Some of the deposit subtypes are based on only one or two incompletely described examples; hence, even the classification presented in this report may be expected to change. Geologic characteristics of the deposits differ significantly between most districts and in some cases even between deposits within districts. Emphasis in this report is placed on deposit descriptions and the interpretations of the observers

  20. Geology and recognition criteria for veinlike uranium deposits of the lower to middle Proterozoic unconformity and strata-related types. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlkamp, F.J.; Adams, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The discovery of the Rabbit Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, in 1968 and the East Alligator Rivers district, Northern Territory, Australia, in 1970 established the Lower-Middle Proterozoic veinlike-type deposits as one of the major types of uranium deposits. The term veinlike is used in order to distinguish it from the classical magmatic-hydrothermal vein or veintype deposits. The veinlike deposits account for between a quarter and a third of the Western World's proven uranium reserves. Lower-Middle Proterozoic veinlike deposits, as discussed in this report include several subtypes of deposits, which have some significantly different geologic characteristics. These various subtypes appear to have formed from various combinations of geologic processes ranging from synsedimentary uranium precipitation through some combination of diagenesis, metamorphism, metasomatism, weathering, and deep burial diagenesis. Some of the deposit subtypes are based on only one or two incompletely described examples; hence, even the classification presented in this report may be expected to change. Geologic characteristics of the deposits differ significantly between most districts and in some cases even between deposits within districts. Emphasis in this report is placed on deposit descriptions and the interpretations of the observers.

  1. Geological characteristics and prospecting potential of sandstone-type uranium deposits in the north margin of Qaidam basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lin; Song Xiansheng; Feng Wei

    2012-01-01

    The north margin of Qaidam Basin is composed with rift trough and Oulongbuluke landmass which is clamped by Qilian Mountain and Qaidam block Suture zone. The two activities provide a rich source of uranium for the basin area. The coal-bearing rocks as stratums of medium and lower Jurassic, is the main exploration target zones of sandstone-type uranium ore. Through geological survey and drilling, we think that the interlayer oxidation zone. being primary factors of sandstone-type uranium, can be divided into ancient type and modern type. The ancient interlayer oxidation zone type uranium deposit is the main prospecting types in the north margin of Qaidam Basin. Combined with analysis on geological conditions of sandstone-type uranium mineralization, we propose that eastern edge of Yuqia, southern edge of Lucao Mountain, Beidatan and northwest edge of Ulan depression are good prospects. (authors)

  2. Geological characteristics of granite type uranium deposits in middle of Inner Mongolia in comparison with south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gui

    2012-01-01

    Granites extensively distributed in middle of Inner Mongolia and South China, namely Caledonian, Hercynian and Yanshanian. Some of the intrusive are composed of granites which belong to different ages. Some of the uranium deposits were found inside the granite bodies or in sedimentary rocks and meta sedimentary rocks along the exocontact zone. Granite rock was comparing in middle Inner Mongolia and South China, including Uranium ore-forming geological conditions. ore-forming process and Ore-controlling factors. Think the Uranium ore-forming geological conditions is similar; ore-forming process is mainly for low-mid temperature hot liquid; Uranium ore bodies (uranium mineralization) was controlled by fracture. Explain granite type uranium mineralization potential is tremendous in middle of Inner Mongolia. (author)

  3. Dazai super-large uranium-bearing germanium deposit in western Yunnan region metallogenic geological conditions and prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yanrong; Yuan Qingbang; Li Yonghua; Zhang Ling; Dai Jiemin

    1995-05-01

    The Dazai super-large uranium-bearing germanium deposit is located in Bangmai Fault Basin, Western Yunnan, China. The basin basement is migmatitic granite and the cover is miocene coal-bearing clastics, Bangmai Formation. The basin development had undergone faulted rhombus basin forming, synsedimentary structure-developing and up-lifted-denuded stages. Synsedimentary faults had controlled distribution of sedimentary formation and lithofacies, and uranium and germanium mineralization. Germanium ore-bodies occur mainly in master lignite-bed of lower rhythmite. Hosted germanium-lignite is taken as main ore-type. Germanium occurs in vitrinite of lignite in the form of metal-organic complex. The metallogenetic geological conditions of the deposit are that ground preparation is uplift zone-migmatitic granite-fault basin-geothermal anomaly area, rich and thick ore-body is controlled by synsedimentary fault, peat-bog phase is favorable to accumulation for ore-forming elements, and unconformity between overlying cover and underlying basement is a channel-way of mineralizing fluid. A multiperiodic composite, being regarded sedimentation and diagenesis as a major process, uranium and germanium ore deposit has been formed through two mineralization. Four prospecting areas have been forecasted and two deposits have been accordingly discovered again. Technical-economic provableness shows that the deposit is characterized by shallow-buried, rich grade, large scale, easy mining and smelting. (9 figs.)

  4. Geology and Nonfuel Mineral Deposits of Africa and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.; Orris, Greta; Denning, Paul; Kirschbaum, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    A nation's endowment of nonfuel mineral resources, relative to the world's endowment, is a fundamental consideration in decisions related to a nation's economic and environmental well being and security. Knowledge of the worldwide abundance, distribution, and general geologic setting of mineral commodities provides a framework within which a nation can make decisions about economic development of its own resources, and the economic and environmental consequences of those decisions, in a global perspective. The information in this report is part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) endeavor to evaluate the global endowment of both identified and undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources. The results will delineate areas of the world that are geologically permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered selected nonfuel mineral resources together with estimates of the quantity and quality of the resources. The results will be published as a series of regional reports; this one provides basic data on the identified resources and geologic setting, together with a brief appraisal of the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in Africa and the Middle East. Additional information, such as production statistics, economic factors that affect the mineral industries of the region, and historical information, is available in U.S. Geological Survey publications such as the Minerals Yearbook and the annual Mineral Commodity Summaries (available at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals).

  5. Geology of uranium vein-deposits in France; Geologie des gites uraniferes et filoniens en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarcia, J A; Carrat, J; Poughon, A; Sanselme, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This paper gives an outline of the characteristics of the main uranium vein deposits in France; it underlines the structural, petrographic and metallogenic similarities of these deposits. (author) [French] La note presente est un expose des caracteres generaux des principaux gites uraniferes filoniens de France; elle insiste sur les similitudes structurales, petrographiques et metallogeniques de ces gisements. (auteur)

  6. Geology and formation of titaniferous placer deposits in Upper Jogaz Valley area, Fanuj, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Moghaddasi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Fanuj titaniferous placer deposits are located 35 km northwest of the Fanuj, Sistan and Baluchestan province (1 . The studied area comprises a (2 small part of the late Cretaceous Fanuj-Maskutan (Rameshk ophiolite complex (Arshadi and Mahdavi, 1987. Reconnaissance and comprehensive exploration programs in the Fanuj district (East of the 1:100000 Fanuj quadrangle map,Yazdi, 2010 revealed that the Upper Jogaz Valley area has the highest concentration of titaniferous placer deposits. In this study, geology and formation of the titaniferous placer deposits in Upper Jogaz Valley area are discussed. Materials and Methods (3 Forty samples were collected from surface and drainage sediments to evaluate the potential for titaniferous placers. Mineralogical studies indicated the high Ti (ilmenite bearing areas, which led to detailed exploration by 29 shallow drill holes and 9 trenches. A total of 61 sub-surface samples were collected for heavy mineral studies and ore grade determination. The exploration studies suggest that the the Upper Jogaz Valley area in the Fanuj district has a high potential for titaniferous placer deposits. Extensive exposures of black sands in the sreambeds of this area suggested detailed sampling, so that 12 holes were drilled (2-3 m depthfrom which 26 samples were collected, and five trenches were excavated to 2-4 m depth (4. The distribution of drill holes and trenches were plotted with “Logplot” software for further interpretation. Twenty-two samples from these drill holes were analyzed for TiO2. Results The reconnaissance and comprehensive exploration in Fanuj district shows that the Upper Jogaz Valley area has the highest concentration of titaniferous placer deposits. The general geology of the region and petrology and mineralogy of collected samples suggest that the source rock of the Upper Jogaz Valley titaniferous placers is the hornblende- and olivine-gabbro unit of the Fanuj-Ramesh ophiolites. The Ti

  7. GEOLOGY OF THE FLORENCIA GOLD – TELLURIDE DEPOSIT (CAMAGÜEY, CUBA AND SOME METALLURGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López K Jesús M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results from a study of the Florencia gold-telluride deposit in Central Cuba, including mineralogical, petrographical, microprobe and chemical analysis. Valuable information is provided for the exploration, mining and processing of gold ores from other nearby deposits with similar characteristics. Results highlight changes in the mineralogical composition of the ores between the north and south sectors of the deposit, as reflected in metallurgical concentrates after beneficiation and flotation of samples from these sectors.
    It is shown that gold deposits of the Cretaceous Volcanic Arc of Cuba largely consist of native gold, telluride and pyrite, where arsenopyrite is almost absent. Traces of lead, zinc and cadmium are present in the periphery of the main ore zones.

  8. Geology of Crownpoint Sec. 29 uranium deposit, McKinley County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wentworth, D.W.; Porter, D.A.; Jensen, H.N.

    1980-01-01

    The Crownpoint Sec. 29 deposit, located in the west-central part of the Grants mineral belt, represents a relatively recent uranium discovery in the Westwater Canyon Member (Jurassic) of the Morrison Formation. This deposit, estimated as containing up to 10 million pounds of uranium oxide, occurs in four vertically separate sandstone units. The average depth of the ore mineralization is approximately 2,000 ft (610 m) below the ground surface. Present-day structure of the Crownpoint Sec. 29 area is relatively simple and consists of gentle north-northeast-dipping strata with no known faulting. This deposit is located in an east-southeast-trending Westwater Canyon depocenter, whose course is believed to have been influenced by subtle Jurassic structure, which was penecontemporaneous with sedimentation. The deposit has been delineated by drilling on 200-ft (60-m) centers, involving approximately 348 holes and is awaiting shaft sinking and mine development

  9. Attachment GEO 1 Permic basin geology in northeast of Uruguay: deposit exam about Uranium traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Homer, A.; Manigault, B; Doyhenart, A.; Rossi, P.

    1983-01-01

    The article is about different deposit of Uranium traces and their Sedimentology analysis. A revision of main works have been given and Durazno and Gondwana groups, Cerrezuelo, Cordobes, La Paloma, San Gregorio, Tres Islas formations

  10. Geologic Map and Engineering Properties of the Surficial Deposits of the Tok Area, East-Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    The Tok area 1:100,000-scale map, through which the Alaska Highway runs, is in east-central Alaska about 160 km west of the Yukon border. The surficial geologic mapping in the map area is in support of the 'Geologic Mapping in support of land, resources, and hazards issues in Alaska' Project of the USGS National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. The Tok map area contains parts of three physiographic provinces, the Alaska Range, the Yukon-Tanana Upland, and the Northway-Tanana Lowland. The high, rugged, glaciated landscape of the eastern Alaska Range dominates the southwestern map area. The highest peak, an unnamed summit at the head of Cathedral Rapids Creek No. 2, rises to 2166 m. The gently rolling hills of the Yukon-Tanana Upland, in the northern map area, rise to about 1000 m. The Northway-Tanana Lowland contains the valley of the westerly flowing Tanana River. Elevations along the floor of the lowland generally range between 470 and 520 m. The dominant feature within the map is the Tok fan, which occupies about 20 percent of the map area. This large (450 km2), nearly featureless fan contains a high percentage of volcanic clasts derived from outside the present-day drainage of the Tok River. Because the map area is dominated by various surficial deposits, the map depicts 26 different surficial units consisting of man-made, alluvial, colluvial, eolian, lacustrine, organic, glaciofluvial, glacial, and periglacial deposits. The accompanying table provides information concerning the various units including their properties, characteristics, resource potential, and associated hazards in this area of the upper Tanana valley.

  11. Geology and genesis of uranium deposits in sedimentary and metamorphic formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchev, V.I.; Belevtsev, Ya.N.

    1980-01-01

    Main genetic types of uranium deposits in sedimentary cover are described. Their genetic classification is based on the principle of conjugation of ore-forming process with the stages of lithogenesis of ore-enclosing rocks. Examples of poligeneity of uranium mineralization are presented. Texture-structural peculiarities of ores and types of ore-controlling zonality are considered as criteria of definite deposits belonging to various genetic classes. The analysis is given of main regularities of location of exogenous and poligenic uranium deposits. Processes of uranium ore-formation under the conditions of low and high degrees of metamorphism are considered. On the basis of separate types of deposits shown is the possibility of mobilization, transfer and concentration of ore substance, its transformation from primary to secondary forms. Metamorphous and ultrametamorphous deposits are formed as a result of ore element translocation within considerable distances under the effect of endogenous solutions and their concentration in favourable structures. Conclusions on the effect of lithogenesis and metamorphism processes on the ore formation are substantiated by field observations, analyses (including methods of isotopic geochemistry) as well as by experiments

  12. THE PRESENT STATE OF THE KNOWLEDGE AND THE STUDY OF HISTORY OF THE GEOLOGICAL, MINERALOGICAL AND DEPOSIT ORIENTED RESEARCH IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herčko Ivan

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Slovakia, with its interesting geological structure and many various ore deposits and minerals, has been the centre of the scientific interest both of domestic extensiv get geologists foreign. It is not only chance that there were preserved hundreds short as well as various studies from this region dealing with different subjects and specific problems. The slovak historiography has not evaluated them properly untill now. The first step was done only recently. The aim of the article is to offer a detailed summary of present study of sthe developing views and investigationd of some practical questions in the geological research in Slovakia. The present literature, related to the problems of the history of the geological, mineralogical and deposit research is very modest compared with how the other scientifical literature was presenting the different field of the natural science in Slovakia, especially the historiography of the geological science is still far behind.

  13. Principal geological characteristics of the volcanic-type uranium deposits in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiheng

    2009-01-01

    The volcanic-type uranium deposits in China distribute in two gigantic active belts, that is, circum-Pacific belt and latitudinal structure belt crossing Europe-Asia. The volcanic-type uranium deposits occur in continental volcanics,which are mainly composed of acid or alkali volcanics. Based on the study of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr initial ratio, REE distribution pattern and melt inclusion thermometry of volcanics, it is found that volcanic magma originated mainly from high-temperature melt of sialsphere and they were propably contaiminated partially by mantle materials. The volcanic eruption was controlled by regional fault and formed eruption belt, the beld can be divided into several sub-belt which was comprised by a serial eruption centres. The volcanic-type uranium deposits occur by the side of down-faulted red basin or associated with basic swarm. This means that the uranium mineralization is related to deep tectonics-magmatism. The paper proposes that the moderate erosion of volcanic belt is an important precondition to find uranium deposits. (authors)

  14. Geology of uranium vein deposits (including Schwartzwalder Mine) in Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, Front Range, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voto, R.H. de; Paschis, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit is one of many uranium vein occurrences in the Lower Proterozoic metamorphic rocks of the Front Range, Colorado. The principal veins of significant uranium content occur marginal to the Colorado Mineral Belt; are localized by structural dilation zones, vein junctions, fault deflections or branching; and occur dominantly within or at the contact of certain preferred metamorphic-stratigraphic units, particularly the siliceous, garnetiferous gneisses, where these rock units are broken by faults and fractures associated with the north-northwest-trending throughgoing faults. Uranium at the Schwartzwalder mine occurs primarily as open-space brecciated vein filling along the steeply west-dipping Illinois vein and numerous east-dipping subsidiary veins where they cut preferred metamorphic host rocks that are tightly folded. Uraninite occurs with molybdenite, adularia, jordisite, ankerite, pyrite, base-metal sulphides, and calcite in vein-filling paragenetic sequence. Minor wall-rock alteration is mainly hematite alteration and bleaching. Vertical relief on the developed ore deposit is 900 metres and still open-ended at depth. No vertical zonation of alteration, vein mineralogy, density of the subsidiary veins, or ore grade has been detected. The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit is of substantial tonnage (greater than 10,000 metric tons of U 3 O 8 ) and grade (averaging 0.57% U 3 O 8 ). Structural mapping shows that the Illinois vein-fault is a Proterozoic structure. Discordant Proterozoic (suggested) and Laramide dates have been obtained from Schwartzwalder ore. The data suggest, therefore, a Proterozoic ancestry of this heretofore presumed Laramide (Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary) hydrothermal uranium deposit. The authors suggest a polygenetic model for the origin of the Schwartzwalder uranium deposit

  15. Sandstone uranium deposits of Meghalaya: natural analogues for radionuclide migration and backfill material in geological repository for high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, R.K.; Narayan, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    Sandstone uranium deposits serve as potential natural analogue to demonstrate safety offered by geological media against possible release of nuclear waste from their confinement and migration towards biosphere. In this study, available database on geochemical aspects of Domisiat uranium deposit of Meghalaya has been evaluated to highlight the behavior of radionuclides of concern over long term in a geological repository. Constituents like actinides (U and Th), fission products and RE elements are adequately retained in clays and organic matters associated with these sandstone deposits. The study also highlights the possibility of utilization of lean ore discarded during mining and milling as backfill material in far field areas and optimizing near field buffers/backfills in a geological repository located in granitic rocks in depth range of 400-500m. (author)

  16. Geology and Ore Deposits of the Uncompahgre (Ouray) Mining District, Southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Wilbur Swett; Luedke, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    The Uncompahgre mining district, part of the Ouray mining district, includes an area of about 15 square miles (mi2) on the northwestern flank of the San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado from which ores of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc have had a gross value of $14 to 15 million. Bedrock within the district ranges in age from Proterozoic to Cenozoic. The oldest or basement rocks, the Uncompahgre Formation of Proterozoic age, consist of metamorphic quartzite and slate and are exposed in a small erosional window in the southern part of the district. Overlying those rocks with a profound angular unconformity are Paleozoic marine sedimentary rocks consisting mostly of limestones and dolomites and some shale and sandstone that are assigned to the Elbert Formation and Ouray Limestone, both of Devonian age, and the Leadville Limestone of Mississippian age. These units are, in turn, overlain by rocks of marine transitional to continental origin that are assigned to the Molas and Hermosa Formations of Pennsylvanian age and the Cutler Formation of Permian age; these three formations are composed predominantly of conglomerates, sandstones, and shales that contain interbedded fossiliferous limestones within the lower two-thirds of the sequence. The overlying Mesozoic strata rest also on a pronounced angular unconformity upon the Paleozoic section. This thick Mesozoic section, of which much of the upper part was eroded before the region was covered by rocks of Tertiary age, consists of the Dolores Formation of Triassic age, the Entrada Sandstone, Wanakah Formation, and Morrison Formation all of Jurassic age, and the Dakota Sandstone and Mancos Shale of Cretaceous age. These strata dominantly consist of shales, mudstones, and sandstones and minor limestones, breccias, and conglomerates. In early Tertiary time the region was beveled by erosion and then covered by a thick deposit of volcanic rocks of mid-Tertiary age. These volcanic rocks, assigned to the San Juan

  17. Late Miocene Debris-Avalanche Deposit At The Gutai Shield Volcano, NW Romania. Re- Evaluation Of Geological Mapping And Mineral Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghedi, I.; Fülöp, A.

    2009-05-01

    The recent identification of debris avalanche deposits (DADs) originating from the southern edge of the Ignis peak (1306m, highest of the Gutai Mts.) has important implications for understanding its genesis in the geological context of the broader area, rich in hydrothermal intrusive-related base metal and gold-silver deposits closely connected to the Dragos Voda - Bogdan Voda strike-slip fault system. Pyroxene andesite lavas are exposed below the Ignis peak followed by hornblende and pyroxene andesites the only ones found in the DAD. The flank failure event has left an E-W-oriented horseshoe shaped scar with an estimated volume of material removed of at least 0.35 km3 and an estimated area covered by DADs of 4,345 km2 as a minimum. The deposit is a mega breccia with a variable amount of coarse matrix with jigsaw-fractured blocks, large boulders, and several southward-elongated hummocks up to 1.8 km distance from the scar. Between 720-850 m altitude the DADs contain megablocks of 5-12 m thick and up to 100 m long of layered fine-grained poorly consolidated pyroclastic materials of interlayered ash and lapillistone of fallout origin, and clay beds rich in vegetation remnants(known as the 'Chiuzbaia flora' of similar age as the surrounding lava flows, i.e. ca. 10-7 Ma) and diatoms. These megablocks found in various positions, suggest a lithological discontinuity likely representing the detachment surface of the gravity-driven instability phenomenon and the deep excavation of the volcano flank by the sector collapse event. The clayey material of these blocks acted probably as an efficient barrier to water infiltration and helped destabilization of the overlying rock mass. Since no explosive products have been observed to follow the DAD, it is possible that the sliding was triggered by pressure release of hydrothermal system along an E-W fault parallel to the Dragos Voda-Bogdan Voda fault system, with related high-grade ore deposits. This suggests the possible presence

  18. Characteristics of isotope geology of sandstone-type uranium deposit in Turpan-Hami Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanbin; Xia Yuliang; Lin Jinrong; Fan Guang

    2003-01-01

    This paper expounds the isotope characteristics of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposit of Shihongtan in the southwestern part of Turpan-Hami basin. The results suggest that uranium mineralization age of 48 ± 2 Ma and 28 ± 4 Ma are obtained. The ages of the porphyritic granite and gneissic granite from the southwestern area are 422 ± 5 Ma and 268 ± 23 Ma. The U-Pb age of clastic zircons from ore-bearing sandstone is 283 ± 67 Ma, which is corresponding to the age of gneissic granite of the provenance area indicating the material source of uraniferous sandstone.Based. The sources are uraniferous sandstone accumulated during the deposition and the uranium leached from provenance area rocks by weathering. (authors)

  19. Geologic-tectonic evolutional characteristics and prospecting potential for ISL-amenable sandstone-type uranium deposits; in Sichuan basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianhua; Zhu Xiyang; Wang Sili; Wei Jisheng

    2005-01-01

    Through the analysis on geologic-tectonic evolution of Sichuan basin, authors of this paper suggest: because of the heterogeneity of the basin basement and cover structures resulting from the lateral dividing, those segments in the basin that experienced only weak tectonic activation, and those that were uplifted and eroded earlier have not been intensely deformed, and have not experienced long-period burying. Rocks in those segments are poorly consolidated and there exist conditions for the formation of large-area artesian slope at the transitional sites between uplifted and subsided areas, possessing favourable hydrogeologic conditions for long-term infiltration of groundwater. These areas must be the targets for prospecting for ISL-amenable sandstone-type uranium deposits. Correspondingly, the Triassic and Jurassic where loose sand bodies are hosted are prospecting target horizons for uranium. (authors)

  20. Geology and mineralogy of the Cu-Ni-Co-U ore deposits at Talmessi and Meskani, Central Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkian, M.; Bock, W.D.; Neumann, M.

    1983-01-01

    Polymetallic hydrothermal veins and impregnations carry copper-iron sulphides (bornite, chalcopyrite, digenite, chalcocite) and nickel-cobalt arsenides (niccolite, rammelsbergite, safflorite, skutterudite) with bismuth and uranium as well as some copper arsenides (domeykite, koutekite etc.) in two dormant mines in the Anarak District. The geological and tectonic framework and the mineral associations of both occurrences have been investigated in detail. Both mineralization can be attributed to Tertiary magmatism, but were deposited in two temporally distinct periods. The older copper sulphide minerealization is structurally controlled by pre-middle Eocene tectronics and is linked to Eocene shoshonitic volcanism. The second, younger nickel-cobalt-silver-bismuth-uranium mineralization might be attributed to a granitic magmatism linked to a Miocene phase of movement. (Authors)

  1. Geological 3-D modelling and resources estimation of the Budenovskoye uranium deposit (Kazakhstan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boytsov, A.; Heyns, M.; Seredkin, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Budenovskoye deposit is the biggest sandstone-hosted, roll front type uranium deposit in Kazakhstan and in the world. Uranium mineralization occurs in the unconsolidated lacustrine-alluvial sediments of Late Cretaceous Mynkuduk and Inkuduk horizons. The Budenovskoye deposit was split into four areas for development with the present Karatau ISL Mine operating No. 2 area and Akbastau ISL Mine Nos. 1, 3 and 4 areas. Mines are owned by Kazatomprom and Uranium One in equal shares. CSA Global was retained by Uranium One to update in accordance with NI 43-101 the Mineral Resource estimates for the Karatau and Akbastau Mines. The modelling Reports shows a significant increase in total uranium resources tonnage at both mines when compared to the March 2012 NI 43-101 resource estimate: at Karartau measured and indicated resources increased by 586% while at Akbastau by 286%. It has also added a 55,766 tonnes U to the Karatau Inferred Mineral Resource category.The new estimates result from the application of 3-D modelling techniques to the extensive database of drilling information, new exploration activities.

  2. Geological and blocky modeling of Qareh Qeshlaq marble deposit in order to optimizing the production planning of quarry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Abdollahi Sharif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Qareh Qeshlaq marble quarry as one of the valuable resources of ornamental stones in West Azarbaijan province formed through thermal carbonate springs while its mineral deposit thickness is limited in comparison with surface extension. In the present research, geological and blocky modeling of the marble deposit was carried out in order to develop a production planning for this quarry, identifying the position of single-marketable-block extracted from it and increasing its economical aspects for exploitation. During the study, in addition to preparing a geological and blocky model for the quarry, firstly the optimum dimensions of its extractable single marketable-block were quantified and then through representing the confining surfaces equation of marble strata in the computer, the optimal maximum dimension and the number and exact location of the single marketable-blocks were determined and presented to the operating team. Based on the findings of these studies and according to the existing 83 exploratory boreholes data, it is possible to extract 183 single marketable-block pink marble and 103 single marketable-block malachite both with 1.5 × 2.5 × 2.5 m raw dimensions while only 2 single marketable-block alabaster layer with 1.3 × 2.5 × 2.5 m dimensions. The results also show that with applying extraction consideration, regarding the productivity coefficient of the layers, and removing the gradual color changes zone, the maximum thickness of the single marketable-blocks for the pink marble, malachite, and alabaster will become 1.65, 1.65 and 1.4 m, respectively.

  3. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits. A selected, annotated bibliography. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M.B.; Garland, P.A. (comps.)

    1977-10-01

    This bibliography was compiled by selecting 580 references from the Bibliographic Information Data Base of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program. This data base and five others have been created by the Ecological Sciences Information Center to provide technical computer-retrievable data on various aspects of the nation's uranium resources. All fields of uranium geology are within the defined scope of the project, as are aerial surveying procedures, uranium reserves and resources, and universally applied uranium research. References used by DOE-NURE contractors in completing their aerial reconnaissance survey reports have been included at the request of the Grand Junction Office, DOE. The following indexes are provided to aid the user in locating reference of interest: author, keyword, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational index, and taxonomic name.

  4. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits. A selected, annotated bibliography. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.B.; Garland, P.A.

    1977-10-01

    This bibliography was compiled by selecting 580 references from the Bibliographic Information Data Base of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program. This data base and five others have been created by the Ecological Sciences Information Center to provide technical computer-retrievable data on various aspects of the nation's uranium resources. All fields of uranium geology are within the defined scope of the project, as are aerial surveying procedures, uranium reserves and resources, and universally applied uranium research. References used by DOE-NURE contractors in completing their aerial reconnaissance survey reports have been included at the request of the Grand Junction Office, DOE. The following indexes are provided to aid the user in locating reference of interest: author, keyword, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational index, and taxonomic name

  5. Geology and ore deposits of Johnny M mine, Ambrosia Lake District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkowski, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    The Johnny M mine is one of very few mines in the Ambrosia Lake district with uranium ore in two members of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic); these members are the Westwater Canyon Sandstone and the Brushy Basin Shale. The Westwater Canyon ore is contained in the two upper sandstone units of the member, and the Brushy Basin ore is contained in the Poison Canyon sandstone (informal usage). The sedimentary features and structures in the Westwater Canyon sandstones indicate that the sediments were deposited by a system of aggrading braided streams, possibly at the distal end of coalescing alluvial fans. The Poison Canyon sandstone was probably the result of deposition in a complex environment of meandering and braided streams. Paleocurrent-direction indicators, such as fossilized-log orientation, foreset azimuths, and the axes of crossbeds and channel scours, suggest that the local palostream flow was to the east and southeast. The uranium mineralization is closely associated with 1) local accumulations of carbonaceous (humate) matter derived from the decay of organic material and 2) paleostream channels preserved in the rocks. The ore elements were derived from the leaching of volcanic air-fall tuffs and ash, which were introduced into the fluvial system during volcanic activity in the western United States. The mobile ore-element ions were reduce and concentrated by humic acids and bacteria present in the fluvial system and ultimately remobilized into the forms present today. The uranium is thus envisioned as forming either essentially on the surface as the sediments were being deposited or at very shallow depth

  6. Relation of ERTS-1 detected geologic structure to known economic ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, E. I.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of ERTS-1 imagery of the Northern Coast Ranges and Sacramento Valley, California, has disclosed a potentially important fracture system which may be one of the controlling factors in the location of known mercury deposits in the Coast Ranges and which appears to be associated with some of the oil and gas fields within the Sacramento Valley. Recognition of this fracture system may prove to be an extremely useful exploration tool, hence careful analysis of subsequent ERTS imagery might delineate areas for field evaluation.

  7. Status of geological studies undertaken in France on the Oklo deposit since the Libreville Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, F.

    1978-01-01

    The questions posed since the Libreville symposium can be grouped under four headings: origin of the deposits and the over-concentrations; degree of burial reached by the series; temperatures attained during the reactions, and effects of the reactions; perturbations subsequent to the reactions. These questions have been the subject of multidisciplinary investigations, including conventional petrographic and mineralogical investigations (Cogema, Fontenay-aux-Roses and the Centre for Sedimentology and Geochemistry of the Surface, Strasbourg), a study of fluid inclusions (Centre for Petrographic and Geochemical Research, Nancy), studies of organic material (French Institute of Petroleum, Rueil, and Cerchar, Verneuil-en-Halatte) and a study of fission traces (Rene Barnas Laboratory, Orsay). (author)

  8. A feasibility study on geological and hydrogeological setting or in-situ leaching mining in a sandstone-type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Sanmin.

    1992-01-01

    A comparative study is made of various conditions for in-situ leaching mining in a sandstone-type uranium deposit in Inner Mongolia with those of same types at home and abroad based on a large number of practical information. It is concluded that the deposit basically exhibits the geological conditions for in-situ leaching mining, and tentative plan and suggestion for further work are presented

  9. Geology of gemstone deposit Ugljarevats (Central Serbia) and contributions to genetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kureshevicj, Lidija; Vushovicj, Olivera; Delicj-Nikolicj, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Silica gemstone deposit Ugljarevats is situated within the ophiolite sequence of the Vardar zone central deep fault. Genetic processes of this deposit are connected to the Neogene calc-alkaline magmatic activity of the Vardar zone and hydrothermal activity triggered by it. Based on surface occurrences of listwenitized serpentinite containing silica mineralization, it can be inferred that the ore body is an elongated oval stock. Within the stock of hydrothermally altered serpentinite, the gemstone mineralization occurs as veins, stock works and irregular bodies. Present gemstone types include chalcedony varieties (jasper, colourless and greenish chalcedony, carnelian and sard) and opal (opalized serpentinite). Homogenous pieces are very rare. Most often, various types of silica are intimately intermixed and combined. The mineralization has formed in two distinct hydrothermal phases, apparently in close time succession. Jasper and coloured chalcedony (and rare magnesite) are the products of the first phase of hydro- thermal activity, while the colourless chalcedony is formed in the second phase. Newly discovered type of silica vein with central-symmetrical parallel banding gives new contributions to a genetic model, proving the precipitation process and its products are unpredictably changeable, heterogeneous and depending on the evolution of the local environment physico-chemical conditions, notably the contents of impurities and system's openness degree. (author)

  10. Geology and Isotope Systematics of the Jianchaling Au Deposit, Shaanxi Province, China: Implications for Mineral Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Wei Yue

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The giant Jianchaling Au (52 t Au deposit is located in the Mian-Lue-Yang Terrane in the southern part of the Qinling Orogen of central China and is hosted by metamorphosed carbonate rocks of the Late Neoproterozoic Duantouya Formation. The deposit consists of multiple generations of mineralised quartz(-carbonate veins in WNW-trending extensional ductile-brittle shear zones. Based on the mineral assemblages and cross-cutting relationships between the quartz(-carbonate veins, the paragenesis is characterised by an early coarse-grained pyrite-pyrrhotite-pentlandite-dolomite-quartz assemblage (I, followed by pyrite-sphalerite-galena-carbonate-arsenopyrite-fuchsite-carbonate-quartz containing gold (II, and fine-grained pyrite-dolomite-calcite-quartz-realgar (As2S2-orpiment (As2S3 (III. The H-O-C isotope systematics for the three vein sets indicate that the mineralising fluid is probably sourced from the metamorphic dehydration of carbonate rocks in the Duantouya Formation, and gradually mixed with meteoric water during the emplacement of the third vein set. The δ34S values for sulfides (6.3–16.6‰ from the second auriferous vein set are greater than zero, indicating sulfates reduction from the Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks (Duantouya Fm. The (206Pb/204Pbi ratios from pyrite (17.521–18.477 from each of the vein sets overlap those of the ultramafic rocks (18.324–18.717 and the Bikou Group (17.399–18.417, indicating that the units are possible sources for the sulfides in the mineralisation. Both εNd(t and Isr(t of sulfide overlap with the meta-ultramafic field and Duantouya formation and dominated with mature Sr-Nd character, which indicated that the Duantouya may play an important role during the ore formation and there may exist a minor ultramafic source that is involved in the ore fluid. The S-Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic ratios are closely related to those of the Bikou Group and Duantouya Formation, which indicates that the mineralised fluid has

  11. Geology and ore fluid geochemistry of the Jinduicheng porphyry molybdenum deposit, East Qinling, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongying; Ye, Huishou; Wang, Xiaoxia; Yang, Lei; Wang, Xiuyuan

    2014-01-01

    Jinduicheng deposit is a giant Mesozoic porphyry Mo system deposit in the East Qinling molybdenum belt, Shaanxi Province, China. The mineralization is associated with the I-type Jinduicheng granite porphyry. Both the porphyry stock and country rocks underwent intense hydrothermal alteration. The alteration, with increasing distance from the parent intrusion, changes from silicification, through potassic and phyllic assemblages, carbonation, to propylitic assemblages. Molybdenite, the dominant ore mineral, occurs in veinlets, most of which are hosted by the altered country rocks, with less than 25% of the ore in the porphyry body. The hydrothermal system comprises four stages, including pre-ore quartz and K-feldspar; two ore stages of quartz, K-feldspar, molybdenite, and Pb- And Zn-bearing sulfides; and post-ore quartz and carbonate. Six main types of primary fluid inclusions are present in hydrothermal quartz, including two-phase aqueous, one-phase aqueous, three-phase CO2-bearing, CO2-dominated fluid inclusions, gas inclusions, and melt inclusions. The homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions range from 210 to 290 °C in the pre-ore stage, 150-310 °C in ore stage I, 150-360 °C in the ore stage II, and 195-325 °C in the post-ore stage quartz. Estimated salinities of the ore-forming fluids range from 6.9 to 13.5, 4.3 to 12.3, 6.2 to 12.4, and 3.4 to 9.9 wt.% NaCl equiv. in stages 1-4, respectively. The δ34S values of pyrite in the two ore stages range from 2.8‰ to 4.3‰, whereas the δ34S values of molybdenite range from 2.9‰ to 6.2‰. The data suggest both magmatic and crustal sources of sulfur. The δD and δ18O values for the hydrothermal fluids are -57.2‰ to -84.4‰ and 8.0‰ to -3.2‰, respectively. The fluid inclusion and stable data indicate that the pre-ore hydrothermal fluids were mostly of magmatic origin, but the fluids responsible for ore deposition were mixed magmatic and meteoric, and eventually meteoric water dominated the system

  12. Geological Mapping of Impact Melt Deposits at Lunar Complex Craters: New Insights into Morphological Diversity, Distribution and the Cratering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, D.; Head, J. W., III; Pieters, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    We have completed high resolution geological mapping of impact melt deposits at the young lunar complex craters (wall and rim impact melt units and their relation to floor units have also been mapped. Among the distinctive features of these impact melt deposits are: 1) Impact Melt Wave Fronts: These are extensive (sometimes several kilometers in length) and we have documented their occurrence and distribution in different parts of the crater floor at Jackson and Tycho. These features emphasize melt mobility and style of emplacement during the modification stage of the craters. 2) Variations in Floor Elevations: Spatially extensive and coherent sections of crater floors have different elevations at all the three craters. The observed elevation differences could be caused by subsidence due to cooling of melt and/or structural failure, together with a contribution from regional slope. 3) Melt-Covered Megablocks: We also observe large blocks/rock-fragments (megablocks) covered in impact melt, which could be sections of collapsed wall or in some cases, subdued sections of central peaks. 4) Melt-Covered Central Peaks: Impact melt has also been mapped on the central peaks but varies in spatial extent among the craters. The presence of melt on peaks must be taken into account when interpreting peak mineralogy as exposures of deeper crust. 5) Boulder Distribution: Interesting trends are observed in the distribution of boulder units of various sizes; some impact melt units have spatially extensive boulders, while boulder distribution is very scarce in other units on the floor. We interpret these distributions to be influenced by a) the differential collapse of the crater walls during the modification stage, and b) the amount of relative melt volume retained in different parts of the crater floor. These observations provide important documentation of the morphological diversity and better understanding of the emplacement and final distribution of impact melt deposits.

  13. Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Snow Camp-Saxapahaw Area, Central North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert G.; Gumiel, Pablo; Payas, Alba

    2006-01-01

    The Snow Camp-Saxapahaw study area, in the Carolina slate belt in the Southeastern United States, is notable for large zones of high-sulfidation alteration in arc-related metavolcanic rocks. The area has potential for additional significant pyrophyllite and related aluminosilicate refractory mineral deposits and may have potential for small- to medium-size gold deposits also associated with the high-sulfidation hydrothermal systems. The Carolina slate belt is an elongate zone of mostly low-grade metamorphic rocks of Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic age that extends from northeastern Georgia to southern Virginia. It is dominated by volcanic rocks but locally consists of fine-grained epiclastic sedimentary rocks. Plutons and subvolcanic bodies have intruded the rocks of the Carolina slate belt in many places and have been important in controlling the metamorphism and in localizing hydrothermal alteration. The Snow Camp-Saxapahaw area is mostly underlain by volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks and lesser amounts of intrusive shallow plutons. The volcanic rocks range in composition from basalt to rhyolite; however andesites, dacites, and rhyodacites are the most abundant. The intrusive bodies are largely granite and quartz monzonite; gabbroic bodies also are common. It was possible to establish the relative ages of only part of these rocks. Two northeast-trending fault zones and fractures divide the map area into three structural blocks; the central block was tilted down to the southwest to form a grabenlike structure. Most of the hydrothermally altered rocks and all of the intensely altered zones are confined to the downdropped block, which we think may have been calderalike in origin. A major volcanic unit, the Reedy Branch Tuff, is limited to the southwestern part of the graben and may be the youngest volcanic rock in the area. Layered rocks record one or more strong folding events, but the diversity of rock types, lack of recognizable stratigraphic markers, and

  14. Geology of dolomite-hosted uranium deposits at the Pitch Mine, Saguache County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    Newly documented uranium ore in the Pitch mine occurs chiefly in brecciated Mississippian Leadville Dolomite along the Chester upthrust zone, and to a lesser extent in sandstone, siltstone, and carbonaceous shale of the Pennsylvanian Belden Formation and in Precambrian granitic rocks and schist. Uranium-mineralized zones are generally thicker, more consistent, and of higher grade in dolomite than in other hosts, and roughly 50 percent of the new reserves are in dolomite. Strong physical control by dolomite is evident, as this is the only rock type that is pervasively brecciated within the fault slices that make up the footwall of the reverse-fault zone. Other rocks tended to either remain unbroken or undergo ductile deformation. Chemical controls on uranium deposition are subtle and appear chiefly to involve coprecipitation of FeS 2 as pyrite and marcasite, suggesting that sulfide ion may be the reductant

  15. The geology and chronology of the Acheulean deposits in the Mieso area (East-Central Ethiopia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Barfod, Dan N; McHenry, Lindsay J; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the Quaternary sequence of the Mieso area of Central-East Ethiopia, located in the piedmont between the SE Ethiopian Escarpment and the Main Ethiopian Rift-Afar Rift transition sector.In this region, a piedmont alluvial plain is terraced at þ25 m above the two main fluvial courses, the Mieso and Yabdo Rivers. The piedmont sedimentary sequence is divided into three stratigraphic units separated by unconformities. Mieso Units I and II contain late Acheulean assemblages and a weakly consolidated alluvial sequence, consisting mainly of fine sediments with buried soils and, to a lesser degree, conglomerates. Palaeo-wetland areas were common in the alluvial plain, represented by patches of tufas, stromatolites and clays. At present, the piedmont alluvial surface is preserved mainly on a dark brown soil formed at the top of Unit II. Unit III corresponds to a fluvial deposit overlying Unit II, and is defined by sands, silty clays and gravels, including several Later Stone Age (LSA) occurrences. Three fine-grained tephra levels are interbedded in Unit I (tuffs TBI and TA) and II (tuff CB), and are usually spatially-constrained and reworked. Argon/argon (40Ar/39Ar) dating from tuff TA, an ash deposit preserved in a palustrine environment, yielded an age of 0.212 ± 0.016 Ma (millions of years ago). This date places thetop of Unit I in the late Middle Pleistocene, with Acheulean sites below and above tuff TA. Regional correlations tentatively place the base of Unit I around the Early-Middle Pleistocene boundary, Unit II inthe late Middle Pleistocene and within the Late Pleistocene, and the LSA occurrences of Unit III in the LatePleistoceneeHolocene.

  16. Geology and Re-Os molybdenite geochronology of the Kurišková U-Mo deposit (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohút, M.; Trubač, J.; Novotný, L.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Demko, R.; Bartalský, B.; Erban, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2013), s. 271-282 ISSN 1802-6222 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15390S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : U–Mo ore deposit * Re–Os * molybdenite geochronology * genetic model * Gemeric Unit * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.744, year: 2013

  17. Remote-sensing and geological information for prospective area selection of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposit in Songliao and Liaohe faulted-depressed basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Baoshan

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of remote-sensing information and geological environments for the formation of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits such as geomorphic features, distribution of drainage system, and paleo-alluvial (diluvial) fans and time-space distribution regularities of orehosting rocks and sandstone bodies in Songliao and Liaohe faulted-depressed basins, image features, tectonic patterns and paleo-geographic environment of the prospective areas are discussed for both basins, and based on a great number of petroleum-geological data and comparison analysis, a remote sensing-geological prospecting model for in-situ leachable sandstonetype uranium deposits in the region is established, providing indications for selection of prospective area

  18. Geology of Tok Island, Korea: eruptive and depositional processes of a shoaling to emergent island volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Y. K.

    1995-02-01

    Detailed mapping of Tok Island, located in the middle of the East Sea (Sea of Japan), along with lithofacies analysis and K-Ar age determinations reveal that the island is of early to late Pliocene age and comprises eight rock units: Trachyte I, Unit P-I, Unit P-II, Trachyandesite (2.7±0.1 Ma), Unit P-III, Trachyte II (2.7±0.1 Ma), Trachyte III (2.5±0.1 Ma) and dikes in ascending stratigraphic order. Trachyte I is a mixture of coherent trachytic lavas and breccias that are interpreted to be subaqueous lavas and related hyaloclastites. Unit P-I comprises massive and inversely graded basaltic breccias which resulted from subaerial gain flows and subaqueous debris flows. A basalt clast from the unit, derived from below Trachyte I, has an age of 4.6±0.4 Ma. Unit P-II is composed of graded and stratified lapilli tuffs with the characteristics of proximal pyroclastic surge deposits. The Trachyandesite is a massive subaerial lava ponded in a volcano-tectonic depression, probably a summit crater. A pyroclastic sequence containing flattened scoria clasts (Unit P-III) and a small volume subaerial lava (Trachyte II) occur above the Trachyandesite, suggesting resumption of pyroclastic activity and lava effusion. Afterwards, shallow intrusion of magma occurred, producing Trachyte III and trachyte dikes. The eight rock units provide an example of the changing eruptive and depositional processes and resultant succession of lithofacies as a seamount builds up above sea level to form an island volcano: Trachyte I represents a wholly subaqueous and effusive stage; Units P-I and P-II represent Surtseyan and Taalian eruptive phases during an explosive transitional (subaqueous to emergent) stage; and the other rock units represent later subaerial effusive and explosive stages. Reconstruction of volcano morphology suggests that the island is a remnant of the south-western crater rim of a volcano the vent of which lies several hundred meters to the north-east.

  19. Geology and ore deposits of the Section 23 mine, Ambrosia Lake District, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granger, H.C.; Santos, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    The Section 23 mine is one of about 18 large uranium mines opened in sandstones of the fluvial Westwater Canyon Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation, in the Ambrosia Lake uranium district, during the early 1960s. Two distinct types of unoxidized ore occur in the mine. One type consists of uranium-rich authigenic organic matter that impregnates parts of the reduced sandstone host rocks. This type of ore occurs as peneconcordant layers which are typically elongate east-southeast, subparallel both to the sedimentary trends and to the regional strike of the host rock. A second type of ore is essentially devoid of organic matter and occurs in thick zones which conform to interfaces that separate oxidized from reduced parts of the host rocks. Genesis of the second type of ore is similar to that of roll-type deposits in Tertiary rocks of Wyoming and Texas. Organic matter in the primary ores was probably introduced into the host rock as humic acids that precipitated in the pores of the sandstone. This material is inferred first to have fixed uranium as urano-organic compounds but with further diagenesis, to have released some of the uranium to form coffinite. Vanadium, molybdenum, and selenium are associated with primary ore and may also have been fixed by the organic matter. The secondary or roll-type ores contain uranium mostly in the form of coffinite and only rarely as uraninite. They also contain vanadium and selenium but are virtually devoid of molybdenum

  20. Geology of the uranium deposits related to the sub-Athabasca unconformity, Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremblay, L.P.

    1982-01-01

    The Athabasca Basin is a large, oval, dish-shaped structure, 425 km by 225 km (80 000 km 2 ) containing about 1500 m of mainly flat-lying quartz-rich sandstone of the Athabasca Group. The basin lies with marked angular unconformity across a Hudsonian basement of deformed and metamorphosed Archean and Aphebian sedimentary, volcanic and plutonic rocks trending north to northeast beneath the basin. In the Carswell Circular Structure in the central western half of the basin rocks are brought to surface through 1200 m of sandstone. The rocks of the basin are less than one percent exposed. Overburden locally reaches 90 m thick. Uranium deposits have been found near the southeast edge of the basin, within the Carswell Circular Structure, and along the northern rim of the basin. They are (1) at the unconformity as high-grade masses elongated in and parallel to major faults, hosted mainly in highly-altered white clay feldspar-rich basement rocks and associated with graphitic metasediments and calc-silicate rocks; (2) within the first 40 m above the unconformity in grey to black and multicoloured Athabasca sandstones and shales as a coating on quartz grains, as disseminations in the clay matrix and as veins; and (3) within 100 m below the unconformity as fracture fillings and disseminations in basement rocks

  1. Black dimensional stones: Geology, technical properties and deposit characterization of the dolerites from Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Demarco, M.; Oyhantçabal, P.; Stein, K.-J.; Siegesmund, S.

    2012-04-01

    Dimensional stones with a black color occupy a prominent place on the international market. Uruguayan dolerite dikes of andesitic and andesitic-basaltic composition are mined for commercial blocks of black dimensional stones. A total of 16 dikes of both compositions were studied and samples collected for geochemical and petrographical analysis. Color measurements were performed on different black dimensional stones in order to compare them with the Uruguayan dolerites. Samples of the two commercial varieties (Absolute Black and Moderate Black) were obtained for petrophysical analysis (e.g. density, porosity, uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, etc.). Detailed structural analyses were performed in several quarries. Geochemistry and petrography determines the intensity of the black color. When compared with commercial samples from China, Brazil, India and South Africa, among others, the Uruguayan dolerite Absolute Black is the darkest black dimensional stone analyzed. In addition, the petrophysical properties of the Uruguayan dolerites make them one of the highest quality black dimensional stones. Structural analyses show that five joint sets have been recognized: two sub-vertical joints, one horizontal and two diagonal. These joint sets are one of the most important factors that control the deposits, since they control the block size distribution and the amount of waste material.

  2. Plugs for deposition tunnels in a deep geologic repository in granitic rock. Concepts and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D. A.; Boergesson, L.; Gunnarsson, D.; Hansen, J.

    2009-11-01

    Regardless of the emplacement geometry selected in a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel, there will be a requirement for the access tunnels to remain open while repository operations are ongoing. The period of repository operation will stretch for many years (decades to more than a century depending on disposal concept and number of canisters to be installed). Requirements for extended monitoring of the repository before final closure may further extend the period over which the tunnels must remain open. The intersection of the emplacement rooms/drifts and the access tunnels needs to be physically closed in order to ensure that the canisters remain undisturbed and that no undesirable hydraulic conditions are allowed to develop within the backfilled volume. As a result of these requirements, generic guidelines and design concepts have been developed for 'Plugs' that are intended to provide mechanical restraint, physical security and hydraulic control functions over the short-term (repository operational and pre-closure monitoring periods). This report focuses on the role and requirements of plugs to be installed at emplacement room/ tunnel/drift entrances or in other locations within the repository that may require installation of temporary mechanical or hydraulic control structures. These plugs are not necessarily a permanent feature of the repository and may, if required, be removed for later installation of a permanent seal. Room/Drift plugs are also by their defined function, physically accessible during repository operation so their performance can be monitored and remedial actions taken if necessary (e.g. increased seepage past the plug). A considerable number of sealing demonstrations have been undertaken at several research laboratories that are focussed on development of technologies and materials for use in isolation of spent nuclear fuel and these are briefly reviewed in this report. Additionally, technologies developed for non

  3. Plugs for deposition tunnels in a deep geologic repository in granitic rock. Concepts and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.A. (AECL, Chalk River (Canada)); Boergesson, L. (Clay Technology, Lund (Sweden)); Gunnarsson, D. (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Stockholm (Sweden)); Hansen, J. (Posiva Oy, Eurajoki (Finland))

    2009-11-15

    Regardless of the emplacement geometry selected in a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel, there will be a requirement for the access tunnels to remain open while repository operations are ongoing. The period of repository operation will stretch for many years (decades to more than a century depending on disposal concept and number of canisters to be installed). Requirements for extended monitoring of the repository before final closure may further extend the period over which the tunnels must remain open. The intersection of the emplacement rooms/drifts and the access tunnels needs to be physically closed in order to ensure that the canisters remain undisturbed and that no undesirable hydraulic conditions are allowed to develop within the backfilled volume. As a result of these requirements, generic guidelines and design concepts have been developed for 'Plugs' that are intended to provide mechanical restraint, physical security and hydraulic control functions over the short-term (repository operational and pre-closure monitoring periods). This report focuses on the role and requirements of plugs to be installed at emplacement room/ tunnel/drift entrances or in other locations within the repository that may require installation of temporary mechanical or hydraulic control structures. These plugs are not necessarily a permanent feature of the repository and may, if required, be removed for later installation of a permanent seal. Room/Drift plugs are also by their defined function, physically accessible during repository operation so their performance can be monitored and remedial actions taken if necessary (e.g. increased seepage past the plug). A considerable number of sealing demonstrations have been undertaken at several research laboratories that are focussed on development of technologies and materials for use in isolation of spent nuclear fuel and these are briefly reviewed in this report. Additionally, technologies developed for non

  4. Executive summary of a draft report on the geology and salt deposits of the Salina Salt Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The study discussed is the first phase of a program for the geologic evaluation of the Silurian-age bedded salt of the Salina Group. The Salina Salt Basin, as used in this study, includes those portions of the Appalachian and Michigan basins that are underlain by the Salina Group. The full draft report consists of a regional reconnaissance, identification of study areas in New York and Ohio which are deserving of a more thorough evaluation, and a program plan to accomplish that evaluation. The entire draft report is in two volumes, contains 1068 pages and 204 figures, and has a bibliography that consists of over 1100 separate entries. This summary has been prepared for the benefit of those who wish to review the results of this phase of the evaluation but who do not want to go through the exhaustive detail that is present in the full report. The regional reconnaissance was accomplished by a very thorough and extensive literature review, addressing the following topics: depth of salt, thickness, stratigraphy, tectonics, structure, seismicity, hydrology, erosion and denudation, and mineral resources. Before further technical evaluation proceeds, the draft report and the proposed program are being subjected to a thorough evaluation by a number of groups, including appropriate state agencies. This rather extensive review process is being conducted to ensure that the program is performed entirely in the open and subject to continuous public surveillance. This report does not represent the first work that has been done in this region with regard to evaluating the salt deposits for waste disposal. Previous efforts have been limited, however, and have been done by individual consultants. At the present time, the U.S. Geological Survey is also participating in the technical evaluation; their results will be issued separately. In addition to the technical evaluations, environmental surveys will also be conducted as an integral part of this thorough evaluation program

  5. Geologic field notes and geochemical analyses of outcrop and drill core from Mesoproterozoic rocks and iron-oxide deposits and prospects of southeast Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; Granitto, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources/Missouri Geological Survey, undertook a study from 1988 to 1994 on the iron-oxide deposits and their host Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks in southeastern Missouri. The project resulted in an improvement of our understanding of the geologic setting, mode of formation, and the composition of many of the known deposits and prospects and the associated rocks of the St. Francois terrane in Missouri. The goal for this earlier work was to allow the comparison of Missouri iron-oxide deposits in context with other iron oxide-copper ± uranium (IOCG) types of mineral deposits observed globally. The raw geochemical analyses were released originally through the USGS National Geochemical Database (NGDB, http://mrdata.usgs.gov). The data presented herein offers all of the field notes, locations, rock descriptions, and geochemical analyses in a coherent package to facilitate new research efforts in IOCG deposit types. The data are provided in both Microsoft Excel (Version Office 2010) spreadsheet format (*.xlsx) and MS-DOS text formats (*.txt) for ease of use by numerous computer programs.

  6. General geology, alteration, and iron deposits in the Palaeoproterozoic Misi region, northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Niiranen

    2003-01-01

    characteristic for the entire region. The styles of alteration in the region are: scapolitisation, regional and local albitisation, sericitisation and silicification associated with a major shear zone, and late carbonatisation and carbonate veining associated with brecciation of the ores and their wall rocks. Local intense albitisation and formation of skarnoids and magnetite ores took placeduring the pre-D1 or D1 faulting or shearing which postdate the intrusion of 2120 Ma gabbros. The iron was mobilized from the mafic to intermediate country rocks and/or marble sequence which possibly contained sedimentary iron formation. Regional alteration with the local intense albitisation and ore formation show similar features to the iron oxide-copper-gold type deposits, although the known deposits in the Misi region only contain trace amounts of gold and copper.

  7. Bedrock Geology and Asbestos Deposits of the Upper Missisquoi Valley and Vicinity, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Wallace Martin; Albee, Arden Leroy; Chidester, A.H.

    1963-01-01

    The upper Missisquoi Valley and vicinity as described in this report covers an area of about 250 square miles at the headwaters of the Missisquoi River in north-central Vermont. About 90 percent of the area is forested and the remainder is chiefly farm land. The topography reflects the geologic structure and varied resistance of the bedrock to erosion. Most of the area is on the east limb of the Green Mountain anticlinorium, which is the principal structural feature of Vermont. The bedrock is predominantly sedimentary and volcanic rock that has been regionally metamorphosed. It was intruded before metamorphism by mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks, and after metamorphism by felsic and mafic igneous rocks. The metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks range in age from Cambrian(?) to Middle Silurian, the intrusive igneous rocks from probably Late Ordovician to probably late Permian. Metamorphism and principal folding in the region occurred in Middle Devonian time. The metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks make up a section at least 25,000 feet thick and can be divided into nine formations. The Hazens Notch formation of Cambrian(?) and Early Cambrian age is characterized by carbonaceous schist. It is succeeded in western parts of the area by the Jay Peak formation of Early Cambrian age, which is chiefly a schist that is distinguished by the general absence of carbonaceous zones; in central parts of the area the Hazens Notch formation is followed by the Belvidere Mountain amphibolite, probably the youngest of the formations of Early Cambrian age. The Ottauquechee formation, composed of carbonaceous phyllite and quartzite, and phyllitic graywacke, is of Middle Cambrian age. The Stowe formation of Late Cambrian(?) and Early(?) Ordovician age overlies the Ottauquechee and is predominantly noncarbonaceous schist, though it also contains greenstone and carbonaceous schist and phyllite. The Umbrella Hill formation of Middle Ordovician age is characteristically a

  8. Geology and Characteristics of Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag Skarn Deposit at Ruwai, Lamandau Regency, Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifudin Idrus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i4.126This study is dealing with geology and characteristics of mineralogy, geochemistry, and physicochemical conditions of hydrothermal fluid responsible for the formation of skarn Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag deposit at Ruwai, Lamandau Regency, Central Kalimantan. The formation of Ruwai skarn is genetically associated with calcareous rocks consisting of limestone and siltstone (derived from marl? controlled by NNE-SSW-trending strike slip faults. It is localized along N 70° E-trending thrust fault, which also acts as the contact zone between sedimentary and volcanic rocks in the area. The Ruwai skarn is mineralogically characterized by prograde alteration comprising garnet (andradite and clino-pyroxene (wollastonite, and retrograde alteration composed of epidote, chlorite, calcite, and sericite. Ore mineralization is typified by sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite, formed at early retrograde stage. Galena is typically enriched in silver up to 0.45 wt % and bismuth of about 1 wt %. No Ag-sulphides are identified within the ore body. Geochemically, SiO is enriched and CaO is depleted in limestone, consistent with silicic alteration (quartz and calc-silicate and decarbonatization of the wallrock. The measured resources of the deposit are 2,297,185 tonnes at average grades of 14.98 % Zn, 6.44% Pb, 2.49 % Cu, and 370.87 g/t Ag. Ruwai skarn orebody was originated at moderate temperatures of 250 - 266 °C and low salinity of 0.3 - 0.5 wt.% NaCl eq. The late retrograde stage was formed at low temperature of 190 - 220 °C and low salinity of ~0.35 wt.% NaCl eq., which was influenced by meteoric water incursion at the late stage of the Ruwai Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag skarn formation.

  9. Sponge fossils of Middle Dnieper River Upper Eocenian deposits (geological survey sheet area «Kobelyaki»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanska T.A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the first time sponge spicules of the Paleogene on the geological survey sheet area «Kobelyaki» were studied. Using artificial classification M.M. Ivanik (2003 45 taxa spicules were found in rocks. Morphological types spicules were defined. In the complexes following megascleres of «soft» Demospongiae are dominant: pro-, plagio-, ortho-, dicho-, anatriaenes, caltrops, smooth and echinated oxeas, subtylostyls, strongyls, ophioxeas. Diaenes, monenes, caltrops with reduced beam (olimtriaenes, are less common. Microscleres are numerous: sterrasters, sphaerasters, oxysphaerasters, oxyasters. Fragments of dyctional gratings without lychnisks and free spicules of hexactinellid sponges are frequent (pentactines, hexactines. Megascleres of lithistid sponges (phyllotriaenes, tetracrepid desmas, triders, megaclones, dicranoclones are relatively few. The palaeocenosis structure that existed in the Obukhov Sea on this area, it was found by morphological analysis of sponges spicules. In the Obukhov time following sponges dominated here: «soft» sponges with unrelated skeleton that belonged to the class Demospongiae (orders Poecilosclerida, Astrophorida and families Geodiidae, Pachastrellidae, Ancorinidae, Calthropellidae, Tethyidae, Crellidae and hexactinellids of class Hexactinellida (orders Hexactinosida and Lyssacinosida. А few sponges spicules (belonged to the subclass Lithistida, families Corallistidae, Theonellidae, Phymaraphiniidae, Chenendoporidae, Pleromidae and lack lithistid skeletal gratings fragments in the studied complexes may indicate a desmas transfer from neighboring, a shallow Obukhov stations, which were confined to the nearby slope of the Ukrainian Shield. On the base of sponge spicules studying the Late Eocene (Obukhov age of surrounding deposits is proved. spongе spicula, Upper Eocene, Obuchovian Suite, Middle Dnieper region.

  10. Mapping Neogene and Quaternary sedimentary deposits in northeastern Brazil by integrating geophysics, remote sensing and geological field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrades-Filho, Clódis de Oliveira; Rossetti, Dilce de Fátima; Bezerra, Francisco Hilario Rego; Medeiros, Walter Eugênio; Valeriano, Márcio de Morisson; Cremon, Édipo Henrique; Oliveira, Roberto Gusmão de

    2014-12-01

    Neogene and late Quaternary sedimentary deposits corresponding respectively to the Barreiras Formation and Post-Barreiras Sediments are abundant along the Brazilian coast. Such deposits are valuable for reconstructing sea level fluctuations and recording tectonic reactivation along the passive margin of South America. Despite this relevance, much effort remains to be invested in discriminating these units in their various areas of occurrence. The main objective of this work is to develop and test a new methodology for semi-automated mapping of Neogene and late Quaternary sedimentary deposits in northeastern Brazil integrating geophysical and remote sensing data. The central onshore Paraíba Basin was selected due to the recent availability of a detailed map based on the integration of surface and subsurface geological data. We used airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (i.e., potassium-K and thorium-Th concentration) and morphometric data (i.e., relief-dissection, slope and elevation) extracted from the digital elevation model (DEM) generated by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The procedures included: (a) data integration using geographic information systems (GIS); (b) exploratory statistical analyses, including the definition of parameters and thresholds for class discrimination for a set of sample plots; and (c) development and application of a decision-tree classification. Data validation was based on: (i) statistical analysis of geochemical and airborne gamma-ray spectrometry data consisting of K and Th concentrations; and (ii) map validation with the support of a confusion matrix, overall accuracy, as well as quantity disagreement and allocation disagreement for accuracy assessment based on field points. The concentration of K successfully separated the sedimentary units of the basin from Precambrian basement rocks. The relief-dissection morphometric variable allowed the discrimination between the Barreiras Formation and the Post-Barreiras Sediments. In

  11. Geologic map of Kundelan ore deposits and prospects, Zabul Province, Afghanistan; modified from the 1971 original map compilations of K.I. Litvinenko and others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Robert D.; Peters, Stephen G.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2015-10-26

    This map and cross sections are redrafted modified versions of the Geological map of the Kundelan ore deposit area, scale 1:10,000 (graphical supplement no. 18) and the Geological map of the Kundelan deposits, scale 1:2,000 (graphical supplement no. 3) both contained in an unpublished Soviet report by Litvinenko and others (1971) (report no. 0540). The unpublished Soviet report was prepared in cooperation with the Ministry of Mines and Industries of the Royal Government of Afghanistan in Kabul during 1971. This redrafted map and cross sections illustrate the geology of the main Kundelan copper-gold skarn deposit, located within the Kundelan copper and gold area of interest (AOI), Zabul Province, Afghanistan. Areas of interest (AOIs) of non-fuel mineral resources within Afghanistan were first described and defined by Peters and others (2007) and later by the work of Peters and others (2011a). The location of the main Kundelan copper-gold skarn deposit (area of this map) and the Kundelan copper and gold AOI is shown on the index map provided on this map sheet.

  12. Comparative geology and geochemistry of sedimentary-rock-hosted (Carlin Type) gold deposits in the People's Republic of China and in Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiping; Peters, Stephen G.

    1998-01-01

    Sedimentary-rock-hosted (Carlin-type) gold deposits have been considered economically significant and geologically distinct since the early 1960's. This report consists of a nine-part text and an interactive database. This small database is to help Western companies get more information about these gold deposits in China, and to help geologists who are interested in world Carlin-type deposits conduct research on them. Because of their economic significance and geological distinctiveness, these deposits have caught the interest of economic geologists all over the world since the early 1960's. Similar deposits have been discovered in China, Australia, Dominican Republic, Spain, and Russia besides Nevada. Perhaps most significant are the 165 Carlin-type gold deposits that were found in southwest China during the past 15 years. Of these, at least 19 deposits have proven to be of substantial tonnage, making China the second leading country to exploit such deposits. With the increasing interest in Chinese Carlin-type gold deposits, some western companies and geologists desire to get more information about these Chinese deposits. This seems to have been very difficult because the literature was in Chinese. It is estimated that several hundred scientific publications (including papers, books, and technical reports) have been published. This database of Chinese Carlin-type Gold deposits is built on the documentation published during the most recent 10 years and includes six subjects, which consist of 165 records and 30 fields. A new Proterozoic-age sedimentary-rock-hosted gold deposit in northeastern P.R. China also is described. Note that for the old version 1.1 on the CD-ROM, the latitude and longitude locations of the mineral occurrences have been estimated from sketch maps and journal articles and are not intended for digital analysis. One of the improvements in this version 1.2 is the accuracy of geographic data. Version 1.3 updates to the database and includes maps

  13. Electrical imaging and self-potential surveys to study the geological setting of the quaternary slope deposits in the Agri high valley (Southern Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giano, S I; Schiattarella, M [Basilicata Univ., Potenza (Italy). Centro di Geodinamica; Lapenna, V; Piscitelli, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Tito, PZ (Italy). Ist. di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientale

    2000-04-01

    The paper presents the results of a geophysical survey carried out to outline the structural modelling of quarternary slope deposits in the northern part of Agri high valley (Basilicata region, Italy). Quaternary folding and brittle deformations of the subaerial slope deposits have been studied combining electrical imaging and self-potential surveys with geological structural analysis. This integrated approach indicates that the area underwent both transpressional and transtensional tectonics during Pleistocene times as testified by the existence of a push up structure in the basement buried by deformed Quaternary breccias. On this basis, the valley appears to be a more complex structure than a simple extensional graben, as traditionally assumed in the literature.

  14. Geologic investigation of the Virgin River Valley salt deposits, Clark County, southeastern Nevada, to investigate their suitability for possible storage of radioactive waste material as of September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The results from a geologic investigation of the Virgin River Valley salt deposits, Clark County, southeastern Nevada, to examine their suitability for further study and consideration in connection with the possible storage of radioactive waste material are given. The results indicate that (1) approximately one-half of the salt body underlies the Overton Arm of Lake Mead and that the dry land portion of the salt body that has a thickness of 1,000 feet or more covers an area of about four and one-half square miles; (2) current tectonic activity in the area of the salt deposits is believed to be confined to seismic events associated with crustal adjustments following the filling of Lake Mead; (3) detailed information on the hydrology of the salt deposit area is not available at present but it is reported that a groundwater study by the U.S. Geological Survey is now in progress; (4) there is no evidence of exploitable minerals in the salt deposit area other than evaporites such as salt, gypsum, and possibly sand and gravel; (5) the salt deposit area is located inside the Lake Mead Recreation Area, outlined on the accompanying Location Plat, and several Federal, State, and Local agencies share regulatory responsibilities for the activities in the area; (6) other salt deposit areas of Arizona and Nevada, such as the Detrital Valley, Red Lake Dome, Luke Dome, and Mormon Mesa area, and several playa lake areas of central Nevada may merit further study; and (7) additional information, as outlined, is needed to more thoroughly evaluate the salt deposits of the Virgin River Valley and other areas referred to above

  15. On the geological background of the mineralization of carbonate-siliceous-pelitic stratabound uranium deposits in south China and variety of their metallogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zuhuan.

    1986-01-01

    The carbonate-siliceouspelitic uranium deposits which widely distributed in South China are more typical stratabound deposits. According to the horizon of ore bearing formation it may be divided into two major types, i.e. Sinian-Cambrian series and upper Palaeozoic group. The formation of uranium source bed was closely related with the crustal evolution of that area. The process of transformation of uranium source bed into uranium deposits being more complexity and variety. Therefore, this kind of deposits was commomly subdivided into three types----sedimentary diagenetic type, leaching precipitation type and hydrothermal reworked type. Among which the former two types are rarely appeared, and the sedimentary diagenetic type is so far not very reliable. The hydrothermal reworked type being the most important one; but they also showing different characteristics in metallogenesis, especially on the relation with granite body situated nearby. Thus, different understandings around their genesis were existed. This paper discusses the geological and geochemical characteristics of several deposits with different processes of mineralization and suggest a scheme for further classification of these of uranium deposits

  16. Geologic map of the Shaida deposit and Misgaran prospect, Herat Province, Afghanistan, modified from the 1973 original map compilation of V.I. Tarasenko and others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Robert D.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    This map is a modified version of Geological map and map of useful minerals, Shaida area, scale 1:50,000, which was compiled by V.I. Tarasenko, N.I. Borozenets, and others in 1973. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Afghan Geological Survey and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations of the U.S. Department of Defense, studied the original document and related reports and also visited the field area in August 2010.This modified map illustrates the geological structure of the Shaida copper-lead-zinc deposit and Misgaran copper-lead-zinc prospect in western Afghanistan and includes cross sections of the same area. The map reproduces the topology (contacts, faults, and so forth) of the original Soviet map and cross sections and includes modifications based on our examination of these documents and on observations made during our field visit. Elevations on the cross sections are derived from the original Soviet topography and might not match the newer topography used on the current map. We have attempted to translate the original Russian terminology and rock classification into modern English geologic usage as literally as possible without changing any genetic or process-oriented implications in the original descriptions. We also use the age designations from the original map.The unit colors on the map and cross sections differ from the colors shown on the original version. The units are colored according to the color and pattern scheme of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) (http://www.ccgm.org).

  17. Book review: Economic geology: Principles and practice: Metals, minerals, coal and hydrocarbons—Introduction to formation and sustainable exploitation of mineral deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This volume, available in both hardcover and paperback, is an English translation of the fifth edition of the German language text Mineralische und Energie-Rohstoffe. The book provides an extensive overview of natural resources and societal issues associated with extracting raw materials. The comprehensive list of raw materials discussed includes metals, industrial minerals, coal, and hydrocarbons. The book is divided into four parts: (1) “Metalliferous ore deposits,” (2) “Nonmetallic minerals and rocks,” (3) “Practice of economic geology,” and (4) “Fossil energy raw materials—coal, oil, and gas.” These sections are bound by a brief introduction and an extensive list of up-to-date references as well as an index. Each chapter begins with a concise synopsis and concludes with a summary that contains useful suggestions for additional reading. All figures are grayscale images and line drawings; however, several have been grouped together and reproduced as color plates. Also included is a companion website (www.wiley.com/go/pohl/geology) that contains additional resources, such as digital copies of figures, tables, and an expanded index, all available for download in easy-to-use formats.Economic Geology: Principles and Practice: Metals, Minerals, Coal and Hydrocarbons—Introduction to Formation and Sustainable Exploitation of Mineral Deposits. Walter l. Pohl. 2011. Wiley-Blackwell. Pp. 663. ISBN 978-1-4443-3663-4 (paperback).

  18. A regional multi-scale 3-D geological model of the Eastern Sub-Athabasca Basement, Canada: Implications for vectoring towards unconformity-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annesley, I.; Reilkoff, B.; Takacs, E.; Hajnal, Z.; Pandit, B.

    2014-01-01

    The Proterozoic Athabasca Basin of northern Saskatchewan is one of the most important mining districts in Canada; hosting the world’s highest grade uranium deposits and prospects. In the basin, many of the near-surface deposits have been discovered; hence new ore deposits at greater depths need to be discovered. To help make new discoveries, 3D geological modelling is being carried out. Here, we present our multidisciplinary approach, whereby a 3D geological model of the eastern sub- Athabasca basement of northern Saskatchewan (i.e. the eastern and western Wollaston domains, the Wollaston-Mudjatik Transition Zone (WMTZ), and the Mudjatik Domain) was developed in the common earth environment. The project was directed towards building a robust 3D model(s) of the upper 3-5 km of the Earth’s crust in three different scales: deposit-, district-, and regional-scale, using the GOCAD software platform (Paradigm). Our eastern sub-Athabasca basement model is constrained by both geological studies and geophysical techniques, such as topographic, outcrop, drill hole, petrophysical, and petrological data, along with geophysical potential field, electrical, and highresolution regional seismic data, in order to better understand the regional- to district-scale tectonics and controls on the uranium mineral system(s) operating pre-, syn-, and post-Athabasca deposition. The resulting data were interpreted and visualized as 3D-surfaces and bodies in GOCAD. This model reveals a framework of key lithological contacts, major high-strain zones, and the setting of unconformity-type uranium deposits. As a result, this new knowledge is being used to identify key exploration vectoring criteria for unconformity-type, magmatic, and metamorphic/ metasomatic uranium deposits and to delineate new exploration targets in the basin. Hence, this regional-scale 3D GOCAD model can be utilized as a guide for exploration activities within the region (e.g. picking new drill targets). As well, this 3D

  19. Chapter B: Regional Geologic Setting of Late Cenozoic Lacustrine Diatomite Deposits, Great Basin and Surrounding Region: Overview and Plans for Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alan R.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater diatomite deposits are present in all of the Western United States, including the Great Basin and surrounding regions. These deposits are important domestic sources of diatomite, and a better understanding of their formation and geologic settings may aid diatomite exploration and land-use management. Diatomite deposits in the Great Basin are the products of two stages: (1) formation in Late Cenozoic lacustrine basins and (2) preservation after formation. Processes that favored long-lived diatom activity and diatomite formation range in decreasing scale from global to local. The most important global process was climate, which became increasingly cool and dry from 15 Ma to the present. Regional processes included tectonic setting and volcanism, which varied considerably both spatially and temporally in the Great Basin region. Local processes included basin formation, sedimentation, hydrology, and rates of processes, including diatom growth and accumulation; basin morphology and nutrient and silica sources were important for robust activity of different diatom genera. Only optimum combinations of these processes led to the formation of large diatomite deposits, and less than optimum combinations resulted in lakebeds that contained little to no diatomite. Postdepositional processes can destroy, conceal, or preserve a diatomite deposit. These processes, which most commonly are local in scale, include uplift, with related erosion and changes in hydrology; burial beneath sedimentary deposits or volcanic flows and tuffs; and alteration during diagenesis and hydrothermal activity. Some sedimentary basins that may have contained diatomite deposits have largely been destroyed or significantly modified, whereas others, such as those in western Nevada, have been sufficiently preserved along with their contained diatomite deposits. Future research on freshwater diatomite deposits in the Western United States and Great Basin region should concentrate on the regional

  20. Evolution of Ore Deposits and Technology Transfer Project: Isotope and Chemical Methods in Support of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy, 2003-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, Robert O.; Johnson, Craig A.; Landis, Gary P.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Emsbo, Poul; Stricker, Craig A.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Rusk, Brian G.

    2010-01-01

    Principal functions of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program are providing assessments of the location, quantity, and quality of undiscovered mineral deposits, and predicting the environmental impacts of exploration and mine development. The mineral and environmental assessments of domestic deposits are used by planners and decisionmakers to improve the stewardship of public lands and public resources. Assessments of undiscovered mineral deposits on a global scale reveal the potential availability of minerals to the United States and other countries that manufacture goods imported to the United States. These resources are of fundamental relevance to national and international economic and security policy in our globalized world economy. Performing mineral and environmental assessments requires that predictions be made of the likelihood of undiscovered deposits. The predictions are based on geologic and geoenvironmental models that are constructed for the diverse types of mineral deposits from detailed descriptions of actual deposits and detailed understanding of the processes that formed them. Over the past three decades the understanding of ore-forming processes has benefited greatly from the integration of laboratory-based geochemical tools with field observations and other data sources. Under the aegis of the Evolution of Ore Deposits and Technology Transfer Project (referred to hereinafter as the Project), a 5-year effort that terminated in 2008, the Mineral Resources Program provided state-of-the-art analytical capabilities to support applications of several related geochemical tools to ore-deposit-related studies. The analytical capabilities and scientific approaches developed within the Project have wide applicability within Earth-system science. For this reason the Project Laboratories represent a valuable catalyst for interdisciplinary collaborations of the type that should be formed in the coming years for the United States to meet

  1. A Regional Multi-scale 3D Geological Model of the Eastern Sub-Athabasca Basement, Canada: Implications for Vectoring towards Unconformity-type Uranium Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annesley, Irvine R.; Reilkoff, Brian; Takacs, Erno; Hajnal, Zoltan; Pandit, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Summary and Conclusions • The GOCAD common earth environment allows integration of multiple geological, geophysical, geochemical, and petrophysical data sets from surface to depth. • We are able to manipulate and visualize the regional to district scale architecture of the Wollaston fold-and-thrust belt, especially with the aid of high-resolution seismic profiles. • High-resolution seismic and diamond drilling constrain the 3rd dimension. • The GOCAD model can be used in other modelling applications. • Our research is bringing new insight(s) to the role of the basement in the genesis of unconformity-type U deposits.

  2. GEOLOGY AND DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF CAMPANO-MAASTRICHTIAN SEDIMENTS IN THE ANAMBRA BASIN, SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA: EVIDENCE FROM FIELD RELATIONSHIP AND SEDIMENTOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E Salufu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study area lies within the Anambra Basin and it is made up of Enugu Shale, Mamu Formation, Ajali Sandstone, and Nsukka Formation. This study aimed at determining the geology and depositional environmental of these formations through field relationship and grain size distribution morphologic studies.The field data shows Enugu Shale as fissile, light grey with extraformational clast which graded into Mamu Formation whichis made up of shale, coal and sandy shale. It passes upward into Ajali Sandstone which is characterized by cross beds, Herringbonestructures and Ophiomorpha burrows. The youngest formation within the basin is Nsukka Formation.The granulometric study of Mamu Formation shows fine to medium grains, coarse, medium to fine grain for Mamu and Ajali Formation respectively. The standard deviation indicates poorly sorted. The kurtosis shows leptokurtic, platykurtic to very leptokurtic for both while the skewness values indicate positive and symmetrical in all except for Ajali Sandstone that is negatively skewed.The bivariate and the multivariate results reveal shallow marine and fluvial deposits for both Mamu Formation and Ajali Sandstone respectively. The paleocurrent direction of Ajali Sandstone indicates southwest while the provenance is northeast.The fissility of Enugu Shale suggests that it was deposited in low energy environment, distal to proximal lagoon environment.The presence of extraformatonal clast within Enugu Shale indicates fluvial incursion. However, the textural analysis of Mamu Formation suggests a sediment deposited in a low energy environment which favoured deposition of fine to medium size sediments that is, estuary environment. Textural result of Ajali Sandstone in the study area coupled with the field data such as Herring-bone structures, and Ophiomorpha burrows, revealed that Ajali Sandstone was deposited in a tidal environment probably littoral environment. While the light grey colour observed in the

  3. Evaluation of the Cerro Solo nuclear ore, province of Chubut. Geological characteristics of the deposit and of the basin. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, A.F.; Fuente, A.; Maloberti, A.; Landi, V.A.; Bianchi, R.E.; Marveggio de Bianchi, N.; Gayone, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Cerro Solo uranium ore deposit, is located 420 km west from Trelew city, Chubut province, in the extra-andean. The geologic environment belongs to the northwest edge portion of the intracratonic San Jorge Gulf Basin. The uraniferous district is named Pichinanes Ridge district. The mineralization lies 25 to 130 m depth, and is hosted by Los Adobes formation aged Aptian-Albian, made up by conglomerates, sandstones, coarse-sandstones and less abundant siltstones and claystones. The Cerro Solo ore deposit that belongs to the sandstone type-uranium occurrences are lenticular or tabular shaped, associated with organic material and pyrite, generally roughly parallel to the bedding (Trend-Type). The uranium minerals are uraninite and coffinite associated with organic material and pyrite, and frequently hematite, goethite, calcite, siderite and barite are observed. (Author)

  4. Geological characteristics of the main deposits in the world. Geological characteristics of French uranium deposits; their consequences on the different stages of valorisation. The uranium market; Caracteres geologiques des principaux gisements du monde. Caracteres geologiques des gisements francais d'uranium; leurs consequences dans les differents stades de la mise en valeur. Le marche de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangloff, A.; Lenoble, A.; Mabile, J.

    1958-07-15

    This document gathers three contributions. In the first one, after having recalled data regarding uranium ore and metal reserves in Canada, USA, South Africa and France, the author describes and discusses the geological and mineral characteristics of the main deposits in Canada (Great Bear Lake, Ace-Verna and other deposits of the Beaverlodge district, Gunnar, Blind River and Bancroft), in the USA (New Mexico, Colorado and Arizona), and in South Africa (similar structure as observed in Blind River). The second contribution addresses the French uranium deposits by firstly presenting, describing and classifying vein deposits (five types are distinguished) and sedimentary deposits in different geological formations, and by secondly discussing the impacts of these characteristics on exploration, surface exploration works, and mining works. The third contribution proposes an overview of the uranium market: comments of world productions (conventional extraction processes and technical peculiarities, costs and prices, reserves and production in Canada, USA, South Africa, France, Australia and others), presentation of the French program (location and production capacity of uranium production plants, locations of ore extraction), overview of the current situation of the world market (price levels, possible prices after 1962), discussion of the comparison between demands and supplies, overview of the French uranium policy.

  5. Geology and recognition criteria for sandstone uranium deposits in mixed fluvial-shallow marine sedimentary sequences, South Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.S.; Smith, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium deposits in the South Texas Uranium Region are classical roll-type deposits that formed at the margin of tongues of altered sandstone by the encroachment of oxidizing, uraniferous solutions into reduced aquifers containing pyrite and, in a few cases, carbonaceous plant material. Many of the uranium deposits in South Texas are dissimilar from the roll fronts of the Wyoming basins. The host sands for many of the deposits contain essentially no carbonaceous plant material, only abundant disseminated pyrite. Many of the deposits do not occur at the margin of altered (ferric oxide-bearing) sandstone tongues but rather occur entirely within reduced, pyurite-bearing sandstone. The abundance of pyrite within the sands probably reflects the introduction of H/sub 2/S up along faults from hydrocarbon accumulations at depth. Such introductions before ore formation prepared the sands for roll-front development, whereas post-ore introductions produced re-reduction of portions of the altered tongue, leaving the deposit suspended in reduced sandstone. Evidence from three deposits suggests that ore formation was not accompanied by the introduction of significant amounts of H/sub 2/S.

  6. Fluid inclusion characteristics and geological significance of the Dajinshan W-Sn polymetallic deposit in Yunfu, Guangdong Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhangfa; Chen, Maohong; Zhao, Haijie

    2015-05-01

    The Dajinshan tungsten-tin polymetallic deposit is a quartz-vein-type ore deposit located in Western Guangdong Province. The ore bodies show a fairly simple shape and mainly occur as tungsten-tin polymetallic-bearing sulfide quartz veins, including quartz vein, quartz-greisens, and sulfide quartz veins, and their distribution is spatially related to Dajinshan granitoids. The formation of the deposit experienced three stages: a wolframite-molybdenite-quartz stage, a wolframite-cassiterite-sulfide-quartz stage, and a fluorite-calcite-carbonate stage. Based on detailed petrographic observations, we conducted microthermometric and Raman microspectroscopic studies of fluid inclusions formed at different ore-forming stages in the Dajinshan tungsten-tin polymetallic deposit, identifying four dominant types of fluid inclusions: aqueous two-phase inclusions, CO2-bearing inclusions, solid or daughter mineral-bearing inclusions, and gas-rich inclusions. The gas compositions of ore-forming fluids in the Dajinshan tungsten-tin polymetallic deposit are mostly CO2, CH4, and H2O. The hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur isotopic data imply that the ore-forming fluids in the Dajinshan tungsten-tin polymetallic deposit were mainly derived from magmatic fluids, mixed with meteoric water in the ore-formation process. These results indicate that the fluid mixing and boiling led to the decomposition of the metal complex in ore-forming fluids and ore deposition.

  7. Geology and recognition criteria for sandstone uranium deposits in mixed fluvial-shallow marine sedimentary sequences, South Texas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.S.; Smith, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium deposits in the South Texas Uranium Region are classical roll-type deposits that formed at the margin of tongues of altered sandstone by the encroachment of oxidizing, uraniferous solutions into reduced aquifers containing pyrite and, in a few cases, carbonaceous plant material. Many of the uranium deposits in South Texas are dissimilar from the roll fronts of the Wyoming basins. The host sands for many of the deposits contain essentially no carbonaceous plant material, only abundant disseminated pyrite. Many of the deposits do not occur at the margin of altered (ferric oxide-bearing) sandstone tongues but rather occur entirely within reduced, pyurite-bearing sandstone. The abundance of pyrite within the sands probably reflects the introduction of H 2 S up along faults from hydrocarbon accumulations at depth. Such introductions before ore formation prepared the sands for roll-front development, whereas post-ore introductions produced re-reduction of portions of the altered tongue, leaving the deposit suspended in reduced sandstone. Evidence from three deposits suggests that ore formation was not accompanied by the introduction of significant amounts of H 2 S

  8. Geological and geochemical studies of the Shujiadian porphyry Cu deposit, Anhui Province, Eastern China: Implications for ore genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiwei; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; White, Noel C.; Lin, Fengjie

    2015-05-01

    Most porphyry deposits in the world occur in magmatic arc settings and are related to subduction of oceanic plates. A small proportion of porphyry deposits occur in intracontinental settings, however they are still poorly understood. Shujiadian, a newly-discovered porphyry Cu deposit, is located in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt and belongs to the intracontinental class. The deposit has classic alteration zones defined by a core of potassic alteration and local Ca-silicate alteration, which is overprinted by a feldspar-destructive alteration zone and cut by veins containing epidote and chlorite. Wallrocks of the deposit are unreactive quartz-rich sedimentary rocks. Three main paragenetic stages have been recognized based on petrographic observations; silicate stage, quartz-sulfide stage, and sulfide-carbonate stage. Quartz + pyrite + chalcopyrite ± molybdenite veins, and quartz + chalcopyrite + pyrite veins of the quartz-sulfide stage contribute most of the copper, and chalcopyrite + chlorite ± pyrite ± pyrrhotite ± quartz ± illite veins of the sulfide-carbonate stage also contribute part of the copper; all the mineralized veins are associated with feldspar-destructive alteration. Investigations on the fluid inclusions in Shujiadian indicate that the ore-forming fluids had four evolutionary episodes: immiscibility and overpressure in the silicate stage, boiling in the quartz-sulfide stage and mixing with meteoric water in the sulfide-carbonate stage. Sulfur and strontium isotope studies suggest that ore metals were mainly derived from magmatic-hydrothermal fluids, and combined with our study of fluid inclusions, we infer that decompression, changes in oxygen fugacity and sulfur content were the main factors that caused Cu precipitation. Compared with porphyry deposits in magmatic arc settings, there are some differences in the ore-bearing rock, alteration, and the composition of ore-forming fluids.

  9. The Kharapeh orogenic gold deposit: Geological, structural, and geochemical controls on epizonal ore formation in West Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niroomand, Shojaeddin; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Moore, Farib; Mohajjel, Mohammad; Marsh, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    The Kharapeh gold deposit is located along the northwestern margin of the Sanandaj–Sirjan Zone (SSZ) in the West Azerbaijan province, Iran. It is an epizonal orogenic gold deposit formed within the deformed zone between central Iran and the Arabian plate during the Cretaceous–Tertiary Zagros orogeny. The deposit area is underlain by Cretaceous schist and marble, as well as altered andesite and dacite dikes. Structural analysis indicates that the rocks underwent tight to isoclinal recumbent folding and were subsequently co-axially refolded to upright open folds during a second deformation. Late- to post-tectonic Cenozoic granites and granodiorites occur northeast of the deposit area. Mineralization mainly is recognized within NW-trending extensional structures as veins and breccia zones. Normal faults, intermediate dikes, and quartz veins, oriented subparallel to the axial surface of the Kharapeh antiform, indicate synchronous extension perpendicular to the fold axis during the second folding event. The gold-bearing quartz veins are >1 km in length and average about 6 m in width; breccia zones are 10–50 m in length and ≤1 m in width. Hydrothermal alteration mainly consists of silicification, sulfidation, chloritization, sericitization, and carbonatization. Paragenetic relationships indicate three distinct stages—replacement and silicification, brecciation and fracture filling, and cataclastic brecciation—with the latter two being gold-rich. Fluid inclusion data suggest mineral deposition at temperatures of at least 220–255°C and depths of at least 1.4–1.8 km, from a H2O–CO2±CH4 fluid of relatively high salinity (12–14 wt.% NaCl equiv.), which may reflect metamorphism of passive margin carbonate sequences. Ore fluid δ18O values between about 7‰ and 9‰ suggest no significant meteoric water input, despite gold deposition in a relatively shallow epizonal environment. Similarities to other deposits in the SSZ suggest that the deposit formed as

  10. The use of technology of separating horizontal wells into sections by packers in conjunction with a new geological structure concept of deposits 302-302 of the Romashkino Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.A. Loscheva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The work considers deposits 302-303 of the Bashkirian and Serpukhovian stages. The Kuakbashsky deposits 302-303 are confined to the carbonate layer of the Bashkirian and Serpukhovian sediments of the Middle and Lower Carboniferous, with various types of voids: intergranular, fractured and cavernous. Based on the analysis of seismic data, aerospace and geophysical data, a new model of the geological structure of deposits 302-303 was created, taking into account faults and lineaments. An analysis was made of the dynamics of horizontal wells operation, depending on the location of decompression zones, which confirmed the geological model of the deposit structure proposed by the authors. Based on the geological structure, solutions are proposed for optimization of deposits development: - During the establishment and operation of wells, it is necessary to take into account the faults location, their type, strike, predicted locations of high fracturing and cavitation zones to improve well performance; - The production mode should be developed with the obligatory observance of a balance between the filtration rate of oil from caverns into cracks and the flow of liquid from the production well. - The conducted analysis shows the complete absence of dependence of the development efficiency on the implementation of various technological measures. A comprehensive approach to the deposit blocks (limited by tectonic faults is required, starting with the selection of the block (the direct drilling site, ending with the selection modes, sequence, type and complex of geological and technical measures, individually for each well of the block.

  11. The evaluation of in-situ leaching hydrological-geologic condition in a sandstone-type uranium deposits of a low-grade and thick ledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yan

    2014-01-01

    The ore aquifer of a sandstone-type uranium deposits is thick, the grade, and uranium amount per square meter is low. To demonstrate the economic rationality of the in-situ leaching deposit, the Pumping test on the spot, recovery of water levels test, Pumping test and Injection test, Injection test in a Drilling hole, the pumping and injection balance test are carried out. And the hydro geological parameters of mineral aquifer are acquired. The parameters includes coefficient of transmissibility, Coefficient of permeability, Specific discharge of a well and Water injection. Radius of influence etc. The relation between discharge of drilling and Drawdown is researched. The capability of pumping and injection by a drilling hole is determined. The Hydraulic between the aquifer with mineral and the upper and lower aquifer is researched. The reasonable Mining drawdown is testified, the hydrogeological conditions of in-Situ leaching of the mining deposit is found out, this provides necessary parameters and basis for this kind of Situ-leach uranium mining wells, the designing of Spacing of wells, and the economic evaluation of In-situ leaching technology. (author)

  12. Geologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, T.E.; Rood, A.

    1983-01-01

    The modern Great Divide Basin is the end product of natural forces influenced by the Green River lake system, Laramide tectonism, and intermittent volcanic events. It ranks as one of the most complex structural and stratigtaphic features within the Tertiary basins of Wyoming. Portions of the Great Divide Basin and adjoining areas in Wyoming have been investigated by applying detailed and region exploration methods to known uranium deposits located within the Red Desert portions of the basin. Geologic field investigations conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporaton (Bendix) were restricted to reconnaissance observations made during infrequent visits to the project area by various Bendix personnel. Locations of the most comprehensive field activities are shown in Figure II-1. The principal source fo data for geologic studies of the Red Desert project area has been information and materials furnished by industry. Several hundred holes have been drilled by various groups to delineate the uranium deposits. Results from Bendix-drilled holes at selected locations within the project area are summarized in Table II-1. Additional details and gross subsurface characteristics are illustrated in cross sections; pertinent geologic features are illustrated in plan maps. Related details of continental sedimentation that pertain to the Wyoming Basins generally, and the project area specificially, are discussed in subsections of this Geologic Studies section

  13. Geologic structure of Gofitsky deposit of titanium and zirconium and perspectives of the reserve base of titanium and zirconium in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhmazov, Iskander

    2016-04-01

    were received (USGS, 2005): 1. The draft forecasts the highest positive net present value (NPV= 1712879.6 thou.) to a company that uses a discount rate of 15%. 2. The present value factor is quite high (PVR = 9.02), and means that the company will receive 9.02 discounted profit per dollar invested. Profitability index is higher than 1 (PI = 1.3) and indicates that the project is profitable, but it is volatile in term of investment. All these features make the project highly controversial for a company, but with an increase of price of titanium and zirconium raw materials it will improve the attractiveness of Gofitsky deposit for development. As a result: • common patterns of geological structure of Gofitsky deposit field are determined • mineral composition is studied • schlich analysis is held • Gofitsky deposit was evaluated from the financial and economic point of view • profitability was identified and its attractiveness was estimated for potential investors.

  14. Mineralogical and geochemical studies on apatites and phosphate host rocks of Esfordi deposit, Yazd province, to determine the origin and geological setting of the apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Rajabzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iron-apatite ore deposits well known as Kiruna iron type formed in association with calc-alkaline volcanism from Proterozoic to Tertiary (Hitzman et al., 1992. Liquid immiscibility in an igneous system was proposed to explain the formation of the iron oxides accompanying apatite in mineralized zones (Förster and Jafarzadeh, 1994; Daliran, 1999. The mode of ore formation however, is a matter in debate. Bafq region in Central Iran is one of the greatest iron mining regions in Iran with 750 million tons of reservoir. The majority of the iron deposits contains apatite as minor mineral and underwent metamorphism-alteration in varying degrees. The mode of formation and geological setting of Esfordi iron-apatite deposit in this region with an average of 13.9 wt% apatite are discussed using geochemical and mineralogical data along with field description. Materials and methods Fifty-three samples of mineralized zones and host rocks collected from 7 cross sections were studied by conventional microscopic methods. Seven representative samples were determined by XRD at Department of Physics, Shiraz University. Fifteen and six samples were also analyzed for major and trace elements using XRF at Binaloud Co. Iran, and ICP-MS at Labwest Minerals Analysis, Australia, respectively. Microprobe analyses were carried out on apatite in Geo Forschungs Zentrum Telegrafenberg at Potsdam University, Germany. Results Field observation shows that igneous host rocks in Esfordi were intensively altered by hydrothermal fluids. The ores are surrounded by wide altered halos. Petrographic investigation indicated that the most important alterations are of potassic, carbonatitic and silicification types. Magnetite and apatite occur as major minerals, accompanied by minor hematite and goethite in the mineralized zones. Rare Earth Element (REE minerals are present as minor phases in the ores. Three apatite mineralization types (vein, massive, and disseminated were

  15. The geology, structure and mineralisation of the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry copper-gold-molybdenum deposits, Mongolia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. (Mike Porter

    2016-05-01

    Mineralisation is characterised by varying, telescoped stages of intrusion and alteration. Early A-type quartz veined dykes were followed by Cu-Au mineralisation associated with potassic alteration, mainly K-feldspar in quartz-monzodiorite and biotite-magnetite in basaltic hosts. Downward reflux of cooled, late-magmatic hydrothermal fluid resulted in intense quartz-sericite retrograde alteration in the upper parts of the main syn-mineral intrusions, and an equivalent chlorite-muscovite/illite-hematite assemblage in basaltic host rocks. Uplift, facilitated by syn-mineral longitudinal faulting, brought sections of the porphyry deposit to shallower depths, to be overprinted and upgraded by late stage, shallower, advanced argillic alteration and high sulphidation mineralisation. Key controls on the location, size and grade of the deposit cluster include (i a long-lived, narrow faulted corridor; (ii multiple pulses of overlapping intrusion within the same structure; and (iii enclosing reactive, mafic dominated wall rocks, focussing ore.

  16. Targeting of Gold Deposits in Amazonian Exploration Frontiers using Knowledge- and Data-Driven Spatial Modeling of Geophysical, Geochemical, and Geological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Lucíola Alves; Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the application of weights-of-evidence, artificial neural networks, and fuzzy logic spatial modeling techniques to generate prospectivity maps for gold mineralization in the neighborhood of the Amapari Au mine, Brazil. The study area comprises one of the last Brazilian mineral exploration frontiers. The Amapari mine is located in the Maroni-Itaicaiúnas Province, which regionally hosts important gold, iron, manganese, chromite, diamond, bauxite, kaolinite, and cassiterite deposits. The Amapari Au mine is characterized as of the orogenic gold deposit type. The highest gold grades are associated with highly deformed rocks and are concentrated in sulfide-rich veins mainly composed of pyrrhotite. The data used for the generation of gold prospectivity models include aerogeophysical and geological maps as well as the gold content of stream sediment samples. The prospectivity maps provided by these three methods showed that the Amapari mine stands out as an area of high potential for gold mineralization. The prospectivity maps also highlight new targets for gold exploration. These new targets were validated by means of detailed maps of gold geochemical anomalies in soil and by fieldwork. The identified target areas exhibit good spatial coincidence with the main soil geochemical anomalies and prospects, thus demonstrating that the delineation of exploration targets by analysis and integration of indirect datasets in a geographic information system (GIS) is consistent with direct prospecting. Considering that work of this nature has never been developed in the Amazonian region, this is an important example of the applicability and functionality of geophysical data and prospectivity analysis in regions where geologic and metallogenetic information is scarce.

  17. Safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal into geological formations; a preliminary application of fault tree analysis to salt deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertozzi, B.; D'Alessandro, M.; Girardi, F.; Vanossi, M.

    1978-01-01

    The methodology of the fault tree analysis (FTA) has been widely used at the Joint Research Centre of Ispra in nuclear reactor safety studies. The aim of the present work consisted in studying the applicability of this methodology to geological repositories of radioactive wastes, including criteria and approaches for the quantification of probalities of primary events. The present work has just an illustrative purpose. Two ideal cases of saline formations, I.E. a bedded salt and a diapir were chosen as potential disposal sites for radioactive waste. On the basis of arbitrarily assumed hydrogeological features of the salt formations and their surrounding environment, possible phenomena capable of causing the waste to be released from each formation have been discussed and gathered following the logical schemes of the FTA. The assessment of probability values for release events due to natural causes as well as to human actions, over different time periods, up to one million years, has been discussed

  18. Influence of geological variations on lignite drying kinetics in superheated steam atmosphere for Belchatow deposit located in the central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sciazko Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignite-fired coal power plants suffer from a significant heat loss due to the high moisture content in this energy carrier. Water removal from fuel is an indispensable treatment for improving the combustion process, which will foster the efficient utilization of lignite. Superheated steam fluidized bed drying is expected for this purpose in a power generation sector. Understanding drying kinetics of lignite will greatly reinforce design process of a dryer. Physical features as well as the drying behaviour may be divergent among the lignite originated from different depths and positions in a certain mine. To reveal and clarify the influence of the geological features, the drying characteristics of several grades of lignite from the Belchatow mine in Poland were investigated. The attempts to clarify the influence of the divergent properties of the investigated samples on the drying kinetics in superheated steam were presented in this paper.

  19. Geologic and geochemical insights into the formation of the Taiyangshan porphyry copper–molybdenum deposit, Western Qinling Orogenic Belt, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun-Feng Qiu,; Taylor, Ryan D.; Yao-Hui Song,; Hao-Cheng Yu,; Kai-Rui Song,; Nan Li,

    2016-01-01

    Taiyangshan is a poorly studied copper–molybdenum deposit located in the Triassic Western Qinling collisional belt of northwest China. The intrusions exposed in the vicinity of the Taiyangshan deposit record episodic magmatism over 20–30 million years. Pre-mineralization quartz diorite porphyries, which host some of the deposit, were emplaced at 226.6 ± 6.2 Ma. Syn-collisional monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries, which also host mineralization, were emplaced at 218.0 ± 6.1 Ma and 215.0 ± 5.8 Ma, respectively. Mineralization occurred during the transition from a syn-collisional to a post-collisional setting at ca. 208 Ma. A barren post-mineralization granite porphyry marked the end of post-collisional magmatism at 200.7 ± 5.1 Ma. The ore-bearing monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries have a εHf(t) range from − 2.0 to + 12.5, which is much more variable than that of the slightly older quartz diorite porphyries, with TDM2 of 1.15–1.23 Ga corresponding to the positive εHf(t) values and TDM1 of 0.62–0.90 Ga corresponding to the negative εHf(t) values. Molybdenite in the Taiyangshan deposit with 27.70 to 38.43 ppm Re suggests metal sourced from a mantle–crust mixture or from mafic and ultramafic rocks in the lower crust. The δ34S values obtained for pyrite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite from the deposit range from + 1.3‰ to + 4.0‰, + 0.2‰ to + 1.1‰, and + 5.3‰ to + 5.9‰, respectively, suggesting a magmatic source for the sulfur. Calculated δ18Ofluid values for magmatic K-feldspar from porphyries (+ 13.3‰), hydrothermal K-feldspar from stockwork veins related to potassic alteration (+ 11.6‰), and hydrothermal sericite from quartz–pyrite veins (+ 8.6 to + 10.6‰) indicate the Taiyangshan deposit formed dominantly from magmatic water. Hydrogen isotope values for hydrothermal sericite ranging from − 85 to − 50‰ may indicate that magma degassing progressively depleted residual liquid in

  20. Geology of proximal, small-volume trachyte-trachyandesite pyroclastic flows and associated surge deposits, Roccamonfina volcano, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetti, Bernardino

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the 232 ka B.P. MTTT trachyte-trachyandesite pyroclastic succession of Roccamonfina volcano. This small-volume, proximal sequence crops out along Mulino di Sotto, Paratone, and Pisciariello ravines in the southwest sector of the central caldera, and covers a minimum extent of 3.5 km 2 area. It is made up of seven pyroclastic flows and pyroclastic surge units consisting of trachytic ash matrix containing juvenile trachyandesitic scoria and dense lava fragments, pumice clasts of uncertain trachyandesite, and a foreign trachyandesitic lithic facies. Two stratigraphic markers allow correlation of the units. No paleosoils and Plinian fallout have been observed at the base and within the succession. Some lateral grading of scoria and lithic clasts suggests that MTTT derived from three distinct source vents. The sequence consists of a basal ash flow passing laterally to laminated surge deposits (Unit A). This is overlain by a reversely graded scoria and pumice lapilli flow (Unit B) which is in turn overlain by a thinly cross-stratified scoria lapilli surge (Unit C). Unit C is capped by a prominent ash-and-scoria flow (Unit D). A ground layer (Marker MK1) divides Unit D from a massive ignimbrite which grades upcurrent to sand-wave surge deposits (Unit E). Another ground layer (Marker MK2) separates Unit E from Unit F. This unit consists of a basal ignimbrite passing laterally to bedded surge deposits with convolute structures (subunit Fl), and grading upcurrent to a subhorizontally plane-laminated ash cloud (subunit F2) containing near the top a layer of millimetric lithic clasts embedded in fine ash. The succession is closed by the pyroclastic flow Unit G. Surge Unit C can be interpreted in terms of vertical gradients in turbulence, particle concentration, and velocity during flowage, whereas the bedded surge parts present in the massive deposits of Units A and E-F1 can be related to abrupt changes of velocity down the steep slopes of ravines. Reverse

  1. The geology, geochemistry and structure of two scheelite deposits in the Vioolsdrif-Goodhouse area NW Cape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, M.

    1984-02-01

    Two scheelite deposits in the Vioolsdrif-Goodhouse area were investigated by means of diamond drilling in order to furnish information on the nature, origin and extent of the mineralisation. The sheelite mineralisation prospect is contained within two types of veins, viz lenticular quartz veins in a steeply dipping shear zone, and a parallel series of low angle quartz feldspar tension veins. Regional compressive or shear stresses acting on rocks of different mechanical properties are believed to have led to the development of this mineralised fracture pattern. Scheelite mineralisation occurs in a series of parallel fracture zones characterised by heavily tourmalinised veins and breccias. Although inconclusive it is believed that the tourmaline veins and breccias result from the infilling of structures produced by combined tectonic and hydrothermal explosive effects. The tectonic fracture control to mineralisation appears to be related to major fault movement. A wall-rock alteration study carried out on both scheelite deposits revealed that propylitic alteration, spatially and probably temporally related to mineralisation appears to have played an important role in chemically controlling scheelite mineralisation. The alteration of favourable host rocks released calcium and made it available to tungsten-bearing complexes in the hydrothermal solutions which thus induced the precipitation of scheelite

  2. Geochronology and geochemistry of the Badaguan porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in Derbugan metallogenic belt of the NE China, and their geological significances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bingyu; Zhang, Lianchang; Jin, Xindi; Li, Wenjun; Chen, Zhiguang; Zhu, Mingtian

    2016-03-01

    The Badaguan porphyry Cu-Mo deposit belongs to the Derbugan metallogenic belt, which is located in the Ergun block, NE China. In the mining area, the Cu-Mo mineralization mainly occurs in quartz diorite porphyry and is hosted within silicified-sericitized and sericite alteration zone. Geochemical results of the host porphyry is characterized by high SiO2, high Al2O3, low MgO, weak positive Eu anomalies and clearly HREE depletion, high Sr, low Y and low Yb, similar to those of adakite. The Sr-Nd isotopic composition of the host porphyry displays an initial (87Sr/86Sr)i ratio of 0.7036-0.7055 and positive Nd( t) values of +0.1 to +0.6, which are similar to the OIB, reflecting the source of the host porphyry may derive from subducted ocean slab, and the new lower crust also had some contribution to the magma sources. The SIMS zircon U-Pb age from the host porphyry is 229 ± 2 Ma. The Re-Os isochron age for the molybdenite in the deposit is 225 ± 2 Ma closed to zircon U-Pb age of the host porphyry, indicating that Cu-Mo mineralization event occurred in Triassic. Combining the geology-geochemistry of the host porphyry and the regional tectonic evolution, we infer that the subduction processes of Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic slab under the Ergun block led to the formation of the Badaguan porphyry Cu-Mo deposit during the Triassic.

  3. Geology and hydrothermal alteration at the Madh adh Dhahab epithermal precious-metal deposit, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebrich, J.L.; LeAnderson, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Mahd adh Dhahab is a late Precambrian epithermal gold-silver-base metal deposit located in the west-central part of the Arabian Shield. North-trending quartz veins containing base and precious metals cut an east-striking, north-dipping homoclinal sequence of volcanic, volcaniclastic, and epiclastic rocks of intermediate to felsic composition. Ore was localized where the veins cut competent, coarse-grained, fragmental units directly below incompetent and impermeable tuff units. The proximity of an epizonal rhyolite porphyry stock to these contacts also was important in localizing ore. Ore minerals include native gold and silver, gold-silver tellurides, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and minor galena, and five stages of mineralization have been identified.

  4. New geologic, fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies on the controversial Igarapé Bahia Cu-Au deposit, Carajás Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Ana M.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Taylor, Bruce E.; Martini, Sérgio L.

    2008-02-01

    contribution of reduced and oxydized sulfur is also evident. Oxygen isotopic ratios in magnetite, quartz, and siderite yield calculated temperatures of ˜400°C and δ18O-enriched compositions (5 to 16.5 per mil) for the ore-forming fluids that suggest a magmatic input and/or an interaction with 18O-rich, probably sedimentary rocks. The late veins of the Igarapé Bahia deposit area were formed from saline aqueous fluids (2 to 60 wt% NaCl + CaCl2 equiv) with δ18Ofluid compositions around 0 per mil that indicate contribution from meteoric fluids. With respect to geological features, Igarapé Bahia bears similarity with syngenetic, volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS)-type deposits, as indicated by the volcano-sedimentary geological context, stratabound character, and association with submarine volcanic flows, hyaloclastite, and exhalative beds such as BIF and chert. On the other hand, the highly saline ore fluids and the mineral assemblage, dominated by magnetite and chalcopyrite, with associated gold, U- and LREE-minerals and scarce pyrite, indicate that Igarapé Bahia belongs to the Fe oxide Cu-Au (IOCG) group of deposits. The available geochronologic data used to attest syngenetic or epigenetic origins for the mineralization are either imprecise or may not represent the main mineralization episode but a later, superimposed event. The C, S, and O isotopic results obtained in this study do not clearly discriminate between fluid sources. However, recent B isotope data obtained on tourmaline from the matrix of the fragmental rock ore unit (Xavier, Wiedenbeck, Dreher, Rhede, Monteiro, Araújo, Chemical and boron isotopic composition of tourmaline from Archean and Paleoproterozoic Cu-Au deposits in the Carajás Mineral Province, 1° Simpósio Brasileiro de Metalogenia, Gramado, Brazil, extended abstracts, CD-ROM, 2005) provide strong evidence of the involvement of a marine evaporitic source in the hydrothermal system of Igarapé Bahia. Evaporite-derived fluids may explain the

  5. Geologic setting and genesis of the Mule Canyon low-sulfidation epithermal gold-silver deposit, north-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, D.A.; Hofstra, A.H.; Fleck, R.J.; Brummer, J.E.; Saderholm, E.C.

    2003-01-01

    The Mule Canyon mine exploited shallow, low-sulfidation, epithermal Au-Ag deposits that lie near the west side of the Northern Nevada rift in northern Lander County, Nevada. Mule Canyon consists of six small deposits that contained premining reserves of about 8.2 Mt at an average grade of 3.81 g Au/tonne. It is an uncommon mafic end member of low-sulfidation Au-Ag deposits associated with tholeiitic bimodal basalt-rhyolite magmatism. The ore is hosted by a basalt-andesite eruptive center that formed between about 16.4 to 15.8 Ma during early mafic eruptions related to regionally extensive bimodal magmatism. Hydrothermal alteration and Au-Ag ores formed at about 15.6 Ma and were tightly controlled by north-northwest- to north-striking high-angle fault and breccia zones developed during rifting, emplacement of mafic dikes, and eruption of mafic lava flows. Hydrothermal alteration assemblages are zoned outward from fluid conduits in the sequence silica-adularia, adularia-smectite, smectite (intermediate argillic), and smectite-carbonate (propylitic). All alteration types contain abundant pyrite and/or marcasite ?? arsenopyrite. Field relations indicate that silica-adularia alteration is superimposed on argillic and propylitic alteration. Little or no steam-heated acid-sulfate alteration is present, probably the result of a near-surface water table during hydrothermal alteration and ore deposition. Two distinct ore types are present at Mule Canyon: early replacement and later open-space filling. Replacement ores consist of disseminated and vesicle-filling pyrite, marcasite, and arsenopyrite in argillically altered or weakly silicified rocks. Ore minerals consist of Au-bearing arsenopyrite and arsenian pyrite overgrowths on earlier-formed pyrite and marcasite. Open-space filling ores include narrow stockwork quartz-adularia veins, banded and crustiform opaline and chalcedonic silica-adularia veins, silica-adularia cemented breccias, and sparse carbonate-pyrite and

  6. Joint simulation of stationary grade and non-stationary rock type for quantifying geological uncertainty in a copper deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Mohammad; Emery, Xavier

    2017-12-01

    In mineral resources evaluation, the joint simulation of a quantitative variable, such as a metal grade, and a categorical variable, such as a rock type, is challenging when one wants to reproduce spatial trends of the rock type domains, a feature that makes a stationarity assumption questionable. To address this problem, this work presents methodological and practical proposals for jointly simulating a grade and a rock type, when the former is represented by the transform of a stationary Gaussian random field and the latter is obtained by truncating an intrinsic random field of order k with Gaussian generalized increments. The proposals concern both the inference of the model parameters and the construction of realizations conditioned to existing data. The main difficulty is the identification of the spatial correlation structure, for which a semi-automated algorithm is designed, based on a least squares fitting of the data-to-data indicator covariances and grade-indicator cross-covariances. The proposed models and algorithms are applied to jointly simulate the copper grade and the rock type in a Chilean porphyry copper deposit. The results show their ability to reproduce the gradual transitions of the grade when crossing a rock type boundary, as well as the spatial zonation of the rock type.

  7. Geology and mineral deposits of an area in the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas (Subzone IIB), Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feininger, Tomas; Barrero L., Dario; Castro, Nestor; Hall, R.B.

    1973-01-01

    The Inventario Minero National (IMN), a four-year cooperative geologic mapping and mineral resources appraisal project, was accomplished under an agreement between the Republic of Colombia and the U. S. Agency for International Development from 1964 through 1969. Subzone IIB, consisting essentially of the east half of Zone comprises nearly 20,000 km2 principally in the Department of Antioquia but including also small parts of the Departments of Caldas and Tolima. The rocks in IIB range from Precambrian to Holocene. Precambrian feldspar-quartz gneiss occupies a mosaic of fault-bounded blocks intruded by igneous rocks between the Oto fault and the Rio Magdalena. Paleozoic rocks are extensive, and include lightly metamorphosed graptolite-bearing Ordovician shale at Cristalina, and a major suite of graphitic quartz-mica schist, feldspathic and aluminous gneiss, quartzite, marble, amphibolite, and other rocks. Syntectonic intrusive gneiss included many of the older rocks during a late Paleozoic(?) orogeny, which was accompanied by Abukuma-type metamorphosing from lowermost greenschist to upper amphibolite facies. A Jurassic diorite pluton bounded by faults cuts volcanic rocks of unknown age east of the Otu fault. Cretaceous rocks are major units. Middle Cretaceous carbonaceous shale, sandstone, graywacke, conglomerate, and volcanic rocks are locally prominent. The Antioquian batholith (quartz diorite) of Late Cretaceous age cuts the middle Cretaceous and older rocks. A belt of Tertiary nonmarine clastic sedimentary rocks crops out along the Magdalena Valley. Patches of Tertiary alluvium are locally preserved in the mountains. Quaternary alluvium, much of it auriferous, is widespread in modern stream valleys. Structurally IIB constitutes part of a vast complex synclinorium intruded concordantly by syntectonic catazonal or mesozonal felsic plutons, and by the later epizonal post-tectonic Antioquian batholith. Previously unrecognized major wrench faults are outstanding

  8. Compiling Data from Geological, Mineralogical and Geophysical (IP/RS Studies on Mahour Deposit, Northwest of Deh-salm, Lut Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Gorabjeiri Puor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Mahour exploration area is a polymetallic system containing copper, zinc and silver. The mineralization can be seen in two forms of veins and disseminations. This area is structurally within the Lut block, west of Deh-salm Village. Recent exploration work and studies carried out by geologists on this volcanic-plutonic area of Lut demonstate its importance indicating new reserves of copper, gold, and lead and zinc. Several articles have been published on the Mahour deposit in recent years, including work on fluid inclusions (Mirzaei et al., 2012a; Mirzaei et al., 2012b. The present report aims at completion of previous studies on Mahour. During the course of this research, the IP/RS geophysical methods were used to locate the extent and depth of sulfide veins in order to locate drill sites. The IP/RS method has been used extensively worldwide in locating sulfide mineralization at deposits such as Olympic Dam in Australia (Esdale et al., 1987, Hishikari epithermal gold deposit in Kagoshima, Japan (Okada, 1995 and Cadia-Ridgeway copper and gold deposit in New South Wales, Australia (Rutley et al., 2001. Materials and Methods 1. Determination of mineralogy of ore and alteration by examination of 70 thin sections and 45 polished sections. 2. Compilation of geological and mineralization maps of the studied area at a scale of 1:1000. 3. Geological, alteration, mineralization and trace element geochemical studies of 6 drill holes. 4. IP/RS measurements for 2585 points on a rectangular grid with profile intervals of 50 meters and electrode intervals of 20 meters. 5. Interpretation of IP/RS results. Discussion The Mahour area is covered by a volcanic sequence of basalt, andesite, dacite, rhyolite and pyro-clastics. During the Late Eocene through Early Oligocene this volcanic complex was intruded by several diorite and quartz-diorite bodies, which were responsible for mineralization of the area. Mineralized veins hosted by dacite show NNE

  9. Geologic setting, sedimentary architecture, and paragenesis of the Mesoproterozoic sediment-hosted Sheep Creek Cu-Co-Ag deposit, Helena embayment, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Garth; Hitzman, Murray W.; Zieg, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    The northern margin of the Helena Embayment contains extensive syngenetic to diagenetic massive pyrite horizons that extend over 25 km along the Volcano Valley-Buttress fault zone and extend up to 8 km basinward (south) within the Mesoproterozoic Newland Formation. The Sheep Creek Cu-Co deposit occurs within a structural block along a bend in the fault system, where replacement-style chalcopyrite mineralization is spatially associated mostly with the two stratigraphically lowest massive pyrite zones. These mineralized pyritic horizons are intercalated with debris flows derived from synsedimentary movement along the Volcano Valley-Buttress fault zone. Cominco American Inc. delineated a geologic resource of 4.5 Mt at 2.5% Cu and 0.1% Co in the upper sulfide zone and 4 Mt at 4% Cu within the lower sulfide zone. More recently, Tintina Resources Inc. has delineated an inferred resource of 8.48 Mt at 2.96% Cu, 0.12% Co, and 16.4 g/t Ag in the upper sulfide zone. The more intact upper sulfide zone displays significant thickness variations along strike thought to represent formation in at least three separate subbasins. The largest accumulation of mineralized sulfide in the upper zone occurs as an N-S–trending body that thickens southward from the generally E trending Volcano Valley Fault and probably occupies a paleograben controlled by normal faults in the hanging wall of the Volcano Valley Fault. Early microcrystalline to framboidal pyrite was accompanied by abundant and local barite deposition in the upper and lower sulfide zones, respectively. The sulfide bodies underwent intense (lower sulfide zone) to localized (upper sulfide zone) recrystallization and overprinting by coarser-grained pyrite and minor marcasite that is intergrown with and replaces dolomite. Silicification and paragenetically late chalcopyrite, along with minor tennantite in the upper sulfide zone, replaces fine-grained pyrite, barite, and carbonate. The restriction of chalcopyrite to inferred

  10. National uranium resource evaluation. Geology and recognition criteria for sandstone uranium deposits of the salt wash type, Colorado Plateau Province. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamm, J.K.; Kovschak, A.A. Jr.; Adams, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The uranium-vanadium deposits of the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation in the Colorado Plateau are similar to sandstone uranium deposits elsewhere in the USA. The differences between Salt Wash deposits and other sandstone uranium deposits are also significant. The Salt Wash deposits are unique among sandstone deposits in that they are dominantly vanadium deposits with accessory uranium. The Salt Wash ores generally occur entirely within reduced sandstone, without adjacent tongues of oxidized sandstone. They are more like the deposits of Grants, which similarly occur in reduced sandstones. Recent studies of the Grants deposits have identified alteration assemblages which are asymmetrically distributed about the deposits and provide a basis for a genetic model for those deposits. The alteration types recognized by Shawe in the Slick Rock district may provide similar constraints on ore formation when expanded to broader areas and more complete chemical analyses

  11. Core evidence of paleoseismic events in Paleogene deposits of the Shulu Sag in the Bohai Bay Basin, east China, and their petroleum geologic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lijing; Jiang, Zaixing; Liu, Hui; Kong, Xiangxin; Li, Haipeng; Jiang, Xiaolong

    2015-10-01

    The Shulu Sag, located in the southwestern corner of the Jizhong Depression, Bohai Bay Basin of east China, is a NE-SW trending, elongate Cenozoic half-graben basin. The lowermost part of the third member of the Shahejie Formation in this basin is characterized by continental rudstone and calcilutite to calcisiltite facies. Based on core observation and regional geologic analysis, seismites are recognized in these lacustrine deposits, which include soft-sediment deformation structures (sedimentary dikes, hydraulic shattering, diapir structures, convolute lamination, load-flame structures, ball-and-pillow structures, loop bedding, and subsidence structures), synsedimentary faults, and seismoturbidites. In addition, mixed-source rudstones, consisting of the Paleozoic carbonate clasts and in situ calcilutite clasts in the lowermost submember of Shahejie 3, appear in the seismites, suggesting an earthquake origin. A complete representative vertical sequence in the lowermost part of the third member found in well ST1H located in the central part of the Shulu Sag shows, from the base to the top: underlying undeformed layers, synsedimentary faults, liquefied carbonate rocks, allogenetic seismoturbidites, and overlying undeformed layers. Seismites are widely distributed around this well and there are multiple sets of stacked seismites separated by undeformed sediment. The nearby NW-trending Taijiazhuang fault whose fault growth index is from 1.1 to 1.8 and the NNE-trending Xinhe fault with a fault growth index of 1.3-1.9 may be the source of the instability to create the seismites. These deformed sedimentary layers are favorable for the accumulation of oil and gas; for example, sedimentary dikes can cut through many layers and serve as conduits for fluid migration. Sedimentary faults and fractures induced by earthquakes can act as oil and gas migration channels or store petroleum products as well. Seismoturbidites and mixed-source rudstones are excellent reservoirs due to

  12. Geologic map of the Zarkashan-Anguri copper and gold deposits, Ghazni Province, Afghanistan, modified from the 1968 original map compilation of E.P. Meshcheryakov and V.P. Sayapin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen G.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This map is a modified version of Geological map of the area of Zarkashan-Anguri gold deposits, scale 1:50,000, which was compiled by E.P. Meshcheryakov and V.P. Sayapin in 1968. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Afghan Geological Survey and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations of the U.S. Department of Defense, studied the original document and related reports and also visited the field area in April 2010. This modified map, which includes a cross section, illustrates the geologic setting of the Zarkashan-Anguri copper and gold deposits. The map reproduces the topology (contacts, faults, and so forth) of the original Soviet map and cross section and includes modifications based on our examination of that and other documents, and based on observations made and sampling undertaken during our field visit. (Refer to the Introduction and the References in the Map PDF for an explanation of our methodology and for complete citations of the original map and related reports.) Elevations on the cross section are derived from the original Soviet topography and may not match the newer topography used on the current map.

  13. The Main Features of the Geological Modeling Process of a Shallow Deposit of Super-Viscous Oil in Aspect of Development Strategy Planning with the Use of Steam‑Assisted Gravity Drainage Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Novikova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of minerals, limited reserves of conventional hydrocarbon raw materials indicates the need to involve in the fuel and energy complex of other sources of hydrocarbons. Fields of super-viscous oil are one of the sources. This article is devoted to the study of sediments of the Permian sedimentary complex containing super-viscous oil deposits. The geological structure of the Lower Kazanian and Ufimian deposits is considered. A characteristic of the Sheshmian sandstone pack is given. The analysis of the set of geophysical studies is presented. Modeling of a shallow super-viscous oil deposit based on the lithologic-technological types of the productive formation was carried out, based on the results of drilling, core material and logging. The features of constructing the structural framework of a three-dimensional grid, and a lithological-technological model are highlighted. The distribution of porosity, permeability and oil saturation is described.

  14. Advances in planetary geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed

  15. Introduction to ore geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This textbook on ore geology is for second and third year undergraduates and closely parallels the undergraduate course given in this subject at England's University of Leicester. The volume covers three major areas: (1) principles of ore geology, (2) examples of the most important types of ore deposits, and (3) mineralization in space and time. Many chapters have been thoroughly revised for this edition and a chapter on diamonds has been added. Chapters on greisen and pegmatite have also been added, the former in response to the changing situation in tin mining following the recent tin crisis, and the latter in response to suggestions from geologists in a number of overseas countries. Some chapters have been considerably expanded and new sections added, including disseminated gold deposits and unconformity-associated uranium deposits. The author also expands on the importance of viewing mineral deposits from an economic standpoint

  16. A practical application of the geological and mining characterization method to the “Rosa Porriño” deposit (Galicia, Spain). Quality cartography and estimation of the distribution of reserves for mining exploitation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero Arias, A.; Taboada Castro, J.; Iglesias Comesaña, C.; Baltuille Martín, J.M.; Giráldez Pérez, E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the “Rosa Porriño” granite, which is known worldwide and has been marketed for more than 50 years, through the application of geologic-mining techniques. These techniques are widely used for analysing rock masses with the aim of commercially exploiting them. The basis is the general criteria for the characterization of geological and mining parameters: the lithologies present and their distribution, types and location of fractures, the industrial quality of the rock and the location of the exploitable rock volumes, previous activity, planning possibilities and rationalization of the exploitation, to name a few. This geological and mining information was used to make a map of the industrial qualities, forming the basis for the estimation of reserves and their distribution within the deposit. The application of geostatistical techniques allowed the definition of the three dimensions and thus the existing volumes corresponding to each industrial quality (defined in the geological-mining cartography). Four different qualities were defined and their volumes estimated, namely first and second qualities for granite suitable for its use as ornamental stone or other applications of high added value; third quality for the granite suitable for its use as a construction material (generally of smaller volume than the previous qualities) and the fourth quality for the granite for aggregates. The overburden zones were determined as well. Once the reserves of the qualities and their spatial distribution within the deposit are known, different alternatives for a rational exploitation can be considered for the existing operating units. This modelling enables a more effective and efficient mining operation, with controlled, lower environmental impact and thus with a more sustainable exploitation of the mining resources. [es

  17. Tsunami geology in paleoseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuichi Nishimura,; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku-oki disasters dramatically demonstrated the destructiveness and deadliness of tsunamis. For the assessment of future risk posed by tsunamis it is necessary to understand past tsunami events. Recent work on tsunami deposits has provided new information on paleotsunami events, including their recurrence interval and the size of the tsunamis (e.g. [187–189]). Tsunamis are observed not only on the margin of oceans but also in lakes. The majority of tsunamis are generated by earthquakes, but other events that displace water such as landslides and volcanic eruptions can also generate tsunamis. These non-earthquake tsunamis occur less frequently than earthquake tsunamis; it is, therefore, very important to find and study geologic evidence for past eruption and submarine landslide triggered tsunami events, as their rare occurrence may lead to risks being underestimated. Geologic investigations of tsunamis have historically relied on earthquake geology. Geophysicists estimate the parameters of vertical coseismic displacement that tsunami modelers use as a tsunami's initial condition. The modelers then let the simulated tsunami run ashore. This approach suffers from the relationship between the earthquake and seafloor displacement, the pertinent parameter in tsunami generation, being equivocal. In recent years, geologic investigations of tsunamis have added sedimentology and micropaleontology, which focus on identifying and interpreting depositional and erosional features of tsunamis. For example, coastal sediment may contain deposits that provide important information on past tsunami events [190, 191]. In some cases, a tsunami is recorded by a single sand layer. Elsewhere, tsunami deposits can consist of complex layers of mud, sand, and boulders, containing abundant stratigraphic evidence for sediment reworking and redeposition. These onshore sediments are geologic evidence for tsunamis and are called ‘tsunami deposits’ (Figs. 26

  18. An review on geology study of carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposit in China and the strategy for its development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Fengmin

    2009-01-01

    Carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposit was founded by Chinese uranium geologist, it refers to the uranium deposit hosted by non or light metamophosed carbonate,siliceous rock, pelitic rock and their intermediates. It is one of the important types uranium deposit in China. A lot of this type deposits have been discovered in China and their temporal-spatial distribution pattern and mineralization features have been basically identified, and the rich experience have layed a good foundation for the future exploration. Although the ore of this type is not favourable economically, it is still available. Because carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposit has great resource potential, metallogenic study and exploration efforts should be projected differentially according to their economic profit so as to meet the uranium resource demand of nuclear power development in China. (authors)

  19. Geocongress 84: 20. Geological congress of the Geological Society of South Africa. Abstracts: Pt. 1. General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Various aspects of the geology, geochemistry and geophysics of the geologic deposits in South Africa are dealt with. Uranium and thorium resources are included in this. There are also chapters on stratigraphy, petrology and petrochemistry

  20. Zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os geochronology and geological significance of the Baoshan porphyry Cu polymetallic deposit in Jiangxi province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Liqiong; Wang, Liang

    2017-10-01

    Baoshan porphyry Cu polymetallic deposit belongs to Jiujiang-Ruichang Cu-Au ore field, which is a component part of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Cu-Au metallogenic belt. The U-Pb LA-MC-TCP MS dating of the zircons from Baoshan granodiorite porphyry yields an age of 147.81±0.48Ma (MSWD=1.07). Six molybdenite samples separated from Baoshan deposit are used for Re-Os dating and obtained the weighted average age of 147.42±0.84Ma and an isochron age of 147.7±1.2Ma. These ages suggest that the mineralization in the Baoshan deposit is genetically associated to the granodiorite porphyry, and the process of rock-and ore-forming is continuous. These data indicate that ages of intrusion and ore-body from Baoshan deposit are almost identical to other typical magmatic intrusion and deposits in Jiujiang-Ruichang metallogenic district. Tt is inferred that the Baoshan deposit was formed in the transition from EW-striking Tndosinian tectonic domain to NE-striking Paleo-Pacific tectonic domain.

  1. Re–Os geochronology of Cu and W–Mo deposits in the Balkhash metallogenic belt, Kazakhstan and its geological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanhua Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Central Asian metallogenic domain (CAMD is a multi-core metallogenic system controlled by boundary strike-slip fault systems. The Balkhash metallogenic belt in Kazakhstan, in which occur many large and super-large porphyritic Cu–Mo deposits and some quartz vein- and greisen-type W–Mo deposits, is a well-known porphyritic Cu–Mo metallogenic belt in the CAMD. In this paper 11 molybdenite samples from the western segment of the Balkhash metallogenic belt are selected for Re–Os compositional analyses and Re–Os isotopic dating. Molybdenites from the Borly porphyry Cu deposit and the three quartz vein-greisen W–Mo deposits—East Kounrad, Akshatau and Zhanet—all have relatively high Re contents (2712–2772 μg/g for Borly and 2.267–31.50 μg/g for the other three W–Mo deposits, and lower common Os contents (0.670–2.696 ng/g for Borly and 0.0051–0.056 ng/g for the other three. The molybdenites from the Borly porphyry Cu–Mo deposit and the East Kounrad, Zhanet, and Akshatau quartz vein- and greisen-type W–Mo deposits give average model Re–Os ages of 315.9 Ma, 298.0 Ma, 295.0 Ma, and 289.3 Ma respectively. Meanwhile, molybdenites from the East Kounrad, Zhanet, and Akshatau W–Mo deposits give a Re–Os isochron age of 297.9 Ma, with an MSWD value of 0.97. Re–Os dating of the molybdenites indicates that Cu–W–Mo metallogenesis in the western Balkhash metallogenic belt occurred during Late Carboniferous to Early Permian (315.9–289.3 Ma, while the porphyry Cu–Mo deposits formed at ∼316 Ma, and the quartz vein-greisen W–Mo deposits formed at ∼298 Ma. The Re–Os model and isochron ages thus suggest that Late Carboniferous porphyry granitoid and pegmatite magmatism took place during the late Hercynian movement. Compared to the Junggar-East Tianshan porphyry Cu metallogenic belt in northwestern China, the formation of the Cu–Mo metallogenesis in the Balkhash metallogenic belt occurred between that of

  2. Geologic map of metallic and nonmetallic mineral deposits, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan, modified from the 1967 original map compilation of G.G. Semenov and others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen G.; Stettner, Will R.; Mathieux, Donald P.; Masonic, Linda M.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    This geologic map of central Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan, is a combined, redrafted, and modified version of the Geological map of central Badakhshan, scale 1:200,000 (sheet 217), and Map of minerals of central Badakhshan, scale 1:200,000 (also sheet 217) from Semenov and others (1967) (Soviet report no. R0815). That unpublished Soviet report contains the original maps and cross sections, which were prepared in cooperation with the Ministry of Mines and Industries of the Republic of Afghanistan in 1967 under contract no. 1378 (Technoexport, USSR). This USGS publication also includes the gold metallogeny summarized in Abdullah and others (1977) and Peters and others (2007, 2011), and additional compilations from Guguev and others (1967).

  3. Preliminary report on the geology of uranium deposits in the Browns Park Formation in Moffat County, Colorado, and Carbon County, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormond, A.

    1957-06-01

    Uranium was first discovered in the Browns Park Formation in 1951 in the Miller Hill area of south-central Wyoming. Since that time economically important deposits in this formation have been discovered and developed in the Poison Basin of south-central Wyoming and in the Maybell area of northwest Colorado. The Browns Park is the youngest formation (Miocene) in the region and overlies older rocks with angular unconformity. The formation consists of a basal conglomerate, fluviatile, lacustrine, and eolian sandstones, and locally a few thin beds of clay, tuff, and algal limestone. The sandstones are predominantly fine- to medium-grained and consist of quartz grains, scattered black chert grains, and interstitial clay. The uranium deposits are of the sandstone-impregnation type and are not confined to specific stratigraphic horizons. The important ore minerals are autunite and uranophane in oxidized sandstones, and uraninite and coffinite in unoxidized sandstones. Uranium is often associated with limonite and calcium carbonate in concretionary forms. Woody material, thought to play an important part in the deposition of uranium in many sandstone-type deposits, is not present in the deposits of the Browns Park Formation. However, organic carbon in the form of petroleum and petroleum residues has been observed in association with uranium in both the Poison Basin and the Maybell areas

  4. Geology and climatic indicators in the Westphalian A New Glasgow formation, Nova Scotia, Canada: implications for the genesis of coal and of sandstone-hosted lead deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, F.W. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-03-01

    Disagreement exists on whether the early Pennsylvanian climate of the Euramerican coal province was everwet or seasonal. Abundant paleopedological evidence, including calcrete-bearing vertisols, shows that during formation of Westphalian C to Stephanian coals in Nova Scotia, the climate was tropical and seasonal with a pronounced by dry season; but interpretation of Westphalian A-B coal-bearing sequences lacks this form of evidence. Development of calcrete-bearing vertisols in alluvial fan deposits of the Westphalian A New Glasgow formation indicate that a tropical climate with a pronounced dry season was already in force by early Westphalian time. During the dry season, the coal swamps of the early Westphalian Joggins and Springhill Mines formations were fed by groundwater from coeval alluvial fan deposits of the Polly Brook Formation at the basin margin. Sedimentological evidence indicates that, similarly, groundwater flowed northward from the toe of the New Glasgow alluvial fan, but correlative palustrine sediments have not been found on land in the New Glasgow area. The possibility remains of an early Westphalian coalfield associated with the New Glasgow formation to the north under the Northumberland Strait and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Formation of the Yava sandstone-hosted lead deposit in the fluvial Silver Mine Formation of Cape Breton Island, a stratigraphic equivalent of the Cumberland Basin coal swamps, indicates that such deposits can form in fluvial strata deposited under a tropical seasonal climate with a pronounced dry season.

  5. Canadian geologic isolation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyne, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Canadian geologic isolation program is directed at examining the potential of (1) salt deposits and (2) hard rock as repositories for radioactive wastes. It was felt essential from the inception that alternative host rocks be evaluated over a fairly large geographical area. The studies on salt deposits to date are based on existing geological information and have identified the areas that show some potential and merit further study. The factors considered include depth, thickness and purity of the deposit, overlying aquifers, and the potential for gas and oil exploration as well as potash recovery. The studies on hard rock are restricted to plutonic igneous rocks in the Ontario part of the Canadian Shield. Because geological information on their nature and extent is sparse, the study is limited to bodies that are well exposed and for which information is available.for which information is available. Field studies in the next two seasons are aimed at mapping the fault and joint patterns and defining the geologic controls on their development. In 1977 and 1978, two or three of the more favorable sites will be mapped in greater detail, and an exploratory drilling program will be established to determine the extent of fracturing at depth and the hydrology of these fractures. Conceptual designs of mined repositories in hard rock are also being made with the hope of identifying, at an early stage in this program, special problems in hard-rock repositories that may require development and study

  6. Geologic data on atmospheric history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.G.

    1966-01-01

    Attention is focussed on the possible existence of an anoxygenic, primeval atmosphere and on the history of atmospheric O2 and CO2. For this purpose, geologic data can be divided into those on fossil remains, on biogenic deposits formed by early life, on “chemicofossils”, and on deposits formed

  7. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed

  8. Regional framework and geology of iron oxide-apatite-rare earth element and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Mesoproterozoic St. Francois Mountains Terrane, southeast Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; Slack, John F.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Seeger, Cheryl M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on the genesis of Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks and associated iron oxide ± apatite (IOA) ± rare earth element, iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG), and iron-rich sedimentary deposits in the St. Francois Mountains terrane of southeast Missouri, USA. The St. Francois Mountains terrane lies along the southeastern margin of Laurentia as part of the eastern granite-rhyolite province. The province formed during two major pulses of igneous activity: (1) an older early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.50–1.44 Ga) episode of volcanism and granite plutonism, and (2) a younger middle Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.33–1.30 Ga) episode of bimodal gabbro and granite plutonism. The volcanic rocks are predominantly high-silica rhyolite pyroclastic flows, volcanogenic breccias, and associated volcanogenic sediments with lesser amounts of basaltic to andesitic volcanic and associated subvolcanic intrusive rocks. The iron oxide deposits are all hosted in the early Mesoproterozoic volcanic and volcaniclastic sequences. Previous studies have characterized the St. Francois Mountains terrane as a classic, A-type within-plate granitic terrane. However, our new whole-rock geochemical data indicate that the felsic volcanic rocks are effusive derivatives from multicomponent source types, having compositional similarities to A-type within-plate granites as well as to S- and I-type granites generated in an arc setting. In addition, the volcanic-hosted IOA and IOCG deposits occur within bimodal volcanic sequences, some of which have volcanic arc geochemical affinities, suggesting an extensional tectonic setting during volcanism prior to emplacement of the ore-forming systems.The Missouri iron orebodies are magmatic-related hydrothermal deposits that, when considered in aggregate, display a vertical zonation from high-temperature, magmatic ± hydrothermal IOA deposits emplaced at moderate depths (~1–2 km), to magnetite-dominant IOA veins and IOCG deposits emplaced at shallow

  9. Contribution of geological and geophysical 3D models to the development of the polymetallic deposit of Draa Sfar (Hercinian Massif of Central Jebilets, Morocco); Apport du modele geologique et geophysique 3D dans le developpement du gisement polymetallique de Draa Sfar (Massif hercynien des Jebilet centrales, Maroc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rziki, S.; Alansari, A.; Mouguina, E. M.; Simard, J.; Zouhair, M.; Maacha, L.

    2012-11-01

    The compilation of geological and geophysical (magnetic and gravity) data and the development of the corresponding three-dimensional models have allowed the recognition of the deep mineralized structures, and helped the reopening of the mining after 23 years of inactivity. Geological resources were increased tenfold in three years to reach 10Mt at 5.39% Zn, 1.94% Pb and 0.34% Cu. This exploration methodology based on three-dimensional geological and geophysical models becomes increasingly used in mining exploration strategy after the improvement in the computing capacities of the modelling tools. The results from this study could be helpful for the development of mining massive sulphide deposits in the Jebilet province of Guemassa and by extension to other deposits with similar geological and metallogenic characteristics. (Author) 17 refs.

  10. Nature and origin of the nonsulfide zinc deposits in the Sierra Mojada District, Coahuila, Mexico: constraints from regional geology, petrography, and isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, J. Richard; Ahn, Hyein; Gilg, H. Albert

    2018-02-01

    The Sierra Mojada District comprises multiple types of near-surface mineral concentrations ranging from polymetallic sulfide zones, "nonsulfide Zn" (NSZ) deposits, and a silver-rich Pb carbonate deposit hosted by lower Cretaceous carbonate strata. Hypogene concentrations of Fe-Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag sulfides and sulfosalts are locally preserved and are associated with hydrothermal dolomite and silica. Alteration mineralogy and sulfur isotope data suggest primary Zn-Pb-Ag mineralization from circa 200 °C hydrothermal fluids. The NSZ deposits dominantly consist of smithsonite and hemimorphite associated with local Mn-Fe oxides. The Red Zinc Zone consists of strata-bound zones dominantly of hemimorphite that fills pores in residual and resedimented Fe oxides. The White Zinc Zone shows local dissolution features, including internal sediments interbanded with and cemented by smithsonite. Similar Pb isotopic compositions of smithsonite, hemimorphite, and cerussite to Sierra Mojada galena document that the NSZ deposits originated from polymetallic carbonate-replacement sulfide deposits, with flow of metal-bearing groundwater being controlled by local topography and structural features in this extensional terrane. Oxygen isotope values for Sierra Mojada smithsonite are relatively constant (δ18OVSMOW = 20.9 to 23.3‰) but are unusually low compared to other supergene smithsonites. Using δ18OVSMOW (- 8‰) of modern groundwater at nearby Cuatrociénegas, smithsonite formational temperatures are calculated to have been between 26 to 35 °C. Smithsonite precipitation was favored by near-neutral conditions typical of carbonate terranes, whereas hemimorphite precipitated by reaction with wallrock silica and locally, or episodically, more acidic conditions resulting from sulfide oxidation. Transition to, and stabilization of, the modern desert climate over the past 9000 years from the Late Pleistocene wetter, cooler climate of northern Mexico resulted in episodic drawdown of the water

  11. Ultra-deep oxidation and exotic copper formation at the late pliocene boyongan and bayugo porphyry copper-gold deposits, surigao, philippines: Geology, mineralogy, paleoaltimetry, and their implications for Geologic, physiographic, and tectonic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braxton, D.P.; Cooke, D.R.; Ignacio, A.M.; Rye, R.O.; Waters, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Boyongan and Bayugo porphyry copper-gold deposits are part of an emerging belt of intrusion-centered gold-rich deposits in the Surigao district of northeast Mindanao, Philippines. Exhumation and weathering of these Late Pliocene-age deposits has led to the development of the world's deepest known porphyry oxidation profile at Boyongan (600 m), and yet only a modest (30-70 m) oxidation profile at adjacent Bayugo. Debris flows, volcanic rocks, and fluviolacustrine sediments accumulating in the actively extending Mainit graben subsequently covered the deposits and preserved the supergene profiles. At Boyongan and Bayugo, there is a vertical transition from shallower supergene copper oxide minerals (malachite + azurite + cuprite) to deeper sulfide-stable assemblages (chalcocite ?? hypogene sulfides). This transition provides a time-integrated proxy for the position of the water table at the base of the saturated zone during supergene oxidation. Contours of the elevation of the paleopotentiometric surface based on this min- eralogical transition show that the thickest portions of the unsaturated zone coincided with a silt-sand matrix diatreme breccia complex at Boyongan. Within the breccia complex, the thickness of the unsaturated zone approached 600 in, whereas outside the breccia complex (e.g., at Bayugo), the thickness averaged 50 m. Contours of the paleopotentiometric surface suggest that during weathering, groundwater flowed into the breccia complex from the north, south, and east, and exited along a high permeability zone to the west. The high relief (>550 m) on the elevation of the paleopotentiometric surface is consistent with an environment of high topographic relief, and the outflow zone to the west of the breccia complex probably reflects proximity to a steep scarp intersecting the western breccia complex margin. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry has enabled estimation of the elevation of the land surface, which further constrains the physiographic setting

  12. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  13. Descriptive models of major uranium deposits in China - Some results of the Workshop on Uranium Resource Assessment sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, in cooperation with China National Nuclear Corporation, Beijing, and the U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado, and Reston, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, W.I.; Feng, S.; Zuyi, C.; McCammon, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Four major types of uranium deposits occur in China: granite, volcanic, sandstone, and carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock. These types are major sources of uranium in many parts of the world and account for about 95 percent of Chinese production. Descriptive models for each of these types record the diagnostic regional and local geologic features of the deposits that are important to genetic studies, exploration, and resource assessment. A fifth type of uranium deposit, metasomatite, is also modeled because of its high potential for production. These five types of uranium deposits occur irregularly in five tectonic provinces distributed from the northwest through central to southern China. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  14. Neural Networks Technique, Lithofacies Classifications and Analysis and Depositional Environment Interpretation for 3-D Reservoir Geological Modeling and Exploration Studies (X Example)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iloghalu, E.; Chin, A.; Ebong, U.

    2003-01-01

    The value of borehole geology in Petroleum Exploration and Production cannot be over-emphasized. Reservoir characterization in mature fields and indeed mature basins requires high-resolution and high precision tools to determine the Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the areas of interest. The aim of reservoir studies is usually to determine the heterogeneity and the internal architecture of the reservoirs and the resulting model is simulated to derive the reservoir engineering properties, which impacts on quality decisions for optimal exploitation of the hydrocarbon in place. The point issues or challenges usually encountered in reservoir studies and management are baffles, barriers to flow, thief zones and other uncertainties that come about due to inadequate understanding of the sedimentology of the reservoirs in question. (Issues like preferential flow direction which significantly impact on secondary recovery and affect the costs). Recent advancements in borehole geology image and dips data helps to effectively itemize these uncertainties, and significantly reduce them to the barrest minimum. This work shows processed and interpreted image and dips data from a field, integrated with other petrophysical data and then incorporated into a field-wide study in the X-field. This was done using the most recent technological advancements in logging tools and in interpretation processes. The achievements include cost saving, higher precision results and reduced time or interpretation

  15. Preliminary geological investigation of the Bir Hayzan diatomite deposit, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with a section on selected physical properties and implications for future geophysical exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, J.W.; Gettings, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    A 2.2-m-thick lake bed composed entirely of diatomite was found in the southwestern arm of the Nafud sand sea, about 67 km east of Tayma in northwestern Saudi Arabia. Its stratigraphic position above eolian sand and below a large barchanoid dune indicates deposition during an exceptional period of pluvial climate in an otherwise arid sand desert. Radiocarbon-dated carbonate lake beds found in similar stratigraphic settings in other parts of the Nafud suggest that the diatomite was deposited in the late Pleistocene epoch sometime between 32,000 and 20,000 years ago. Diatomite of the same pluvial episode has also been found in the Afar region of Ethiopia. Four samples of the diatomite were analyzed for major chemical components and 32 minor and trace elements. Two of the samples appeared to be representative of the lake bed. These samples contained about 85 percent SiO2, 2.34 percent Fe2O3, 1 4 percent Al2O3, and 8.27 percent ignition loss, with only traces of CaO, P2O5, MgO, Na2O, and TiO2. The high content of silica and low contents of alumina, iron oxide, lime, and other constituents indicate low contamination. Analyses of samples from the two atypical units indicate a small amount of contamination, probably clay or mica, in the basal unit and addition of iron oxide and carbonate by ground water in an isolated green-colored unit. Chemically the Bi'r Hayzan diatomite compares favorably with commercial deposits from other parts of the world. Low bulk densities of 0.64 g/cm3 (30-40 lbs/ft3) and an average porosity of 63 percent for five samples also suggest the deposit is of industrial grade. Further studies are recommended to determine: (1) the size and extent of the deposit and (2) the suitability of the diatomite for commercial applications. As means to these ends, electrical-resistivity surveys following winter rains are suggested to determine both the extent and thickness of the lake bed beneath the overlying sand dunes. A complete species identification of the

  16. Geological setting, isotope studies (C, O and Pb) and associated metals in the Tocantinzinho gold deposit, Tapajos domain, Tapajos-Parima Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villas, Raimundo Netuno Nobre; Santiago, Erika Suellen Barbosa; Castilho, Marilia Portela

    2013-01-01

    The Tocantinzinho ore deposit is located along a NW-SE-trending lineament, southwestern of Itaituba (Para, Brazil), and is the largest known gold deposit of the Tapajos Province. The host Tocantinzinho granite is essentially isotropic and dominated by syenogranites and monzogranites that have been weakly to moderately altered by hydrothermal fluids. Microclinization (earliest), chloritization, sericitization, silicification and carbonatization (latest) are the main types of alteration. Most mineralization was contemporaneous with the sericitization/silicification and is represented by sulfide- and gold-bearing veinlets which locally occur as stockwork. Pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena are the most common sulfides. Among the ore metals, Cu, Pb and Zn present the highest contents, but Mo, As and Bi locally show anomalous concentrations. The relationship of Au with Cu, Pb or Zn is at random and the Au/Ag ratios range from 0.05 to 0.5. The higher the sulfide contents, the higher the Au concentrations, though it occurs mainly included in pyrite. Zircon monocrystals from the Tocantinzinho granite yielded an average Pb-Pb age of 1982 ±8Ma and may represent an earlier event of the Creporizao magmatic arc. δ 13 C PDB values for calcite from the carbonatization stage fall dominantly between -3.45 and -2.29‰, being compatible with a deep crustal source that may include carbonatite reservoirs. In turn, δ 18 O SMOW values vary from +5.97 to +14.10‰, being indicative of magmatic derivation, although the less positive values suggest contribution from surficial waters. Unpublished fluid inclusion study reveals the presence of aquo-carbonic fluids, whose CO 2 could have been dissolved in the granitic magma rather than being related to the shear zone. The available data allow the Tocantinzinho deposit to be classified as a granite-hosted, intrusion-related gold deposit. (author)

  17. Treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. Program for encapsulation, deep geologic deposition and research, development and demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Programs for RD and D concerning disposal of radioactive waste are presented. Main topics include: Design, testing and manufacture of canisters for the spent fuels; Design of equipment for deposition of waste canisters; Material and process for backfilling rock caverns; Evaluation of accuracy and validation of methods for safety analyses; Development of methods for defining scenarios for the safety analyses. 471 refs, 67 figs, 21 tabs

  18. On the consideration of geological uncertainties in the evaluation of lignite deposits; Zur Beruecksichtigung geologischer Ungewissheit in der Bewertung von Braunkohlevorkommen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benndorf, Joerg [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Geosciences and Engineering; Naworyta, Wojciech [AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (Poland). Dept. of Open Pit Mining

    2012-12-15

    All phases of planning as well as the operational open-cast mining require a sufficient knowledge on the spatial distribution of the properties of deposits with respect to quality and geometrical structure. This knowledge is a requisition to a sustainable and optimal utilization of lignite as a raw material under security-related and economic aspects. The spatial distribution of the deposit based on exploration data utilizing different methods of interpolation is recognized as a planning framework and also illustrated in a three-dimensional model. The geo-statistics offers different approaches of modelling whereby at each time the specific tasks and aims specify the selection of the specific methodology. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration compare different approaches of methodology with actual analyses using a deposit in Central Europe as a case study. These approaches of methodology are evaluated under the criteria of the prediction accuracy as well as their derivability from exceeding probabilities and lower deviation probabilities of threshold values. The results of this investigation give information about the profitability of certain concepts in the lignite mining.

  19. Geologic Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  20. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Skrytoe reduced-type W skarn and stockwork deposit, Sikhote-Alin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey G.

    2017-08-01

    The Skrytoe deposit (>145 Kt WO3, average grade 0.449% WO3) in the Sikhote-Alin orogenic system (Eastern Russia) is situated in a metallogenic belt of W, Sn-W, Au, and Au-W deposits formed in a late to post-collisional tectonic environment after cessation of active subduction. It is localized within a mineralized district of reduced-type skarn W and veined Au (±W) deposits and occurrences related to the Early Cretaceous ilmenite-series plutonic suite. The deposit incorporates large stockworks of scheelite-bearing veinlets related to propylitic (amphibole, chlorite, quartz) and phyllic (quartz, sericite, albite, apatite, and carbonate) hydrothermal alteration. The stockwork cuts flat-lying mafic volcanic rocks and limestone partially replaced by pyroxene skarn that host the major W orebodies. Scheelite is associated with pyrrhotite and/or arsenopyrite, with minor chalcopyrite and other sulfide minerals; the late phyllic stage assemblages hosts Bi and Au mineralization. The fluid evolution included low-salinity moderate-temperature, moderate-pressure (˜370-390 °C, ˜800 bars) methane-dominated carbonic-aqueous fluids that formed post-skarn propylitic alteration assemblages. Then, at the phyllic stage, there has been an evolution from methane-dominated, moderate-temperature (330-360 °C), low-salinity (<12.3 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluids forming the early quartz-sericite-albite-arsenopyrite assemblage, through lower temperature (290-330 °C) methane-dominated, low-salinity (˜9-10 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluids forming the intermediate quartz-sericite-albite-scheelite-pyrrhotite assemblage, to yet lower temperature (245-320 °C) CO2-dominated carbonic-aqueous low-salinity (˜1-7 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluids forming the late quartz-sericite-sulfide-Bi-Au assemblage. Recurrent fluid immiscibility (phase separation) and cooling probably affected W solubility and promoted scheelite deposition. The stable isotope data support a sedimentary source of carbon (δ13Cfluid = ˜-21 to -10

  1. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion study of the Kuru-Tegerek Au-Cu-Mo skarn deposit in the Middle Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey; Dvurechenskaya, Svetlana

    2018-02-01

    The Kuru-Tegerek Cu-Au-Mo deposit is situated in a system of Late Carboniferous subduction-related magmatic arcs of the Middle Tien Shan, which together constitute a metallogenic belt of Cu-Au-Mo (±W) porphyry, with local skarns, deposits. The deposit is related to magnetite-series gabbro-diorite to tonalite intrusion. It contains prograde magnesian and calcic skarns with abundant magnetite, associated with gabbro-diorite, and retrograde skarn with Cu mineralization, formed after intrusion of tonalite. Subsequent propylitic alteration introduced abundant chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite, and native Au culminating in zones overprinting magnetite and garnet skarn. Later quartz-muscovite-carbonate veins, formed after intrusion of late mafic quartz monzogabbro dikes, contain chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and other sulfides and sulfosalts, tellurides, and native Au. The earliest retrograde skarn garnet contains gaseous low-salinity (1.7-3.4 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid inclusions homogenizing at 460-500 °C into vapor, indicating that the early fluid released from crystallizing magma was a low-density vapor. It was followed by more saline (4.0-5.0 wt.% NaCl eq.), high-temperature (400-440 °C) aqueous fluid, as fluid release from the magma progressed. Boiling of this fluid at temperatures of 420 to 370 °C and a pressure of 350-300 bar produced a low-salinity (0.6-1.2 wt.% NaCl eq.), essentially gaseous, and high-salinity (from 39 to 31 wt.% NaCl eq.) brine, with possible metal (including Cu) partitioning into both gaseous and aqueous-saline phases. Boiling was coeval with sulfide deposition in the retrograde skarn. The latest episode of the retrograde skarn stage included direct separation of saline ( 40-42 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid from crystallizing magma. The separation of saline ( 40 to 14 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluids from a crystallizing magmatic melt continued during the propylitic stage, when fluid cooling from 370 to 320 °C, together with decreasing fO2, caused Cu and especially

  2. Analysis on tectonomagmatic evolution and metallogenic geological conditions of rich-large uranium deposits in Nanling uranium-polymetal metallogenic belt, South Jiangxi province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guihua

    2001-01-01

    Nanling is a complicated tectonomagmatic belt. It is also an important uranium-polymetallic metallogenic belt. On the basis of the research achievements of previous researchers, through the detailed stratigraphic, lithologic, litho-paleo-geographic, geochronologic and geochemical studies and the processing of gravimetric and magnetic data, as well as the information extraction of remote sensing data, the authors come to the following conclusions: (1) The Sannan-Xunwu fault is a long-lived (from the Early Sinian to recent time) EW-trending fault; (2) The earth crust in Nanling experienced three time opening-closing with different scales; (3) The Anyuan-Xunwu area is a large thermo-upwelling extensional structure; (4) The above area is considered to be favourable for the formation of rich-large uranium deposit

  3. NURE uranium deposit model studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crew, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    The National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program has sponsored uranium deposit model studies by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (Bendix), the US Geological Survey (USGS), and numerous subcontractors. This paper deals only with models from the following six reports prepared by Samuel S. Adams and Associates: GJBX-1(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Roll-Type Uranium Deposits in Continental Sandstones; GJBX-2(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Uraniferous Humate Deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico; GJBX-3(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Uranium Deposits of the Quartz-Pebble Conglomerate Type; GJBX-4(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Sandstone Uranium Deposits in Mixed Fluvial-Shallow Marine Sedimentary Sequences, South Texas; GJBX-5(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Veinlike Uranium Deposits of the Lower to Middle Proterozoic Unconformity and Strata-Related Types; GJBX-6(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Sandstone Uranium Deposits of the Salt Wash Type, Colorado Plateau Province. A unique feature of these models is the development of recognition criteria in a systematic fashion, with a method for quantifying the various items. The recognition-criteria networks are used in this paper to illustrate the various types of deposits

  4. Study on Character of Micro-Canal Deposit and Its Significance in Petroleum Geology --Case study of Tuo-147-well in north zone of Dongying depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴李泉; 曹代勇; 刘里勤; 刘艳华

    2003-01-01

    Exploration on reservoir of glutenite segment in steep slope zone of half graben-like basin is one of the hot spot targets at present and in the future for new reservoirs; And the study of sediment character of sandy-conglomerate bodies is the keystone and also the difficult problem. Taking Tuo-147-well area in north zone of Dongying depression as an example, the micro-canal sedimentation was researched. The result shows that many micro-canals exist at the end of slope grain-flow in steep slope zone of half graben-like basin; The micro-canals grow at the end of subaqueous grain-flow deposited bodies of 3rd member of the Shahejie formation. The main condition of micro-canal formation is the slope angle less than 18° and a long suitable sedimentary slope. These micro-canals may communicate the reservoir of glutenite segment in steep slope zone and the hydrocarbon stratum as a bridge role. Therefore, it is significant in theory and practice for discovering a series of micro-canals at the end of slope grain-flow in steep slope zone of half graben-like basin.

  5. Regional tectonics, geology, magma chamber processes and mineralisation of the Jinchuan nickel-copper-PGE deposit, Gansu Province, China: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. (Mike Porter

    2016-05-01

    The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion was injected into three interconnected sub-chambers, each containing a separate orebody. It essentially comprises an olivine-orthopyroxene-chromite cumulate, with interstitial orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and phlogopite, and is predominantly composed of lherzolite (∼80%, with an outer rim of olivine pyroxenite and cores of mineralised dunite. Mineralisation occurs as disseminated and net-textured sulphides, predominantly within the dunite, with lesser, PGE rich lenses, late massive sulphide accumulations, small copper rich pods and limited mineralised diopside skarn in wall rock marbles. The principal ore minerals are pyrrhotite (the dominant sulphide, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, cubanite, mackinawite and pyrite, with a variety of platinum group minerals and minor gold. The deposit underwent significant post-magmatic tremolite-actinolite, chlorite, serpentine and magnetite alteration. The volume of the Jinchuan intrusion accounts for <3% of the total parental magma required to generate the contained olivine and sulphide. It is postulated that mafic melt, intruded into the lower crust, hydraulically supported by density contrast buoyancy from below the Moho, ponded in a large staging chamber, where crystallisation and settling formed a lower sulphide rich mush. This mush was subsequently injected into nearby shallow dipping faults to form the Jinchuan intrusion.

  6. A statistical method for estimating rates of soil development and ages of geologic deposits: A design for soil-chronosequence studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, P.; Harden, J.W.; Mark, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    most probable age. The statistical variability of the ML-estimated calibration curve is assessed by a Monte Carlo method in which simulated data sets repeatedly are drawn from the distributional specification; calibration parameters are reestimated for each such simulation in order to assess their statistical variability. Several examples are used for illustration. The age of undated soils in a related setting may be estimated from the soil data using the fitted calibration curve. A second simulation to assess age estimate variability is described and applied to the examples. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  7. Destination: Geology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  8. Geology and mineralogy of the Au-As (Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu-Sb polymetallic deposit of Valiña-Azúmara (Lugo, NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Abad, I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Valiña-Azúmara is a polymetallic Au-As (Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu-Sb deposit, located in the province of Lugo (NW Spain, that was mined for arsenic at the beginning of the 20th century. The mineralization is hosted in a Variscan thrust fault with a dip direction of N247-261ºE, and N-S and NE-SW Late-Variscan faults. These structures are hosted in black slates, Cambrian in age. To a lesser extent, the mineralization also occurs disseminated within narrow, weakly silicified and sericited selvages. Mineralization is divided into two hypogene stages. The first consists of quartz, calcite, rutile, sericite, arsenopyrite and pyrite. Two types of pyrite (Py-I and Py-II are defined according to their chemical and textural characteristics. Py-II occurs as overgrowth of previous Py-I crystals. Py-II is As-rich (≤1.7 wt.% and often contains traces of Te, Zn, Cu, Bi, Sb and Au. The mineralized drill core sections show a significant correlation between Au and As. This is due to Au occurring as invisible Au within the Py-II grains, with contents of up to 176 ppm. The Au/As ratios of Py-II indicate that Au was deposited as Au1+, as solid solution within the pyrite structure. The second stage of mineralization is enriched in Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu-Sb, replacing the first stage, and consists of quartz, calcite, chlorite, sphalerite, jamesonite, Ag-rich tetrahedrite, freibergite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and galena. Although jamesonite shows traces of Ag, the Cu-Ag sulfosalts are the main carriers of the Ag mineralization in the deposit, with contents that vary from 13.7 to 23.9 wt.% of Ag. In the most superficial levels of the area, secondary Fe oxide and hydroxide, scorodite and anglesite developed due to the oxidation of the ore.Valiña-Azúmara es un yacimiento filoniano de Au-As (Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu-Sb situado en la provincia de Lugo (NO España, que fue explotado por arsénico a principios del siglo XX. La mineralización se encuentra encajada en un cabalgamiento Varisco de direcci

  9. Geological history of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niini, Heikki

    1989-01-01

    Uranium is widely distributed in continental geological environments. The order of magnitude of uranium abundance in felsitic igneous rocks is 2-15 ppm, whereas it is less than 1 ppm in mafic rocks. Sedimentary rocks show a large range: from less than 0.1 ppm U in certain evaporites to over 100 ppm in phosphate rocks and organogenic matter. The content of U in seawater varies from 0.0005 to 0.005 ppm. The isotopic ratio U-238/U-235 is presently 137.5+-0.5, having gradually increased during geological time. The third natural isotope is U-234. On the basis of three fundamental economic criteria for ore reserves assessment (geological assurance, technical feasibility, and the grade and quantity of the deposits), the author finally comes to the following conclusions: Although the global uranium ores are not geologically renewable but continuously mined, they still, due to exploration and technical development, will tend to progressively increase for centuries to come

  10. Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit model: Chapter D in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model for arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits. Presented within are geological, geochemical, and mineralogical characteristics that differentiate this deposit type from porphyry copper and alkali-feldspar rhyolite-granite porphyry molybdenum deposits. The U.S. Geological Survey's effort to update existing mineral deposit models spurred this research, which is intended to supplement previously published models for this deposit type that help guide mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments.

  11. Discussion on the genesis of Zhongchuan uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yulong; Zhang Chengzhong

    2008-01-01

    Through elaborating the geological setting, deposit and orebody geological charactors and hydrological features, the ore controlling factors are analysed and the genesis of Zhongchuan uranium deposit is discussed in the way of deposit occurrence, mineral asembleage and matalization ages. It is believed that uranium deposit was formed under the regional uplifting background with the exogenous mechanism and its genesis belongs to surface leaching. (authors)

  12. Geology, S-Pb isotopes, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Zhaxikang Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in Southern Tibet: implications for multiple mineralization events at Zhaxikang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang; Zheng, Youye; Pirajno, Franco; McCuaig, T. Campbell; Yu, Miao; Xia, Shenlan; Song, Qingjie; Chang, Huifang

    2018-03-01

    Several Au, Sb, Sb-Au, Pb-Zn, and Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposits are present throughout the North Himalaya in southern Tibet, China. The largest Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposit is Zhaxikang (18 Mt at 0.6 wt% Sb, 2.0 wt% Pb, 3.5 wt% Zn, and 78 g/t Ag). Zhaxikang veins are hosted within N-S trending faults, which crosscut the Early-Middle Jurassic Ridang Formation consisting of shale interbedded with sandstone and limestone deposited on a passive continental margin. Ore paragenesis indicates that Zhaxikang mineralization occurred in two main phases composed of six total stages. The initial phase was characterized by assemblages of fine-grained Mn-Fe carbonate + arsenopyrite + pyrite + sphalerite (stage 1), followed by relatively coarse-grained Mn-Fe carbonate + Fe-rich sphalerite + galena + pyrite (stage 2). The second phase was marked by assemblages of quartz + pyrite + Fe-poor sphalerite and Ag-rich galena + tetrahedrite + sericite (stage 3), quartz + Sb-Pb sulfosalt minerals mainly composed of boulangerite and jamesonite (stage 4), quartz + stibnite ± cinnabar (stage 5), and quartz ± calcite (stage 6). Sulfides of stage 2 have δ34SV-CDT of 8.4-12.0‰, 206Pb/204Pb ratios of 19.648 to 19.659, 207Pb/204Pb ratios of 15.788 to 15.812, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of 40.035 to 40.153. Sulfides of stage 3 have similar δ34SV-CDT of 6.1-11.2‰ and relatively more radiogenic lead isotopes (206Pb/204Pb = 19.683-19.792). Stage 4 Sb-Pb sulfosalt minerals have δ34SV-CDT of 5.0-7.2‰ and even more radiogenic lead (206Pb/204Pb = 19.811-19.981). By contrast, stibnite of stage 5 has δ34SV-CDT of 4.5-7.8‰ and less radiogenic lead (206Pb/204Pb = 18.880-18.974). Taken together with the geological observations that the Pb-Zn-bearing Mn-Fe carbonate veins were crosscut by various types of quartz veins, sphalerite and galena of stage 2 underwent dissolution and remobilization, and that Sb-Pb(-Fe) sulfosalts formed at the expense of Pb from stage 2 galena and of Fe from stage 2 sphalerite, we argue that

  13. World distribution of uranium deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, M. C.; Irvine, J. A.; Katona, L. F.; Simmon, W. L.; Bruneton, P.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Cuney, M.; Aranha, M.; Pylypenko, O.; Poliakovska, K.

    2018-01-01

    Deposit data derived from IAEA UDEPO (http://infcis.iaea.org/UDEPO/About.cshtml) database with assistance from P. Bruneton (France) and M. Mihalasky (U.S.A.). The map is an updated companion to "World Distribution of Uranium Deposits (UDEPO) with Uranium Deposit Classification, IAEA Tech-Doc-1629". Geology was derived from L.B. Chorlton, Generalized Geology of the World, Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529 , 2007. Map production by M.C. Fairclough (IAEA), J.A. Irvine (Austrailia), L.F. Katona (Australia) and W.L. Slimmon (Canada). World Distribution of Uranium Deposits, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria. Cartographic Assistance was supplied by the Geological Survey of South Australia, the Saskatchewan Geological Survey and United States Geological Survey to the IAEA. Coastlines, drainage, and country boundaries were obtained from ArcMap, 1:25 000 000 scale, and are copyrighted data containing the intellectual property of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI). The use of particular designations of countries or territories does not imply any judgment by the publisher, the IAEA, as to the legal status of such countries or territories, of their authorities and institutions or of the delimitation of their boundaries. Any revisions or additional geological information known to the user would be welcomed by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Geological Survey of Canada.

  14. Planetary geology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasselt, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date interdisciplinary geoscience-focused overview of solid solar system bodies and their evolution, based on the comparative description of processes acting on them. Planetary research today is a strongly multidisciplinary endeavor with efforts coming from engineering and natural sciences. Key focal areas of study are the solid surfaces found in our Solar System. Some have a direct interaction with the interplanetary medium and others have dynamic atmospheres. In any of those cases, the geological records of those surfaces (and sub-surfaces) are key to understanding the Solar System as a whole: its evolution and the planetary perspective of our own planet. This book has a modular structure and is divided into 4 sections comprising 15 chapters in total. Each section builds upon the previous one but is also self-standing. The sections are:  Methods and tools Processes and Sources  Integration and Geological Syntheses Frontiers The latter covers the far-reaching broad topics of exo...

  15. Uranium geochemistry, mineralogy, geology, exploration and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vivo, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book comprises papers on the following topics: history of radioactivity; uranium in mantle processes; transport and deposition of uranium in hydrothermal systems at temperatures up to 300 0 C: Geological implications; geochemical behaviour of uranium in the supergene environment; uranium exploration techniques; uranium mineralogy; time, crustal evolution and generation of uranium deposits; uranium exploration; geochemistry of uranium in the hydrographic network; uranium deposits of the world, excluding Europe; uranium deposits in Europe; uranium in the economics of energy; role of high heat production granites in uranium province formation; and uranium deposits

  16. Some problems on remote sensing geology for uranium prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tinghuai.

    1988-01-01

    Remote sensing is a kind of very effective method which can be used in all stages of geological prospecting. Geological prospecting with remote sensing method must be based on different genetic models of ore deposits, characteristics of geology-landscape and comprehensive analysis for geophysical and geochemical data, that is, by way of conceptual model prospecting. The prospecting results based on remote sensing geology should be assessed from three aspects such as direct, indirect and potential ones

  17. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.; Davis, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    World-class sandstone-type uranium deposits are defined as epigenetic concentrations of uranium minerals occurring as uneven impregnations and minor massive replacements primarily in fluvial, lacustrine, and deltaic sandstone formations. The main purpose of this introductory paper is to define, classify, and introduce to the general geologic setting for sandstone-type uranium deposits

  18. Geology and bedrock engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with geology of Korea which includes summary, geology in central part and southern part in Korea and characteristic of geology structure, limestone like geology property of limestone, engineered property of limestone, and design and construction case in limestone area. It also introduces engineered property of the cenozoic, clay rock and shale, geologic and engineered property of phyllite and stratum.

  19. Old Geology and New Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 May 2003Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  1. Geology of kilauea volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.B.; Trusdell, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower cast rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. ?? 1993.

  2. Uranium deposits in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpolt, R.H.; Simov, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Africa is not only known for its spectacular diamond, gold, copper, chromium, platinum and phosphorus deposits but also for its uranium deposits. At least two uranium provinces can be distinguished - the southern, with the equatorial sub-province; and the south Saharan province. Uranium deposits are distributed either in cratons or in mobile belts, the first of sandstone and quartz-pebble conglomerate type, while those located in mobile belts are predominantly of vein and similar (disseminated) type. Uranium deposits occur within Precambrian rocks or in younger platform sediments, but close to the exposed Precambrian basement. The Proterozoic host rocks consist of sediments, metamorphics or granitoids. In contrast to Phanerozoic continental uranium-bearing sediments, those in the Precambrian are in marginal marine facies but they do contain organic material. The geology of Africa is briefly reviewed with the emphasis on those features which might control the distribution of uranium. The evolution of the African Platform is considered as a progressive reduction of its craton area which has been affected by three major Precambrian tectonic events. A short survey on the geology of known uranium deposits is made. However, some deposits and occurrences for which little published material is available are treated in more detail. (author)

  3. Uranium deposits in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimori, R.K.; Ragland, P.C.; Rogers, J.J.W.; Greenberg, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    This report is a review of published data bearing on the geology and origin of uranium deposits in granitic, pegmatitic and migmatitic rocks with the aim of assisting in the development of predictive criteria for the search for similar deposits in the U.S. Efforts were concentrated on the so-called ''porphyry'' uranium deposits. Two types of uranium deposits are primarily considered: deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in gneiss terrains, and disseminations of uranium in high-level granites. In Chapter 1 of this report, the general data on the distribution of uranium in igneous and metamorphic rocks are reviewed. Chapter 2 contains some comments on the classification of uranium deposits associated with igneous rocks and a summary of the main features of the geology of uranium deposits in granites. General concepts of the behavior of uranium in granites during crustal evolution are reviewed in Chapter 3. Also included is a discussion of the relationship of uranium mineralization in granites to the general evolution of mobile belts, plus the influence of magmatic and post-magmatic processes on the distribution of uranium in igneous rocks and related ore deposits. Chapter 4 relates the results of experimental studies on the crystallization of granites to some of the geologic features of uranium deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in high-grade metamorphic terrains. Potential or favorable areas for igneous uranium deposits in the U.S.A. are delineated in Chapter 5. Data on the geology of specific uranium deposits in granitic rocks are contained in Appendix 1. A compilation of igneous rock formations containing greater than 10 ppM uranium is included in Appendix 2. Appendix 3 is a report on the results of a visit to the Roessing area. Appendix 4 is a report on a field excursion to eastern Canada

  4. Engineering Geology | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska's Mineral Industry Reports AKGeology.info Rare Earth Elements WebGeochem Engineering Geology Alaska content Engineering Geology Additional information Engineering Geology Posters and Presentations Alaska Alaska MAPTEACH Tsunami Inundation Mapping Engineering Geology Staff Projects The Engineering Geology

  5. Geology and coal potential of Somaliland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Y. Ali [Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-07-01

    Geological field mapping along with available geological and drilling data suggest that Somaliland (Northwestern Somalia) has favourable stratigraphy and structure for coal deposits. Lignitic to sub-bituminous coal deposits with ages from Jurassic to Oligocene-Miocene occur in various locations across the country including Hed-Hed valley south of Onkhor, Guveneh hills north of Las Dureh and Daban Basin southeast of Berbera. However, the coal occurrence at Hed-Hed has both the greatest thickness and highest quality. These deposits have the potential to provide an important alternative fuel resource which could alleviate the growing shortage of traditional fuels and assist in reducing the country's dependence on imported energy. However, further investigation, including drilling and laboratory analyses, still needs to be carried out, particularly on the Upper Cretaceous coal seams to evaluate the quality and resource potential of the deposits.

  6. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.B. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. (Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Attachment GEO 1 Permic basin geology in northeast of Uruguay: deposit exam about Uranium traces; Anexo GEO 1 Geologia de la Cuenca Permica del nordeste del Uruguay: examen sedimentologico sobre los indicios de Uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L' Homer, A; Manigault, B; Doyhenart, A; Rossi, P

    1983-07-01

    The article is about different deposit of Uranium traces and their Sedimentology analysis. A revision of main works have been given and Durazno and Gondwana groups, Cerrezuelo, Cordobes, La Paloma, San Gregorio, Tres Islas formations.

  8. Software development for geologic information management system on open-pit production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.; Tian, A.; Ren, Z.; Pang, Y. [China University of Mining and Technomogy, Xuzhou (China). College of Mineral and Energy Resources

    2001-09-01

    A software, including geological data gathering and processing, deposit modelling, reserves calculating and mine map plotting, for geologic information management of open-pit production was developed. Based on the interactive technique, CAD, the object-oriented simulation, and the characteristics of geologic structures, all the geologic information databases and geologic mapping sub-systems have been established for open-pit production, planning and management. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  9. CO2-rich and CO2-poor ore-forming fluids of porphyry molybdenum systems in two contrasting geologic setting: evidence from Shapinggou and Zhilingtou Mo deposits, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, P.

    2017-12-01

    Porphyry deposits are the world most important source of Mo, accounting for more than 95% of world Mo production. Porphyry Mo deposits have been classified into Climax type and Endako type. The Climax type was generally formed in an intra-continental setting, and contain high contents of Mo (0.15-0.45 wt.%) and F (0.5-5 wt.%). In contrast, the Endako type was generated in a continental arc setting and featured by low concentrations of Mo (0.05-0.15 wt.%) and F (0.05-0.15 wt.%). The systematic comparison of ore fluids in two contrasting tectonic environments is still poorly constrained. In this study, the Shapinggou and Zhilingtou Mo deposits in South China were selected to present the contrasting ore-forming fluid features. The fluid inclusion study of Shapinggou Mo deposit suggest: Early barren quartz veins contain fluid inclusions with salinities of 7.9-16.9 wt% NaCl equiv . CO2 contents are high enough to be detected by Raman. Later molybdenite-quartz veins contain vapor-type fluid inclusions with lower salinities (0.1-7.4 wt% NaCl equiv) but higher CO2-contents, coexisting with brine inclusions with 32.9-50.9 wt% NaCl equiv. The fluid inclusion study on Zhilintou Mo deposit suggest : Early barren quartz veins contain mostly intermediate density fluid inclusions with salinities of 5.3-14.1 wt% NaCl equiv, whereas main-stage quartz-molybdenite veins contain vapor-rich fluid inclusions of 0.5-6.2 wt% NaClequiv coexisting with brine inclusions of 38.6-44.8 wt% NaCl equiv. In contrast to the Shapinggou Mo deposit, the fluid inclusions at Shizitou contain only minor amounts of CO2. This study suggests the two porphyry molybdenum deposits experienced a similar fluid evolution trend, from single-phase fluids at the premineralization stage to two-phase fluids at the mineralization stage. Fluid boiling occurred during the ore stage and probably promoted a rapid precipitation of molybdenite. Intensive phyllic alteration, CO2-poor ore-forming fluids, and continental arc

  10. Geologic processes and sedimentary system on Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, A S

    1988-01-01

    The subject is covered under following headings: (1) morphology and processes at the martian surface (impact craters, water and ice, landslide, aeolian processes, volcanism, chemical weathering); (2) the sedimentary system (martian geologic documentation, sedimentary balance, regolith, pyroclastics, erosion phenomena, deposit and loss of sediments) as well as (3) summary and final remarks. 72 refs.

  11. Desert wetlands in the geologic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, Jeff S.; Rech, Jason A.; Quade, Jay; Bright, Jordon; Edwards, L.; Springer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Desert wetlands support flora and fauna in a variety of hydrologic settings, including seeps, springs, marshes, wet meadows, ponds, and spring pools. Over time, eolian, alluvial, and fluvial sediments become trapped in these settings by a combination of wet ground conditions and dense plant cover. The result is a unique combination of clastic sediments, chemical precipitates, and organic matter that is preserved in the geologic record as ground-water discharge (GWD) deposits. GWD deposits contain information on the timing and magnitude of past changes in water-table levels and, therefore, are a potential source of paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic information. In addition, they can be important archeological and paleontological archives because desert wetlands provide reliable sources of fresh water, and thus act as focal points for human and faunal activities, in some of the world's harshest and driest lands. Here, we review some of the physical, sedimentological, and geochemical characteristics common to GWD deposits, and provide a contextual framework that researchers can use to identify and interpret geologic deposits associated with desert wetlands. We discuss several lines of evidence used to differentiate GWD deposits from lake deposits (they are commonly confused), and examine how various types of microbiota and depositional facies aid in reconstructing past environmental and hydrologic conditions. We also review how late Quaternary GWD deposits are dated, as well as methods used to investigate desert wetlands deeper in geologic time. We end by evaluating the strengths and limitations of hydrologic and climatic records derived from GWD deposits, and suggest several avenues of potential future research to further develop and utilize these unique and complex systems.

  12. NOAA/WDC Global Tsunami Deposits Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Discover where, when and how severely tsunamis affected Earth in geologic history. Information regarding Tsunami Deposits and Proxies for Tsunami Events complements...

  13. Evaluation and analysis of geological condition of in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianming; Tan Kaixuan; Huang Xiaonai

    2003-01-01

    The ore geological condition, hydrogeological condition, engineering geological condition and technological mineralogical character of in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium are analyzed, and it is considered that the implementation of in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium technology is decided by different geological factor. Previously prospecting and geological condition evaluation of uranium ore is based on traditional mining method. If in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium method is adopted, one must re-evaluate previously prospected deposits before they are mined, or one must evaluate new prospecting deposits according to geological conditions of in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium method. The feasibility evaluation method of uranium deposit by in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium put forward by B. N. Mociniets is introducd, and it is considered that B. N. Mociniets method has guidable significance for geological condition evaluation before uranium deposits are mined. A feasibility study is done by applying B. N. Mociniets method to a uranium deposit. (authors)

  14. Mapping urban geology of the city of Girona, Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Miquel; Torrades, Pau; Pi, Roser; Monleon, Ona

    2016-04-01

    A detailed and systematic geological characterization of the urban area of Girona has been conducted under the project '1:5000 scale Urban geological map of Catalonia' of the Catalan Geological Survey (Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya). The results of this characterization are organized into: i) a geological information system that includes all the information acquired; ii) a stratigraphic model focused on identification, characterization and correlation of the geological materials and structures present in the area and; iii) a detailed geological map that represents a synthesis of all the collected information. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment pre-existing cartographic documentation (geological and topographical), core data from compiled boreholes, descriptions of geological outcrops within the urban network and neighbouring areas, physico-chemical characterisation of representative samples of geological materials, detailed geological mapping of Quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits and, 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces. The stratigraphic model is structured in a system of geological units that from a chronostratigrafic point of view are structured in Palaeozoic, Paleogene, Neogene, Quaternary and Anthropocene. The description of the geological units is guided by a systematic procedure. It includes the main lithological and structural features of the units that constitute the geological substratum and represents the conceptual base of the 1:5000 urban geological map of the Girona metropolitan area, which is organized into 6 map sheets. These map sheets are composed by a principal map, geological cross sections and, several complementary maps, charts and tables. Regardless of the geological map units, the principal map also represents the main artificial deposits, features related to geohistorical processes, contours of outcrop areas, information obtained in stations, borehole data, and contour

  15. Chemical and Mineralogical Features of Smectite from the Morron de Mateo Bentonite Deposit (Cabo de Gata, Almeria) in Relation to the Parent Rocks and the Alteration Processes Occurred After the Bentonite Formation: Analogies and Implications for the Engineered Clayey Barrier of a Deep Geological Rad waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelayo, M.; Labajo, M. A.; Garcia Romero, L.; Perez del Villar, L.

    2009-01-01

    The Morron de Mateo bentonite deposit is being studied as a natural analogue of the thermal and geochemical effects on the clayey barrier of a Deep Geological Rad waste Repository (DGRR) after its closure, in relation to the radioactive decay of the fission products and the container corrosion. This bentonite deposit and their host rocks were intruded by a rhyodacitic volcanic dome that induced a hydrothermal metasomatic process affecting the bioclastic calcarenite beds close to the dome. Bentonite from the NE sector of the deposit have been chemically and mineralogically characterized. Pyroclastic rocks (white tuffs), epyclastic rocks (mass flow) and andesitic breccia all of them hydrothermally altered, have been studied at the site. Samples are composed of feldspars, quartz and amphybols, as inherited minerals, and phyllosilicates, zeolites, crystoballite and calcite, as new formed minerals. White tuffs have the highest phyllosilicate contents, mainly dioctahedral smectite of montmorillonite type. Epyclastic rocks and andesitic breccia have a highest proportion of inherited minerals, the new formed phillosilicates being di octahedral smectite of beidellite type and an ordered interlayer chlorite/smectite mineral, of corrensite type. Smectite from the epyclastic rocks have higher Fe and Mg contents and chemical variability, as a consequence of nature of their parent rocks. The presence of corrensite in the epyclastic rocks suggests that in the Morron de Mateo area a propilitic alteration process occurred after bentonite formation, which transformed Fe-Mg-rich smectite into corrensite. This transformation was probably favoured by the sub volcanic intrusion, which also produced a temperature increase in the geological media and a supply of Fe-Mg-rich solutions, which also were the responsible for the metasomatic transformations observed in the calcarenite beds. (Author) 57 refs

  16. Geologic Mapping Results for Ceres from NASA's Dawn Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. A.; Mest, S. C.; Buczkowski, D.; Scully, J. E. C.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Dawn Mission included a geologic mapping campaign during its nominal mission at dwarf planet Ceres, including production of a global geologic map and a series of 15 quadrangle maps to determine the variety of process-related geologic materials and the geologic history of Ceres. Our mapping demonstrates that all major planetary geologic processes (impact cratering, volcanism, tectonism, and gradation (weathering-erosion-deposition)) have occurred on Ceres. Ceres crust, composed of altered and NH3-bearing silicates, carbonates, salts and 30-40% water ice, preserves impact craters and all sizes and degradation states, and may represent the remains of the bottom of an ancient ocean. Volcanism is manifested by cryovolcanic domes, such as Ahuna Mons and Cerealia Facula, and by explosive cryovolcanic plume deposits such as the Vinalia Faculae. Tectonism is represented by several catenae extending from Ceres impact basins Urvara and Yalode, terracing in many larger craters, and many localized fractures around smaller craters. Gradation is manifested in a variety of flow-like features caused by mass wasting (landslides), ground ice flows, as well as impact ejecta lobes and melts. We have constructed a chronostratigraphy and geologic timescale for Ceres that is centered around major impact events. Ceres geologic periods include Pre-Kerwanan, Kerwanan, Yalodean/Urvaran, and Azaccan (the time of rayed craters, similar to the lunar Copernican). The presence of geologically young cryovolcanic deposits on Ceres surface suggests that there could be warm melt pockets within Ceres shallow crust and the dwarf planet remain geologically active.

  17. Geology of Uruguay review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.

    2011-01-01

    This work is about the Uruguay geology review.This country has been a devoted to breeding cattle and agriculture.The evolution of geological knowledge begun with Dr. Karl Walther who published 53 papers between 1909 and 1948.

  18. Geological Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers use computed tomography (CT) scanners at NETL’s Geological Services Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, to peer into geologic core samples to determine how...

  19. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  20. INTURGEO: The international uranium geology information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    The International Uranium Geology Information System (INTURGEO) is an international compilation of data on uranium deposits and occurrences. The purpose of INTURGEO is to provide a clearinghouse for uranium geological information that can serve for the better understanding of the worldwide distribution of uranium occurrences and deposits. The INTURGEO system is by no means complete for all regions of the world. Data have been available principally from the WOCA countries. INTURGEO currently covers 6,089 occurrences and deposits in 96 countries of which 4,596 occurrences in 92 countries are presented here. The information presented in this publication is a very brief, one line synopsis of deposits and occurrences, and has been collected from literature and through questionnaires sent directly to IAEA Member States. None of the information contained in the INTURGEO database was derived from confidential sources although there are many entries which come from the internal files of Member States and are not directly available in the general literature. The uniformity of the INTURGEO data presented in this report has depended heavily on the data provided by Member States. Basic information includes the deposit or occurrence name, the mining district, the tectonic setting, the geological type, status, size, host-rock type, age of mineralization and bibliographic references. The data contained in the maps of the atlas include all reported occurrences of uranium above the anomaly level. The categories of occurrence and deposit status includes: Anomaly; occurrences of unknown status; occurrences; prospects; developed prospects; subeconomic deposits; economic deposits; mines; inactive mines; depleted mines. A microcomputer version of INTURGEO on 21 Megabyte Bernoulli disks is available. 5 tabs, 102 maps

  1. Hydromechanical coupling in geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Earth's porous crust and the fluids within it are intimately linked through their mechanical effects on each other. This paper presents an overview of such "hydromechanical" coupling and examines current understanding of its role in geologic processes. An outline of the theory of hydromechanics and rheological models for geologic deformation is included to place various analytical approaches in proper context and to provide an introduction to this broad topic for nonspecialists. Effects of hydromechanical coupling are ubiquitous in geology, and can be local and short-lived or regional and very long-lived. Phenomena such as deposition and erosion, tectonism, seismicity, earth tides, and barometric loading produce strains that tend to alter fluid pressure. Resulting pressure perturbations can be dramatic, and many so-called "anomalous" pressures appear to have been created in this manner. The effects of fluid pressure on crustal mechanics are also profound. Geologic media deform and fail largely in response to effective stress, or total stress minus fluid pressure. As a result, fluid pressures control compaction, decompaction, and other types of deformation, as well as jointing, shear failure, and shear slippage, including events that generate earthquakes. By controlling deformation and failure, fluid pressures also regulate states of stress in the upper crust. Advances in the last 80 years, including theories of consolidation, transient groundwater flow, and poroelasticity, have been synthesized into a reasonably complete conceptual framework for understanding and describing hydromechanical coupling. Full coupling in two or three dimensions is described using force balance equations for deformation coupled with a mass conservation equation for fluid flow. Fully coupled analyses allow hypothesis testing and conceptual model development. However, rigorous application of full coupling is often difficult because (1) the rheological behavior of geologic media is complex

  2. Quaternary coastal geology of Pernambuco State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, J.M.L.; Silva Pinto Bittencourt, A.C. da; Andrade Nery Leao, Z.M. de; Azevedo, A.E.G. de

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a geological map of Quaternary deposits occuring along the coast of the State of Pernambuco. These deposits comprise: 1. two sets of beach-ridge terraces of Pleistocene (120,000 years B.P.) and Holocene (5,000 years B.P.) age; 2. paleolagoonal deposits (5,140-6,030 years B.P.); 3. sandstone and coralgal reefs with ages spanning from 1,830 to 5,170 years B.P.; and 4, alluvial, freshwater swamp, and coralgal reefs with ages spanning from 1,830 to 5,170 years B.P.; and 4. alluvial, freshwater swamp, and mangrove swamp deposits of Holocene age. Eighteen new radiocarbon dates of paleolagoonal deposits, sandstone reefs, coral, coralline algae, and vermetid gastropod incrustations are also reported herein. (author)

  3. Manganese-bearing deposits near Lake Crescent and Humptulips, Washington: Chapter A in Contributions to economic geology (short papers and preliminary reports), 1927: Part I - Metals and nonmetals except fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, J.T.

    1927-01-01

    The Crescent mine, situated a short distance west of Lake Crescent, in the Olympic Mountains of Washington, yields an unusually high grade of manganese ore, which is suitable for making steel. Several manganiferous lodes of promising appearance have been found in the same area, and some near Humptulips, on the south side of the mountains. These and deposits on Skokomish River and at other places in the Olympic region are distributed around three sides of the mountains through a distance of 110 miles.The characteristic and generally the most abundant manganese mineral in this belt is bementite, a silicate of manganese that is rare elsewhere. Hausmannite, a suboxide of manganese (Mn3O4) that is also rather uncommon, occurs in several of the deposits and is locally abundant in the Crescent mine, where it forms the most valuable constituent of the ore. In addition more or less of a manganiferous carbonate is present, and bodies composed of fine-grained quartz and iron oxides form a large but separate part of the lodes.The deposits are associated with an impure red limestone of marine origin, which is probably to be correlated with the Franciscan formation of California. The limestone is overlain by a thick series of basaltic flows and tuff of Tertiary age that are partly altered to greenstone. The manganese is thought to have been deposited originally with the limestone as a carbonate. The concentration and change of much of it from the carbonate into bementite and hausmannite are believed to have been caused by warm solutions charged with silica that were expressed from the lavas or their magma. Afterward mountain-building movements and erosion elevated and exposed the manganiferous beds.The beds at the horizon of the manganiferous deposits are very incompletely explored and are to be regarded as the possible source of large quantities of ore.

  4. The geological attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.G.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses geological activity which takes place mainly in response to industrial and social pressures. Past geological reaction to these pressures profoundly altered popular conceptions of time, the Church, man, and the balance of nature. The present-day circumstances of geology are not essentially different from those of the past. Petroleum geology in North American illustrates the role of technology in determining the style and scope of geological work. Peaks of activity cluster obviously on the introduction from time to time of new instrumental capabilities (geophysical apparatus, for example), although not infrequently such activity is testing concepts or relationships perceived long before. Organic metamorphism and continental drift provide two examples. The petroleum industry now faces the dilemma of satisfying predicted demands for fuel, without doing irreparable injury to its environment of operation. Awareness of man's place in nature, which is a fundamental perception of geology, governs the geological attitude

  5. Geology, lithogeochemistry and paleotectonic setting of the host sequence to the Kangasjärvi Zn-Cu deposit, central Finland: implications for volcanogenic massive sulphide exploration in the Vihanti-Pyhäsalmi district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Roberts

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kangasjärvi Zn-Cu deposit is a highly deformed and metamorphosed Paleoproterozoic volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS deposit located in the Vihanti-Pyhäsalmi base metal mining district of central Finland. The host sequence to the deposit, referred to as the Inner Volcanic Sequence (IVS, is comprised of a bimodal suite of metavolcanic rocks and a regionally extensive tonalite-trondhjemite gneiss (sub-volcanic intrusions?. A separate and perhaps younger sequence of mafic volcanic rocks, with irregular intervals of undifferentiated intermediate to felsic schists and metalimestones, referred to as the Outer Volcanic Sequence (OVS, are separated from the IVS sequence by intervals of metagreywacke and U-P-bearing graphitic schists. A stratigraphic scheme for rocks within the IVS is proposed based on outcrop observations, locally preserved volcanic textures, aspects of seafloor-related hydrothermal alteration and lithogeochemistry. In this scheme, rare andesites form the lowermostvolcanic stratigraphy and are overlain by typical island-arc basalts that were erupted in a subaqueous setting. Tonalite-trondhjemite subvolcanic intrusions were locally emplaced within andesites and coeval rhyolites were extruded on the basaltic substrate. The extrusion of rhyolites, including high-silica rhyolites, was coeval with regional-scale, pre-metamorphic seafloor hydrothermal alteration and local sulphide mineralization. Extensively altered rhyolites envelope massive sulphides and are underlain by altered basalts. The latter rocks are now characterized by a variety of low-variance metamorphic mineral assemblages (e.g. orthoamphibole-cordierite rocks and define a domain of intense pre-metamorphic chlorite ± sericite alteration in the stratigraphic footwall of the deposit. The altered nature of these rocks is attributed to reaction with seawater-related hydrothermal fluids within a zone of upflow at or near the seafloor. The fundamental controls on convective

  6. IAEA Classification of Uranium Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Classifications of uranium deposits follow two general approaches, focusing on: • descriptive features such as the geotectonic position, the host rock type, the orebody morphology, …… : « geologic classification »; • or on genetic aspects: « genetic classification »

  7. Treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. Program for encapsulation, deep geologic deposition and research, development and demonstration; Kaernkraftavfallets behandling och slutfoervaring. Program foer inkapsling, geologisk djupfoervaring samt forskning, utveckling och demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Programs for RD and D concerning disposal of radioactive waste are presented. Main topics include: Design, testing and manufacture of canisters for the spent fuels; Design of equipment for deposition of waste canisters; Material and process for backfilling rock caverns; Evaluation of accuracy and validation of methods for safety analyses; Development of methods for defining scenarios for the safety analyses. 471 refs, 67 figs, 21 tabs.

  8. Stressing the main points, striving for benefits, conscientiously strengthening the geological work for solution mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weixing

    1995-01-01

    Based on the present situation of uranium geology in China being confronted with and the actual conditions of the development of uranium geology at home and abroad, the authors expounds that prospecting for economically minable and solution leachable uranium deposit is an inevitable choice for the uranium geological work in China, which must be aimed at economic benefits and the focal point of the work should currently be put on prospecting for economically in-situ leachable deposit, especially the solution minable sandstone type uranium deposit. Some measures for ensuring the smooth realization of prospecting targets in uranium geology are also proposed

  9. Genetic types of uranium deposits of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anysimov, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    There are three genetic classes of uranium deposits in Ukraine. Eight types of uranium deposits are described with reference to their genesis, age and geological position. The attributes of uranium concentration in Precambrian and Proterozoic periods of activization are shown. (author). 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  11. Uranium deposits of Australia to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spannari, S.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography provides a retrospective account of Australian uranium deposits, particularly the unpublished materials in the Australian Capital Territory. Some abstracts are included. Occurrences, mineralogy, ore genesis, structural controls and the eonomic geology of uranium deposits are covered but the mining of uranium, exploration reports, surveys, environmental aspects and controversial materials are not

  12. Environmental geology and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakić, Zoran; Mileusnić, Marta; Pavlić, Krešimir; Kovač, Zoran

    2017-10-01

    Environmental geology is scientific discipline dealing with the interactions between humans and the geologic environment. Many natural hazards, which have great impact on humans and their environment, are caused by geological settings. On the other hand, human activities have great impact on the physical environment, especially in the last decades due to dramatic human population growth. Natural disasters often hit densely populated areas causing tremendous death toll and material damage. Demand for resources enhanced remarkably, as well as waste production. Exploitation of mineral resources deteriorate huge areas of land, produce enormous mine waste and pollute soil, water and air. Environmental geology is a broad discipline and only selected themes will be presented in the following subchapters: (1) floods as natural hazard, (2) water as geological resource and (3) the mining and mineral processing as types of human activities dealing with geological materials that affect the environment and human health.

  13. Classification of Uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlkamp, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    A listing of the recognized types of uranium mineralization shows nineteen determinable types out of which only six can be classified as of economic significance at present: Oligomiitic quartz pebble conglomerates, sandstone types, calcretes, intra-intrusive types, hydrothermal veins, veinlike types. The different types can be genetically related to prevalent geological environments, i.e. 1. the primary uranium occurrences formed by endogenic processes, 2. the secondary derived from the primary by subsequent exogenic processes, 3. the tertiary occurrences are assumed to be formed by endogenic metamorphic processes, although little is known about the behaviour of the uranium during the metamorphosis and therefore the metallogenesis of this tertiary uranium generation is still vague. A metallotectonic-geochronologic correlation of the uranium deposits shows a distinct affinity of the uranium to certain geological epochs: The Upper Archean, Lower Proterozoic, the Hercynian and, in a less established stage, the Upper Proterozoic. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  14. Comparison of hydrothermal alteration patterns associated with porphyry Cu deposits hosted by granitoids and intermediate-mafic volcanic rocks, Kerman Magmatic Arc, Iran: Application of geological, mineralogical and remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Seyyed Jabber; Ranjbar, Hojjatollah; Alirezaei, Saeed; Dargahi, Sara; Lentz, David R.

    2018-06-01

    The southern section of the Cenozoic Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc (UDMA) of Iran, known as Kerman Magmatic Arc (KMA) or Kerman copper belt, is a major host to porphyry Cu ± Mo ± Au deposits, collectively known as PCDs. In this study, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and spectral angle mapper (SAM) method, combined with field data, mineralogical studies, and spectral analysis are used to determine hydrothermal alteration patterns related to PCDs in the KMA. Gossans developed over some of these porphyry type deposits were mapped using Landsat 8 data. In the NKMA gossans are more developed than in the SKMA due to comparatively lower rate of erosion. The hydrothermal alteration pattern mapped by ASTER data were evaluated using mineralogical and spectral data. ASTER data proved to be useful for mapping the hydrothermal alteration in this semi-arid type of climate. Also Landsat 8 was useful for mapping the iron oxide minerals in the gossans that are associated with the porphyry copper deposits. Our multidisciplinary approach indicates that unlike the PCDs in the northern KMA that are associated with distinct and widespread propylitic alteration, those in the granitoid country rocks lack propylitic alteration or the alteration is only weakly and irregularly developed. The porphyry systems in southern KMA are further distinguished by development of quartz-rich phyllic alteration zones in the outer parts of the PCDs that could be mapped using remote sensing data. Consideration of variations in alteration patterns and specific alteration assemblages are critical in regional exploration for PCDs.

  15. Geology of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderblom, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The geology of Mars and the results of the Mariner 4, 6/7, and 9 missions and the Viking mission are reviewed. The Mars chronology and geologic modification are examined, including chronological models for the inactive planet, the active planet, and crater flux. The importance of surface materials is discussed and a multispectral map of Mars is presented. Suggestions are given for further studies of the geology of Mars using the Viking data. 5 references

  16. Geology and lithogeochemistry of hydrothermal mudstones from the upper block near the Duck Pond volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit, Newfoundland, Canada: evidence for low-temperature venting into oxygenated mid-Cambrian seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercey, Stephen J.; Squires, Gerry; Brace, Terry

    2018-02-01

    Pyrite- and pyrrhotite-rich mudstones are spatially associated with Cambrian ( 512-509 Ma) volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits throughout the Tally Pond group, central Newfoundland, Canada. At the Duck Pond mine, sulfide-rich mudstones are hosted within a weakly mineralized upper block that structurally overlies the deposit but is older ( 513 versus 509 Ma). The mudstones are laminated, 10-30-cm thick, and pyrite- and pyrrhotite-rich and occur along pillow lava selvages, or in between pillow lavas, rhyolite flows, and volcaniclastic rocks. The mudstones are laterally extensive and proximal to the mudstone host rocks are hydrothermally altered to epidote-quartz-chlorite (basalt host) and sericite-quartz (rhyolite host). Lithogeochemical data for the sulfide-rich mudstones reflect the varying contributions of elements from sedimentary detritus, hydrothermal discharge, and hydrogenous scavenging from middle Cambrian seawater. The mudstones have minor detrital element abundances and significant hydrothermal element enrichments (i.e., elevated Fe2O3, S, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ba concentrations, high Fe/Al ratios). The hydrothermal mudstones are also enriched in oxyanions (i.e., P2O5, U, V, Cr, Ni, Co, and Hg), interpreted to have been enriched via oxidative scavenging from seawater by Fe-oxide/oxyhydroxide particles. The mudstones also have REE-Y signatures similar to modern oxygenated seawater with high Y/Ho and negative Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce* = 0.40-0.86; average = 0.58), which correlate with adsorbed oxyanion concentrations. The low Eu/Eu* (1.02-1.86; average = 1.22) in the mudstones suggest that they were deposited from low-temperature (residence time to scavenge oxyanions from seawater and inherit a middle Cambrian seawater signature. The predominant seawater REE-Y-oxyanion signature in the Duck Pond upper block sulfide-rich mudstones suggests that they are distal hydrothermal sedimentary rocks that could have formed up to 10 km from their original vent sources

  17. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Kashkasu W-Mo-Cu skarn deposit associated with a high-potassic to shoshonitic igneous suite in Kyrgyzstan, Tien Shan: Toward a diversity of W mineralization in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey G.

    2018-03-01

    The Kashkasu deposit is part of the subduction-related Late Paleozoic (Late Carboniferous) metallogenic belt of Tien Shan. It is associated with a multiphase monzodiorite-monzonite-granodiorite-granite pluton of the magnetite-series high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic igneous suite. The deposit contains zones of W-Mo-Cu oxidized prograde and retrograde skarns, with abundant andraditic garnet, magnetite, locally scapolite and K-feldspar, as well as scheelite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite. Skarns are overprinted by quartz-carbonate-sericite (phyllic alteration) zones with scheelite and sulfides. Prograde calcic skarn and initial retrograde skarns were formed from a high temperature (650 °C to 450-550 °C), high pressure (2000 bars to 600-900 bars) magmatic-hydrothermal low- to high-salinity aqueous chloride fluid. The gradual fluid evolution was interrupted by the intrusion of granodiorite and likely associated release of low-salinity (∼7-8 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluid. Ascent of this fluid to shallower levels and/or its cooling to 400-500 °C has resulted in phase separation into low-salinity (2.1-3.1 wt% NaCl equiv.) vapor and coexisting brine (35-40 wt% NaCl equiv.). The boiling was coincident with most intense scheelite deposition in retrograde skarn. Later retrograde skarn assemblages were formed from a gaseous, low- to moderate-salinity (3.4-8.1 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluid and then from high salinity (37-42 wt% NaCl equiv.) aqueous chloride fluids, the latter being enriched in Ca (17-20 wt% CaCl2) that could also affect scheelite deposition. Another cycle of fluid exsolution from crystallizing magma corresponded to quartz-carbonate-sericite-scheelite-sulfide (phyllic) alteration stage, with the early low-salinity (5.3-8.4 wt% NaCl-equiv.) fluid followed by later high-salinity (33.5-38.2 wt% NaCl-equiv.) fluid. The sulfur isotope data (δ34S = +5.1 to +9.0) suggest significant sulfur sourcing from sedimentary rocks enriched in seawater sulfate, possibly evaporites.

  18. Formation and types of uranium deposits, uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlkamp, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    To begin with, the formation and origin of uranium deposits is described, and uranium deposits are classified into four basic categories. Of these, those that are of economic interest are described in detail with regard to their characteristic geological features, and their geographic distribution in the western world is outlined. The major facts and data regarding the geological and geochronological classification of these deposits and their size are given in tables and easy-to-interpret diagrams. (RB) [de

  19. Geology of Lofn Crater, Callisto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Ronald; Heiner, Sarah; Klemaszewski, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Lofn crater is a 180-km-diameter impact structure in the southern cratered plains of Callisto and is among the youngest features seen on the surface. The Lofn area was imaged by the Galileo spacecraft at regional-scale resolutions (875 m/pixel), which enable the general geology to be investigated. The morphology of Lofn crater suggests that (1) it is a class of impact structure intermediate between complex craters and palimpsests or (2) it formed by the impact of a projectile which fragmented before reaching the surface, resulting in a shallow crater (even for Callisto). The asymmetric pattern of the rim and ejecta deposits suggests that the impactor entered at a low angle from the northwest. The albedo and other characteristics of the ejecta deposits from Lofn also provide insight into the properties of the icy lithosphere and subsurface configuration at the time of impact. The "target" for the Lofn impact is inferred to have included layered materials associated with the Adlinda multiring structure northwest of Loh and ejecta deposits from the Heimdall crater area to the southeast. The Lofn impact might have penetrated through these materials into a viscous substrate of ductile ice or possibly liquid water. This interpretation is consistent with models of the current interior of Callisto based on geophysical information obtained from the Galileo spacecraft.

  20. Towards a genetic classification of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.

    2009-01-01

    As the IAEA's uranium deposit classification is based on the deposit nature and morphology, some deposits which have been formed by very different genetic processes and located in very different geological environments, are grouped according to this classification. In order to build up a reliable genetic classification based on the mechanism at the origin of the formation of the deposit, the author presents the five main categories according to which uranium deposits can be classified: magmatic, hydrothermal, evapotranspiration, syn-sedimentary, and infiltration of meteoric water

  1. Geology's Impact on Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most people consider geology boring, static and difficult. The fields of astronomy and physics have "rebranded" themselves with exciting programs formatted so as to be readily understandable to the general public. The same thing can be done for geology. My research on geology's influence on other disciplines has resulted in a book, Tweeting da Vinci, in which I was able to show how geology affected Italy's art, architecture, medicine, religion, literature, engineering and just about everything else. The reaction to the book and my lectures by both students and the general public has been very positive, including four gold medals, with reviews and comments indicating that they never knew geology could be so exciting. The book is very user friendly, packed with facts, full-color photos, paintings, sketches and illustrations. Complex aspects of geology are presented in an easily understandable style. Widely diverse topics—such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion—are stitched together using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. The book can be used in classes such as physics, chemistry, literature, art history, medicine, Classical Studies, Latin, Greek and Italian. By incorporating a "geologic perspective" in these courses, it can be perceived as a more "all encompassing" discipline and encourage more students to study it. The lectures I have given on college campuses have resulted in students seeing their own majors from a different perspective and some have even signed up for introductory geology courses. One college organized summer course to the Bay of Naples based on the book. We followed the geology as well as the culture of the area and the students were profoundly moved. To encourage dialog, the book is linked to Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. This has enabled followers from

  2. Uranium ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelelli, Victorio.

    1984-01-01

    The main uranium deposits and occurrences in the Argentine Republic are described, considering, in principle, their geologic setting, the kind of 'model' of the mineralization and its possible origin, and describing the ore species present in each case. The main uraniferous accumulations of the country include the models of 'sandstong type', veintype and impregnation type. There are also other kinds of accumulations, as in calcrete, etc. The main uranium production has been registered in the provinces of Mendoza, Salta, La Rioja, Chubut, Cordoba and San Luis. In each case, the minerals present are mentioned, having been recognized 37 different species all over the country (M.E.L.) [es

  3. Geological and Petrographic Characteristics of Kimberlite Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Zinchuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the geological structure and petrochemical composition of the Siberian Platform kimberlites indicated complexity, diversity of geological, tectonic, and paleogeographic situations, which must be considered for proper prospecting-exploration for diamonds in each area of investigation. Information about petrochemical composition of potential diatremes, hosting, and overlying sedimentary and magmatic formations is an important prerequisite for prospecting of kimberlite deposits in different geologic-tectonic conditions. The most attention should be paid to typomorphic specific features of primary and secondary minerals of diatremes. Each diamondiferous region is characterized by a certain set of typomorphic associations of kimberlites primary and secondary minerals. The diamonds with ultrabasic association of solid phase inclusions (olivine, chrome-spinel, pyrope, etc. dominate in majority of kimberlite pipes.

  4. A geological substantiation of the prospects for oil and gas concentrations in the Eifelian and lower Frasnian deposits and trends for prospecting and exploratory operations in the southwestern Orenburg region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podkoiytov, N.G.; Astafyev, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Eifelian and lower Frasnian deposits, which have the general traits of a regional structure within the southern portion of the Urals and Volga Valley, are a unified structural-lithologic complex. The prediction of oil and gas concentrations in this complex to the south of the Orenburg region is confirmed by discovery of a number of fields (Tashlin and the Olkhov fields, etc.). The regional structure of the Eifelian and lower Frasnian complex is characterized by a D type reflecting seismic bed which coincides with the surface of this complex. To the west of the region, a Kanelik Chagansk system of flexures has been identified and to the south, localized upheavals within the Talovo Koshin swell have been identified.

  5. AEGIS geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) is used by the AEGIS (Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems) program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to simulate the dynamic geology and hydrology of a geologic nuclear waste repository site over a million-year period following repository closure. The GSM helps to organize geologic/hydrologic data; to focus attention on active natural processes by requiring their simulation; and, through interactive simulation and calibration, to reduce subjective evaluations of the geologic system. During each computer run, the GSM produces a million-year geologic history that is possible for the region and the repository site. In addition, the GSM records in permanent history files everything that occurred during that time span. Statistical analyses of data in the history files of several hundred simulations are used to classify typical evolutionary paths, to establish the probabilities associated with deviations from the typical paths, and to determine which types of perturbations of the geologic/hydrologic system, if any, are most likely to occur. These simulations will be evaluated by geologists familiar with the repository region to determine validity of the results. Perturbed systems that are determined to be the most realistic, within whatever probability limits are established, will be used for the analyses that involve radionuclide transport and dose models. The GSM is designed to be continuously refined and updated. Simulation models are site specific, and, although the submodels may have limited general applicability, the input data equirements necessitate detailed characterization of each site before application

  6. The First Global Geological Map of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockter, L. M.; Head, J. W., III; Byrne, P. K.; Denevi, B. W.; Kinczyk, M. J.; Fassett, C.; Whitten, J. L.; Thomas, R.; Ernst, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Geological maps are tools with which to understand the distribution and age relationships of surface geological units and structural features on planetary surfaces. Regional and limited global mapping of Mercury has already yielded valuable science results, elucidating the history and distribution of several types of units and features, such as regional plains, tectonic structures, and pyroclastic deposits. To date, however, no global geological map of Mercury exists, and there is currently no commonly accepted set of standardized unit descriptions and nomenclature. With MESSENGER monochrome image data, we are undertaking the global geological mapping of Mercury at the 1:15M scale applying standard U.S. Geological Survey mapping guidelines. This map will enable the development of the first global stratigraphic column of Mercury, will facilitate comparisons among surface units distributed discontinuously across the planet, and will provide guidelines for mappers so that future mapping efforts will be consistent and broadly interpretable by the scientific community. To date we have incorporated three major datasets into the global geological map: smooth plains units, tectonic structures, and impact craters and basins >20 km in diameter. We have classified most of these craters by relative age on the basis of the state of preservation of morphological features and standard classification schemes first applied to Mercury by the Mariner 10 imaging team. Additional datasets to be incorporated include intercrater plains units and crater ejecta deposits. In some regions MESSENGER color data is used to supplement the monochrome data, to help elucidate different plains units. The final map will be published online, together with a peer-reviewed publication. Further, a digital version of the map, containing individual map layers, will be made publicly available for use within geographic information systems (GISs).

  7. Field Geology/Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  8. Tsunami deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  9. Tsunami deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  10. Global Journal of Geological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Geological Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Geological Sciences including geochemistry, geophysics, engineering geology, hydrogeology, petrology, mineralogy, geochronology, tectonics, mining, structural geology, marine geology, space science etc. Visit the Global Journal Series ...

  11. Global Journal of Geological Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Global Journal of Geological Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of geological Sciences including Petrology, Mineralogy, geophysics, hydrogeology, Engineering geology, Petroleum geology, Palaeontology, environmental geology, Economic geology, etc.

  12. The uranium deposits of Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The principal types of uranium deposits in Ontario are carbonatites and fenites, alkalic volcanic rocks, pegiatites, calc-silicate rocks, pyritic quartz-pebble conglomerates, polymictic conglomerates and some pelitic rocks, and various 'pitchblende' deposits including late Precambrian unconformities, possibly late Precambrian diabase dikes, and other unconformities: carbonates, sandstones, lignites, and semi-pelitic rocks of middle and upper Precambrian age. Only red unzoned pegmatite and the pyritic quartz-pebble conglomerate have supported production. Ontario reasonably assured and estimated resources in the economic and subeconomic categories in 1977 amounted to 553 000 tonnes U, and 1977 production was 4000 tonnes U. Measured, indicated, and inferred resources in the Elliot Lake - Agnew Lake area are at least 400 000 tonnes U. The latter deposits are also a significant thorium resource. Geological features reflecting major changes in physics and chemistry are prime controls on distribution of uranium deposits. Geological province and subprovince boundaries, major faults, higher metamorphic grades, domain boundaries related to quartz monzonite batholiths, alkalic complexes, and the distribution of carbonate rocks are examples of such geological features

  13. Origin of the subduction-related Carboniferous intrusions associated with the Yandong porphyry Cu deposit in eastern Tianshan, NW China: constraints from geology, geochronology, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-O isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Hong; Xue, Chun-Ji; Liu, Jia-Jun; Zhang, Fang-Fang

    2018-06-01

    The Yandong porphyry Cu deposit is located at the south margin of the Dananhu-Tousuquan arc belt in eastern Tianshan, northwest China. The Cu ores comprise mainly disseminations and vein zones in the potassic and phyllic alteration zones, and are predominantly hosted in diorite porphyry, tonalite, and quartz porphyry, which intruded into Carboniferous Qi'eshan Group volcanic rocks. The U-Pb ages indicate that four intrusions were emplaced between 338.6 ± 2.9 and 326.1 ± 2.6 Ma. Five molybdenite samples yield Re-Os model ages of 333.8-329.5 Ma with a weighted average age of 331.8 ± 2.1 Ma. Fourteen pyrite samples have 206Pb/204Pb of 17.776-18.959, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.410-15.534, and 208Pb/204Pb of 37.323-38.127, similar to the age-corrected data of the Yandong tonalite. The tonalite shows adakite-like characteristics (e.g., high Sr/Y ratios and low Y contents), and has positive ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t) values, and low zircon O isotopes (3.7-4.6 ‰), suggesting that the melt was derived from partial melting of a subducted oceanic slab followed by mantle peridotite interaction. The diorite porphyry exhibits high Mg# and low Sr/Y values, slightly negative Eu anomalies, and positive ɛHf(t) values, indicating a lithospheric mantle source. The quartz porphyry, with stronger negative Eu anomalies, less evolved ɛHf(t) values, and low δ18O values (4.7-5.5 ‰), was probably derived from mantle melts that experienced mixing with lower crustal materials (melts or assimilation). The new data suggest that the Yandong intrusions formed in an arc setting. As the tonalite is genetically linked to the Cu mineralization, subduction-related slab melts must have played a key role in the formation of the Yandong deposit.

  14. Origin of the subduction-related Carboniferous intrusions associated with the Yandong porphyry Cu deposit in eastern Tianshan, NW China: constraints from geology, geochronology, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-O isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Hong; Xue, Chun-Ji; Liu, Jia-Jun; Zhang, Fang-Fang

    2017-10-01

    The Yandong porphyry Cu deposit is located at the south margin of the Dananhu-Tousuquan arc belt in eastern Tianshan, northwest China. The Cu ores comprise mainly disseminations and vein zones in the potassic and phyllic alteration zones, and are predominantly hosted in diorite porphyry, tonalite, and quartz porphyry, which intruded into Carboniferous Qi'eshan Group volcanic rocks. The U-Pb ages indicate that four intrusions were emplaced between 338.6 ± 2.9 and 326.1 ± 2.6 Ma. Five molybdenite samples yield Re-Os model ages of 333.8-329.5 Ma with a weighted average age of 331.8 ± 2.1 Ma. Fourteen pyrite samples have 206Pb/204Pb of 17.776-18.959, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.410-15.534, and 208Pb/204Pb of 37.323-38.127, similar to the age-corrected data of the Yandong tonalite. The tonalite shows adakite-like characteristics (e.g., high Sr/Y ratios and low Y contents), and has positive ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t) values, and low zircon O isotopes (3.7-4.6 ‰), suggesting that the melt was derived from partial melting of a subducted oceanic slab followed by mantle peridotite interaction. The diorite porphyry exhibits high Mg# and low Sr/Y values, slightly negative Eu anomalies, and positive ɛHf(t) values, indicating a lithospheric mantle source. The quartz porphyry, with stronger negative Eu anomalies, less evolved ɛHf(t) values, and low δ18O values (4.7-5.5 ‰), was probably derived from mantle melts that experienced mixing with lower crustal materials (melts or assimilation). The new data suggest that the Yandong intrusions formed in an arc setting. As the tonalite is genetically linked to the Cu mineralization, subduction-related slab melts must have played a key role in the formation of the Yandong deposit.

  15. Geological heritage of Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhadi, H.; Tahiri, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The soil and subsoil of Morocco are rich in geological phenomena that bear the imprint of a history that goes back in time more than 2000 million years. Very many sites geologically remarkable exposed in accessible outcrops, with good quality remain unknown to the general public and therefore deserve to be vulgarized. It is a memory to acquaint to the present generations but also to preserve for future generations. In total, a rich geological heritage in many ways: Varied landscapes, international stratotypes, various geological structures, varied rocks, mineral associations, a huge procession of fossiles, remnants of oceanic crust (ophiolites) among oldests ones in the world (800my), etc... For this geological heritage, an approach of an overall inventory is needed, both regionally and nationally, taking into account all the skills of the earth sciences. This will put the item on the natural (geological) potentialities as a lever for sustainable regional development. For this, it is necessary to implement a strategy of ''geoconservation'' for the preservation and assessment of the geological heritage.

  16. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  17. Geological myths and reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrihansky, Lubor

    2014-05-01

    Myths are the result of man's attempts to explain noteworthy features of his environment stemming from unfounded imagination. It is unbelievable that in 21st century the explanation of evident lithospheric plates movements and origin of forces causing this movement is still bound to myths, They are the myth about mantle convection, myth about Earth's expansion, myth about mantle heterogeneities causing the movement of plates and myth about mantle plumes. From 1971 to 1978 I performed extensive study (Ostřihanský 1980) about the terrestrial heat flow and radioactive heat production of batholiths in the Bohemian Massive (Czech Republic). The result, gained by extrapolation of the heat flow and heat production relationship, revealed the very low heat flow from the mantle 17.7mW m-2 close to the site of the Quarterly volcano active only 115,000 - 15,000 years ago and its last outbreak happened during Holocene that is less than 10,000 years ago. This volcano Komorní Hůrka (Kammerbühls) was known by J. W. Goethe investigation and the digging of 300 m long gallery in the first half of XIX century to reach the basaltic plug and to confirm the Stromboli type volcano. In this way the 19th century myth of neptunists that basalt was a sedimentary deposit was disproved in spite that famous poet and scientist J.W.Goethe inclined to neptunists. For me the result of very low heat flow and the vicinity of almost recent volcanoes in the Bohemian Massive meant that I refused the hypothesis of mantle convection and I focused my investigation to external forces of tides and solar heat, which evoke volcanic effects, earthquakes and the plate movement. To disclose reality it is necessary to present calculation of acting forces using correct mechanism of their action taking into account tectonic characteristics of geologic unites as the wrench tectonics and the tectonic of planets and satellites of the solar system, realizing an exceptional behavior of the Earth as quickly rotating

  18. Definition imaging of anomalous geologic structure with radio waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolarczyk, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    Diamond core drilling from the surface and access drifts are routinely used in acquiring subsurface geologic data. Examination of core from a constellation of drillholes enables the characterization of the prevailing geology in the deposit. Similar geologic members in adjacent drillholes suggest that layered rock continuity exists between drillholes. Mineralogical and physical examination of core along with computer generated stratigraphic cross sections graphically represents the correlation and classification of the rock in the deposit. CW radio waves propagating on ray paths between drillholes have been used to validate the stratigraphic cross section and image anomalous geologic structure between drillholes. This paper compares the crosshole radio wave tomography images of faults in a nuclear waste repository site and a coal seam with the in-mine mapping results

  19. Preliminary geologic map of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.; Harrington, C.; McFadden, L.; Perry, F.; Wells, S.; Turrin, B.; Champion, D.

    1988-12-01

    A preliminary geologic map has been compiled for the bedrock geology of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center. The map was completed through use of a combination of stereo photographic interpretation and field mapping on color aerial photographs. These photographs (scale 1:4000) were obtained from American Aerial Surveys, Inc. They were flown on August 18, 1987, at the request of the Yucca Mountain Project (then Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations). The photographs are the Lathrop Wells VC-Area 25 series, numbers 1--32. The original negatives for these photographs are on file with American Aerial Surveys, Inc. Copies of the negatives have been archived at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Group N-5. The preliminary geologic map is a bedrock geologic map. It does not show alluvial deposits, eolian sands, or scoria fall deposits from the youngest eruptive events. The units will be compiled on separate maps when the geomorphic and soils studies are more advanced

  20. Bureau of Economic Geology. 1978 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Bureau research programs and projects are designed to address many of the State's major concerns in the areas of geologic, energy, mineral, land, and environmental resouces. Research programs incorporate geologic concepts that will build toward an understanding of a specific resource and its impact on human activities. In addition to resource assessments in uranium, lignite, and geopressured geothermal energy, the Bureau continued research into analysis of governmental policy related to energy. Systemic geologic mapping, coastal studies, basin analysis projects, and investigations in other areas of economic geology further indicate the range of research programs carried forward in 1978. Specifically, research on mineral resources and land resources, coastal studies, hydrogeology, basin studies, geologic mapping, and other research (tektites and meteorites, carboniferous of Texas, depositional environments of the Marble Falls Formation, Central Texas) are reported. The establishment of the Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute is followed. Contracts and grant support and contract reports are listed. The publications eminating from the Bureau are listed. Services rendered by the Bureau and personnel information are included. (MCW)

  1. Nagra technical report 14-02, geological basics - Dossier III - Long-term geological developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnellmann, M.; Madritsch, H.

    2014-01-01

    This dossier is the third of a series of eight reports concerning the safety and technical aspects of locations for the disposal of radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Dossier III takes a look at long-term geological developments. Developments in the topography and river networks of northern Switzerland over the past five million years are looked at. Data and information derived from high-resolution models and compilations of gravel deposition, glacier developments and moraines are reviewed. Tectonic developments, seismological aspects and erosion are discussed. Their consequences for the long-term geological developments in the proposed depository areas are looked at

  2. Geology and mineral technology of the grants uranium region 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    Forty six papers which were presented at the 1979 Symposium on the Geology of the Grants Uranium Region plus three more are included in this Proceedings. The papers cover the geology of the Grants region with discussions of exploration history and methods, individual deposits, petrographic investigations, field studies mining and experimental studies. Other topics such as ground water hydrology and severence taxes are also included. All papers have been abstracted and all but four have been indexed

  3. Exogenous deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Exogenous deposits forming as a result of complex exogenous processes, passed under the influence of outside forces on the Earth surface. To them relate physical and chemical weathering, decomposition and decay of mineral masses, redistribution and transportation of material, forming and deposit of new minerals and ores steady on the earth surface conditions

  4. Discussions of the uranium geology working groups IGC, Sydney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The report is divided into six working group discussions on the following subjects: 1) Chemical and physical mechanisms in the formation of uranium mineralization, geochronology, isotope geology and mineralogy; 2) Sedimentary basins and sandstone-type uranium deposits; 3) Uranium in quartz-pebble conglomerates; 4) Vein and similar type deposits (pitchblende); 5) Other uranium deposits; 6) Relation of metallogenic, tectonic and zoning factors to the origin of uranium deposits. Each working group paper contains a short introductory part followed by a discussion by the working group members

  5. Characteristics of uranium geological anomaly in Northern Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinwu; Cheng Danping

    2001-01-01

    The geological anomaly characteristics of uranium deposit region in northern Guangdong are discussed on the aspects of uranium source, structure and thermal activity. Uranium deposits usually occur in the uranium-rich background field. Structure activity provides favourable places for the transportation and precipitation of uranium. Uranium deposits are formed in the central and edge of frequent thermal activity. The assembled entropy anomaly field is the synthetical display for above three anomaly. The biggest assembled entropy anomaly is the most favourable space field for forming uranium deposit

  6. Proceedings of the second symposium on the geology of Rocky Mountain coal, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, H. E. [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The 1977 Symposium on the Geology of Rocky Mountain Coal was held May 9 and 10 on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado. The 1977 Symposium was sponsored by the Colorado Geological Survey and the US Geological Survey. The 1977 Symposium consisted of four technical sessions: Depositional Models for Coal Exploration in the Rocky Mountain Cretaceous; Stratigraphy and Depositional Environments of Rocky Mountain Tertiary Coal Deposits; Depositional Models for Coal Exploration in non-Rocky Mountain Regions; and Application of Geology to Coal Mining and Coal Mine Planning. Several papers discuss geophysical survey and well logging techniques applied to the exploration of coal deposits and for mine planning. Fouteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  7. Uruguayan South Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemain, H.

    1980-01-01

    This monograph is about the sedimentary geological formation in the southern of Uruguay. According to the previous Gondwana studies there are several concordances between the Uruguayan and Brazilian ground.

  8. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  9. Iowa Bedrock Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The bedrock geologic map portrays the current interpretation of the distribution of various bedrock stratigraphic units present at the bedrock surface. The bedrock...

  10. Thermoluminescence studies in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.V.; Sunta, C.M.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Bapat, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    Even though the phenomenon of thermoluminescence is well studied, particularly over last 3 decades, its potentialities in the field of geology have not been adequately evaluated. In this report several useful applications of TL in mineralogy, petrogenesis, stratigraphy, tectonics, ore-prospecting and other branches have been identified with particular emphasis to the Indian scene. Important areas in the country that may provide the basic material for such studies are indicated at the end along with brief geological or mineralogical accounts. (auth.)

  11. Geologic map of the Bateman Spring Quadrangle, Lander County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramelli, Alan R.; Wrucke, Chester T.; House, P. Kyle

    2017-01-01

    This 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Bateman Spring 7.5-minute quadrangle in Lander County, Nevada contains descriptions of 24 geologic units and one cross section. Accompanying text includes full unit descriptions and references. This quadrangle includes lower Paleozoic siliciclastic sedimentary rocks of the Roberts Mountain allochthon, Miocene intrusive dikes, alluvial deposits of the northern Shoshone Range piedmont, and riverine deposits of the Reese and Humboldt rivers.Significant findings include: refined age estimates for the Ordovician-Cambrian Valmy Formation and Devonian Slaven Chert, based on new fossil information; and detailed mapping of late Quaternary fault traces along the Shoshone Range fault system.

  12. The Great Acceleration and the disappearing surficial geologic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Jason A.; Springer, Kathleen; Pigati, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    The surficial geologic record is the relatively thin veneer of young (Earth’s terrestrial surface (Fig. 1). Once largely ignored as “overburden” by geologists, surficial deposits are now studied to address a wide range of issues related to the sustainability of human societies. Geologists use surficial deposits to determine the frequency and severity of past climatic changes, quantify natural and anthropogenic erosion rates, identify hazards, and calculate recurrence intervals associated with earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. Increasingly, however, humans are eradicating the surficial geologic record in many key areas through progressive modification of Earth’s surface.

  13. Surficial Geology of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1969-01-01

    Much of the ground surface around Mount Rainier volcano is directly underlain by loose geologic deposits that veneer the hard rock formations. Examples of these deposits are sand and gravel bars along the rivers, ridges of loose rock debris beside the glaciers, and sloping aprons of rock fragments beneath almost every cliff. Even though they are generally thin and inconspicuous when compared with the rock formations, these surficial deposits are clues to geologic events that have profoundly influenced the shape of the park's landscape. Thus, from the character and extent of glacial deposits one can judge the age and size of former glaciers that carved the cirques and deep canyons of the park; from the mudflows which streamed down nearly every valley one can infer the age and size of huge landslides of the past that helped determine Mount Rainier's present shape; and from the pumice deposits some of the volcano's recent eruptive activity can be reconstructed. The map (plate 1, in pocket) that accompanies this description of the surficial deposits of Mount Rainier National Park shows the location of the various geologic formations, and the explanation shows the formations arranged in order of their relative age, with the oldest at the bottom. The text describes the surficial deposits in sequence from older to younger. A discussion of the pumice deposits of the park, which were not mapped, is followed by a description of the formations shown on the geologic map. Inspection of the geologic map may lead the viewer to question why the surficial deposits are shown in more detail in a zone several miles wide around the base of the volcano than elsewhere. This is partly because the zone is largely near or above timberline, relatively accessible, and the surficial deposits there can be readily recognized, differentiated, and mapped. In contrast, access is more difficult in the heavily timbered parts of the park, and surficial deposits there are generally blanketed by a dense

  14. Economic geology of the Bingham mining district, Utah, with a section on areal geology, and an introduction on general geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutwell, J.M.; Keith, Arthur; Emmons, S.F.

    1905-01-01

    The field work of which this report represents the final results was first undertaken in the summer of the year 1900. This district had long been selected by the writer as worthy of special economic investigation, as well on account of the importance of its products as because of its geological structure and the peculiar relations of its ore deposits. It was not, however, until the summer mentioned above that the means at the disposal of the Survey, both pecuniary and scientific, justified its undertaking. As originally planned, the areal or surface geology was to have been worked out by Mr. Keith, who had already spent many years in unraveling the complicated geological structure of the Appalachian province, while Mr. Boutwell, who had more recently become attached to the Survey, was to have charge of the underground geology, or a study of the ore deposits, under the immediate supervision of the writer. When the time came for actually taking the field, it was found that the pressure of other work would not permit Mr. Keith to carry out fully the part allotted to him, and in consequence a part of his field work has fallen to Mr. Boutwell. Field work was commenced by the writer and Mr. Boutwell early in July, 1900. Mr. Keith joined the party on August 10, but was obliged to leave for other duties early in September. Mr. Boutwell carried on his field work continuously from July until December, taking up underground work after the snowfall had rendered work on the surface geology impracticable. The geological structure had proved to be unexpectedly intricate and complicated, so that, on the opening of the field season of 1901, it was found necessary to make further study in the light of results already worked out, and Mr. Boutwell spent some weeks in the district in the early summer of 1901. His field work that year, partly in California and partly in Arizona, as assistant to Mr. Waldemar Lindgren, lasted through the summer and winter and well into the spring of 1902

  15. Application of Laser Scanning for Creating Geological Documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczek Michał

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A geological documentation is based on the analyses obtained from boreholes, geological exposures, and geophysical methods. It consists of text and graphic documents, containing drilling sections, vertical crosssections through the deposit and various types of maps. The surveying methods (such as LIDAR can be applied in measurements of exposed rock layers, presented in appendices to the geological documentation. The laser scanning allows obtaining a complete profile of exposed surfaces in a short time and with a millimeter accuracy. The possibility of verifying the existing geological cross-section with laser scanning was tested on the example of the AGH experimental mine. The test field is built of different lithological rocks. Scans were taken from a single station, under favorable measuring conditions. The analysis of the signal intensity allowed to divide point cloud into separate geological layers. The results were compared with the geological profiles of the measured object. The same approach was applied to the data from the Vietnamese hard coal open pit mine Coc Sau. The thickness of exposed coal bed deposits and gangue layers were determined from the obtained data (point cloud in combination with the photographs. The results were compared with the geological cross-section.

  16. Biological pathways of exposure and ecotoxicity values for uranium and associated radionuclides: Chapter D in Hydrological, geological, and biological site characterization of breccia pipe uranium deposits in Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Finger, Susan E.; Little, Edward E.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Kuhne, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    plant’s or an animal’s life history and surrounding environment. Various species of plants, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals found in the segregation areas that are considered species of concern by State and Federal agencies were included in the development of the site-specific food web. The utilization of subterranean habitats (burrows in uranium-rich areas, burrows in waste rock piles or reclaimed mining areas, mine tunnels) in the seasonally variable but consistently hot, arid environment is of particular concern in the segregation areas. Certain species of reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mammals in the segregation areas spend significant amounts of time in burrows where they can inhale or ingest uranium and other radionuclides through digging, eating, preening, and hibernating. Herbivores may also be exposed though the ingestion of radionuclides that have been aerially deposited on vegetation. Measured tissues concentrations of uranium and other radionuclides are not available for any species of concern in the segregation areas. The sensitivity of these animals to uranium exposure is unknown based on the existing scientific literature, and species-specific uranium presumptive effects levels were only available for two endangered fish species known to inhabit the segregation areas. Overall, the chemical toxicity data available for biological receptors of concern were limited, although chemical and radiation toxicity guidance values are available from several sources. However, caution should be used when directly applying these values to northern Arizona given the unique habitat and life history strategies of biological receptors in the segregation areas and the fact that some guidance values are based on models rather than empirical (laboratory or field) data. No chemical toxicity information based on empirical data is available for reptiles, birds, or wild mammals; therefore, the risks associated with uranium and other

  17. Uranium deposits: Main types and concepts for detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkovtsev, G.A.; Kislyakov, Ya.M.; Miguta, A.K.; Modnikov, I.S.; Shchetochkin, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of uranium deposits as a basis for developing an optimal exploration strategy for discovering deposits with favorable characteristics for low production cost. The classification is based on endogenic and exogenic sub-classes both of which are subdivided to synegenetic and epigenetic groups. The tectonic setting is also taken into consideration. Following description of the economic and geological types of deposits, the factors governing the formation of the deposits is given. (author). 2 figs, 2 tabs

  18. To meet new tasks of scientific research on uranium geology in new century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuyi

    2000-01-01

    The author analyses the new situation that the scientific research on uranium geology is facing in the coming new century, and proposes that the guiding idea of the scientific research on uranium geology is to coordinate the general policy of Bureau of Geology--to give the first priority to in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits. The specific tasks for the scientific research on uranium geology are: to implement regional evaluation and target area selection of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits; to develop new techniques and methods of detecting buried in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits; to turn the genetic model of uranium deposit and deposit model to prospecting model; to strengthen the research on economic geology and the dynamic assessment system of uranium resources and to build up and improve the data base of Meso-Cenozoic basins and sandstone-type uranium deposits. In order to guarantee the successful implementation of the above tasks it is necessary for the Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology--the leading unit in scientific research on uranium geology to accelerate bringing up large numbers of young outstanding researchers; to have clear consciousness of market economy and product quality; to given play to advantages of qualified personnel, advanced equipment and modern technology

  19. Sandstone-type uranium deposits. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.

    1985-01-01

    The similarity of most of the deposits described in this report is striking even though they occur in sandstone host rocks ranging in age from Carboniferous to Tertiary and on every continent outside the polar regions. Geologic environments of the uranium deposits consist of distinctive sets of tectonic and sedimentary-depositional systems, all of which have some common threads of favorable geologic processes. In this summary paper it is hoped that this report has sharpened an understanding of the deposit's ''home environment'' that will aid future exploration for these resource-important sandstone-type uranium ores

  20. The origin and control of the Camamu barite deposit (BA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    Geological and geochemical mechanisms responsible for the origin of the camamu barite deposit (Bahia State) was studied. The marine origin of sulfate is confirmed by the isotopic studies of oxygen delta and sulphur delta. (Author) [pt

  1. depositional framework and stratigraphy of the konshisha area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okwudiri Aloysius Anyiam, Department of Geology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. .... (b) Limestone bed with fossilized shells at L/08/Meelem (scale: pen = 18cm) (c) Limestone ..... Turonian times, with the deposition of the micaceous.

  2. Lunar and Planetary Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, Alexander T.

    2018-05-01

    Lunar and planetary geology can be described using examples such as the geology of Earth (as the reference case) and geologies of the Earth's satellite the Moon; the planets Mercury, Mars and Venus; the satellite of Saturn Enceladus; the small stony asteroid Eros; and the nucleus of the comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Each body considered is illustrated by its global view, with information given as to its position in the solar system, size, surface, environment including gravity acceleration and properties of its atmosphere if it is present, typical landforms and processes forming them, materials composing these landforms, information on internal structure of the body, stages of its geologic evolution in the form of stratigraphic scale, and estimates of the absolute ages of the stratigraphic units. Information about one body may be applied to another body and this, in particular, has led to the discovery of the existence of heavy "meteoritic" bombardment in the early history of the solar system, which should also significantly affect Earth. It has been shown that volcanism and large-scale tectonics may have not only been an internal source of energy in the form of radiogenic decay of potassium, uranium and thorium, but also an external source in the form of gravity tugging caused by attractions of the neighboring bodies. The knowledge gained by lunar and planetary geology is important for planning and managing space missions and for the practical exploration of other bodies of the solar system and establishing manned outposts on them.

  3. Database for volcanic processes and geology of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Jacqueline; Ramsey, David W.; Thoms, Evan; Waitt, Richard B.; Beget, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Augustine Island (volcano) in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, has erupted repeatedly in late-Holocene and historical times. Eruptions typically beget high-energy volcanic processes. Most notable are bouldery debris avalanches containing immense angular clasts shed from summit domes. Coarse deposits of these avalanches form much of Augustine's lower flanks. This geologic map at 1:25,000 scale depicts these deposits, these processes.

  4. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper

  5. Mineral deposits of Central America, with a section on manganese deposits of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ralph Jackson; Irving, Earl Montgomery; Simons, F.S.

    1957-01-01

    The mineral deposits of Central America were studied between 1942 and 1945, in cooperation with the United States Department of State and the Foreign Economic Administration. Emphasis was originally placed on the study of strategic-mineral deposits, especially of antimony, chromite, manganese, quartz, and mica, but deposits of other minerals that offered promise of significant future production were also studied. A brief appraisal of the base-metal deposits was made, and deposits of iron ore in Honduras and of lead and zinc ores in Guatemala were mapped. In addition, studies were made of the regional geology of some areas, data were collected from many sources, and a new map of the geology of Central America was compiled.

  6. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  7. Geological research for public outreach and education in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante

    2013-04-01

    Successful IYPE activities and implementation of Geoheritage day in Lithuania increased public awareness in geology. A series of projects introducing geology to the general public and youth, supported by EU funds and local communities, were initiated. Researchers from the scientific and applied geology institutions of Lithuania participated in these projects and provided with the geological data. In one case, the Lithuanian Survey of Protected Areas supported the installation of a series of geological exhibitions in several regional and national parks. An animation demonstrating glacial processes was chosen for most of these because the Lithuanian surface is largely covered with sedimentary deposits of the Nemunas (Weichselian) glaciation. Researchers from the Lithuanian Geological Survey used the mapping results to demonstrate real glacial processes for every chosen area. In another case, 3D models showing underground structures of different localities were based on detailed geological maps and profiles obtained for that area. In case of the Sartai regional park, the results of previous geological research projects provided the possibility to create a movie depicting the ca. 2 Ga geological evolution of the region. The movie starts with the accretion of volcanic island arcs on the earlier continental margin at ca. 2 Ga and deciphers later Precambrian tectonic and magmatic events. The reconstruction is based on numerous scientific articles and interpretation of geophysical data. Later Paleozoic activities and following erosion sculptured the surface which was covered with several ice sheets in Quaternary. For educational purpose, a collection of minerals and rocks at the Forestry Institute was used to create an exhibition called "Cycle of geological processes". Forestry scientists and their students are able to study the interactions of geodiversity and biodiversity and to understand ancient and modern geological processes leading to a soil formation. An aging

  8. Study on the remote sensing geological information of uranium mineralization in Western Liaoning and Northern Hebei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Baoshan; Wang Dianbai; Jin Shihua; Qiao Rui

    1996-01-01

    Based on the whole areal geological map joint application rd exploitation, composite forming map, generalization analysis and field examination in detail of key region that mainly depend on remote sensing information and generalize the data of geology, geophysical and geochemical prospecting, and geohydrology, this paper reveals the structure framework, regional geological background, uranium metallogenic condition and space time distribution rule of orustal evolution and its result, and set up the interpretation marks of arc-shaped structure in different of rock area and discusses its geological genesis. The author also interprets volcanic apparatus, small type closed sedimentary basin, magmatic rock body which relate closely to uranium deposit, ore control structure and occurrence and type of mineralization alteration envelope. The thermal halo point of satellite image is emphatically interpreted and its geological meaning and its relation to uranium deposit is discussed. Remote sensing geological prospecting ore model and synthetic provision model is determined lastly

  9. Signed distance function implicit geologic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mentzingen Rolo

    Full Text Available Abstract Prior to every geostatistical estimation or simulation study there is a need for delimiting the geologic domains of the deposit, which is traditionally done manually by a geomodeler in a laborious, time consuming and subjective process. For this reason, novel techniques referred to as implicit modelling have appeared. These techniques provide algorithms that replace the manual digitization process of the traditional methods by some form of automatic procedure. This paper covers a few well established implicit methods currently available with special attention to the signed distance function methodology. A case study based on a real dataset was performed and its applicability discussed. Although it did not replace an experienced geomodeler, the method proved to be capable in creating semi-automatic geological models from the sampling data, especially in the early stages of exploration.

  10. The efficiency of the use of penetration nuclear logging in hydrogeology and engineering geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferronsky, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    The latest developments in equipment and techniques for nuclear and combined non-nuclear logging in friable unconsolidated deposits, including marine bottom sediments are described. The effectiveness of these techniques in hydrogeological and engineering geological investigations is discussed. (Author)

  11. Geology and development: proceedings of the 40. Brazilian congress on geology; EXPOGEO 98 - Brazilian exposition of Geology. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings of the 40. Brazilian Congress on Geology register relevant papers on the nuclear and energy areas. The papers devoted to the nuclear area covers the following subjects: geochronology; stratigraphy; geochemistry; age estimation; isotope dating; litogeochemistry; mineralization; uranium deposits; crystallization; environmental impacts related to the uranium mines and the non nuclear mining industries; petrogenesis; paleoclimatology; natural radioactivity; spectrometry; and the uranium extraction. The articles on the energy area are referent to the petroleum, coal and natural gas exploration; environmental impacts related to the oil spilling; and the history and the perspectives of the petroleum exploration in Brazil

  12. Some concepts of favorability for world-class-type uranium deposits in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, H.H.

    1981-03-01

    An account is given of concepts of favorability of geologic environments in the eastern United States for uranium deposits of several major types existing elsewhere in the world. The purpose is to convey some initial ideas about the interrelationships of the geology of the eastern United States and the geologic settings of certain of these world-class deposits. The study and report include consideration of uranium deposits other than those generally manifesting the geologic, geochemical and genetic characteristics associated with the conventional sandstone-type ores of the western United States.

  13. Some concepts of favorability for world-class-type uranium deposits in the northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, H.H.

    1981-03-01

    An account is given of concepts of favorability of geologic environments in the eastern United States for uranium deposits of several major types existing elsewhere in the world. The purpose is to convey some initial ideas about the interrelationships of the geology of the eastern United States and the geologic settings of certain of these world-class deposits. The study and report include consideration of uranium deposits other than those generally manifesting the geologic, geochemical and genetic characteristics associated with the conventional sandstone-type ores of the western United States

  14. Plutonium in uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Aguilar, R.; Attrep, M. Jr.; Roensch, F.

    1992-01-01

    Plutonium-239 (t 1/2 , 24,100 yr) is one of the most persistent radioactive constituents of high-level wastes from nuclear fission power reactors. Effective containment of such a long-lived constituent will rely heavily upon its containment by the geologic environment of a repository. Uranium ore deposits offer a means to evaluate the geochemical properties of plutonium under natural conditions. In this paper, analyses of natural plutonium in several ores are compared to calculated plutonium production rates in order to evaluate the degree of retention of plutonium by the ore. The authors find that current methods for estimating production rates are neither sufficiently accurate nor precise to provide unambiguous measures of plutonium retention. However, alternative methods for evaluating plutonium mobility are being investigated, including its measurement in natural ground waters. Preliminary results are reported and establish the foundation for a comprehensive characterization of plutonium geochemistry in other natural environments

  15. Russian geological education in the world market (the case of Russian State Geological Prospecting University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily Ivanovich Lisov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher geological education in Russia and in MSGPI-RSGPU specific. It - engineering. The mineral deposits determine the development of the global industry and foreign trade. Growing global demand for the profession of geologists and mining engineers. Training of foreign students in Russia has its own geopolitical and economic importance. In Russia a strong resource-based economy. It attracts students from developing countries. MGRI-RSGPU is the leading universities training specialists for mining. The article presents data about the University and types of education. Shown scientific and educational problems in higher education. This article discusses the prospects for the promotion of Russian higher geological education at the world market of educational services. The increasing role of new scientific and technological achievements in mining, enhanced environmental as well as staff requirements is revealed. Given that the leading schools in the mining industry, in addition to Russia, are formed in Canada, Germany, USA, Australia, Great Britain, many developing countries rich in natural resources, have begun to form their own national centers for training in this area. Under such competitive conditions Russian geological education maintains its own niche. Recognition of this is the active participation of Russian universities in the creation and development of the World Forum of sustainable development of mineral universities (WFURS, described in the article. The main factors of competitiveness that led to leading positions of Russian State Geological Prospecting University in system of the Russian geological education are described. Particular attention is paid to the international activities of Russian higher educational institutions including Geological Prospecting University. The basic statistics (both in the context of the country, and in the field of foreign undergraduate and graduate students enrolled at this university is provided. The

  16. Public perceptions of geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Anderson, Mark; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2014-05-01

    Geological issues are increasingly intruding on the everyday lives of ordinary people. Whether it be onshore exploration and extraction of oil and gas, deep injection of water for geothermal power or underground storage of carbon dioxide and radioactive waste, many communities across Europe are being faced with potentially contested geological activity under their backyard. As well as being able to communicate the technical aspects of such work, geoscience professionals also need to appreciate that for most people the subsurface is an unfamiliar realm. In order to engage communities and individuals in effective dialogue about geological activities, an appreciation of what 'the public' already know and what they want to know is needed, but this is a subject that is in its infancy. In an attempt to provide insight into these key issues, this study examines the concerns the public have, relating to geology, by constructing 'Mental Models' of people's perceptions of the subsurface. General recommendations for public engagement strategies will be presented based on the results of selected case studies; specifically expert and non-expert mental models for communities in the south-west of England.

  17. Geology and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    Geologists' eyes are trained to find and trace such natural landmarks as flood plains, landslide scars, retreating shoreline bluffs, or surface traces of active earthquake faults. more and more often, in developing areas, we find these obvious signs of trouble being erased by urban development. A geological hazard concealed by landscaping or hosing is fully as dangerous as when it is visible.

  18. Geology of Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilevsky, A.T.; Head, J.W. III.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the emerging picture of the surface of Venus provided by high-resolution earth-based radar telescopes and orbital radar altimetry and imaging systems. The nature and significance of the geological processes operating there are considered. The types of information needed to complete the picture are addressed. 71 references

  19. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  20. Research on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing acceptability of the adequacy of the result of Preliminary and Detailed Investigations submitted by the implementor, and to establish a basic policy to secure safety for safety review. In FY 2010, 13 geology/climate related events for development of acceptance criteria for reviewing the adequacy of the result of Preliminary and Detailed Investigations were extracted. And the accuracy of geophysical exploration methods necessary for the Preliminary Investigation was evaluated. Regarding the research for safety review, we developed an idea of safety concept of Japanese geological disposal, and analyzed basic safety functions to secure safety. In order to verify the groundwater flow evaluation methods developed in regulatory research, the hydrological and geochemical data at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido were obtained, and simulated result of regional groundwater flow were compared with measured data. And we developed the safety scenario of geology/climate related events categorized by geological and geomorphological properties. Also we created a system to check the quality of research results in Japan and other countries in order to utilize for safety regulation, and developed a database system to compile them. (author)

  1. Surficial geology of Panther Lake Quadrangle, Oswego County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.

    1981-01-01

    The location and extent of eight kinds of surficial deposits in Panther Lake quadrangle, Oswego County, N.Y., are mapped on a 7.5-minute U.S. Geological Survey topographic map. The map was compiled to indicate the lithology and potential for groundwater development at any specific location. (USGS)

  2. Surficial geology of Hannibal Quadrangle, Oswego County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.

    1981-01-01

    The location and extent of 10 kinds of surficial deposits in part of Hannibal quadrangle, Oswego County, N.Y., are mapped on a 7.5-minute U.S. Geological Survey topographic map. The map was compiled to indicate the lithology and potential for ground-water development at any specific location. (USGS)

  3. Geological data integration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    The objectives of this Technical Committee are to bring together current knowledge on geological data handling and analysis technologies as developed in the mineral and petroleum industries for geological, geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing data that can be applied to uranium exploration and resource appraisal. The recommendation for work on this topic was first made at the meeting of the NEA-IAEA Joint Group of Experts on R and D in Uranium Exploration Techniques (Paris, May 1984). In their report, processing of integrated data sets was considered to be extremely important in view of the very extensive data sets built up over the recent years by large uranium reconnaissance programmes. With the development of large, multidisciplinary data sets which includes geochemical, geophysical, geological and remote sensing data, the ability of the geologist to easily interpret large volumes of information has been largely the result of developments in the field of computer science in the past decade. Advances in data management systems, image processing software, the size and speed of computer systems and significantly reduced processing costs have made large data set integration and analysis practical and affordable. The combined signatures which can be obtained from the different types of data significantly enhance the geologists ability to interpret fundamental geological properties thereby improving the chances of finding a significant ore body. This volume is the product of one of a number of activities related to uranium geology and exploration during the past few years with the intent of bringing new technologies and exploration techniques to the IAEA Member States

  4. CHUVARDINSKY’S ANTIGLACIAL (GENERALIZED GEOLOGICAL CONCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Skufyin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analytical study of V. G. Chuvardinsky’s monographs on the revision of the generally accepted glacial theory, the authors of the review concluded that there was convincing evidence of a fault-tectonic origin of ‘ice-exaration’ relief of the Baltic Shield. Developed by Chuvardinsky, a radically new methodology of boulder prospecting of ore deposits not only refuted the old glacial theory, but also led to the discovery of copper-nickel deposits, a new apatite alkaline massif, promising manifestation of copper-nickel ore, platinum group metals, native gold, chromite and other mineral resources. A thorough drilling of ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica for the international project determined the absence of boulder material over the entire thickness of the ice, only pulverulent and fine particles (mainly volcanic ash were found in the ice. Bottom ice layers are immobilised, their function is preservation of the geological surface. V. G. Chuvardinsky far outstripped western and Russian scientists in the field of Earth Sciences. His field studies on the Baltic Shield not only refuted the mighty glacial theory, but also created and substantiated a new geological concept instead. Professor V. Z. Negrutsa was quite right when he wrote in his review on Chuvardinsky’s work (journal Geomorfologiya, 2003, no. 1, ‘Evidence of Chuvardinsky about tectonic origin of geological and geomorphological features traditionally associated with the Quaternary glaciation is so obvious and reproducible both by field observations and by geological modeling that is presented irrefutable and undeniable in its essence’. In general, assessing the scientific significance of V. G. Chuvardinsky’s works, it can be stated that his work would have done honour to research institutes of geological and geographical orientation according to the level of study of the geological material and the value of his field studies. His books present the material for

  5. Structural geologic study of southeastern Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satterfield, I.R.; Ward, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    A geologic map at 1:62,500 scale was prepared of the Cretaceous (Mesozoic) and Tertiary (cenozoic) sediments and seven major units were recognized with emphasis on faulting. Faulted sediments of Pliocene age (possibly Pleistocene) were observed and younger units are suspected to be involved. Data from hand-augered holes plus water well data were logged and plotted. The feasibility of using physical data (size analysis and pH) as a correlation tool for determining structural disturbance in loess deposits was established

  6. Surficial uranium deposits: summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otton, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium occurs in a variety of surficial environments in calcretes, gypcretes, silcretes, dolocretes and in organic sediments. Groundwater moving on low gradients generates these formations and, under favourable circumstances, uranium deposits. A variety of geomorphic settings can be involved. Most surficial deposits are formed in desert, temperate wetland, tropical, or transitional environments. The largest deposits known are in sedimentary environments in arid lands. The deposits form largely by the interaction of ground or surface waters on the geomorphic surface in favourable geologic terrains and climates. The deposits are commonly in the condition of being formed or reconstituted, or being destroyed. Carnotite is common in desert deposits while in wetland deposits no uranium minerals may be seen. Radioactive disequilibrium is common, particularly in wetland deposits. Granites and related rocks are major source rocks and most large deposits are in regions with enriched uranium contents, i.e. significantly greater than 5 ppm uranium. Uranium dissolution and transport is usually under oxidizing conditions. Transport in desert conditions is usually as a bicarbonate. A variety of fixation mechanisms operate to extract the uranium and form the deposits. Physical barriers to groundwater flow may initiate ore deposition. Mining costs are likely to be low because of the near surface occurrence, but there may be processing difficulties as clay may be present and the saline or carbonate content may be high. (author)

  7. Fire vs Water: Erosional/Depositional Geology, Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Even a casual, untrained observer will see evidence that opposing forces have formed the Hawaiian Islands. The massive and lofty volcanoes have been scoured,...

  8. The geology and ore deposits of the Bisbee quadrangle, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransome, Frederick Leslie

    1904-01-01

    The Bisbee quadrangle lies in Cochise County, in the southeastern part of Arizona, within what has been called in a previous paper the mountain region of the Territory. It is inclosed between meridians 109 ° 45' and 110 ° 00' and parallels 31° 30' and 31 ° 20', the latter being locally the Mexican boundary line. The area of the quadrangle is about 170 square miles, and includes the southeastern half of the Mule Mountains, one of the smaller of the isolated ranges so characteristic of the mountain region of Arizona. The Mule Mountains, while less markedly linear than the Dragoon, Huachuca, Chiricahua, and other neighboring ranges, have a general northwest-southeast trend. They may be considered as extending from the old mining town of Tombstone to the Mexican border, a distance of about 30 miles. On the northeast they are separated by the broad fiat floor of Sulphur Spring Valley form the Chiricahua Range, and on the southwest by the similar broad valley of the Rio San Pedro from the Huachuca Range (Pl. V, A). 

  9. What safety indicators for a storage in deep geologic deposit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouail, P.; Schneider, T.; Mure, J.M.; Voinis, S.

    1999-01-01

    Indicators must allow to discriminate and compare different options of facility conception and help the decision-makers in their choices. In the case of a deep storage, these indicators can also allow a comparison in terms of impact with other existing industrial systems (thermal or nuclear power plants, uranium ores) or even the natural radioactivity. Through Swedish and Canadian examples, the presentation makes an inventory of indicators that could be kept in a safety analysis of a deep storage. (N.C.)

  10. Geology of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit near Meli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    9.96 wt%. Fe2O3, 9.34-9.7 wt% CaO, 8.88-15.72 wt% MgO, 0.69-2.18 wt% Na2O, 1.7-2.31 wt% K2O, 0.29-. 0.81 wt% TiO2, 0.13-0.24 wt% MnO and 0.13-0.64 wt% P2O5. Similarly, intermediate metavolcanic rocks show variation from 60.65- ...

  11. Geology of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit near Meli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    rocks where hydrothermal solutions interaction is more intense (Fig 3). A brecciated, possibly the vent, observed in the field, is also highly altered showing chloritization and sericitization. These alterations are assumed to be the result of the reaction of Fe-Si-Ca -rich hydrothermal fluid and the host rocks, and is common in ...

  12. Bauxite deposits in Suriname : Geological context and resource development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsels, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Bauxite, the raw material of aluminum, has been one of the economically vital natural resources for Suriname. Mining operations started about a century ago, and subsequent development of a refinery industry and hydro-electric power made Suriname one of the foremost bauxite and alumina producers

  13. Geoethics and Forensic Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance

    2017-04-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  14. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  15. Engineering geology and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeev, E M

    1979-01-01

    A classification is made of the anthropogenic processes in the environment into global, local, universally distributed, zonal, regional, and essentially local processes. Engineering geology is defined as the principal science concerned with the study of the geological medium which in turn involves the study of fossil fuel geology. 22 references.

  16. 77 FR 19032 - Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Announcement of National Geospatial Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National.... Geological Survey (703-648-6283, [email protected] ). Registrations are due by April 13, 2012. While the...

  17. Geological research on rare earth elements, results and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortin, H

    1999-01-01

    This is a report of the geological investigation of rare earth elements carried out by CCHEN and ENAMI (Empresa Nacional de Mineria) over 70,000 square kilometers in Chile's northern coastal mountain range. Twenty areas were identified with sphena, davidite, ilmenite, pyroxene, anatase and magnetite minerals containing 0.3 kg/t to 6.0 kg/t of rare earth elements. Additional research on Cerro Carmen Prospect, located near Diego de Almagro, define it as a metasomatic deposit, hosted in metamorphic contact rocks, between andesites (Pliensbachian to early Jurassic) and intrusive monzonitic rocks. This information increases knowledge about the metallogenesis of Chile's copper - iron - rare earth - uranium deposits and the application of this geological model of ore deposits as defined in Australia's Olympic Dam

  18. The 16th International Geological Congress, Washington, 1933

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    In 1933, the International Geological Congress (IGC) returned to the United States of America (USA) for its sixteenth meeting, forty-two years after the 5th IGC convened in Washington. The Geological Society of America and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) supplied the major part of the required extra-registration funding after the effects of the Great Depression influenced the 72th U.S. Congress not to do so. A reported 1, 182 persons or organizations, representing fifty-four countries, registered for the 16 th IGC and thirty-four countries sent 141 official delegates. Of the total number of registrants, 665 actually attended the meeting; 500 came from the USA; and fifteen had participated in the 5th IGC. The 16 th Meeting convened in the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Building from 22 to 29 July. The eighteen half-day scientific sections-orogenesis (four), major divisions of the Paleozoic (three), miscellaneous (three), batholiths and related intrusives (two), arid-region geomorphic processes and products (one), fossil man and contemporary faunas (one), geology of copper and other ore deposits (one), geology of petroleum (one), measuring geologic time (one), and zonal relations of metalliferous deposits (one)-included 166 papers, of which fifty (including several of the key contributions) appeared only by title. The Geological Society of Washington, the National Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines hosted or contributed to evening presentations or receptions. Twenty-eight of the 16th IGC's thirty new guidebooks and one new USGS Bulletin aided eight pre-meeting, seven during-meeting, and four post-meeting field trips of local, regional, or national scope. The remaining two new guidebooks outlined the USA's structural geology and its stratigraphic nomenclature. The 16th IGC published a two-volume monograph on the world's copper resources (1935) and a two-volume report of its proceedings (1936).

  19. Geologic Field Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Hribernik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present the field data relational database, which was compiled from data, gathered during thirty years of fieldwork on the Basic Geologic Map of Slovenia in scale1:100.000. The database was created using MS Access software. The MS Access environment ensures its stability and effective operation despite changing, searching, and updating the data. It also enables faster and easier user-friendly access to the field data. Last but not least, in the long-term, with the data transferred into the GISenvironment, it will provide the basis for the sound geologic information system that will satisfy a broad spectrum of geologists’ needs.

  20. Prospecting direction and favourable target areas for exploration of large and super-large uranium deposits in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingzhong

    1993-01-01

    A host of large uranium deposits have been successively discovered abroad by means of geological exploration, metallogenetic model studies and the application of new geophysical and geochemical methods since 1970's. Thorough undertaking geological research relevant to prospecting for super large uranium deposits have attracted great attention of the worldwide geological circle. The important task for the vast numbers of uranium geological workers is to make an afford to discover more numerous large and super large uranium deposits in China. The author comprehensively analyses the regional geological setting and geological metallogenetic conditions for the super large uranium deposits in the world. Comparative studies have been undertaken and the prospecting direction and favourable target areas for the exploration of super large uranium deposits in China have been proposed

  1. Research on geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing reliability and suitability of the result from Preliminary Investigations to be submitted by the implementer, and to establish a basic policy for safety review. For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Preliminary Investigations, we evaluated the uncertainties and their influence from limited amount of investigations, as well as we identified important procedures during investigations and constructions of models, as follows: (1) uncertainties after limited amount of geological exploration and drilling, (2) influence of uncertainties in regional groundwater flow model, (3) uncertainties of DFN (Discrete Fracture Network) models in the fractured rock, (4) analyzed investigation methods described in implementer's report, and (5) identified important aspects in investigation which need to be reviewed and follow QA (Quality Assurance). For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Detailed Investigations, we analyzed important aspects in investigation which supplies data to design and safety assessment, as well as studied the applicability of pressure interference data during excavation to verify hydrogeological model. Regarding the research for safety review, uncertainties of geologic process in long time-scale was studied. In FY2012, we started to evaluate the structural stabilities of concrete and bentonite in disposal environment. Finally, we continued to accumulate the knowledge on geological disposal into the database system. (author)

  2. Geological remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Charlotte; Rivard, Benoit; de Souza Filho, Carlos; van der Meer, Freek

    2018-02-01

    Geology is defined as the 'study of the planet Earth - the materials of which it is made, the processes that act on these materials, the products formed, and the history of the planet and its life forms since its origin' (Bates and Jackson, 1976). Remote sensing has seen a number of variable definitions such as those by Sabins and Lillesand and Kiefer in their respective textbooks (Sabins, 1996; Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000). Floyd Sabins (Sabins, 1996) defined it as 'the science of acquiring, processing and interpreting images that record the interaction between electromagnetic energy and matter' while Lillesand and Kiefer (Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000) defined it as 'the science and art of obtaining information about an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object, area, or phenomenon under investigation'. Thus Geological Remote Sensing can be considered the study of, not just Earth given the breadth of work undertaken in planetary science, geological features and surfaces and their interaction with the electromagnetic spectrum using technology that is not in direct contact with the features of interest.

  3. Geologic sources of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Price, Raymond A.; Scholl, David W.; Stone, David B.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes the exploration, development, and geologic setting of petroleum resources (including tar sands), coal resources (including coalbed methane), and geothermal energy resources of the Northern Cordillera.For petroleum resources, the chapter describes: (1) the history of petroleum development and production, first for Alaska and then for the Canadian Cordillera; and (2) generalized basin analysis geologic settings for the six major petroleum basins that are illustrated in summary maps and cross sections. Subsequent sections of the chapter describe the nature and geologic setting of tar sand resources, geothermal energy resources, and coal resources. The area distribution of the energy resources of the region are depicted in the Energy Resources Map that has multiple layers that can be displayed in various arrangements. Employing this map in a separate window while reading the text will be greatly beneficial. Many geographic names are employed in the descriptions throughout this chapter. While reading this chapter, viewing the Geographic Regions Layer of the Energy Resources Map, as needed, will be valuable.

  4. Safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattah, A.

    2000-01-01

    Direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel in geological repositories is a recognised option for closing nuclear fuel cycles. Geological repositories are at present in stages of development in a number of countries and are expected to be built and operated early next century. A State usually has an obligation to safely store any nuclear material, which is considered unsuitable to re-enter the nuclear fuel cycle, isolated from the biosphere. In conjunction with this, physical protection has to be accounted for to prevent inadvertent access to such material. In addition to these two criteria - which are fully under the State's jurisdiction - a third criterion reflecting international non-proliferation commitments needs to be addressed. Under comprehensive safeguards agreements a State concedes verification of nuclear material for safeguards purposes to the IAEA. The Agency can thus provide assurance to the international community that such nuclear material has been used for peaceful purposes only as declared by the State. It must be emphasised that all three criteria mentioned constitute a 'unit'. None can be sacrificed for the sake of the other, but compromises may have to be sought in order to make their combination as effective as possible. Based on comprehensive safeguards agreements signed and ratified by the State, safeguards can be terminated only when the material has been consumed or diluted in such a way that it can no longer be utilised for any nuclear activities or has become practicably irrecoverable. As such safeguards for nuclear material in geological repositories have to be continued even after the repository has been back-filled and sealed. The effective application of safeguards must assure continuity-of-knowledge that the nuclear material in the repository has not been diverted for an unknown purpose. The nuclear material disposed in a geological repository may eventually have a higher and long term proliferation risk because the inventory is

  5. Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Till, Alison B.

    1993-01-01

    This collection of 19 papers continues the annual series of U.S. Geological Survey reports on the geology of Alaska. The contributions, which include full-length Articles and shorter Geologic Notes, cover a broad range of topics including dune formation, stratigraphy, paleontology, isotopic dating, mineral resources, and tectonics. Articles, grouped under four regional headings, span nearly the entire State from the North Slope to southwestern, south-central, and southeastern Alaska (fig. 1).In the section on northern Alaska, Galloway and Carter use new data on dune morphology and radiocarbon ages from the western Arctic Coastal Plain to develop a late Holocene chronology of multiple episodes of dune stabilization and reactivation for the region. Their study has important implications for climatic changes in northern Alaska during the past 4,000 years. In two papers, Dumoulin and her coauthors describe lithofacies and conodont faunas of Carboniferous strata in the western Brooks Range, discuss depositional environments, and propose possible correlations and source areas for some of the strata. Schenk and Bird propose a preliminary division of the Lower Cretaceous stratigraphic section in the central part of the North Slope into depositional sequences. Aleinikoff and others present new U-Pb data for zircons from metaigneous rocks from the central Brooks Range. Karl and Mull, reacting to a proposal regarding terrane nomenclature for northern Alaska that was published in last year's Alaskan Studies Bulletin, provide a historical perspective of the evolution of terminology for tectonic units in the Brooks Range and present their own recommendations.

  6. Geologic Map of the Thaumasia Region, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohm, Janes M.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Hare, Trent M.

    2001-01-01

    The geology of the Thaumasia region (fig. 1, sheet 3) includes a wide array of rock materials, depositional and erosional landforms, and tectonic structures. The region is dominated by the Thaumasia plateau, which includes central high lava plains ringed by highly deformed highlands; the plateau may comprise the ancestral center of Tharsis tectonism (Frey, 1979; Plescia and Saunders, 1982). The extensive structural deformation of the map region, which is without parallel on Mars in both complexity and diversity, occurred largely throughout the Noachian and Hesperian periods (Tanaka and Davis, 1988; Scott and Dohm, 1990a). The deformation produced small and large extensional and contractional structures (fig. 2, sheet 3) that resulted from stresses related to the formation of Tharsis (Frey, 1979; Wise and others, 1979; Plescia and Saunders, 1982; Banerdt and others, 1982, 1992; Watters and Maxwell, 1986; Tanaka and Davis, 1988; Francis, 1988; Watters, 1993; Schultz and Tanaka, 1994), from magmatic-driven uplifts, such as at Syria Planum (Tanaka and Davis, 1988; Dohm and others, 1998; Dohm and Tanaka, 1999) and central Valles Marineris (Dohm and others, 1998, Dohm and Tanaka, 1999), and from the Argyre impact (Wilhelms, 1973; Scott and Tanaka, 1986). In addition, volcanic, eolian, and fluvial processes have highly modified older surfaces in the map region. Local volcanic and tectonic activity often accompanied episodes of valley formation. Our mapping depicts and describes the diverse terrains and complex geologic history of this unique ancient tectonic region of Mars. The geologic (sheet 1), paleotectonic (sheet 2), and paleoerosional (sheet 3) maps of the Thaumasia region were compiled on a Viking 1:5,000,000-scale digital photomosaic base. The base is a combination of four quadrangles: the southeast part of Phoenicis Lacus (MC–17), most of the southern half of Coprates (MC–18), a large part of Thaumasia (MC–25), and the northwest margin of Argyre (MC–26

  7. Uranium deposits of Gabon and Oklo reactors. Metallogenic model for rich deposits of the lower proterozoic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier-Lafaye, F.

    1986-05-01

    The geology of the Franceville basin (Gabon) is examined: stratigraphy, tectonics and geodynamics. The mobile zone of the Ogooue is specially studied: lithology, metamorphism and tectonics, isotopic geochronologic data are given. The different uranium deposits are described. A whole chapter is devoted to the study of Oklo natural nuclear reactor. A metallogenic model is proposed evidencing conditions required for deposit genesis. Tectonics, microstructures sedimentology, organic matter, diagenesis and uraniferous mineralizations are examined [fr

  8. Submarine geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, C.D.; Corliss, B.H.; Anderson, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Site suitability characteristics of submarine geological formations for the disposal of radioactive wastes include the distribution coefficient of the host medium, permeability, viscoelastic nature of the sediments, influence of organic material on remobilization, and effects of thermal stress. The submarine geological formation that appears to best satisfy these criteria is abyssal ''red'' clay. Regions in the ocean that have coarse-grained deposits, high or variable thermal conductivity, high organic carbon content, and sediment thickness of less than 50 m are not being considered at this time. The optimum geological environment should be tranquil and have environmental predictability over a minimum of 10 5 years. Site selection activities for the North Atlantic and North Pacific are reviewed and future activities which include international cooperation are discussed. A paleoenvironmental model for Cenozoic sedimentation in the central North Pacific is presented based on studies of a long core from the Mid-Plate Gyre MPG-1 area, and is an example of the type of study that will be carried out in other seabed study areas. The data show that the MPG-1 region has been an area of slow, continuous accumulation during the past 65 million years. (author)

  9. Uranium geology and prospecting in Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenfelt, A.; Neilson, B.L.; Secher, K.

    1977-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Greenland is responsible for most of the uranium and thorium prospecting activity in Greenland, which involves airborne gamma spectrometry and scintillometry, geochemical sampling, geological investigations and ground scintillometry. Since 1971 large areas of east and west Greenland have been investigated by aerial surveys, geochemical sampling and most of the detailed scintillometric work having been restricted to small areas in east Greenland. Anomalous radioactivity in west Greenland is recorded from carbonatite intrusions, and from units in Proterozoic and Archaean gneisses. No mineralization has been found to date. In south Greenland investigations have been centred on the uranium and thorium deposit at Kvanefjeld, which is situated in a corner of the Ilimaussaq alkaline intrusion. The coincidence of favourable conditions during the differentiation and crystallization of the magma led to an extreme enrichment of uranium and thorium in the rocks that were last formed - the lujavrites. The deposit comprises parts of the lujavrites and a secondary enrichment zone in the contact between lujavrite and basaltic cover rocks. Reasonably assured reserves are 5800 t U with a grade of 310 ppm U. In the Caledonides of east Greenland some gneisses in basement cores, a dark siltstone in late Precambrian sediments and the Devonian acid magmatic rocks are characterized by a higher radiation level. A number of small mineral occurrences have been found, the majority of which are associated with the Devonian acid magmatic rocks. (author)

  10. The geology of the southeastern Baltic Sea: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ūsaitytė, Daiva

    2000-06-01

    The Baltic Sea, particularly its southeastern part, is discussed in the paper. Investigations of regional character as well as specialized studies in the area are reviewed. General historical works are mentioned briefly. Previous surveys since the 1950s are presented by the subject studied. The compilation of geological structure of the SE Baltic Sea bottom and adjacent land of Balticum (Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) is based on considerable amounts of summarized materials. The crystalline basement, sedimentary cover and Quaternary deposits are characterized in the comprehensive survey of geological structure. From a stratigraphical point of view, geological sequence of the platformal cover is comparatively complete: deposits of all geological systems (from the Archean to Cenozoic) are present in the Baltic Syneclise. Considering geotectonical cycles, the sedimentary cover of the syneclise is subdivided into four structural complexes. The thickness and distribution of Quaternary deposits are closely related to the recent bottom relief of the Baltic Sea that in turn is inherited from the Pre-Quaternary surface. Buried palaeo-valleys are characteristic of the Pre-Quaternary surface in the Baltic region and the Baltic Sea bottom. The Quaternary is characterized by layers of various geneses and by sharp changes of their thicknesses.

  11. Deposits formed by ascending vein water (3 type)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarova, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    Deposits formed by ascending vein waters (3 type), are considered using uranium-bitumen deposit in red-coloured continental sediments of Permo-Triassic as an example. Geological-structural and hydrogeological conditions of mineralization localization and conditions of deposit formation are discussed. Mineralogic-geochemical features and morphology of ore bodies are characterized. Attention is paid to the problem of epigenetic zone in ore-containing rocks and stages of its formation [ru

  12. Exploration methods for granitic natural stones – geological and topographical aspects from case studies in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavi Selonen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional and local geological constraints for location of natural stone deposits in glaciated terrains of southern and central Finland have been studied and applied to practical exploration for natural stone. A list of geological and topographical aspects to be considered in exploration, is presented. Important aspects refer to: 1. Regional geology of the target area. 2. Magmatism (type and structure of intrusion, relative time of pluton emplacement. 3. Metamorphism (grade, mineral composition, parent material. 4. Deformation (lineaments, shear zones, folding, fault zones, fracture zones, shape preferred mineral orientations, and 5. Topography (relative elevation, micro topography. The proposed aspects can be used as geological guidelines in exploration for granitic natural stones.

  13. Study on remote sensing geologic information of uranium metallogeny in western Liaoning-northern Hebei region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Baoshan

    1998-01-01

    Based on the study on geologic metallogenic environment, temporal and spatial distribution and deposit features of uranium deposits in western Liaoning-northern Hebei region, summarizing mainly remote sensing information and synthesizing geologic, geophysical and geochemical as well as hydrological data, the author has implemented all-region joint-quadrangle analysis, composite mapping and applications, set up interpretation criteria for circular and arcuate structures of different lithological areas, and then expounded their geologic meaning. Volcanic apparatuses, small close sedimentary basins and magmatic rockbodies closely associated with uranium mineralizations, especially the altitude and types of ore-controlling structures and mineralized alteration zones have been interpreted. 'Heat halo spot' has also been interpreted on the satellite image and its geologic meaning and relation to uranium metallization have been discussed. Finally, remote sensing geologic prospecting model and comprehensive prediction model have been established

  14. Geology of Joshua Tree National Park geodatabase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Robert E.; Matti, Jonathan C.; Cossette, Pamela M.

    2015-09-16

    and basins in the Park exhibit an east-west physiographic grain controlled by left-lateral fault zones that form a sinistral domain within the broad zone of dextral shear along the transform boundary between the North American and Pacific plates. Geologic and geophysical evidence reveal that movement on the sinistral faults zones has resulted in left steps along the zones, resulting in the development of sub-basins beneath Pinto Basin and Shavers and Chuckwalla Valleys. The sinistral fault zones connect the Mojave Desert dextral faults of the Eastern California Shear Zone to the north and east with the Coachella Valley strands of the southern San Andreas Fault Zone to the west.Quaternary surficial deposits accumulated in alluvial washes and playas and lakes along the valley floors; in alluvial fans, washes, and sheet wash aprons along piedmonts flanking the mountain ranges; and in eolian dunes and sand sheets that span the transition from valley floor to piedmont slope. Sequences of Quaternary pediments are planed into piedmonts flanking valley-floor and upland basins, each pediment in turn overlain by successively younger residual and alluvial surficial deposits.

  15. Minerals deposited as thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Cristina; Leyt, D.V. de; Custo, Graciela

    1987-01-01

    Free matrix effects are due to thin film deposits. Thus, it was decided to investigate this technique as a possibility to use pure oxide of the desired element, extrapolating its concentration from analytical curves made with avoiding, at the same time, mathematical corrections. The proposed method was employed to determine iron and titanium concentrations in geological samples. The range studied was 0.1-5%m/m for titanium and 5-20%m/m for iron. For both elements the reproducibility was about 7% and differences between this method and other chemical determinations were 15% for titanium and 7% for iron. (Author) [es

  16. Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the

  17. Lectures in isotope geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, E.; Hunziker, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Designed for a introductory course in geochronology and the geochemistry of stable isotopes, this text has been written by recognized experts in the field. Emphasis is on the interpretation and on applications, and examples of these are offered along with each technique. Extraterrestrial applications have been avoided and the treatment of pure experimentation has been kept at a minimum. This text will be appreciated by geologists who want to learn more about methods used in isotope geology, how they can be applied, and how to gauge their usefulness. (orig.) [de

  18. GIS-technologies as a mechanism to study geological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapatov, Abish

    2014-05-01

    Specialized GIS-technologies allow creating multi-parameter models, completing multi-criteria optimisation tasks, and issues of geological profile forecasts using miscellaneous data. Pictorial and attributive geological and geophysical information collected to create GIS database is supplemented by the ERS (Earth's Remote Sensing) data, air spectrometry, space images, and topographic data. Among the important tasks are as follows: a unification of initial geological, geophysical and other types of information on a tectonic position, rock classification and stratigraphic scale; topographic bases (various projectures, scales); the levels of detail and exhaustibility; colors and symbols of legends; data structures and their correlation; units of measurement of physical quantities, and attribute systems of descriptions. Methods of the geological environment investigation using GIS-technology are based on a principle of the research target analogy with a standard. A similarity ratio is quantitative estimate. A geological forecast model is formed by structuring of geological information based on detailed analysis and aggregation of geological and formal knowledge bases on standard targets. Development of a bank of models of the analyzed geological structures of various range, ore-bearing features described by numerous prospecting indicators is the way to aggregate geological knowledge. The south terrain of the Valerianovskaya structure-facies zone (SFZ) of the Torgai paleo-rift structure covered with thick Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks up to 2,000m is considered a so-called training ground for the development of GIS-technology. Parameters of known magnetite deposits located in the north of the SFZ (Sarybaiskoye, Sokolovskoye, etc.) are used to create the standard model. A meaning of the job implemented involves the following: - A goal-seeking nature of the research being performed and integration of the geological, geo-physical and other data (in many cases, efforts of the

  19. Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.

    2014-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical to planetary geology, but its role can be misconstrued by those unfamiliar with the practice of that science. The methodological importance of analogy to geology lies in the formulation of genetic hypotheses, an absolutely essential component of geological reasoning that was either ignored or denigrated by most 20th century philosophers of science, who took the theoretical/ experimental methodology of physics to be the sole model for all of scientific inquiry. Following the seminal 19th century work of Grove Karl Gilbert, an early pioneer of planetary geology, it has long been recognized that broad experience with and understanding of terrestrial geological phenomena provide geologists with their most effective resource for the invention of potentially fruitful, working hypotheses. The actions of (1) forming such hypotheses, (2) following their consequences, and (3) testing those consequences comprise integral parts of effective geological practice in regard to the understanding of planetary surfaces. Nevertheless, the logical terminology and philosophical bases for such practice will be unfamiliar to most planetary scientists, both geologists and nongeologists. The invention of geological hypotheses involves both inductive inferences of the type Gilbert termed “empiric classification” and abductive inferences of a logical form made famous by the 19th century American logician Charles Sanders Peirce. The testing and corroboration of geological hypotheses relies less on the correspondence logic of theoretical/ experimental sciences, like physics, and more on the logic of consistency, coherence, and consilience that characterizes the investigative and historical sciences of interpretation exemplified by geology.

  20. Geologic environmental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Jhin Wung

    2000-05-01

    The geoscience research works are focused on the production of geologic basic data accompanying with the technical development of geology and hydrogeologic characterization. The lithology of the Korean peninsula consists of a complex structure of 29 rock types from Archean to Quaternary. The wide distribution of Mesozoic plutonic rock is an important consideration as a potential host rock allowing flexibility of siting. The recent tectonic activities are limited to localized particular area, which can be avoided by excluding in the early stage of siting. Three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the further study on HLW disposal system. This report contains grouping of regional faults, and on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zones) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical provinces. The regional groundwater regime can be grouped into 3 regimes by tectonic setting and four groundwater regions based on an altitute. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rocks. The origin of groundwater was proposed by isotope ({sup 1}8O, {sup 2}H, {sup 1}3C, {sup 3}4S, {sup 8}7Sr, {sup 1}5N) studies and the residence time of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based on the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs.

  1. Geologic environmental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Jhin Wung

    2000-05-01

    The geoscience research works are focused on the production of geologic basic data accompanying with the technical development of geology and hydrogeologic characterization. The lithology of the Korean peninsula consists of a complex structure of 29 rock types from Archean to Quaternary. The wide distribution of Mesozoic plutonic rock is an important consideration as a potential host rock allowing flexibility of siting. The recent tectonic activities are limited to localized particular area, which can be avoided by excluding in the early stage of siting. Three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the further study on HLW disposal system. This report contains grouping of regional faults, and on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zones) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical provinces. The regional groundwater regime can be grouped into 3 regimes by tectonic setting and four groundwater regions based on an altitute. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rocks. The origin of groundwater was proposed by isotope ( 1 8O, 2 H, 1 3C, 3 4S, 8 7Sr, 1 5N) studies and the residence time of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based on the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs

  2. Review of uranium in Australia: its geology, exploration and world significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, J; Gaskell, J L; Spaargaren, F A; Butler, R D; Francis, T; Ross, J

    1973-01-01

    The aim of this report is to review and classify all known Australian uranium occurrences, to compare them with world-wide deposits and on this basis, derive conclusions on the uranium potential in various Australian geological environments. In an introductory section the properties, uses, chemistry, mineralogy and processing of uranium are summarised. An outline of modern prospecting techniques applicable in different geological environments is also presented. Foreign uranium deposits are classified and briefly discussed. World supply and demand to the year 2000 is analysed and the importance of Australia as a major uranium producer is considered. Uranium occurrences and deposits in all States are described in detail, and potential uraniferous geological environments are reviewed. A large scale map is presented which delineates these environments and indicates areas considered to be the most prospective. Conclusions are drawn and recommendations made concerning the selection of areas which are considered to hold the most promise for the discovery of further uranium deposits.

  3. Infraordinary Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The exhibition Infraordinary Deposits presents three works in progress by PhD Fellow Espen Lunde Nielsen from the on-going PhD project Architectural Probes of the Infraordinary: Social Coexistence through Everyday Spaces. The infraordinary is understood as the opposite of the extraordinary...... and as that which is ‘worn half-invisible’ by use. Nevertheless, these unregarded spaces play a vital role to the social dimension of the city. The selected projects (‘urban biopsies’) on display explore how people coexist through these spaces and within the city itself, either through events in real......, daily 8.45 – 15.00 Where: Aarhus School of Architecture, The Canteen, Nørreport 18, 8000 Aarhus C...

  4. Practical aspects of geological prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallio, W.J.; Peck, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear waste disposal requires that geology be a predictive science. The prediction of future events rests on (1) recognizing the periodicity of geologic events; (2) defining a critical dimension of effect, such as the area of a drainage basin, the length of a fault trace, etc; and (3) using our understanding of active processes the project the frequency and magnitude of future events in the light of geological principles. Of importance to nuclear waste disposal are longer term processes such as continental denudation and removal of materials by glacial erosion. Constant testing of projections will allow the practical limits of predicting geological events to be defined. 11 refs

  5. The Role of Geologic Mapping in NASA PDSI Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. A.; Skinner, J. A.; Radebaugh, J.

    2017-12-01

    Geologic mapping is an investigative process designed to derive the geologic history of planetary objects at local, regional, hemispheric or global scales. Geologic maps are critical products that aid future exploration by robotic spacecraft or human missions, support resource exploration, and provide context for and help guide scientific discovery. Creation of these tools, however, can be challenging in that, relative to their terrestrial counterparts, non-terrestrial planetary geologic maps lack expansive field-based observations. They rely, instead, on integrating diverse data types wth a range of spatial scales and areal coverage. These facilitate establishment of geomorphic and geologic context but are generally limited with respect to identifying outcrop-scale textural details and resolving temporal and spatial changes in depositional environments. As a result, planetary maps should be prepared with clearly defined contact and unit descriptions as well as a range of potential interpretations. Today geologic maps can be made from images obtained during the traverses of the Mars rovers, and for every new planetary object visited by NASA orbital or flyby spacecraft (e.g., Vesta, Ceres, Titan, Enceladus, Pluto). As Solar System Exploration develops and as NASA prepares to send astronauts back to the Moon and on to Mars, the importance of geologic mapping will increase. In this presentation, we will discuss the past role of geologic mapping in NASA's planetary science activities and our thoughts on the role geologic mapping will have in exploration in the coming decades. Challenges that planetary mapping must address include, among others: 1) determine the geologic framework of all Solar System bodies through the systematic development of geologic maps at appropriate scales, 2) develop digital Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based mapping techniques and standards to assist with communicating map information to the scientific community and public, 3) develop

  6. Geology of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Chyba, C.; Head, J. W.; McCord, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Europa is a rocky object of radius 1565 km (slightly smaller than Earth s moon) and has an outer shell of water composition estimated to be of order 100 km thick, the surface of which is frozen. The total volume of water is about 3 x 10(exp 9) cubic kilometers, or twice the amount of water on Earth. Moreover, like its neighbor Io, Europa experiences internal heating generated from tidal flexing during its eccentric orbit around Jupiter. This raises the possibility that some of the water beneath the icy crust is liquid. The proportion of rock to ice, the generation of internal heat, and the possibility of liquid water make Europa unique in the Solar System. In this chapter, we outline the sources of data available for Europa (with a focus on the Galileo mission), review previous and on-going research on its surface geology, discuss the astrobiological potential of Europa, and consider plans for future exploration.

  7. Geology of National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

  8. Geological terrain models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.

    1981-01-01

    The initial phase of a program to determine the best interpretation strategy and sensor configuration for a radar remote sensing system for geologic applications is discussed. In this phase, terrain modeling and radar image simulation were used to perform parametric sensitivity studies. A relatively simple computer-generated terrain model is presented, and the data base, backscatter file, and transfer function for digital image simulation are described. Sets of images are presented that simulate the results obtained with an X-band radar from an altitude of 800 km and at three different terrain-illumination angles. The simulations include power maps, slant-range images, ground-range images, and ground-range images with statistical noise incorporated. It is concluded that digital image simulation and computer modeling provide cost-effective methods for evaluating terrain variations and sensor parameter changes, for predicting results, and for defining optimum sensor parameters.

  9. Environmental geology of Harrison Bay, northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.D.; Thrasher, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The surficial and shallow subsurface geology of Harrison Bay on the Beaufort Sea coast was mapped as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's prelease evaluation for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 71. During the 1980 summer season, approximately 1600 km of multisensored, high-resolution geophysical profile data were collected along a rectangular grid with 4.8 km line spacing. Interpretation of these data is presented on five maps showing bathymetry, sea-floor microrelief, ice-gouge characteristics, Holocene sediment thickness, and geologic structure to depths of approximately 1000 m. On a broad scale, the seafloor is shallow and almost flat, although microrelief features produced by sediment transport and ice-gouge processes typically vary up to several meters in amplitude. Microrelief bedforms related to hydraulic processes are predominant in water depths less than 12 m. Microrelief caused by ice gouging generally increases with water depth, reaching a maximum of 2 m or more in water depths beyond the 20 m isobath. This intensely gouged area lies beneath the shear zone between the seasonal landfast ice and the mobile polar ice pack. The thickness of recent (Holocene) sediment increases offshore, from 2 m near the Colville River delta to 30 m or more on the outer shelf. The thin Holocene layer is underlain by a complex horizon interpreted to be the upper surface of a Pleistocene deposit similar in composition to the present Arctic Coastal Plain. The base of the inferred Pleistocene section is interpreted to be a low-angle unconformity 100 m below sea level. Beneath this Tertiary-Quaternary unconformity, strata are interpreted to be alluvial fan-delta plain deposits corresponding to the Colville Group and younger formations of Late Cretaceous to Tertiary age. Numerous high-angle faults downthrown to the north trend across the survey area. With few exceptions, these faults terminate at or below the 100 m unconformity, suggesting that most tectonism

  10. Radon as geological tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Valladares, D.L.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Ayub, J. Juri [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (IMASL); Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of {sup 222}Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 23}'8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using {sup 222}Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m{sup -3} recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  11. Radon as geological tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M.; Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of 222 Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of 40 K, 232 Th and 23 '8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using 222 Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m -3 recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  12. Hydrogeological Properties of Geological Elements in Geological Model around KURT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Institue, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To develop site characterization technologies for a radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the geological and hydrogeological investigations have been carried out since 1997. In 2006, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to study a solute migration, a microbiology and an engineered barrier system as well as deeply to understand geological environments in in-situ condition. This study is performed as one of the site characterization works around KURT. Several investigations such as a lineament analysis, a borehole/tunnel survey, a geophyscial survey and logging in borehole, were used to construct the geological model. As a result, the geological model is constructed, which includes the lithological model and geo-structural model in this study. Moreover, from the results of the in-situ hydraulic tests, the hydrogeological properties of elements in geological model were evaluated.

  13. Study on geology and geological structure based on literature studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funaki, Hironori; Ishii, Eiichi; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Kazuharu

    2005-03-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is proceeding with underground research laboratory (URL) project for the sedimentary rock in Horonobe, Hokkaido. This project is an investigation project which is planned over 20 years. Surface-based investigations (Phase 1) have been conducted for the present. The purposes of the Phase 1 are to construct the geological environment model (geological-structural, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical models) and to confirm the applicability of investigation technologies for the geological environment. The geological-structural model comprises the base for the hydrogeological and hydrochemical models. We constructed the geological-structural model by mainly using data obtained from literature studies. Particulars regarding which data the model is based on and who has performed the interpretation are also saved for traceability. As a result, we explain the understanding of degree and the need of information on stratigraphy and discontinuous structure. (author)

  14. Hydrogeological Properties of Geological Elements in Geological Model around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    To develop site characterization technologies for a radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the geological and hydrogeological investigations have been carried out since 1997. In 2006, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to study a solute migration, a microbiology and an engineered barrier system as well as deeply to understand geological environments in in-situ condition. This study is performed as one of the site characterization works around KURT. Several investigations such as a lineament analysis, a borehole/tunnel survey, a geophyscial survey and logging in borehole, were used to construct the geological model. As a result, the geological model is constructed, which includes the lithological model and geo-structural model in this study. Moreover, from the results of the in-situ hydraulic tests, the hydrogeological properties of elements in geological model were evaluated.

  15. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Vogt

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M and O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in

  16. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Vogt

    2004-08-26

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the

  17. Uranium metallogenic features and prospecting potentialities in the areas around Shabazi uranium deposit in Nanling metallogenic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shanghai

    2008-01-01

    Based on the actuality of exploration and research on Shabazi uranium deposit in Nanling metallogenic belt, the author analyzes and summarizes uranium metallogenic features of the deposit. Under the direction of modern metallogenic theories of uranium deposit, such as deep-source mineralization and deep prospecting for uranium deposits, it is shown that there is great mineralization and prospecting potentiality in the areas around Shabazi uranium deposit and high attention importance should be paid to the areas in the future exploration according to the synthetical analysis on geologic background of the deposit, uranium mineralization features, ore-controlling factors and systematic data of geology. (authors)

  18. Synthetic geology - Exploring the "what if?" in geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Robertson, J.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Synthetic geology does not attempt to model the real world in terms of geological processes with all their uncertainties, rather it offers an artificial geological data source with fully known properties. On the basis of this artificial geology, we can simulate geological sampling by established or future technologies to study the resulting dataset. Conducting these experiments in silico removes the constraints of testing in the field or in production, and provides us with a known ground-truth against which the steps in a data analysis and integration workflow can be validated.Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the combination of both, and it enables us to test many "what if?" questions, both in geology and in data engineering. What would we be able to see if we could obtain data at higher resolution? How would real-time data analysis change sampling strategies? Does our data infrastructure handle many new real-time data streams? What feature engineering can be deducted for machine learning approaches? By providing a 'data sandbox' able to scale to realistic geological scenarios we hope to start answering some of these questions.

  19. A state geological survey commitment to environmental geology - the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wermund, E.G.

    1990-01-01

    In several Texas environmental laws, the Bureau of Economic Geology is designated as a planning participant and review agency in the process of fulfilling environmental laws. Two examples are legislation on reclamation of surface mines and regulation of processing low level radioactive wastes. Also, the Bureau is the principal geological reviewer of all Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements which the Office of the Governor circulates for state review on all major developmental activities in Texas. The BEG continues its strong interest in environmental geology. In February 1988, it recommitted its Land Resources Laboratory, initiated in 1974, toward fulfilling needs of state, county, and city governments for consultation and research on environmental geologic problems. An editorial from another state geological survey would resemble the about description of texas work in environmental geology. State geological surveys have led federal agencies into many developments of environmental geology, complemented federal efforts in their evolution, and continued a strong commitment to the maintenance of a quality environment through innovative geologic studies

  20. Geology of the Horse Range Mesa quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Bush, A.L.; Bell, Henry; Withington, C.F.

    1953-01-01

    The Horse Range Mesa quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of the quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary strictures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  1. Geological-economic analysis on the exploration of backup resources for depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field, central-southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Deping; Wang Zhicheng; Fan Shaoyun

    2006-01-01

    With the geological-economic evaluation program for pithead heap-leaching mining uranium deposits developed by the authors and the data of column-leaching tests and the geological reserve, the geological-economic evaluation is made to the residual geological reserves of both Lujing and Huangfengling deposit, and the geological reserves of Yangjiaonao deposit of the depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field, central-southern China. The results of static analysis on these reserves show that the residual geological reserves of both Lujing and Huangfengling deposit belong to sub-profitable type, but the ones of Yangjiaonao deposit is profitable with 26.56% tax-before profit. 1 tU profitable type of ore from Yangjiaonao deposit can use 2.40-3.79 tU subprofitable type of ores from Lujing and Huangfengling deposit. In order to solving the problem on scarcity of backup resources of the depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field and using the existing sub-profitable type of geological reserves, it is suggested that the high grade of profitable type of deposits should be explored around the exhausting mines so that the production of the mines could be profitable by the pithead heap-leaching mining method with arrangement groups of both sub-profitable and profitable type of ores. (authors)

  2. Predictive Modeling of Terrestrial Radiation Exposure from Geologic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchow, Russell L. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Haber, Daniel University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Burnley, Pamela [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Marsac, Kara [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Hausrath, Elisabeth [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Adcock, Christopher [University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2015-01-01

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are important for those working in nuclear security and industry for determining locations of both anthropogenic radiological sources and natural occurrences of radionuclides. During an aerial gamma ray survey, a low flying aircraft, such as a helicopter, flies in a linear pattern across the survey area while measuring the gamma emissions with a sodium iodide (NaI) detector. Currently, if a gamma ray survey is being flown in an area, the only way to correct for geologic sources of gamma rays is to have flown the area previously. This is prohibitively expensive and would require complete national coverage. This project’s goal is to model the geologic contribution to radiological backgrounds using published geochemical data, GIS software, remote sensing, calculations, and modeling software. K, U and Th are the three major gamma emitters in geologic material. U and Th are assumed to be in secular equilibrium with their daughter isotopes. If K, U, and Th abundance values are known for a given geologic unit the expected gamma ray exposure rate can be calculated using the Grasty equation or by modeling software. Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport software (MCNP), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, is modeling software designed to simulate particles and their interactions with matter. Using this software, models have been created that represent various lithologies. These simulations randomly generate gamma ray photons at energy levels expected from natural radiologic sources. The photons take a random path through the simulated geologic media and deposit their energy at the end of their track. A series of nested spheres have been created and filled with simulated atmosphere to record energy deposition. Energies deposited are binned in the same manner as the NaI detectors used during an aerial survey. These models are used in place of the simplistic Grasty equation as they take into account absorption properties of the lithology which the

  3. New Age of 3D Geological Modelling or Complexity is not an Issue Anymore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, Aleksandr

    2017-04-01

    Geological model has a significant value in almost all types of researches related to regional mapping, geodynamics and especially to structural and resource geology of mineral deposits. Well-developed geological model must take into account all vital features of modelling object without over-simplification and also should adequately represent the interpretation of the geologist. In recent years with the gradual exhaustion deposits with relatively simple morphology geologists from all over the world are faced with the necessity of building the representative models for more and more structurally complex objects. Meanwhile, the amount of tools used for that has not significantly changed in the last two-three decades. The most widespread method of wireframe geological modelling now was developed in 1990s and is fully based on engineering design set of instruments (so-called CAD). Strings and polygons representing the section-based interpretation are being used as an intermediate step in the process of wireframes generation. Despite of significant time required for this type of modelling, it still can provide sufficient results for simple and medium-complexity geological objects. However, with the increasing complexity more and more vital features of the deposit are being sacrificed because of fundamental inability (or much greater time required for modelling) of CAD-based explicit techniques to develop the wireframes of the appropriate complexity. At the same time alternative technology which is not based on sectional approach and which uses the fundamentally different mathematical algorithms is being actively developed in the variety of other disciplines: medicine, advanced industrial design, game and cinema industry. In the recent years this implicit technology started to being developed for geological modelling purpose and nowadays it is represented by very powerful set of tools that has been integrated in almost all major commercial software packages. Implicit

  4. On the Geologic Time Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G.; Hilgen, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the international divisions and ages in the Geologic Time Scale, published in 2012 (GTS2012). Since 2004, when GTS2004 was detailed, major developments have taken place that directly bear and have considerable impact on the intricate science of geologic time scaling. Precam

  5. Interaction of organic contaminant with natural clay type geo sorbents: potential use as geologic barrier in urban landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Jimenez, N.; Procopio, J. R.; Sevilla, T.; Cuevas, J.; Rodirguez, M.

    2009-01-01

    The great amount of municipal solid wastes generated by the cities can be processed in different ways such as incineration, derivation to composting plants or, simply, deposition in controlled landfills. One of the landfill characteristics is possess and adequate geological barrier for contaminant contention. The most important chemical processes an adequate geological battier for contaminant contention. (Author)

  6. The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2013-12-01

    N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and

  7. Radioactive waste disposal in the Gorleben salt deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gizycki, P. von

    1985-01-01

    In the opinion of five experts, the protective function of the overlying rock as a barrier has turned out to be questionable after borings and measurements carried through at Gorleben. Moreover, the results have also raised doubts about the geological safety of the salt deposit as a barrier in the long run. The geological multibarrier concept must be discarded. Not only critics, but also 3 advocates from the field of official research on radioactive waste disposal state their opinion. (DG) [de

  8. Geologic map of the Cochiti Dam quadrangle, Sandoval County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethier, David P.; Thompson, Ren A.; Hudson, Mark R.; Minor, Scott A.; Sawyer, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The Cochiti Dam quadrangle is located in the southern part of the Española Basin and contains sedimentary and volcanic deposits that record alluvial, colluvial, eolian, tectonic and volcanic processes over the past seventeen million years. The geology was mapped from 1997 to 1999 and modified in 2004 to 2008. The primary mapping responsibilities were as follows: Dethier mapped the surficial deposits, basin-fill sedimentary deposits, Miocene to Quaternary volcanic deposits of the Jemez volcanic field, and a preliminary version of fault distribution. Thompson and Hudson mapped the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic deposits of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field. Thompson, Minor, and Hudson mapped surface exposures of faults and Hudson conducted paleomagnetic studies for stratigraphic correlations. Thompson prepared the digital compilation of the geologic map.

  9. Granites petrology, structure, geological setting, and metallogeny

    CERN Document Server

    Nédélec, Anne; Bowden, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Granites are emblematic rocks developed from a magma that crystallized in the Earth’s crust. They ultimately outcrop at the surface worldwide. This book, translated and updated from the original French edition Pétrologie des Granites (2011) is a modern presentation of granitic rocks from magma genesis to their crystallization at a higher level into the crust. Segregation from the source, magma ascent and shapes of granitic intrusions are also discussed, as well as the eventual formation of hybrid rocks by mingling/mixing processes and the thermomechanical aspects in country rocks around granite plutons. Modern techniques for structural studies of granites are detailed extensively. Granites are considered in their geological spatial and temporal frame, in relation with plate tectonics and Earth history from the Archaean eon. A chapter on granite metallogeny explains how elements of economic interest are concentrated during magma crystallization, and examples of Sn, Cu, F and U ore deposits are presented. Mi...

  10. A geological reconnaissance of electrical and electronic waste as a source for rare earth metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sandra R; Wäger, Patrick A; Widmer, Rolf; Williams, Ian D

    2015-11-01

    The mining of material resources requires knowledge about geogenic and anthropogenic deposits, in particular on the location of the deposits with the comparatively highest concentration of raw materials. In this study, we develop a framework that allows the establishment of analogies between geological and anthropogenic processes. These analogies were applied to three selected products containing rare earth elements (REE) in order to identify the most concentrated deposits in the anthropogenic cycle. The three identified anthropogenic deposits were characterised according to criteria such as "host rock", "REE mineralisation" and "age of mineralisation", i.e. regarding their "geological" setting. The results of this characterisation demonstrated that anthropogenic deposits have both a higher concentration of REE and a longer mine life than the evaluated geogenic deposit (Mount Weld, Australia). The results were further evaluated by comparison with the geological knowledge category of the United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources 2009 (UNFC-2009) to determine the confidence level in the deposit quantities. The application of our approach to the three selected cases shows a potential for recovery of REE in anthropogenic deposits; however, further exploration of both potential and limitations is required. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrogeology of exogenic epigenic uranium deposits (sedimentary type) in Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irgashev, Yu.I.; Gavrilov, V.A.; Muslimov, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Common problems of hydrogeology and geotechnology for uranium deposits (sedimentary type) in the Republic of Uzbekistan are discussed in the paper. Hydrogeology includes studies of texture of water-bearing horizons, occurrences of ore bodies in horizons, hydrochemical survey, hydrodynamics and engineering geology. Features of deposits workable by underground leaching are presented. Such terms as 'water-bearing horizon', 'efficiency', 'water-bearing bed' are explained accounting the results of 30 year investigations conducted during prospecting, designing and exploitation of uranium deposits. Stages of hydrogeological survey are listed and features of each of them are described. Importance of geotechnology for a deposit characterization is shown. (author). 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  12. Geological disposal system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected

  13. NAGRADATA. Code key. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.H.; Schneider, B.; Staeuble, J.

    1984-01-01

    This reference manual provides users of the NAGRADATA system with comprehensive keys to the coding/decoding of geological and technical information to be stored in or retreaved from the databank. Emphasis has been placed on input data coding. When data is retreaved the translation into plain language of stored coded information is done automatically by computer. Three keys each, list the complete set of currently defined codes for the NAGRADATA system, namely codes with appropriate definitions, arranged: 1. according to subject matter (thematically) 2. the codes listed alphabetically and 3. the definitions listed alphabetically. Additional explanation is provided for the proper application of the codes and the logic behind the creation of new codes to be used within the NAGRADATA system. NAGRADATA makes use of codes instead of plain language for data storage; this offers the following advantages: speed of data processing, mainly data retrieval, economies of storage memory requirements, the standardisation of terminology. The nature of this thesaurian type 'key to codes' makes it impossible to either establish a final form or to cover the entire spectrum of requirements. Therefore, this first issue of codes to NAGRADATA must be considered to represent the current state of progress of a living system and future editions will be issued in a loose leave ringbook system which can be updated by an organised (updating) service. (author)

  14. Geological disposal system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected.

  15. Radon in geological medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hricko, J [GEOCOMPLEX, a.s., Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a{sub v} has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km{sup 2}. The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a{sub v} > 50 kBq/m{sup 3}). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  16. Geology and seismology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.F.; Blanc, B.

    1980-01-01

    For the construction of nuclear power stations, comprehensive site investigations are required to assure the adequacy and suitability of the site under consideration, as well as to establish the basic design data for designing and building the plant. The site investigations cover mainly the following matters: geology, seismology, hydrology, meteorology. Site investigations for nuclear power stations are carried out in stages in increasing detail and to an appreciable depth in order to assure the soundness of the project, and, in particular, to determine all measures required to assure the safety of the nuclear power station and the protection of the population against radiation exposure. The aim of seismological investigations is to determine the strength of the vibratory ground motion caused by an expected strong earthquake in order to design the plant resistant enough to take up these vibrations. In addition, secondary effects of earthquakes, such as landslides, liquefaction, surface faulting, etc. must be studied. For seashore sites, the tsunami risk must be evaluated. (orig.)

  17. Geological disposal concept hearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The article outlines the progress to date on AECL spent-nuclear fuel geological disposal concept. Hearings for discussion, organised by the federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel, of issues related to this type of disposal method occur in three phases, phase I focuses on broad societal issues related to long term management of nuclear fuel waste; phase II will focus on the technical aspects of this method of disposal; and phase III will consist of community visits in New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. This article provides the events surrounding the first two weeks of phase I hearings (extracted from UNECAN NEWS). In the first week of hearings, where submissions on general societal issues was the focus, there were 50 presentations including those by Natural Resources Canada, Energy Probe, Ontario Hydro, AECL, Canadian Nuclear Society, Aboriginal groups, environmental activist organizations (Northwatch, Saskatchewan Environmental Society, the Inter-Church Uranium Committee, and the Canadian Coalition for Nuclear responsibility). In the second week of hearings there was 33 presentations in which issues related to siting and implementation of a disposal facility was the focus. Phase II hearings dates are June 10-14, 17-21 and 27-28 in Toronto

  18. Radon in geological medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hricko, J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a v has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km 2 . The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a v > 50 kBq/m 3 ). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs

  19. Arching Structures in Granular Sedimentary Deposits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulaviak, Lukáš; Hladil, Jindřich; Růžička, Marek; Drahoš, Jiří; Saint-Lary, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 246, SEP (2013), s. 269-277 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1110; GA AV ČR IAAX00130702; GA MŠk(CZ) LG11014 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : wet granulars * deposit * arching structure Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering; DB - Geology ; Mineralogy (GLU-S) Impact factor: 2.269, year: 2013

  20. Great Basin geologic framework and uranium favorability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, L.T.; Beal, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    Work on this report has been done by a team of seven investigators assisted over the project span by twenty-three undergraduate and graduate students from May 18, 1976 to August 19, 1977. The report is presented in one volume of text, one volume or Folio of Maps, and two volumes of bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 5300 references on geologic subjects pertinent to the search for uranium in the Great Basin. Volume I of the bibliography lists articles by author alphabetically and Volume II cross-indexes these articles by location and key word. Chapters I through IV of the Text volume and accompanying Folio Map Sets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, discuss the relationship of uranium to rock and structural environments which dominate the Great Basin. Chapter 5 and Map Sets 6 and 7 provide a geochemical association/metallogenic grouping of mineral occurrences in the Great Basin along with information on rock types hosting uranium. Chapter VI summarizes the results of a court house claim record search for 'new' claiming areas for uranium, and Chapter VII along with Folio Map Set 8 gives all published geochronological data available through April 1, 1977 on rocks of the Great Basin. Chapter VIII provides an introduction to a computer analysis of characteristics of certain major uranium deposits in crystalline rocks (worldwide) and is offered as a suggestion of what might be done with uranium in all geologic environments. We believe such analysis will assist materially in constructing exploration models. Chapter IX summarizes criteria used and conclusions reached as to the favorability of uranium environments which we believe to exist in the Great Basin and concludes with recommendations for both exploration and future research. A general summary conclusion is that there are several geologic environments within the Great Basin which have considerable potential and that few, if any, have been sufficiently tested

  1. Geology and radiometry of West Macedonia (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minatidis, Demetrios G.

    1984-10-01

    Car borne scintillometry survey in W. Macedonia (Greece) showed that the granitic rocks of the area, the zone centered on the Tertiary volcanic rocks of Almopia zone and a large part of adjacent sediments constitute the most promising geological formations for further uranium exploration. Some Tertiary volcanic rocks in the general area centered on the Aegean plate are associated with uranium mineralization and high radioactivity. An attempt has been made to evaluate young Alpine volcanic rocks from uranium exploration point of view on a regional scale by using arithmetic mean radioactivity data from the car borne survey coverage of W. Macedonia, as well as other geological and geochemical data from numerous similar volcanic rocks of the area and other neighbouring areas. In connection with this further exploration of the Tertiary volcanic rocks of W. Macedonia is expected to reveal new uranium deposits in the area. Horizontal or gently dipping sedimentary rocks adjacent to the above mentioned volcanics have a statistical radioactivity higher than that in normal sediments, a fact that may give evidence of the existence or uranium mineralization in deeper horizons in these sediments. To make a comparison with this the existence of 134 ppm of leachable U in sediments of W. Crete Island, 20 to 30 meters below the surface, is reported where the overlying sediments exhibit also a radioactivity higher than in normal sediments. Some structural contacts, in particular the contact between the granite of Florina and the limestones of Krystallopigi (west of Florina), have locally a very high radioactivity. Also an open fault in the Achlada-Papadia area (Florina) exhibits locally a high radioactivity and a high U content. All the above mentioned geological formations are, therefore, proposed for further U exploration. (author)

  2. A quantitative geologic study of heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.; Phillips, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    Spatial variation of hydraulic conductivity has been generally recognized as the dominant medium-dependent control on the transport and dispersion of contaminants in ground water. An empirical study focusing on the relationship between patters of sedimentology and patterns of permeability is being conducted at an outcrop of the Pliocene/Pleistocene Sierra Ladrones formation, central New Mexico. Methods of geostatistics and sedimentary basin analysis are employed to study the problem of aquifer heterogeneity. An air permeameter provides a means of obtaining extensive field measurements of air-flow rates through the sediments. These flow rates are subsequently used to characterize the permeability distribution of the outcrop. Both the geologic information and the air-flow rate data provide the basis for analysis of aquifer heterogeneity. Preliminary geologic mapping indicates that the sediments in the study area are the products of an arid fluvial/interfluvial depositional environment. Probability distribution analysis of the air-flow rate data suggests that the permeability of these sediments is log-normally distributed. The air permeability data are used to estimate variograms and correlation lengths in both the horizontal and vertical directions. At the scale of 10's of centimeters, the horizontal variograms exhibit exponential variogram behaviour . When two distinct lithologies are present, the correlation structure appears to be a nested exponential. Variogram analysis of estimated mean permeability at the scale of meters also shows evidence of a nested correlation structure in the horizontal direction and a periodic correlation structure in the vertical direction. Results of this study suggest that there is a direct connection between observable geologic structure and permeability statistics. (Author) (35 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.)

  3. Geology and geochemistry of the Atacama Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, J; González, R; Townley, B; Oliveros, V; Álvarez, F; Aguilar, G; Menzies, A; Calderón, M

    2018-02-14

    The Atacama Desert, the driest of its kind on Earth, hosts a number of unique geological and geochemical features that make it unlike any other environment on the planet. Considering its location on the western border of South America, between 17 and 28 °S, its climate has been characterized as arid to hyperarid for at least the past 10 million years. Notably dry climatic conditions of the Atacama Desert have been related to uplift of the Andes and are believed to have played an important role in the development of the most distinctive features of this desert, including: (i) nitrates and iodine deposits in the Central Depression, (ii) secondary enrichment in porphyry copper deposits in the Precordillera, (iii) Li enrichment in salt flats of the Altiplano, and (iv) life in extreme habitats. The geology and physiography of the Atacama Desert have been largely shaped by the convergent margin present since the Mesozoic era. The geochemistry of surface materials is related to rock geochemistry (Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, V, and Zn), salt flats, and evaporite compositions in endorheic basins (As, B, and Li), in addition to anthropogenic activities (Cu, Mo, and Pb). The composition of surface water is highly variable, nonetheless in general it presents a circumneutral pH with higher conductivity and total dissolved solids in brines. Major water constituents, with the exception of HCO 3 - , are generally related to the increase of salinity, and despite the fact that trace elements are not well-documented, surface waters of the Atacama Desert are enriched in As, B, and Li when compared to the average respective concentrations in rivers worldwide.

  4. Metallogenetic condition and mineralization characteristics of uranium deposit No.114

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Lin; Ma Fei; Yang Wanjin

    1988-01-01

    Deposit No 114 is one of the typical carbonate-type uranium deposits, that are widely distributed in South China. In this paper formational environment of host rock, wall-rock alteration, sulfur, oxygen, carbon isotopes, mineralization temperatures, ore compsitions were studied. Based on the U-Pb isotopic research three mineralization stages in deposit No 114 were established, namely 104 Ma, 61 Ma and 11 Ma. It is suggested, that the deposit No 114 is a polygenetic deposit formed primarily by supergene leaching and hydrothermal reworked. The uranium deposit has multi-sources, the main uranium source of which is from the granite body situated nearby. According to metallogenetic characteristics the authors suggest the favourable geological exploration guides for this kind of ore deposits

  5. Geology of the Integrated Disposal Facility Trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidel, Steve P.; Fecht, Karl R.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the geology of the integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Trench. The stratigraphy consists of some of the youngest sediments of the Missoula floods (younger than 770 ka). The lithology is dominated sands with minor silts and gravels that are largely unconsolidated. The stratigraphy can be subdivided into five geologic units that can be mapped throughout the trench. Four of the units were deposited by the Missoula floods and the youngest consists of windblown sand and silt. The sediment has little moisture and is consistent with that observed in the characterization boreholes. The sedimentary layers are flat lying and there are no faults or folds present. Two clastic dikes were encountered, one along the west wall and one that can be traced from the north to the southwall. The north-south clastic dike nearly bifurcates the trench but the west wall clastic dike can not be traced very far east into the trench. The classic dikes consist mainly of sand with clay-lined walls. The sediment in the dikes is compacted to partly cemented and are more resistant than the layered sediments

  6. Geologic map of the Vail West quadrangle, Eagle County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Lidke, David J.; Grunwald, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    This new 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Vail West 7.5' quadrangle, as part of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area on the southwest flank of the Gore Range. Bedrock strata include Miocene tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic and upper Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, and undivided Early(?) Proterozoic metasedimentary and igneous rocks. Tuffaceous rocks are found in fault-tilted blocks. Only small outliers of the Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, and Chinle Formation exist above the redbeds of the Permian-Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation and Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation, which were derived during erosion of the Ancestral Front Range east of the Gore fault zone. In the southwestern area of the map, the proximal Minturn facies change to distal Eagle Valley Formation and the Eagle Valley Evaporite basin facies. The Jacque Mountain Limestone Member, previously defined as the top of the Minturn Formation, cannot be traced to the facies change to the southwest. Abundant surficial deposits include Pinedale and Bull Lake Tills, periglacial deposits, earth-flow deposits, common diamicton deposits, common Quaternary landslide deposits, and an extensive, possibly late Pliocene landslide deposit. Landscaping has so extensively modified the land surface in the town of Vail that a modified land-surface unit was created to represent the surface unit. Laramide movement renewed activity along the Gore fault zone, producing a series of northwest-trending open anticlines and synclines in Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata, parallel to the trend of the fault zone. Tertiary down-to-the-northeast normal faults are evident and are parallel to similar faults in both the Gore Range and the Blue River valley to the northeast; presumably these are related to extensional deformation that occurred during formation of the northern end of the

  7. Geologic mapping procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Geologic mapping will provide a baseline record of the subsurface geology in the shafts and drifts of the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF). This information will be essential in confirming the specific repository horizon, selecting representative locations for the in situ tests, providing information for construction and decommissioning seal designs, documenting the excavation effects, and in providing information for performance assessment, which relates to the ultimate suitability of the site as a nuclear waste repository. Geologic mapping will be undertaken on the walls and roof, and locally on the floor within the completed At-Depth Facility (ADF) and on the walls of the two access shafts. Periodic mapping of the exposed face may be conducted during construction of the ADF. The mapping will be oriented toward the collection and presentation of geologic information in an engineering format and the portrayal of detailed stratigraphic information which may be useful in confirmation of drillhole data collected as part of the surface-based testing program. Geologic mapping can be considered as a predictive tool as well as a means of checking design assumptions. This document provides a description of the required procedures for geologic mapping for the ESF. Included in this procedure is information that qualified technical personnel can use to collect the required types of geologic descriptions, at the appropriate level of detail. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Northeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crusal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented on the relationship between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  9. Geological evolution of clay sediments: the petroleum exploration vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, F.

    2004-01-01

    The radioactive waste isolation capacity assessment for a clay sediment host rock is link: (1) to the understanding of their present state properties and 3-D repartition (from basin evolution, including sedimentary and diagenetic process); and (2) to the prediction of their future evolution during the next million years. For petroleum exploration, basin modelling aims at reconstructing the accumulation of hydrocarbons at basin scale, and at geological timescale, taking into account the effects of kinematics displacements, sedimentation, erosion, compaction, temperatures history, overpressures and fluids flows (water and hydrocarbons). Furthermore, explorationists wish to address overpressure reconstruction in order to estimate the risks of drilling. Clay sediments are of interest for petroleum exploration because source rocks and seal are generally composed of them. Nevertheless, in spite of their occurrence in nature their evolution at geological timescale is not well understood. And, most of the knowledge has been achieved by those working in the realms of soils mechanics and civil engineering until the present geological investigations for long term radioactive waste repositories. Application of this knowledge to clay sediment is considered to be valid within the first hundreds of meters at the top of the sedimentary pile, according to a repository depth. This paper is dedicated to the sedimentary rocks behaviour at geological timescale. This behaviour is characterised by: (1) the deposition of the sediment; (2) the loading path at geological timescale; (3) the constitutive law which includes the consolidation process and the rupture criteria; and (4) the parameters evolution related to consolidation. (author)

  10. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs

  11. Interpretation of postdepositional processes related to the formation and destruction of the Jackpile-Paguate uranium deposit, northwest New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.S.; Curtis, H.S.; Hafen, P.L.; Salek-Nejad, H.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents aspects of geological studies conducted on the Jackpile-Paguate uranium deposit in northwestern New Mexico in order to document and interpret certain geological characteristics of the deposit and suggest a sequence of processes which have formed and, in part, destroyed the deposits. The principle contributions of the paper are the field and petrologic observations and the interpretations they permit. 29 refs

  12. Radioactive mineral deposits of the Pembroke-Renfrew area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, S.L.; Gordon, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    This report deals with the geological features of all the reported uranium and thorium occurrences in the Pembroke-Renfrew area of southeastern Ontario. There are 118 radioactive occurrences within the study area of which 102 were examined by the authors during the summers of 1977 and 1978. The report consists of a comprehensive description of the geological association and mineral content of the deposits which were examined. In addition, an attempt has been made to determine their mode of origin in order to assess the potential for discovery of additional deposits and to provide guidelines for exploration

  13. Age determination and geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.D.; Delabio, R.N.; Lachance, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred and eight potassium-argon age determinations carried out on Canadian rocks and minerals are reported. Each age determination is accompanied by a description of the rock and mineral concentrate used; brief interpretative comments regarding the geological significance of each age are also provided where possible. The experimental procedures employed are described in brief outline and the constants used in the calculation of ages are listed. Two geological time-scales are reproduced in tabular form for ready reference and an index of all Geological Survey of Canada K-Ar age determinations published in this format has been prepared using NTS quadrangles as the primary reference

  14. Sediment-Hosted Zinc-Lead Deposits of the World - Database and Grade and Tonnage Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Donald A.; Berger, Vladimir I.; Moring, Barry C.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides information on sediment-hosted zinc-lead mineral deposits based on the geologic settings that are observed on regional geologic maps. The foundation of mineral-deposit models is information about known deposits. The purpose of this publication is to make this kind of information available in digital form for sediment-hosted zinc-lead deposits. Mineral-deposit models are important in exploration planning and quantitative resource assessments: Grades and tonnages among deposit types are significantly different, and many types occur in different geologic settings that can be identified from geologic maps. Mineral-deposit models are the keystone in combining the diverse geoscience information on geology, mineral occurrences, geophysics, and geochemistry used in resource assessments and mineral exploration. Too few thoroughly explored mineral deposits are available in most local areas for reliable identification of the important geoscience variables, or for robust estimation of undiscovered deposits - thus, we need mineral-deposit models. Globally based deposit models allow recognition of important features because the global models demonstrate how common different features are. Well-designed and -constructed deposit models allow geologists to know from observed geologic environments the possible mineral-deposit types that might exist, and allow economists to determine the possible economic viability of these resources in the region. Thus, mineral-deposit models play the central role in transforming geoscience information to a form useful to policy makers. This publication contains a computer file of information on sediment-hosted zinc-lead deposits from around the world. It also presents new grade and tonnage models for nine types of these deposits and a file allowing locations of all deposits to be plotted in Google Earth. The data are presented in FileMaker Pro, Excel and text files to make the information available to as many as possible. The

  15. Metallogenesis and metallogenic model of Nuheting uranium deposit in Erlian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongjun; Kuang Wenzhan

    2010-01-01

    Based on the study on geological characteristics, metallogesis and geochemical features in Nuheting uranium deposit, it is considered that the deposit belongs to syn-sedimentary and epigenetic reworking type. The deposit position was controlled by the lake area developed during Erlian period in Late Cretaceous. The metallognesis has experienced three stages, they are syn-sedimentary metallogenesis, epigenetic reworking metallogenesis and exogenic metallogenesis. The ore-forming ages are respectively 85 Ma, (41±5)Ma and 6-13 Ma. Based on the summary of metallogenic geological features,metallogenesis and geochemical features, the metallogenic model of Nuheting uranium deposit has been established. (authors)

  16. Geologic and geotechnical contributions to the Itataia mine project, State of Ceara, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tognon, A.A.; Virgili, J.C.; Mueller, M.

    1984-01-01

    The procedures and systematics involved in obtaining basic geologic-geotechnical geomechanical and hydrogeo-technical parameters to serve as an aid in the planning of mining activities for the Itataia deposit located in the Itatira uranium district are presented and discussed. The studies were performed in order to provide the essential elements for an initial geologic-geotechnical characterization of the massif. (D.J.M.) [pt

  17. Radon content in Danish till deposits: relationship with redox conditions and age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Roll Jakobsen, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents some results concerning the radon content and emanation rates in different Danish till deposits of Saalian and Weichselian age from a study carried out by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS). (LN)

  18. Development of Budenovskoye Deposit in South Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matunov, A.; Niyetbayev, M.

    2014-01-01

    Budenovskoye deposit was discovered in 1979 in permeable alluvial deposits of the Upper Cretaceous and is the world largest sandstone type deposit. The prospecting and exploration works were started there in 1987 with inferred resources of the southern flank only estimated at about 200,000 tU. Key geology features of the deposit are: • The deposit is located in the maximum submerged part of the depression formed in the Upper Cretaceous period by channel facies; a very complex morphology of mineralisation in plan, large vertical area, multilayer structure, relatively high productivity of the deposits. • High-pressure nature of groundwaters with positive occurrence of piezometric level, very high water conductivity, permeability of horizons and their water abundance, lack of consistent confining layers, and location of the deposit in the artesian basin at the junction with hydrogeological massif of B Karatau Range. • Relatively low concentration of main syngenetic genesis reducing agents in ore-bearing rocks in combination with other factors causes the insufficiently contrastive reducing barrier and extraordinary stretched profile of epigenetic zonation with fuzzy boundaries between separate zones and subzones.

  19. Research on interactive genetic-geological models to evaluate favourability for undiscovered uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.; Granger, H.C.; Lupe, R.; McCammon, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Current methods of evaluating favourability for undiscovered uranium resources are unduly subjective, quite possibly inconsistent and, as a consequence, of questionable reliability. This research is aimed at reducing the subjectivity and increasing the reliability by designing an improved method that depends largely on geological data and their statistical frequency of occurrence. This progress report outlines a genetic approach to modelling the geological factors that controlled uranium mineralization in order to evaluate the favourability for the occurrence of undiscovered uranium deposits of the type modelled. A genetic model is constructed from all the factors that describe the processes, in chronological sequence, that formed uranium deposits thought to have a common origin. The field and laboratory evidence for the processes constitute a geologic-occurrence base that parallels the chronological sequence of events. The genetic model and the geologic-occurrence base are portrayed as two columns of an interactive matrix called the ''genetic-geologic model''. For each column, eight chronological stages are used to describe the overall formation of the uranium deposits. These stages consist of (1) precursor processes; (2) host-rock formation; (3) preparation of host-rock; (4) uranium-source development; (5) transport of uranium; (6) primary uranium deposition; (7) post-deposition modification; and (8) preservation. To apply the genetic-geological model to evaluate favourability, a question is posed that determines the presence or absence of each attribute listed under the geologic-occurrence base. By building a logic circuit of the attributes according to either their essential or non-essential nature, the resultant match between a well-documented control area and the test area may be determined. The degree of match is a measure of favourability for uranium occurrence as hypothesized in the genetic model

  20. Information system of mineral deposits in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribernik, K.; Rokavec, D.; Šinigioj, J.; Šolar, S.

    2010-03-01

    At the Geologic Survey of Slovenia the need for complex overview and control of the deposits of available non-metallic mineral raw materials and of their exploitations became urgent. In the framework of the Geologic Information System we established the Database of non-metallic mineral deposits comprising all important data of deposits and concessionars. Relational database is built with program package MS Access, but in year 2008 we plan to transfer it on SQL server. In the evidence there is 272 deposits and 200 concessionars. The mineral resources information system of Slovenia, which was started back in 2002, consists of two integrated parts, mentioned relational database of mineral deposits, which relates information in tabular way so that rules of relational algebra can be applied, and geographic information system (GIS), which relates spatial information of deposits. . The complex relationships between objects and the concepts of normalized data structures, lead to the practical informative and useful data model, transparent to the user and to better decision-making by allowing future scenarios to be developed and inspected. Computerized storage, and display system is as already said, developed and managed under the support of Geological Survey of Slovenia, which conducts research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources in order to help the Nation make informed decisions using earth-science information. Information about deposit is stored in records in approximately hundred data fields. A numeric record number uniquely identifies each site. The data fields are grouped under principal categories. Each record comprise elementary data of deposit (name, type, location, prospect, rock), administrative data (concessionar, number of decree in official paper, object of decree, number of contract and its duration) and data of mineral resource produced amount and size of exploration area). The data can also be searched, sorted and

  1. Criteria for uranium occurrences in Saskatchewan and Australia as guides to favorability for similar deposits in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalliokoski, J.; Langford, F.F.; Ojakangas, R.W.

    1978-07-01

    The objective of this study was to explain the occurrence of the large uranium deposits that have been found in northern Saskatchewan and the Northern Territory of Australia, to provide criteria to evaluate the favorability of Proterozoic rocks in the United States for similar deposits. All of these deposits belong to the class known as the Proterozoic unconformity-type pitchblende deposits. Chapters are devoted to: uranium deposits in Saskatchewan; uranium deposits of the Darwin and Arnhem Land area, Northern Territory of Australia; model for the Proterozoic unconformity-type pitchblende deposits; and evaluation of the geology of selected states for its favorability for Proterozoic unconformity-type pitchblende deposits

  2. The Europa Global Geologic Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, E. J.; Patthoff, D. A.; Senske, D. A.; Collins, G. C.

    2018-06-01

    The Europa Global Geologic Map reveals three periods in Europa's surface history as well as an interesting distribution of microchaos. We will discuss the mapping and the interesting implications of our analysis of Europa's surface.

  3. Terrestrial and Lunar Geological Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This section is largely a compilation of defining geological terms concepts. Broader topics, such as the ramifications for simulant design and in situ resource utilization, are included as necessary for context.

  4. The geological map of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, J.; Ferrando, L.; Fernandez, A.; Elizalde, G.; Morales, H.; Ledesma, J.; Carballo, E.; Medina, E.; Ford, I.; Montana, J.

    1975-01-01

    The geological map of Uruguay is about the morphological characteristics of the soil such as rocks, sediments and granites belong to different periods. These periods are the proterozoic, paleozoic, permian, mesozoic, jurassic, cretaceous, cenozoic and holocene.

  5. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces (e.g., Varnes, 1974). Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962 (Hackman, 1962). Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete

  6. NCEI Marine Geology Data Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Geologic data compilations and reports in the NCEI archive are from academic and government sources around the world. Over ten terabytes of analyses,...

  7. Geology behind nuclear fission technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhana Raju, R.

    2005-01-01

    Geology appears to have played an important role of a precursor to Nuclear Fission Technology (NFT), in the latter's both birth from the nucleus of an atom of and most important application as nuclear power extracted from Uranium (U), present in its minerals. NFT critically depends upon the availability of its basic raw material, viz., nuclear fuel as U and/ or Th, extracted from U-Th minerals of specific rock types in the earth's crust. Research and Development of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) depends heavily on 'Geology'. In this paper, a brief review of the major branches of geology and their contributions during different stages of NFC, in the Indian scenario, is presented so as to demonstrate the important role played by 'Geology' behind the development of NFT, in general, and NFC, in particular. (author)

  8. Geological mapping of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, M. S.; Sukhanov, A. L.; Trifonov, V. G.; Florenskiy, P. V.; Shkerin, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    Compilation and labelling of geological and morphological charts on a scale of 1:1,000,000 are discussed with emphasis on the regions of Maria Tranquilitatis, Crisium, Fecunditatis, Humorum and Nukium as well as certain prominent craters.

  9. The laboratories of geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This educational document comprises 4 booklets in a folder devoted to the presentation of the ANDRA's activities in geological research laboratories. The first booklet gives a presentation of the missions of the ANDRA (the French agency for the management of radioactive wastes) in the management of long life radioactive wastes. The second booklet describes the approach of waste disposal facilities implantation. The third booklet gives a brief presentation of the scientific program concerning the underground geologic laboratories. The last booklet is a compilation of questions and answers about long-life radioactive wastes, the research and works carried out in geologic laboratories, the public information and the local socio-economic impact, and the storage of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. (J.S.)

  10. Genesis of carbonate-siliceous-pelitic type uranium deposits in Baoyuan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Baochi; Zhang Daishi; Li Shengxiang; Zhu Jiechen

    1995-01-01

    Based on systematic studies of the regional geology, the fundamental geological characteristics of uranium mineralizations, and according to the researches of uranium source, the REE characteristics, the H,O,C,S isotope compositions, as well as the chronology of uranium metallogenesis of the uranium deposits, the authors consider that the multistage accumulative metallogenesis (especially the hydrothermal superimposed and reworking metallogenesis) is the universal and important uranium metallogenesis in the formation of carbonate-siliceous-pelitic type uranium deposits in the area

  11. Discussion on several problems on the mineralization of paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shijie

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of comprehensively analyzing paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits at home and abroad, the author discusses the division of mineralization types of paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits, and analyzes the metallogenic geologic conditions such as regional geologic background, climatic and geomorphological conditions, basement and sedimentary cover, characteristics of paleo-valley and paleo-channel, mineralization features as well as epigenetic metallogenic process. Future prospecting direction is also proposed

  12. ERTS-A data as a teaching and research tool in the Department of Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grybeck, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 prints have been used extensively in a geology of Alaska class to give a basic framework of the geology of the state. In addition, they have been intermittantly used in such diverse classes as: (1) Economic Geology (e.g. the Sn-bearing granites of the Seward Peninsula are particularly noticeable due to their wide contact metamorphic aureoles.) (2) A canned geology of Alaska lecture which has been given to two different introductory geology courses. (3) Structural Geology (e.g. the Fairweather and Denali faults are striking obvious). It was found most convenient for larger classes to prepare 35mm slides of the ERTS-1 prints that are used in conjunction with slides of the topographic and geologic maps at about the same scale. Thus the emphasis has been in integration of the ERTS-1 material into existing courses. As such, the ERTS-1 data has provided a unique and striking viewpoint that never fails to initiate favorable comment. In addition, prints have been examined by numerous researchers to develop a regional, integrated overview of such varied topics as regional geology to a background for local geologic mapping to studies of ore deposits and to the definition of a formation to be studied in detail at its type locality.

  13. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. ?? 2006 MDPI. All rights reserved.

  14. Geologic map of the Lower Valley quadrangle, Caribou County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlindacher, H. Peter; Hovland, R. David; Miller, Susan T.; Evans, James G.; Miller, Robert J.

    2018-04-05

    The Lower Valley 7.5-minute quadrangle, located in the core of the Southeast Idaho Phosphate Resource Area, includes Mississippian to Triassic marine sedimentary rocks, Pliocene to Pleistocene basalt, and Tertiary to Holocene surficial deposits. The Mississippian to Triassic marine sedimentary sequence was deposited on a shallow shelf between an emergent craton to the east and the Antler orogenic belt to the west. The Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Member of the Permian Phosphoria Formation hosts high-grade deposits of phosphate that were the subject of geologic studies through much of the 20th century. Open-pit mining of the phosphate has been underway within and near the Lower Valley quadrangle for several decades.

  15. Geology of McLaughlin Crater, Mars: A Unique Lacustrine Setting with Implications for Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, J. R.; Niles, P. B.; Rogers, A. D.; Johnson, S. S.; Ashley, J. W.; Golombek, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    McLaughlin crater is a 92-kmdiameter Martian impact crater that contained an ancient carbonate- and clay mineral-bearing lake in the Late Noachian. Detailed analysis of the geology within this crater reveals a complex history with important implications for astrobiology [1]. The basin contains evidence for, among other deposits, hydrothermally altered rocks, delta deposits, deep water (>400 m) sediments, and potentially turbidites. The geology of this basin stands in stark contrast to that of some ancient basins that contain evidence for transient aqueous processes and airfall sediments (e.g. Gale Crater [2-3]).

  16. Processes of Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 16 July 2003This THEMIS visible image captures a complex process of deposition, burial and exhumation. The crater ejecta in the top of the image is in the form of flow lobes, indicating that the crater was formed in volatile-rich terrain. While a radial pattern can be seen in the ejecta, the pattern is sharper in the lower half of the ejecta. This is because the top half of the ejecta is still buried by a thin layer of sediment. It is most likely that at one time the entire area was covered. Wind, and perhaps water erosion have started to remove this layer, once again exposing the what was present underneath.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.3, Longitude 181.2 East (178.8 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. A special issue devoted to gold deposits in northern Nevada: Part 2. Carlin-type Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Theodore, Ted G.

    2003-01-01

    This is the second of two special issues of Economic Geology devoted to gold deposits in northern Nevada. Readers interested in a general overview of these deposits, their economic significance, their context within the tectonic evolution of the region, and synoptic references on each gold deposit type are directed to the preface of the first special issue (John et al., 2003). Volume 98, issue 2, contains five papers that address regional aspects important to the genesis of gold deposits in northern Nevada and five papers that present detailed studies of epithermal deposits and districts. All of the regional papers are pertinent to Carlin-type gold deposits, because they address the age of mineralization (Arehart et al., 2003), origin and evolutionary history of the northwest-striking mineral belts that localize many deposits (Grauch et al., 2003), nature of the middle and lower crust below these mineral belts (Howard, 2003), district- to deposit-scale stream sediment and lithogeochemical anomalies (Theodore et al., 2003), and stratigraphy and structure of a district located along a northeast-striking lineament (Peters et al., 2003).

  18. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, W.R.; Turner, K.J.; Bohannon, R.G.; Berry, M.E.; Williams, V.S.; Miggins, D.P.; Ren, M.; Anthony, E.Y.; Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, P.W.C.; Gray, J. E.; Theodorakos, P.M.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Manning, A.H.; Gemery-Hill, P. A.; Hellgren, E.C.; Stricker, C.A.; Onorato, D.P.; Finn, C.A.; Anderson, E.; Gray, J. E.; Page, W.R.

    2008-01-01

    Big Bend National Park (BBNP), Tex., covers 801,163 acres (3,242 km2) and was established in 1944 through a transfer of land from the State of Texas to the United States. The park is located along a 118-mile (190-km) stretch of the Rio Grande at the United States-Mexico border. The park is in the Chihuahuan Desert, an ecosystem with high mountain ranges and basin environments containing a wide variety of native plants and animals, including more than 1,200 species of plants, more than 450 species of birds, 56 species of reptiles, and 75 species of mammals. In addition, the geology of BBNP, which varies widely from high mountains to broad open lowland basins, also enhances the beauty of the park. For example, the park contains the Chisos Mountains, which are dominantly composed of thick outcrops of Tertiary extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks that reach an altitude of 7,832 ft (2,387 m) and are considered the southernmost mountain range in the United States. Geologic features in BBNP provide opportunities to study the formation of mineral deposits and their environmental effects; the origin and formation of sedimentary and igneous rocks; Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic fossils; and surface and ground water resources. Mineral deposits in and around BBNP contain commodities such as mercury (Hg), uranium (U), and fluorine (F), but of these, the only significant mining has been for Hg. Because of the biological and geological diversity of BBNP, more than 350,000 tourists visit the park each year. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been investigating a number of broad and diverse geologic, geochemical, and geophysical topics in BBNP to provide fundamental information needed by the National Park Service (NPS) to address resource management goals in this park. Scientists from the USGS Mineral Resources and National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Programs have been working cooperatively with the NPS and several universities on several research studies within BBNP

  19. Geology Field Trips as Performance Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Callan

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important goals the author has for students in his introductory-level physical geology course is to give them the conceptual skills for solving geologic problems on their own. He wants students to leave his course as individuals who can use their knowledge of geologic processes and logic to figure out the extended geologic history…

  20. Geologic history of the Slick Rock district and vicinity, San Miguel and Dolores Counties, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawe, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    This report is a narrative summary and interpretation, in the form of a geologic history of the Slick Rock district and vicinity, of four previously published chapters in this series dealing with stratigraphy of the Slick Rock district and vicinity, petrography of sedimentary rocks of the district, structure of the district and vicinity, and altered sedimentary rocks of the district, and of other previously published reports on the district. It forms the background, with the earlier reports, for presentation of a final report in the series describing the uranium-vanadium ore deposits. A review of the origin of sedimentary rocks and geologic history of the region indicates that formation of uranium-vanadium deposits was a natural result of the deposition of th rocks, the occurrence of intrastratal waters therein, and the post-depositional movement of the waters resulting from evolution of the sedimentary rock environment. 31 refs

  1. Economical Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Richard; Davis, Robert; Linford, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition is a self limiting deposition process that can produce films at a user specified height. At BYU we have designed a low cost and automated atomic layer deposition system. We have used the system to deposit silicon dioxide at room temperature using silicon tetrachloride and tetramethyl orthosilicate. Basics of atomic layer deposition, the system set up, automation techniques and our system's characterization are discussed.

  2. From sources to deposits: Recent advances about the unconformity-related U deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercadier, Julien; Richard, Antonin; Cathelineau, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cuney, Michel; Annesley, Irvine R.

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge: - Hydrothermal deposits (< 250°C); - U-Pb ages: 1.6-0.9 Ga + late remobilizations; - 3 locations; - Structure-related, graphite; - Strong K-Mg-B alteration: illite-chloritesdravite/ Mg-foitite (Mg Tour)-hydrothermal quartz; - Mineralizing fluids: Na-Ca-rich brines (25-35 wt% eq. NaCl). However still relevant scientific/geological questions remain: Can we provide new insights about: - the origin of the brines? - the source of U and other metals? - the percolation conditions within the basement rocks? - the chemical modifications at the origin of the formation of mineralizing brines? - the conditions for the transport and deposition of uranium?

  3. Exploring and Monitoring of Methane Hydrate Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudac, D.; Obhođaš, J.; Nađ, K.; Valković, V.

    2018-01-01

    Relatively recently, in the last 20 years, it was discovered that methane hydrate (MH) deposits are globally distributed in the permafrost and oceans. Before 1965 when first deposits were discovered in nature, it was believed that MH can occur only in laboratory conditions or in vast parts of the Universe. Presently it is presumed that this solid crystalline compounds in which CH4 molecules occupies the water ice lattices (nominal chemical formula of MH is C4H62O23) can serve as an energy source favorably to the all of the world remaining conventional hydrocarbon sources. The worldwide estimates of MH deposits range from 2x1014 m3 to 3.053x1018 cubic meters. This uncertainty partly results from our limitations in geological understanding of the MH deposits, which is due to the relatively bad quality of data obtained by presently available seismic and electromagnetic techniques. Moreover, MH deposits can become vulnerable to climate changes, which were already occurring in geological past whit tremendous consequences for the global life on Earth. Thus, further development of advanced techniques is needed to enhance our abilities to better characterize, quantify and monitor the MH deposits. In the work presented 14 MeV neutrons and associated alpha particle imaging (API) where used to quantify the amount of MH in the sample. Samples were prepared from sea sediment, quartz sand and MH simulant. MH simulant with chemical formula C4H46O23 was made from sucrose (25 % by mass) and water. MH quantity was measured by measuring the carbon content in the sample [1-8].

  4. Exploring and Monitoring of Methane Hydrate Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudac D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Relatively recently, in the last 20 years, it was discovered that methane hydrate (MH deposits are globally distributed in the permafrost and oceans. Before 1965 when first deposits were discovered in nature, it was believed that MH can occur only in laboratory conditions or in vast parts of the Universe. Presently it is presumed that this solid crystalline compounds in which CH4 molecules occupies the water ice lattices (nominal chemical formula of MH is C4H62O23 can serve as an energy source favorably to the all of the world remaining conventional hydrocarbon sources. The worldwide estimates of MH deposits range from 2x1014 m3 to 3.053x1018 cubic meters. This uncertainty partly results from our limitations in geological understanding of the MH deposits, which is due to the relatively bad quality of data obtained by presently available seismic and electromagnetic techniques. Moreover, MH deposits can become vulnerable to climate changes, which were already occurring in geological past whit tremendous consequences for the global life on Earth. Thus, further development of advanced techniques is needed to enhance our abilities to better characterize, quantify and monitor the MH deposits. In the work presented 14 MeV neutrons and associated alpha particle imaging (API where used to quantify the amount of MH in the sample. Samples were prepared from sea sediment, quartz sand and MH simulant. MH simulant with chemical formula C4H46O23 was made from sucrose (25 % by mass and water. MH quantity was measured by measuring the carbon content in the sample [1-8].

  5. Geological control in computer-based resource estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cram, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The economic assessment of mineral deposits potentially involves a number of phases from initial assessment through to detailed orebody evaluation and subsequently to estimation of bench or stope grades in an operational mine. Obviously the nature and quantity of information varies significantly from one extreme to the other. This paper reports on geological interpretation which obviously plays a major part during the early phases of assessment and it logically follows that computerized orebody assessment techniques must be able to effectively utilize this information. Even in an operational mine the importance of geological control varies according to the type of orebody. The method of modelling coal seams is distinctly different from those techniques used for a massive sulphide deposit. For coal seams significant reliance is placed on the correlation of seam intercepts from holes which are widely spaced in relation to the seam (i.e.) orebody) thickness. The use of geological interpretation in this case is justified other experience gained in the past, compared to the cost of reliance only on samples from a very dense drill hole pattern

  6. IAEA safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    In September. 1988, the IAEA held its first formal meeting on the safeguards requirements for the final disposal of spent fuel and nuclear material-bearing waste. The consensus recommendation of the 43 participants from 18 countries at this Advisory Group Meeting was that safeguards should not terminate of spent fuel even after emplacement in, and closure of, a geologic repository.' As a result of this recommendation, the IAEA initiated a series of consultants' meetings and the SAGOR Programme (Programme for the Development of Safeguards for the Final Disposal of Spent Fuel in Geologic Repositories) to develop an approach that would permit IAEA safeguards to verify the non-diversion of spent fuel from a geologic repository. At the end of this process, in December 1997, a second Advisory Group Meeting, endorsed the generic safeguards approach developed by the SAGOR Programme. Using the SAGOR Programme results and consultants' meeting recommendations, the IAEA Department of Safeguards issued a safeguards policy paper stating the requirements for IAEA safeguards at geologic repositories. Following approval of the safeguards policy and the generic safeguards approach, the Geologic Repository Safeguards Experts Group was established to make recommendations on implementing the safeguards approach. This experts' group is currently making recommendations to the IAEA regarding the safeguards activities to be conducted with respect to Finland's repository programme. (author)

  7. Geologic Interpretation of Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Geology Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping. Part 1; A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Bleacher, Jacob F.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Feng, Wanda; Gruener, John; Hurwitz, Debra M.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Whitson, Peggy; Janoiko, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Geologic maps integrate the distributions, contacts, and compositions of rock and sediment bodies as a means to interpret local to regional formative histories. Applying terrestrial mapping techniques to other planets is challenging because data is collected primarily by orbiting instruments, with infrequent, spatiallylimited in situ human and robotic exploration. Although geologic maps developed using remote data sets and limited "Apollo-style" field access likely contain inaccuracies, the magnitude, type, and occurrence of these are only marginally understood. This project evaluates the interpretative and cartographic accuracy of both field- and remote-based mapping approaches by comparing two 1:24,000 scale geologic maps of the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF), north-central Arizona. The first map is based on traditional field mapping techniques, while the second is based on remote data sets, augmented with limited field observations collected during NASA Desert Research & Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 exercises. The RATS mission used Apollo-style methods not only for pre-mission traverse planning but also to conduct geologic sampling as part of science operation tests. Cross-comparison demonstrates that the Apollo-style map identifies many of the same rock units and determines a similar broad history as the field-based map. However, field mapping techniques allow markedly improved discrimination of map units, particularly unconsolidated surficial deposits, and recognize a more complex eruptive history than was possible using Apollo-style data. Further, the distribution of unconsolidated surface units was more obvious in the remote sensing data to the field team after conducting the fieldwork. The study raises questions about the most effective approach to balancing mission costs with the rate of knowledge capture, suggesting that there is an inflection point in the "knowledge capture curve" beyond which additional resource investment yields progressively

  8. Chemical and Mineralogical Features of Smectite from the Morron de Mateo Bentonite Deposit (Cabo de Gata, Almeria) in Relation to the Parent Rocks and the Alteration Processes Occurred After the Bentonite Formation: Analogies and Implications for the Engineered Clayey Barrier of a Deep Geological Rad waste Repository; Naturaleza de las Esmectitas del Yacimiento de Morron de Mateo (Cabo de Gata, Almeria) en Relacion con la Roca Madre y con los Procesos Posteriores a la Bentonitizacion: Implicaciones Analogicas para la Barrera de Ingenieria de un Almacenamiento Geologico de Residuos Radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelayo, M; Labajo, M A; Garcia Romero, L; Perez del Villar, L

    2009-10-12

    The Morron de Mateo bentonite deposit is being studied as a natural analogue of the thermal and geochemical effects on the clayey barrier of a Deep Geological Rad waste Repository (DGRR) after its closure, in relation to the radioactive decay of the fission products and the container corrosion. This bentonite deposit and their host rocks were intruded by a rhyodacitic volcanic dome that induced a hydrothermal metasomatic process affecting the bioclastic calcarenite beds close to the dome. Bentonite from the NE sector of the deposit have been chemically and mineralogically characterized. Pyroclastic rocks (white tuffs), epyclastic rocks (mass flow) and andesitic breccia all of them hydrothermally altered, have been studied at the site. Samples are composed of feldspars, quartz and amphybols, as inherited minerals, and phyllosilicates, zeolites, crystoballite and calcite, as new formed minerals. White tuffs have the highest phyllosilicate contents, mainly dioctahedral smectite of montmorillonite type. Epyclastic rocks and andesitic breccia have a highest proportion of inherited minerals, the new formed phillosilicates being di octahedral smectite of beidellite type and an ordered interlayer chlorite/smectite mineral, of corrensite type. Smectite from the epyclastic rocks have higher Fe and Mg contents and chemical variability, as a consequence of nature of their parent rocks. The presence of corrensite in the epyclastic rocks suggests that in the Morron de Mateo area a propilitic alteration process occurred after bentonite formation, which transformed Fe-Mg-rich smectite into corrensite. This transformation was probably favoured by the sub volcanic intrusion, which also produced a temperature increase in the geological media and a supply of Fe-Mg-rich solutions, which also were the responsible for the metasomatic transformations observed in the calcarenite beds. (Author) 57 refs.

  9. Meeting of the French geological society - Uranium: geology, geophysics, chemistry. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakari, A.A.; Mima, S.; Bidaud, A.; Criqui, P.; Menanteau, P.; David, S.; Pagel, M.; Chagnes, A.; Cote, G.; Courtaud, B.; Thiry, J.; Miehe, J.M.; Gilbert, F.; Cuney, M.; Bruneton, P.; Ewington, D.; Vautrin-Ul, C.; Cannizzo, C.; Betelu, S.; Chausse, A.; Ly, J.; Bourgeois, D.; Maynadie, J.; Meyer, D.; Clavier, N.; Costin, D.T.; Cretaz, F.; Szenknect, S.; Ravaux, J.; Poinssot, C.; Dacheux, N.; Durupt, N.; Blanvillain, J.J.; Geffroy, F.; Aparicio, B.; Dubessy, J.; Nguyen-Trung, C.; Robert, P.; Uri, F.; Beaufort, D.; Lescuyer, J.L.; Morichon, E.; Allard, T.; Milesi, J.P.; Richard, A.; Rozsypal, C.; Mercadier, J.; Banks, D.A.; Boiron, M.C.; Cathelineau, M.; Dardel, J.; Billon, S.; Patrier, P.; Wattinne, A.; Vanderhaeghe, O.; Fabre, C.; Castillo, M.; Salvi, S.; Beziat, D.; Williams-Jones, A.E.; Trap, P.; Durand, C.; Goncalves, P.; Marquer, D.; Feybesse, J.L.; Richard, Y.; Orberger, B.; Hofmann, A.; Megneng, M.; Orberger, B.; Bouttemy, M.; Vigneron, J.; Etcheberry, A.; Perdicakis, M.; Prignon, N.; Toe, W.; Andre-Mayer, A.S.; Eglinger, A.; Jordaan, T.; Hocquet, S.; Ledru, P.; Selezneva, V.; Vendryes, G.; Lach, P.; Cuney, M.; Mercadier, J.; Brouand, M.; Duran, C.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A.M.; Bingen, B.; Parseval, P. de; Guillaume, D.; Bosse, V.; Paquette, J.L.; Ingrin, J.; Montel, J.M.; Giot, R.; Maucotel, F.; Hubert, S.; Gautheron, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Pagel, M.; Barbarand, J.; Cuney, M.; Lach, P.; Bonhoure, J.; Leisen, M.; Kister, P.; Salaun, A.; Villemant, B.; Gerard, M.; Komorowski, J.C.; Michel, A.; Riegler, T.; Tartese, R.; Boulvais, P.; Poujols, M.; Gloaguen, E.; Mazzanti, M.; Mougel, V.; Nocton, G.; Biswas, B.; Pecaut, J.; Othmane, G.; Menguy, N.; Vercouter, T.; Morin, G.; Galoisy, L.; Calas, G.; Fayek, M.

    2010-11-01

    This document brings together the abstracts of the 39 presentations given at this meeting days on uranium, organized by the French geological society, and dealing with: 1 - Prospective study of the electronuclear technological transition; 2 - The front-end of the nuclear cycle: from the molecule to the process; 3 - Geophysics: recent changes; 4 - Use of well logging in uranium exploration; 5 - Genetical classification of thorium deposits; 6 - Genetical nomenclature of uranium sources; 7 - Uranium deposits linked to a Proterozoic discordance - retrospective; 8 - The use of spectral analysis techniques in uranium exploration: real-time mapping of clay alteration features; 9 - Development of functionalized silk-screened carbon electrodes for the analysis of uranium trace amounts; 10 - Study of the actinides solvation sphere in organic environment; 11 - Thermodynamic of uraniferous phases of interest for the nuclear cycle; 12 - Heap leaching of marginal minerals at Somair: from lab studies to the production of 700 t of uranium/year; 13 - Agglomeration phenomenology and role of iron in uranium heap leaching; 14 - Chloride uranyl complexes up to 300 deg. C along the saturation vapour curve: Raman spectroscopy analysis and metallogenic consequences; 15 - Weathering systems in the Shea Creek deposit (Athabasca, Canada): vertical variability of argillaceous weathering; 16 - Weathering systems in the Shea Creek deposit (Athabasca, Canada): contribution of irradiation defects in clays to the tracing of past uranium migrations; 17 - Uranium concentrations in mineralizing fluids of the Athabasca basin: analytical and experimental approach; 18 - Paleo-surfaces and metallic rooting: the autochthonous uranium of pre-Athabasca paleo-alterites, Canada; 19 - Distribution of argillaceous parageneses in the Imouraren deposit - Niger; 20 - Heat flux and radioelements concentration (U, Th, K) of precambrian basements: implications in terms of crust growth mechanisms, paleo

  10. Okelobondo Uranium deposit: Regional context, stratigraphy, sedimentology, tectonic and mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ango, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes briefly the geology of Okelobondo uranium deposit (Gabon) and gives the study prospects of natural reactor phenomenon which depends of the operating progress state. Oklo phenomenon is considered as the best natural analogue for the study of radionuclide migration. 3 figs

  11. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 1. Geological environment of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 1 of the progress report, describes first in detail the role of geological environment in high-level radioactive wastes disposal, the features of Japanese geological environment, and programs to proceed the investigation in geological environment. The following chapter summarizes scientific basis for possible existence of stable geological environment, stable for a long period needed for the HLW disposal in Japan including such natural phenomena as volcano and faults. The results of the investigation of the characteristics of bed-rocks and groundwater are presented. These are important for multiple barrier system construction of deep geological disposal. The report furthermore describes the present status of technical and methodological progress in investigating geological environment and finally on the results of natural analog study in Tono uranium deposits area. (Ohno, S.)

  12. Uranium deposits in Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This report is the result of an effort to gather together the most important information on uranium deposits in Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerates in the United States of America, Canada, Finland, Ghana, South Africa and Australia. The paper discusses the uranium potential (and in some cases also the gold potential in South Africa, Western Australia and Ghana) in terms of ores, sedimentation, mineralization, metamorphism, placers, geologic formations, stratigraphy, petrology, exploration, tectonics and distribution. Geologic history and application of geologic models are also discussed. Glacial outwash and water influx is also mentioned. The uranium deposits in a number of States in the USA are covered. The Witwatersrand placers are discussed in several papers. Refs, figs, tabs

  13. Southeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the geological disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geological factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on the age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies

  14. Environmental geochemical study of Red Mountain--an undisturbed volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Bonnifield District, Alaska range, east-central Alaska: Chapter I in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Giles, Stuart A.; Gough, Larry P.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2007-01-01

    The Red Mountain volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit exhibits well-constrained examples of acid-generating, metal-leaching, metal-precipitation, and self-mitigation (via co-precipitation, dilution, and neutralization) processes that occur in an undisturbed natural setting, a rare occurrence in North America. The unmined pyrite-rich deposit displays a remarkable environmental footprint of natural acid generation, high metal concentrations, and exceedingly high rare-earth-element (REE) concentrations in surface waters. Dissolution of pyrite and associated secondary reactions under near-surface, oxidizing conditions are the primary causes for the acid generation and metal leaching. The deposit is hosted in Devonian to Mississippian felsic metavolcanic rocks of the Mystic Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist.

  15. Uranium deposits of the world. Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlkamp, Franz J.

    2016-07-01

    Uranium Deposits of the World, in three volumes, comprises an unprecedented compilation of data and descriptions of the uranium regions in Asia, USA, Latin America and Europe structured by countries. With this third, the Europe volume, Uranium Deposits of the World presents the most extensive data collection of the set. It covers about 140 uranium regions in more than 20 European countries with nearly 1000 mentioned uranium deposits. Each country and region receives an analytical overview followed by the geologically- and economically-relevant synopsis of the individual regions and fields. The presentations are structured in three major sections: (a) location and magnitude of uranium regions, districts, and deposits, (b) principal features of regions and districts, and (c) detailed characteristics of selected ore fields and deposits. This includes sections on geology, alteration, mineralization, shape and dimensions of deposits, isotopes data, ore control and recognition criteria, and metallogenesis. Beside the main European uranium regions, for example in the Czech Republic, Eastern Germany, France, the Iberian Peninsula or Ukraine, also small regions an districts to the point of singular occurrences of interest are considered. This by far the most comprehensive presentation of European uranium geology and mining would not be possible without the author's access to extensive information covering the countries of the former Eastern Bloc states, which was partly not previously available. Abundantly illustrated with information-laden maps and charts throughout, this reference work is an indispensable tool for geologists, mining companies, government agencies, and others with an interest in European key natural resources. A great help for the reader's orientation are the substantial bibliography of uranium-related publications and the indices, latter containing about 3900 entries in the geographical part alone. The three volumes of Uranium Deposits of the

  16. Radionuclide migration in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbreau, A.; Heremans, R.; Skytte Jensen, B.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal into geological formation is based on the capacity of rocks to confine radioactivity for a long period of time. Radionuclide migration from the repository to the environment depends on different mechanisms and phenomena whose two main ones are groundwater flow and the retention and ion-exchange property of rocks. Many studies are underway presently in EEC countries concerning hydrodynamic characteristics of deep geological formations as well as in radionuclide retention capacity and modelling. Important results have already been achieved which show the complexity of some phenomena and further studies shall principally be developed taking into account real conditions of the repository and its environment

  17. Integrated path towards geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, R.; Delaytermoz, A.

    2004-01-01

    Among solutions to contribute to CO 2 emissions mitigation, sequestration is a promising path that presents the main advantage of being able to cope with the large volume at stake when considering the growing energy demand. Of particular importance, geological storage has widely been seen as an effective solution for large CO 2 sources like power plants or refineries. Many R and D projects have been initiated, whereby research institutes, government agencies and end-users achieve an effective collaboration. So far, progress has been made towards reinjection of CO 2 , in understanding and then predicting the phenomenon and fluid dynamics inside the geological target, while monitoring the expansion of the CO 2 bubble in the case of demonstration projects. A question arises however when talking about sequestration, namely the time scale to be taken into account. Time is indeed of the essence, and points out the need to understand leakage as well as trapping mechanisms. It is therefore of prime importance to be able to predict the fate of the injected fluids, in an accurate manner and over a relevant period of time. On the grounds of geology, four items are involved in geological storage reliability: the matrix itself, which is the recipient of the injected fluids; the seal, that is the mechanistic trap preventing the injected fluids to flow upward and escape; the lower part of the concerned structure, usually an aquifer, that can be a migration way for dissolved fluids; and the man- made injecting hole, the well, whose characteristics should be as good as the geological formation itself. These issues call for specific competencies such as reservoir engineering, geology and hydrodynamics, mineral chemistry, geomechanics, and well engineering. These competencies, even if put to use to a large extent in the oil industry, have never been connected with the reliability of geological storage as ultimate goal. This paper aims at providing an introduction to these

  18. Research of mining and geological conditions for geological exploration in Pre-Caucasian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. А. Гасумов

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration natural depletion of reserves of hydrocarbons in Mesozoic deposits of the majority of operated deposits of North Caucasus and for the purpose of further development of oil and gas producing industry in the region it is necessary to involve a carbonaceous complex of Jura of West Pre-Caucasus with the burial depth of more than 5300 m in the development. When drafting engineering design for a construction of exploratory wells in complex mining and geological conditions driven by anomalously high overburden pressure and temperature, use of thoroughly studied field geological information and taking into consideration the experience of boring similar wells is important. The paper provides analysis of geophysical data, the results of complex studies of reservoir porosity and permeability features of rocks picked out of core-samples of the first exploratory well on Krupskaya zone (porosity, permeability, electrical, acoustic, lithological characteristics, pressure-and-temperature conditions. The information obtained allowed to specify technological parameters of boring and tailing-in and to give recommendations regarding the way of exploratory wells boring and use of borehole equipment. In order to avoid the development of significant hydrodynamic pressure in the borehole which provokes gas showings it is necessary to keep on a certain level of minimal values of mud rheology parameters (dynamic shear stress τ = 70¸135 dPa; plastic viscosity η = 25¸35 mPa·s. For the purpose of real-time keeping of overbalance with anomalously high overburden pressure, control and regulation of calculated head pressure a stripper head should be included into the equipment configuration. Furthermore well head equipment and blowout preventer equipment must be designed for expected gradient of overburden pressure.

  19. Freshwater diatomite deposits in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alan R.; Frank, David G.; Founie, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Freshwater diatomite deposits in the Western United States are found in lake beds that formed millions of years ago. These diatom-rich sediments are among the Nation's largest commercial diatomite deposits. Each deposit contains billions of tiny diatom skeletons, which are widely used for filtration, absorption, and abrasives. New studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are revealing how ancient lakes in the Western States produced such large numbers of diatoms. These findings can be used by both land-use managers and mining companies to better evaluate diatomite resources in the region.

  20. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W.

    1990-12-01

    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab

  1. Surficial geology and land classification, Mackenzie Valley Transportation Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, O L; Pilon, J; Veilette, J

    1974-01-01

    The objective of this project, continued from 1971 and 1972 is to provide an inventory of surficial geology and permafrost distribution data pertinent to pipeline construction, road building, and other land use activities that might take place in the Mackenzie Valley Transportation Corridor. Hughes together with N.W. Rutter devoted one month to reconnaissance examination of the area encompassed by this project and Project 710047 (see this report). A primary objective was to insure uniform usage of map-units throughout the 2 areas. Construction on the Mackenzie Highway was examined in order to evaluate terrain performance of various map-units crossed by the highway. Limited geological studies, including shallow borings and measurement of sections, were conducted to supplement field work of 1971 and 1972. J. Veillette conducted diamond drilling in permanently frozen surficial deposits during the period mid-March to mid-April.

  2. Characterizing Geological Facies using Seismic Waveform Classification in Sarawak Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahraa, Afiqah; Zailani, Ahmad; Prasad Ghosh, Deva

    2017-10-01

    Numerous effort have been made to build relationship between geology and geophysics using different techniques throughout the years. The integration of these two most important data in oil and gas industry can be used to reduce uncertainty in exploration and production especially for reservoir productivity enhancement and stratigraphic identification. This paper is focusing on seismic waveform classification to different classes using neural network and to link them according to the geological facies which are established using the knowledge on lithology and log motif of well data. Seismic inversion is used as the input for the neural network to act as the direct lithology indicator reducing dependency on well calibration. The interpretation of seismic facies classification map provides a better understanding towards the lithology distribution, depositional environment and help to identify significant reservoir rock

  3. Preliminary research on thermoluminescence application in complicated geological situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Gelian; Liu Chunsheng

    2003-01-01

    Thermoluminescent phenomenon resulting from two kinds of complicated geological situation, Ordos Basin and Huainan deposits in Anhui Province, is studied by the means of thermoluminescence counting method. It is shown that: (1) there are no apparent abnormalities of natural TL detected from the rock samples selected in the first 1000 meter depth of the Earth, and these natural TL are accumulated through natural radiation effects; (2) the natural TL shows statistically obvious reducing trends for the rock samples selected under the 2000 meter depth, and even no detectable TL is found for those rocks selected at 4000 meter depth. (3) the natural TL peaks corresponding to high temperature generally shift to the direction of higher temperature for the quartz-related rock samples, and several thermal events which occurred during the geological times might be responsible for this case

  4. Uncertainty in mapped geological boundaries held by a national geological survey:eliciting the geologists' tacit error model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. M.; Lawley, R. S.; Barron, A. J. M.; Aldiss, D. T.; Ambrose, K.; Cooper, A. H.; Lee, J. R.; Waters, C. N.

    2015-06-01

    It is generally accepted that geological line work, such as mapped boundaries, are uncertain for various reasons. It is difficult to quantify this uncertainty directly, because the investigation of error in a boundary at a single location may be costly and time consuming, and many such observations are needed to estimate an uncertainty model with confidence. However, it is recognized across many disciplines that experts generally have a tacit model of the uncertainty of information that they produce (interpretations, diagnoses, etc.) and formal methods exist to extract this model in usable form by elicitation. In this paper we report a trial in which uncertainty models for geological boundaries mapped by geologists of the British Geological Survey (BGS) in six geological scenarios were elicited from a group of five experienced BGS geologists. In five cases a consensus distribution was obtained, which reflected both the initial individually elicited distribution and a structured process of group discussion in which individuals revised their opinions. In a sixth case a consensus was not reached. This concerned a boundary between superficial deposits where the geometry of the contact is hard to visualize. The trial showed that the geologists' tacit model of uncertainty in mapped boundaries reflects factors in addition to the cartographic error usually treated by buffering line work or in written guidance on its application. It suggests that further application of elicitation, to scenarios at an appropriate level of generalization, could be useful to provide working error models for the application and interpretation of line work.

  5. A SKOS-based multilingual thesaurus of geological time scale for interopability of online geological maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, X.; Carranza, E.J.M.; Wu, C.; Meer, F.D. van der; Liu, G.

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of online geological maps is hindered by linguistic barriers. Multilingual geoscience thesauri alleviate linguistic barriers of geological maps. However, the benefits of multilingual geoscience thesauri for online geological maps are less studied. In this regard, we developed a

  6. RELATIONSHIP OF AMEBOCYTES AND TERRESTRIAL ELEMENTS TO ADULT SHELL DEPOSITION IN EASTERN OYSTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William S. Submitted. Relationship of Amebocytes and Terrestrial Elements to Adult Shell Deposition in Eastern Oysters. J. Shellfish Res. 30 p. (ERL,GB 1197). Freshwater runoff contains terrestrial elements from geological deposits that may be vital to eastern oys...

  7. Analysis on metallogenic conditions of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits in kelulun region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Feng [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology, Beijing (China)

    1999-07-01

    On the basis of comprehensively analyzing metallogenic conditions of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits, the author discusses regional geologic background, characteristics of the basement and sedimentary cover of Kelulun basin and Huchawula-Hulun Lake basin, and the metallogenic potential of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits is proposed.

  8. Analysis on metallogenic conditions of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits in kelulun region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Mingyue

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of comprehensively analyzing metallogenic conditions of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits, the author discusses regional geologic background, characteristics of the basement and sedimentary cover of Kelulun basin and Huchawula-Hulun Lake basin, and the metallogenic potential of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits is proposed

  9. Geological hazards investigation - relative slope stability map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dae Suk; Kim, Won Young; Yu, Il Hyon; Kim, Kyeong Su; Lee, Sa Ro; Choi, Young Sup [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The Republic of Korea is a mountainous country; the mountains occupy about three quarters of her land area, an increasing urban development being taken place along the mountainside. For the reason, planners as well as developers and others must realize that some of the urban areas may be threaten by geologic hazards such as landslides and accelerated soil and rock creeps. For the purpose of environmental land-use planning, a mapping project on relative slope-stability was established in 1996. The selected area encompasses about 5,900 km{sup 2} including the topographic maps of Ulsan, Yongchon, Kyongju, Pulguksa, and Kampo, all at a scale of 1:50,000. Many disturbed and undisturbed soil samples, which were collected from the ares of the landslides and unstable slopes, were tested for their physical properties and shear strength. They were classified as GC, SP, SC, SM, SP-SM, SC-SM, CL, ML, and MH according to the Unified Soil Classification System, their liquid limit and plasticity index ranging from 25.3% to as high as 81.3% and from 4.1% to 41.5%, respectively. X-ray analysis revealed that many of the soils contained a certain amount of montmorillonite. Based on the available information as well as both field and laboratory investigation, it was found out that the most common types of slope failures in the study area were both debris and mud flows induced by the heavy rainfalls during the period of rainy season; the flows mostly occurred in the colluvial deposits at the middle and foot of mountains. Thus the deposits generally appear to be the most unstable slope forming materials in the study area. Produced for the study area were six different maps consisting of slope classification map, soil classification map, lineament density map, landslide distribution map, zonal map of rainfall, and geology map, most of them being stored as data base. Using the first four maps and GIS, two sheets of relative slope-stability maps were constructed, each at a scale of 1

  10. 3D representation of geological observations in underground mine workings of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Marcisz

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present the possibilities of the three-dimensional representation of geological strata in underground (access workings in a hard coal deposit in the SW part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, using CAD software and its flagship program AutoCAD. The 3D visualization of the results of underground workings’ mapping is presented and illustrated on two opening out workings (descending galleries. The criteria for choosing these workings were based on their length and the complexity of geological settings observed while they were driven. The described method may be applied in spatial visualization of geological structures observed in other deposits, mines and existing workings (it is not applicable for designing mine workings, also beyond the area of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB. The method presented describes the problem of the visualization of underground mine workings in a typical geological aspect, considering (aimed at detailed visualization of geological settings revealed on the side walls of workings cutting the deposit. Keywords: Upper silesian coal basin, Hard coal, Underground mine workings, 3D visualization, CAD

  11. Geologic map of the greater Denver area, Front Range urban corridor, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Donald E.; Machette, Michael N.

    1979-01-01

    This digital map shows the areal extent of surficial deposits and rock stratigraphic units (formations) as compiled by Trimble and Machette from 1973 to 1977 and published in 1979 under the Front Range Urban Corridor Geology Program. Trimble and Machette compiled their geologic map from published geologic maps and unpublished geologic mapping having varied map unit schemes. A convenient feature of the compiled map is its uniform classification of geologic units that mostly matches those of companion maps to the north (USGS I-855-G) and to the south (USGS I-857-F). Published as a color paper map, the Trimble and Machette map was intended for land-use planning in the Front Range Urban Corridor. This map recently (1997-1999) was digitized under the USGS Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In general, the mountainous areas in the western part of the map exhibit various igneous and metamorphic bedrock units of Precambrian age, major faults, and fault brecciation zones at the east margin (5-20 km wide) of the Front Range. The eastern and central parts of the map (Colorado Piedmont) depict a mantle of unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age and interspersed outcroppings of Cretaceous or Tertiary-Cretaceous sedimentary bedrock. The Quaternary mantle comprises eolian deposits (quartz sand and silt), alluvium (gravel, sand, and silt of variable composition), colluvium, and a few landslides. At the mountain front, north-trending, dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstone, shale, and limestone bedrock formations form hogbacks and intervening valleys.

  12. A Computerized Petroleum Geology Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Louise E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a package of computer programs developed to implement an oil exploration game that gives undergraduate students practical experience in applying theoretical principles of petroleum geology. The programs facilitate management of the game by the instructor and enhance the learning experience. (Author/MBR)

  13. Geology in coal resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The 37 papers in this book were compiled with an overriding theme in mind: to provide the coal industry with a comprehensive source of information on how geology and geologic concepts can be applied to the many facets of coal resource location, extraction, and utilization. The chapters have been arranged to address the major coal geology subfields of Exploration and Reserve Definition, Reserve Estimation, Coalbed Methane, Underground Coal Gasification, Mining, Coal Quality Concerns, and Environmental Impacts, with papers distributed on the basis of their primary emphasis. To help guide one through the collection, the author has included prefaces at the beginning of each chapter. They are intended as a brief lead-in to the subject of the chapter and an acknowledgement of the papers' connections to the subject and contributions to the chapter. In addition, a brief cross-reference section has been included in each preface to help one find papers of interest in other chapters. The subfields of coal geology are intimately intertwined, and investigations in one area may impact problems in another area. Some subfields tend to blur at their edges, such as with reserve definition and reserve estimation. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  14. Geology on a Sand Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  15. Electro-Deposition Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The electro-deposition laboratory can electro-deposit various coatings onto small test samples and bench level prototypes. This facility provides the foundation for...

  16. Atmospheric Deposition Modeling Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on model results for dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen and base cation species. Components include deposition velocities, dry...

  17. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  18. The Spatial Thinking Workbook: A Research-Validated Spatial Skills Curriculum for Geology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormand, Carol J.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Tikoff, Basil; Dutrow, Barbara; Goodwin, Laurel B.; Hickson, Thomas; Atit, Kinnari; Gagnier, Kristin; Resnick, Ilyse

    2017-01-01

    Spatial visualization is an essential prerequisite for understanding geological features at all scales, such as the atomic structures of minerals, the geometry of a complex fault system, or the architecture of sedimentary deposits. Undergraduate geoscience majors bring a range of spatial skill levels to upper-level courses. Fortunately, spatial…

  19. Symposium 'geology, mining and extractive processing of uranium, with special reference to Europe'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, H.B.

    1977-01-01

    This review of the symposium 'Geology, mining and extractive processing of uranium' gives a survey from the point of view of ore processing rather than exploration. A reason for the uranium consumption assumed is given, and uranium deposits and availability, methods of exploration, and interesting facts on uranium extraction from ores are gone into. (HK) [de

  20. Introduction to uranium geology of the Kaycee area in Johnson county, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wuwei

    2004-01-01

    The geology of the Kaycee uranium deposit is introduced in three aspects: regional setting, stratigraphy and structure. At the same time, uranium and vanadium mineralization of significant economic potential have been reported in the sandstones and conglomerates from Paleocene to Eocene period in the eastern and northeastern part of Kaycee, Wyoming. (authors)