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Sample records for geologic deposits

  1. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (1)METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082280 An Fang(School of Earth and Space Sciences,Peking University,Beijing 100871,China);Zhu Yongfeng Studies on Geology and Geochemistry of Alteration- Type Ore in Hatu Gold Deposit(Western Junggar),Xinjiang,NW China(Mineral Deposits,ISSN0258—7106,CN11—1965/ P,26(6),2007,p.621—633,7 illus.,2 tables,48 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:gold deposits,Junggar Basin 20082281 An Guobao(No.212 Geological Party,Gansu Bureau of Nuclear Geology,

  2. Geological classification of coal deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretsnaidr, P.

    1985-02-01

    A new classification of coal deposits developed by the author is evaluated. The classification considers only selected factors which characterize a coal deposit. Each factor is described by a number of points ranging from 0 to 10. Geologic structure (deposits with one or more seams or with seam groups) is described using from 1 to 10 points. Secondary deformation of a coal deposit (e.g. tectonics) and hydrogeology (aquifers, filtration properties, etc.) are described using a 10 point scale. Coal seam structure (with or without partings) is characterized using 1 to 5 points. Coal seam thickness and its stability (4 thickness classes from 0.4 to 1.0 m, 1 to 3 m, 3 to 10 m and above 10 m) is described using 0 to 5 points. Coal seam quality (ash content, calorific value and coking properties) is described using 0 to 5 points. Other factors are characterized using a 10 point scale. Use of this deposit classification is explained using four examples: the Merkur surface mine (uncomplicated conditions), the Nosek surface mine (relatively complicated conditions), the Slany deposit (with complicated conditions) and the Jan Sverma deposit (with extremely complicated conditions).

  3. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (2)NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071073 Huang Tiedong(No.1 Geological Team of Xinjiang Bureau of Exploration and Mining,Changji,Xinjiang 831100,China) Formation of the Salt Lake and KNO3 Ore in the Kumishi Block-Falling Basin in Xin- jiang(Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,32(6), 2005,p.20-24,4 illus.,3 tables,8 refs.) Key words:niter,salt deposits,Xinjiang The Kumishi Basin,a Cenozoic block- falling basin,has been controlled by a dry continental climate and continuously under- went a concentration process due to evapora- tion.The rock salt began to form in the late Pliocene to Pleistocene(35 ka B.P.).The thick rock salt bodies assembled in the late Holocene(4.5 ka B.P.)because of the stable crust and the continuous dry climate.With the evolution into the dry salt lake stage,the brines occurring in the crystals further con- centrated and the liquid-phase KNO3 formed,which is overlain by K-rich rock salt.

  4. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (1)METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070994 Bi Fake(Geological Survey of Heber Province,Shijiazhuang 050081, China);Xiao Wenxian Ore-Forming and Prospective Zones in Hebei Province(Geolog- ical Survey and Research,ISSN1672-4135, CN12-1353/P,29(2),2006,p.107-114, 1 illus.,12 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:metallogenic belts,metallo- genic regularity,Hebei Province

  5. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (2)NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082329 Chen Wang(China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China) Control Factors on Distribution of Carboniferous Bauxite Deposits in Western Henan Province (Geotectonica et Metallogenia,ISSN1001—1552,CN44—1595/P,31(4),2007,p.452—456,1 illus.,10 refs.) Key words:bauxite,mineralization con- trols,Henan Province

  6. A model of the Quaternary geological deposits of Bucharest City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpescu, Irina; Radu, Emil; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Amine Boukhemacha, Mohamed; Gaitanaru, Dragos; Bica, Ioan

    2013-04-01

    Bucharest city is located in the central part of the Moesic Platform, in the Romanian Plain with micro-relief resulting from erosion and sedimentary processes which extended along the valleys of the Dambovita River to the south and the Colentina River to the north. The city is located in the axial area of a syncline where the thickness of the sedimentary deposits is up to 1000 m. The area lies on a rigid base is made of metamorphites, and various igneous intrusions (granodiorite, granite). The sedimentary deposits covering this rigid base are made by different phases of erosion and sedimentary processes of marine, lacustrian or continental sediments ending with Quaternary sediments. As a result, different alluvial deposits (such as piedmont, deltaic, alluvial cones, terrace, waterside and lacustrine deposits) can be met. Furthermore one also can find loess deposits which in turn cover totally the older deposits where rivers dug the present relief. To highlight the spatial extent of these geological structures, a geological model of Bucharest city is developed. A set of information coming from different sources as geological and geotechnical boreholes showing a detailed geological and lithological description, geological and topographical maps, geological and hydrogeological reports have been used to develop the 3D geological model of this region. 33 geological cross sections were defined and interpreted by using lithological and sedimentological criteria. Using these geological cross sections and prior geological knowledge, the Quaternary deposits have been described and classified into 6 structural units given from top to down as follows: (1) Superficial deposits represented by loess and anthropogenic materials. The geological model indicates that these deposits show a sporadic development becoming more concentrated in the central west part of the city. (2) Colentina Formations composed by of poorly sorted, cross-stratified sand and gravel with clayey lens

  7. Geological provenance of Quaternary deposits from the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil)]. E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.br; Veiga, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil); Carvalho, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil); Macario, K.D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil); Gomes, P.R.S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil)

    2007-05-01

    Natural gamma radiation measurements of beach sand deposits were performed with the aim of understanding the provenance and transport processes of sediments along the coastal zone of three Brazilian States. The method employs thorium, uranium and potassium as tracers of the mineralogical properties of beach sand minerals, which reflect the geological history of transport and sorting processes. A considerable positive correlation with the geological evolution of these Quaternary coastal deposits was observed.

  8. Geological behavior of wet outflow deposition fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德泉; 赵明华; 刘宏利; 周毅; 严聪

    2008-01-01

    The geological behaviors of wet outflow deposition fly ash were investigated, including the feature of in-situ single and even bridge cone penetration test (CPT) curves, the change of the penetration parameters and vane strength with the increase of depth and the difference of the penetration resistance on and down the water level. Drilling, CPT and vane shear test were carried out in silty clay, fine sand, and fly ash of the ash-dam. The CPT curves of the fly ash do not show a critical depth. The cone resistance (qc) of the fly ash is smaller than that of silty clay or sand; the friction resistance is smaller than that of filling silty clay, similar to that of deposition silty clay or more than that of fine sand; the friction ratio is smaller than that of filling silty clay, or more than that of deposition silty clay or much more than that of fine sand. The specific penetration resistance (ps) is similar to that of filling silty clay, or more than that of deposition silty clay. There is a clear interface effect between the deposition fly ash and the clay. Interface effect of ps-h curve at the groundwater table is clear, and ps of the fly ash reduces significantly under the table. The vane strength of the fly ash increases as the depth increases. The deposition fly ash with wet outflow is similar to silt in the geological behavior.

  9. The copper deposits of Bor, eastern Serbia: Geology and origin of the deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonijević Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper deposits of Bor, volcanic activities in the area and relationship of minerals through time are presented by formations within the Cenomanian-Turonian range. Geology and age of the deposits are given in the geological-time order based on superposition of the Timok mineral-ore Formation and the underlying (Cenomanian and fossiliferous overlying (Senonian strata. The concept of dating Bor deposits the Turonian is discussed in this context. Bor deposits lie between the Cenomanian Krivelj Formation and the Senonian epiclastic Metovnica Formation. Embedded between the two formations is the Timok volcanogenic Formation. Described in this paper are principal members of the Timok Formation strata: volcanogenic and subvolcanogenic- intrusive rocks, a zone of hydrothermally altered rocks and main types of the Bor ore deposits: (a Deposits of massive sulphide coppers; (b Vein and stockwork-disseminated type of mineralisation; (c Porphyry mineralisation; and (d Reworked ore-clasts of copper sulphides of the Novo Okno deposit. Identified deposits, according to the Bor Geological Service records and published works, are systematized and summarized into three geographic units: (1 Group of deposits Severozapad (Brezanik; (2 Central Bor Deposits (Tilva Roš, Čoka Dulkan, Tilva Mika, Borska Reka, and Veliki Krivelj and many ore bodies; (3 Copper deposits Jugoistok (ore bodies X and J and olistostrome deposit Novo Okno. Information given in this paper, the discussion on relative geologic age of the Bor deposit’s floor and roof in particular, support our concept that the process ceased before the Upper Turonian, and that age of the primary copper mineralization is Turonian.

  10. EVALUATION OF THE GEOLOGICAL RELIABILITY OF SURFACE MINING DEPOSIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩金炎; 孙小彦; 彭世济

    1994-01-01

    The optimal decision theory and exploitation reliability of large scale mining area have heen studied in China since the late 1980′s. Researches have been carried out under the thought of mannature-machine system, and encouraging results have been obtained. The reliability evaluation of mining engineering includes the reliability evaluation of natural resources, mining technology and mine economics etc. And the geological reliability of deposit, as a natural condition, is the basis of all other evaluation works. The paper summarizes the method for evaluating the geological reliability of deposit, discusses the reliability of estimating methods for coal reserves and coal quality, evaluates the natural resources reliability of the Pit 1 of Antaibao, Surface Coal Mine, Pingsuo, Shanxi Province. which was taken as a case study.

  11. Geological modelling of mineral deposits for prediction in mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sides, E. J.

    Accurate prediction of the shape, location, size and properties of the solid rock materials to be extracted during mining is essential for reliable technical and financial planning. This is achieved through geological modelling of the three-dimensional (3D) shape and properties of the materials present in mineral deposits, and the presentation of results in a form which is accessible to mine planning engineers. In recent years the application of interactive graphics software, offering 3D database handling, modelling and visualisation, has greatly enhanced the options available for predicting the subsurface limits and characteristics of mineral deposits. A review of conventional 3D geological interpretation methods, and the model struc- tures and modelling methods used in reserve estimation and mine planning software packages, illustrates the importance of such approaches in the modern mining industry. Despite the widespread introduction and acceptance of computer hardware and software in mining applications, in recent years, there has been little fundamental change in the way in which geology is used in orebody modelling for predictive purposes. Selected areas of current research, aimed at tackling issues such as the use of orientation data, quantification of morphological differences, incorporation of geological age relationships, multi-resolution models and the application of virtual reality hardware and software, are discussed.

  12. Geology and mineral deposits on the Ogcheon group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The survey on the nuclear raw mineral (uranium) deposits had been carried out for a long time from early 1960`s to late 1980`s by the Geological and Mineral Institute of Energy and Resources. Many unpublished data of the uranium ore deposits of Geosan, Miwon, and Kumsan areas are published on this paper. Geochemical data of the uranium deposits on Goesan, Miwon and Kumsan areas have been interpreted statistically. Geology on the Ogcheon System have been controversial by many geologists, therefore we have reviewed on the geology and stratigraphy. Particularly, we have interpreted the host root rock on the magnetite bearing banded gneiss, which is named so called Kyemeongsan Formation. Ogcheon System indicates the characteristics of the volcanism associated with rifting. The volcanic rocks show the chemical compositions of basalt to trachyte. Uranium mineralization is caused in the Ogcheon basin at the late stage of sedimentation under closed environments and politic rocks with the high organic materials have absorbed uranium and heavy metal elements. Kyemeongsan Formation is known as magnetite bearing banded gneiss, is interpreted in meta-volcanic rocks by the field occurrences and geochemical characteristics. (author). 95 refs., 1 fig., 46 maps.

  13. Geology and mineral deposits of Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willden, Ronald; Speed, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Churchill County, in west-central Nevada, is an area of varied topography and geology that has had a rather small total mineral production. The western part of the county is dominated by the broad low valley of the Carson Sink, which is underlain by deposits of Lake Lahontan. The bordering mountain ranges to the west and south are of low relief and underlain largely by Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary units. Pre-Tertiary rocks are extensively exposed east of the Carson Sink in the Stillwater Range, Clan Alpine Mountains, Augusta Mountains, and New Pass Mountains. The eastern valleys are underlain by Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine deposits contemporaneous with the western deposits of Lake Lahontan. The eastern mountain ranges are more rugged than the western ranges and have higher relief; the eastern valleys are generally narrower.

  14. Geology and mineral deposits on the Ogcheon group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hwan; Park, Joong Kwon; Koh, Sang Mo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The survey on the nuclear raw mineral (uranium) deposits had been carried out for a long time from early 1960`s to late 1980`s by the Geological and Mineral Institute of Energy and Resources. Geochemical data of the uranium deposits on Geosan, Miwon, and Kumsan areas have been interpreted statistically. Geology on the Ogcheon System have been controversial by many geologists, therefore we have reviewed on the geology and stratigraphy. Particularly, we have interpreted the host root rock on the magnetite bearing banded gneiss, which is named so called Kyemeongsan Formation. Ogcheon System indicates the characteristics of the volcanism associated with rifting. The volcanic rocks show the chemical compositions of basalt to trachyte. Uranium mineralization is caused in the Ogcheon basin at the late stage of sedimentation under closed environments and politic rocks with the high organic materials have absorbed uranium and heavy metal elements. Kyemeongsan Formation is known as magnetite bearing banded gneiss, is interpreted in meta-volcanic rocks by the field occurrences and geochemical characteristics. (author). 90 refs., 3 maps.

  15. The geology and geochemistry of Philippine Porphyry copper deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divis, Allan F.

    from 0.7032 to 0.7040. Molybdenum concentrations are lower, and gold concentrations are generally higher than those reported for continental deposits. In the Baguio district, a series of at least three distinctly different magma pulses have occurred with an apparent hiatus separating the intrusions. The last of these is associated with the formation of porphyry and vein ore deposits. Geological evidence from other districts suggests similar complex intrusive histories, but geochronologic evidence is insufficient to confirm this suggestion. The pattern of alteration mineralogy surrounding the porphyry deposits is generally less well developed than in continental deposits, but much of this variation can be explained by examination of the structural and chemical characteristics of the country rocks and intrusions.

  16. New approaches in geological studies of tsunami deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczucinski, Witold

    2017-04-01

    During the last dozen of years tsunamis have appeared to be the most disastrous natural process worldwide. The dramatic, large tsunamis on Boxing Day, 2004 in the Indian Ocean and on March 11, 2011 offshore Japan caused catastrophes listed as the worst in terms of the number of victims and the economic losses, respectively. In the aftermath, they have become a topic of high public and scientific interest. The record of past tsunamis, mainly in form of tsunami deposits, is often the only way to identify tsunami risk at a particular coast due to relatively low frequency of their occurrence. The identification of paleotsunami deposits is often difficult mainly because the tsunami deposits are represented by various sediment types, may be similar to storm deposits or altered by post-depositional processes. There is no simple universal diagnostic set of criteria that can be applied to interpret tsunami deposits with certainty. Thus, there is a need to develop new methods, which would enhance 'classical', mainly sedimentological and stratigraphic approach. The objective of the present contribution is to show recent progress and application of new approaches including geochemistry (Chagué-Goff et al. 2017) and paleogenetics (Szczuciński et al. 2016) in studies of geological impacts of recent tsunamis from various geographical regions, namely in monsoonal-tropical, temperate and polar zones. It is mainly based on own studies of coastal zones affected by 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Thailand, 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami and older paleotsunamis in Japan, catastrophic saltwater inundations at the coasts of Baltic Sea and 2000 landslide-generated tsunami in Vaigat Strait (west Greenland). The study was partly funded by Polish National Science Centre grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10/01553. Chagué-Goff C., Szczuciński W., Shinozaki T., 2017. Applications of geochemistry in tsunami research: A review. Earth-Science Reviews 165: 203-244. Szczuciński W., Pawłowska J., Lejzerowicz F

  17. Potash—A vital agricultural nutrient sourced from geologic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Douglas B.

    2016-11-15

    This report summarizes the primary sources of potash in the United States. Potash is an essential nutrient that, along with phosphorus and nitrogen, is used as fertilizer for growing crops. Plants require sufficient potash to activate enzymes, which in turn catalyze chemical reactions important for water uptake and photosynthesis. When potassium is available in quantities necessary for healthy plant growth, disease resistance and physical quality are improved and crop yield and shelf life are increased. Potash is a water-soluble compound of potassium formed by geologic and hydrologic processes. The principal potash sources discussed are the large, stratiform deposits that formed during retreat and evaporation of intracontinental seas. The Paradox, Delaware, Holbrook, Michigan, and Williston sedimentary basins in the United States are examples where extensive potash beds were deposited. Ancient marine-type potash deposits that are close to the surface can be mined using conventional underground mining methods. In situ solution mining can be used where beds are too deep, making underground mining cost-prohibitive, or where underground mines are converted to in situ solution mines. Quaternary brine is another source of potash that is recovered by solar evaporation in manmade ponds. Groundwater from Pleistocene Lake Bonneville (Wendover, Utah) and the present-day Great Salt Lake in Utah are sources of potashbearing brine. Brine from these sources pumped to solar ponds is evaporated and potash concentrated for harvesting, processing, and refinement. Although there is sufficient potash to meet near-term demand, the large marine-type deposits are either geographically restricted to a few areas or are too deep to easily mine. Other regions lack sources of potash brine from groundwater or surface water. Thus, some areas of the world rely heavily on potash imports. Political, economic, and global population pressures may limit the ability of some countries from securing

  18. GEOLOGY OF NIŽNÁ SLANÁ DEPOSIT AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihók Ján

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbonates in Early Paleozoic complexes appear in the upper part of the thick black phyllites forma-tion (Betliar Formation. They are present in the Holec Beds containing black metapelites with lydite and the upper carbonatic horizon with a slight admixture of basic volcanism. From the genetic point of view the stratiform and ankerite deposits of Gemericum are regarded to be f the hydrothermal - metasomatic origin. Owing to the positive results of the geological survey, the Nižná Slaná region has become the most important basis of Fe - ore in the Spiš - Gemer Ore Mts. but in Western Carpathinas as well. The potential of industrial siderite was 63 mil ton. Mano deposit surfaces on the southeren slope of Rimberg hill, where are the superficial parts of forma-tion of black phyllites with carbonatic bodies. The formation, thick to 450 m,contains carbonatic and lyditic ho-rizons with carbonates metasomatically changed to ankerite and siderite. The biggest siderite bodies have maxi-mal directional length of 300 m and thikness of 100 m.The accumulation of metasomatic siderite near obe-liarovo is located in the northern limb of anticline in Betliar Formation. Ore bodies are a typical example of the blind deposit. The average quality of economic ores is following: Fe 33,5 %, Mn 2,18 %, SiO2 8,5 %, As 0,001 – 0,2 %, Pb 0,001 - 0,03 %, Zn 0,002 - 0,009 %, S 0,5 - 1,5 %. Basicity of siderite is 1,4 - 1,7.

  19. Geology and Stratigraphy of Four Candidate Pyroclastic Deposits on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinauer, Julia; Hiesinger, Harald; Bauch, Karin; Preusker, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The MESSENGER (Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft [1] to Mercury revealed numerous new findings, including the discovery of potential pyroclastic deposits [2-9]. Besides impact cratering, volcanic processes, including the deposition of pyroclastic materials are among the most important processes to shape the surface of a planet. Volcanic processes allow us to study the thermal evolution of the planet, and impacts provide insights into the composition of the crust, and possible the mantle. In this study we focus on four specific examples of potential pyroclastic deposits: Lermontov NE (-48.15°E, 15.80°), Lermontov SE (-49.08°E, 15.04°), Glinka (-112.42°E, 15.01°), and Unnamed crater 7 (88.20°E, 32.40°). For our investigation we used data of the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) [10]. In particular we studied narrow-angle Camera (NAC) images with a resolution of 25-100 m/pixel and wide-angle camera (WAC) images with a resolution of about 170-250 m/pixel. Our data set is complemented by Digital Terrain Models (DTM) based on photogrammetric analyses of stereo images [11]. The objectives of this study are to investigate the geologic context of the pyroclastic deposits, to map their morphological/compositional sub-units in detail, to derive volume estimates for these deposits, to study their eruption conditions, and to derive information on the timing of the emplacement of these units. In addition, absolute model ages are determined to develop a stratigraphy of the mapped units Several morphologic features were observed in association with the pyroclastic deposits, including lobate scarps, melt pools, and large irregular depressions, as well as small-scale irregularly shaped, shallow, rimless depressions, i.e., hollows [2]. In Lermontov, the large irregular depressions that can be plausibly interpreted as vent structures [6,7] occur within a roughly circular depression of about 50 km in diameter, located in the center of

  20. Geology and ore deposits of the Pioche district, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, L.G.; Knopf, Adolph

    1932-01-01

    near the range but finer and making a clay flat along the west side of the Bristol Range and Highland quadrangles. The valley east of the Bristol-Highland Range, however, has outside drainage by way of Meadow Valley to the Virgin and Colorado Rivers. The stream in upper Meadow Valley and its tributaries have cut through the surface wash from the mountains and laid bare several hundred feet of white, yellow, and red water-laid Pliocene tuffs that lie in nearly the position in which they were laid down. This erosion has developed a striking badland topography in the Pliocene beds. HISTORICAL SUMMARY The general succession of events may be summarized as follows: 1. Sedimentation during most of Paleozoic time from Cambrian to Pennsylvanian. 2. Uplift, slight warping, and erosion. 3. Volcanism of perhaps late Mesozoic or early Tertiary time, producing lavas and tuffs. This period of volcanism may have lasted a long time and spanned one or more of the epochs of faulting. 4. Tilting and normal faulting. 5. Thrust faulting. 6. Quartz monzonite intrusions at Blind Mountain. 7. Normal block faulting of the Basin Range type. 8. Erosion of the faulted blocks to maturity and to essen-. tially the topography of to-day. 9. Outbursts of volcanic ash, probably in late Pliocene time, and the deposition of several hundred feet of water-laid tuffs in the valleys. 10. In Meadow Valley, valley cutting, which has produced a badland topography in the soft Pliocene tuffs and canyons where the streams cross the harder Paleozoic limestones. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY The Pioche district during four years in the early seventies was second only to the Comstock district in output of silver. The bonanza ore of those stirring times came from fissure veins in the Prospect Mountain quartzite, of Lower Cambrian age. In recent years the main interest has shifted to the bedded replacement deposits of silver-bearing lead-zinc sulphide ore occurring in the limestone members of the Pioche shale a type of ore body

  1. Geology and Mineralogy of Uranium Deposits from Mount Isa, Australia: Implications for Albitite Uranium Deposit Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wilson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available New geological, bulk chemical and mineralogical (QEMSCAN and FEG-EPMA data are presented for albitite-type uranium deposits of the Mount Isa region of Queensland, Australia. Early albitisation of interbedded metabasalt and metasiltstone predated intense deformation along D2 high strain (mylonite zones. The early sodic alteration paragenetic stage includes albite, riebeckite, aegirine, apatite, zircon and magnetite. This paragenetic stage was overprinted by potassic microveins, containing K-feldspar, biotite, coffinite, brannerite, rare uraninite, ilmenite and rutile. An unusual U-Zr phase has also been identified which exhibits continuous solid solution with a uranium silicate possibly coffinite or nenadkevite. Calcite, epidote and sulphide veinlets represent the latest stage of mineralisation. This transition from ductile deformation and sodic alteration to vein-controlled uranium is mirrored in other examples of the deposit type. The association of uranium with F-rich minerals and a suite of high field strength elements; phosphorous and zirconium is interpreted to be indicative of a magmatic rather than metamorphic or basinal fluid source. No large intrusions of appropriate age outcrop near the deposits; but we suggest a relationship with B- and Be-rich pegmatites and quartz-tourmaline veins.

  2. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits. A selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garland, P.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Brock, M.L.; Daniel, E.W. (comps.)

    1980-06-01

    A bibliography of 479 references encompassing the fields of uranium and thorium geochemistry and mineralogy, geology of uranium deposits, uranium mining, and uranium exploration techniques has been compiled by the Ecological Sciences Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The bibliography was produced for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, which is funded by the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy. The references contained in the bibliography have been divided into the following eight subject categories: (1) geology of deposits, (2) geochemistry, (3) genesis O deposits, (4) exploration, (5) mineralogy, (6) uranium industry, (7) reserves and resources, and (8) geology of potential uranium-bearing areas. All categories specifically refer to uranium and thorium; the last category contains basic geologic information concerning areas which the Grand Junction Office feels are particularly favorable for uranium deposition. The references are indexed by author, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational feature, taxonomic name, and keyword.

  3. Mineralogical and geological study of quaternary deposits and weathering profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gi Young; Lee, Bong Ho [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-01-15

    Movement history of a quaternary reverse fault cutting marine terrace deposit and tertiary bentonite in the Yangnammyon, Gyoungju city was studied by the mineralogical and microtextural analysis of the fault clays and weathered terrace deposits. Two types of fault clays were identified as greenish gray before the deposition of the marine terrace deposits and reddish brown after deposition. Greenish gray fault clay is composed mostly of smectite probably powdered from bentonite showing at least two events of movement from microtextures. After the bentonite was covered by quaternary marine gravel deposits, the reverse fault was reactivated cutting marine gravel deposits to form open spaces along the fault plane which allowed the hydrological infiltration of soil particles and deposition of clays in deep subsurface. The reddish brown 'fault' clays enclosed the fragments of dark brown ultrafine varved clay, proving two events of faulting, and slicken sides bisecting reddish brown clays suggest another faulting event in the final stage. Mineralogical and microtextural analysis of the fault clay show total five events of faulting, which had not been recognized even by thorough conventional paleoseismological investigation using trench, highlighting the importance of microtextural and mineralogical analysis in paleoseismology.

  4. Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    As one of the most valuable gemstones, emeralds are known to occur in several countries of the world, such as Colombia, Zambia, Brazil, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Russia, Madagascar and Zimbabwe. The emerald deposits at Sandawana, Zimbabwe, are described, the emeralds from this deposit characterised and

  5. Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    As one of the most valuable gemstones, emeralds are known to occur in several countries of the world, such as Colombia, Zambia, Brazil, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Russia, Madagascar and Zimbabwe. The emerald deposits at Sandawana, Zimbabwe, are described, the emeralds from this deposit characterised and

  6. A STUDY ON THE GEOLOGICAL FEATURES AND GENESIS OF THE LONGSHAN Au-Sb DEPOSIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Xiang-zhao; YANG; Zhong-bao

    2002-01-01

    The geological features of the Longshan Au-Sb deposits are systematically described. Mineralization conditions, sources of ore materials and metallogenetic mechanism are also analysed according to sulfur, oxygen isotope composition, pyrite typomorphic features and fluid inclusion thermometry dating, The results show that it is a sedimentary metamophic hydrothermal deposit.

  7. Geology, Genetic Types and Metallogeny of Gold Deposits in the Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    As a typical Palaeozoic island arc system, the eastern Tianshan area, Xinjiang, is different from eastern China but similar to the Meso-Cenozoic island arc metallogenic provinces along the coast of the Pacific Ocean in metallogenic environment, geology and geochemistry. Three types of gold deposits, ductile shear zone-hosted gold deposits (Kanggur `), magmatic hydrothermal gold deposits (Jinwozi) and volcanic- or subvolcanic-hosted gold deposits (Xitan and Mazhuangshan), have been identified in this area. Regionally, gold deposits are structurally controlled by the Kanggur Tag ductile shear zone, Shaquanzi fault, Hongliuhe fault and Yamansu fault. Generally, gold mineralization occurs in the transition zones from volcanic rocks to sedimentary rocks. The horizon bearing well-developed jasper is an important indicator for gold mineralization. Each of the three types of gold deposits has its distinctive metallogenic background and geological-geochemical characteristics.

  8. Geology and recognition criteria for uraniferous humate deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.S.; Saucier, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    The geology of the uraniferous humate uranium deposits of the Grants Uranium Region, northwestern New Mexico, is summarized. The most important conclusions of this study are enumerated. Although the geologic characteristics of the uraniferous humate deposits of the Grants Uranium Region are obviously not common in the world, neither are they bizarre or coincidental. The source of the uranium in the deposits of the Grants Uranium Region is not known with certainty. The depositional environment of the host sediments was apparently the mid and distal portions of a wet alluvial fan system. The influence of structural control on the location and accumulation of the host sediments is now supported by considerable data. The host sediments possess numerous important characteristics which influenced the formation of uraniferous humate deposits. Ilmenite-magnetite distribution within potential host sandstones is believed to be the simplest and most useful regional alteration pattern related to this type of uranium deposit. A method is presented for organizing geologic observations into what is referred to as recognition criteria. The potential of the United States for new districts similar to the Grants Uranium Region is judged to be low based upon presently available geologic information. Continuing studies on uraniferous humate deposits are desirable in three particular areas.

  9. Application of results of geological exploration of deposits of solid mineral raw materials in mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Miloje M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Important application in mining have the results of geological exploration of the deposits of solid mineral raw materials, before all geological data obtained (including their interpretations regarding basic properties of the deposts and their changeability, and regarding quantity and quality (i.e. resources and reserves of the belonging mineral raw material which have an essential significance for mineral projects. The geological data, together with the other relevant data (in the first place technical and economic ones are applied as basic parameters in documentation of mineral projects. Since the successfulness of the projects is dependent upon the confidence of the data, a special attention is dedicated to the acts that contribute to attaining of an adequate level of confidence of the data, as follows: a a gradual realization of the projects through two phases (geological and mining ones having seven development stages (reconnaissance, prospecting, preliminary exploration and detailed exploration stages of the geological phase and mine design, mine construction and mine production stages of the mining phase; b finding out optimal solutions in drawing up a plan of exploratory workings and its carrying out in accordance with basic properties of a deposit and their changeability; c a realistic estimation of mineral resources/reserves as a predominantly geological task (not 'calculation' of the resources/reserves as a mathematical task; d an objective evaluation of the successfulness of a project at the end of every geological stage ‒ presented in corresponding geological analyses and technical-economic studies.

  10. The geology of the Florida land-pebble phosphate deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, J.B.; Blade, L.V.; Davidson, D.F.; Ketner, K.B.

    1952-01-01

    The land-pebble phosphate district is on the Gulf Coastal Plain of Florida. The phosphate deposits are in the Bone Valley formation, dated Pliocene by most writers. These strata overlie the Miocene Hawthorn formation and are overlain by consolidated sands 3 to 20 feet thick. The minable phosphate deposits, called “matrix” in the district, range from a featheredge to about 50 feet in thickness and consist of phosphatic pellets and nodules, quartz sand, and montmorillonitic clay in about equal proportions. Locally the matrix displays cross-bedding and horizontal laminations, but elsewhere it is structureless. The phosphorite particles, composed largely of carbonate-fluorapatite, range in diameter from less than 0.1 mm to about 60 cm and in P2O5 content from 30 to 36 percent. Coarse-pebble deposits, containing 30 to 34 percent P2O5 are found mainly on basement highs; and fine-pebble deposits, containing 32 to 36 percent P2O5 are, are found in basement lows. Deposits in the northern part of the field contain more phosphate particles and their P2O5 content is higher than those in the southern part. The upper part of the phosphatic strata is leached to an advanced degree and consists of quartz sand and clay-sized particules of pseudowavellite and wavellite. The leached zone ranges in thickness from a featheredge to 60 feet. The origin of the land-pebble deposits is incompletely known. Possible modes of origin are a residuum of Miocene age, or a reworked residuum of Pliocene or Quaternary age.

  11. Geology,Geochemistry and Genesis of Yinyan Porphyry Tin Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱正书; 朱金初; 等

    1989-01-01

    The Yinyan porphyry tin deposit is a blind deposit associated with a small granite porphyry stock.The petrology and geochemistry of the Yinyan granite porphyry suggest that it is genetically of the transfor-mation type,emplaced at the late stage of fractional crystallization within a high-level magma chamber.Ore-forming fluids are derived predominantly from the granitic magma and they interact with the wall rocks intensely when finding their way upwards through the granite porphyry.From the lower part of the porphyry upwards the following alteration zones can be distinguished(a)slightly altered granite porphyry (with weak potash feldspathization),(b)protolithionite-quartz greisenization zone,(c)to-paz-quartz greisenization zone,(d)senicite-quartz sericitization zone,and (e)silicification zone (quartz core at the surface).Tin mineralization is related to greisenization,especially to topaz-quartz greisenization.Rock and ore-forming temperatures and oxygen fugacities are estimated,respectively.There are significant differences in many aspects between the Yinyan porphyry tin deposit and volcan-ic-subvolcanic porphyry tin deposits.

  12. 3D Geological Model of Nihe ore deposit Constrained by Gravity and Magnetic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guang; Yan, Jiayong; Lv, Qingtan; Zhao, Jinhua

    2016-04-01

    We present a case study on using integrated geologic model in mineral exploration at depth. Nihe ore deposit in Anhui Province, is deep hidden ore deposit which was discovered in recent years, this finding is the major driving force of deep mineral exploration work in Luzong. Building 3D elaborate geological model has the important significance for prospecting to deep or surround in this area, and can help us better understand the metallogenic law and ore-controlling regularity. A 3D geological model, extending a depth from +200m to -1500m in Nihe ore deposit, has been compiled from surface geological map, cross-section, borehole logs and amounts of geological inference. And then the 3D geological models have been given physical property parameter for calculating the potential field. Modelling the potential response is proposed as means of evaluating the viability of the 3D geological models, and the evidence of making small changes to the uncertain parts of the original 3D geological models. It is expected that the final models not only reproduce supplied prior geological knowledge, but also explain the observed geophysical data. The workflow used to develop the 3D geologic model in this study includes the three major steps, as follows: (1) Determine the basic information of Model: Defining the 3D limits of the model area, the basic geological and structural unit, and the tectonic contact relations and the sedimentary sequences between these units. (2) 3D model construction: Firstly, a series of 2D geological cross sections over the model area are built by using all kinds of prior information, including surface geology, borehole data, seismic sections, and local geologists' knowledge and intuition. Lastly, we put these sections into a 3D environment according to their profile locations to build a 3D model by using geostatistics method. (3) 3D gravity and magnetic modeling: we calculate the potential field responses of the 3D model, and compare the predicted and

  13. Geology and recognition criteria for uranium deposits of the quartz-pebble conglomerate type. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, A.; Adams, S.S.

    1981-03-01

    This report is concerned with Precambrian uraniferous conglomerates. This class of deposit has been estimated to contain between approximately 16 and 35 percent of the global uranium reserve in two rather small areas, one in Canada, the other in South Africa. Similar conglomerates, which are often gold-bearing, are, however, rather widespread, being found in parts of most Precambrian shield areas. Data have been synthesized on the geologic habitat and character of this deposit type. The primary objective has been to provide the most relevant geologic observations in a structural fashion to allow resource studies and exploration to focus on the most prospective targets in the shortest possible time.

  14. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits: a selected, annotated bibliography. [474 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Garland, P.A.; White, M.B.; Daniel, E.W.

    1980-09-01

    This bibliography, a compilation of 474 references, is the fourth in a series compiled from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Bibliographic Data Base. This data base was created for the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation Project by the Ecological Sciences Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The references in the bibliography are arranged by subject category: (1) geochemistry, (2) exploration, (3) mineralogy, (4) genesis of deposits, (5) geology of deposits, (6) uranium industry, (7) geology of potential uranium-bearing areas, and (8) reserves and resources. The references are indexed by author, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational feature, and keyword.

  15. The geologic relationships of industrial mineral deposits and asbestos in the western united states

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanGosen, B.S.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, U.S. regulatory agencies have placed emphasis on identifying and regulating asbestos dust exposures in the mining environment, with a particular focus upon industrial mineral deposits in which asbestos occurs as an accessory mineral. Because asbestos minerals form in specific geologic environments, only certain predictable types of industrial mineral deposits can potentially host asbestos mineralization. By applying a basic knowledge of asbestos geology, the costly and time consuming efforts of asbestos monitoring and analyses can be directed towards those mineral deposit types most likely to contain asbestos mineralogy, while saving efforts on the mineral deposits that are unlikely to contain asbestos. While the vast majority of industrial mineral deposits in the Western United States are asbestos-free, there are several types that can, in some instances, host asbestos mineralization, or be closely associated with it. These industrial mineral deposits include a few types of aggregate, dimension, and decorative stone, and some deposits of chromite-nickel, magnesite, nepheline syenite, olivine, rare earth elements, talc, vermiculite, and wollastonite.

  16. Geologic Mapping of Ejecta Deposits in Oppia Quadrangle, Asteroid (4) Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, W. Brent; Williams, David A.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Mest, Scott C.; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Tosi, Federico; Schafer, Michael; LeCorre, Lucille; Reddy, Vishnu; Jaumann, Ralf; Pieters, Carle M.; Russell, Christopher T.; Raymond, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Oppia Quadrangle Av-10 (288-360 deg E, +/- 22 deg) is a junction of key geologic features that preserve a rough history of Asteroid (4) Vesta and serves as a case study of using geologic mapping to define a relative geologic timescale. Clear filter images, stereo-derived topography, slope maps, and multispectral color-ratio images from the Framing Camera on NASA's Dawn spacecraft served as basemaps to create a geologic map and investigate the spatial and temporal relationships of the local stratigraphy. Geologic mapping reveals the oldest map unit within Av-10 is the cratered highlands terrain which possibly represents original crustal material on Vesta that was then excavated by one or more impacts to form the basin Feralia Planitia. Saturnalia Fossae and Divalia Fossae ridge and trough terrains intersect the wall of Feralia Planitia indicating that this impact basin is older than both the Veneneia and Rheasilvia impact structures, representing Pre-Veneneian crustal material. Two of the youngest geologic features in Av-10 are Lepida (approximately 45 km diameter) and Oppia (approximately 40 km diameter) impact craters that formed on the northern and southern wall of Feralia Planitia and each cross-cuts a trough terrain. The ejecta blanket of Oppia is mapped as 'dark mantle' material because it appears dark orange in the Framing Camera 'Clementine-type' colorratio image and has a diffuse, gradational contact distributed to the south across the rim of Rheasilvia. Mapping of surface material that appears light orange in color in the Framing Camera 'Clementine-type' color-ratio image as 'light mantle material' supports previous interpretations of an impact ejecta origin. Some light mantle deposits are easily traced to nearby source craters, but other deposits may represent distal ejecta deposits (emplaced greater than 5 crater radii away) in a microgravity environment.

  17. 3D geological modeling for mineral resource assessment of the Tongshan Cu deposit, Heilongjiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongwen Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional geological modeling (3DGM assists geologists to quantitatively study in three-dimensional (3D space structures that define temporal and spatial relationships between geological objects. The 3D property model can also be used to infer or deduce causes of geological objects. 3DGM technology provides technical support for extraction of diverse geoscience information, 3D modeling, and quantitative calculation of mineral resources. Based on metallogenic concepts and an ore deposit model, 3DGM technology is applied to analyze geological characteristics of the Tongshan Cu deposit in order to define a metallogenic model and develop a virtual borehole technology; a BP neural network and a 3D interpolation technique were combined to integrate multiple geoscience information in a 3D environment. The results indicate: (1 on basis of the concept of magmatic-hydrothermal Cu polymetallic mineralization and a porphyry Cu deposit model, a spatial relational database of multiple geoscience information for mineralization in the study area (geology, geophysics, geochemistry, borehole, and cross-section data was established, and 3D metallogenic geological objects including mineralization stratum, granodiorite, alteration rock, and magnetic anomaly were constructed; (2 on basis of the 3D ore deposit model, 23,800 effective surveys from 94 boreholes and 21 sections were applied to establish 3D orebody models with a kriging interpolation method; (3 combined 23,800 surveys involving 21 sections, using VC++ and OpenGL platform, virtual borehole and virtual section with BP network, and an improved inverse distance interpolation (IDW method were used to predict and delineate mineralization potential targets (Cu-grade of cell not less than 0.1%; (4 comparison of 3D ore bodies, metallogenic geological objects of mineralization, and potential targets of mineralization models in the study area, delineated the 3D spatial and temporal relationship and causal

  18. A Geomicrobiological Approach to Differentiate Storm and Tsunami Deposits in the Recent Geological Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, A.; Yap, W.; Lauro, F.; Gouramanis, C.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Labbate, M.

    2016-12-01

    Storm and tsunami commonly inundate low-lying coastal areas and can cause considerable damage and loss of life. An efficient coastal hazard risk assessment that builds on reliable information on magnitude and frequency of past catastrophic coastal flooding is fundamental to enhance the resilience of coastal communities to future events. A key challenge in quantifying the recurrence interval of coastal flooding on many coasts is to accurately identify and differentiate storm and tsunami deposits from the sedimentary geological record. Here, we employ amplicon sequencing to investigate the microbial population found in modern environments and in the sedimentary record, and relate the distribution of microbial communities in response to geological processes that shape their communities. Our study in Phra Thong Island, Thailand, shows that the microbial populations found in recent sediment deposits from the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and a 2007 storm deposit are statistically distinct (Permutational Multivariate Analysis of Variance (PERMANOVA based on Canberra distance matrix with 999 permutations, p-value tsunami deposits are statistically significantly different from the vertically confining soil units (p-valuetsunamis in the geological record.

  19. Geology, composition, and physicochemical model of sparry magnesite deposits of the Southern Urals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupenin, M. T.; Kol'tsov, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    The metasomatic nature of magnesite formation, sequence and timing of geological processes, and solution sources have been established by comprehensive geological and geochemical study of the typical Satka and Ismakaevo deposits of sparry magnesite in the South Ural province. The hydrothermal metasomatic formation of magnesite is related to injection of high-Mg evaporite brine into heated carbonate rocks within permeable rift zones. The numerical physicochemical simulation of solution-rock interaction allowed us to determine the necessary prerequisites for sparry magnesite formation: the occurrence of marine salt solutions with a high Mg/Ca ratio and heating of solutions before or during their interaction with host carbonate rocks. The contribution of compositionally various solution sources, the temperature variation regime, proportions of CO2 and H2S concentrations in solution created specific features of particular deposits.

  20. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits: a selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Brock, M.L.; Garland, P.A.; White, M.B.; Daniel, E.W. (comps.)

    1978-06-01

    A compilation of 490 references is presented which is the second in a series compiled from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Bibliographic Data Base. This data base is one of six created by the Ecological Sciences Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy. Major emphasis for this volume has been placed on uranium geology, encompassing deposition, genesis of ore deposits, and ore controls; and prospecting techniques, including geochemistry and aerial reconnaissance. The following indexes are provided to aid the user in locating references of interest: author, geographic location, quadrangel name, geoformational feature, taxonomic name, and keyword.

  1. Geology and Mineralogy of Ancient Sea Deposits in Eridania Basin, Mars: Implications for Noachian Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, J. R.; Noe Dobrea, E. Z.; Cuadros, J.; Niles, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    At the same time when life appeared in seafloor deposits on Earth (>3.8 billion years ago), the Eridania basin on Mars was the site of a vast (>106 km2), deep (>1 km) inland sea. Though the Eridania basin has been eroded and largely resurfaced by subsequent volcanism, deep basin seafloor deposits are recognizable. Thick (>500 m) deposits found in the deepest parts of the basin - the oldest observable basin deposits - contain no evidence of bedding at the scale of meters-decameters, but display mottled colour patterns and contain pervasive irregular and boxwork veins. We show that the most ancient subaqueous basin deposits correspond to saponite, talc-saponite, Fe-rich mica (e.g. glauconite-nontronite), Fe- and Mg-serpentine, and Mg-Fe-Ca-carbonate that likely formed in a hydrothermal seafloor setting. Jarosite within the same unit likely indicates that sulphides were present in the deep-water deposits, but have been weathered upon exposure at the surface. While thin deposits of chloride salts at high elevations near the interior basin margins are indicative of evaporite deposits in shallow water, the deep water mineral assemblages cannot be explained by an evaporite-playa setting. The thick, deep basin deposits in Eridania formed in deep water, likely in a hydrothermal seafloor setting. The Eridania sea likely persisted over a geologically significant period of time in the Late Noachian. Abundant Fe present in the seafloor deposits likely indicates reducing conditions, which could have formed in a stratified sea in contact with an oxidizing atmosphere, a reduced sea beneath a reduced atmosphere, or an ice-covered sea.

  2. Reconnaissance geology of placer deposits containing radioactive minerals in the Bear Valley district, Valley County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, J. Hoover; Schmidt, Dwight Lyman

    1953-01-01

    A reconnaissance of the Bear Valley district was undertaken to provide a geologic interpretation of placer deposits drilled by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. The placer minerals are monazite and a group of uranium bearing rare earth columbates and tantalates here referred to loosely as radioactive blacks. The monazite is an accessory mineral in the granitic country rock; the radioactive blacks occur in pegmatite dikes. The supply of these minerals to the placers was controlled (1) by the geography of their occurrence in the parent rock, and (2) by the distribution of alpine glaciers during two late Pleistocene glacial stages. By reason of a favorable combination of these factors, the richest placer deposits of the district are in Big Meadow, a valley fill formed as a result of the blocking of Bear Creek by a glacier from a tributary valley during the Illinoian (?) stage. The Big Meadow fill consists of intertonguing depositional units formed by Bear Creek and its tributaries, including both normal alluvium and glacial outwash, and ranging from rich to barren. The richest phase that has been blocked out by drilling was derived from the drainage basin of Casner Creek, an east tributary of Bear Creek. The geologic relations suggest that a neighboring stream, Howard Creek, should have supplied equally rich material, but the part of the valley fill formed by Howard Creek has not been tested. The Howard Creek deposits and shallow alluvium in the upper valleys of Casner and Howard Creeks may considerably increase the reserves of the district.

  3. Use of structural geology in exploration for and mining of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen G.

    2001-01-01

    Structural geology is an important component in regional-, district- and orebody-scale exploration and development of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits.Identification of timing of important structural events in an ore district allows analysis and classification of fluid conduits and construction of genetic models for ore formation.The most practical uses of structural geology deal with measurement and definition of various elements that comprise orebodies, which can then be directly applied to ore-reserve estimation,ground control,grade control, safety issues,and mine planning.District- and regional-scale structural studies are directly applicable to long-term strategic planning,economic analysis,and land ownership. Orebodies in sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits are discrete, hypogene, epigenetic masses usually hosted in a fault zone,breccia mass, or lithologic bed or unit. These attributes allow structural geology to be directly applied to the mining and exploration of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits. Internal constituents in orebodies reflect unique episodes relating to ore formation.The main internal constituents in orebodies are ore minerals, gangue, and alteration minerals that usually are mixed with one another in complex patterns, the relations among which may be used to interpret the processes of orebody formation and control.Controls of orebody location and shape usually are due to structural dilatant zones caused by changes in attitude, splays, lithologic contacts,and intersections of the host conduit or unit.In addition,conceptual parameters such as district fabric,predictable distances, and stacking also are used to understand the geometry of orebodies.Controls in ore districts and location and geometry of orebodies in ore districts can be predicted to various degrees by using a number of qualitative concepts such as internal and external orebody plunges,district plunge, district stacking, conduit classification, geochemical, geobarometric and

  4. Geology of quartz and hydrated silica-bearing deposits near Antoniadi Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew R.; Bandfield, Joshua L.

    2012-06-01

    The only area on Mars where crystalline quartz has been identified from orbit is near Antoniadi Crater, on the northern edge of the Syrtis Major shield volcano. However, the method of quartz formation has remained unknown. In this study, we use high-resolution satellite imagery as well as thermal and near-infrared spectroscopy to construct a geologic history of these deposits and their local context. We find that the quartz-bearing deposits are consistently co-located with hydrated silica. This spatial coherence suggests that the quartz formed as a diagenetic product of amorphous silica, rather than as a primary igneous mineral. Diagenetic quartz is a mature alteration product of hydrated amorphous silica, and indicates more persistent water and/or higher temperatures at this site. Beneath the silica-bearing rocks, we also find spectral evidence for smectites in the lowermost exposed Noachian-aged breccia. A similar stratigraphic sequence — smectite-bearing breccias beneath deposits containing minerals suggesting a greater degree of alteration — has also been found at nearby exposures at Nili Fossae and Toro Crater, suggesting a widespread sequence of alteration. By merging the mineral detections of thermal infrared (quartz, feldspar) and near-infrared spectroscopy (hydrated silica, smectite clays) we are able to construct a more complete geologic history from orbit.

  5. Geological Characteristics of Epithermal Ore Concentrated Areas and Epithermal Ore Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The epithermal ore concentrated area is located in Southwestern China. We systematically study the regional geological characteristics such as the basement of Proterozoic, the capping bed, Moho, geothermal feature and tectonics, and discuss the relationship between distributed characteristics of the epithermal ore deposits and ore-control factors in this paper. It is concluded that the conditions, under which the epithermal ore deposits form, are huge thick basement of Proterozoic, long-time and wide-scope developed capping bed and weak magmatic activity. The basement of Proterozoic that enriches volcanic matters and carbon and the carbonaceous-bearing and paleo-pool-bearing capping bed provides main ore source. The large and deep faults and paleopool accordance with gravity anomaly gradient control the distribution of epithermal ore deposits. The lithologic assembles of microclastic rocks and carbonate rocks in the capping bed provide spaces of ore precipitation and create conditions of ore precipitation. The coincidence of many geological factors above forms the epithermal ore concentrated area.

  6. Study on engineering geological stability of rock mass at Shanmen silver deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming FENG; Li LIU; Yu ZHANG; Xigang REN; Chengke XU

    2006-01-01

    The natural balance conditions will be disturbed and produce a series of problems when mineral deposit has mined. This paper has researched the engineering rock masses have been researched in this study, structural planes, the distribution characteristics of tectonic geological factors and the stability of engineering structures according to the theory and research methods of rock mechanics, it will provide the engineering geological evidence for mining area exploited, meanwhile pledge the safety production. Shanmen silver deposit is a large epithermal deposit,it is controlled by NE to NNE strike faults. The stability of rock mass is acted on the tectonic movement and hot metalliferous brine in long-term. Especially,strength of rock mass becomes softened, muddy and loosed under the action of water,so the lower stability of rock mass is,the easier it can take place for harm of disaster threatening production safe of mining. For this reason,it is very important that drawing up a plan to lower harm for mine and protect.

  7. Geology, mineralogy and fluid inclusion data from the Arapucan Pb Zn Cu Ag deposit, Canakkale, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgün, Yüksel; Gültekin, Ali Haydar; Onal, Ayten

    2005-07-01

    The Arapucan Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag deposit occurs as hydrothermal veins in diabase and altered Triassic metasandstones adjacent to calc-alkaline intrusive igneous rocks. The deposit is an important commercial source of base metal in northwestern Turkey. Potential by-products are silver and gold. The geology of the area includes a Paleozoic metamorphic basement, Triassic sedimentary rocks with carbonate blocks, Tertiary granitoids and Neogene volcanics. The mineral assemblage includes galena, quartz, calcite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and pyrite as well as minor bismuthinite, tetrahedrite, pyrolusite, hematite, scheelite, malachite, magnetite, limonite and rutile. Silver is associated with tetrahedrite. Early hydrothermal activity was responsible for the formation of three hypogene alteration types of decreasing intensity: silicification, sericitization and argillic alteration. These alteration styles show a rough spatial zonation. The ore stage clearly postdates hydrothermal alteration, as indicated by the occurrence of ore minerals in vuggy cavities and fractures in silica bodies. The deposit contains evidence of at least two periods of hypogene mineralization separated by a period of faulting. In addition to Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag and Au, the ores contain substantial quantities of W, Bi, Sb and Te. Average δ 34S values for galena and pyrite are -3.95 and -2.24‰, respectively, suggesting an igneous source for both the sulphur and metals. However, geological and geochemical interpretations suggest that at least some of the metals were leached from the metasandstones and diabases. Fluid inclusions in main-stage sphalerite homogenize at 229-384 °C with salinities ranging from 1.7 to 18.5 eq.wt% NaCl. The deposits formed as the result of the interaction of two aqueous fluids: a higher-salinity fluid (probably magmatic) and a dilute meteoric fluid. The narrow range of δ 34S (galena and pyrite) values (-5.2 to -1.2‰ CDT) suggests that the sulphur source of the hydrothermal fluids

  8. Geochemical Characteristics and Geological Significance of the Tawangshan gold deposit in Dongfang City, Hainan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tawangshan gold deposit is located in the southwest of the Gezhen ductile shear zone in southwestern Hainan Island. Major, trace and rare earth element characteristics of the least altered granites and altered granite ores, as well as the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic features of the quartz, the sulfur and lead isotopic features of the pyrites, galena from this deposit were systematically studied. The altered granite ores content of Fe2O3/(Fe2O3+FeO ranges from 0.409 to 0.410, showing strong magma reducibility. REE characteristics of the granite ores are similar to those of the least altered granites, indicating a close relationship between the mineralization and granite. Hydrogen and oxygen analysis results show that the content of 18OSMOW ranges from 7.7‰ to 16.3‰, δ18OH2O ranges from 1.0‰ to 6.8‰, suggesting that the ore-forming fluid was the dual nature of the metamorphic and magmatic hydrothermal. The compositions of sulfur isotope and lead isotope imply that the metallogenic materials of the deposit derived from the deep magma mixing with the shell source material contamination. Ore deposit geological features reflect the obvious characteristics of magmatic hydrothermal and porphyritic granite is mineralized rocks, implying the deposit was formed in the post-collisional extensional tectonic setting.

  9. Basical characteristics of fluid geologic process of interlayer oxidation zone sandstone-typeuranium deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; BoLin; LIU; ChiYang; WANG; JianQiang

    2007-01-01

    This paper reveals the physicochemical properties such as component, formulation, genesis, tem- perature, pH, Eh, salinity and pressure of all main alteration fluid of interlayer oxidation zone sand- stone-type uranium deposits after studying the geologic process and geochemistry of internal typical sandstone-type uranium deposits such as Shihongtan deposit in the Turpan-Hami basin, 512 deposit in the Yili basin, Dongsheng deposit in the Ordos basin. The composition of fluid can be divided into two parts based on the analysis of inclusion: one can be affirmed as atmospheric water with ordinary temperature epigenesist according to the character of hydrogen and oxygen isotope of inclusion, the other is natural gas containing gaseous hydrocarbon like CH4, and CO2 as well as a little H2S, CO, H2, N2 and so on, it always contains a small quantity of hydrocarbon liquid in petroliferous basins. The fluid property of oxidation alteration zone is always oxidation alkaline, and neutrality or weak acid-weak alkaline and reducibility during the metallizing process, but at secondary reduction or deoxidization zone it becomes strong reduction alkaline. Oxygenic groundwater in the fluid is the activate and mig- ratory medium of uranium element, but the gaseous hydrocarbon like CH4 as well as H2, H2S, CO from natural gas is the important sedimentary reducer of uranium mineral; the transformation of pH,Eh in fluid environment is the main reason for the formation of uranium metallization.

  10. Structural geology of Amazonian-aged layered sedimentary deposits in southwest Candor Chasma, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The structural geology of an outcropping of layered sedimentary deposits in southwest Candor Chasma is mapped using two adjacent high-resolution (1 m/pixel) HiRISE digital elevation models and orthoimagery. Analysis of these structural data yields new insight into the depositional and deformational history of these deposits. Bedding in non-deformed areas generally dips toward the center of west Candor Chasma, suggesting that these deposits are basin-filling sediments. Numerous kilometer-scale faults and folds characterize the deformation here. Normal faults of the requisite orientation and length for chasma-related faulting are not observed, indicating that the local sediments accumulated after chasma formation had largely ceased in this area. The cause of the observed deformation is attributed to landsliding within these sedimentary deposits. Observed crosscutting relationships indicate that a population of sub-vertical joints are the youngest deformational structures in the area. The distribution of strain amongst these joints, and an apparently youthful infill of sediment, suggests that these fractures have been active in the recent past. The source of the driving stress acting on these joints has yet to be fully constrained, but the joint orientations are consistent with minor subsidence within west Candor Chasma.

  11. Geology, geochemistry, and genesis of the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit, Admiralty Island, southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Johnson, Craig A.

    2010-01-01

    In 1996, a memorandum of understanding was signed by representatives of the U.S. Geological Survey and Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company to initiate a cooperative applied research project focused on the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit in southeastern Alaska. The goals of the project were consistent with the mandate of the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program to maintain a leading role in national mineral deposits research and with the need of Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company to further development of the Greens Creek deposit and similar deposits in Alaska and elsewhere. The memorandum enumerated four main research priorities: (1) characterization of protoliths for the wall rocks, and elucidation of their alteration histories, (2) determination of the ore mineralogy and paragenesis, including metal residences and metal zonation within the deposit, (3) determination of the ages of events important to ore formation using both geochronology and paleontology, and (4) development of computer models that would allow the deposit and its host rocks to be examined in detail in three dimensions. The work was carried out by numerous scientists of diverse expertise over a period of several years. The written results, which are contained in this Professional Paper, are presented by 21 authors: 13 from the U.S. Geological Survey, 4 from Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company, 2 from academia, and 2 from consultants. The Greens Creek deposit (global resource of 24.2 million tons at an average grade of 13.9 percent zinc, 5.1 percent lead, 0.15 troy ounce per ton gold, and 19.2 troy ounces per ton silver at zero cutoff) formed in latest Triassic time during a brief period of rifting of the Alexander terrane. The deposit exhibits a range of syngenetic, diagenetic, and epigenetic features that are typical of volcanogenic (VMS), sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX), and Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) genetic models. In the earliest stages of rifting, formation of

  12. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  13. Oxygen isotope systematics of gem corundum deposits in Madagascar: relevance for their geological origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Gaston; Fallick, Anthony; Rakotondrazafy, Michel; Ohnenstetter, Daniel; Andriamamonjy, Alfred; Ralantoarison, Théogène; Rakotosamizanany, Saholy; Razanatseheno, Marie; Offant, Yohann; Garnier, Virginie; Dunaigre, Christian; Schwarz, Dietmar; Mercier, Alain; Ratrimo, Voahangy; Ralison, Bruno

    2007-02-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition of gem corundum was measured from 22 deposits and occurrences in Madagascar to provide a gemstone geological identification and characterization. Primary corundum deposits in Madagascar are hosted in magmatic (syenite and alkali basalt) and metamorphic rocks (gneiss, cordieritite, mafic and ultramafic rocks, marble, and calc-silicate rocks). In both domains the circulation of fluids, especially along shear zones for metamorphic deposits, provoked in situ transformation of the corundum host rocks with the formation of metasomatites such as phlogopite, sakenite, and corundumite. Secondary deposits (placers) are the most important economically and are contained in detrital basins and karsts. The oxygen isotopic ratios (18O/16O) of ruby and sapphire from primary deposits are a good indicator of their geological origin and reveal a wide range of δ18O (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water) between 1.3 and 15.6‰. Metamorphic rubies are defined by two groups of δ18O values in the range of 1.7 to 2.9‰ (cordieritite) and 3.8 to 6.1‰ (amphibolite). “Magmatic” rubies from pyroxenitic xenoliths contained in the alkali basalt of Soamiakatra have δ18O values ranging between 1.3 and 4.7‰. Sapphires are classified into two main groups with δ18O in the range of 4.7 to 9.0‰ (pyroxenite and feldspathic gneiss) and 10.7 to 15.6‰ (skarn in marble from Andranondambo). The δ18O values for gem corundum from secondary deposits have a wide spread between -0.3 and 16.5‰. The ruby and sapphire found in placers linked to alkali basalt environments in the northern and central regions of Madagascar have consistent δ18O values between 3.5 and 6.9‰. Ruby from the placers of Vatomandry and Andilamena has δ18O values of 5.9‰, and between 0.5 and 4.0‰, respectively. The placers of the Ilakaka area are characterized by a huge variety of colored sapphires and rubies, with δ18O values between -0.3 and 16.5‰, and their origin is debated. A

  14. Geological and geophysical characteristics of massive sulphide deposits: A case study of the Lirhanda massive sulphide deposit of Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindi, E.; Maneno, J. B. J.

    2016-08-01

    An integrated geophysical ground survey was conducted on an airborne electromagnetic (EM) anomaly located in Kakamega forest of Western Kenya. The purpose of the study was to establish the existence of massive sulphides and identify suitable optimal geophysical method(s) for the investigation of similar anomalies. The study was also expected to provide information on the geological and geophysical characteristics of the deposit. Field work involved electromagnetic methods: Vertical Loop (VLEM), Horizontal Loop (HLEM), TURAM EM and potential field methods: gravity and magnetics. Geochemical sampling was carried out concurrently with the geophysical survey. All the geophysical methods used yielded good responses. Several conductors conforming to the strike of the geology were identified. TURAM EM provided a higher resolution of the conductors compared to VLEM and HLEM. The conductors were found to be associated with positive gravity anomalies supporting the presence of bodies of higher density than the horst rock. Only the western section (west of 625W) of the grid is associated with strong magnetic anomalies. East of 625W strong EM and gravity anomalies persist but magnetic anomalies are weak. This may reflect variation in the mineral composition of the conductors from magnetic to non-magnetic. Geochemical data indicates strong copper anomalies (upto 300 ppm) over sections of the grid and relatively strong zinc (upto 200 ppm) and lead (upto 100 ppm) anomalies. There is a positive correlation between the location of the conductors as predicted by TURAM EM and the copper and zinc anomalies. A test drill hole proposed on the basis of the geophysical results of this study struck massive sulphides at a depth of 30m still within the weathered rock zone. Unfortunately, the drilling was stopped before the sulphides could be penetrated. The drill core revealed massive sulphide rich in pyrite and pyrrhotite. An attempt has been made to compare characteristics of the Lirhanda

  15. The "chessboard" classification scheme of mineral deposits: Mineralogy and geology from aluminum to zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Harald G.

    2010-06-01

    Economic geology is a mixtum compositum of all geoscientific disciplines focused on one goal, finding new mineral depsosits and enhancing their exploitation. The keystones of this mixtum compositum are geology and mineralogy whose studies are centered around the emplacement of the ore body and the development of its minerals and rocks. In the present study, mineralogy and geology act as x- and y-coordinates of a classification chart of mineral resources called the "chessboard" (or "spreadsheet") classification scheme. Magmatic and sedimentary lithologies together with tectonic structures (1 -D/pipes, 2 -D/veins) are plotted along the x-axis in the header of the spreadsheet diagram representing the columns in this chart diagram. 63 commodity groups, encompassing minerals and elements are plotted along the y-axis, forming the lines of the spreadsheet. These commodities are subjected to a tripartite subdivision into ore minerals, industrial minerals/rocks and gemstones/ornamental stones. Further information on the various types of mineral deposits, as to the major ore and gangue minerals, the current models and the mode of formation or when and in which geodynamic setting these deposits mainly formed throughout the geological past may be obtained from the text by simply using the code of each deposit in the chart. This code can be created by combining the commodity (lines) shown by numbers plus lower caps with the host rocks or structure (columns) given by capital letters. Each commodity has a small preface on the mineralogy and chemistry and ends up with an outlook into its final use and the supply situation of the raw material on a global basis, which may be updated by the user through a direct link to databases available on the internet. In this case the study has been linked to the commodity database of the US Geological Survey. The internal subdivision of each commodity section corresponds to the common host rock lithologies (magmatic, sedimentary, and

  16. Lacustrine Mineral Deposits and their Geologic Context at Bradbury Crater on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirsch, Daniela; Erkeling, Gino; Bishop, Janice L.; Tornabene, Livio L.; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    The 60-km Bradbury Crater (85.8° E; 2.7° N) is located at the Libya Montes region at the southern rim of the Isidis impact basin on Mars. This area is predominantly characterized by Noachian-aged highland massifs that were heavily modified by fluvial, lacustrine, aeolian, volcanic, and impact processes occurring in multiple recurring events. Bradbury Crater stands out for its abundance of fluvial and lacustrine landforms, which reflect a varied history of aqueous-related geological processes. A 2.8 by 5 km-sized fan-shaped deposit has been interpreted to have played a significant role in the hydrologic evolution of landforms at Bradbury Crater. This deposit is partly composed of Al-rich phyllosilicates, indicating aqueous alteration processes. The current work is directed towards shedding light on the origin and timing of these aqueous alteration processes. HRSC digital terrain models give conclusive insight into the stratigraphic relationships of those sediments to each other. Geological analyses have been performed on the basis of HRSC, CTX and HiRISE image data in combination with HRSC and HiRISE digital elevation models. Mineral detection has been performed by spectral analyses of targeted CRISM images. Fe/Mg-smectites are detected along the walls of the ancient Libya Montes bedrocks and could be a result of Isidis impact-related hydrothermal alteration. Carbonates intermixed with Fe/Mg-smectites occur at the base of the bedrock unit. Carbonate formation may have been driven by the interaction of hydrous CO2rich fluids with olivine at the paleolake site. An Al-smectite, consistent with beidellite, is exposed within several layers of the deltaic deposit. Because beidellite forms at elevated temperatures, its presence might either result from alteration in a warm paleolake at this site or it could be an allochtonous sediment deposited here subsequently. Since the strongest beidellite signatures are detected within the foreset and the bottomset layer of the

  17. The geology, mineralogy and rare element geochemistry of the gem deposits of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Dissanayake

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The gem deposits of Sri Lanka are studied from the point of view of their geology, mineralogy and geochemistry. Nearly all the gem formations are located in the central high-grade metamorphic terrain of the Highland Complex. The gem deposits are classified as sedimentary, metamorphic and magmatic; the sedimentary types being the most abundant. The mineralogy of the gem deposits varies widely with, among others, corundum, chrysoberyl, beryl, spinel, topaz,zircon, tourmaline, garnet and sphene being common.Rare element concentrations in sediments from the three main gem fields of Sri Lanka, namely Ratnapura, Elahera and Walawe, were studied. It was found that some sediments are considerably enriched in certain elements compared to their average continental crustal abundances. The Walawe Ganga sediments show anomalous enrichments of the high field strength and associated elements, particularly Zr, Hf, W and Ti. This is attributed to the presence of accessory mineralssuch as zircon, monazite and rutile. Some of these heavy minerals comprise as much as 50 wt% of sediment. The geochemical enrichment of some trace elements compared to their average crustal abundances indicates that highly differentiated granites and associated pegmatites have provided the source materials for enrichment.

  18. Some aspects of prospecting and geological evaluation of the coal deposits. Algunos aspectos de prospeccion y evaluacion geologica de los yacimientos de carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajaczkowski, E. (Cacbosuroeste, San Cristobal (Venezuela))

    1989-08-01

    Geological prospecting for minerals should provide a sound basis for determining the industrial worth of the deposits. Decisions are taken according to the geological evaluation. Most important factor is the magnitude of reserves. All deposits should have good reliable, comparable and complete data. A number of principles of successive approximation, time and money minimum expenditures, identical criteria - should be uniform everywhere.

  19. Geological and Geochemical Characteristics of the Zhulazhaga Gold Deposit in Inner Mongolia,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Sihong; NIE Fengjun

    2005-01-01

    the threephase daughter crystal-bearing inclusions vary from 210 to 435℃ and the salinities from 29.13wt% to 32.62wt% NaC1 equiv. It indicates that the ore-forming fluid is meso-hypothermal and characterized by high salinity, which is apparently different from the metamorphic origin with low salinity. It suggests a magmatic origin of the gold-bearing fluid.The δ18O values of quartz from auriferous veins range from 11.9 to 16.3 per mil, and the calculated δ18OH2o values in equilibrium with quartz vary from 1.06 to 9.60 per mil, which fall between the values of meteoric water and magmatic water. It reflects that the ore-forming fluid may be the product of mixing of meteoric water and magmatic water.Based on geological and geochemical studies of the Zhulazhaga gold deposit, it is supposed that the volcanism in the Mesoproterozoic might make gold pre-concentrate in the strata. The extensive and intensive Hercynian tectono-magmatic activity not only brought along a large number of ore-forming materials, but also made the gold from the strata rework. It can be concluded that the ore bodies were mainly formed in late hydrothermal reworking stage. Compared with typical gold deposits associated with epimetamorphic clastic rocks, the Zhulazhaga deposit has similar features in occurrence of ore bodies, ore-controlling structure, wall-rock alterations and mineral assemblages. Therefore, the Zhulazhaga gold deposit belongs to the epimetamorphic clastic rock type.

  20. Re-Os Dating of the Pulang Porphyry Copper Deposit in Zhongdian, NW Yunnan, and Its Geological Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Pusheng; HOU Zengqian; WANG Haiping; QU Wenjun; MENG Yifeng; YANG Zhusen; LI Wenchang

    2004-01-01

    The Pulang porphyry copper deposit is located in the Zhongdian island arc belt, NW Yunnan, in the central part of the Sanjiang area, SW China, belonging to the southern segment of the Yidun island arc belt on the western margin of the Yangtze Platform. In the Yidun island arc, there occur well-known "Gacun-style" massive sulfide deposits in the northern segment and plenty of porphyry copper deposits in the southern segment, of which the Pulang porphyry copper deposit is one of the representatives. Like the Yulong porphyry copper deposit, this porphyry copper deposit is also one of the most important porphyry copper deposits in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. But it is different from other porphyry copper deposits in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (e.g. those in the Gangdise porphyry copper belt and Yulong porphyry copper belt) in that it formed in the Indosinian period, while others in the Himalayan period. Because of its particularity among the porphyry copper deposits of China, this porphyry copper deposit is of great significance for the study of the basic geology and the evaluation and prediction of mineral resources in the Zhongdian island arc belt.However, no accurate chronological data are available for determining the timing of mineralization of the porphyry copper deposit. By field observation in the study area and Re-Os dating of molybdenite and K-Ar dating of hydrothermal minerals and whole rock from the typical geological bodies, the timing of mineralization of the porphyry copper deposit has systematically been determined for the first time. The K-Ar age for the hydrothermal mineralization of biotite-quartz monzonitic porphyry that has undergone patassic silicate (biotite and K-feldspar) alteration ranges from 235.4±2.4 to 221.5±2.0 Ma and the Re-Os age for molybdenite in the quartz-molybdenite stage is ~213±3.8 Ma. These data are very close to each other, suggesting that the ore-forming processes of the Pulang porphyry copper deposit was

  1. Mineral Deposit Geology towards the 21st Century%走向21世纪的矿床学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟裕生

    2001-01-01

    Some major achievements in mineral deposit geology in the past 100 years are briefly reviewed in the paper.Such achievements include:①classification of mineral deposits by their genesis;②booming of study on strata-bound deposits and multigenesis theory of mineral deposit;③plate tectonics and regional metallogeny;④mineral deposit model;⑤study on superlarge mineral deposits;⑥discovery of modern hydrothermal ore-forming processes in oceans and ⑦unreversibility and rhythm in metallogenic evolution etc..In order to meet the demands of sustainable development of human society in the 21st century,the mineral deposit geology shows two new trends:①globalization and ②unity of ore exploitation and environmental protection.Nowadays mineral deposit geology is facing three main research fields:①the formulation of new ore-forming theories;②the study and exploration of new types of mineral resources and the formation of general mineral resources geology and ③ the performance of basic research on mineral deposits to satisfy the need for building a “green mining industry” system.%文章简要回顾了百年来矿床学取得的重要进展,包括:①矿床成因分类的建立;②层控矿床研究与矿床多成因理论的兴起;③板块构造与区域成矿规律;④矿床模型;⑤超大型矿床研究;⑥海洋现代热液成矿作用的发现;⑦成矿演化的不可逆性与节律性等。针对21世纪中人类社会可持续发展的需要,矿床学研究出现了两个新趋势:①全球化;②矿业开发与环境保护一体化。面临着三个主要研究领域:①成矿理论的推陈出新;②研究开发新型矿产资源,建立广义的矿产资源地质学;③建立绿色矿业体制所需的矿床学基础研究。

  2. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits: a selected, annotated bibliography. Vol. 2, Rev. 1. [490 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Brock, M.L.; Garland, P.A.; White, M.B.; Daniel, E.W. (comps.)

    1979-07-01

    This bibliography, a compilation of 490 references, is the second in a series compiled from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Bibliographic Data Base. This data base is one of six data bases created by the Ecological Sciences Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy. Major emphasis for this volume has been placed on uranium geology, encompassing deposition, genesis of ore deposits, and ore controls; and prospecting techniques, including geochemistry and aerial reconnaissance. The following indexes are provided to aid the user in locating references of interest: author, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational feature, taxonomic name, and keyword.

  3. Geological-Geochemical Characteristics of Carlin- and Carlin-Like-Type Gold Deposits in South Qinling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张复新; 张静

    2003-01-01

    In this paper an integrated geological and geochemical comparison is made of Carlin-type and Carlin-like-type gold deposits in the region of South Qinling with their associated hydro-thermal sedimentary lead-zinc deposits, the Carlin-type deposits in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guan-gxi gold triangle, China, the Carlin gold deposits, Carlin, western United States, and the Mu-runtau-type gold deposits in Uzbekistan. The comparative study indicates that the formation ofthese deposits has an intimate coupling relation with the mechanism of the tectonic movement ofmodern plates. Therefore, these deposits belong to those that were formed in the orogenic stage.They have the following similar characteristics: they are all sediment-hosted, occur in a tectonicenvironment of extensional rifting nature and show the characteristics of syngenetically modifiedmineralization. On the other hand, they also have noticeable differences: they are different inrespect to their tectonic settings, association and structure of orogenic belts and complexity andstrength of the modified mineralization. The regional tectonic evolution and extensive mineraliza-tion in orogenic belts are different expressions of the same continental dynamic process.

  4. Re-Os isotopic data for molybdenum from Hejiangkou tungsten and tin polymetallic deposit in Chenzhou and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德波; 杨柳; 邓湘伟; 戴雪玲; 王雄军; CHONGkhaiyuen; 杜高峰; 魏和平

    2016-01-01

    Hejiangkou W−Sn-polymetallic deposit is a newly found deposit in Xitian ore field, one of the important and large scale W−Sn-polymetallic ore fields in the middle segment of Nanling metallogenic zone. Re−Os isotope dating was used on three molybdenite samples from Hejiangkou deposit to determine the ore forming period. The result is (224.9±2.6)Ma−(225±3.1)Ma and isochron age is (225.5±3.6)Ma. The field geological observations, geochronological data and optical petrography indicated that Hejiangkou deposit underwent multi-period of superimposed mineralization. It can be differentiated into three periods composed of six mineralization stages. The first period is the initial period for hydrothermal metasomatism and metal element enrichment during Indosinian Epoch. Further enrichment, strong brittle fracturing and hydrothermal metasomatism, remobilization and superimposition happened in the second period, during early Yanshanian. It is the major mineralization period of Hejiangkou deposit and can be subdivided into four mineralization stages, namely the skarn stage, oxide stage, high-temperature sulfide stage and low-temperature sulfide stage. And the third period is the mineralization period of a porphyry-skarn system related to the emplacement of the granite porphyry dyke. As minerogenic epoch of Hejiangkou deposit is similar with Hehuaping deposit, they show the possibility of Indosinian mineralization event in Nanling metallogenic zone. It can be an important perspective in any future mineral exploration in the same metallogenic zone.

  5. Geology, Geochemistry and Ground Magnetic Survey on Kalateh Naser Iron Ore Deposit, Khorasan Jonoubi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Saadat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Ground magnetometer surveys is one of the oldest geophysical exploration methods used in identifying iron reserves. The correct interpretation of ground magnetic surveys, along with geological and geochemical data will not only reduce costs but also to indicate the location, depth and dimensions of the hidden reserves of iron (Robinson and Coruh, 2005; Calagari, 1992. Kalateh Naser prospecting area is located at 33° 19َ to 33° 19ََ 42" latitude and 60° 0' to 60° 9َ 35" longitude in the western side of the central Ahangaran mountain range, eastern Iran (Fig.1. Based on primary field evidences, limited outcrops of magnetite mineralization were observed and upon conducting ground magnetic survey, evidence for large Iron ore deposits were detected (Saadat, 2014. This paper presents the geological and geochemical studies and the results of magnetic measurements in the area of interest and its applicability in exploration of other potential Iron deposits in the neighboring areas. Materials and methods To better understand the geological units of the area, samples were taken and thin sections were studied. Geochemical studies were conducted through XRF and ICP-Ms and wet chemistry analysis. The ground magnetic survey was designed to take measurements from grids of 20 meter apart lines and 10 meter apart points along the north-south trend. 2000 points were measured during a 6-day field work by expert geophysicists. Records were made by Canadian manufactured product Magnetometer Proton GSM19T (Fig. 2. Properties of Proton Magnetometer using in magnetic survey in Kalateh Naser prospecting area is shown in Table 1. Total magnetic intensity map, reduced to pole magnetic map, analytic single map, first vertical derivative map and upward continuation map have been prepared for this area. Results The most significant rock units in the area are cretaceous carbonate rocks (Fig. 3. The unit turns to shale and thin bedded limestone in the

  6. Some geological problems of bedded manganese ore deposits. Sojo mangankosho no chishitsugakuteki shomondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momoi, H. (Ehime University, Ehime (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1991-09-15

    This paper summarizes the bedded manganese ore deposits in Japan and in the world. Chert-hosted bedded manganese ore deposits in the Chichibu terrane and similar terranes of the inner zone of Southwest Japan are characterized by numerous small deposits composed of rhodochrosite and manganese silicate ores. They are Triassic to Middle Jurassic in age. The deposits in Japan are, together with those of Coast Ranges in western part of North America, typical in the mobile belts of the world. On the other hand, giant bedded manganese deposits represented by Nikopol, South Ukraine and Groote Eylandt, Australia, occur in the inner parts of stable continents and in platforms and consist of manganese dioxide and rhodochrosite. The deposits in mobile belts and those in stable continents are very contrasting in the scale of deposits, distribution, ore, age, depositional environment and other features. 85 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Eastern China Geological and Mining Organization for Nonferrous Metals Becomes the Controlling Shareholder of the Boka Gold Deposit with 400-ton Future Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Eastern China Geological and Mining Or- ganization for Nonferrous Metals recently ac- quired all of the former foreign-enterprise- owned shares,becoming the controlling share- holder of the deposit.Crowned as a "world-

  8. Geology and Geochemistry of Reworking Gold Deposits in Intrusive Rocks of China—Ⅱ Gold Deposits and Their Genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀璋; 程景平; 等

    1998-01-01

    Gold deposits in intrusive masses include the veinlet dissemination,quartz vein and veinlet dissemination+vein types,They are distributed in fracture zones along the endocontact zone of a batholith or in the centre and edge of a stock.The metallogenic epochs are Yenshanian,Hercynian,Archean,Proterozoic and Himalayan,The gold deposits are characterized by a big difference in time span between gold mineralization and the formation of host masses Ore-forming materials were derived from the masses and auriferous strata and ore-forming fluids came from meteoric and formation waters.When circulating water was heated by ascending heat flow,gold would be extracted,concentrated and transported from auriferous rocks and then precipitated in the masses during the late tectonic movement,Finally gold deposits were formed in the intrusive masses.

  9. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132393 Lü Guxian(Institute of Geomechanics,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100081,China);Li Xiuzhang Research and Development of Orefield Geology(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,48(6),2012,p.1143-1150,3illus.,1table,46refs.)Key words:study of mineral deposit

  10. Mineral deposits of the Silica plateau – evaluation of selected geological factors of the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BalហBartolomej

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Silica plateau is a part of a greatest karst area in the Slovak republic - Protected Landscape Area Slovak karst (CHKO Slovenský kras. Karst areas belong to the most sensitive environments, from the point of view of impacts caused by anthropogenous activities. This area reacts sensitively, disturbing the environmental balance caused by mining of mineral deposits. Three mineral deposits of industrial rocks: one deposit of decorative stone - Silická Brezová and two deposits of building stone – Silická Brezová I and Lipovník, respectively, were registered on January 1-st, 2001 in the territory of the Silica plateau. Some deposits utilized in the past namely two deposits of building raw materials (Hrušov and Krásnohorská Dlhá Lúka and one Pb-Zn ore deposit (Ardovo are also mentioned and evaluated in the paper. From the point of view of economical potential of the area, mineral deposits have a character of geopotentials. However the utilization of deposits represents negative anthropogenous impact. When compared with another forms of optimal and rational utilization of the country, e.g. agriculture, forestry, water management, construction, tourism etc., mineral deposits have a character of geobarriers. This research was carried out in the frame of the VEGA Grant No. 1/6090/1999.

  11. Geology and recognition criteria for veinlike uranium deposits of the lower to middle Proterozoic unconformity and strata-related types. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlkamp, F.J.; Adams, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The discovery of the Rabbit Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, in 1968 and the East Alligator Rivers district, Northern Territory, Australia, in 1970 established the Lower-Middle Proterozoic veinlike-type deposits as one of the major types of uranium deposits. The term veinlike is used in order to distinguish it from the classical magmatic-hydrothermal vein or veintype deposits. The veinlike deposits account for between a quarter and a third of the Western World's proven uranium reserves. Lower-Middle Proterozoic veinlike deposits, as discussed in this report include several subtypes of deposits, which have some significantly different geologic characteristics. These various subtypes appear to have formed from various combinations of geologic processes ranging from synsedimentary uranium precipitation through some combination of diagenesis, metamorphism, metasomatism, weathering, and deep burial diagenesis. Some of the deposit subtypes are based on only one or two incompletely described examples; hence, even the classification presented in this report may be expected to change. Geologic characteristics of the deposits differ significantly between most districts and in some cases even between deposits within districts. Emphasis in this report is placed on deposit descriptions and the interpretations of the observers.

  12. Joint inversion of seismic traveltime and gravity data: A synthetic study using geologically realistic models from the Voisey's Bay deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-McAuslan, A.; Lelièvre, P. G.; Farquharson, C.

    2012-12-01

    Seismic methods provide high resolving potential for use in mineral exploration. Unfortunately, complicated hard-rock geology can make seismic data processing and interpretation difficult. It may help to overcome these difficulties by jointly inverting seismic tomography data with gravity data. We investigated the viability of deterministic minimum-structure style joint inversion of seismic traveltime and gravity data for the delineation of geological targets from the Voisey's Bay sulfide deposit in Labrador, Canada. These tests also assessed the potential of employing borehole gravity. A number of synthetic Earth models were created based on the geology of the Eastern Deeps zone of the Voisey's Bay deposit. These models were built on triangular (2D) and tetrahedral (3D) unstructured meshes, allowing for efficient generation of complicated, realistic geological structures. 2D models were based on conceptualized models of the Eastern Deeps. A detailed 3D model was built using information from extensive drilling. Single property and joint inversions were performed with seismic traveltimes and both ground-based and borehole gravity. There is a known relationship between seismic velocity and density for both silicate rocks and sulphide minerals for our study area; this lithological relationship was used to design an appropriate coupling strategy in the joint inversions. Joint inversions were able to successfully locate a buried high contrast target with a variety of survey designs. Experimentation with noise levels, mesh design, and various inversion parameters has lead to a better understanding of how to practically apply joint inversion of traveltimes and gravity data to this and similar exploration problems.

  13. Remote Sensing Geological Exploration Model for Copper and Gold Deposits in the East Tianshan, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shoulin; Fu Shuixing; LI Chunxia

    2004-01-01

    Based on the identification and enhancive processing of information about strata, structure, magmatite, and alteration in ore-concentrated area in the eastern Tianshan, an exploration mode of remote sensing geology is established.The mode covers basic images composed of TM (7, 4, 1), Munsell space transformation for recognizing rock type,directional matched filtering for enhancing structures, multi-layer separating and extracting weak alteration information. It will provide a rapid and effective method for geological mapping and metallogenic prediction in this region.

  14. Geology of uranium vein-deposits in France; Geologie des gites uraniferes et filoniens en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarcia, J.A.; Carrat, J.; Poughon, A.; Sanselme, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This paper gives an outline of the characteristics of the main uranium vein deposits in France; it underlines the structural, petrographic and metallogenic similarities of these deposits. (author) [French] La note presente est un expose des caracteres generaux des principaux gites uraniferes filoniens de France; elle insiste sur les similitudes structurales, petrographiques et metallogeniques de ces gisements. (auteur)

  15. Geology and depositional environments of the Guadalupian rocks of the northern Del Norte Mountains, West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudine, S.F.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Rohr, D.M.; Grant, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Guadalupian rocks of the northern Del Norte Mountains were deposited in a foreland basin between land of the Marathon orogen and a carbonate shoal established on the geanticline separating the foreland basin from the Delaware basin. Deposition was alternately influenced by coarse clastic input from the orogen and carbonate shoal, which interrupted shallow basinal siltstone depletion. Relatively deeper-water deposition is characterized by carbonate input from the shoal, and relatively shallow-water deposition is characterized by sandstone input from the orogen. Deposition was in five general transgressive-regressive packages that include (1) the Road Canyon Formation and the first siltstone member and first sandstone member of the Word Formation, (2) the second siltstone member, Appel Ranch Member, and limy sandy siltstone member of the Word Formation, (3) the Vidrio Formation, (4) the lower and part of the middle members of the Altuda Formation, and (5) part of the middle and upper members of the Altuda Formation.

  16. Mesoproterozoic graphite deposits, New Jersey Highlands: Geologic and stable isotopic evidence for possible algal origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Graphite deposits of Mesoproterozoic age are locally abundant in the eastern New Jersey Highlands, where they are hosted by sulphidic biotite-quartz-feldspar gneiss, metaquartzite, and anatectic pegmatite. Gneiss and metaquartzite represent a shallow marine shelf sequence of locally organic-rich sand and mud. Graphite from massive deposits within metaquartzite yielded ??13C values of -26 ?? 2??? (1??), and graphite from massive deposits within biotite-quartz-feldspar gneiss yielded ??13C values of -23 ??4???. Disseminated graphite from biotite-quartz-feldspar gneiss country rock was -22 ??3???, indistinguishable from the massive deposits hosted by the same lithology. Anatectic pegmatite is graphitic only where generated from graphite-bearing host rocks; one sample gave a ??13C value of -15???. The ??34S values of trace pyrrhotite are uniform within individual deposits, but vary from 0 to 9??? from one deposit to another. Apart from pegmatitic occurrences, evidence is lacking for long-range mobilization of carbon during Grenvillian orogenesis or post-Grenvillian tectonism. The field, petrographic, and isotope data suggest that massive graphite was formed by granulite-facies metamorphism of Proterozoic accumulations of sedimentary organic matter, possibly algal mats. Preservation of these accumulations in the sedimentary environment requires anoxic basin waters or rapid burial. Anoxia would also favour the accumulation of dissolved ferrous iron in basin waters, which may explain some of the metasediment-hosted massive magnetite deposits in the New Jersey Highlands. ?? 2000 NRC.

  17. Geology and formation of titaniferous placer deposits in Upper Jogaz Valley area, Fanuj, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Moghaddasi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Fanuj titaniferous placer deposits are located 35 km northwest of the Fanuj, Sistan and Baluchestan province (1 . The studied area comprises a (2 small part of the late Cretaceous Fanuj-Maskutan (Rameshk ophiolite complex (Arshadi and Mahdavi, 1987. Reconnaissance and comprehensive exploration programs in the Fanuj district (East of the 1:100000 Fanuj quadrangle map,Yazdi, 2010 revealed that the Upper Jogaz Valley area has the highest concentration of titaniferous placer deposits. In this study, geology and formation of the titaniferous placer deposits in Upper Jogaz Valley area are discussed. Materials and Methods (3 Forty samples were collected from surface and drainage sediments to evaluate the potential for titaniferous placers. Mineralogical studies indicated the high Ti (ilmenite bearing areas, which led to detailed exploration by 29 shallow drill holes and 9 trenches. A total of 61 sub-surface samples were collected for heavy mineral studies and ore grade determination. The exploration studies suggest that the the Upper Jogaz Valley area in the Fanuj district has a high potential for titaniferous placer deposits. Extensive exposures of black sands in the sreambeds of this area suggested detailed sampling, so that 12 holes were drilled (2-3 m depthfrom which 26 samples were collected, and five trenches were excavated to 2-4 m depth (4. The distribution of drill holes and trenches were plotted with “Logplot” software for further interpretation. Twenty-two samples from these drill holes were analyzed for TiO2. Results The reconnaissance and comprehensive exploration in Fanuj district shows that the Upper Jogaz Valley area has the highest concentration of titaniferous placer deposits. The general geology of the region and petrology and mineralogy of collected samples suggest that the source rock of the Upper Jogaz Valley titaniferous placers is the hornblende- and olivine-gabbro unit of the Fanuj-Ramesh ophiolites. The Ti

  18. Geologic Characterization of Young Alluvial Basin-Fill Deposits from Drill Hole Data in Yucca Flat, Nye County, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald S. Sweetkind; Ronald M. Drake II

    2007-01-22

    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada, that has been the site of numerous underground nuclear tests; many of these tests occurred within the young alluvial basin-fill deposits. The migration of radionuclides to the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer involves passage through this thick, heterogeneous section of Tertiary and Quaternary rock. An understanding of the lateral and vertical changes in the material properties of young alluvial basin-fill deposits will aid in the further development of the hydrogeologic framework and the delineation of hydrostratigraphic units and hydraulic properties required for simulating ground-water flow in the Yucca Flat area. This report by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, presents data and interpretation regarding the three-dimensional variability of the shallow alluvial aquifers in areas of testing at Yucca Flat, data that are potentially useful in the understanding of the subsurface flow system. This report includes a summary and interpretation of alluvial basin-fill stratigraphy in the Yucca Flat area based on drill hole data from 285 selected drill holes. Spatial variations in lithology and grain size of the Neogene basin-fill sediments can be established when data from numerous drill holes are considered together. Lithologic variations are related to different depositional environments within the basin including alluvial fan, channel, basin axis, and playa deposits.

  19. Geologic Characterization of Young Alluvial Basin-Fill Deposits from Drill-Hole Data in Yucca Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Drake II, Ronald M.

    2007-01-01

    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada, that has been the site of numerous underground nuclear tests; many of these tests occurred within the young alluvial basin-fill deposits. The migration of radionuclides to the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer involves passage through this thick, heterogeneous section of Tertiary and Quaternary rock. An understanding of the lateral and vertical changes in the material properties of young alluvial basin-fill deposits will aid in the further development of the hydrogeologic framework and the delineation of hydrostratigraphic units and hydraulic properties required for simulating ground-water flow in the Yucca Flat area. This report by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, presents data and interpretation regarding the three-dimensional variability of the shallow alluvial aquifers in areas of testing at Yucca Flat, data that are potentially useful in the understanding of the subsurface flow system. This report includes a summary and interpretation of alluvial basin-fill stratigraphy in the Yucca Flat area based on drill-hole data from 285 selected drill holes. Spatial variations in lithology and grain size of the Neogene basin-fill sediments can be established when data from numerous drill holes are considered together. Lithologic variations are related to different depositional environments within the basin such as alluvial fan, channel, basin axis, and playa deposits.

  20. Geologic Characterization of Young Alluvial Basin-Fill Deposits from Drill Hole Data in Yucca Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Drake II, Ronald M.

    2007-01-01

    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada, that has been the site of numerous underground nuclear tests; many of these tests occurred within the young alluvial basin-fill deposits. The migration of radionuclides to the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer involves passage through this thick, heterogeneous section of Tertiary and Quaternary rock. An understanding of the lateral and vertical changes in the material properties of young alluvial basin-fill deposits will aid in the further development of the hydrogeologic framework and the delineation of hydrostratigraphic units and hydraulic properties required for simulating ground-water flow in the Yucca Flat area. This report by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, presents data and interpretation regarding the three-dimensional variability of the shallow alluvial aquifers in areas of testing at Yucca Flat, data that are potentially useful in the understanding of the subsurface flow system. This report includes a summary and interpretation of alluvial basin-fill stratigraphy in the Yucca Flat area based on drill hole data from 285 selected drill holes. Spatial variations in lithology and grain size of the Neogene basin-fill sediments can be established when data from numerous drill holes are considered together. Lithologic variations are related to different depositional environments within the basin including alluvial fan, channel, basin axis, and playa deposits.

  1. GEOLOGY OF THE FLORENCIA GOLD – TELLURIDE DEPOSIT (CAMAGÜEY, CUBA AND SOME METALLURGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López K Jesús M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results from a study of the Florencia gold-telluride deposit in Central Cuba, including mineralogical, petrographical, microprobe and chemical analysis. Valuable information is provided for the exploration, mining and processing of gold ores from other nearby deposits with similar characteristics. Results highlight changes in the mineralogical composition of the ores between the north and south sectors of the deposit, as reflected in metallurgical concentrates after beneficiation and flotation of samples from these sectors.
    It is shown that gold deposits of the Cretaceous Volcanic Arc of Cuba largely consist of native gold, telluride and pyrite, where arsenopyrite is almost absent. Traces of lead, zinc and cadmium are present in the periphery of the main ore zones.

  2. Regional stratigraphy and subsurface geology of Cenozoic deposits, Gulf Coastal Plain, south-central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosman, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis includes all major aquifer systems in Cenozoic deposits in the Gulf Coastal Plain in the States of Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, Texas, and small areas in Alabama and Florida (western panhandle area), an area of about 290,000 square miles. The Gulf Coast geosyncline and the Mississippi embayment were the major depocenters for the Tertiary and Quaternary deposits that form the framework for the aquifer systems.

  3. The geology, mineralogy and paragenesis of the Castrovirreyna lead-zinc-silver deposits, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard Wheatley

    1964-01-01

    The Castrovirreyna mining district lies in the Andean Cordillera of South Central Peru, and has been worked sporadically since its discovery in 1591. Supergene silver ores were first mined. Currently the district produces about 20,000 tons of lead-zinc ore and 5000 tons of silver ore annually. The district is underlain by Tertiary andesitic rocks interbedded with basalts and intruded by small bodies of quartz latite porphyry. The terrane reflects recent glaciation and is largely covered by glacial debris. The ore deposits are steeply dipping veins that strike N. 60? E. to S. 50? E., and average 60 centimeters wide and 300 meters long. The principal veins are grouped around three centers, lying 5 kilometers apart along a line striking N. 55? E. They are, from east to west: San Genaro, Caudalosa, and La Virreyna. A less important set of veins, similarly aligned, lies 2 kilometers to the north. Most of the veins were worked to depths of about 30 meters, the limit of supergene enrichment; but in the larger veins hypogene ores have been worked to depths of over 150 meters. Galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and tetrahedrite are common to all veins, but are most abundant in the westernmost veins at La Virreyna. In the center of the district, around Caudalosa, land sulfantimonides are the commonest ore minerals, and at the eastern end, around San Genaro and Astohuaraca, silver sulfosalts predominate. Supergene enrichment of silver is found at shallow depths in all deposits. Silver at San Genaro, however, was concentrated towards the surface by migration along hypogene physico-chemical gradients in time and space, as vein material was reworked by mineralizing fluids. The pattern of wallrock alteration throughout the district grades from silicification and scricitization adjacent to the veins, through argillization and propylitization, to widespread chloritization farther away. Mineralization can be divided into three stages: 1) Preparatory stage, characterized by

  4. Geology and geochronology of type Chasicoan (late Miocene) mammal-bearing deposits of Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Marcelo A.; Schultz, Peter H.; Blasi, Adriana; Heil, Clifford; King, John; Hames, Willis

    2007-01-01

    The late Miocene Chasicoan mammal-bearing deposits exposed along the lower reach of Arroyo Chasicó are composed of cross-bedded, very fine sandstones interpreted as a channel-bar deposit (lithofacies association 1) grading upward into sandy siltstones (lithofacies association 2), probably accumulated through relatively high-density flows in a marginal channel and/or floodplain environment. The uppermost levels are dominantly composed of mudstones and sandy siltstones (lithofacies association 3) deposited in generally low-energy conditions of sedimentation in a swampy environment. Several paleosols (lithofacies P) are present, indicating that the succession was the result of episodic fluvial sedimentation. The volcaniclastic composition (primary and reworked pyroclastics) suggests that the fluvial system drained the westward region by the Andean foothills. An impact event dated at 9.23 ± 0.09 Ma and recorded by impact glasses (escorias) during deposition of lithofacies Sp enables the fine tuning of the chronology of the deposits through high-resolution magnetostratigraphic profiles, which indicate that the approximately 9.4 m thick succession recorded by lithofacies association 1 and 2 accumulated between 9.43 and 9.07 Ma. The lithofacial arrangement of the succession does not support the current differentiation of the Arroyo Chasicó Formation into the Vivero and Las Barrancas members. Previous biostratigraphic interpretations contain significant inconsistencies in light of the revised stratigraphy proposed here.

  5. Geology, Mineral Deposit Model and Potential of the Suwar Cu-Ni Sulphide Prospect, Northwest Yemen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdulkarim M.; Al-Nagashi; Li Xujun

    2002-01-01

    The Suwar Cu-Ni sulphide prospect is very highly regarded for its potential to host a major nickel-copper sulphide deposit in Republic of Yemen, a mineral resource lacking country. The ore-hosting intrusion is a lopolith about 6km long and lkm wide and more than 300m deep. There are two types of Cu-Ni mineralizations in the prospect: primary massive chalcopyrite+ pyrrhotite+ pentlandite controlled by gravitational and structural traps while the secondary Cu-Ni mineralization is coarse grained and occur as veins, veinlets, fracture fill, blebs or associated with coarse, re-crystallized carbonate in shear zones and faults. The deposit type of the prospect is believed to be the one associated with the ultramafic component of a large, broadly differentiated noritic, gabbroid intrusive. It is suggested that the prospect and adjacent area possibly contain a similar world class Ni-Cu deposits as that in Jinchuan, China.

  6. Geology, Geochemistry and Minerogenesis of the Shijuligou Zinc-Copper Deposit in Gansu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenyuan; DENG Jun; GAO Yongbao; GUO Zhouping; ZHANG Zhaowei; SONG Zhongbao

    2009-01-01

    The Shijuligou deposit was separated by an arcuate ductile shear zone cross the center of the deposit region, resulting in the difference between the southern and northern ore bodies. The lead (Pb) isotopic data of ores of the Shijuligou copper deposit have averages of ~(206)Pb/~(204)Pb, ~(207)Pb/~(204)Pb, and ~(208)Pb/~(204)Pb in 17.634, 15.444, and 37.312, respectively. It has been shown that ore-forming metals originated from intrusive and extrusive rocks in the upper part of ophiolites. The sulfur isotopic data of pyrite and chalcopyrite in the northern part change from +7.61‰ to +8.09‰ and +4.95‰ to +8.88‰ in the southern part. Isotopes of δ~(18)O in the Shijuligou copper deposit are between +11.1‰ and +18.6‰, with the calculated δ~(18)O_(H_2O) at +0.65‰. It is suggested that the mineralized fluid is a mixture of magma fluid, meteorological water, and seawater through circulating and leaching metals from the volcanic rocks. The zircon uranium-lead (U-Pb) dating of gabbro is 457.9±1.2 Ma, and the lower crossing age of the discordant and concordia curves of pyroxene spilite of zircon is 454±15 Ma. It is indicated that the Shijuligou deposit formed in a new ocean crust (ophiolite) of the back-arc basin in the late Ordovician. Mineralization should occur in the intermittence period after strong volcanic activity, and the age should be the late Ordovician. Moreover, the mineralization of ophiolite-hosted massive sulfide deposits in the ancient orogenic belt of the late Ordovician in the northern Qilian Mountains was controlled by the primary fault/fracture, with the forming of a metallogenic hydrothermai system by a mixture of volcanic magma fluid and seawater, which circularly leached the metaliogenic metals from the volcanic rocks, resulting in their accumulation. The ore bodies were transformed with morphology and metallogeuic elements. Jasperoid is an important sign for prospecting such deposits. There were many island arcs in the continent of

  7. Geologic Evolution of Mars' North Polar Layered Deposits and Related Materials from Mars Odyssey THEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, A. R.; Richardson, M. I.; Byrne, S.; Ivanov, A. B.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of a thick sequence of horizontal layers of ice-rich material at Mars north pole, dissected by troughs and eroding at its margins, is undoubtedly telling us something about the evolution of Mars climate we just don't know what yet. The North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD) most likely formed as astronomically driven climate variations led to the deposition of conformable, areally extensive layers of ice and dust over the polar region. More recently, the balance seems to have fundamentally shifted to net erosion, as evidenced by the many troughs within the NPLD and the steep, arcuate scarps present near its margins, both of which expose layering.

  8. Geology and Metal Contents of the Ruttan volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, northern Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, C. Tucker.; Taylor, Craig; Ames, Doreen E.

    2005-03-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Ruttan Cu-Zn volcanogenic massive-sulfide (VMS) deposit is a large, relatively low grade, bimodal-siliciclastic type deposit in the Rusty Lake volcanic belt of northern Manitoba. The deposit contained over 82.8 million tonnes of massive sulfide, of which 55.7 million tonnes were mined from 1973 to 2002. The deposit consists of a series of moderately to steeply dipping, south-facing lenses that extend along strike at the surface for 1.1 km and to a depth of 1.0 km. These lenses occur within a steeply dipping, bimodal volcanic, volcaniclastic and siliciclastic sequence. In the immediate mine area, transitional calc-alkalic to high-silica (tholeiitic), felsic, and intermediate volcanic/volcaniclastic rocks of the Mine Sequence are host to, and intercalated with, the massive-sulfide lenses. Transitional tholeiitic to calc-alkalic basalt and andesite are present in the footwall sequence, approximately 500 m down-section from the ore horizon. The overlying rocks are predominantly fine-grained volcaniclastics and siliciclastics, but include polyfragmental agglomerate that contains mafic bombs and scoriaceous felsic fragments. Syn-depositional felsic and mafic dikes, sills, and apophyses are ubiquitous throughout the Mine Sequence, including the ore lenses, indicating continued, near-vent magmatism, and volcanism during ore formation. Fabrics in altered hostrocks have consistent, down-plunge stretching lineations to the SSE that suggest the deposit has been elongated by a factor of ~1.2-1.5; otherwise, the deposit is remarkably undeformed. Syn- and post-depositional faults in the mine area have relatively minor displacements up to tens of meters. Proximal (within 200 m) footwall rocks exhibit moderate to strong chloritization, characterized by the upper greenschist to lower amphibolite facies assemblages that include cordierite-almandine-andalusite-sillimanite-biotite ± staurolite ± anthophyllite ± talc, and local silicification. The proximal

  9. Geologic evidence for age of deposits at Hueyatlaco archeological site, Vasequillo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-McIntyre, Virginia; Fryxell, Roald; Malde, Harold E.

    1981-07-01

    Direct tracing of beds during excavation in May 1973, confirmed that the artifact-bearing layers at Hueyatlaco underlie 10 m of fine-grained, water-laid deposits that constitute part of the wide-spread Valsequillo gravels. Dissection of these deposits by the adjacent Río Atoyac has reached a depth of 50 m. The stratigraphic section at Hueyatlaco includes four distinctive tephra units. The oldest one occupies a small channel in a series of cut-and-fill stream deposits that have yielded bifacial tools. It lies more than a meter above flat-lying, fine-grained beds from which edge-retouched tools have been recovered. The three other tephra units occur higher in the section. Fission-track ages on zircon phenocrysts from two of the younger tephra layers (370,000 ± 200,000 and 600,000 ± 340,000 yr, 2σ) agree with concordant uranium-series dates for a camel pelvis that was found associated with bifacial tools at Hueyatlaco (245,000 ± 40,000 yr by 230Th and > 180,000 yr by 231Pa). These dates are compatible with the depth of burial and subsequent dissection of the Hueyatlaco deposits, as well as with the degree of hydration of volcanic glass shards and with the extent of etching of heavy-mineral phenocrysts from within the tephra layers. These findings suggest to us that further search for archaeological remains in deposits as old as those at Hueyatlaco would be warranted.

  10. Geology and origin of Ag-Pb-Zn deposits occurring in the Ulaan-Jiawula metallogenic province, northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Feng-jun; Li, Qiang-feng; Liu, Chun-hua; Ding, Cheng-wu

    2015-01-01

    Located at the conjunction area of China, Mongolia and Russia in NE Asia, the Ulaan-Jiawula (also referred as UJ) region, with an area of 400,000 km2, is one of the most important Ag-Pb-Zn, U, Sn, W, Nb-Ta, and Au metallogenic provinces in Asia. At present, 2126 deposits and showings including 500 Ag-Pb-Zn deposits have been discovered, explored and mined since the late 1960s. These Ag-Pb-Zn occurrences can be subdivided into three types according to their geological setting, texture, alteration and mineral assemblages: (1) low sulfidation epithermal Ag-Pb-Zn deposits; (2) intermediate sulfidation epithermal Ag-Pb-Zn deposits; (3) mixed-type Ag-Pb-Zn deposit consisting of vein-like and tabular ore bodies. The Eren Tologoi and Tsagenbulagen deposits are representative of low-sulphidation type Ag-Pb-Zn mineralization in the UJ region, and are associated with intensive adularization and sericitization. Ore occurs as mineralized quartz veins, veinlet groups and altered-fracture zones within Mesozoic alkaline and high-K calc-alkaline volcanic rocks, Ore mineralogy includes native silver, electrum, pyrite, galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, pyrargyrite and chalcopyrite. The Tsav and Jiawula deposits are typical of intermediate sulfidation Ag-Pb-Zn mineralization. The δ34S value of sulfide (pyrite and galena) separates from groups 1 and 2 varies from 1.5‰ to 3.5‰ and 2.0‰ to 4.5‰, respectively. The δ34S values of the Mesozoic volcanic host rocks for groups 1 and 2 deposits also show the positive δ34S values of 1.5-4.8‰, while the δ34S value of pyrite separate from the pre-Jurassic schist range from -6‰ to -8‰ which are much lower than Mesozoic volcanic host rocks and their associated ore deposits. There is no difference between the δ34S value of sulfide (pyrite and galena) separates from vein-like ore bodies of the group 3 deposits and their wall rocks, having δ34S value of 1.0-5.0‰ and 1.2-4.5‰ which are similar to that of groups 1 and 2 deposits

  11. Geology, fluid inclusion and sulphur isotope characteristics of the El Cobre VHMS deposit, Southern Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazañas, Xiomara; Alfonso, Pura; Melgarejo, Joan Carles; Proenza, Joaquín Antonio; Fallick, Anthony Edward

    2008-09-01

    The El Cobre deposit is located in eastern Cuba within the volcanosedimentary sequence of the Sierra Maestra Paleogene arc. The deposit is hosted by tholeiitic basalts, andesites and tuffs and comprises thick stratiform barite and anhydrite bodies, three stratabound disseminated up to massive sulphide bodies produced by silicification and sulphidation of limestones or sulphates, an anhydrite stockwork and a siliceous stockwork, grading downwards to quartz veins. Sulphides are mainly pyrite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite; gold occurs in the stratabound ores. Fluid inclusions measured in sphalerite, quartz, anhydrite and calcite show salinities between 2.3 and 5.7 wt% NaCl eq. and homogenisation temperatures between 177 and 300°C. Sulphides from the stratabound mineralisation display δ 34S values of 0‰ to +6.0‰, whilst those from the feeder zone lie between -1.4‰ and +7.3‰. Sulphides show an intra-grain sulphur isotope zonation of about 2‰; usually, δ 34S values increase towards the rims. Sulphate sulphur has δ 34S in the range of +17‰ to +21‰, except two samples with values of +5.9‰ and +7.7‰. Sulphur isotope data indicate that the thermochemical reduction of sulphate from a hydrothermal fluid of seawater origin was the main source of sulphide sulphur and that most of the sulphates precipitated by heating of seawater. The structure of the deposit, mineralogy, fluid inclusion and isotope data suggest that the deposit formed from seawater-derived fluids with probably minor supply of magmatic fluids.

  12. Geological structure, composition of ores and age of the Bamsk gold deposit, Amur region, Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vitaly A. Stepanov

    2004-01-01

    The Bamsk gold-ore deposit is located in the Amur region, the Far East of Russia. It is confined to the Early Cretaceous volcanic-plutonic uplift of central type, located in the Stanov folded-clumpy Pre-Cambrian system. The deposit is presented by a series of gold-bearing quartz and carbonate-quartz vein-stringer zones. They are confined to the super-intrusive zone of the Nevachansk subvolcanic intrusion of sienite-porphyric composition. The mineralization is being controlled by zone of fractures developed in the autochthone ofthe Bamsk fault. Quartz, carbonates and sericite prevail in the composition of ores. The quantity of ore minerals doesn't exceed 1%~5%. Pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and native gold are widely spread. Sheelite, gold and silver tellurides, sulphobismuthites, acanthite, sphalerite and cinnabar are less developed. Four stages of mineralization have been distinguished. Gold-sulphide-sulphosalt ore with tellurides of gold and silver is productive for gold. The following set of elements is typomorphic for the ores of the deposit: Au, Ag, Cu, Bi,Mo, Pb and Sb (W1, Pb1, Mo) -Cu- (Ag, Bi, Sb, Mn, W1, Pb2) form the vertical series of zoning. Rocks, enclosing the mineralization are exposed to the processes of listvenitization-beresitization. The processes of gumbeization and argillization are less manifested. The age of the gold mineralization, determined by Rb-Sr method on ore-accompanying minerals, is 130.6 Ma.

  13. Geological characteristics of the Pulai alluvial gold deposit, South Kelantan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, D. A.-F.

    The Pulai fluviatile gold placer deposit stretches along 17 km of the upper reaches of S. Galas. Malaysia Mining Corporation had proved-up sizeable reserves following drilling and bulk testing during 1979-1983. The valley alluvium ranges up to 1200 m wide and averages 6.2 m in thickness. The basal gold-bearing Kaksa comprises bimodal channel lag pebble-gravels with the gold especially concentrated immediately above bedrock and in potholes. The detrital gold is medium to very coarse sand size, moderately sorted, and occurs as fine grains, scaly flakes and platy nuggets. Concentration of gold was especially favoured in two depositional environments. In the slope interruption zones at the confluence of the Galas and Tuang streams, coarse platy gold was deposited while the finer gold was able to be entrapped further downstream above irregular limestone bedrock surfaces. The gold is of relatively high fineness (950-982), and is probably related genetically to acid intrusions. Important primary sources lie near the Kelantan-Pahang border, 3-5 km SE of Pulai village, while small granite stocks occurring 3 km west of Pulai are an additional likely source.

  14. Geology, alteration, and lithogeochemistry of the Hood volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Hannah K.; Piercey, Stephen J.; Toole, Trish

    2016-04-01

    The Hood volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits are hosted by the ~2.68 Ga Amooga Booga volcanic belt (ABVB) in the northwestern Archaen Slave Craton and consist of three deposits (Hood 10, 41, and 41A) and three occurrences (46, 461, and 462). The mineralized zones consist of massive to semi-massive pyrrhotite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena hosted predominantly by felsic volcanic flows within the predominantly mafic ABVB. The mineralized lenses occur at different stratigraphic levels and have textural, alteration, and stratigraphic features consistent with formation via subseafloor replacement. The felsic volcanic rocks in the Hood deposits can be subdivided into groups based on immobile trace element geochemistry. The main felsic types (A and B) are petrographically indistinguishable. Type A has higher high field strength element (HSFE) and rare earth element (REE) contents than type B, suggesting a higher temperature of formation. Type A rocks also have higher Nb/Ta values indicative of a greater mantle input in their genesis compared to type B rocks. Mineralization is more closely associated with type A than type B rocks. The two mafic volcanic rock types previously identified in the ABVB, type I and type II, both occur within the Hood deposits. The type II mafic group is interpreted to be the result of variable crustal contamination of type I magma. The volcanic rocks of the ABVB are interpreted to have formed in a continental margin arc/back-arc setting. The genesis of these magmatic suites involved magmatic underplating and emplacement through pre-existing sialic basement that resulted in crustal melting, mantle-crust mixing, and contamination leading to the aforementioned geochemical features in both mafic and felsic suites. This type of extensional tectonic environment was likely associated with high heat flow and is similar to global VMS environments proximal to extending continental margins (e.g., Sturgeon Lake, Bathurst, and

  15. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits. A selected, annotated bibliography. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M.B.; Garland, P.A. (comps.)

    1977-10-01

    This bibliography was compiled by selecting 580 references from the Bibliographic Information Data Base of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program. This data base and five others have been created by the Ecological Sciences Information Center to provide technical computer-retrievable data on various aspects of the nation's uranium resources. All fields of uranium geology are within the defined scope of the project, as are aerial surveying procedures, uranium reserves and resources, and universally applied uranium research. References used by DOE-NURE contractors in completing their aerial reconnaissance survey reports have been included at the request of the Grand Junction Office, DOE. The following indexes are provided to aid the user in locating reference of interest: author, keyword, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational index, and taxonomic name.

  16. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070291 Gong Ping (Northern Fujian Geological Party, Shaozou 354000) Discussion on Geological Characteristics and Control Factors of the Shimen Au-polymetallic Deposit in Zhenghe County, Fujian Province (Geology of Fujian, ISSN1001-3970, CN38-1080/P, 25(1), 2006, p.18-24, 2 illus., 2 tables, 1 ref.) Key words: gold deposits, polymetallic deposits, Fujian Province

  17. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041944 Chen Yuchuan (Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing) ; Xue Chunli Discussion on the Regional Mineralizing Pedigree of the Ore Deposits in the Northern Margin of the North China Landmass (Geological Journal of China Universities, ISSN 1006-7493, CN32-1440/P, 9(4), 2003, p. 520-535, 2 illus. , 3 tables, 43 refs. ,

  18. Geology and Genesis of the Superlarge Jinchang Gold Deposit, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Guozhi; CHEN Jinrong; YANG Zhaoguang; BIAN Hongye; WANG Yangzhong; LIANG Haijun; JIN Tonghe; LI Zhenhui

    2008-01-01

    The superlarge Jinchang gold deposit is located in the joint area between the Taipinglinguplift and the Laoheishan depression of the Xingkai Block in both eastern Jilin and easternHeilongjiang Province. Wall rocks of the gold deposits are the Neoproterozoic Huangsong Group ofmetamorphic rocks. Yanshanian magmatism in this region can be divided into 5 phases, the diorite,the graphic granite, the granite, the granite porphyry and the diorite porphyrite, which resulted in themagmatic domes and cryptoexplosive breecia chimney followed by large-scale hydrothermalalteration. Gold mineralization is closely related to the fourth and fifth phase of magmatism.According to the occurrences, gold ores can be subdivided into auriferous pyritized quartz vein,auriferous quartz-pyrite vein, auriferous polymetallic sulfide quartz vein and auriferous pyritizedcalcite vein. The ages of the gold deposit are ranging from 122.53 to 119.40 Ma. The ore bodies werecontrolled by a uniform tectono-magmatic hydrothermal alteration system that the ore-formingmaterials were deep derived from and the ore-forming fluids were dominated by magmatic waterswith addition of some atmospheric water in the later phase of mineralization. Gold mineralizationtook place in an environment of medium to high temperatures and medium pressures. Ore-formingfluids were the K+-Na+-Ca2+-Cl--SO42- type and characterized by medium salinity or a slightly higher,weak alkaline and weak reductive. Au in the ore-forming fluids was transported as complexes of [Au(HS)2]-, [AuCl2]-, [Au(CO2)]- and [Au(HCO3)2]-. Along with the decline of temperatures andpressures, the ore-forming fluids varied from acidic to weak acidic and then to weak alkaline, whichresulted in the dissociation of the complex and finally the precipitation of the gold.

  19. Geology, geochemistry and genesis of the Eocene Lailishan Sn deposit in the Sanjiang region, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hua-Wen; Pei, Qiu-Ming; Zhang, Shou-Ting; Zhang, Lin-Kui; Tang, Li; Lin, Jin-Zhan; Zheng, Luo

    2017-04-01

    The Lailishan deposit is an important tin deposit that is genetically associated with an Early Eocene biotite granite in the western Yunnan metallogenic belt in the Sanjiang region, SW China. This study reports new zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic data, whole-rock elements, mica Ar-Ar age and C-H-O-S-Pb isotope for the Lailishan Sn deposit. The mineralization-related biotite granite crystallized during the Early Eocene (50.5 Ma), with its zircon εHf(t) values ranging from -11.5 to -7.6 and two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) ranging from 1.60 to 1.85 Ga. The rocks are peraluminous with A/CNK values of 0.99-1.08. The granites display high Si, Al and K contents but low Mg, Fe and Ca contents. The rocks show flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns with strong Eu negative anomalies. These characteristics indicate that the magma originated from a continental crustal source. The hydrothermal muscovite exhibits an Ar-Ar plateau age of 50.4 ± 0.2 Ma. The δ18O and δD values of hydrothermal quartz from the deposit range from -7.32‰ to 4.01‰ and from -124.9‰ to -87.1‰, respectively. The δ13CPDB and δ18OSMOW values of calcite range from -11.3‰ to -3.7‰ and from +2.2‰ to +12.7‰, respectively. The sulfur isotopic compositions (δ34SV-CDT) range from +3.3‰ to +8.6‰ for sulfide separates, and the lead isotopic ratios 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb range from 18.668 to 18.746, from 15.710 to 15.743 and from 39.202 to 39.295, respectively. These isotopic compositions are similar to those of magma-derived fluids, indicating that the ore-forming fluids and materials mainly originated from magmatic rocks with some input from meteoric water. This evidence suggests that the tin mineralization is closely linked to the Lailishan I-type granites. In combination with previous data, it is proposed in this study that widespread early Eocene magmatism resulted from the slab breakoff of the subducting Neo-Tethyan slab at ca. 55 Ma.

  20. Geology and mineral deposits of the Jabal ash Shumta quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, C.L.; Ankary, Abdullah O.

    1972-01-01

    Rocks, structures, and mineral deposits which are the result of both the older Halaban petro-tectonic cycle and the younker Najd Wrench Fault deformation are present in the Ash Shumta area. Northward-trending belts of granitic rocks and folded, layered metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks of the Halaban Formation which they intrude represent the effects of the Halaban cycle. These older rocks are everywhere transected and deformed by northwestward- and northeastward-striking fractures and strike-slip faults and by eastward-striking fractures and fracture-controlled silicic dikes which belong to the Najd Wrench Fault deformation. Several kinds of epigenetic mineral deposits of hydrothermal origin are present throughout the Ash Shumta area. All occur in or ape closely associated with structures of the Najd Wrench Fault deformation. The mineralization which produced the deposits is thought to have taken place during the period of deformation which produced the Najd Wrench Fault structures. The hydrothermal deposits include many metalliferous quartz veins most of which occur in three mineralized areas: two major areas at Jabal Ash Shumta and Jabal El Khom in the northern half of the quadrangle and a minor area along Wadj al Boharah in the southeastern part of the quadrangle. The metalliferous lodes possess the only economic potential in the area of the Jabal Ash Shumta quadrangle. These lodes consist mainly of gold and base metal-bearing quartz veins, some of which were mined for gold in ancient times. The mineralized area at Jabal Ash Shumta has the best of these veins. Higher temperature veins with wolframite as a major constituent and beryl as a minor one occur in a granite cupola in the eastern part of the El Khom area. These veins have altered, gneissen-like wall rocks. Although the grade of the veins is low at the surface, the made could increase at depth. The tungsten-bearing veins and El Khom area possess the greatest economic promise in the Jabal Ash Shumta

  1. Geology, Geochemistry and Genesis of the Mazhuangshan Gold Deposit in Hami,East Tianshan, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世忠; 周济元; 顾连兴; 崔炳芳; 肖惠良

    2001-01-01

    The Mazhuangshan area is located in the east of the Aqikekuduke Island Arc, where there are distributed intermediate-acid magmatic rocks emplaced during the Middle-Late Carboniferous. There are more than 20 orebodies in the area with an average gold grade 6.4 ×10- 6 at present. The dominant metallic minerals are natural gold, auriferous silver, natural silver, pyrite and galena. Pyrite is the key gold carrier, high in Fe and low in S. Wall-rock alterations mainly include pyritization, silicification, and sericitization. Carbonation alteration was extensive at the late stage, often resulting in a high-grade orebody. Three mineralization stages may be distinguished.The peak homogenization temperatures of primary fluid inclusions range from 240 to 260℃. Mineralization pressures and depths are 47.2 - 68.8 MPa and 1 . 6 - 2.3 km respectively, showing the ore-forming features of hypergene gold deposit. The average salinity is 15wt% NaCl equivalent. Fluid inclusion geochemistry data show that Ca2 + is far higher than Mg2+, and mK+/mNa+, m2Na+/mca2+ (0.001 ~ 0.338), m∑cl/m∑s and m∑c/m∑s ratios change with the reduction parameter [ R = (CO + CH4)/CO2] and temperature. And the gold contents of ores and gangues are positively correlated with R.The pH values of inclusion water in quartz range from 5.8 to 7.4. Oxygen fugacity (fo2 )ranges from 10- 55 Pa to i0- 47 Pa, sulfur fugacity (fs2) is about 10- 13, and Eh values are estimated to be about - 0.6 eV. The δ 34S values of the fluid were determined to be + 3.94‰ to + 4.98‰. 206pb/204pb and 207pb/208pb ratios in pyrite are 18. 269 - 18. 352,15. 550 - 15. 633 and 38. 077 - 38. 355, respectively. The ∑REE values (4.7 × 10-6 ~ 43.1× 10-6) of ores and gangues are obviously lower than those of the host magmatic rocks, but their REE and trace element spider diagrams are similar to those of the host magmatic rocks,suggesting that the water consists dominantly of meteoric water, mixed with a part of magmatic

  2. Geology and chemistry of hydrothermal deposits from active submarine volcano Loihi, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malahoff, A. (National Ocean Survey-NOAA, Rockville, MD); McMurtry, G.M.; Wiltshire, J.C.; Yeh, H.W.

    1982-07-15

    High-resolution bathymetric surveys, bottom photography and sample analyses show that Loihi Seamount at the southernmost extent of the Hawaiian hotspot is an active, young submarine volcano that is probably the site of an emerging Hawaiian island. Hydrothermal deposits sampled from the active summit rift system were probably formed by precipitation from cooling vent fluids or during cooling and oxidation of high-temperature polymetallic sulphide assemblages. No exotic benthic fauna were found to be associated with the presently active hydrothermal vents mapped.

  3. Relation of ERTS-1 detected geologic structure to known economic ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, E. I.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of ERTS-1 imagery of the Northern Coast Ranges and Sacramento Valley, California, has disclosed a potentially important fracture system which may be one of the controlling factors in the location of known mercury deposits in the Coast Ranges and which appears to be associated with some of the oil and gas fields within the Sacramento Valley. Recognition of this fracture system may prove to be an extremely useful exploration tool, hence careful analysis of subsequent ERTS imagery might delineate areas for field evaluation.

  4. Geology and genesis of uranium-rare earth deposits at Mary Kathleen, Northwest Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A.K.; Scott, A.G.

    1985-02-01

    The Mary Kathleen uranium deposit occurs in 1740-1780 M yr-old calc-silicate metasedimentary and meta-igneous rocks of the Corella Formation which have been tightly folded into the Mary Kathleen Syncline. The Corella Formation consists of mafic and felsic tuffaceous calc-silicates, quartzite, and minor marble, conglomerate and basic volcanics. Uranium-rare earth mineralisation is closely associated with certain mafic rocks and occurs within or close to garnet-rich masses. At Mary Kathleen, uraninite grains are enclosed mainly by allanite which is distributed through massive garnet as an irregular honeycomb of interconnected shoots and lenses. The mineralisation occurs along strike from dioritic rocks and conglomerate and lies close to the axis of the Mary Kathleen Syncline and adjacent to a major fault zone. At other localities allanite-uraninite mineralisation is broadly stratiform. The mineralisation is interpreted to occur at or near centres of basic volcanism. Garnet formation and uranium-rare earth concentrations are believed to be caused by the volcanism, and to be contemporaneous with it. The former is seen as alteration of a hot, saturated pile of volcano-sedimentary material and the latter as intermittent hydrothermal exhalations. Deposition, volcanism, garnet formation, uranium and rare-earth mineralisation, granite and gabbro formation, and tectonism are seen as a continuum of interrelated processes which operated throughout the period of formation of the rocks in the Mary Kathleen Syncline.

  5. Geological characteristics of the peat deposits in Costa Rica (preliminary study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, S.; Cohen, A.D.; Raymond, R.; Alvarado, A.; Malavassi, L.

    1986-04-01

    Wide areas containing peat deposits have been found in Costa Rica. Three of them were selected for the preliminary evaluation. In the Talamanca range peat occurs as a thin blanket deposit about 1 m thick in an area of about 150 km/sup 2/. It is very decomposed (about 28% fibers), with high ash content, (21%) and extensively bioturbated. It has the lowest water content (84%), pH, fixed carbon (23%) and sulphur (0.2%) of all the sampled sites, However, it has the highest bulk density (0.22 g/cm/sup 3/) and volatile components (55%). Its calorific value averages 7700 Btu/lb, dry. In Medio Queso de Upala, several peat horizons are interbedded with alluvium layers within a 70 km/sup 2/ flood plain. They have the highest calorific values (8000 Btu/lb, dry), fixed carbon (30%) and ash content (22%). Their fiber content is low (27%), and the bulk density 0.20 g/cm/sup 3/. In El Silencio, near Siquirres, the thickness of the main layer exceeds 3.5 m, averaging 19% of ash, 53% of fibers, 5.8 pH, 0.6% of sulphur, 0.13 g/cm/sup 3/ bulk density, and 7500 Btu/lb, dry. (5 refs.)

  6. The station of modeling the mine resources in economical geology investigations and determination of mineral deposits genes & reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif, J.A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent days, computer is becoming one of the most essential instruments in advanced countries for the researchers and the domain of its application is going to be increased every day. Using the 3D modeling of the earth, its mine resources and the brilliant details which are given by the models, the researching and exploring groups will find out the inconspicuous and attractive aspects of the genetic structure and the geological history of these resources. In this paper which is a result of the researches done as the case study on a group of aragonite deposits in West Azarbaijan province, modeling of under study mineral deposits and the genetic approaches obtained from the models lead into explore and discover some other resources of the same minerals which is widely accepted recently in the market of decorative rocks in Iran. In modeling procedure of these resources which is a product of the geysers, the profile of these lime generating springs and their directional order on some specific hidden fracture is determined and approximate location of the new resources for the next explorations is assigned. At the moment, these assigned locations as new resources are being explored and even exploited.

  7. A lithofacies terrain model for the Blantyre Region: Implications for the interpretation of palaeosavanna depositional systems and for environmental geology and economic geology in southern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, H. G.; Ludwig, R.-R.; Kathewera, A.; Mwenelupembe, J.

    2005-06-01

    The Blantyre City Area is part of the African savanna in southern Malawi. Sedimentological, geomorphological, chemical and mineralogical studies were conducted to create a lithofacies terrain model. The project involves mapping, cross-sectioning, grain size, heavy mineral analysis, XRD and the study of sedimentary textures under the petrographic microscope. These classical techniques were combined with GIS-based field and office works. The combined efforts led to 2-D maps and 3-D block diagrams that illustrate the geomorphological and sedimentological evolution of the landscape in southern Malawi during the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The results obtained through integrated geomorphological-sedimentological studies form the basis for land management (planning of residential areas, waste disposal sites, assessment of bearing capacity of rocks), geohazard prediction (delineation of high risk zones in terms of mass flow and inundation) and the evaluation of high-place (ceramic raw materials) and high-unit value (placers of precious metals and gemstones) mineral commodities in the study area. The study addresses regional and general aspects alike. In regional terms, the study aimed at unraveling the evolution of landforms at the southern end of the East African Rift System during the most recent parts of the geological past. Four stages of peneplanation were established in the working area. Planation was active from the Cretaceous to the Quaternary (stage I: early to mid-Cretaceous, stage II: early Tertiary, stage III: early to mid-Tertiary, stage IV: mid- to late Tertiary). During the most recent parts of the Quaternary, strong fluvial incision was triggered by the base-level lowering of the Shire River. Geomorphological alteration of the landscape goes along with a phyllosilicate-sesquioxide transformation from minerals indicative of more acidic meteoric fluids (e.g., gibbsite, kaolinite) to those typical of more alkaline conditions (e.g. smectite, vermiculite

  8. Geology and geochemistry of the shear-hosted Julie gold deposit, NW Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amponsah, Prince Ofori; Salvi, Stefano; Béziat, Didier; Siebenaller, Luc; Baratoux, Lenka; Jessell, Mark W.

    2015-12-01

    The Leo Man Craton in West Africa is host to numerous economic gold deposits. If some regions, such as the SW of Ghana, are well known for world-class mineralizations and have been extensively studied, gold occurrences elsewhere in the craton have been discovered only in the last half a century or so, and very little is known about them. The Julie gold deposit, located in the Paleoproterozoic Birimian terrane of NW Ghana, is one such case. This deposit is hosted in a series of granitoid intrusives of TTG composition, and consists of a network of deformed, boudinaged quartz lodes (A-type veins) contained within an early DJ1 E-W trending shear zone with dextral characteristics. A conjugate set of veins (C-type) perpendicular to the A-type veins contains low grade mineralization. The main ore zone defines a lenticular corridor about 20-50 m in width and about 3.5 km along strike, trending E-W and dipping between 30 and 60°N. The corridor is strongly altered, by an assemblage of sericite + quartz + ankerite + calcite + tourmaline + pyrite. This is surrounded by a second alteration assemblage, consisting of albite + sericite + calcite + chlorite + pyrite + rutile, which marks a lateral alteration that fades into the unaltered rock. Mass balance calculations show that during alteration overall mass was conserved and elemental transfer is generally consistent with sulfidation, sericitization and carbonatization of the host TTG. Gold is closely associated with pyrite, which occurs as disseminated grains in the veins and in the host rock, within the mineralized corridor. SEM imagery and LA-ICP-MS analyses of pyrites indicate that in A-type veins gold is associated with bismuth, tellurium, lead and silver, while in C-type veins it is mostly associated with silver. Pyrites in A-type veins contain gold as inclusions and as free gold on its edges and fractures, while pyrites from C-type veins contains mostly free gold. Primary and pseudosecondary fluid inclusions from both

  9. Geology and ore fluid geochemistry of the Jinduicheng porphyry molybdenum deposit, East Qinling, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongying; Ye, Huishou; Wang, Xiaoxia; Yang, Lei; Wang, Xiuyuan

    2014-01-01

    Jinduicheng deposit is a giant Mesozoic porphyry Mo system deposit in the East Qinling molybdenum belt, Shaanxi Province, China. The mineralization is associated with the I-type Jinduicheng granite porphyry. Both the porphyry stock and country rocks underwent intense hydrothermal alteration. The alteration, with increasing distance from the parent intrusion, changes from silicification, through potassic and phyllic assemblages, carbonation, to propylitic assemblages. Molybdenite, the dominant ore mineral, occurs in veinlets, most of which are hosted by the altered country rocks, with less than 25% of the ore in the porphyry body. The hydrothermal system comprises four stages, including pre-ore quartz and K-feldspar; two ore stages of quartz, K-feldspar, molybdenite, and Pb- And Zn-bearing sulfides; and post-ore quartz and carbonate. Six main types of primary fluid inclusions are present in hydrothermal quartz, including two-phase aqueous, one-phase aqueous, three-phase CO2-bearing, CO2-dominated fluid inclusions, gas inclusions, and melt inclusions. The homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions range from 210 to 290 °C in the pre-ore stage, 150-310 °C in ore stage I, 150-360 °C in the ore stage II, and 195-325 °C in the post-ore stage quartz. Estimated salinities of the ore-forming fluids range from 6.9 to 13.5, 4.3 to 12.3, 6.2 to 12.4, and 3.4 to 9.9 wt.% NaCl equiv. in stages 1-4, respectively. The δ34S values of pyrite in the two ore stages range from 2.8‰ to 4.3‰, whereas the δ34S values of molybdenite range from 2.9‰ to 6.2‰. The data suggest both magmatic and crustal sources of sulfur. The δD and δ18O values for the hydrothermal fluids are -57.2‰ to -84.4‰ and 8.0‰ to -3.2‰, respectively. The fluid inclusion and stable data indicate that the pre-ore hydrothermal fluids were mostly of magmatic origin, but the fluids responsible for ore deposition were mixed magmatic and meteoric, and eventually meteoric water dominated the system

  10. Preliminary geological assessment of the Northern edge of ultimi lobe, Mars South Polar layered deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, B.; Koutnik, M.; Byrne, S.; Soderblom, L.; Herkenhoff, K.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    We have examined the local base of the south polar layered deposits (SPLD) exposed in the bounding scarp near 72??-74??S, 215??- 230??W where there is a clear unconformable contact with older units. Sections of layering up to a kilometer thick were examined along the bounding scarp, permitting an estimate of the thinnest individual layers yet reported in the SPLD. Rhythmic layering is also present locally, suggesting a similarly rhythmic variation in environmental conditions and a recorded climate signal at least in some SPLD strata. Locally, angular unconformities may be present, as has been reported for the north polar layered deposits (NPLD) and may likewise imply intervals of subaerial erosion in the SPLD. The outcropping layers display a broad range of weathering styles and may reflect more diverse conditions of depositions, erosion, and diagenesis than might have been expected from simple aeolian depostion modulated only by astronomically driven climatic fluctuations. An unexpected finding of our study is the presence of locally abundant small pits close to the bounding scarp. These quasi-circular, negative, rimless features probably originated as impact craters and were modified to varying degrees by local endogenic processes, as well as locally variable blanketing. A nominal exposure age for the most heavily cratered region in our study area is about 2 million years, and the crater statistics appear consistent with those for the overall SPLD, although there are large uncertainties in the absolute ages implied by the crater size-frequency statistics, as in all martian crater ages. Another new finding is the presence of mass wasting features along the steepest portion of the retreating bounding scarp as well as a number of examples of brittle fracture, consistent with large-scale slumping along the bounding scarp and probably also ancient basal sliding. Both subhorizontal and high angle faults appear to be exposed in the bounding scarp, but the dips of the

  11. The geology and geochemistry of the Lumwana Cu (± Co ± U) deposits, NW Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernau, Robin; Roberts, Stephen; Richards, Mike; Nisbet, Bruce; Boyce, Adrian; Nowecki, James

    2013-02-01

    The Lumwana Cu (± Co ± U) deposits of NW Zambia are large, tabular, disseminated ore bodies, hosted within the Mwombezhi Dome of the Lufilian Arc. The host rocks to the Lumwana deposits are two mineralogically similar but texturally distinct gneisses, a granitic to pegmatitic gneiss and a banded to augen gneiss which both comprise quartz-feldspar ± biotite ± muscovite ± haematite ± amphibole and intervening quartz-feldspar ± biotite schist. The sulphide ore horizons are typically developed within a biotite-muscovite-quartz-kyanite schist, although mineralization locally occurs within internal gneiss units. Contacts between the ore and host rocks are transitional and characterized by a loss of feldspar. Kinematic indicators, such as S-C fabrics and pressure shadows on porphyroblasts, suggest a top to the north shear sense. The sulphides are deformed by a strong shear fabric, enclosed within kyanite or concentrated into low strain zones and pressure shadows around kyanite porphyroblasts. This suggests that the copper mineralization was introduced either syn- or pre-peak metamorphism. In addition to Cu and Co, the ores are also characterized by enrichments in U, V, Ni, Ba and S and small, discrete zones of uranium mineralization, occur adjacent to the hanging wall and footwall of the copper ore bodies or in the immediate footwall to the copper mineralization. Unlike typical Copperbelt mineralization, unmineralized units show very low background copper values. Whole rock geochemical analyses of the interlayered schist and ore schist, compared to the gneiss, show depletions in Ca, Na and Sr and enrichments in Mg and K, consistent with replacement of feldspar by biotite. The mineral chemistry of muscovite, biotite and chlorite reflect changes in the bulk rock chemistry and show consistent increases in X Mg as the schists develop. δ34S for copper sulphides range from +2.3 ‰ to +18.5 ‰, with pyrite typically restricted to values between +3.9 ‰ and +6.2

  12. Geological significance of componential characteristics of pyrite from Shibaqinghao gold deposit in central Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yihong Liang; Hongying Zhang; Yanhua Ma

    2006-01-01

    There are two types of gold ore in Shibaqinghao gold deposit, mylonite ore and quartz vein ore. Pyrite accompanying with native gold in mylonite ore has Fe from 43.66 to 45.32 wt% and S from 52.64 to 53.55 wt%. It is clear that this kind of pyrite is poor in both sulphur and iron. That means that the mylonite ore may be related to metamorphic water. Pyrite in the quartz vein ore has Fe from 44.38 to 45.30 wt% and S from 53.08 to 54.00 wt%. It means that this kind of pyrite is poor in iron but rich in sulphur, while the quartz vein ore may be related to magma water.

  13. Geology of the world-class Kiaka polyphase gold deposit, West African Craton, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Arnaud; Eglinger, Aurélien; Ada, Koumangdiwè; André-Mayer, Anne-Sylvie; Reisberg, Laurie; Siebenaller, Luc; Le Mignot, Elodie; Ganne, Jérôme; Poujol, Marc

    2017-02-01

    The Kiaka gold deposit is a major resource in West Africa, with measured and indicated resources of 124 Mt at 1.09 g/t Au (3.9 Moz) and inferred resources of 27 Mt at 0.83 g/t Au (0.8 Moz). Located within the Manga-Fada N'Gourma greenstone and plutonic belt in south of the Burkina Faso, the deposit is hosted by a metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary sequence of lithic-, quartz-biotite metagreywackes, aluminosilicate-bearing metapelites and garnet-orthopyroxene-bearing schists and volcanic units. Structural observations indicate four local deformation events: DK1, DK2 and DK3 and DK4. Respectively, these events are linked to regional D1 E-W compression, D2 NW-SE compression and lastly, D3- and D4-related reactivations along D2 shear zones. The S2 foliation and D2 shear zones are developed during lower amphibolite facies metamorphism whereas retrogression occurs during D3-4 reactivations along these shear zones at upper greenschist facies conditions. The emplacement of a dioritic intrusion, dated at 2140 ± 7 Ma (Concordia U-Pb age on magmatic zircon), is interpreted to be contemporaneous with sinistral displacement along mineralized, NE-trending D2 shear zones. The intersection of these shears zones and the Markoye shear zone (dextral-reverse D1 and sinistral-reverse D2 reactivations) controlled the final geometry of the host rocks and the ore zones. Four subparallel elongated ore bodies are mainly hosted within D2-related shear zones and some are developed in an apparent axial plane of a F2 isoclinal fold. Detailed petrographic studies have identified two main types of hydrothermal alteration associated with two stages of gold mineralization. The stage (1) corresponds to replacement zones with biotite and clinozoisite during the D2 event associated with pyrrhotite ± pyrite, chalcopyrite (disseminated gold stage). The stage (2) occurs during reactivations of the D2-related auriferous shear zones (vein stage) and is characterized by diopside ± actinolite D3 veins and

  14. The geological setting and style of copper mineralization at the Bushman group of deposits, northeastern Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. M.; Blaine, J. L.; Doig, R.; Byron, C. L.

    1994-02-01

    The Bushman group of CuPbZn deposits occur within the north-northeasterly trending Bushman shear zone in northeastern Botswana. The deposits are hosted by a sliver of sheared and altered, carbonate rocks and chloritic and graphitic schists that resemble and are presumed correlative with metasedimentary rocks of the Matsitama schist belt to the east. This sliver is surrounded by sheared and altered granitic gneisses. Within the sliver, the mineralized zones are a chalcopyrite and pyrite bearing quartz-calcite±alkali feldspar vein breccias near the sheared contact between the carbonate rocks and the chloritic and graphitic schists. Elsewhere within the granitic gneisses, those zones are marked by barren quartz breccias surrounded by a zone dominated by red, turbid orthoclase in turn surrounded by a zone dominated by green epidote. Initially hydrothermal alteration propylitized the host rocks and then porphyroblasts of orthoclase, albite and quartz grew with the introduction of calcite. Away from the mineralized zones, four generations of veins occur, the first two directly traceable to CuPbZn mineralization and the third carrying galena and sphalerite. Isotopic data suggest that the protolith of the granitic gneisses was emplaced sometime between about 2.57 Ga and 2.3 Ga ago. After this protolith was deformed and metamorphosed, CuPbZn mineralization occurred about 1926 Ma ago from fluids at a temperature of about 360°C. The Pb isotopic compositions of the sulfide minerals indicate that the fluids giving rise to the CuPbZn mineralization were possibly the same as those giving rise to Pb and Zn mineralization. In both instances, however, the Pb came from several sources. More recently, shear zones parallel to the Bushman shear zone may have controlled in part the emplacement of kimberlite pipes.

  15. The geology and chronology of the Acheulean deposits in the Mieso area (East-Central Ethiopia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Barfod, Dan N; McHenry, Lindsay J; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the Quaternary sequence of the Mieso area of Central-East Ethiopia, located in the piedmont between the SE Ethiopian Escarpment and the Main Ethiopian Rift-Afar Rift transition sector.In this region, a piedmont alluvial plain is terraced at þ25 m above the two main fluvial courses, the Mieso and Yabdo Rivers. The piedmont sedimentary sequence is divided into three stratigraphic units separated by unconformities. Mieso Units I and II contain late Acheulean assemblages and a weakly consolidated alluvial sequence, consisting mainly of fine sediments with buried soils and, to a lesser degree, conglomerates. Palaeo-wetland areas were common in the alluvial plain, represented by patches of tufas, stromatolites and clays. At present, the piedmont alluvial surface is preserved mainly on a dark brown soil formed at the top of Unit II. Unit III corresponds to a fluvial deposit overlying Unit II, and is defined by sands, silty clays and gravels, including several Later Stone Age (LSA) occurrences. Three fine-grained tephra levels are interbedded in Unit I (tuffs TBI and TA) and II (tuff CB), and are usually spatially-constrained and reworked. Argon/argon (40Ar/39Ar) dating from tuff TA, an ash deposit preserved in a palustrine environment, yielded an age of 0.212 ± 0.016 Ma (millions of years ago). This date places thetop of Unit I in the late Middle Pleistocene, with Acheulean sites below and above tuff TA. Regional correlations tentatively place the base of Unit I around the Early-Middle Pleistocene boundary, Unit II inthe late Middle Pleistocene and within the Late Pleistocene, and the LSA occurrences of Unit III in the LatePleistoceneeHolocene.

  16. Geology and genesis of the Jinchuan Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposit, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnelier, Nicolas J.

    The Jinchuan intrusion in northwestern China hosts the third-largest Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposit in the world. It is distinguished from other deposits of this type by a very large amount of mineralization (at least 500 Mt at ˜1.2 wt% Ni) compared to the relatively small volume of the intrusion (6000 x 300m) and the predominance of net-textured ore over other textures. Most of the intrusion is composed of ultramafic rocks whose compositions include harzburgites, lherzolites, and plagioclase lherzolites. Rare wehrlites and gabbros along the margins of the intrusion represent the most evolved rock types and have been previously considered to be less olivine-rich equivalents of the lherzolite and to be representative of the parental magma composition. The intrusion contains three main Ore Bodies numbered 2, 1, and 24 from SE to NW. The Ni-Cu-(PGE) mineralization occurs as net-textured and disseminated sulfides, but the textures vary between the different ore bodies. The central part of Jinchuan (Ore Body 1) hosts ˜60% of the known mineralization and is described as concentrically zoned, with net-textured ore surrounded by patchy disseminated mineralization, barren peridotite, and marginal wehrlites with significantly lower olivine content. However, other features, such as olivine grain size, interstitial mineralogy and Ni/Cu ratio in the ore zone, appear to be asymmetric, consistent with previous interpretations that Jinchuan was emplaced as a sub-horizontal sill. The southeastern and northwestern parts are more asymmetrically zoned, with patchy net-textured and localized massive ore overlain by disseminated mineralization and barren lherzolite. The ores in Jinchuan generally contain moderate amounts of sulfide (rarely exceeding 30%) but are rich in Ni and Cu and depleted in PGE relative to these elements. Jinchuan rock types are very Mg and Fe-rich (reflecting their high olivine and orthopyroxene contents). They are enriched in LREE and their isotope and trace element

  17. El Salvador, Chile porphyry copper deposit revisited: Geologic and geochronologic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, P.; Tosdal, R.M.; Mpodozis, C.; Tomlinson, A.J.; Rivera, O.; Fanning, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Eocene (42 to 41 Ma) El Salvador porphyry copper deposit in the Indio Muerto district, northern Chile (26?? 15??? S Lat.), formerly thought to have formed at the culmination of a 9-m.y. period of episodic magmatism, is shown by new mapping, U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology, and petrologic data to have formed during the younger of two distinct but superposed magmatic events - a Paleocene (???63 to 58 Ma) and an Eocene (44 to 41 Ma) event. In the district, high-K Paleocene volcano-plutonic activity was characterized by a variety of eruptive styles and magmatic compositions, including a collapse caldera associated with explosive rhyolitic magmatism (El Salvador trap-door caldera), a post-collapse rhyolite dome field (Cerro Indio Muerto), and andesitic-trachyandesitic stratovolcanos (Kilo??metro Catorce-Los Amarillos sequence). Precaldera basement faults were reactivated during Paleocene volcanism as part of the collapse margin of the caldera. Beneath Cerro Indio Muerto, where the porphyry Cu deposit subsequently formed, the intersection of two major basement faults and the NNE-striking rotational axis of tilted ignimbrites of the Paleocene El Salvador caldera localized emplacement of post-collapse rhyolite domes and peripheral dikes and sills. Subsequent Eocene rhyolitic and granodioritic-dacitic porphyries intruded ???14 m.y. after cessation of Paleocene magmatism along the same NNE-striking structural belt through Cerro Indio Muerto as did the post-collapse Paleocene rhyolite domes. Eocene plutonism over a 3-m.y. period was contemporaneous with NW-SE-directed shortening associated with regional sinistral transpression along the Sierra Castillo fault, lying ???10 km to the east. Older Eocene rhyolitic porphyries in the Indio Muerto district were emplaced between 44 and 43 Ma, and have a small uneconomic Cu center associated with a porphyry at Old Camp. The oldest granodioritic-dacitic porphyries also were emplaced at ???44 to 43 Ma, but their petrogenetic relation to

  18. Geology, Geochemistry and Genesis of the Hongshijing Gold Deposit in Ruoqiang,Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖惠良; 周济元; 王鹤年; 崔炳芳; 陈世忠

    2003-01-01

    The Hongshijing gold deposit, which occurs in the Middle and Late Carboniferousvolcanic and pyroclastic rocks, is of the brittle-ductile shear zone type controlled by a rift belt.The Hongshijing gold deposit is one controlled by a brittle shear zone located in the Late Paleo-zoic rift zone. The altered-rock type and quartz type orebodies are contained in the gold-bearingformation, which consists of basalt and tuffaceous sandstone. The major mineralizing stage is at267 -261 Ma and reiteration mineralizing stage at 220 -209 Ma. The ore minerals include py-rite, magnetite, copper, bornite, ferrohydrite, native gold, and the gangue minerals includequartz, sercite, calcite, Fe-dolomite, leucoxene, anorthose, biotite, baria, cajuelite, andagustite. The wall rock alteration associated with gold mineralization comprises silicification,carbonization, pyritization, sericitization and chloritization. The contents of gold are 2.4 × 10-9in the gold-bearing formation, 5.7 × 10-9 in the tuffaceous sandstone and 1.4 - 1.5 × 10 9 inthe basalt. Au is associated with Te, Se, Ni, Cu. Au = 74.331 × Te + 0. 0335 × Ni - 0.0211 ×Cu- 2. 650. Geochemical investigations revealed that the mineralizing materials came from thebasalt and tuffaceous sandstone in the gold-bearing formation. Under the action of ductile brittleshear structure, the gold-bearing formation was metamorphosed and altered, and the ore-formingmaterials activated, migrated and mineralized. The mineralizing fluid shows three mineralizingstages, with the characteristics of middle to low temperature (381 - 115℃ ) and middle to lowmass fractions of NaCl (2.18% -16.77% ). The fluid is of the Ca2+ -Mg2+ -Na+ -Cl- type andH2O-NaCl system. According to the data from hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition (δD =- 114.6‰ - - 68.8‰, δ 18 OH2O = - 2.47‰ - 5.91‰), the conclusion can be drawn thatthe mineralizing fluid of the Hongshijing gold deposit was a kind of mixed hydrothermal solutioncomposed mainly of meteoric

  19. Geology and ore deposits of the Chicago Creek area, Clear Creek County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J.E.; Wells, J.D.

    1956-01-01

    The Chicago Creek area, Clear Creek County, Colo., forms part of the Front Range mineral belt, which is a northeast-trending belt of coextensive porphyry intrusive rocks and hydrothermal veins of Tertiary age. More than $4.5 million worth of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, and uranium was produced from the mines in the area between 1859 and 1954. This investigation was made by the Geological survey on behalf of the Division of Raw Materials of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The bedrock in the area is Precambrian and consists of igneous rocks, some of which have been metamorphosed , and metasedimentary rocks. The metasedimentary rocks include biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneiss that is locally garnetiferous, sillimanitic biotite-quartz gneiss, amphibolite, and lime-silicate gneiss. Rocks that may be metasedimentary or meta-igneous are quartz monzonite gneiss and granite gneiss and pegmatite. The granite gneiss and pegmatite locally form a migmatite with the biotitic metasedimentary rocks. These older rocks have been intruded by granodiorite, quartz, and granite pegmatite. During Tertiary time the Precambrian rocks were invaded by dikes and plugs of quartz monzonite porphyry, alaskite porphyry, granite porphyry, monzonite porphyry, bostonite and garnetiferous bostonite porphyry, quartz bostonite porphyry, trachytic granite porphyry, and biotite-quartz latite-porphyry. Solifluction debris of Wisconsin age forms sheets filling some of the high basins, covering some of the steep slopes, and filling parts of some of the valleys; talus and talus slides of Wisconsin age rest of or are mixed with solifluction debris in some of the high basins. Recent and/or Pleistocene alluvium is present along valley flats of the larger streams and gulches. Two periods of Precambrian folding can be recognized in the area. The older folding crumpled the metasedimentary rocks into a series of upright and overturned north-northeast plunging anticlines and synclines. Quartz monzonite

  20. Plugs for deposition tunnels in a deep geologic repository in granitic rock. Concepts and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.A. (AECL, Chalk River (Canada)); Boergesson, L. (Clay Technology, Lund (Sweden)); Gunnarsson, D. (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Stockholm (Sweden)); Hansen, J. (Posiva Oy, Eurajoki (Finland))

    2009-11-15

    Regardless of the emplacement geometry selected in a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel, there will be a requirement for the access tunnels to remain open while repository operations are ongoing. The period of repository operation will stretch for many years (decades to more than a century depending on disposal concept and number of canisters to be installed). Requirements for extended monitoring of the repository before final closure may further extend the period over which the tunnels must remain open. The intersection of the emplacement rooms/drifts and the access tunnels needs to be physically closed in order to ensure that the canisters remain undisturbed and that no undesirable hydraulic conditions are allowed to develop within the backfilled volume. As a result of these requirements, generic guidelines and design concepts have been developed for 'Plugs' that are intended to provide mechanical restraint, physical security and hydraulic control functions over the short-term (repository operational and pre-closure monitoring periods). This report focuses on the role and requirements of plugs to be installed at emplacement room/ tunnel/drift entrances or in other locations within the repository that may require installation of temporary mechanical or hydraulic control structures. These plugs are not necessarily a permanent feature of the repository and may, if required, be removed for later installation of a permanent seal. Room/Drift plugs are also by their defined function, physically accessible during repository operation so their performance can be monitored and remedial actions taken if necessary (e.g. increased seepage past the plug). A considerable number of sealing demonstrations have been undertaken at several research laboratories that are focussed on development of technologies and materials for use in isolation of spent nuclear fuel and these are briefly reviewed in this report. Additionally, technologies developed for non

  1. Application of the 'Soft Kriging method' in initial estimation of a coal deposit with difficult geological and tectonic characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perisic, M.; Logar-Bocko, S.; Markic, S. (Rudarski Inst., Ljubljana (Yugoslavia))

    1990-01-01

    The coal deposit in the mine of Hrastnik is completely irregular in structure, slope and thickness of the layer, and is highly fractured. Due to the great depth of the deposit, exploratory drilling is very expensive. On the other hand, the experience of geologists, especially regarding tectonic characteristics of the bed - as well as its structure - is immense. That is why the matching of the geological experience and exploratory works combined with the application of soft kriging, have been resulted in a very efficient methodology for initial estimation of the coal deposit with tectonic irregularities and at great depth. (orig.).

  2. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071835 Chen Xifeng(China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Peng Runmin Analysis on the Necessity and Significance of Concealed Deposits Exploration(Gansu Geology,ISSN1004-4116,CN62-1191/P,15(2),2006,p.1-4,1 table,7 refs.)Key words:blind deposits,China

  3. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131562 Chen Jianping(School of Earth Sciences and Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Shi Rui 3D Metallogenic Prediction for Western Section of Q8 Gold Deposit in Tongguan County of Shaanxi Province Based on Digital Mineral Deposit Model(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674,

  4. Distribution and geological feature of the coal-Ge deposit of Shengli coalfield in Inner Mongolia of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Wen-hui; Sun Lei; Ma Yan-ying; Wan Huan; Tang Xiu-Yi (and others) [China University of Geosciences, Beijing (China). School of Energy Resources

    2007-11-15

    The paper discusses the geology of the coal-germanium (coal-Ge) deposits and the distribution of germanium in the coal seams of the Shengli coalfield. This coalfield is in the Wunite depression in the west of the Erlian basin and belongs to a wide syncline and the layer is smooth. The coal-Ge grew in the Early Cretaceous period of fault depression. The distribution of the high germanium layer is controlled by two faults which are on both sides, and the layer is shallow and thin in the south and deep and thick in the north. The concentration of germanium is high in both south and north (>400 x 10{sup -6}) and lower in east and west (about 200 x 10{sup -6}), like a saddle. The concentration declines quickly towards the centre of the basin. On the vertical, there can be several peak values on the coal column. The dirt band of the bottom of the coal column has an industrial value higher than industrial grade. On the top layer and backplane the concentration is very low and has no industrial value. The distribution of germanium is associated with the mineralized palaeogeology, the change of palaeoenvironment and is affected by the swamp micro-milieu and hydrodynamic forces. These make the germanium concentration undulatory in the coal seam. Adopting the method of geologic block, the estimated reserves of germanium are about 1,805 t in an estimated area of 1,0975 km{sup 2}. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Geologic field notes and geochemical analyses of outcrop and drill core from Mesoproterozoic rocks and iron-oxide deposits and prospects of southeast Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; Granitto, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources/Missouri Geological Survey, undertook a study from 1988 to 1994 on the iron-oxide deposits and their host Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks in southeastern Missouri. The project resulted in an improvement of our understanding of the geologic setting, mode of formation, and the composition of many of the known deposits and prospects and the associated rocks of the St. Francois terrane in Missouri. The goal for this earlier work was to allow the comparison of Missouri iron-oxide deposits in context with other iron oxide-copper ± uranium (IOCG) types of mineral deposits observed globally. The raw geochemical analyses were released originally through the USGS National Geochemical Database (NGDB, http://mrdata.usgs.gov). The data presented herein offers all of the field notes, locations, rock descriptions, and geochemical analyses in a coherent package to facilitate new research efforts in IOCG deposit types. The data are provided in both Microsoft Excel (Version Office 2010) spreadsheet format (*.xlsx) and MS-DOS text formats (*.txt) for ease of use by numerous computer programs.

  6. General geology, alteration, and iron deposits in the Palaeoproterozoic Misi region, northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Niiranen

    2003-01-01

    characteristic for the entire region. The styles of alteration in the region are: scapolitisation, regional and local albitisation, sericitisation and silicification associated with a major shear zone, and late carbonatisation and carbonate veining associated with brecciation of the ores and their wall rocks. Local intense albitisation and formation of skarnoids and magnetite ores took placeduring the pre-D1 or D1 faulting or shearing which postdate the intrusion of 2120 Ma gabbros. The iron was mobilized from the mafic to intermediate country rocks and/or marble sequence which possibly contained sedimentary iron formation. Regional alteration with the local intense albitisation and ore formation show similar features to the iron oxide-copper-gold type deposits, although the known deposits in the Misi region only contain trace amounts of gold and copper.

  7. Geology and ore deposits of the South Silverton mining area, San Juan County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnes, David J.

    1963-01-01

    The South Silverton mining area is immediately southeast of the town of Silverton, San Juan County, in southwestern Colorado (fig. 1). The town of Silverton itself lies in a relatively flat and open reach of the Animas Valley, called Bakers Park, in the western part of the San Juan Mountains. (See figs. 2 and 8.) The roughly circular area of the geologic map map (pl. 1) includes about 18½ square miles of the mountainous country southeast of Silverton. It is bounded on the west and north by the Animas River, on the east by Cunningham Creek, and on the south by Mountaineer Creek and Deer Park Creek. Altitudes range from 9,125 feet above sea level in the canyon of the Animas, at the southwest corner of the area, to 13,451 feet on Kendall Peak, 2¾ miles to the northeast.Within this area nearly a dozen horn-like peaks and sharp ridges separated by deep glacial cirques rise to altitudes of 13,000 feet or more. (See figs. 3, 7, 10, and 24.) Exposures are excellent along the crests and upper flanks of the ridges, but the bedrock along the lower parts of the valley walls and floors of the cirques is largely concealed by accumulations of talus. The timbered slopes along the south side of the Animas Valley are extensively covered with glacial moraine. Several of the high basins within the cirques hold ponds or small lakes; the largest is Silver Lake (fig. 23).Roads skirt the northern and eastern edges of the area but none give good access into the interior. Silverton is adjacent to U.S. Highway 550, which passes over the mountains by way of Red Mountain Pass from Ouray, 24 miles to the north, to Durango, 53 miles to the south. The community is also served by the narrow-gage line of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad that follows the Animas River upstream from Durango. A gravel road, State Highway 110, follows the Animas River upstream, eastward from Silverton. From this highway a side road branches off to Cunningham Gulch as far as the Highland Mary mill, and

  8. Geology and ore deposits of the South Silverton mining area, San Juan County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnes, David J.

    1963-01-01

    The South Silverton mining area is immediately southeast of the town of Silverton, San Juan County, in southwestern Colorado (fig. 1). The town of Silverton itself lies in a relatively flat and open reach of the Animas Valley, called Bakers Park, in the western part of the San Juan Mountains. (See figs. 2 and 8.) The roughly circular area of the geologic map map (pl. 1) includes about 18½ square miles of the mountainous country southeast of Silverton. It is bounded on the west and north by the Animas River, on the east by Cunningham Creek, and on the south by Mountaineer Creek and Deer Park Creek. Altitudes range from 9,125 feet above sea level in the canyon of the Animas, at the southwest corner of the area, to 13,451 feet on Kendall Peak, 2¾ miles to the northeast.Within this area nearly a dozen horn-like peaks and sharp ridges separated by deep glacial cirques rise to altitudes of 13,000 feet or more. (See figs. 3, 7, 10, and 24.) Exposures are excellent along the crests and upper flanks of the ridges, but the bedrock along the lower parts of the valley walls and floors of the cirques is largely concealed by accumulations of talus. The timbered slopes along the south side of the Animas Valley are extensively covered with glacial moraine. Several of the high basins within the cirques hold ponds or small lakes; the largest is Silver Lake (fig. 23).Roads skirt the northern and eastern edges of the area but none give good access into the interior. Silverton is adjacent to U.S. Highway 550, which passes over the mountains by way of Red Mountain Pass from Ouray, 24 miles to the north, to Durango, 53 miles to the south. The community is also served by the narrow-gage line of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad that follows the Animas River upstream from Durango. A gravel road, State Highway 110, follows the Animas River upstream, eastward from Silverton. From this highway a side road branches off to Cunningham Gulch as far as the Highland Mary mill, and

  9. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110907 Luo Xue(Faculty of Earth Resource,China Unversity of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Cao Xinzhi Review on the Change and Development of the Research Thoughts about Mineral Deposit Geology(Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research,ISSN1001-1412,CN12-1131/P,25(2),2010,p.147-152,40 refs.)Key words:study of mineral deposit The development and breakthrough of mineral deposit geology depends to a great extent on the progress and change of its research thoughts.From the traditional study of single mineral,single deposit and single metallogenic model to the comprehensive discussion and whole understanding of metallogenic

  10. Geology and Characteristics of Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag Skarn Deposit at Ruwai, Lamandau Regency, Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifudin Idrus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i4.126This study is dealing with geology and characteristics of mineralogy, geochemistry, and physicochemical conditions of hydrothermal fluid responsible for the formation of skarn Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag deposit at Ruwai, Lamandau Regency, Central Kalimantan. The formation of Ruwai skarn is genetically associated with calcareous rocks consisting of limestone and siltstone (derived from marl? controlled by NNE-SSW-trending strike slip faults. It is localized along N 70° E-trending thrust fault, which also acts as the contact zone between sedimentary and volcanic rocks in the area. The Ruwai skarn is mineralogically characterized by prograde alteration comprising garnet (andradite and clino-pyroxene (wollastonite, and retrograde alteration composed of epidote, chlorite, calcite, and sericite. Ore mineralization is typified by sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite, formed at early retrograde stage. Galena is typically enriched in silver up to 0.45 wt % and bismuth of about 1 wt %. No Ag-sulphides are identified within the ore body. Geochemically, SiO is enriched and CaO is depleted in limestone, consistent with silicic alteration (quartz and calc-silicate and decarbonatization of the wallrock. The measured resources of the deposit are 2,297,185 tonnes at average grades of 14.98 % Zn, 6.44% Pb, 2.49 % Cu, and 370.87 g/t Ag. Ruwai skarn orebody was originated at moderate temperatures of 250 - 266 °C and low salinity of 0.3 - 0.5 wt.% NaCl eq. The late retrograde stage was formed at low temperature of 190 - 220 °C and low salinity of ~0.35 wt.% NaCl eq., which was influenced by meteoric water incursion at the late stage of the Ruwai Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag skarn formation.

  11. Geology and Refractory Clay Deposits of the Haldeman and Wrigley Quadrangles, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Sam H.; Hosterman, John W.; Huddle, John Warfield

    1962-01-01

    The Haldeman and Wrigley 7th-minute quadrangles are near the western edge of the eastern Kentucky coal field and cover an area of approximately 117 square miles in parts of Carter, Rowan, Elliott, and Morgan Counties, Ky. The rocks exposed in the two quadrangles are of Early and Late Mississippian and Early and Middle Pennsylvanian age. The Mississippian rocks are composed of the thick Brodhead formation, which consists of siltstone and shale, and eleven thin marine limestone and shale formations, having an aggregate thickness of about 150 feet. The Lee and Breathitt formations, of Pennsylvanian age, consist of sandstone, siltstone, and shale; they also contain thin beds of coal and several beds of underclay, including the economically important Olive Hill clay bed of Crider, 1913. Pennsylvanian rocks include beds of both continental and marine origin. The eleven thin Mississippian formations and the upper-most part of the thick Brodhead formation are truncated by a prominent unconformity on which rocks of Pennsylvanian age rest. The rocks occupy a region of gentle dips between the Cincinnati arch and the Appalachian Mountains. Refractory clay deposits are in the Olive Hill clay bed, which occurs in the lower part of the Lee formation. The Olive Hill clay bed is discontinuous and consists of a series of irregularly shaped lenses. The bed is approximately two-thirds semifiint clay and one-third flint clay, and it contains minor amounts of plastic clay. Some of the flint clay is nearly pure kaolinite, but the semi flint and plastic clay consists of mixtures of kaolinite, illite, and mixed-layer clay minerals. The structure of the kaolinite ranges from highly crystalline to very poorly crystalline 'fireclay' type. The degree of crystallinity of the kaolinite and the hardness of the clay vary inversely with the amount of illite and mixed-layer clay minerals present. The nearly pure kaolinite is believed to have formed by the removal of alkalies and some silica fram

  12. Geological, rare earth elemental and isotopic constraints on the origin of the Banbanqiao Zn-Pb deposit, southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhou, Jia-Xi; Huang, Zhi-Long; Yan, Zai-Fei; Bao, Guang-Ping; Sun, Hai-Rui

    2015-11-01

    elemental and isotopic data suggest that the REE, C and S in the ore-forming fluids of the Banbanqiao deposit were mainly originated from the carbonate host rocks, while the Pb and O were primarily derived from radiogenic Pb- and 18O-depleted sources, which are most likely to be the underlying Proterozoic basement rocks. Studies on the geology, rare earth elements and isotope geochemistry indicate that the Banbanqiao deposit is a carbonate-hosted, stratiform, anticline-controlled, epigenetic and high grade Zn-Pb deposit formed by elemental compositions of mixed origin, and is a typical SYG-type deposit in the western Yangtze Block, southwest China.

  13. Sponge fossils of Middle Dnieper River Upper Eocenian deposits (geological survey sheet area «Kobelyaki»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanska T.A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the first time sponge spicules of the Paleogene on the geological survey sheet area «Kobelyaki» were studied. Using artificial classification M.M. Ivanik (2003 45 taxa spicules were found in rocks. Morphological types spicules were defined. In the complexes following megascleres of «soft» Demospongiae are dominant: pro-, plagio-, ortho-, dicho-, anatriaenes, caltrops, smooth and echinated oxeas, subtylostyls, strongyls, ophioxeas. Diaenes, monenes, caltrops with reduced beam (olimtriaenes, are less common. Microscleres are numerous: sterrasters, sphaerasters, oxysphaerasters, oxyasters. Fragments of dyctional gratings without lychnisks and free spicules of hexactinellid sponges are frequent (pentactines, hexactines. Megascleres of lithistid sponges (phyllotriaenes, tetracrepid desmas, triders, megaclones, dicranoclones are relatively few. The palaeocenosis structure that existed in the Obukhov Sea on this area, it was found by morphological analysis of sponges spicules. In the Obukhov time following sponges dominated here: «soft» sponges with unrelated skeleton that belonged to the class Demospongiae (orders Poecilosclerida, Astrophorida and families Geodiidae, Pachastrellidae, Ancorinidae, Calthropellidae, Tethyidae, Crellidae and hexactinellids of class Hexactinellida (orders Hexactinosida and Lyssacinosida. А few sponges spicules (belonged to the subclass Lithistida, families Corallistidae, Theonellidae, Phymaraphiniidae, Chenendoporidae, Pleromidae and lack lithistid skeletal gratings fragments in the studied complexes may indicate a desmas transfer from neighboring, a shallow Obukhov stations, which were confined to the nearby slope of the Ukrainian Shield. On the base of sponge spicules studying the Late Eocene (Obukhov age of surrounding deposits is proved. spongе spicula, Upper Eocene, Obuchovian Suite, Middle Dnieper region.

  14. Geology and D-O-C Isotope Systematics of the Tieluping Silver Deposit,Henan,China:Implications for Ore Genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yanjing; Franco PIRAJNO; SUI Yinghui

    2005-01-01

    The Tieluping silver deposit, which is sited along NE-trending faults within the high-grade metamorphic basement of the Xiong'er terrane, is part of an important Mesozoic orogenic-type Ag-Pb and Au belt recently discovered. Ore formation includes three stages: Early (E), Middle (M) and Late (L), which include quartz-pyrite (E),polymetallic sulfides (M) and carbonates (L), respectively. The E-stage fluids are characterized by δD=-90‰,δ13Cco2=2.0‰ and δ18O=9‰ at 373℃, and are deeply sourced; the L-stage fluids, with δD=-70‰,δ13Cco2=-1.3‰ and δ18O=-2‰, are shallow-sourced meteoric water; whereas the M-stage fluids, with δD=-109‰,δ13Cco2=0.1‰ and δ18O=2‰, are a mix of deep-sourced and shallow-sourced fluids. Comparisons of the D-O-C isotopic systematics of the Estage ore-forming fluids with the fluids derived from Mesozoic granites, Archean-Paleoproterozoic metamorphic basement and Paleo-Mesoproterozoic Xiong'er Group, show that these units cannot generate fluids with the measured isotopic composition (high δ18O and δ13C ratios and low δD ratios) characteristic of the ore-forming fluids. This suggests that the E-stage ore-forming fluids originated from metamorphic devolatilization of a carbonate-shale-chert lithological association, locally rich in organic matter, which could correspond to the Meso-Neoproterozoic Guandaokou and Luanchuan Groups, rather than to geologic units in the Xiong'er terrane, the lower crust and the mantle. This supports the view that the rocks of the Guandaokou and Luanchuan Groups south of the Machaoying fault might be the favorable sources. A tectonic model that combines collisional orogeny, metallogeny and hydrothermal fluid flow is proposed to explain the formation of the Tieluping silver deposit. During the Mesozoic collision between the South and North China paleocontinents, a crustal slab containing a lithological association consisting of carbonate-shale-chert, locally rich in organic matter (carbonaceous

  15. Geologic map of Kundelan ore deposits and prospects, Zabul Province, Afghanistan; modified from the 1971 original map compilations of K.I. Litvinenko and others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Robert D.; Peters, Stephen G.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2015-10-26

    This map and cross sections are redrafted modified versions of the Geological map of the Kundelan ore deposit area, scale 1:10,000 (graphical supplement no. 18) and the Geological map of the Kundelan deposits, scale 1:2,000 (graphical supplement no. 3) both contained in an unpublished Soviet report by Litvinenko and others (1971) (report no. 0540). The unpublished Soviet report was prepared in cooperation with the Ministry of Mines and Industries of the Royal Government of Afghanistan in Kabul during 1971. This redrafted map and cross sections illustrate the geology of the main Kundelan copper-gold skarn deposit, located within the Kundelan copper and gold area of interest (AOI), Zabul Province, Afghanistan. Areas of interest (AOIs) of non-fuel mineral resources within Afghanistan were first described and defined by Peters and others (2007) and later by the work of Peters and others (2011a). The location of the main Kundelan copper-gold skarn deposit (area of this map) and the Kundelan copper and gold AOI is shown on the index map provided on this map sheet.

  16. 中国东北钼矿床地质%Geology of the Mo Deposits in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈衍景; 张成; 李诺; 杨永飞; 邓轲

    2012-01-01

    The Northeast (NE) China is located in the combining area of the Central Asian orogenic belt and the circunvpacific orogenic belt, accommodating intensive and complicated mineralizations. The authors summarizes the progresses in exploration and geological research of the Mo deposits in the area, and draws out several conclusions as below: DMore than seventy Mo deposits have been discovered in NE China, including three world-class giant and eighteen large deposits, with total resource being next to the eastern Qinling Mo belt; 2)The main genetic types are Mo-bearing porphyry (including explosive breccia pipe) and skarn, and minor of hydrothermal vein; 3)The Mo-associated intrusions are generally Si-and Kenriched calc-alkaline I-type granites, and have been formed by multi-episodic and multistage magmatism; 4) The Mo deposits are concentrated in regions: the northern margin of North China craton, the southern Great Hinggan Range, the northern Great Hinggan Range and the Ji - Hei fold belt; 5) The Mo deposits were formed in multi-episodic and multistage events coinciding magmatic activities, but the majority were formed in Mesozoic, with three peak-mineralization pulses at 250 -210, 190 - 160 and 150 - 110 Ma, respectively; 6)The Re contents in molybdenites from the Mo deposits are widely variable and generaly low, indicating that the metal sources vary from mantle to crust, but mainly from continental crust; 7) The Re contents in molybdenites and the reserve ratio of Cu/Moncrease along with the metallogenic time of the deposits; 8)The Mo deposits in NE China were formed in subductionrelated accretionary orogenesis and continental collision orogenesis ( including post-collisional tevtonism) , but the Mo-only deposits began to appear in Triassic, i. e. only in continental collision setting (including post-collision)%中国东北地区是中亚造山带和环太平洋构造带叠加的区域,成矿作用复杂而强烈.系统总结了东北地区的钼矿床勘查和

  17. Application of geologic-mathematical 3D modeling for complex structure deposits by the example of Lower- Cretaceous period depositions in Western Ust - Balykh oil field (Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevertailo, T.; Nedolivko, N.; Prisyazhnyuk, O.; Dolgaya, T.

    2015-11-01

    The complex structure of the Lower-Cretaceous formation by the example of the reservoir BC101 in Western Ust - Balykh Oil Field (Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District) has been studied. Reservoir range relationships have been identified. 3D geologic- mathematical modeling technique considering the heterogeneity and variability of a natural reservoir structure has been suggested. To improve the deposit geological structure integrity methods of mathematical statistics were applied, which, in its turn, made it possible to obtain equal probability models with similar input data and to consider the formation conditions of reservoir rocks and cap rocks.

  18. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091159 Gao Yan(No.3 Prospecting Team of Anhui Bureau of Coal Geology,Suzhou 234000,China) Effect of Depositional Environment of Coal-Bearing Stratum on Major Coal Seams in Suntan Coalmine,Anhui Province(Geology of Anhui,ISSN 1005- 6157,CN34-1111/P,18(2),2008,p.114 -117,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)

  19. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131565 Cai Lianyou(No.332 Geological Team,Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration of Anhui Province,Huangshan 245000,China);Weng Wangfei Geological Characteristics and Genesis Analysis of Guocun Navajoite Deposit in South Anhui Province(Mineral Resources and Geology,

  20. Geologic investigation of the Virgin River Valley salt deposits, Clark County, southeastern Nevada, to investigate their suitability for possible storage of radioactive waste material as of September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-12-31

    The results from a geologic investigation of the Virgin River Valley salt deposits, Clark County, southeastern Nevada, to examine their suitability for further study and consideration in connection with the possible storage of radioactive waste material are given. The results indicate that (1) approximately one-half of the salt body underlies the Overton Arm of Lake Mead and that the dry land portion of the salt body that has a thickness of 1,000 feet or more covers an area of about four and one-half square miles; (2) current tectonic activity in the area of the salt deposits is believed to be confined to seismic events associated with crustal adjustments following the filling of Lake Mead; (3) detailed information on the hydrology of the salt deposit area is not available at present but it is reported that a groundwater study by the U.S. Geological Survey is now in progress; (4) there is no evidence of exploitable minerals in the salt deposit area other than evaporites such as salt, gypsum, and possibly sand and gravel; (5) the salt deposit area is located inside the Lake Mead Recreation Area, outlined on the accompanying Location Plat, and several Federal, State, and Local agencies share regulatory responsibilities for the activities in the area; (6) other salt deposit areas of Arizona and Nevada, such as the Detrital Valley, Red Lake Dome, Luke Dome, and Mormon Mesa area, and several playa lake areas of central Nevada may merit further study; and (7) additional information, as outlined, is needed to more thoroughly evaluate the salt deposits of the Virgin River Valley and other areas referred to above.

  1. Geologic map of the Shaida deposit and Misgaran prospect, Herat Province, Afghanistan, modified from the 1973 original map compilation of V.I. Tarasenko and others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Robert D.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    This map is a modified version of Geological map and map of useful minerals, Shaida area, scale 1:50,000, which was compiled by V.I. Tarasenko, N.I. Borozenets, and others in 1973. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Afghan Geological Survey and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations of the U.S. Department of Defense, studied the original document and related reports and also visited the field area in August 2010. This modified map illustrates the geological structure of the Shaida copper-lead-zinc deposit and Misgaran copper-lead-zinc prospect in western Afghanistan and includes cross sections of the same area. The map reproduces the topology (contacts, faults, and so forth) of the original Soviet map and cross sections and includes modifications based on our examination of these documents and on observations made during our field visit. Elevations on the cross sections are derived from the original Soviet topography and might not match the newer topography used on the current map. We have attempted to translate the original Russian terminology and rock classification into modern English geologic usage as literally as possible without changing any genetic or process-oriented implications in the original descriptions. We also use the age designations from the original map. The unit colors on the map and cross sections differ from the colors shown on the original version. The units are colored according to the color and pattern scheme of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) (http://www.ccgm.org).

  2. Book review: Economic geology: Principles and practice: Metals, minerals, coal and hydrocarbons—Introduction to formation and sustainable exploitation of mineral deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This volume, available in both hardcover and paperback, is an English translation of the fifth edition of the German language text Mineralische und Energie-Rohstoffe. The book provides an extensive overview of natural resources and societal issues associated with extracting raw materials. The comprehensive list of raw materials discussed includes metals, industrial minerals, coal, and hydrocarbons. The book is divided into four parts: (1) “Metalliferous ore deposits,” (2) “Nonmetallic minerals and rocks,” (3) “Practice of economic geology,” and (4) “Fossil energy raw materials—coal, oil, and gas.” These sections are bound by a brief introduction and an extensive list of up-to-date references as well as an index. Each chapter begins with a concise synopsis and concludes with a summary that contains useful suggestions for additional reading. All figures are grayscale images and line drawings; however, several have been grouped together and reproduced as color plates. Also included is a companion website (www.wiley.com/go/pohl/geology) that contains additional resources, such as digital copies of figures, tables, and an expanded index, all available for download in easy-to-use formats.Economic Geology: Principles and Practice: Metals, Minerals, Coal and Hydrocarbons—Introduction to Formation and Sustainable Exploitation of Mineral Deposits. Walter l. Pohl. 2011. Wiley-Blackwell. Pp. 663. ISBN 978-1-4443-3663-4 (paperback).

  3. Analysis and modelling of geological and economical parameters influencing mining of slovak magnesite deposits and its impact on the environment on the example of the Košice-Bankov deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blišan Peter

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnesite deposits in Slovakia are mined economically using underground methods. Their reserves and output represent an important part of the world onst. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the analysis and modelling of geological-economical and environmental parameters influencing the mining of slovak magnesite deposits.Quality of raw material or deposit is among crucial factors influencing the industrial output of magnesites. This parameter significantly influences the mining and processing technologies. New methods of prospecting, exploration and reserve calculations need the re-evaluation of existing criteria for the determination of economical importance. Modern technologies are capable to utilise also previous noneconomical parts of the deposit what causes a need for the re-evaluation of existing methods of ore reserves determination and for the introduction and testing of modern methods of the ore reserves determination.Impact on the environment is also an important aspect of the mining activity. It is necessary to monitor and evaluate this problem consequently. Many new environmental studies confirm a negative impact of the magnesite mining on the nature and human society. Therefore, beside the problems of analysis and modelling of geological- economical parameters, the analysis of environmental aspects of mining is also unevitable to be included into the solution of the project. Modern monitoring systems based on the geographic information systems (GIS are intensively used for such analysis at the present time. Their assistance during collecting, elaborating and evaluating the research results is recently to hardly be replaceable.

  4. A review of the geological characteristics and geodynamic setting of Late Paleozoic porphyry copper deposits in the Junggar region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuquan; Mao, Jingwen; Pirajno, Franco; Yan, Shenghao; Liu, Guoren; Zhou, Gang; Zhang, Zhixin; Liu, Feng; Geng, Xinxia; Guo, Chunli

    2012-04-01

    In this review, we describe the geological characteristics of porphyry copper deposits in Junggar region, Xinjiang, and place these into their metallogenic-tectonic context. These porphyry copper deposits are mainly found in four metallogenic belts: (1) a Late Silurian to Early Devonian Cu-Mo metallogenic belt in the Qiongheba area; (2) the Late Devonian Kalaxiange'er Cu metallogenic belt; (3) the Early Carboniferous Xilekuduke-Suoerkuduke porphyry-skarn Cu-Mo metallogenic belt; and (4) the Late Carboniferous Baogutu porphyry Cu metallogenic belt. The ages of mineralization can be divided into three broad intervals: copper deposits range mainly from 300 to 180 °C. Salinity ranges from 0.5 to 21.7 wt.% NaCl equiv and 28.9 to 66.76 wt.% NaCl equiv. Ore-forming fluids in the Baogutu and Yunyingshan deposits in the Baogutu and Qiongheba belts, were mainly derived from magmatic fluids, whereas those in the Halasu, Yulekenhalasu and Xilekuduke deposits in the Kalaxiange'er and Xilekuduke-Suoerkuduke belts were mainly derived from magmatic fluids, with some contributions from meteoric water. Sulfur isotope compositions of some porphyry copper deposits cluster around 0‰, indicating that the sulfur was probably derived from mantle-related magmas. The ore-forming processes in all porphyry copper deposits are closely related to the emplacement of intermediate, intermediate-felsic and felsic porphyry intrusions. Porphyry copper deposits in Junggar region developed in a range of tectonic regimes including continental arc, ocean island arc and post collisional settings.

  5. Chapter B: Regional Geologic Setting of Late Cenozoic Lacustrine Diatomite Deposits, Great Basin and Surrounding Region: Overview and Plans for Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alan R.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater diatomite deposits are present in all of the Western United States, including the Great Basin and surrounding regions. These deposits are important domestic sources of diatomite, and a better understanding of their formation and geologic settings may aid diatomite exploration and land-use management. Diatomite deposits in the Great Basin are the products of two stages: (1) formation in Late Cenozoic lacustrine basins and (2) preservation after formation. Processes that favored long-lived diatom activity and diatomite formation range in decreasing scale from global to local. The most important global process was climate, which became increasingly cool and dry from 15 Ma to the present. Regional processes included tectonic setting and volcanism, which varied considerably both spatially and temporally in the Great Basin region. Local processes included basin formation, sedimentation, hydrology, and rates of processes, including diatom growth and accumulation; basin morphology and nutrient and silica sources were important for robust activity of different diatom genera. Only optimum combinations of these processes led to the formation of large diatomite deposits, and less than optimum combinations resulted in lakebeds that contained little to no diatomite. Postdepositional processes can destroy, conceal, or preserve a diatomite deposit. These processes, which most commonly are local in scale, include uplift, with related erosion and changes in hydrology; burial beneath sedimentary deposits or volcanic flows and tuffs; and alteration during diagenesis and hydrothermal activity. Some sedimentary basins that may have contained diatomite deposits have largely been destroyed or significantly modified, whereas others, such as those in western Nevada, have been sufficiently preserved along with their contained diatomite deposits. Future research on freshwater diatomite deposits in the Western United States and Great Basin region should concentrate on the regional

  6. Geology of the florencia gold – telluride deposit (camagüey, cuba) and some metallurgical considerations

    OpenAIRE

    López K Jesús M.; Moreira Jesús; Gandarillas José

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the results from a study of the Florencia gold-telluride deposit in Central Cuba, including mineralogical, petrographical, microprobe and chemical analysis. Valuable information is provided for the exploration, mining and processing of gold ores from other nearby deposits with similar characteristics. Results highlight changes in the mineralogical composition of the ores between the north and south sectors of the deposit, as reflected in metallurgical concentrates after b...

  7. Geological characteristics and ore-forming process of the gold deposits in the western Qinling region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiajun; Liu, Chonghao; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Li, Yujie; Mao, Zhihao; Wang, Jianping; Wang, Yinhong; Zhang, Jing; Zhai, Degao; Zhang, Huafeng; Shan, Liang; Zhu, Laimin; Lu, Rukui

    2015-05-01

    The western Qinling, belonging to the western part of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen between the North China Block and South China Block, is one of the most important gold regions in China. Isotopic dates suggest that the Mesozoic granitoids in the western Qinling region emplaced during the Middle-Late Triassic, and the deposits formed during the Late Triassic. Almost all gold deposits in the western Qinling region are classified as orogenic, Carlin-type, and Carlin-like gold deposits, and they are the products of Qinling Orogenesis caused by the final collision between the North China Block and the South China Block. The early subduction of the Mian-Lue oceanic crust and the latter collision between South Qinling Terrane and the South China Block along the Mian-Lue suture generated lithosphere-scale thermal anomalies to drive orogen-scale hydrothermal systems. The collision-related magmatism also provided heat source for regional ore-forming fluids in the Carlin-like gold deposits. Orogenic gold deposits such as Huachanggou, Liziyuan, and Baguamiao lie between the Shang-Dan and Mian-Lue sutures and are confined to WNW-trending brittle-ductile shear zones in Devonian and Carboniferous greenschist-facies metasedimentary rocks that were highly-deformed and regionally-metamorphosed. These deposits are typical orogenic gold deposits and formed within a Late Triassic age. The deposits show a close relationship between Au and Ag. Ores contain mainly microscopic gold, and minor electrum and visible gold, along with pyrite. The ore-forming fluids were main metamorphic fluids. Intensive tectonic movements caused by orogenesis created fluid-migrating channels for precipitation locations. Although some orogenic gold deposits occur adjacent to granitoids, mineralization is not synchronous with magmatism; that is, the granitoids have no genetic relations to orogenic gold deposits. As ore-forming fluids converged into dilated fractures during the extension stage of orogenesis

  8. Evolution of Ore Deposits and Technology Transfer Project: Isotope and Chemical Methods in Support of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy, 2003-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, Robert O.; Johnson, Craig A.; Landis, Gary P.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Emsbo, Poul; Stricker, Craig A.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Rusk, Brian G.

    2010-01-01

    Principal functions of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program are providing assessments of the location, quantity, and quality of undiscovered mineral deposits, and predicting the environmental impacts of exploration and mine development. The mineral and environmental assessments of domestic deposits are used by planners and decisionmakers to improve the stewardship of public lands and public resources. Assessments of undiscovered mineral deposits on a global scale reveal the potential availability of minerals to the United States and other countries that manufacture goods imported to the United States. These resources are of fundamental relevance to national and international economic and security policy in our globalized world economy. Performing mineral and environmental assessments requires that predictions be made of the likelihood of undiscovered deposits. The predictions are based on geologic and geoenvironmental models that are constructed for the diverse types of mineral deposits from detailed descriptions of actual deposits and detailed understanding of the processes that formed them. Over the past three decades the understanding of ore-forming processes has benefited greatly from the integration of laboratory-based geochemical tools with field observations and other data sources. Under the aegis of the Evolution of Ore Deposits and Technology Transfer Project (referred to hereinafter as the Project), a 5-year effort that terminated in 2008, the Mineral Resources Program provided state-of-the-art analytical capabilities to support applications of several related geochemical tools to ore-deposit-related studies. The analytical capabilities and scientific approaches developed within the Project have wide applicability within Earth-system science. For this reason the Project Laboratories represent a valuable catalyst for interdisciplinary collaborations of the type that should be formed in the coming years for the United States to meet

  9. Geological and geochemical character and genesis of the Jinlongshan-Qiuling gold deposits in Qinling orogen: Metallogenic mechanism of the Qinling-pattern Carlin-type gold deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张复新,陈衍景,李超Department; of; Geology,; Peking; University,; Beijing; 100871,; China; ,张静Department; of; Geology,; Peking; University,; Beijing; 100871,; China; ,马建秦,李欣Department; of; Geology,; Peking; University,; Beijing; 100871,; China

    2000-01-01

    The Qinling Carlin-type gold deposit belt is the second largest Carlin-type gold ore concentrated area in the world and occurs in Mesozoic intracontinental collisional orogen, contrasting to the Carlin-type gold deposits in the Basin and Range province in Cenozoic active continental margin of West America. With ore-forming ages focussed at the range of 197.45-129.45 Ma, its metallogenic geodynamic background was the decornpression-pyrogenation regime at the transition stage from collisional compression to extension, indicating that gold mineralization synchronized with the Mesozoic continental collision. Geochemical studies discover that ore fluids and materials mainly came from the Hercynian-lndosinian tectonic layer. Mesozoic intracontinental subduction of Hercynian-lndosinian association along the Shuanghe-Gongguan fault led to the formation of Jinlongshan-Qiuling gold deposits. Accordingly, the tectonic metallogenic model is established for Qinling-pattern Carlin-type gold deposits.

  10. Engineering geology and ground water considerations for sanitary landfills in Wisconsin-aged morainal deposits of central Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the past five years the author has been engaged as an engineering geology consultant concerning a number of existing and proposed landfills, located in the Wisconsin morainal plains of central Indiana. Work has involved the representation of landfill owners in some cases and opposing citizens in others. For each case except one, municipal waste or conventional waste landfills were involved with the other involving hazardous waste disposal. Several major geologic considerations are involved in proper sitting of landfills in this region. These include: (1) Type, nature and stratigraphy of unconsolidated materials; (2) Thickness of unconsolidated material; (3) Type and nature of bedrock below unconsolidated material: (4) Groundwater supplies in vicinity; (5) Topography of site including flood potential; and (6) Groundwater table and water bearing zones involved. Engineering details of landfill construction and monitoring must also be considered in regard to the site geology. Aspects of leachate generation and containment must be addressed as well.

  11. The geology of Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salem, M.J.; Busrewil, M.T. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    This book includes 75 of the papers presented at the Second Symposium of Geology of Libya, held in Tripoli in September 1978. The papers are grouped into seven parts: stratigraphy; biostratigraphy and paleontology; sedimentation and petroleum geology; hydrogeology; geomorphology and Quaternary geology; tectonics and geophysics; geochemistry, mineralogy, and ore deposits. Petroleum exploration prompted many of the papers in this volume. (JMT)

  12. 篦子沟矿铜床2号矿体地质特征及成因探讨%On geological features of copper deposit at second mine of Bizigou deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛卫红

    2012-01-01

    According to the production survey of the second mine of Bizigou deposit,from the geological features,ore geological features and metallogenic mechanism at zhongtiao mountain region,the paper points out new opinions on the reasons for the formation of the Bizigou copper Mine by combining with relative documents,so as to provide the reference for discovering mines at surrounding areas.%通过篦子沟矿床2号矿体的生产勘探,结合有关资料,从中条山区域地质特征和矿体地质特征及成矿机理入手,对篦子沟铜矿的成因提出了新的看法,为外围找矿提供了依据。

  13. 3D modeling of the Buhi debris avalanche deposit of Iriga Volcano, Philippines by integrating shallow-seismic reflection and geological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimo, Likha G.; Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar Francisco A.

    2016-06-01

    Numerical models for simulating volcanic debris avalanches commonly lack a critical initiation parameter, the source volume, which is difficult to estimate without data on the deposit thickness. This, in turn, limits how rheology can be characterized for simulating flow. Leapfrog Geo, a 3D geological modeling software, was used to integrate shallow-seismic reflection profiles with field and borehole data to determine the volume of the Buhi debris avalanche and the pre-collapse structure of Iriga Volcano. Volumes of the deposit calculated in this way are 34-71% larger than previous estimates. This technique may improve models of debris avalanches elsewhere in the world, and more precisely depict landslide runout and lateral extent, thus improving disaster prevention and mitigation for the many cities located near volcanoes.

  14. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102341 Bao Peisheng(Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Science,Beijing 100037,China)Further Discussion on the Genesis of the Podiform Chromite Deposits in the Ophiolites-Questioning about the Rock:Melt Interaction Metallogeny(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,28(12),2009,p.1741-1761

  15. The geology of Liébana, Cantabrian Mountains, Spain; deposition and deformation in a flysch area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, K.

    1976-01-01

    The Nansa-Deva map sheet of the Geological Map of the Southern Cantabrian Mountains is published. The accompanying thesis deals with the stratigraphy and structures of the Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian and Mesozoic rocks which constitute the mapped area. A condensed sequence of nodular limestones

  16. Geology and recognition criteria for sandstone uranium deposits in mixed fluvial-shallow marine sedimentary sequences, South Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.S.; Smith, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium deposits in the South Texas Uranium Region are classical roll-type deposits that formed at the margin of tongues of altered sandstone by the encroachment of oxidizing, uraniferous solutions into reduced aquifers containing pyrite and, in a few cases, carbonaceous plant material. Many of the uranium deposits in South Texas are dissimilar from the roll fronts of the Wyoming basins. The host sands for many of the deposits contain essentially no carbonaceous plant material, only abundant disseminated pyrite. Many of the deposits do not occur at the margin of altered (ferric oxide-bearing) sandstone tongues but rather occur entirely within reduced, pyurite-bearing sandstone. The abundance of pyrite within the sands probably reflects the introduction of H/sub 2/S up along faults from hydrocarbon accumulations at depth. Such introductions before ore formation prepared the sands for roll-front development, whereas post-ore introductions produced re-reduction of portions of the altered tongue, leaving the deposit suspended in reduced sandstone. Evidence from three deposits suggests that ore formation was not accompanied by the introduction of significant amounts of H/sub 2/S.

  17. Geology and recognition criteria for sandstone uranium deposits in mixed fluvial-shallow marine sedimentary sequences, South Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.S.; Smith, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium deposits in the South Texas Uranium Region are classical roll-type deposits that formed at the margin of tongues of altered sandstone by the encroachment of oxidizing, uraniferous solutions into reduced aquifers containing pyrite and, in a few cases, carbonaceous plant material. Many of the uranium deposits in South Texas are dissimilar from the roll fronts of the Wyoming basins. The host sands for many of the deposits contain essentially no carbonaceous plant material, only abundant disseminated pyrite. Many of the deposits do not occur at the margin of altered (ferric oxide-bearing) sandstone tongues but rather occur entirely within reduced, pyurite-bearing sandstone. The abundance of pyrite within the sands probably reflects the introduction of H/sub 2/S up along faults from hydrocarbon accumulations at depth. Such introductions before ore formation prepared the sands for roll-front development, whereas post-ore introductions produced re-reduction of portions of the altered tongue, leaving the deposit suspended in reduced sandstone. Evidence from three deposits suggests that ore formation was not accompanied by the introduction of significant amounts of H/sub 2/S.

  18. Geological mapping of impact melt deposits at lunar complex craters Jackson and Tycho: Morphologic and topographic diversity and relation to the cratering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Deepak; Head, James W.; Pieters, Carle M.

    2017-02-01

    High resolution geological mapping, aided by imagery and elevation data from the lunar reconnaissance orbiter (LRO) and Kaguya missions, has revealed the scientifically rich character of impact melt deposits at two young complex craters: Jackson (71 km) and Tycho (85 km). The morphology and distribution of mapped impact melt units provide several insights into the cratering process. We report elevation differences (>200 m) among large, coherent floor sections within a single crater and interpret them to be caused by crater wall collapse and/or large scale structural failure of the floor region. Clast-poor, smooth melt deposits are correlated with floor sections at lower elevations and likely represent ponded deposits sourced from higher elevation regions (viz. crater walls). In addition, these deposits are also located in the inferred downrange direction of the impact. Melt-coated large blocks spanning several kilometers are common on the crater floors and may represent collapsed wall sections or in some cases, subdued sections of the central peaks. Spatial trends in the mapped impact melt units at the two craters provide clues to decipher the conditions during each impact event and subsequent evolution of the crater floor.

  19. Updated operational protocols for the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation Chemistry Quality Assurance Project in support of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Martin, RoseAnn

    2017-02-06

    The U.S. Geological Survey Branch of Quality Systems operates the Precipitation Chemistry Quality Assurance Project (PCQA) for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) and National Atmospheric Deposition Program/Mercury Deposition Network (NADP/MDN). Since 1978, various programs have been implemented by the PCQA to estimate data variability and bias contributed by changing protocols, equipment, and sample submission schemes within NADP networks. These programs independently measure the field and laboratory components which contribute to the overall variability of NADP wet-deposition chemistry and precipitation depth measurements. The PCQA evaluates the quality of analyte-specific chemical analyses from the two, currently (2016) contracted NADP laboratories, Central Analytical Laboratory and Mercury Analytical Laboratory, by comparing laboratory performance among participating national and international laboratories. Sample contamination and stability are evaluated for NTN and MDN by using externally field-processed blank samples provided by the Branch of Quality Systems. A colocated sampler program evaluates the overall variability of NTN measurements and bias between dissimilar precipitation gages and sample collectors.This report documents historical PCQA operations and general procedures for each of the external quality-assurance programs from 2007 to 2016.

  20. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122457 Cai Jianshe ( Fujian Institute of Geological Survey and Drawing,Fuzhou 350011,China ) On the Geologic Characteristics and Genesis of the Longtangsi Fluorite Deposit in Pucheng County,Fujian Province ( Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080 / P,30 ( 4 ), 2011,p.301-306,3illus.,1table,6 refs.,with English abstract ) Key words:fluorspar deposit,Fujian Province

  1. Geochronology of the western and central Brooks Range, Alaska: Implications for the geologic evolution of the Anarraaq and Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombach, C.S.; Layer, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    A compilation of published geochronology of rocks and minerals from the western and central Brooks Range provides a framework for understanding the complex history of the Brooks Range and northern Alaska. A simplified timeline of events comprises (1) Devonian extension, (2) Mississippian extension and Zn-Pb-Ag mineralization, (3) a passive interval, (4) pre-Brooks Range orogeny rock-formation and thermal event, (5) inception of Brooks Range orogeny, (6) exhumation and the end of main-stage deformation, and (7) subsequent episodic deformation. This compilation is supplemented by new 40Ar/39Ar dates of white mica from the Anarraaq and Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag (+ barite) deposits from the western Brooks Range. The deposits are hosted in black shale and carbonate rocks of the Late Mississippian-Early Pennsylvanian Kuna Formation. Quartz-pyrite-white mica grains in sedimentary rocks above the Anarraaq deposit yield an age of 195.0 ?? 2.0 Ma, and paragenetically late quartz-pyrite-white mica from the Main orebody at the Red Dog deposit has an age of 126.1 ?? 0.7 Ma. These white micas are much younger than the age of Zn-Pb-Ag mineralization at Red Dog (338 ?? 5.8 Ma Re-Os age of pyrite). The date for white mica from Anarraaq (???195 Ma) appears to be related to a large-scale thermal event in the region immediately before the inception of the Brooks Range orogeny. The white mica from the Red Dog deposit (???126 Ma) correlates with the later stages of the orogeny, a period of blueschist metamorphism, extension, and rapid exhumation, which varied with geographic location. These dates suggest that the Red Dog deposits underwent significant hydrothermal overprinting during multiple episodes of the Brooks Range orogeny. ?? 2004 by Economic Geology.

  2. Aeromagnetometry of the El Papalote H12A-13 Chart Northwestern Sonora, México: Relationships to Regional Geology and Mineral Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Retama, S.; Pérez-Segura, E.; Vega-Granillo, R.

    2014-12-01

    This study is focused in obtaining a geophysical-geological characterization of magnetic anomalies associated with outcropping or buried rock bodies and its possible relation to ore deposits. To do this, total field aeromagnetic data from the Mexican Geological Survey were processed. Reduction to pole and residual anomaly maps show two main elongated dipolar high-amplitude anomalies, a first NE-SW directed, which is located in the NW portion of the card, and a second corresponding to a belt with NW-SE direction that is located SW of the chart, near the eastern region of the "El Elegante" volcano. Above structures have not been mapped in the surface; however, the well-defined magnetic anomalies indicate its existence below Quaternary sediments. The geology of the chart is only partially known. The outcropping units, mostly in the Sierra de Los Tanques, are Paleoproterozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks; Permian-Triassic granitoids; and Jurassic and Tertiary volcanic and volcanosedimentary rocks. About 50% of the card is covered by Quaternary sediments, there the interest of these geophysical studies. The NW-SE oriented deep magnetic anomaly follows the same direction as the Sierra San Francisco (SSF) located south of Los Norteños chart H12A-2. This mountain is composed of Paleoproterozoic metamorphic rocks intruded by Upper Cretaceous granitoids. Numerous mineral manifestations of orogenic gold type occurred in that range. This anomaly can be interpreted in 2 ways: first: as a NW extension of a landform similar to the SSF, which dips to NW or that is more erosionated; or; second: as an extension of the SSF to the NW displaced by a normal fault oriented ~N60E, roughly following the Palo Fierro creek indicated on the map. Either of the two possible interpretations, the magnetic anomaly indicates an interesting target in the search of orogenic gold deposits that could be buried in the area.

  3. EXTRATERRESTRIAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070001 Liang Ying (State Key Laboratory for Mineral Deposits Research, Department of Earth Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China); Wang Henian Petrology-Mineralogy and Classification of Eleven Ordinary Chondrites from the Grove Mountains in Antarctica (Geological Journal of China Universities, ISSN1006-7493, CN32-1440/P,12(1), 2006, p.53-61, 6 illus., 4 tables, 21 refs.) Key words: meteorites, Antarctica

  4. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141850 Chen Dongyue(School of Earth Sciences and Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Chen Jianping On 3D Ore Prospecting Modeling of Comprehensive Information for Huangshaping Polymetallic Deposit(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674-3636,CN32-1796/P,37(3),2013,p.489-495,12 illus.,12 refs.) Key words:polymetallic ores,data bases,Hunan Province

  5. Deposit Types and Geological Characteristics of the Copper Deposits in Zambia%赞比亚铜矿床类型及地质特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张道俊; 冷莹莹

    2013-01-01

    Zambia is one of the most famous copper production places in the world.The copper ore deposits in Zambia include stratabound,sedimentary,metamorphosed-deformation and hydrothermal types,and are dominated by the sedimentary type.Statistics indicate that the sedimentary copper ore resources account for 79% of the whole resources in Zambia.All kinds of the copper ore deposits are controlled by the Luflian arc.The stratabound copper deposits are mainly discovered in the perifornical region,and the ore-bearing rock serious are the Muva megagroup biotite schist and around the anticlines and two-mica quartz schist.The sedimentary copper deposits are mainly distributed around anticlines and the peripheral dome,and the ore-bearing rock series are the lower Katanga megagroup sandstone-shale beds.%赞比亚是世界著名的铜产地之一,其铜矿类型可分为层控型、沉积型、变质改造型及热液型,以沉积型为主.据现有大中型矿床铜资源量统计,沉积型矿产铜资源量占赞比亚铜总资源量的79%.各类型铜矿床总体受卢弗里安(Luflian)弧控制,层控型铜矿主要分布在穹窿核部边缘,含矿岩系为莫瓦(Muva)超群的黑云母片岩、二云石英片岩;沉积型铜矿主要分布在背斜或穹窿外缘周围,含矿岩系主要是加丹加(Katanga)超群下部的砂页岩层.

  6. Geological and geochemical studies of the Shujiadian porphyry Cu deposit, Anhui Province, Eastern China: Implications for ore genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiwei; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; White, Noel C.; Lin, Fengjie

    2015-05-01

    Most porphyry deposits in the world occur in magmatic arc settings and are related to subduction of oceanic plates. A small proportion of porphyry deposits occur in intracontinental settings, however they are still poorly understood. Shujiadian, a newly-discovered porphyry Cu deposit, is located in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt and belongs to the intracontinental class. The deposit has classic alteration zones defined by a core of potassic alteration and local Ca-silicate alteration, which is overprinted by a feldspar-destructive alteration zone and cut by veins containing epidote and chlorite. Wallrocks of the deposit are unreactive quartz-rich sedimentary rocks. Three main paragenetic stages have been recognized based on petrographic observations; silicate stage, quartz-sulfide stage, and sulfide-carbonate stage. Quartz + pyrite + chalcopyrite ± molybdenite veins, and quartz + chalcopyrite + pyrite veins of the quartz-sulfide stage contribute most of the copper, and chalcopyrite + chlorite ± pyrite ± pyrrhotite ± quartz ± illite veins of the sulfide-carbonate stage also contribute part of the copper; all the mineralized veins are associated with feldspar-destructive alteration. Investigations on the fluid inclusions in Shujiadian indicate that the ore-forming fluids had four evolutionary episodes: immiscibility and overpressure in the silicate stage, boiling in the quartz-sulfide stage and mixing with meteoric water in the sulfide-carbonate stage. Sulfur and strontium isotope studies suggest that ore metals were mainly derived from magmatic-hydrothermal fluids, and combined with our study of fluid inclusions, we infer that decompression, changes in oxygen fugacity and sulfur content were the main factors that caused Cu precipitation. Compared with porphyry deposits in magmatic arc settings, there are some differences in the ore-bearing rock, alteration, and the composition of ore-forming fluids.

  7. Geology and Geochemistry of Reworking Gold Deposits in Intrusive Rocks of China—Ⅰ. Features of the Intrusive Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀璋; 程景平; 等

    1998-01-01

    Most gold deposits in intrusive rocks were formed as a result of reworking processes.the intrusive rocks containing gold deposits and consisting of ultramafic-mafic,intermediateacid and alkaline rocks of the Archean,Proterozoic,Caledonian,Hercynian and Yenshanian periods occur in cratons,activated zones of cratons and fold belts.Among them,ultramaficmafic rocks,diorite,alkaline rocks,and anorthosite are products of remelting in the mantle or mantle-crust or mantle with crustal contamination,However,auriferous intermediate-acid rocks are products of metasomatic-remelting in auriferous volcainc rocks or auriferous volcanosedimentary rocks in the deep crust.

  8. Earthquake event deposits in Mesoproterozoic Kunyang Group in central Yunnan Province and its geological impli-cations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU; Yuansheng

    2001-01-01

    Bulletin, 1999, 44 (supplement 1): 20-25.[12]Ding, Z. L., Yu, Z. W., Rutter, N. W. et al., Towards an orbital time scale for Chinese loess deposits, Quaternary Science Review, 1994,13: 39-70.[13]Duchaufour, Ph., Pedologie, Tome 1: Pedogenese et Classification, Paris-New York-Barcelone-Milan: Masson, 1983, 1-477.[14]Singer, M. J., Bowen, L. H., Verosub, K. L. et al., Mossbauer spectroscopic evidence for citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite ex-traction of maghemite from soils, Clays and Clay Minerals,1995, 43: 1-7.[15]Hunt, C. P., Singer, M. J., Kletetschka, G. et al., Effect of citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite treatment on fine-grained mag-netite and maghemite, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 1995, 130: 87-94.[16]Mehra, O., Jackson, M. L., Iron oxide removal from soil and clay by a dithionite-citrate system buffered with sodium bi-carbonate, Clay and Clay Minerals, 1960, 7: 317-327.[17]McKeague, J. A., Manual on soil sampling and methods of analysis, Toronto: Canadian Society of Soil Science, 1981, 1-212.[18]Kukla, G., An, Z. S., Melice, J. L. et al., Magnetic susceptibility record of Chinese loess, Transaction of Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Sciences, 1990, 81: 263-288.[19]Guo, Z. T., Wei, L. Y., Lu, H. Y. et al., Changes in the composition of Late Pleistocene aeolian dust and the environmental significance, Quaternary Sciences (in Chinese), 1999, 19(1): 41-48.[20]Heller, F., Liu, X. M., Liu, T. S. et al., Magnetic susceptibility of loess in China, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 1991,103: 301-310.[21]Yang, J. D., Chen, J., An, Z. S. et al., Variations in 87Sr/86Sr Ratios of calcites in Chinese loess: A proxy for chemical weathering associated with the East Asian Summer monsoon, Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 2000,157: 151-159.[22]Verosub, K. L., Fine, P., Singer, M. J. et al., Pedogenesis and paleoclimate: Interpretation of the magnetic susceptibility record of Chinese loess-paleosol sequences, Geology, 1993, 21

  9. 简析后公地铅锌矿床成矿地质特征%Discussing on Geological Characteristics of the Hougongdi Pb -Zn Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范永红

    2016-01-01

    The Hougongdi Pb -Zn deposit occurs in permian system on Linxi group siliceous powder calci-um sandstone and argillaceous sandstone of nearly east -west fracture zone between the layers ,the main wall rocks are argillaceous and calcareous siltstone , the host rock is quartz vein that contains Pb -Zn . Based on the study of ore-forming geological conditions , the author thinks that the natural types of ore in this area are quartz vein containing Pb -Zn and silicification altered rock .T he genetic type of deposit is ner-vation Pb-Zn deposit that fills medium - low temperature hydrothermal .%后公地铅锌矿床赋存于二叠系上统林西组硅质粉砂岩与泥质钙质粉砂岩之近东西向层间破碎带中,主要围岩为泥质钙质粉砂岩,赋矿岩石为含铅锌矿石英脉。基于对成矿地质条件的研究,认为该区矿石自然类型为含铅锌石英脉及硅化蚀变岩型。矿床成因类型为中—低温热液充填式脉状铅锌矿床。

  10. 智利MARCIA铜矿地质特征及成矿机理%Geological characteristics and metallogenic mechanism of the Marcia copper deposit in Chile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠烈

    2012-01-01

    MARCIA铜矿位于智利海岸山脉成矿带,通过对矿区地层、地质特征、矿体特征与构造的关系等分析,对该矿区铜矿的形成机理进行了初步探讨,认为该矿区铜矿的形成与断裂关系密切,F2断裂是导矿和容矿断裂,该区找矿前景巨大.%The Marcia copper deposit is located in IOCG belt. Through analyzing the strata, geological characteristics, the orebody characteristics and tectonic features of the mining area, the metallogenic mechanism of the copper deposit was discussed. It has concluded that the formation of copper deposit in the mine are closely to the fault, the F2 fault is ore-transmitting and ore-containing fault and it has great prospecting potential in this area.

  11. The geology, structure and mineralisation of the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry copper-gold-molybdenum deposits, Mongolia:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.M. Mike Porter

    2016-01-01

    The Oyu Tolgoi cluster of seven porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposits in southern Mongolia, define a narrow, linear, 12 km long, almost continuously mineralised trend, which contains in excess of 42 Mt of Cu and 1850 t of Au, and is among the largest high grade porphyry Cu-Au deposits in the world. These deposits lie within the Gurvansayhan island-arc terrane, a fault bounded segment of the broader Silurian to Carboniferous Kazakh-Mongol arc, located towards the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, a collage of magmatic arcs that were periodically active from the late Neoproterozoic to Permo-Triassic, extending from the Urals Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. Mineralisation at Oyu Tolgoi is associated with multiple, overlapping, intrusions of late Devonian (w372 to 370 Ma) quartz-monzodiorite intruding Devonian (or older) juvenile, probably intra-oceanic arc-related, basaltic lavas and lesser volcaniclastic rocks, unconformably overlain by late Devonian (w370 Ma) basaltic to dacitic pyroclastic and volcano sedimentary rocks. These quartz-monzodiorite intrusions range from early-mineral porphyritic dykes, to larger, linear, syn-, late- and post-mineral dykes and stocks. Ore was deposited within syn-mineral quartz-monzodiorites, but is dominantly hosted by augite basalts and to a lesser degree by overlying dacitic pyroclastic rocks. Following ore deposition, an allochthonous plate of older Devonian (or pre-Devonian) rocks was overthrust and a post-ore biotite granodiorite intruded at w365 Ma. Mineralisation is characterised by varying, telescoped stages of intrusion and alteration. Early A-type quartz veined dykes were followed by Cu-Au mineralisation associated with potassic alteration, mainly K-feldspar in quartz-monzodiorite and biotite-magnetite in basaltic hosts. Downward reflux of cooled, late-magmatic hydrothermal fluid resulted in intense quartz-sericite retrograde alteration in the upper parts of the main syn-mineral intrusions, and an equivalent chlorite

  12. Geologic structure of Gofitsky deposit of titanium and zirconium and perspectives of the reserve base of titanium and zirconium in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhmazov, Iskander

    2016-04-01

    were received (USGS, 2005): 1. The draft forecasts the highest positive net present value (NPV= 1712879.6 thou.) to a company that uses a discount rate of 15%. 2. The present value factor is quite high (PVR = 9.02), and means that the company will receive 9.02 discounted profit per dollar invested. Profitability index is higher than 1 (PI = 1.3) and indicates that the project is profitable, but it is volatile in term of investment. All these features make the project highly controversial for a company, but with an increase of price of titanium and zirconium raw materials it will improve the attractiveness of Gofitsky deposit for development. As a result: • common patterns of geological structure of Gofitsky deposit field are determined • mineral composition is studied • schlich analysis is held • Gofitsky deposit was evaluated from the financial and economic point of view • profitability was identified and its attractiveness was estimated for potential investors.

  13. Mineralogical and geochemical studies on apatites and phosphate host rocks of Esfordi deposit, Yazd province, to determine the origin and geological setting of the apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Rajabzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iron-apatite ore deposits well known as Kiruna iron type formed in association with calc-alkaline volcanism from Proterozoic to Tertiary (Hitzman et al., 1992. Liquid immiscibility in an igneous system was proposed to explain the formation of the iron oxides accompanying apatite in mineralized zones (Förster and Jafarzadeh, 1994; Daliran, 1999. The mode of ore formation however, is a matter in debate. Bafq region in Central Iran is one of the greatest iron mining regions in Iran with 750 million tons of reservoir. The majority of the iron deposits contains apatite as minor mineral and underwent metamorphism-alteration in varying degrees. The mode of formation and geological setting of Esfordi iron-apatite deposit in this region with an average of 13.9 wt% apatite are discussed using geochemical and mineralogical data along with field description. Materials and methods Fifty-three samples of mineralized zones and host rocks collected from 7 cross sections were studied by conventional microscopic methods. Seven representative samples were determined by XRD at Department of Physics, Shiraz University. Fifteen and six samples were also analyzed for major and trace elements using XRF at Binaloud Co. Iran, and ICP-MS at Labwest Minerals Analysis, Australia, respectively. Microprobe analyses were carried out on apatite in Geo Forschungs Zentrum Telegrafenberg at Potsdam University, Germany. Results Field observation shows that igneous host rocks in Esfordi were intensively altered by hydrothermal fluids. The ores are surrounded by wide altered halos. Petrographic investigation indicated that the most important alterations are of potassic, carbonatitic and silicification types. Magnetite and apatite occur as major minerals, accompanied by minor hematite and goethite in the mineralized zones. Rare Earth Element (REE minerals are present as minor phases in the ores. Three apatite mineralization types (vein, massive, and disseminated were

  14. Geology and description of thorium and rare-earth deposits in the southern Bear Lodge Mountains, northeastern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    The Bear Lodge Mountains are a small northerly trending range approximately 16 km northwest of the Black Hills in the northeast corner of Wyoming. Thorium and rare-earth deposits occur over an area of 16 km 2 in the southern part of these mountains. These deposits occur in the core of the Bear Lodge dome in a large multiple intrusive body made up principally of trachyte and phonolite. Two types of deposits are recognized: disseminated deposits and veins. The disseminated deposits are made up of altered igneous rocks cut by numerous crisscrossing veinlets. The disseminated deposits contain thorium and rare-earth minerals in a matrix consisting principally of potassium feldspar, quartz, and iron and manganese oxides. Total rare-earth content of these deposits is about 27 times that of the thorium content. The general size and shape of the disseminated deposits were outlined by making a radiometric map using a scintillation counter of the entire Bear Lodge core, an area of approximately 30 km 2 . The most favorable part of this area, which was outlined by the 40 countJs (count-per-second) isograd on the radiometric map, was sampled in detail. A total of 341 samples were taken over an area of 10.6 km 2 and analyzed for as many as 60 elements. Rare earths and thorium are the principal commodities of interest in these deposits. Total rare-earth content of these samples ranged from 47 to 27,145 ppm (parts per million), and the thorium content from 9.3 to 990 ppm. The amount of total rare earths of individual samples shows little correlation with that of thorium. Contour maps were constructed using the analytical data for total rare earths, thorium, uranium, and potassium. The total rare-earth and thorium maps can be used to define the size of the deposits based on what cut-off grade may be needed during mining. The size is large as the 2,000 ppm total rare-earth isograd encloses several areas that total 3.22 km 2 in size, and the 200 ppm thorium isograd encloses several

  15. 基于矿床实体模型的地质储量计算方法研究%Calculation Method of Geological Reserve Based on Solid Model of Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵浩; 白润才; 刘光伟; 王金金

    2011-01-01

    矿床三维地质模型是实现“数字矿山”的基础,本文以AutoCAD为平台,利用钻孔数据、断层数据等建立矿床三维地质模型,提出了一种快速构建矿床三维地质实体模型的方法——包络面构模法。在建立矿床三维地质模型的基础上,介绍了一种基于矿床三维地质实体模型的储量计算方法,实现了矿床三雏地质模型上任意闭合区域资源储量的查询,与传统地质储量计算方法相比,提高了计算的速度与精度。%3D geological model of deposit is the basis of realizing digital mine . By using borehole and fault data, three-dimensional geological model of deposit is constructed in the platform of AutoCAD. A rapid method of constructing 3D geological solid model of deposit is proposed , which is called Envelop Surface Model. On the basis of 3 D geological solid model of deposit, a calculation method of reserve based on 3D geological solid model of deposit is introduced,which realizes the inquiry reserve of any closed region on 3D geological model of deposit, and speeds up the calculation and accuracy compared with traditional mine reserve.

  16. The geology, structure and mineralisation of the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry copper-gold-molybdenum deposits, Mongolia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. (Mike Porter

    2016-05-01

    Mineralisation is characterised by varying, telescoped stages of intrusion and alteration. Early A-type quartz veined dykes were followed by Cu-Au mineralisation associated with potassic alteration, mainly K-feldspar in quartz-monzodiorite and biotite-magnetite in basaltic hosts. Downward reflux of cooled, late-magmatic hydrothermal fluid resulted in intense quartz-sericite retrograde alteration in the upper parts of the main syn-mineral intrusions, and an equivalent chlorite-muscovite/illite-hematite assemblage in basaltic host rocks. Uplift, facilitated by syn-mineral longitudinal faulting, brought sections of the porphyry deposit to shallower depths, to be overprinted and upgraded by late stage, shallower, advanced argillic alteration and high sulphidation mineralisation. Key controls on the location, size and grade of the deposit cluster include (i a long-lived, narrow faulted corridor; (ii multiple pulses of overlapping intrusion within the same structure; and (iii enclosing reactive, mafic dominated wall rocks, focussing ore.

  17. Detailed 40Ar/39Ar dating of geologic events associated with the Mantos Blancos copper deposit, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Verónica; Féraud, Gilbert; Aguirre, Luis; Ramírez, Luis; Fornari, Michel; Palacios, Carlos; Parada, Miguel

    2008-03-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar geochronological method was applied to date magmatic and hydrothermal alteration events in the Mantos Blancos mining district in the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile, allowing the distinction of two separate mineralization events. The Late Jurassic Mantos Blancos orebody, hosted in Jurassic volcanic rocks, is a magmatic-hydrothermal breccia-style Cu deposit. Two superimposed mineralization events have been recently proposed. The first event is accompanied by a phyllic hydrothermal alteration affecting a rhyolitic dome. The second mineralization event is related to the intrusion of bimodal stocks and sills inside the deposit. Because of the superposition of several magmatic and hydrothermal events, the obtained 40Ar/39Ar age data are complex; however, with a careful interpretation of the age spectra, it is possible to detect complex histories of successive emplacement, alteration, mineralization, and thermal resetting. The extrusion of Jurassic basic to intermediate volcanic rocks of the La Negra Formation is dated at 156.3 ± 1.4 Ma (2 σ) using plagioclase from an andesitic lava flow. The first mineralization event and associated phyllic alteration affecting the rhyolitic dome occurred around 155-156 Ma. A younger bimodal intrusive event, supposed to be equivalent to the bimodal stock and sill system inside the deposit, is probably responsible for the second mineralization event dated at ca. 142 Ma. Other low-temperature alteration events have been dated on sericitized plagioclase at ca. 145-146, 125, and 101 Ma. This is the first time that two distinct mineralization events have been documented from radiometric data for a copper deposit in the metallogenic belt of the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile.

  18. Geological and geotechnical characterization of the debris avalanche and pyroclastic deposits of Cotopaxi Volcano (Ecuador). A contribute to instability-related hazard studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzoli, L.; Apuani, T.; Corazzato, C.; Uttini, A.

    2017-02-01

    The huge volcanic debris avalanche occurred at 4.5 ka is a major event in the evolution of the Cotopaxi volcano, Ecuador. The present volcanic hazard in the Cotopaxi region is related to lahars generated by volcanic eruptions and concurrent ice melting. This paper presents the geological and geotechnical field and laboratory characterization of the 4.5 ka Cotopaxi debris avalanche deposit and of the younger unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits, representing the probable source of future shallow landslides. The debris avalanche formed a deposit with a well-developed hummocky topography, and climbed a difference in height of about 260 m along the slopes of the adjacent Sincholagua volcano. The debris avalanche deposit includes four lithofacies (megablock, block, mixed, and sheared facies) that represent different flow regimes and degrees of substratum involvement. The facies distribution suggests that, in the proximal area, the debris avalanche slid predominantly confined to the valleys along the N and NE flank of the volcanic cone, emplacing a stack of megablocks. When the flow reached the break in slope at the base of the edifice, it became unconfined and spread laterally over most of the area of the Rio Pita valley. A dynamic block fragmentation and dilation occurred during the debris avalanche transport, emplacing the block facies. The incorporation of the older Chalupas Ignimbrite is responsible for the mixed facies and the sheared facies. Geotechnical results include a full-range grain size characterization, which enabled to make broader considerations on possible variability among the sampled facies. Consolidated drained triaxial compression tests, carried out on the fine fraction Failure surfaces are always well developed, indicating that the poorly consolidated pyroclastic cover could undergo failure leading to the formation of a gravity driven instability phenomena, like granular or debris flows, which are mainly controlled by the fine fraction. This work

  19. Geological analysis of aeromagnetic data from southwestern Alaska: implications for exploration in the area of the Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric D.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Monecke, Thomas; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Shah, Anjana K.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2013-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data are used to better understand the geology and mineral resources near the Late Cretaceous Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit in southwestern Alaska. The reduced-to-pole (RTP) transformation of regional-scale aeromagnetic data shows that the Pebble deposit is within a cluster of magnetic anomaly highs. Similar to Pebble, the Iliamna, Kijik, and Neacola porphyry copper occurrences are in magnetic highs that trend northeast along the crustal-scale Lake Clark fault. A high-amplitude, short- to moderate-wavelength anomaly is centered over the Kemuk occurrence, an Alaska-type ultramafic complex. Similar anomalies are found west and north of Kemuk. A moderate-amplitude, moderate-wavelength magnetic low surrounded by a moderate-amplitude, short-wavelength magnetic high is associated with the gold-bearing Shotgun intrusive complex. The RTP transformation of the district-scale aeromagnetic data acquired over Pebble permits differentiation of a variety of Jurassic to Tertiary magmatic rock suites. Jurassic-Cretaceous basalt and gabbro units and Late Cretaceous biotite pyroxenite and granodiorite rocks produce magnetic highs. Tertiary basalt units also produce magnetic highs, but appear to be volumetrically minor. Eocene monzonite units have associated magnetic lows. The RTP data do not suggest a magnetite-rich hydrothermal system at the Pebble deposit. The 10-km upward continuation transformation of the regional-scale data shows a linear northeast trend of magnetic anomaly highs. These anomalies are spatially correlated with Late Cretaceous igneous rocks and in the Pebble district are centered over the granodiorite rocks genetically related to porphyry copper systems. The spacing of these anomalies is similar to patterns shown by the numerous porphyry copper deposits in northern Chile. These anomalies are interpreted to reflect a Late Cretaceous magmatic arc that is favorable for additional discoveries of Late Cretaceous porphyry copper systems in southwestern

  20. Geological and Technological Characterization of the Manganese ore Deposits of the Córrego do Cocho Mine, Itapira (SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Angeli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objects of this study are three manganese ore deposits and one mine derived from lateritic weathering of gondites(spessartine quartzites. These deposits are associated with Mn-rich garnet metasediments of the Itapira Group (Paleoproterozoicand the reserves were estimated at approximately 2.0 x 106 tons with an average grade of 23% MnO2. The ore minerals arecryptomelane, pyrolusite, lithiophorite, spessartine and psilomelane. Several crystal shapes and textural characteristics wereidentifi ed in this study, which are related to the degree of liberation, as confi rmed by heavy media separation method. In thisstudy, we determined the main characteristics of the liberation of manganese, which is concentrated in the fi ne grain-sizefraction and is lost during ore dressing. Therefore, the low average content of MnO2 (28% is due to this loss, whereas at grainsize of minus 0.074 mm, contents near 40% MnO2 were observed. This suggests that the ore can be used for manufacturingmanganese sulphate fertilizers. A comparative study with the ore deposits located at Ouro Fino (MG, mainly with theCaneleiras mine, showed that higher degree of liberation occurs in the coarse grain-size fractions (0.84 to 0.074 mm withMnO2 content of 38%. As a consequence, the ore can be used for manufacturing Fe-Si-Mn alloys.

  1. Geologic controls on the formation and evolution of quaternary coastal deposits of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S.J.; Penland, S.; Sallenger, A.H.; McBride, R.A.; Kindlinger, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    A study of the barrier islands and wetlands in the deltaic plain of Louisiana is presented. Its purpose was to document rapid changes and to learn more about the processes responsible and the geologic framework within which they operate. It included systematic collection and analysis of precision nearshore hydrographic data, high resolution seismic profiles, surface sediment samples, continuous vibracores, digital shoreline plots, records of storm overwash events, and analysis of tide gage records to quantify the rise in relative sea level. Results from these studies demonstrate that deltaic progradation, river channel switching, and subsequent rapid erosion accompanying the marine transgression are regular and predictable events along the Mississippi River delta plain and will likely continue in the future. Mitigation measures, such as shoreline nourishment and barrier restoration, that mimic the natural processes may slow the land loss.

  2. Geologic and geochemical insights into the formation of the Taiyangshan porphyry copper–molybdenum deposit, Western Qinling Orogenic Belt, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun-Feng Qiu,; Taylor, Ryan D.; Yao-Hui Song,; Hao-Cheng Yu,; Kai-Rui Song,; Nan Li,

    2016-01-01

    Taiyangshan is a poorly studied copper–molybdenum deposit located in the Triassic Western Qinling collisional belt of northwest China. The intrusions exposed in the vicinity of the Taiyangshan deposit record episodic magmatism over 20–30 million years. Pre-mineralization quartz diorite porphyries, which host some of the deposit, were emplaced at 226.6 ± 6.2 Ma. Syn-collisional monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries, which also host mineralization, were emplaced at 218.0 ± 6.1 Ma and 215.0 ± 5.8 Ma, respectively. Mineralization occurred during the transition from a syn-collisional to a post-collisional setting at ca. 208 Ma. A barren post-mineralization granite porphyry marked the end of post-collisional magmatism at 200.7 ± 5.1 Ma. The ore-bearing monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries have a εHf(t) range from − 2.0 to + 12.5, which is much more variable than that of the slightly older quartz diorite porphyries, with TDM2 of 1.15–1.23 Ga corresponding to the positive εHf(t) values and TDM1 of 0.62–0.90 Ga corresponding to the negative εHf(t) values. Molybdenite in the Taiyangshan deposit with 27.70 to 38.43 ppm Re suggests metal sourced from a mantle–crust mixture or from mafic and ultramafic rocks in the lower crust. The δ34S values obtained for pyrite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite from the deposit range from + 1.3‰ to + 4.0‰, + 0.2‰ to + 1.1‰, and + 5.3‰ to + 5.9‰, respectively, suggesting a magmatic source for the sulfur. Calculated δ18Ofluid values for magmatic K-feldspar from porphyries (+ 13.3‰), hydrothermal K-feldspar from stockwork veins related to potassic alteration (+ 11.6‰), and hydrothermal sericite from quartz–pyrite veins (+ 8.6 to + 10.6‰) indicate the Taiyangshan deposit formed dominantly from magmatic water. Hydrogen isotope values for hydrothermal sericite ranging from − 85 to − 50‰ may indicate that magma degassing progressively depleted residual liquid in

  3. Groundtruthing and potential for predicting acid deposition impacts in headwater streams using bedrock geology, GIS, angling, and stream chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C S; McInerney, B; Turner, M D

    2008-04-15

    Atmospheric acid deposition is of environmental concern worldwide, and the determination of impacts in remote areas can be problematic. Rainwater in central Pennsylvania, USA, has a mean pH of approximately 4.4. Bedrock varies dramatically in its ability to neutralize acidity. A GIS database simplified reconnaissance of non-carbonate bedrock streams in the Valley and Ridge Province and identified potentially chronically impacted headwater streams, which were sampled for chemistry and brook trout. Stream sites (n=26) that originate in and flow through the Tuscarora had a median pH of 5.0 that was significantly different from other formations. Shawangunk streams (n=6) and non-Tuscarora streams (n=20) had a median pH of 6.0 and 6.3, respectively. Mean alkalinity for non-Tuscarora streams (2.6 mg/L CaCO(3)) was higher than the mean for Tuscarora streams (0.5 mg/L). Lower pH and alkalinity suggest that the buffering capability of the Tuscarora is inferior to that of adjacent sandstones. Dissolved aluminum concentrations were much higher for Tuscarora streams (0.2 mg/L; approximately the lethal limit for brook trout) than for non-Tuscarora streams (0.03 mg/L) or Shawangunk streams (0.02 mg/L). Hook-and-line methods determined the presence/absence of brook trout in 47 stream reaches with suitable habitat. Brook trout were observed in 21 of 22 non-Tuscarora streams, all 6 Shawangunk streams, and only 9 of 28 Tuscarora stream sites. Carefully-designed hook-and-line sampling can determine the presence or absence of brook trout and help confirm biological impacts of acid deposition. 15% of 334 km of Tuscarora stream lengths are listed as "impaired" due to atmospheric deposition by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. 65% of the 101 km of Tuscarora stream lengths examined in this study were impaired.

  4. The Nolans Bore rare-earth element-phosphorus-uranium mineral system: geology, origin and post-depositional modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, David L.; Maas, Roland; Cross, Andrew; Hussey, Kelvin J.; Mernagh, Terrence P.; Fraser, Geoff; Champion, David C.

    2016-08-01

    Nolans Bore is a rare-earth element (REE)-U-P fluorapatite vein deposit hosted mostly by the ~1805 Ma Boothby Orthogneiss in the Aileron Province, Northern Territory, Australia. The fluorapatite veins are complex, with two stages: (1) massive to granular fluorapatite with inclusions of REE silicates, phosphates and (fluoro)carbonates, and (2) calcite-allanite with accessory REE-bearing phosphate and (fluoro)carbonate minerals that vein and brecciate the earlier stage. The veins are locally accompanied by narrow skarn-like (garnet-diopside-amphibole) wall rock alteration zones. SHRIMP Th-Pb analyses of allanite yielded an age of 1525 ± 18 Ma, interpreted as the minimum age of mineralisation. The maximum age is provided by a ~1550 Ma SHRIMP U-Pb age for a pegmatite that predates the fluorapatite veins. Other isotopic systems yielded ages from ~1443 to ~345 Ma, implying significant post-depositional isotopic disturbance. Calculation of initial ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr at 1525 Ma and stable isotope data are consistent with an enriched mantle or lower crust source, although post-depositional disturbance is likely. Processes leading to formation of Nolans Bore began with north-dipping subduction along the south margin of the Aileron Province at 1820-1750 Ma, producing a metasomatised, volatile-rich, lithospheric mantle wedge. About 200 million years later, near the end of the Chewings Orogeny, this reservoir and/or the lower crust sourced alkaline low-degree partial melts which passed into the mid- and upper-crust. Fluids derived from these melts, which may have included phosphatic melts, eventually deposited the Nolans Bore fluorapatite veins due to fluid-rock interaction, cooling, depressurisation and/or fluid mixing. Owing to its size and high concentration of Th (2500 ppm), in situ radiogenic heating caused significant recrystallisation and isotopic resetting. The system finally cooled below 300 °C at ~370 Ma, possibly in response to unroofing during the Alice Springs

  5. Helium and argon isotopic compositions of the Longquanzhan gold deposit in the Yishu fault zone and their geological implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Longquanzhan gold deposit hosted in granitic cataclasites with mylontization of the foot wall of the main Yishui-Tangtou fault. 3He/4He ratios in fluid inclusions range from 0.14 to 0.24 R/Ra,close to those of the crust-source helium. 40Ar/36Ar ratios were measured to be 289-1811, slightly higher than those of atmospheric argon. The results of analysis of helium and argon isotopes suggested that ore-forming fluids were derived chiefly from the crust. The δ18O values of fluid inclusions from vein quartz range from -1.78‰ to 4.07‰, and the δD values of the fluid inclusions vary between -74‰ and -77‰. The hydrogen and oxygen isotope data indicated that the ore-forming fluid for the Longquanzhan gold deposit had mixed with meteoric water in the process of mineralization. This is consistent with the conclusion from the helium and argon isotope data.

  6. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20092028 Bai Wancheng(Gold Headquarters,Chinese Armed Police Forces,Beijing 100055,China);Dong Jianle Borrowed Model Method and Application in Metallogenic Prognosis(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,44(4),2008,p.60-63,1 illus.,2 tables,8 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:prediction of deposits,geological model20092029 Cao Zubao(Xi’an Branch of China Coal Research Institute,Xi’an 710054,China)Application Study on Artificial Neural Network Method in Deformation Prediction for Foundation Pit(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,35(5),2008,p.38-40,43,1 illus.,6 tables,8 refs.,

  7. Geology and hydrothermal alteration at the Madh adh Dhahab epithermal precious-metal deposit, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebrich, J.L.; LeAnderson, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Mahd adh Dhahab is a late Precambrian epithermal gold-silver-base metal deposit located in the west-central part of the Arabian Shield. North-trending quartz veins containing base and precious metals cut an east-striking, north-dipping homoclinal sequence of volcanic, volcaniclastic, and epiclastic rocks of intermediate to felsic composition. Ore was localized where the veins cut competent, coarse-grained, fragmental units directly below incompetent and impermeable tuff units. The proximity of an epizonal rhyolite porphyry stock to these contacts also was important in localizing ore. Ore minerals include native gold and silver, gold-silver tellurides, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and minor galena, and five stages of mineralization have been identified.

  8. Geology,Geochemistry and Genesis of the Mazhuangshan Gold Deposit in Hami,East Tianshan,Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世忠; 周济元; 等

    2001-01-01

    The Mazhuangshan area is located in the east of the Aqikekuduke Island Arc,where there are distributed intermediate-acid magmatic rocks emplaced during the Middle-Late Carboniferous.There are more than 20 orebodies in the area with an average gold grade 6.4×10-6 at present.The dominant metallic minerals are natural gold,auriferous silver,natural silver,pyrite and galena.Pyrite is the key gold carrier,high in Fe and low in S.Wall-rock alteraions mainly include pyritization,silicification,and sericitization.Carbonation alteration wasextensive at the late stage,often resulting in a high-grade orebody.Three mineralization stages may be distinguished. The peak homogenization temperatures of primary fluid inclusions rage from 240 to 260℃.Mineralization pressures and depths are 47.2-68.8MPa and 1.6-2.3km respec tively,showing the ore-forming features of hypergene gold deposit.Te average salinity is 15wt% NaCl equivalent.Fluid inclusion geochemistry data show that Ca2+ is for higher than Mg2+,and mK/mNa+,mNa2+/mCa2+(0.001-0.338),m∑Cl/m∑S and m∑C/m∑S ratios change with the reduction parameter [R=(CO=CH4)/CO2]and temperature.And the gold contents of ores and gangues are positively correlated with R. The pH values of inclusion water in quartz range from 5.850 7.4.Oxygen fugacity(fO2) ranges from 10-55Pa to 10-47Pa,sulfur fugacity(fS2)is about 10-13,and Eh values are estimated to be about-0.6eV.Theδ34 S values of the fluid were determined to be +3.94‰to+4.98‰.206Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/208Pb ratios in pyrite are 18.269-18.352,15.550-15.633and 38.077-38.355,respectively,The ∑REE values(4.7×10-6-43.1×10-6) of ores and gangues are obviously lower than those of the host magmatic rocks,but their REE and trace element spider diagrams are similar to those of the host magmatic rocks,suggesting that the water consists dominantly of meteoric water,mixed with a part of magmatic water.The metallogenic element mostly came from magmatites.The deposit is closely related to

  9. Geology, petrography, geochemistry, and genesis of sulfide-rich pods in the Lac des Iles palladium deposits, western Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Charley J.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Corkery, John T.

    2016-04-01

    The Lac des Iles Pd deposits are known for their Pd-rich sulfide-poor mineralization. However, previously undocumented sulfide-rich pods also occur within the intrusion that hosts the deposits. Given the complex magmatic and hydrothermal history of the mineralization at Lac des Iles, the sulfide-rich pods could have crystallized from magmatic sulfide liquids or precipitated from hydrothermal fluids. Sulfide-rich pods occur throughout the stratigraphy, in all rock types, and along comagmatic shear zones, and contain net-textured to massive sulfides. They can be divided into four main groups based on the variation in mineral assemblages: (1) pyrrhotite-pentlandite ± pyrite-chalcopyrite-magnetite-ilmenite; (2) chalcopyrite ± pyrrhotite-pentlandite-pyrite-magnetite-ilmenite; (3) pyrite ± pentlandite-chalcopyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite-ilmenite; and (4) magnetite ± ilmenite-pyrrhotite-pentlandite-pyrite-chalcopyrite. Whole rock metal contents and S isotopic compositions do not change with the amount of pyrite present, except for slight enrichments in As and Bi. The presence of an essentially magmatic sulfide mineral assemblage (pyrrhotite-pentlandite ± chalcopyrite) with pentlandite exsolution flames in pyrrhotite in some pods suggests that the pods crystallized from magmatic sulfide liquids. The very low Cu contents of the pods suggests that they are mainly cumulates of monosulfide solid solution (MSS). We propose a model whereby sulfide liquids were concentrated into dilation zones prior to crystallizing cumulus MSS. Intermediate solid solution crystallized from the fractionated liquids at the edges of some pods leaving residual liquids enriched in Pt, Pd, Au, As, Bi, Sb, and Te. These residual liquids are no longer associated with the pods. During subsequent alteration, pyrite replaced MSS/pyrrhotite, but this did not affect the platinum-group element contents of the pods.

  10. Contribution of terrigenous rocks of South Belgian coal deposits in geological storage of CO2 : the sandstones case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, N.; Baele, J.-M.

    2009-04-01

    Sequestration of CO2 in unmined coal seams is one of the different options for storing CO2 in geological reservoirs. In favorable situations, it could be coupled with the retrieving of adsorbed methane from coal (ECBM), which can make this solution economically more attractive. However, in the case of South Belgian coal measures, both weak permeability of the coal and frequent faulting/folding of the seams are likely to decrease the efficiency of this technique. Westphalian A and B sediments from South Belgium are containing only about 2.5% vol. of coal; the other rocks consisting of shales/siltstones (~80%) and sandstones (~20%). For all these lithologies, the main processes of CO2 sequestration are 1) adsorption in coal and clay minerals that are partly forming shales, and within rock porosity in the case of sandstones and, to a lesser extent, in the shales/siltstone porosity. In a previous assessment of the sequestration potential in Westphalian coal measures of South Belgium, Baele et al. (2007) showed that coal and shales each account for 25% of the total sequestration potential, and the rest, i.e. 50%, is related to sandstones on a basis of 2% porosity. Beside their significant additional storage capacity, sandstones have also a better permeability than the other finer-grained and organic lithologies. Additionally, sandstones are known to occasionally cut the coal seams (wash-out), thus providing insights in increasing accessibility of injected CO2 into the coal. On the other hand, some sandstone banks are fossil braided rivers that induced peripheral fractures by differential compaction during burial diagenesis (Van Tongeren et al., 2000). These fractures are thus likely to have increased accessibility from high-injectivity sandstones to surrounding lithologies that could significantly contribute to storage capacity. The aim of this study is to refine the contribution of the westphalian South Belgium sandstones to the geological storage of CO2. Measurements

  11. 我国矿山地质环境治理恢复保证金制度的法律思考%Legal conception of the governance and restoration deposit system of mine geological environment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维宸

    2011-01-01

    The geological environment problems of mine in China is even sharper than before, so the management of mine geological environment is urgent. The governance and restoration deposit of mine geological environment can change the situation of high management payment and low illegal cost. It is proposed that speeding up the legislation on the governance and restoration deposit of mine geological environment, reasonable measuring the ecological compensation standard of the governance and restoration deposit amount of mine geological environment, innovating the return form of the governance and restoration deposit of mine geological environment, establishing and improving the compensation mechanism of geological environment damage on mine, strictly implementing the geological environment plan of mine and the assessment system of environmental impact, strictly carrying out the protection system of mine geological environment, as well as strengthening public monitoring on the governance and restoration of mine geological environment.%我国矿山地质环境问题日益突出,对矿山地质环境进行治理已是当务之急.矿山地质环境治理恢复保证金,可以改变传统的矿山环境管理中管理成本高、违法成本低的局面.建议加快矿山地质环境治理恢复保证金制度的立法工作,合理测算矿山地质环境治理恢复保证金数额的生态补偿标准,创新矿山地质环境恢复保证金返还形式,建立健全矿山地质环境损毁补偿赔付机制,严格矿山地质环境规划和环境影响评价制度,实行更加严格的矿山地质环境保护制度,加强公众监督矿山地质环境治理恢复力度.

  12. Evolution of U fractionation processes through geologic time : consequences for the variation of U deposit types from Early Earth to Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuney, M.

    2009-12-01

    U deposits are known at nearly all stages of the geological cycle, but are not known prior to 2.95 Ga. Also, U deposit types vary greatly from Mesoarchean to Present. Most of these changes through time can be attributed to major modifications in the geodynamic evolution of the Earth, in magmatic fractionation processes, in the composition of the Atmosphere and in the nature of life. The first U-rich granites able to crystallize uraninite, appeared at about 3.1 Ga. They correspond to the most fractionated terms of high-K calcalkaline suites, resulting from crystal fractionation of magmas possibly derived from melting of mantle wedges enriched in K, U, Th. Highly fractionated peraluminous leucogranites, able to crystallize uraninite, appeared at about 2.6 Ga. Erosion of these two granite types led to the detrital accumulation of uraninite that formed the first U deposits on Earth: the Quartz Pebble Conglomerates from 2.95 to 2.4 Ga. From 2.3 Ga onwards, uprise of oxygen level in the atmosphere led to the oxidation of U(IV) to U(VI), U transport in solution, and exuberant development of marine algae in epicontinental platform sediments. From 2.3 to 1.8 Ga large amounts of U, previously accumulated as U(IV) minerals, were dissolved and trapped preferentially in passive margin settings, in organic-rich sediments, and which led to the formation of the world’s largest Paleoproterozoic U provinces, e.g. : the Wollaston belt, Canada and the Cahill Formation, Australia. During and after the worldwide 2.1-1.75 Ga orogenic events, responsible for the formation of the Nuna supercontinent, U trapped in these formations was the source for several types of mineralization: (i) metamorphosed U-mineralized graphitic schists, calcsilicates and meta-arkoses, (ii) diagenetic-hydrothermal remobilization with the formation of the first deposits related to redox processes at 2.0 Ga (Oklo, Gabon), (iii) partial melting of U-rich metasediments forming the uraninite disseminations in

  13. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090243 Chen Zhibin (Hebei Institute of Geological Survey, Shijiazhuang 050081, China) Ore-Controlling Factors of the Beichagoumen Ag-Polymetallic Deposits in Northern Hebei Province (Geological Survey and Research, ISSN1672-4135, CN12-1353/P, 31(1), 2008, p.1-5, 3 illus., 10 refs.)

  14. Geology and mineral deposits of an area in the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas (Subzone IIB), Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feininger, Tomas; Barrero L., Dario; Castro, Nestor; Hall, R.B.

    1973-01-01

    The Inventario Minero National (IMN), a four-year cooperative geologic mapping and mineral resources appraisal project, was accomplished under an agreement between the Republic of Colombia and the U. S. Agency for International Development from 1964 through 1969. Subzone IIB, consisting essentially of the east half of Zone comprises nearly 20,000 km2 principally in the Department of Antioquia but including also small parts of the Departments of Caldas and Tolima. The rocks in IIB range from Precambrian to Holocene. Precambrian feldspar-quartz gneiss occupies a mosaic of fault-bounded blocks intruded by igneous rocks between the Oto fault and the Rio Magdalena. Paleozoic rocks are extensive, and include lightly metamorphosed graptolite-bearing Ordovician shale at Cristalina, and a major suite of graphitic quartz-mica schist, feldspathic and aluminous gneiss, quartzite, marble, amphibolite, and other rocks. Syntectonic intrusive gneiss included many of the older rocks during a late Paleozoic(?) orogeny, which was accompanied by Abukuma-type metamorphosing from lowermost greenschist to upper amphibolite facies. A Jurassic diorite pluton bounded by faults cuts volcanic rocks of unknown age east of the Otu fault. Cretaceous rocks are major units. Middle Cretaceous carbonaceous shale, sandstone, graywacke, conglomerate, and volcanic rocks are locally prominent. The Antioquian batholith (quartz diorite) of Late Cretaceous age cuts the middle Cretaceous and older rocks. A belt of Tertiary nonmarine clastic sedimentary rocks crops out along the Magdalena Valley. Patches of Tertiary alluvium are locally preserved in the mountains. Quaternary alluvium, much of it auriferous, is widespread in modern stream valleys. Structurally IIB constitutes part of a vast complex synclinorium intruded concordantly by syntectonic catazonal or mesozonal felsic plutons, and by the later epizonal post-tectonic Antioquian batholith. Previously unrecognized major wrench faults are outstanding

  15. Geology, geochemistry and Ar Ar geochronology of the Nangimali ruby deposit, Nanga Parbat Himalaya (Azad Kashmir, Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pêcher, A.; Giuliani, G.; Garnier, V.; Maluski, H.; Kausar, A. B.; Malik, R. H.; Muntaz, H. R.

    2002-12-01

    The Nangimali ruby deposit in the southern part of the Nanga Parbat Himalaya, has been investigated through field work, geochemistry, stable and radiogenic isotopes. It outcrops in the Shontar valley in a large north-vergent syncline consisting of high-grade metamorphic gneisses capped by a metasedimentary series dominated by marbles and amphibolites. The ore-body is stratiform. Ruby is found within 0.1-2 cm thick shear-veinlets and gash veins cutting dolomitic marbles and carbonate-bearing bands. The marbles of the Nangimali Formation display restricted ranges in δ18O (from 23.6 to 27.6‰ relative to SMOW) and in δ13C (from -1.9 to 2.6‰ relative to PDB). Fluid infiltration along the shear-zone in the marble has no effect on the isotopic signatures of the carbonates. Fluids are metamorphic and CO 2 is derived from the decarbonation of marbles. Mass-balance and geochemical analyses suggest that the mobilisation by the fluids of aluminium and chromium in the marbles is sufficient to enable the formation of ruby in the shear-zone. Rubies have been indirectly dated using a stepwise 40Ar- 39Ar laser heating technique on syngenetic phlogopites. The Miocene age records a Neogene cooling in the South of the Nanga Parbat massif and a minimum formation age for ruby of 16 Ma.

  16. Geology of El Domo deposit in central Ecuador: a VMS formed on top of an accreted margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Cristian; Soria, Francisco; Tornos, Fernando; Naranjo, German; Rosero, Bayardo; Salazar, Fredy; Cochrane, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    El Domo is a Cu-Au-Zn-Ag volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit (VMS) within the Paleocene-Eocene submarine arc rocks of the Macuchi Formation in central Ecuador. The mineralization includes massive and semi-massive sulfides located at the interface between a submarine rhyodacite dome complex and overlying mafic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, including chaotic and unsorted debris flow deposits. Whole rock geochemical analyses show that the felsic rocks belong to a calc-alkaline sequence, whereas the mafic assemblages have a tholeiitic affinity, reflecting a magmatic association typically found in many VMS districts. This geochemical change temporally coincides with the formation of the massive sulfides. New zircon Hf isotopic data collected from a hanging wall rhyodacite suggest that the presence of an over-thickened crust of oceanic plateau affinity may have influenced the composition of the magmatic rocks. The timing of massive sulfide formation is constrained by an 40Ar/39Ar age of 41.49 ± 0.37 Ma (2σ) from the volcaniclastic sequence which hosts the massive sulfides and a U/Pb zircon age date of 42.13 ± 0.54 Ma (2σ) from the footwall rhyodacite; both ages are interpreted to provide minimum and maximum ages for mineralization. The massive sulfides are zoned and contain variable proportions of pyrite, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite. Minor accumulations of galena, bornite, tennantite, stromeyerite, and proustite are also present; the latter two minerals are the major carriers of silver whereas gold typically occurs as minute-free grains or in solid solution with silver. Ore minerals are intergrown with variable proportions of chlorite, barite, quartz, anhydrite, and smectite. The footwall rhyodacite hosts an irregular stringer zone which is rich in pyrite and gypsum and is characterized by intense quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration. The hanging wall volcaniclastic lithologies exhibit pervasive but vertically limited (8-10 m) silicification, chloritization, and

  17. Neoproterozoic Cana Brava chrysotile deposit (Goiás, Brazil): Geology and geochemistry of chrysotile vein formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, João Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The Cana Brava chrysotile asbestos deposit of Goiás, Brazil, contains approximately 150 Mt of ore with an average of 3.5 wt.% of cross-fiber chrysotile and lies in the differentiated, mafic-ultramafic Neoproterozoic Cana Brava complex. This complex was formed at approximately 0.79 Ga and metamorphosed at 0.77 to 0.76 and 0.63 Ga. The 0.77 to 0.76 Ga metamorphic event was a high-grade one that transformed the mafic and ultramafic rocks into meta-peridotites and meta-pyroxenites. The low-grade 0.63 Ga metamorphism allowed the formation of black, red and brown serpentinite, graphitic, magnesite-rich talc serpentinite, and rodingite, which became folded and foliated. At the end of the 0.63 Ga metamorphism, black serpentinites were oxidized to form red serpentinites, the main type of serpentinite that outcrops today at the Cana Brava mineralized region. Post-metamorphic fluids reactivated the process of serpentinization, thereby generating massive green serpentinite from the red. Green formed on the most fractured zones, and double red and green reaction rims formed on the sides of the veins located outside the green serpentinite zones. This process did not cause significant variation in the volume of the rocks and resulted in a strongly reducing system thanks to the loss of Fe2O3 and iron and the subsequent crystallization of magnetite within veinlets and altered rocks. Low angle shear, developed under brittle conditions, caused hydraulic fracturing and the generation of oversaturated, oxidizing fluids that crystallized the cross-fiber chrysotile inside open fractures. Very densely fractured zones with fractures filled with cross-fiber chrysotile constitute the ore that is mined at present.

  18. Ni biogeochemical cycle through geological time: insights from Ni isotope variations in modern and ancient marine metallifereous deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, B.; Rouxel, O.; Ponzevera, E.; Sorensen, J. V.; Toner, B.; Bekker, A.

    2011-12-01

    Studies of isotopic composition of transition metals such as Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mo as biogeochemical tracers became popular recently. Since Ni is ubiquitous in marine metallifereous deposits and its concentration in water column is coupled to that of nutrients, it has a potential as a biogeochemical tracer. Isotopic analyses were performed on a Neptune MC-ICP-MS using a double-spike correction method for instrumental mass bias. Deep-sea ferromanganese crusts have been used to establish a record of seawater over the last 60 Myr. Our results show that Fe-Mn crusts from both Atlantic and Pacific oceans are systematically enriched in heavy isotopes relative to Bulk Silicate Earth with δ60/58Ni values ranging from 0.30 to 1.80% (2se = 0.04%). In contrast, Iron Formations (IF) with ages ranging from 3.8 to 0.7 Gyr display a wider range of values with a striking negative Ni isotope excursion down to -2.46% (2se = 0.03%) in Neoproterozoic IF. Although correlation between Ni isotope compositions, Ni concentrations and BIFs ages seems to be lacking, several Ni isotope excursions to either positive or negative Ni isotope values are notable prior to 2.4 Gyr. Methanogens were likely abundant in Precambrian water column until they retreated to pore waters and local environments once the oceans were oxygenated after the Great Oxidation Event (GOE). They preferentially uptake light Ni isotopes leaving isotopically heavier Ni in oceans. Our Ni isotope record of Precambrian IF does not show a unidirectional change across the GOE implying that Ni isotope composition of the Archean oceans was not dominated by this metabolism. Preliminary Ni adsorption experiments on Fe-Mn oxy-hydroxides show a maximum fractionation factor between the mineral phase and aqueous solution of -1.00% (2se = 0.03%). Hence, isotopic variations in Fe-Mn crusts and IF cannot be simply explained by adsorption processes, but require changes in composition of either Ni sources (local or global) to seawater (e

  19. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111705 An Junbo(Team 603,Bureau of Nonferrous Metals Geological Exploration of Jilin Province,Hunchun 133300,China);Xu Renjie Geological Features and Ore Genesis of Baishilazi Scheelite Deposit in Yanbian Area(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,29(3),2010,p.39-43,2 illus.,2 tables,7 refs.)Key words:tungsten ores,Jilin ProvinceThe Baishilazi scheelite deposit is located in contacting zone between the marble of the Late Palaeozoic Qinglongcun Group and the Hercynian biotite granite.The vein and lenticular major ore body is obviously controlled by NE-extending faults and con

  20. Ancient Martian Lakestands and Fluvial Processes in Iani Chaos: Geology of Light-Toned Layered Deposits and their Relationship to Ares Vallis Outflow Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guallini, Luca; Gilmore, Martha; Marinangeli, Lucia; Thomas, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Iani Chaos is a ~30,000 square kilometers region that lies at the head of the Ares Vallis outflow channel system. Mapping of Ares Vallis reveals multiple episodes of erosion, probably linked to several discharge events from the Iani Chaos aquifer. We present the first detailed geomorphological map of the Iani region. Five chaos units have been distinguished with varying degrees of modification (primarily by erosion and fracturing), starting from a common terrain (Noachian highlands). We observe a general progressive decrease of their mean elevation from the Mesas, Mesas & Knobs and Hummocky (Hy) terrains to the Knobs and Knobby morphologies. This trend is consistent with an initial collapse of the original surface with an increase of the fracturing and/or of the erosion. Light-toned Layered Deposits (LLD) have been also mapped and described in Iani Chaos. These terrains are clearly distinguished by a marked light-toned albedo, high thermal inertia and a pervasively fractured morphology. LLD both fill the basins made by the collapsed chaotic terrains and are found to be partially modified by the chaos formation. LLD also overlap chaos mounds or are themselves eroded into mounds after deposition. These stratigraphic relationships demonstrate that LLD deposition occurred episodically in the Iani region and throughout the history of the development of the chaos. Water seems to have had an active role in the geological history of Iani. The composition and morphologies of the LLD are consistent with deposition in an evaporitic environment and with erosion by outflows, requiring stable water on the surface. For the first time, we have also mapped and analyzed potential fluvial features (i.e., channels, streamlined islands, terraces, grooved surfaces) on the surface of the LLD. These landforms describe a fluvial system that can be traced from central Iani and linked northward to Ares Vallis. Using topographic data, we have compared the elevation of the LLD and channel

  1. Alaska geology revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Labay, Keith A.

    2016-11-09

    This map shows the generalized geology of Alaska, which helps us to understand where potential mineral deposits and energy resources might be found, define ecosystems, and ultimately, teach us about the earth history of the State. Rock units are grouped in very broad categories on the basis of age and general rock type. A much more detailed and fully referenced presentation of the geology of Alaska is available in the Geologic Map of Alaska (http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sim3340). This product represents the simplification of thousands of individual rock units into just 39 broad groups. Even with this generalization, the sheer complexity of Alaskan geology remains evident.

  2. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122389 Cai Lianyou ( No.332 Geological Team,Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration of Anhui Province,Huangshan 245000,China );Weng Wangfei Geologic Characteristic and Ore-Control Factors of the Nanshan W-Mo Polymetallic Ore Deposit in South Anhui Province ( Geological Survey and Research,ISSN1672-4135,CN12-1353 / P,34 ( 4 ), 2011,p.290-298,3 illus.,1table,14refs. ) Key words:tungsten ores,molybdenum ores,ore guide of prospecting,Anhui Province

  3. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110165 Chen Jiawei(The 3rd Geological Team,Henan Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources,Xinyang 464000,China)Ore Control Conditions and Genetic Model for the Bodaoling Ag-Au Deposit in Guangshan,Henan Province(Acta Geologica Sichuan,ISSN1006-0995,CN51-1273/P,30(1),2010,p.28-30,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)Key words:gold ores,Henan Province20110166 Chen Mingquan(Geological Team 306,Yunnan Bureau of Nonferrous Geology,Kunming 650216,Ch

  4. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091594 Bao Yafan(The Third Geologic Survey of Jilin Province,Siping 136000,China);Liu Yanjun Relations between Bashenerxi Granite,West Dongkunlun and Baiganhu Tungsten-Tin Deposit(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,27(3),2008,p.56-59,67,5 illus.,2 tables,7 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:tungsten ores,tin ores,monzogranite,Kunlun Mountains20091595 Chen Fuwen(Yichang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Yichang 443003,China);Dai Pingyun Metallogenetic and Isotopic Chronological Study on the Shenjiaya Gold Deposit in Xuefeng Mountains,Hunan Province(Acta Geologica Sinica,ISSN0001-5717,CN11-1951/P,82(7),2008,p.906-911,3 illus.,2 tables,30 refs.)Key words:gold ores,HunanThe Shenjiaya gold deposit is a representative one

  5. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102406 Chen Gang(China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Li Fengming Discussion on Geological Characteristics and Genesis of Yuquanshan Graphite Deposit of Xinjiang(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,27(4),2009,p.325-329,4 illus.,4 tables,5 refs.)Key words:graphite deposit,XinjiangYuquanshan graphite deposit of Xinjiang occurs in mica-quartz schist of Xingeer Information which belongs to Xinditate Group of Lower Pt in Kuluketage Block of Tarim paleo-continent,and experiences two mineralizing periods of

  6. 福建德化石头坂金矿地质特征及找矿标志%Geologic characteristics and prospecting criteria of the Shitouban gold deposit in Dehua County,Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴城

    2015-01-01

    The Shitouban gold deposit is located in the western of east Fujian fracture depression and it's an important discovery of prospecting work. By analyzing the geological characteristics of the deposit, it is re-vealed that the gold deposit is a medium low temperature hydrothermal ore deposit after the magma period. The prospecting criteria are concluded as well.%石头坂金矿位于闽东火山断拗带的西部,是该成矿区带发现的重要金矿床。通过对石头坂金矿床地质特征的分析研究,认为其矿床成因类型属岩浆期后中低温热液矿床,并系统总结了找矿标志。

  7. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041200 Peng Yujing (Regional Geology and Mineral Resources Survey of Jilin Province, Changchun, Jilin); Chen Erzhen A Preliminary Study on the Ore -Forming Geologic Events (Jilin Geology, ISSN 1001-2427, CN22-1099/P, 22(3), 2003, p. 1 -11, 23, 1 illus. , 38 refs. ) Key words: geological eventAn ore - forming geologic event, as a

  8. Geological Features and Prospecting Direction for Haicheng Tin Deposit in Haifeng, Guangdong%广东省海丰县海城锡矿地质特征及找矿方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张深

    2016-01-01

    本文从锡矿地质特征分析,发现矿床受北西-南东构造破碎带控制明显,云英岩赋矿为其主要特征。提出了下一步的找矿方向。%From the analysis on the geological features of tin deposit, it was found that the tin deposit is obviously con-trolled by NW-SE tectonic fracture zone, with occurrence of greisenization as its main feature.And the following prospec-ting direction was proposed.

  9. National uranium resource evaluation. Geology and recognition criteria for sandstone uranium deposits of the salt wash type, Colorado Plateau Province. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamm, J.K.; Kovschak, A.A. Jr.; Adams, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The uranium-vanadium deposits of the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation in the Colorado Plateau are similar to sandstone uranium deposits elsewhere in the USA. The differences between Salt Wash deposits and other sandstone uranium deposits are also significant. The Salt Wash deposits are unique among sandstone deposits in that they are dominantly vanadium deposits with accessory uranium. The Salt Wash ores generally occur entirely within reduced sandstone, without adjacent tongues of oxidized sandstone. They are more like the deposits of Grants, which similarly occur in reduced sandstones. Recent studies of the Grants deposits have identified alteration assemblages which are asymmetrically distributed about the deposits and provide a basis for a genetic model for those deposits. The alteration types recognized by Shawe in the Slick Rock district may provide similar constraints on ore formation when expanded to broader areas and more complete chemical analyses.

  10. Geologic map of the Zarkashan-Anguri copper and gold deposits, Ghazni Province, Afghanistan, modified from the 1968 original map compilation of E.P. Meshcheryakov and V.P. Sayapin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen G.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This map is a modified version of Geological map of the area of Zarkashan-Anguri gold deposits, scale 1:50,000, which was compiled by E.P. Meshcheryakov and V.P. Sayapin in 1968. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Afghan Geological Survey and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations of the U.S. Department of Defense, studied the original document and related reports and also visited the field area in April 2010. This modified map, which includes a cross section, illustrates the geologic setting of the Zarkashan-Anguri copper and gold deposits. The map reproduces the topology (contacts, faults, and so forth) of the original Soviet map and cross section and includes modifications based on our examination of that and other documents, and based on observations made and sampling undertaken during our field visit. (Refer to the Introduction and the References in the Map PDF for an explanation of our methodology and for complete citations of the original map and related reports.) Elevations on the cross section are derived from the original Soviet topography and may not match the newer topography used on the current map.

  11. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152392 Geng Shufang(Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China);Liu Ping Deep Geological Structure Constraints on Shallow Geology and Mineralization:A Study in the Land and Sea Areas of East China(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,34(6),2014,p.49-61,8illus.,13refs.,with English abstract)

  12. Theory of Geological Anomaly in Remote Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Geological anomaly is geological body or complex body with obviously different compositions, structures or orders of genesis as compared with those in the surrounding areas. Geological anomaly, restrained by the geological factors closely associated with ore-forming process, is an important clue to ore deposits. The geological anomaly serves as a geological sign to locate ore deposits. Therefore, it is very important to study how to define the characteristics of geological anomaly and further to locate the changes in these characteristics. In this paper, the authors propose the geological anomaly based on the remote-sensing images and data, and expound systematically such image features as scale, size, boundary, morphology and genesis of geological anomalies. Then the authors introduce the categorization of the geological anomalies according to their geneses. The image characteristics of some types of geological anomalies, such as the underground geological anomaly, are also explained in detail. Based on the remote-sensing interpretation of these geological anomalies, the authors conclude that the forecasting and exploration of ore deposits should be focused on the following three aspects: (1) the analysis of geological setting and geological anomaly; (2) the analysis of circular geological anomaly, and (3) the comprehensive forecasting of ore deposits and the research into multi-source information.

  13. 山东邹平吉祥金铜矿矿床地质特征及找矿前景分析%Geological Characteristics and Prospect Analysis of Jixiang Gold Copper Deposits in Zouping County of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朋朋; 张燕挥; 郭加朋; 刘辉; 李大鹏

    2014-01-01

    在对区域成矿地质背景认识的基础上,详细解剖了吉祥金铜矿的矿区地质和矿床地质特征,讨论了矿床成因与找矿标志,并初步展望了该区的找矿前景。初步认为该矿床属于沿断裂构造充填的岩浆热液矿床。控矿因素主要是断裂构造和岩浆岩,主要找矿标志为发育于二长岩体内的硅化、黄铜矿化构造破碎带。通过对地质、物探等资料的分析认为该区具有良好的找矿前景。%Based on regional geological background,regional geology and geological characteristics of Jixiang gold copper deposit have been explained,the origin and prospecting criteria have been discussed,and ore prospect has been forecasted primarily.It is regarded that this deposit belongs to magmatic hydrothermal deposit which is filled along the fault structure.Ore controlling factors are mainly fracture tectonic and magmatic rocks,main prospecting marks are silication,chalcopyrite structure developed in monzonite fracture zone.Through analysis on geological and geophysical data of the area,it is regarded that there are good ore prospects in this area.

  14. Geologic map of the western Haji-Gak iron deposit, Bamyan Province, Afghanistan, modified from the 1965 original map compilation of V.V. Reshetniak and I.K. Kusov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Karine M.; Tucker, Robert D.; Peters, Stephen G.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This map is a modified version of Geologic-prospecting plan of western area of Hajigak iron-ore deposit, scale 1:2,000, which was compiled by V.V. Reshetniak and I.K. Kusov in 1965. (Refer to the References Cited section in the Map PDF for complete citations of the original map and related reports.) USGS scientists, in cooperation with the Afghan Geological Survey and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations of the U.S. Department of Defense, studied the original documents and also visited the field area in November 2009. This modified map illustrates the geological structure of the western Haji-Gak iron deposit and includes cross sections of the same area. The map reproduces the topology (contacts, faults, and so forth) of the original Soviet map and includes modifications based on our examination of that document. We constructed the cross sections from data derived from the original map. Elevations on the cross sections are derived from the original Soviet topography and may not match the newer topography used on the current map. We have attempted to translate the original Russian terminology and rock classification into modern English geologic usage as literally as possible without changing any genetic or process-oriented implications in the original descriptions. We also use the age designations from the original map. The unit colors on the map and cross sections differ from the colors shown on the original version. The units are colored according to the color and pattern scheme of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) (http://www.ccgm.org).

  15. 吉林和龙东树沟钼矿床地质特征及找矿标志%Geological features and prospecting criteria of Dongshugou molybdenum deposit in Helong City, Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶胜辉; 单贺; 张天瑞; 李玉鹏

    2013-01-01

    Dongshugou molybdenum deposit is located in Helong City about 50 km south, under the jurisdiction of the Longcheng Town. The molybdenum ore body occurs in biotite-plagioclase granite, distribute with layers or veins. The geological features of the deposit, drainage sediment features are summarized in this paper, the prospecting criteria of the molybdenum deposit are determined in this area.%东树沟钼矿床位于和龙市南约50 km,隶属龙城镇管辖。钼矿体赋存于黑云母斜长花岗岩之中,多以层状或脉状分布,该文总结了矿床地质特征、水系沉积物特征,确定了该区钼矿床的找矿标志。

  16. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140958 Mei Huicheng(No.915GeologicalBrigade,Jiangxi Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources,Nanchang 330002,China);Li Zhongshe Geological Features and Causes of the Huihuang Geotherm in Xiushui,Jiangxi Province(Journal of Geological Hazards and

  17. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090700 Chen Anshu(Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Tianjin 300170,China);Li Xiaoguang 1:250 000-Scale Regional Geological Map Spatial Database(Geological Survey and Research,ISSN1672-4135,CN12-1353/P,31(1),2008,p.64-69,2 illus.,2 tables,5 refs.)

  18. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140805Fan Baocheng(Xi’an Center of Geological Survey,China Geology Survey,Xi’an710054,China);Meng Guanglu The Geological Evolution and Metallization of TalasKalatawu Block in Northern Tianshan,Kyrgyzstan(Northwestern Geology,ISSN1009-6248,CN61-1149/P,46(2),2013,p.54-

  19. Geology and resource assessment of Costa Rica

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geologic map at 1:500,000 scale, digitized from USGS I-1865. Includes mines, prospects, and occurrences, permissive tracts for several mineral deposit types, and...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071510 Chen Ge(No.282 Geological Par- ty,Geological Bureau of Sichuan Nuclear In- dustry,Deyang,Sichuan 618000)Assess- ment of Geological Hazards in the Sichuan Sector of the Nanchong-Wanzhou 500 KV Transmisson Line Engineering(Acta Geolog- ica Sichuan,ISSN 1006-0995,CN 51- 1273/P,26(2),2006,p.88-93,2 tables) Key words:geologic hazards,construction field,Sichuan Province Possibility of inducing and intensifying geological hazards by the Nanhong- Wanzhou 500 KV transmission line engineer- ing,geological hazards which probably occur

  1. Geological and isotopic evidence for magmatic-hydrothermal origin of the Ag-Pb-Zn deposits in the Lengshuikeng District, east-central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changming; Zhang, Da; Wu, Ganguo; Santosh, M.; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Yigan; Zhang, Yaoyao

    2014-08-01

    The Lengshuikeng ore district in east-central China has an ore reserve of ˜43 Mt with an average grade of 204.53 g/t Ag and 4.63 % Pb + Zn. Based on contrasting geological characteristics, the mineralization in the Lengshuikeng ore district can be divided into porphyry-hosted and stratabound types. The porphyry-hosted mineralization is distributed in and around the Lengshuikeng granite porphyry and shows a distinct alteration zoning including minor chloritization and sericitization in the proximal zone; sericitization, silicification, and carbonatization in the peripheral zone; and sericitization and carbonatization in the distal zone. The stratabound mineralization occurs in volcano-sedimentary rocks at ˜100-400 m depth without obvious zoning of alterations and ore minerals. Porphyry-hosted and stratabound mineralization are both characterized by early-stage pyrite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite, middle-stage acanthite-native silver-galena-sphalerite, and late-stage pyrite-quartz-calcite. The δ34S values of pyrite, sphalerite, and galena in the ores range from -3.8 to +6.9‰ with an average of +2.0‰. The C-O isotope values of siderite, calcite, and dolomite range from -7.2 to -1.5‰ with an average of -4.4‰ (V-PDB) and from +10.9 to +19.5‰ with an average of +14.8‰ (V-SMOW), respectively. Hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon isotopes indicate that the hydrothermal fluids were derived mainly from meteoric water, with addition of minor amounts of magmatic water. Geochronology employing LA-ICP-MS analyses of zircons from a quartz syenite porphyry yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 136.3 ± 0.8 Ma considered as the emplacement age of the porphyry. Rb-Sr dating of sphalerite from the main ore stage yielded an age of 126.9 ± 7.1 Ma, marking the time of mineralization. The Lengshuikeng mineralization classifies as an epithermal Ag-Pb-Zn deposit.

  2. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110947 Chen Xinglong(Guizhou Bureau of Nonferrous Metal and Nuclear Geology,Guiyang 550005,China);Gong Heqiang Endowment Factors and Development & Utilization Strategy of Bauxite Resource in North Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,27(2),2010,p.106-110,6 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:bauxite deposit,Guizhou Province20110948 Dang Yanxia(Mineral Resource & Reservoir Evaluation Center,Urumiq 830000,China);Fan Wenjun Geological Features and a Primary Study of Metallogenesis of the Wucaiwang Zeolite Deposit,Fuyun County(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(2),2010,p.167-170,2 illus.,1 table,5 refs.)Key words:zeolite deposit,Xinjiang Nearly all zeolite deposits in the world result from low-temperature-alteration of glass-bearing volcanic rocks.The southern slope of the Kalamali Mountain is one of the regions where medium to acid volcanics are major lithological type,thus it is a preferred area to look for zeolite deposit.The Wucaiwang zeolite ore district consists of mainly acid volcanic-clastic rocks.

  3. Chromite deposits in central part Stillwater Complex, Sweet Grass County, Montana: a digital database for the geologic map of the east slope of Iron Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, A.L.; Moyer, Lorre A.

    2001-01-01

    In 1940, A.L. Howland and J. W. Peoples, assisted by W.R. Jones and M.G. Bennett, mapped the geology of the east slope of Iron Mountain, Montana. The map was revised and extended by Howland in 1942 and published in 1955 as plate 10 of the U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1015-D (Howland, 1955). In 2000, the USGS contracted Optronics Specialty Co., Inc. of Northridge, CA to prepare a scanned digital version of plate 10. Geospatial editing and attributing of the scanned map of the east slope of Iron Mountain was performed by the USGS in order to produce an interim digital product. This digital geospatial database is one of many being created by the U.S. Geological Survey as an ongoing effort to provide geologic information in a geographic information system (GIS) for use in spatial analysis.

  4. Tsunami geology in paleoseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuichi Nishimura,; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku-oki disasters dramatically demonstrated the destructiveness and deadliness of tsunamis. For the assessment of future risk posed by tsunamis it is necessary to understand past tsunami events. Recent work on tsunami deposits has provided new information on paleotsunami events, including their recurrence interval and the size of the tsunamis (e.g. [187–189]). Tsunamis are observed not only on the margin of oceans but also in lakes. The majority of tsunamis are generated by earthquakes, but other events that displace water such as landslides and volcanic eruptions can also generate tsunamis. These non-earthquake tsunamis occur less frequently than earthquake tsunamis; it is, therefore, very important to find and study geologic evidence for past eruption and submarine landslide triggered tsunami events, as their rare occurrence may lead to risks being underestimated. Geologic investigations of tsunamis have historically relied on earthquake geology. Geophysicists estimate the parameters of vertical coseismic displacement that tsunami modelers use as a tsunami's initial condition. The modelers then let the simulated tsunami run ashore. This approach suffers from the relationship between the earthquake and seafloor displacement, the pertinent parameter in tsunami generation, being equivocal. In recent years, geologic investigations of tsunamis have added sedimentology and micropaleontology, which focus on identifying and interpreting depositional and erosional features of tsunamis. For example, coastal sediment may contain deposits that provide important information on past tsunami events [190, 191]. In some cases, a tsunami is recorded by a single sand layer. Elsewhere, tsunami deposits can consist of complex layers of mud, sand, and boulders, containing abundant stratigraphic evidence for sediment reworking and redeposition. These onshore sediments are geologic evidence for tsunamis and are called ‘tsunami deposits’ (Figs. 26

  5. Geological tectonic settings, depositional environments and ore-hosting rock assemblages for mineral deposits model with universality%矿床类型模型的地质构造背景、成矿环境和容矿岩石组合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴荣富; 梅燕雄; 瞿泓滢; 王浩琳

    2013-01-01

    Different mineral deposits have different characteristic features, just like the fact that different people have different ringer prints. Based on the Chinese philosophic idea "white horse is a horse but not a horse (class)", this paper proposes a deepening study of the integrated geological characteristics of the same types or similar groups of mineral deposits model with universality. On such a basis, the mineral deposits model with universality (horse class) will contain the kind of deposits with speciality (white horse) and increase its generality in correlation with unknown mineral deposits. Secondly, in this paper, the research work of mineral deposits model is systematically summarized and a new idea of metallogenic series is put forward for establishing the mineral deposits model with universality. Considering the existence of various mineral deposits in the geological setting, the authors integrate the geological tectonic settings, depositional environments and ore-hosting rock assemblages to formulate "a classification of mineral deposits model of China" and 74 models suitable for various depositional environments to be created (see table 1). On such a basis, we can find any deposits model from corresponding geological setting in the classification; in contrast, a certain mineral deposits model can also reflect the depositional environment in which the deposits occurred.%每一矿床模型类似人们“指纹”各自不同.根据中国哲学的“白马是马而非马(类)”的概念,本文提出应深入研究同一类的矿床总体特征的普适性矿床模型.据此,普适性矿床模型(马类)将包括该类矿床中的矿床(白马),从而增强其对未知矿床比对的整体性.其次,本文又对矿床普适性模型提出成矿系列的新概念.即按各类矿床产出的不同环境,作者等根据一定地质构造背景、一定成矿环境和一定容矿岩石组合提出“中国矿床普适性模型分类”和与

  6. Eye-Tracking Investigations Exploring How Students Learn Geology from Photographs and The Structural Setting of Hydrothermal Gold Deposits in the San Antonio Area, B.C.S., MX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyan, Joshua

    Geoscience educators commonly teach geology by projecting a photograph in front of the class. Geologic photographs often contain animals, people, and inanimate objects that help convey the scale of features in the photograph. Although scale items seem innocuous to instructors and other experts, the presence of such items is distracting and has a profound effect on student learning behavior. To evaluate how students visually interact with distracting scale items in photographs and to determine if cueing or signaling is an effective means to direct students to pertinent information, students were eye tracked while looking at geologically-rich photographs. Eye-tracking data revealed that learners primarily looked at the center of an image, focused on faces of both humans and animals if they were present, and repeatedly returned to looking at the scale item (distractor) for the duration an image was displayed. The presence of a distractor caused learners to look at less of an image than when a distractor was not present. Learners who received signaling tended to look at the distractor less, look at the geology more, and surveyed more of the photograph than learners who did not receive signaling. The San Antonio area in the southern part of the Baja California Peninsula is host to hydrothermal gold deposits. A field study, including drill-core analysis and detailed geologic mapping, was conducted to determine the types of mineralization present, the types of structures present, and the relationship between the two. This investigation revealed that two phases of mineralization have occurred in the area; the first is hydrothermal deposition of gold associated with sulfide deposits and the second is oxidation of sulfides to hematite, goethite, and jarosite. Mineralization varies as a function of depth, whereas sulfides occurring at depth, while minerals indicative of oxidation are limited to shallow depths. A structural analysis revealed that the oldest structures in the

  7. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141243Chen Ge(Hangzhou Research Institute of Petroleum Geology,PetroChina,Hangzhou 310023,China);Si Chunsong Study on Sedimentary Numerical Simulation Method of Fan Delta Sand Body(Journal of Geology,

  8. Engineering Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, John B.

    1983-01-01

    Engineering geology activities in government and the private sector are highlighted. Also highlighted are conferences in this field, awards presented at conferences (including an award to an undergraduate geology student), and a new publication "Geotechnology in Massachusetts." (JN)

  9. Geology and geological engineering at Syncrude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines the geology of the Athabasca oil sand deposit and describes the activities of the Mine Geology Section of Syncrude Canada, which operates an oil sand mine in that deposit. The Section serves the mine by providing information in support of a variety of operating functions. It is composed of five specialized teams, each one concerned with accurate, detailed data of practical value. Recognition of the unique geological and geotechnical characteristics of each portion of the base mine is reflected in the approach to the work. The Highwall Mapping and Geological Interpretation Team supports three mine planning groups, geotechnical engineering and dragline operations. Ore grading supplies reserve quality and quantity data to planners and to extraction technical staff covering terms ranging from daily to 25 years. The Overburden and Granular Resources Team provides overburden engineering with the information needed for planning of stripping operations, and ensure valuable sand and gravel reserves are identified for mine haul roads and other construction needs. The Hydrogeology and Groundwater Team supports the depressurization operation and environmental monitoring of tailings operations in conjunction with Environmental Affairs. The Drill Programs Team collects data which the other four teams utilize in the course of carrying out their responsibilities. 30 refs., 14 figs.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160639Cai Wutian(Center for Hydrogeology a nd Environmental Geology Survey,China Geological Survey,Baoding071051,China)Several Issues on Contaminated Sites(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,42(1),2015,p.123

  11. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142560Hu Hongxia(Regional Geological and Mineral Resources Survey of Jilin Province,Changchun 130022,China);Dai Lixia Application of GIS Map Projection Transformation in Geological Work(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,32(4),2013,p.160-163,4illus.,2refs.)

  12. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20081307 Cao Xiping(Geological Museum of China,Beijing 100034)Discussion on the Digitization of Geological Specimen Information and Digital Geological Museum Construction(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN1006-3021,CN11-3474/P,28(2),2007,p.205-208,1 illus.,1 table,4 refs.)

  13. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152086 Liu Lei(Shandong Zhengyuan Geo-logical Exploration Institute,China Metallurgical Geology Bureau,Jinan 250101,China)Comparison of Gridding Effect of MapGIS Software(Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research,ISSN1001-1412,CN12

  14. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091383 Cui Yiwen(First Geology and Mineral Resources Prospecting Team of Qinghai Province,Ping’an 810600,China);Zhang Liling Quaternary Three-Dimensional Model of Geological Structures of Changchun City(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22 -1099/P,27(2),2008,p.125-130,10 illus.,4 tables,14 refs.,with English abstract)

  15. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150901Dai Chuangu(Guizhou Academy of Geologic Survey,Guiyang550005,China);Zheng Qiqian Geological Background Study of Metallogenic in Haixi-Yanshan Tectonic Cycle in Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,31(2),2014,p.82-88,3illus.,2tables,13refs.)Key words:metallogenesis,metallogenic area,

  16. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160938Gao Xiaowei(Wuhan Center of Geo-logical Survey,China Geological Survey,Wuhan 430223,China);Wu Xiurong Two Types of Terrain and Regional Mineralization in Sumatra,Indonesia(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,34

  17. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160276Jiang Hanbing(Xi’an Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,Xi’an710054,China);Yang Hequn The Metallogenic Series Family of Geological Formation in Dunhuang Metallogenetic Belt(Northwestern Geology,ISSN1009-6248,CN61-1149/P,48(1),2015,p.63-71,2illus.,2tables,28refs.)

  18. Geological Features and Prospecting Potential for the Wabanshan Phosphorite Deposit in Hanyaun, Sichuan%四川汉源县瓦板山磷矿地质特征及找矿前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雁; 王嵩; 李艳阳; 李金生

    2015-01-01

    通过分析总结四川汉源瓦板山区域磷矿成矿地质条件,在瓦板山磷矿找矿、勘查实践的基础上,总结了瓦板山地区的磷矿产出地质特征,确定了磷矿的产出层位为寒武系下统筇竹寺组的泥质粉砂岩,提出了下一步的找矿方向,对今后的找矿实践有一定的指导作用。%The Wabanshan phosphorite deposit in Hanyaun, Sichuan is confined to argillic siltstone of the Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Formation. This paper deals with geological features and prospecting potential of the Wabanshan phosphorite deposit.

  19. Geological features and prospecting criteria of Wangkaigou silver deposit in Helong City%和龙市王开沟银矿床地质特征及找矿标志

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶胜辉; 单贺; 张天瑞; 陶立新

    2013-01-01

    王开沟银矿床位于和龙市南约55 km,隶属龙城镇管辖。银矿体赋存于晋宁期二长花岗岩之中,呈脉状分布,该文总结了矿床地质特征,确定了该区银矿床的找矿标志。%Wangkaigou silver deposit is located in south 55 km away from Helong City, in the Longcheng Town’s jurisdiction. Silver ore bodies occur in adamellite of Jinningian, nervation distribution. This paper summarized the deposit’s geological features, determined the prospecting criteria of the silver deposit.

  20. How two gravity-gradient inversion methods can be used to reveal different geologic features of ore deposit - A case study from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Dionísio U.; Uieda, Leonardo; Barbosa, Valeria C. F.

    2016-07-01

    Airborne gravity gradiometry data have been recently used in mining surveys to map the 3D geometry of ore deposits. This task can be achieved by different gravity-gradient inversion methods, many of which use a voxel-based discretization of the Earth's subsurface. To produce a unique and stable solution, an inversion method introduces particular constraints. One constraining inversion introduces a depth-weighting function in the first-order Tikhonov regularization imposing a smoothing on the density-contrast distributions that are not restricted to near-surface regions. Another gravity-gradient inversion, the method of planting anomalous densities, imposes compactness and sharp boundaries on the density-contrast distributions. We used these two inversion methods to invert the airborne gravity-gradient data over the iron-ore deposit at the southern flank of the Gandarela syncline in Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Brazil). Because these methods differ from each other in the particular constraint used, the estimated 3D density-contrast distributions reveal different geologic features of ore deposit. The depth-weighting smoothing inversion reveals variable dip directions along the strike of the retrieved iron-ore body. The planting anomalous density inversion estimates a compact iron-ore mass with a single density contrast, which reveals a variable volume of the iron ore along its strike increasing towards the hinge zone of the Gandarela syncline which is the zone of maximum compression. The combination of the geologic features inferred from each estimate leads to a synergistic effect, revealing that the iron-ore deposit is strongly controlled by the Gandarela syncline.

  1. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (5)GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071202 Bai Fu(Second Prospecting Insti- tute of Geology and Mineral Resources of the Gansu Bureau of Geology and Mineral Re- sources,Lanzhou 730020,China);Ma Genxi Analysis of the Occurrence of the Geother- mal Resources in Lanzhou,Gansu Province (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology,

  2. Geological Features and Genesis of the Nanmiaogou Glauberite Deposit in Mingshan, Sichuan%四川名山县南庙沟钙芒硝矿地质特征及成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉红; 周勇

    2015-01-01

    Glauberite deposit in Mingshan, Sichuan is Late Cretaceous continental lacustrine sulfate deposit. The Nanmiaogou glauberite deposit lies in the east limb of the Mingshan syncline. The orebodies are controlled by the Guankou Formation. This paper makes an approach to geological features, ore genesis and ore criteria of the deposit.%四川省名山地区钙芒硝矿成矿类型属晚白垩世内陆湖相—咸湖相硫酸盐沉积型,南庙沟钙芒硝矿位于川西台陷雅安穹褶束之名山向斜缓展起伏的东翼,矿体严格受白垩系上统灌口组上段地层控制.本文对南庙沟钙芒硝矿矿床成因进行了详细的分析,并总结了成矿规律和找矿标志,对本区芒硝矿的资源勘查具有重要的指导意义.

  3. Geology Exchange Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because geology professors cannot bring ore deposits from around the globe into their classrooms, the next best thing is to take their students to the deposits, according to David Norman, an associate professor of geochemistry at New Mexico Tech and Angus Moore of the Royal School of Mines. They organized a new exchange program between the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro, N.M., and the Royal School of Mines in London, England. In May, 14 students from England toured deposits in New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado; in the photograph, Norman (on the right) describes a rock from a New Mexico ore deposit to some of the visitors from England. In early June a contingency from New Mexico Tech began studying deposits in England, Spain, and Portugal. Norman and Moore say that the exchange program may be expanded next year.

  4. 云南马龙马鞍山铁矿成矿地质条件%THE METALLOGENETIC GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF MAANSHAN FE DEPOSIT IN MALONG, YUNNAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟

    2011-01-01

    The Fe deposit is formed by the pyrite and siderite in the basement rock because of the transporta- tion and sedimentation after the surface weathering and leaching processes. It is a limonite deposit of weathering sedentary type.%铁矿床由基底岩石中黄铁矿、菱铁矿在近地表经风化淋滤后,搬运沉积形成。属风化残积型褐铁矿。

  5. 哈密沙东大型钨矿床地质特征及成因探讨%Geological Characteristics and Preliminary Origin of Shadong large Tungsten Deposit in Hami,Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晓; 郭勇明; 杨良哲; 田吉山; 李延鹏; 吴家林; 霍卫强; 赵海龙; 任林

    2012-01-01

    ShaDong tungsten deposit is situated in Hami city of Xinjiang ,and is located in middle -tianshan Block, North side of the Alatage-Jianshanzhi large fracture,and outputed KaWaBuLaKe group of Jixian- series of carbonate construction. In the region,geological structure is complexed .development of magmatic rock is beneficial for tungsten ore preconcentration. Based on the regional study of geological characteristics and comprehensive analysis of orebody characteristics 、 ore-controlling factors and mineral Association features, there is a discussion on the genesis of the deposit ,it is believed that the origin of the genetic type of ore deposit has several more features, it's an ore-controlling structure, formation and origin of magmatic hydrothermal composite scheelite bed. The discovery and exploration of tungsten deposits have been Broken the situation of finfing large scale tungsten deposit in middle -tianshan Block, it is also provided foundation and criteria on finding this type of deposit in the area ,and has very significant prospecting significance.%新疆哈密市沙东钨矿床位于中天山地块,阿拉塔格-尖山子大断裂北侧,产于蓟县系卡瓦布拉克群的一套碳酸盐建造中.区内地质构造复杂,岩浆岩发育,非常有利于钨矿富集.通过对区内地质特征研究、矿体特征和控矿因素及矿物共生组合特征综合分析,认为该矿床成因类型具多期、多成因的特点,属构造、地层控矿与岩浆热液复合成因白钨矿床.该钨矿床的发现与勘查打破了中天山一直未能找到大型钨矿床局面,为在该区寻找该类型矿床提供依据与找矿标志.

  6. Re–Os geochronology of Cu and W–Mo deposits in the Balkhash metallogenic belt, Kazakhstan and its geological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanhua Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Central Asian metallogenic domain (CAMD is a multi-core metallogenic system controlled by boundary strike-slip fault systems. The Balkhash metallogenic belt in Kazakhstan, in which occur many large and super-large porphyritic Cu–Mo deposits and some quartz vein- and greisen-type W–Mo deposits, is a well-known porphyritic Cu–Mo metallogenic belt in the CAMD. In this paper 11 molybdenite samples from the western segment of the Balkhash metallogenic belt are selected for Re–Os compositional analyses and Re–Os isotopic dating. Molybdenites from the Borly porphyry Cu deposit and the three quartz vein-greisen W–Mo deposits—East Kounrad, Akshatau and Zhanet—all have relatively high Re contents (2712–2772 μg/g for Borly and 2.267–31.50 μg/g for the other three W–Mo deposits, and lower common Os contents (0.670–2.696 ng/g for Borly and 0.0051–0.056 ng/g for the other three. The molybdenites from the Borly porphyry Cu–Mo deposit and the East Kounrad, Zhanet, and Akshatau quartz vein- and greisen-type W–Mo deposits give average model Re–Os ages of 315.9 Ma, 298.0 Ma, 295.0 Ma, and 289.3 Ma respectively. Meanwhile, molybdenites from the East Kounrad, Zhanet, and Akshatau W–Mo deposits give a Re–Os isochron age of 297.9 Ma, with an MSWD value of 0.97. Re–Os dating of the molybdenites indicates that Cu–W–Mo metallogenesis in the western Balkhash metallogenic belt occurred during Late Carboniferous to Early Permian (315.9–289.3 Ma, while the porphyry Cu–Mo deposits formed at ∼316 Ma, and the quartz vein-greisen W–Mo deposits formed at ∼298 Ma. The Re–Os model and isochron ages thus suggest that Late Carboniferous porphyry granitoid and pegmatite magmatism took place during the late Hercynian movement. Compared to the Junggar-East Tianshan porphyry Cu metallogenic belt in northwestern China, the formation of the Cu–Mo metallogenesis in the Balkhash metallogenic belt occurred between that of

  7. Geology, ore facies and sulfur isotopes geochemistry of the Nudeh Besshi-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, southwest Sabzevar basin, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghfouri, Sajjad; Rastad, Ebrahim; Mousivand, Fardin; Lin, Ye; Zaw, Khin

    2016-08-01

    The southwest Sabzevar basin is placed in the southwestern part of a crustal domain known as the Sabzevar zone, at the north of Central Iranian microcontinent. This basin hosts abundant mineral deposits; particularly of the Mn exhalative and Cu-Zn volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) types. The evolution of this basin is governed by the Neo-tethys oceanic crust subduction beneath the Central Iranian microcontinent and by the resulting continental arc (Sanandaj-Sirjan) and back-arc (Sabzevar-Naien). This evolution followed two major sequences: (I) Lower Late Cretaceous Volcano-Sedimentary Sequence (LLCVSS), which is indicated by fine-grained siliciclastic sediments, gray basic coarse-grained different pyroclastic rocks and bimodal volcanism. During this stage, tuff-hosted stratiform, exhalative Mn deposits (Nudeh, Benesbourd, Ferizy and Goft), oxide Cu deposits (Garab and Ferizy) and Cu-Zn VMS (Nudeh, Chun and Lala) deposits formed. (II) Upper Late Cretaceous Sedimentary Dominated Sequence (ULCSS), including pelagic limestone, marly tuff, silty limestone and marl with minor andesitic tuff rocks. The economically most important Mn (Zakeri and Cheshmeh-sefid) deposits of Sabzevar zone occur within the marly tuff of this sequence. The Nudeh Cu-Zn volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit is situated in the LLCVSS. The host-rock of deposits consists of alkali olivine basalt flow and tuffaceous silty sandstone. Mineralization occurs as stratiform blanket-like and tabular orebodies. Based on ore body structure, mineralogy, and ore fabric, we recognize three different ore facies in the Nudeh deposit: (1) a stringer zone, consisting of a discordant mineralization of sulfides forming a stockwork of sulfide-bearing quartz veins cutting the footwall volcano-sedimentary rocks; (2) a massive ore, consisting of massive replacement pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and Friedrichite with magnetite; (3) bedded ore, with laminated to disseminated pyrite, and chalcopyrite

  8. Geologic data on atmospheric history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.G.

    1966-01-01

    Attention is focussed on the possible existence of an anoxygenic, primeval atmosphere and on the history of atmospheric O2 and CO2. For this purpose, geologic data can be divided into those on fossil remains, on biogenic deposits formed by early life, on “chemicofossils”, and on deposits formed by

  9. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed. (AT)

  10. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141912Cao Hui(State Key Laboratory for Continental Tectonics and Dynamics,Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China)Gravitational Collapse and Folding during Orogenesis:A Comparative Study of FIA Trends and Fold Axial Plane Traces(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11-1167/P,40(6),2013,p.1818-1828,9illus.,35refs.,with

  11. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071601 Yin Yanhong (Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology, Qingdao 266071, China); Sun Jiashi Discovery of Qingdao Iron Meteorite and Its Chemical Composition and Mineralogy (Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, ISSN0256-1492, CN37-1117/P, 26(3), 2006, p.121-124, 3 illus., 2 tables, 9 refs.)Key words: iron meteorites, Shandong Province The Qingdao iron meteorite was found in May, 2004.

  12. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070721 Dong Yaosong (National Key La-boratory of Geological Process and Mineral resources, Institute of Mathematical Geology and Remote Sensing, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China); Yang Yanchen Mutual Compensation of Nerval Net and Characteristic Analysis in Mineral Resources Exploration (Mineral Resources and Geology, ISSN1001-5663, CN45-1174/TD, 20(1), 2006, p.1-6, 3 illus., 6 tables, 5 refs.) Key words: prospecting and exploration of mineral, neural network systems

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072222 Cao Xiuding(Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Qin Guoqing General Packet Radio Service(GPRS)Technology and Its Application in Geological Hazard Monitoring(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2852/P,17(1),2006,p.69-72,76,2 illus.,3 refs.)Key words:geologic hazards

  14. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122174 Bai Daoyuan ( Institute of Geological Survey of Hunan Province,Changsha 410011,China );Jia Baohua Neoproterozoic TectonicEvolution of the Xuefeng Orogenic Zone in Hunan Province ( Sedimentary Geology and Tethyan Geology,ISSN1009-3850,CN51-1593 / P,31 ( 3 ), 2011,p.78-87,2illus.,1 table,96refs. ) Key words:structural evolution,Neoproterozoic Era,Hunan Province This paper deals,on the basis of abundant lithogeochemical and geochronologic

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041748 Chen Liang (China University of Geosciences, Nanjing , Jiangsu); Meng Gao-tou Application of Information Model on Geological Hazards Investigating and Zoning of Counties and Cities: Taking Xianju County, Zhejiang Province as an Example (Hydroge-ology & Engineering Geology, ISSN 1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 30(5), 2003, p. 49 - 52, 4 illus. , 2 tables, 6 refs. ) Key words: geologic hazards, information systems

  16. Geology of the Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak Formation, East Texas. Depositional history, diagenesis, structure, and reservoir-engineering implications. Topical report, November 1982-February 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Laubach, S.E.; Tye, R.S.; Baumgardner, R.W.; Herrington, K.L.

    1990-06-01

    The report summarizes stratigraphic, petrographic, and structural studies of the Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak Formation, a low-permeability gas sandstone in East Texas, and presents reservoir engineering implications. Depositional systems in this region were interpreted from logs and cores and include (1) a braided- to meandering-fluvial system that forms the majority of the Travis Peak section; (2) deltaic deposits interbedded with the distal part of the fluvial system; (3) paralic deposits that overlie and interfinger with the deltaic and fluvial deposits near the top of the Travis Peak; and (4) shelf deposits present at the downdip extent of the formation. Petrographic studies indicate the sandstones are quartzarenites and subarkoses. Cementation by quartz, dolomite, ankerite, illite, chlorite, and reservoir bitumen have reduced porosity to less than 8 percent and permeability to less than 0.1 md throughout most of the formation. Structurally deeper sandstones are more intensely quartz cemented than are shallower sandstones and contain abundant, open natural fractures. Borehole breakouts and drilling-induced fractures in core can be used to predict horizontal stress directions and the direction of hydraulic fracture propagation. Hydraulic fractures propagate in directions subparallel to the east-northeast strike of the natural fractures; thus, hydraulically induced fractures may not intersect many natural fractures.

  17. GEOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF MAOJIADIAN GOLD DEPOSIT,LIAONING%辽宁省毛家店金矿床地质特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘殿忠

    2001-01-01

    毛家店金矿床位于冀东—凌南金矿成矿带的北东部,为受区域断裂构造燕山期黑云母花岗岩和八道河群变质杂岩所控制的含金石英脉型和硅钾蚀变岩型金矿床。区域上具有找矿前景。%Maojiadian Gold Deposit is located in Northeast part of Jidong-Linnan Gold ore Zone. The deposit is a Gold-bearing quartz vein type and Silicon-Potassium altered rock type Gold Deposit controlled by regional faults, Yanshan Period Mica granite and Badaohe group metamorphic complex. There is a potential for prospecting in the region.

  18. Regional framework and geology of iron oxide-apatite-rare earth element and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Mesoproterozoic St. Francois Mountains Terrane, southeast Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; Slack, John F.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Seeger, Cheryl M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on the genesis of Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks and associated iron oxide ± apatite (IOA) ± rare earth element, iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG), and iron-rich sedimentary deposits in the St. Francois Mountains terrane of southeast Missouri, USA. The St. Francois Mountains terrane lies along the southeastern margin of Laurentia as part of the eastern granite-rhyolite province. The province formed during two major pulses of igneous activity: (1) an older early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.50–1.44 Ga) episode of volcanism and granite plutonism, and (2) a younger middle Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.33–1.30 Ga) episode of bimodal gabbro and granite plutonism. The volcanic rocks are predominantly high-silica rhyolite pyroclastic flows, volcanogenic breccias, and associated volcanogenic sediments with lesser amounts of basaltic to andesitic volcanic and associated subvolcanic intrusive rocks. The iron oxide deposits are all hosted in the early Mesoproterozoic volcanic and volcaniclastic sequences. Previous studies have characterized the St. Francois Mountains terrane as a classic, A-type within-plate granitic terrane. However, our new whole-rock geochemical data indicate that the felsic volcanic rocks are effusive derivatives from multicomponent source types, having compositional similarities to A-type within-plate granites as well as to S- and I-type granites generated in an arc setting. In addition, the volcanic-hosted IOA and IOCG deposits occur within bimodal volcanic sequences, some of which have volcanic arc geochemical affinities, suggesting an extensional tectonic setting during volcanism prior to emplacement of the ore-forming systems.The Missouri iron orebodies are magmatic-related hydrothermal deposits that, when considered in aggregate, display a vertical zonation from high-temperature, magmatic ± hydrothermal IOA deposits emplaced at moderate depths (~1–2 km), to magnetite-dominant IOA veins and IOCG deposits emplaced at shallow

  19. Geology and isotopic composition of helium, neon, xenon and metallogenic age of the Jinding and Baiyangping ore deposits, northwest Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE; Chunji(薛春纪); CHEN; Yuchuan(陈毓川); WANG; Denghong(王登红); YANG; Jianmin(杨建民); YANG; Weiguang(杨伟光); ZENG; Rong(曾; 荣)

    2003-01-01

    Both the Jinding and Baiyangping ore deposits developed in the Lanping basin, which is a Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial clastic sedimentary basin. Their occurrences can easily lead many people to compare them with the Pb-Zn deposit hosted in sedimentary rocks, such as Mississippian Valley-, Sedex- and sandstone-type Pb-Zn deposits. However, the Lanping basin developed in the settings of strong tectonic activity of the continental crust, which could cause an effective material exchange between the lower crust and the upper mantle. The orebodies are clearly tectonically controlled without syngenetic features, which probably represents a new type of the sedimentary rock-hosted Pb-Zn deposit. The isotopic compositions of noble gases in ore-forming fluids indicate that 2%-32% of helium (3He/4He = 0.19 Ra-1.97 Ra) is derived from the mantle, 50.1% of neon (20Ne/22Ne = 10.45-10.83; 21Ne/22Ne = 0.03) from the mantle, and considerable amount of xenon (129Xe/130Xe = 5.84-6.86; 134Xe/130Xe = 2.26-2.71) from the mantle, which show that mantle fluids played an important role in the ore formation. The ore-forming age of 67-60 Ma obtained by Re-Os and 40Ar-39Ar dating methods is later than the host rock, which is coeval with the Himalayan alkali magmatism of the mantle source and mantle-crust source. In this paper, the mineralization of the Jinding and Baiyangping ore deposits is considered to be related to the mantle fluids which move upward with the magma or along the deep faults, and mix with the meteoritic brine in the crust to result in large-scale deposition.

  20. Genesis of the Datuanshan stratabound skarn Cu(-Mo) deposit, Middle-Lower Yangtze Valley, Eastern China: constraints from geology, Re-Os geochronology, mineralogy, and sulfur isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Gao, Fuping; Du, Yangsong; Du, Yilun; Pang, Zhenshan

    2016-07-01

    Stratabound deposits are the most abundant and economically significant ore type in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley, one of the most important metallogenic belts in China. The Datuanshan deposit is one of the largest and most representative stratabound Cu(-Mo) deposits in the Tongling district of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt. All the orebodies of the Datuanshan deposit occur around Mesozoic quartz monzodiorite and are tabular or semi-tabular bodies along bedding-parallel faults within upper Permian to Lower Triassic strata. However, discordant and crosscutting relationships (e.g., the host rocks crosscut by skarn- and quartz-sulfide veins, with alteration halos around the veins) have also been found, especially along the skarn-host contact and orebody-host contact, indicating that skarnitization and mineralization postdated the deposition of the host sediments. The skarn consists mainly of prograde garnet and pyroxene and retrograde alteration assemblages of amphibole, epidote, and chlorite, as well as quartz and sulfides. Electron microprobe analyses show that the garnets and pyroxenes are grossular-andradite and hedenbergite-diopside series, respectively, and all samples plot in the field of typical skarn copper deposits worldwide. Molybdenite samples from stratiform copper ores yield Re-Os model ages of 138.2-139.9 Ma with a weighted mean age of 139.2 ± 0.9 Ma. This is reasonably consistent with the ages of the stratiform Mo ores (138.0-140.8 Ma) and genetically related quartz monzodiorite (135.2-139.3 Ma) in the Datuanshan deposit, indicating that the stratiform Cu and Mo mineralization was contemporaneous with emplacement of the quartz monzodiorite magmas in the Early Cretaceous. Fifteen δ34S values for sulfides range from -1.8 to +4.7 ‰, with a mean of 0.5 ‰, indicating that the sulfur was derived mainly from a magmatic source. Moreover, the sulfur isotope values of the ores are consistent with those of Mesozoic intermediate

  1. 江西茅坪钨锡矿床地质特征及成矿模式%The Geological Characteristics and Mineralization Model of A Tungsten-tin Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王定生; 陆思明; 胡本语; 张声波; 阮瑜瑜; 陈冬生

    2011-01-01

    Maoping W-Sn quartz vein deposit is a tungsten-tin deposits associated with the granite, greisen deposits.The quartz vein type tungsten-tin deposits occur in the early Yanshan Geological Period (γ2-2b5)buried outside the contact zone of granite It occurs in the lower Cambrian rocks in the shallow system of multi-mineral composition of fracture and complex ocurrence It was demonstrated in the in the cross "X" tendency with conjugated form The disseminated greisen -type tungsten-tin is located under the quartz vein typed tungsten deposit It occurs in the early Yanshan Geological Period (γ2-2b5) within the contact zone of granite buried parts of the small protrusions It constitutes a metallogenic model of" upper vein and lower ore body" with the small protrusions distributing along lenticular stratiform.%茅坪钨锡矿床是一个石英脉型和云英岩化花岗岩浸染型共存的矿床.石英脉型钨锡矿床产于燕山早期(γ52-2b>)隐伏花岗岩外接触带,赋存于寒武系中下统浅变质岩中,多组成矿裂隙发育,产状复杂,在走向上相互交叉,在倾向上交叉呈"X"型,呈共轭形式出现;云英岩化花岗岩浸染型钨锡矿床位于石英脉型钨锡矿床下部,赋存于燕山早期(γ52-2b>)隐伏花岗岩内接触带小突起部位,呈似层状,透镜状沿花岗岩顶部呈面型分布,构成"上脉下体"成矿模式.

  2. Geological and geochemical survey of gas hydrate deposits. Present status and future problems of R/D program; Gasuhaidoredo kosho no chishitsu {center_dot} chikagaku tansa. Genjo to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, R. [The Unibersity of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-25

    Recent development of marine geological/geophysical investigations have revealed that (1) gas hydrates are widely distributed in deep shelf to slope sediments and (2) gas-hydrate-bearing sediments are underlain by a relatively thick free gas zone. This implies that [gas hydrate deposits] should be considered as a package of soild hydrate and free gas. An important parameter in resource evaluation is volume assessment of methane reserves, however, there are a number of issues to estimate even the total amount of methane trapped in gas hydrate deposits. There are a number of issues to be solved to estimate recoverable reserves of gas hydrate deposits. The issues include the discrepancy between BSR and BGHS and the nature and origin of double BSRs. Also another urgent and important theme is the generic link between gas hydrate formation and bacterial activity of deep biosphere. Stratigraphic Drilling of [Nankai Trough] by JNOC in 1999 and planned ODP drilling in the western Nankai Trough in 2000 are[expected to give clues to solve these problems. (author)

  3. Ultra-deep oxidation and exotic copper formation at the late pliocene boyongan and bayugo porphyry copper-gold deposits, surigao, philippines: Geology, mineralogy, paleoaltimetry, and their implications for Geologic, physiographic, and tectonic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braxton, D.P.; Cooke, D.R.; Ignacio, A.M.; Rye, R.O.; Waters, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Boyongan and Bayugo porphyry copper-gold deposits are part of an emerging belt of intrusion-centered gold-rich deposits in the Surigao district of northeast Mindanao, Philippines. Exhumation and weathering of these Late Pliocene-age deposits has led to the development of the world's deepest known porphyry oxidation profile at Boyongan (600 m), and yet only a modest (30-70 m) oxidation profile at adjacent Bayugo. Debris flows, volcanic rocks, and fluviolacustrine sediments accumulating in the actively extending Mainit graben subsequently covered the deposits and preserved the supergene profiles. At Boyongan and Bayugo, there is a vertical transition from shallower supergene copper oxide minerals (malachite + azurite + cuprite) to deeper sulfide-stable assemblages (chalcocite ?? hypogene sulfides). This transition provides a time-integrated proxy for the position of the water table at the base of the saturated zone during supergene oxidation. Contours of the elevation of the paleopotentiometric surface based on this min- eralogical transition show that the thickest portions of the unsaturated zone coincided with a silt-sand matrix diatreme breccia complex at Boyongan. Within the breccia complex, the thickness of the unsaturated zone approached 600 in, whereas outside the breccia complex (e.g., at Bayugo), the thickness averaged 50 m. Contours of the paleopotentiometric surface suggest that during weathering, groundwater flowed into the breccia complex from the north, south, and east, and exited along a high permeability zone to the west. The high relief (>550 m) on the elevation of the paleopotentiometric surface is consistent with an environment of high topographic relief, and the outflow zone to the west of the breccia complex probably reflects proximity to a steep scarp intersecting the western breccia complex margin. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry has enabled estimation of the elevation of the land surface, which further constrains the physiographic setting

  4. U-Pb SHRIMP Dating of Zircon from Quartz Veins of the Yangshan Gold Deposit in Gansu Province and Its Geological Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Jinzhong; YUAN Shisong; LIU Zhijie; LIU Dunyi; WANG Yanbin; LI Zhihong; GUO Junhua; SUN Bin3

    2004-01-01

    The Yangshan gold deposit is a super-large fine-grained disseminated gold deposit located in southern Gansu Province. Its metallogenic age has been determined by using the cathodoluminescence image and ion probe U-Pb dating techniques. It is found that zircons from quartz veinlet of the fine-grained disseminated gold ore show characters of magmatic origin with prism idiomorphism, oscillatory zoning and dominant Th/U ratios of 0.5-1.5. Three main populations of zircons are obtained, giving average 206pb/238U ages of 197.6±1.7 Ma, 126.9±3.2 Ma and 51.2±l.3 Ma respectively. The first age corresponds to the K-Ar age of the plagiogranite dike, while the latter two ages indicate that buried Cretaceous and Tertiary intrusives exist in the orefield, suggesting that the Yangshan gold deposit was genetically related to the three magmatic hydrothermal activities. By contrast, zircons from coarse gold-bearing quartz vein in the mining area are much older than the host rock, indicating that the vein was formed earlier and was not contaminated by later magmatic fluids. It is concluded that the coupling of multiperiodic hydrothermal activities in the mining area has contributed a lot to mineralization of the Yangshan gold deposit.

  5. Geologic Characteristics and Prospecting Direction of Manganese Deposit in South Shaanxi%陕南锰矿地质特征及找矿方向初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑崔勇; 高军辉; 严琼; 杨宏波; 朱丹; 张选固

    2016-01-01

    通过对陕西省南部地区锰矿成果和国土资源调查工作中新发现锰矿的研究总结,认为区内含锰地层为碧口群郭家沟组、上震旦统陡山沱组、下寒武统、志留系;划分出4类锰矿成因类型,即海相沉积型、热水沉积型、火山-沉积变质型、风化淋积型锰矿。认为区内锰矿时空分布的主要控制因素为沉积环境和沉积相、含锰地层、区域性同生断裂。指出区内水晶坪-屈家山-麻柳坝、黎家营-两河口深部是寻找优质锰矿的有利地段,锰矿勘查工作应紧紧围绕这些地段进行。%Through the summary on the manganese deposit results mine in southern Shaanxi and newly-found manganese deposit in land resources survey work, it is derived that the manganese-bearing strata was formed by Bikou group ( Guojia-gou formation) , and Upper Sinian Group ( Doushantuo formation) , Early Cambrian and Silurian system, and was classified into 4 formation types that are marine deposition type, hot deposition type, and volcano-deposition metamorphic type, and weathered drench type.The major controlling factors for the spatial and temporal distribution of manganese deposit are sedi-mentary environment and sedimentary facies, manganese-bearing strata, regional contemporaneous fault.It is concluded that the district around Shuijingping-Maliuba-Lijiaying_lianghekou in the deep is the favorite prospecting direction for manga-nese deposit.

  6. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131683 Lin Wenjing(Institute of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Shijiazhuang050061,China);Liu Zhiming An Estimation of HDR Resources in China’s Mainland(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN1006-3021,CN11-3474/P,33(5),2012,p.807-811,2illus.,2tables,14refs.)

  7. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131088 Fan Difu (Geological Survey of Jiangsu Province , Nanjing 210018 , China ); Xu Xueqiu Origin Study of Geothermal Field in Xiaoyangkou of Rudong County in Jiangsu (Journal of Geology , ISSN1674-3636 , CN32-1796/P , 36 (2), 2012 , p.192-197 , 3illus. , 9refs.) Key words : geothermal fields , Jiangsu Province

  8. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20081086 Feng Wujun(Geological Research Institute,Jiangsu Oil Field Branch Company,Yangzhou 225012,Jiangsu);Cao Bing Geoheat Resources Evaluation and Target Optimization in Gaoyou Region of Jiangsu Province(Jiangsu Geology,ISSN1003-6474,CN32-1258/P,31(2),2007,p.130-13

  9. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20050726 Cheng Jiabai (Survey Team of Huabei Geological Exploration Bureau, Sanhe 065201, China); Zhao Yuanyi Prospecting Hypothesis and Verification (Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research, ISSN 1001-1412, CN12-1131/P, 19(2), 2004, p. 122-129, 2 refs. , with English abstract) Key words: prospecting model

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131925 Chen Ning(State Key Laboratory of Geological Hazards Prevention,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Wang Yunsheng Features and Chains Genesis Analysis of Earthquake Geo-Hazards in Yuzi Stream of Wenchuan County(Journal of Engineering Geology,ISSN1004-9665,CN11-3249/P,20(3),2012,p.340-349,4

  11. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131382 Chen Tao(Key Laboratory of Active Tectonics and Volcano,Institute of Geology,China Earthquake Administration,Beijing 100029,China);Liu Yugang The Activity Age of Tarwan Fault and Genesis of the Topographic Scarp(Seismology and Geology,ISSN0253-4967,CN11-2192/P,34(3),

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090651 Chen Boyang(Fujian Institute of Geological Survey and Research,Fuzhou 350011,China) Bio-Geochemical Characteristics of High and Low-Incidence Area of Stomach Cancer in the Coastal Area of Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,27(1),2008,p.29-36,3 tables,6 refs.)

  13. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20040862 Chen Zhihua (Faculty of Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei); Guan Xuefeng Development of DBMS for Environmental Geologic Hazards on WebGIS (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 30(2), 2003, p. 20-24, 3 illus. , 9 refs. )

  14. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20050576 Li Sanzhong (College of Marine Geosciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003,China) ; Zhou Lihong Cenozoic Faulting and Basin Formation in the Eastern North China Plate (Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, ISSN 0256 - 1492, CN37 -1117/P, 24(3), 2004, p. 57-66, 5 illus. , 33 refs. ) Key words: tectonic framework, North China

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20040834 Chen Yijiu (Geological Exploration Bureau of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, Guangdong) Discussion on Natural Chornic Irradiation Environment and Pertinent Problems in Guangdong Province, China (Guangdong Geology, ISSN 1001 - 8670, CN44-1201/P, 18(1), 2003, p. 30-41, 7 tables, 1 ref. , with English abstract) Keywords: radioactivity radiation environmental pollution Guangdong Province

  16. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131358 Li Jianzhong (State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources , School of Earth Sciences and Resources , China University of Geosciences , Beijing 100083 , China); Cui Jing Geological Application of Mult-Idimensional Data Visualization Based on Geometric Coordinate Method (Earth Science Frontiers

  17. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142114Lin Quansheng(China University of Geosciences,Bejing 100083,China)On the Geologic Characteristics and Economic Significance of the Cambrian Lintian Group in Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,32(4),2013,p.264-273,2illus.,2tables,6refs.)

  18. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140227Li Wenyuan(Xi’an Center of Geological Survey,CGS,Xi’an 710054,ChinaThe Continental Growth and Ore-Forming Processes(Northwestern Geology,ISSN1009-6248,CN61-1149/P,46(1),2013,p.1-10,5illus.,18refs.)

  19. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Skrytoe reduced-type W skarn and stockwork deposit, Sikhote-Alin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey G.

    2017-08-01

    The Skrytoe deposit (>145 Kt WO3, average grade 0.449% WO3) in the Sikhote-Alin orogenic system (Eastern Russia) is situated in a metallogenic belt of W, Sn-W, Au, and Au-W deposits formed in a late to post-collisional tectonic environment after cessation of active subduction. It is localized within a mineralized district of reduced-type skarn W and veined Au (±W) deposits and occurrences related to the Early Cretaceous ilmenite-series plutonic suite. The deposit incorporates large stockworks of scheelite-bearing veinlets related to propylitic (amphibole, chlorite, quartz) and phyllic (quartz, sericite, albite, apatite, and carbonate) hydrothermal alteration. The stockwork cuts flat-lying mafic volcanic rocks and limestone partially replaced by pyroxene skarn that host the major W orebodies. Scheelite is associated with pyrrhotite and/or arsenopyrite, with minor chalcopyrite and other sulfide minerals; the late phyllic stage assemblages hosts Bi and Au mineralization. The fluid evolution included low-salinity moderate-temperature, moderate-pressure (˜370-390 °C, ˜800 bars) methane-dominated carbonic-aqueous fluids that formed post-skarn propylitic alteration assemblages. Then, at the phyllic stage, there has been an evolution from methane-dominated, moderate-temperature (330-360 °C), low-salinity (hydrothermal fluids. This is consistent with the development of larger, longer crystallizing crustal intermediate to felsic magma chambers in the late to post-collisional tectonic environment, with their protracted magmatic evolution advancing magmatic differentiation and partitioning of W into magmatic-hydrothermal fluid. The dominating role of the crustal-derived magmatic water, sulfur, and carbon appears to be an important feature of reduced W skarn deposits related to ilmenite-series granitoids.

  20. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Skrytoe reduced-type W skarn and stockwork deposit, Sikhote-Alin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey G.

    2017-01-01

    The Skrytoe deposit (>145 Kt WO3, average grade 0.449% WO3) in the Sikhote-Alin orogenic system (Eastern Russia) is situated in a metallogenic belt of W, Sn-W, Au, and Au-W deposits formed in a late to post-collisional tectonic environment after cessation of active subduction. It is localized within a mineralized district of reduced-type skarn W and veined Au (±W) deposits and occurrences related to the Early Cretaceous ilmenite-series plutonic suite. The deposit incorporates large stockworks of scheelite-bearing veinlets related to propylitic (amphibole, chlorite, quartz) and phyllic (quartz, sericite, albite, apatite, and carbonate) hydrothermal alteration. The stockwork cuts flat-lying mafic volcanic rocks and limestone partially replaced by pyroxene skarn that host the major W orebodies. Scheelite is associated with pyrrhotite and/or arsenopyrite, with minor chalcopyrite and other sulfide minerals; the late phyllic stage assemblages hosts Bi and Au mineralization. The fluid evolution included low-salinity moderate-temperature, moderate-pressure (˜370-390 °C, ˜800 bars) methane-dominated carbonic-aqueous fluids that formed post-skarn propylitic alteration assemblages. Then, at the phyllic stage, there has been an evolution from methane-dominated, moderate-temperature (330-360 °C), low-salinity (water (δ18OH2O = +7.4 to +7.7 ‰), and dominantly crustal-derived source of sulfur (δ34S = -4.6 to -2.9 ‰) in the hydrothermal fluids. This is consistent with the development of larger, longer crystallizing crustal intermediate to felsic magma chambers in the late to post-collisional tectonic environment, with their protracted magmatic evolution advancing magmatic differentiation and partitioning of W into magmatic-hydrothermal fluid. The dominating role of the crustal-derived magmatic water, sulfur, and carbon appears to be an important feature of reduced W skarn deposits related to ilmenite-series granitoids.

  1. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111337 Chen Guoxu(Faculty of Earth Resources,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Wu Chonglong Study on Integration of 3D Geological Modeling and Mineral Resource Exploration Mapping(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,46(3),2010,p.542-546,5 illus.,19 refs.)Key words:geological modeling,digital cartography According to the workflow of traditional methods of mineral reserve estimation,the authors took mine 3D geological modeling and mineral reserve estimation mapping as a starting point to explore a new method for the integration of 3D geological modeling and mineral resource exploration mapping.In order to verify this method,the authors have applied this method to some real mines.The results show that this method can effectively solve those problems of

  2. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111761 Chen Hua(115 Geological Party,Guizhou Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration & Development,Guiyang 551400,China);Deng Chao Analysis on the Metallogenic Environment of Maochang Bauxite in Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,27(3),2010,p.198-201,2 illus.,1 table,8 refs.)Key words:bauxite deposit,Guizhou Province By long time physical and chemical process,the carbonate rock after Central Guizhou uplidft,becomes red clay,after further weathering,the red clay decomposed into the oxide,hydroxide of Al and Fe,in the dissolution hole and depression,it concentrates primary fragmentary tight and earthy karst bauxite ore.Because the variation of landform,it decomposes and cracks again,affords the material source

  3. Brazil's premier gold province. Part II: geology and genesis of gold deposits in the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, Quadrilátero Ferrífero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Lydia; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Luiz; Vieira, Frederico

    2001-07-01

    Orogenic, gold deposits are hosted by rocks of the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, one of the major gold provinces in the world. The gold deposits occur at the base of the mafic-ultramafic succession, with the most important orebodies controlled by E-W-striking, strike-slip faults. The main mineralization styles are (1) structurally controlled, sulfide replacement zones in banded iron formation (BIF); (2) disseminated sulfide minerals and gold in hydrothermally altered rocks along shear zones; and (3) auriferous quartz-carbonate-sulfide veins and veinlets in mafic, ultramafic, and felsic volcanic rocks, and also in clastic sedimentary rocks. The most common host rocks for ore are metamorphosed oxide- and carbonate-facies banded iron (± iron-rich metachert) formations (e.g., the Cuiabá, São Bento and Raposos deposits) and the lapa seca unit, which is a local term for intensely carbonatized rock (e.g., the giant Morro Velho mine with >450 t of contained gold). Metabasalts host most of the remaining gold deposits. Mineralogical characteristics and fluid inclusion studies suggest variations in the H2O/CO2 ratio of a low-salinity, near-neutral, reducing, sulfur-bearing, ore fluid. The presence of abundant CH4-rich inclusions is related to reduction of the original H2O-CO2 fluid via interaction with carbonaceous matter in the wallrocks. Oxygen fugacity was close to that of graphite saturation, with variations likely to have been influenced by reaction with the carbonaceous matter. Carbon-rich phyllites and schists, which commonly bound ore-bearing horizons, seem to have played both a physical and chemical role in localizing hydrothermal mineral deposition. Microtextural studies indicate that gold deposition was mainly related to desulfidation reactions, and was paragenetically coeval with precipitation of arsenic-rich iron sulfide minerals. Carbon isotope data are compatible with dissolution of

  4. Preliminary geological investigation of the Bir Hayzan diatomite deposit, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with a section on selected physical properties and implications for future geophysical exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, J.W.; Gettings, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    A 2.2-m-thick lake bed composed entirely of diatomite was found in the southwestern arm of the Nafud sand sea, about 67 km east of Tayma in northwestern Saudi Arabia. Its stratigraphic position above eolian sand and below a large barchanoid dune indicates deposition during an exceptional period of pluvial climate in an otherwise arid sand desert. Radiocarbon-dated carbonate lake beds found in similar stratigraphic settings in other parts of the Nafud suggest that the diatomite was deposited in the late Pleistocene epoch sometime between 32,000 and 20,000 years ago. Diatomite of the same pluvial episode has also been found in the Afar region of Ethiopia. Four samples of the diatomite were analyzed for major chemical components and 32 minor and trace elements. Two of the samples appeared to be representative of the lake bed. These samples contained about 85 percent SiO2, 2.34 percent Fe2O3, 1 4 percent Al2O3, and 8.27 percent ignition loss, with only traces of CaO, P2O5, MgO, Na2O, and TiO2. The high content of silica and low contents of alumina, iron oxide, lime, and other constituents indicate low contamination. Analyses of samples from the two atypical units indicate a small amount of contamination, probably clay or mica, in the basal unit and addition of iron oxide and carbonate by ground water in an isolated green-colored unit. Chemically the Bi'r Hayzan diatomite compares favorably with commercial deposits from other parts of the world. Low bulk densities of 0.64 g/cm3 (30-40 lbs/ft3) and an average porosity of 63 percent for five samples also suggest the deposit is of industrial grade. Further studies are recommended to determine: (1) the size and extent of the deposit and (2) the suitability of the diatomite for commercial applications. As means to these ends, electrical-resistivity surveys following winter rains are suggested to determine both the extent and thickness of the lake bed beneath the overlying sand dunes. A complete species identification of the

  5. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  6. 老挝爬奔金矿构造地质特征与金矿的关系①%Structural geological characteristics of Paben Au deposit in Laos and its correlation to Au deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泰; 刘运纪; 周琳; 梁立民

    2013-01-01

    Paben Au deposit is a large-scale Au deposit which is discovered in Luang Prabang, Laos. Studies suggest that there are two types of mineralization:ferriferous carbonatite type Au deposit and quartz vein type Au deposit. The former type of Au deposits occurs in limestone, and is mainly controlled by NW-NNW strike faulted structure altera-tion zone;the later one occurs in subsidiary parallel fracture or zone of schistosity by the side of ductile shear belt, and is controlled by NE strike ductile and brittle shear belt. The genesis type of the deposit is superimposed reforma-tion of sediment-ductile and brittle shear multiphase tectonic activity and hydrothermal solution.%  爬奔金矿是近年来在老挝琅勃拉邦新发现的大型金矿床。研究表明该区有含铁碳酸岩型金矿和石英脉型金矿两种矿化类型,前者金矿体产在灰岩中,主要受NW-NNW向断裂构造蚀变带控制;后者金矿体产在韧性剪切带旁侧的次级平行断裂或片理化带中,受NE向韧脆性剪切带控制。矿床成因类型应属沉积-韧脆性剪切多期构造活动和热水溶液叠加改造型金矿床。

  7. Descriptive models of major uranium deposits in China - Some results of the Workshop on Uranium Resource Assessment sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, in cooperation with China National Nuclear Corporation, Beijing, and the U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado, and Reston, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, W.I.; Feng, S.; Zuyi, C.; McCammon, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Four major types of uranium deposits occur in China: granite, volcanic, sandstone, and carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock. These types are major sources of uranium in many parts of the world and account for about 95 percent of Chinese production. Descriptive models for each of these types record the diagnostic regional and local geologic features of the deposits that are important to genetic studies, exploration, and resource assessment. A fifth type of uranium deposit, metasomatite, is also modeled because of its high potential for production. These five types of uranium deposits occur irregularly in five tectonic provinces distributed from the northwest through central to southern China. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  8. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (5)GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082442 Han Zaisheng(China Geological Servey,Beijing 100011,China);Ran Weiyan Exploration and Evaluation of Shal- low Geothermal Energy(Geology in China, ISSN1000—3657,CN11—1167/P,34(6), 2007,p.1115—1121,6 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:geothermal exploration, geothermal resources

  9. Development and implementation of technical concepts for the final disposal in deep geological deposits in different host rocks (EUGENIA). Synthesis report; Entwicklung und Umsetzung von technischen Konzepten fuer Endlager in tiefen geologischen Formationen in unterschiedlichen Wirtsgesteinen (EUGENIA). Synthesebericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm; Herklotz, Martin; Herzog, Christel (and others)

    2011-11-15

    The report on the development and implementation of technical concepts for the final disposal in deep geological deposits in different host rocks (EUGENIA) includes the following chapters: (1) Purpose of the studies. (2) Overview on the developed concepts for final high-level radioactive waste disposal in deep rock formations and differences of the underlying safety concepts. (3) Effects of the host rock properties on the site search and exploration. (4) Site selection and site exploration. (5) Technical concepts for high-level waste final repositories (Sweden, Finland, Belgium, France, Switzerland). (6) Construction, operation, control and closure of high-level waste repositories. (7) Licensing aspects (Sweden, Finland, Belgium, France, Switzerland, Germany). (8) Comparative presentation and evaluation of the internationally reached status concerning the realization of final high-level waste repositories.

  10. Discussion on Geological Features and Genesis of Baladacai Tungsten-tin Deposit in Qinghai Province%青海省巴拉大才钨锡矿地质特征及成因探讨∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泰山; 张鑫利; 雷晓清; 李永登; 刘宝山; 徐贝贝

    2016-01-01

    Baladacai tungsten⁃tin deposit is located at about 160km south of Golmud city, Qinghai province. It is tectonical⁃ly in the binding site of Muzitage⁃Buqingshan melange betl and Maduo⁃Maqin accretionary wedge, between Gande⁃Maduo fracture and south Kunlun fracture. The geological condition and prospecting potential in this area are favorable. The main mineralization characteristics and mineral composition of Baladacai tungsten⁃tin deposit are clear and definite by the field geological survey and the detailed observation of hand specimens, the main ore⁃controlling factors and prospecting marks are summarized by comparing the domestic tungsten⁃tin deposits and Baiganhu tungsten⁃tin ore field. It is preliminary consid⁃ered to be the high temperature quartz vein⁃greisen type tungsten⁃tin deposit controlled by magmatic and tectonic activities.%巴拉大才钨锡矿点位于青海省格尔木市以南约160 km处;构造上位于甘德-玛多断裂与昆南断裂之间,木孜塔格-布青山混杂岩与玛多-玛沁增生楔结合部位;区内地质条件良好,找矿潜力较大;笔者通过对巴拉大才钨锡矿点进行野外地质调查及手标本、光薄片进行详细观察与鉴定,查明了区内主要矿化体特征、矿石成分,并通过对比国内及区内白干湖钨锡矿田,总结了巴拉大才钨锡矿点主要控矿因素和找矿标志,初步认为该矿点为受岩浆与构造活动控制的中高温石英脉-云英岩型钨锡矿点(床)。

  11. 赞比亚巴鲁巴铜矿矿床地质特征及找矿方向研究%Study on Geological Characteristics of Baluba Copper Deposit in Zambia and Its Prospecting Direction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅国平

    2015-01-01

    According to three years working experience in Baluba Copper Mine of Luanshya in Zambia ,com-bined raletive geological data , through analyzing and studying the geological characteristics , cause of for-mation of deposit , stratigraphic marker and ore -controlled structure of Baluba Copper Mine , the key parts and primary target area in ore district prospecting were definitely put foward and a very good pros-pecting potential about edge and deep of Baluba Copper Mine was pointed out .%本文主要根据笔者在赞比亚卢安夏巴鲁巴铜矿三年的工作实践 ,结合相关的地质资料 ,通过对巴鲁巴铜矿区矿床地质特征、矿床成因、地层标志及控矿构造等相关地质资料的分析与研究 ,明确了矿区找矿的重点部位和主要靶区 ,指出了巴鲁巴铜矿边深部有着很好的找矿远景.

  12. Geological characteristics and mineralization regularity of Ramu Ni-Co deposit, Papua New Guinea%巴布亚新几内亚瑞木镍钴矿地质特征及成矿规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雷; 李文光; 陶思; 胡晓丽

    2011-01-01

    巴布亚新几内亚瑞木地区Marum基岩带上分布大面积的超基性岩体,红土化作用强烈.通过地质填图、钻探施工以及多种分析方法,对该区镍钴矿的地质特征和成矿规律进行了研究.研究结果表明,该区为典型的风化壳型红土镍钴矿床,具有规模大、埋藏浅、品位稳定等特点,经济价值巨大.%There is a large - area ultrabasic magmatic rock in the Marum bedrock belt in Papua New Guinea, and the lateriza-tion is very intense. The geological characteristic and mineralization regularity of nickel - cobalt ore were studied by geological mapping , drilling, and various analytical methods. The results of study shows that this area is a typical weathering crust type laterite Ni - Co deposit with a large scale, shallow burying and stable grade, therefore, it hag great economic value.

  13. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111836 Gao Jian(Sichuan Institute of Geological Survey for Nuclear Industry,Chengdu 610061,China);Shi Yuzhen Feasibility Study of Exploitation of Geothermal Resource in the Lugu Lake Region,Yanyuan,Sichuan Province(Acta Geologica Sichuan,ISSN1006-0995,CN51-1273/P,30(3),2010,p.291-294,1 illus.,1 table,1 ref.,with English abstract)Key words:geothermal water,Sichuan Province20111837 He Jianhua(Geological Brigade 102,Bureau of Geolog

  14. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072338 Bai Long(Guizhou Academy of Geology Survey,Guiyang,Guizhou 550005,China);Zhang Zhen Treatment of Discovery on Ductile Shear Belts in Yiwu,Xingjiang Province and Its Ore-Forming Geology Process(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,23(4),2006,p.286-291,295,3 illus.,9 refs.)Key words:ductile shear zones,metallogenesis,XinjiangOf ductile shear belts,deformation fabric considerably developed in Yiwu,

  15. Podiform chromite deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Location and characteristics of 1,124 individual mineral deposits of this type, with grade and tonnage models for chromium as well as several related elements.

  16. The geologic characteristics and exploration potential of gold deposit in Bayuda area, north Sudan%苏丹北部拜尤达地区金矿地质特征及找矿远景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰; 倪师军; 李世勇; 张成江; 杨立新

    2012-01-01

    The Bayuda area is located in Nile River State, north Sudan, in which one medium-sized gold deposit and seven exploration targets are located recently. This paper mainly deals with the geological conditions of gold deposits in Bayuda area, and the geochemical characters of ore and wall-rock of Hagagia gold deposit. The ore-forming process is divided into the hydrothermal, supergene weathering-sedimentary stages. The authors consider that the gold deposit in Bayuda area is formed by meso-epithermal meta-morphic fluid and controlled by ductile shear zone and classified into orogenic-type gold deposit. The Prot-erozoic metamorphic rocks supply ore materials. Orogenesis causes tectonomagmatism. Regional meta-morphism mobilizes hydrothermal fluid which extracts ore elements from the country rock and deposited the elements at favorable tectononic space.%苏丹拜尤达地区位于苏丹北部尼罗河州,区内已圈定1处中型金矿床,7处金矿找矿靶区.根据拜尤达地区金矿成矿地质条件及哈佳吉中型金矿床的地质特征、矿石和围岩的微量元素地球化学特征,将金矿床成矿过程分为热液期、表生氧化期和风化沉积期.认为该地区金矿为受区域韧性剪切带控制的中温浅成变质热液矿床,属造山型金矿.成矿物质主要来源于前寒武系变质岩,造山作用引起构造—岩浆活动,区域变质作用造成流体的活化,并萃取围岩中的成矿物质,最终在构造有利部位富集形成金矿床.

  17. 辽东白云金矿地质体三维模型的构建与储量估算%Establishment of 3D Geologic Modeling and Reserve Estimation in Baiyun Au Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东越; 陈建平; 陈三明; 李长平

    2013-01-01

    矿体三维模型是数字矿山的基础,是矿床的数字表征.在收集和整理研究区的地质图、地形图、地质剖面图、钻孔柱状图的基础上提取钻孔数据(样品信息表、钻孔形态表、钻孔位置表),建立地质空间数据库,借助于Minexplorer探矿者软件建立地表模型,并依据地质空间数据库生成三维钻孔,通过定义剖面,圈定单工程矿体,连接主要出露地层、控矿构造与蚀变带,编辑剖面,连接曲面,封装成体等过程,构建出地质体的三维数字模型,实现其三维可视化.然后采用截面法、块段法、距离加权法对矿体进行储量估算并与矿山实际勘探获得的产量进行对比分析.结果表明,本矿区距离加权法计算的结果相对误差最小,同时也反向验证了三维矿体模型构建的准确性.%The three-dimensional model is not only based on digital mine,but also the digital representation of deposit.First,it builds the geological database using the drill data which extract from geological maps,topographic maps,geological cross-sectional view and bore histogram,including the Sampling information,the drilling form and the drilling location,then demonstrates the drill holes in 3D view.Second,after the process of profile definition,delineation of geologic body (ore body,fault,alteration zone,the outdoor layer) in a single drill hole,edition of profiles,connection of surfaces,encapsulation of surfaces based on Minexplorer software,it builds the geologic body in three dimensions,finally realization of the 3D visualization of the geologic body.It calculates the reserve of ore body by the section method,the block method,and the distance weighting method.The results are compared with the real reserve by the production of the mine.The results show that in the calculation of inverse distance weighted method there is minimum relative error,which in turn,verifies the accuracy of the 3D geologic body model.

  18. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101802 Fang Bin (China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Yang Yunjun Characteristics and Resource Evaluation of the Jiwa Geothermal Field in Central Qiangtang,Northern Tibet,China (Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-

  19. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112453 Li Qing (First Design and Research Institute,Ministry of Mechanical Industry, Bengbu 233000, China); Li Yixiang Application of Shallow Geothermal Energy Resources in the Hefei Area(Geology

  20. Marine geology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Shankar, R.

    Significant scientific contributions in Marine Geology in India during the Nineties have been highlighted in this paper. Sediment trap data collected in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal have provided much understanding about annual sediment fluxes...

  1. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112745Cheng Shurang(Geological survey of Shanxi Province,Xi’an 710065,China); Zhang Lin Grade Evaluation Based on Fuzzy Clustering and Pattern Recognition of Comprehensive Anomalies of Geophysics and

  2. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101648 Peng Yujing (Survey of Regional Geology and Mineral Resources of Jilin Province, Changchun 130022, China); Zhai Yuchun Age Determination and Characteristics of the Late Indosinian-Yanshanian Metallogenetic Events of Jilin Province

  3. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112330 Liu Xifang (Key Laboratory of Saline Lake Resources and Environment, Ministry of Land and Resources,Institute of Mineral Resources, Beijing 100037, China);Zheng Mianping Geological Features

  4. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102475 Chen Shiliang(No.4 Geological Party of Fujian Province,Ningde 352100,China)A Brief Analysis on Geothermy in the Nantai Isle of Fuzhou Municipality,Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,28(4),2009,p.310-314,1 illus.,1 table,3 refs.)Key words:geothermal exploration,Fujian ProvinceBased on the geochemistry and geophysical

  5. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122531 Hu Lingzhi ( Institute of Geological Engineering Design & Research of Beijing,Miyun 101500,China );Wang Jiankang Discussion on the Feasibility of Geothermal Resources Development and Utilization in Miyun District,Beijing ( City Geology,ISSN1007-1903,CN11-5519 / P,6 ( 3 ), 2011,p.34-35,59 ,) Key words:geothermal resources,Beijing Geothermal,as a new type of clean energy with the integrated trinity of " heat energy-mineral resource-water resource ",

  6. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132568 Du Guilin(Seismological Bureau of Weihai City,Weihai 264200,China);Cao Wenhai Genesis of Baoquantang Hot Spring in Weihai and Its Influence on Faulting and Seismic Activities(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,32(5),2012,p.67-72,3illus.,2tables,18refs.)Key words:hot springs,seismicity,Shandong Province

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072933 Bie Jun(Institute of Oceanology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Qingdao 266071,China);Huang Haijun Ground Subsidence of the Modern Yellow River Delta and Its Causes(Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,28(4),2006,p.29-35,5 illus.,13 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:land subsidence,Yellow River Delta

  8. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141269 Dai Deqiu(Institute of Geology,Hunan University of Science and Technology,Xiangtan 411201,China);Chen Xinyue Contrastive of Petrography and Mineral Chemistry Characteristics among Olivine and Ca,Al-rich Assemblages(Chinese Journal of Geology,ISSN0563-5020,CN11-1937/P,48(3),2013,p.762-772,3 illus.,2 tables,25 refs.)

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141810 Bian Yumei(Geological Environmental Monitoring Center of Liaoning Province,Shenyang 110032,China);Zhang Jing Zoning Haicheng,Liaoning Province,by GeoHazard Risk and Geo-Hazard Assessment(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(3),2013,p.5-9,2 illus.,tables,refs.)

  10. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140001Dong Shuwen(Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China);Li Tingdong Progress of SinoProbe-Deep Exploration in China 2008~2012(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN1006-3021,CN11-3474/P,34(1),2013,p.7-23,8illus.,69refs.)Key words:deep geology,deep seismic sounding,Continental Scientific Drilling,China SinoProbe 2008~2012,the initial phase

  11. Geology, summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabins, F. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Trends in geologic application of remote sensing are identified. These trends are as follows: (1) increased applications of orbital imagery in fields such as engineering and environmental geology - some specific applications include recognition of active earthquake faults, site location for nuclear powerplants, and recognition of landslide hazards; (2) utilization of remote sensing by industry, especially oil and gas companies, and (3) application of digital image processing to mineral exploration.

  12. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122476 Bao Yunjie ( Wuxi Research Institute of Petroleum Geology,SINOPEC,Wuxi 214151,China );Wang Shuyi Reservoir Diagenesis of 3rd Member of Feixianguan Formation,Jiannan Gas Field ( Petroleum Geology & Experiment,ISSN1001-6112,CN32-1151 / TE,33 ( 6 ), 2011,p.564-568,2 il-lus.,1plate,2tables,10refs. ) Key words:carbonate reservoirs,diagenesis,Chongqing,Hubei Province

  13. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072288 Hong Quan(Ningbo Institute for Engineering Investigation,Ningbo 315012,China)Design of Information Management System for Engineering Investigation Maps Based on C/S Model(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2852/P,17(1),2006,p.86-90,2 illus.,6 refs.)Key words:information systems,engineering geological map

  14. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141283 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geological Survey,Changsha 410016,China);Zhong Xiang Nature,Origin and Tectonic Setting of Jinzhou Basin in the South Segment of Xuefeng Orogen(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11-1167/P,40(4),2013,p.1079-1091,10 illus.,47 refs.)Key words:foreland basins,strike-slip faults,Hunan Province

  15. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110164 Dong Lianhui(Xinjiang Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources and Development,Urumqi 830000,China);Feng Jing Research for Classification of Metallogenic Unit of Xinjiang(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(1),2010,p.1-15,1 illus.,1 table,17 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:metallogenic provinces,metallogenic belts,metallogenic area,Xinjiang

  16. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072528 Chen Yuchuan(Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing,100037);Pei Rongfu On Minerogenetic(Metallogenetic)Series:Third Discussion(Acta Geologica Sinica,ISSN0001-5717,CN11-1951/P,80(10),2006,p.1501-1508,3illus.,1 table,57 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:metallogenic series20072529 Pei Rongfu(Institute of Mineral Resources,CAGS,Beijing 100037);Mei Yanxiong Event Geology Stimulati

  17. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion study of the Kuru-Tegerek Au-Cu-Mo skarn deposit in the Middle Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey; Dvurechenskaya, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    The Kuru-Tegerek Cu-Au-Mo deposit is situated in a system of Late Carboniferous subduction-related magmatic arcs of the Middle Tien Shan, which together constitute a metallogenic belt of Cu-Au-Mo (±W) porphyry, with local skarns, deposits. The deposit is related to magnetite-series gabbro-diorite to tonalite intrusion. It contains prograde magnesian and calcic skarns with abundant magnetite, associated with gabbro-diorite, and retrograde skarn with Cu mineralization, formed after intrusion of tonalite. Subsequent propylitic alteration introduced abundant chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite, and native Au culminating in zones overprinting magnetite and garnet skarn. Later quartz-muscovite-carbonate veins, formed after intrusion of late mafic quartz monzogabbro dikes, contain chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and other sulfides and sulfosalts, tellurides, and native Au. The earliest retrograde skarn garnet contains gaseous low-salinity (1.7-3.4 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid inclusions homogenizing at 460-500 °C into vapor, indicating that the early fluid released from crystallizing magma was a low-density vapor. It was followed by more saline (4.0-5.0 wt.% NaCl eq.), high-temperature (400-440 °C) aqueous fluid, as fluid release from the magma progressed. Boiling of this fluid at temperatures of 420 to 370 °C and a pressure of 350-300 bar produced a low-salinity (0.6-1.2 wt.% NaCl eq.), essentially gaseous, and high-salinity (from 39 to 31 wt.% NaCl eq.) brine, with possible metal (including Cu) partitioning into both gaseous and aqueous-saline phases. Boiling was coeval with sulfide deposition in the retrograde skarn. The latest episode of the retrograde skarn stage included direct separation of saline ( 40-42 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid from crystallizing magma. The separation of saline ( 40 to 14 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluids from a crystallizing magmatic melt continued during the propylitic stage, when fluid cooling from 370 to 320 °C, together with decreasing fO2, caused Cu and especially

  18. Regional tectonics, geology, magma chamber processes and mineralisation of the Jinchuan nickel-copper-PGE deposit, Gansu Province, China:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.M. Mike Porter

    2016-01-01

    The Jinchuan Ni-Cu-PGE deposit (>500 Mt@1.2%Ni, 0.7%Cu, w0.4 g/t PGE), one of the largest magmatic sulphide deposits in the world, is located within the westernmost terrane of the North China Craton. It is hosted within the 6.5 km long, Neoproterozoic (w0.83 Ga) Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion, emplaced as a sill-like body into a Palaeoproterozoic suite of gneisses, migmatites, marbles and amphibolites, below an active intracratonic rift. The parental magma was high-Mg basalt, generated through melting of sub-crustal lithospheric mantle by a mantle plume during the initiation of Rodinia supercontinent breakup. The lower Palaeozoic collision of the exotic Qilian Block with the breakup-related southern margin of the craton accreted a subduction complex, and emplaced voluminous granitic intrusions and foreland basin sequences within the craton, to as far north as Jinchuan. During the Cainozoic, allochthonous lower Palaeozoic rocks were thrust up to 300 km to the northeast over cratonic basement, to within 25 km of the Jinchuan deposit. The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion was injected into three interconnected sub-chambers, each containing a separate orebody. It essentially comprises an olivine-orthopyroxene-chromite cumulate, with interstitial orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and phlogopite, and is predominantly composed of lherzolite (w80%), with an outer rim of olivine pyroxenite and cores of mineralised dunite. Mineralisation occurs as disseminated and net-textured sulphides, predominantly within the dunite, with lesser, PGE rich lenses, late massive sulphide accumulations, small copper rich pods and limited mineralised diopside skarn in wall rock marbles. The principal ore minerals are pyrrhotite (the dominant sulphide), pentlandite, chalcopyrite, cubanite, mackinawite and pyrite, with a variety of platinum group minerals and minor gold. The deposit underwent significant post-magmatic tremolite-actinolite, chlorite, serpentine and magnetite alteration. The

  19. Geologic and geochemical features of the volatile-rich ore fluid and its tracing and dating in the Xuebaoding Beryl-Scheelite Vein Deposit,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Laser Raman spectrochemical analysis on single inclusion reveals that multi-phase fluid inclusions exist in the Xuebaoding Beryl-Scheelite Vein Deposit.Besides the solid daughter mineral,there are vapor CO2,liquid CO2,water-deficient CO2 and salt water solution from its center to the border.A close study on the fluid inclusion components and carbon,oxygen,helium and argon isotope tracing and dating suggests that the volatile-rich ore fluid might derive from postmagmatic fluid and rare element enrichment is the result of the mixture of the plutonic alkali granite with crustal material.

  20. Geologic and geochemical features of the volatile-rich ore fluid and its tracing and dating in the Xuebaoding Beryl-Scheelite Vein Deposit, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志敏; 任建国; 郑建斌; 徐仕进; 李佑国; 王汝成; T.SHOJ; H.KANEDA; S.KABAYASHI

    2002-01-01

    Laser Raman spectrochemical analysis on single inclusion reveals that multi-phase fluid inclusions exist in the Xuebaoding Beryl- Scheelite Vein Deposit. Besides the solid daughter mineral, there are vapor CO2, liquid CO2, water-deficient CO2 and salt water solution from its center to the border. A close study on the fluid inclusion components and carbon, oxygen, helium and argon isotope tracing and dating suggests that the volatile-rich ore fluid might derive from postmagmatic fluid and rare element enrichment is the result of the mixture of the plutonic alkali granite with crustal material.

  1. Integration of new geologic mapping and satellite-derived quartz mapping yields insights into the structure of the Roberts Mountains allochthon applicable to assessments for concealed Carlin-type gold deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Noble, Paula J.

    2012-01-01

    Geologic mapping and remote sensing across north-central Nevada enable recognition of a thick sheet of Middle and Upper Ordovician Valmy Formation quartzite that structurally overlies folded and faulted Ordovician through Devonian stratigraphic units of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. In the northern Independence Mountains and nearby Double Mountain area, the Valmy Formation is in fault contact with Ordovician through Silurian, predominantly clastic, sedimentary rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon that were deformed prior to, or during, emplacement of the Valmy thrust sheet. Similar structural relations are recognized discontinuously for 200 kilometers along the strike of the Roberts Mountains allochthon in mapping guided by regional remote-sensing-based (ASTER) quartz maps. Overall thicknesses of deformed Roberts Mountains allochthon units between the base of the Valmy and the top of underlying carbonate rocks that host large Carlin-type gold deposits varies on the order of hundreds of meters but is not known to exceed 700 meters. The base of the Valmy thrust sheet is a complimentary datum in natural resource exploration and mineral resource assessment for concealed Carlin-type gold deposits.

  2. Comment on “Stratigraphy, petrography and dispersion of the lower Permian syn-eruptive deposits in the Viar Basin, Spain” by S. Sierra, C. Moreno and E. Pascual [Sedimentary Geology 217 (2009) 1-29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R. H.; Mayoral, E.

    2010-07-01

    Comments are provided on a published paper on "Lower Permian" strata in SW Spain [S. Sierra, C. Moreno and E. Pascual, Stratigraphy, petrography and dispersion of the lower Permian syn-eruptive deposits in the Viar Basin, Spain, Sedimentary Geology 217 (2009) 1-29], which failed to take into account up-to-date information on this most southerly occurrence in western Europe. This generally lacustrine basin commenced with valley fill deposits in a deeply incised palaeotopography and contains mainly red beds with two basaltic intervals and a major acidic volcanic episode linked to a nearby volcanic centre to the Northeast. The stratigraphic succession shows southeasterly onlap. Although a syn-sedimentary fault has been postulated on the NE basin margin, the field evidence disproves this notion as well as the assumption that this "Early Permian" basin would have been controlled by a rejuvenated Ossa-Morena/South Portuguese boundary fault. In fact, this basin lies within the (former) area of Ossa-Morena.

  3. The geology of the Morro Velho gold deposit in the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Diogenes Scipioni; DeWitt, Ed; Lobato, Lydia Maria; Thorman, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    The Morro Velho gold deposit, Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, Minas Gerais, Brazil, is hosted by rocks at the base of the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt. The deposit occurs within a thick carbonaceous phyllite package, containing intercalations of felsic and intermediate volcaniclastic rocks and dolomites. Considering the temporal and spatial association of the deposit with the Rio das Velhas orogeny, and location in close proximity to a major NNW-trending fault zone, it can be classified as an orogenic gold deposit. Hydrothermal activity was characterized by intense enrichment in alteration zones of carbonates, sulfides, chlorite, white mica±biotite, albite and quartz, as described in other Archean lode-type gold ores. Two types of ore occur in the deposit: dark gray quartz veins and sulfide-rich gold orebodies. The sulfide-rich orebodies range from disseminated concentrations of sulfide minerals to massive sulfide bodies. The sulfide assemblage comprises (by volume), on average, 74% pyrrhotite, 17% arsenopyrite, 8% pyrite and 1% chalcopyrite. The orebodies have a long axis parallel to the local stretching lineation, with continuity down the plunge of fold axis for at least 4.8 km. The group of rocks hosting the Morro Velho gold mineralization is locally referred to as lapa seca. These were isoclinally folded and metamorphosed prior to gold mineralization. The lapa seca and the orebodies it hosts are distributed in five main tight folds related to F1 (the best examples are the X, Main and South orebodies, in level 25), which are disrupted by NE- to E-striking shear zones. Textural features indicate that the sulfide mineralization postdated regional peak metamorphism, and that the massive sulfide ore has subsequently been neither metamorphosed nor deformed. Lead isotope ratios indicate a model age of 2.82 ± 0.05 Ga for both sulfide and gold mineralization. The lapa seca are interpreted as the results of a pre-gold alteration process and may be

  4. Geological, geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-O-Hf isotopic constraints on origins of intrusions associated with the Baishan porphyry Mo deposit in eastern Tianshan, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinhong; Xue, Chunji; Liu, Jiajun; Zhang, Fangfang

    2016-10-01

    The Baishan porphyry Mo deposit (0.72 Mt; 0.06 % Mo) is located in the interior of the eastern Tianshan orogenic belt in Xinjiang, NW China. The deposit comprises 15 orebodies that are associated with monzogranite and granite porphyry stocks and are structurally controlled by roughly EW-trending faults. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb dating of the monzogranite and granite porphyry yielded the Middle Triassic age (228 ± 2 to 227 ± 2 Ma), which coincide with the molybdenite Re-Os model ages ranging from 226 ± 3 to 228 ± 3 Ma. The Triassic monzogranite and granite porphyry belong to high-K calc-alkaline series and are characterized by high SiO2 and Al2O3 and low MgO, TiO2, and P2O5 concentrations, with negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.55-0.91). The least-altered monzogranite and granite porphyry yield uniform ɛ Nd( t) values from +1.6 to +3.6, and wide (87Sr/86Sr) i ratios ranging between 0.7035 and 0.7071, indicating that they were derived from the lower crust. In situ O-Hf isotopic analyses on zircon using SIMS and laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) indicate that the δ18O and ɛ Hf( t) values of zircon from a monzogranite sample vary from 6.1 to 7.3 ‰ and +8.0 to +11.7, respectively, whereas zircon from a granite porphyry sample vary from 6.2 to 6.9 ‰ and +7.3 to +11.2, respectively. The geochemical and isotopic data imply that the primary magmas of the Baishan granite were likely derived from partial melts from the lower crust involving some mantle components. The Baishan Mo deposit and granitic emplacement were proposed to be most likely related to post-orogenic lithospheric extension and magmatic underplating. An extensional event coupled with the rising of hot mantle-derived melts triggered partial melting of the lower crust, as well as provided metals (Mo).

  5. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (3)PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082333 Bai Guoping(Key Laboratory for Hydrocarbon Accumulation of Education Ministry,China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249,China);Yin Jinyin Petroleum Geological Features and Explo- ration Potential Analyses of North Carnavon Basin,Australia(Petroleum Geology & Ex- periment,ISSN1001—6112,CN32—1151/ TE,29(3),2007,p.253—258,4 illus.,1 table,12 refs.)

  6. Characteristics of red bed containing saline deposit and engineering geological issues of dam foundation in Sichuan Basin(I)%四川盆地含膏盐红层特征及坝基工程地质问题(I)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子忠; 许模

    2011-01-01

    以四川盆地合膏盐(石膏、芒硝、钙芒硝)红层为例,论述了含膏盐红层的沉积环境及其分布范围,膏盐矿物在红层岩体中的分布及其矿物学特征,讨论了由于膏盐矿物溶蚀形成的有别于常规碳酸盐岩岩溶作用的红层类岩溶作用.依据水电工程实例,描述了红层坝基类岩溶形态,分析了类岩溶和溶蚀下限机理,同时给出了四川盆地几各水电工程类岩溶红层坝基的溶蚀下限深度.为确定坝基岩体防渗深度提出了相关地质依据.%Taking the red bed containing saline deposit ( gypsum, mirabilite, glauberite) in Sichuan Basin as the studying case,the depositional environment and the scope of the red beds containing saline deposits therein, as well as the distribution of the saline deposits within the rock masses of the red beds and their mineralogical features are expounded herein, and then, the pseudo-karst action resulted from the erosion of the saline deposits in the red beds that is different from the normal karst action of carbonate rock is discussed as well. Based on the actual cases of the construction of hydropower projects, the pseudo-karst morphologies of the rock masses of the red beds for the dam foundations are described along with the analyses made on the mechanism of the lower limits of both the pseudo-karst and the erosion, and furthermore, the lower limit erosion depths of the dam foundations consisting of the red beds with the pseudo-karst for several hydropower projects developed within Sichuan Basin are given at the same time, so as to provide the relevant geological bases for determining the anti-seepage depths for the rock masses of the dam foundations concerned.

  7. Resource and Geological Characteristics of Gold Deposits in India%印度共和国金矿资源及其地质特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成功; 邱献引; 孙卫宾; 李尚林; 罗彦军

    2015-01-01

    India’s gold mine has four basic types:greenstone belt type,conglomerate-type,alluvial gold mine and associated gold mine.India’s gold mine has a feature of wide distribution,relative concentration,less large and rich mineral deposits,and the great depth and so on.Greenstone type gold mine which is the most important gold type in India,concentrates Precambrian greenstone belt in South India craton and central India craton.Kolar gold mine and Hutii gold mine in the East of Darwar craton in south India are typical greenstone type gold mines. Kolar gold mine is a super-giant gold deposit with an average gold grade of 16 g/t,and gold reserves > 1 000 t;Hutti gold mine is a large gold deposit with an average grade of 4.85 g/t,and gold reserves >150 t.The proved reserves of India’s gold mine is very limited,but a lot of smaller gold deposits are widely distributed in India craton greenstone belts,which indicates there is a very good potential of gold resource.Increasing the investment in the exploration and development of India’s gold mine will make more gold resources with great value be discovered and may also completely change the status quo of India gold.%印度金矿类型主要有4种:绿岩型、砾岩型、砂金及伴生金矿,具有分布广、相对集中、规模小、品位低及埋深较大等特点。绿岩型金矿是印度最重要的金矿类型,集中分布在南印度克拉通和印度中央克拉通的前寒武系绿岩带中。南部东塔尔瓦尔克拉通的科拉尔金矿和胡蒂金矿是典型的绿岩型金矿,其中,科拉尔金矿金平均品位为16 g/t,黄金储量>1000 t,属于超大型金矿床;胡蒂金矿金平均品位为4.85 g/t,黄金储量>150 t,属于大型金矿床。印度金矿探明储量十分有限,但大量较小规模金矿广泛分布在印度克拉通绿岩带,预示印度金矿具有很好的资源潜力。增加印度金矿勘探和开发投入,将发现更多具有重要价值的金

  8. Destination: Geology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  9. Assessing fluid-gas expulsion geology and gas hydrate deposits across the Gulf of Mexico with multicomponent and multifrequency seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardage, B.A.; Sava, D.C.; Murray, P.E.; DeAngelo, M.V.; Backus, M.M.; Graebner, R.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Roberts, H.H. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Coastal Studies Inst.

    2008-07-01

    This paper reported on a study of 2 fluid-gas expulsion sites across a portion of the Green Canyon area of the Gulf of Mexico, where deep-water fields and oil and gas seeps are numerous. Hydrates are pervasive across the 2 expulsion sites studied at Typhoon and Genesis Fields. The 2 sites GD 237 and GC 204 are positioned on the flank of an intraslope basin containing a thick sedimentary sequence. Major fluid-gas migration pathways occur near the edges of shallow subsurface salt masses. The two-fluid gas expulsion sites were investigated with 4-component ocean-bottom-cable (4C OBC) seismic data and chirp-sonar data acquired by an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The study examined the near-seafloor geology of the deep-water, fluid-gas expulsion features to estimate hydrate concentrations in strata spanned by the hydrate stability zone local to these expulsion sites. In some units, hydrate concentrations were more than 30 per cent of the available pore space of the host sediment. A free-gas layer was discovered immediately under the base of the hydrate stability zone across each expulsion site area. It was revealed by a reduction in V{sub p} velocity. Although the amount of free-gas in this zone has not been estimated, it is expected that the zone has a gas saturation of only a few percentage points. This free-gas zone was not obviously different from hydrate-bearing zones when examining resistivity logs. It was concluded that interpreting the thickness of a hydrate stability zone from resistivity logs alone could result in an overestimation of the thickness of the hydrate stability zone and the amount of hydrate that exists near deep-water expulsion features. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  10. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091749 Cai Hou’an(College of Energy Geology,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin SHRIMP U-Pb Isotope Age of Volcanic Rocks Distributed in the Badaohao Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,36(4),2008,p.17-20,2 illus.,1 table,16 refs.)Key words:coal measures,volcanic rocks,U-Pb dating,LiaoningA set of andesite volcanic rocks distributes in the Badaohao area in Heishan County,Liaoning Province.It’s geological age and stratigraphy sequence relationship between the Lower Cretaceous Badaohao Formation and the volcanic rocks can not make sure till now and is influencing the further prospect for coals.Zircon

  11. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150599Chen Gang(Nanjing Center,China Geological Survey,Nanjing 210016,China);Yao Zhongyou Mineral Database Construction and Analysis of Oceania Region(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,33(2),2014,p.164-171,13illus.,6refs.)Key words:mineral localities,data bases Based on the database of the standards,construction process,data quality control measures and methods and processes,the authors constructed the databases of Fe,Mn,Cu,Al,Au,Ni,U and REE mineral resources for Oceanian region.Through a comprehensive analysis of the multi-source data information of geology and mineral resources,

  12. Geology and genesis of the Toongi rare metal (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Y and REE) deposit, NSW, Australia, and implications for rare metal mineralization in peralkaline igneous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandler, Carl; Morris, Caitlin

    2016-12-01

    The Toongi Deposit, located in central NSW, Australia, hosts significant resources of Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Y and REE within a small (ca. 0.3 km2), rapidly cooled trachyte laccolith. Toongi is part of regional Late Triassic to Jurassic alkaline magmatic field, but is distinguished from the other igneous bodies by its peralkaline composition and economically significant rare metal content that is homogenously distributed throughout the trachyte body. The primary ore minerals are evenly dispersed throughout the rock and include lueshite/natroniobite and complex Na-Fe-Zr-Nb-Y-REE silicate minerals dominated by a eudialyte group mineral (EGM). The EGM occurs in a unique textural setting in the rock, commonly forming spheroidal or irregular-shaped globules, herein called "snowballs", within the rock matrix. The snowballs are often protruded by aegirine and feldspar phenocrysts and contain swarms of fine aegirine and feldspar grains that often form spiral or swirling patterns within the snowball. Secondary ore minerals include REE carbonates, Y milarite, catapleiite and gaidonnayite that fill fractures and vesicles in the rock. Based on bulk-rock geochemical and Nd isotope data, and thermodynamic modelling of magma fractionation, the alkaline rocks of the region are interpreted to represent extrusive to hyperbyssal products of mantle-derived magma that ponded at mid-crustal levels (ca. 0.3 GPa) and underwent extensive fractionation under low-oxygen fugacity conditions. The high Na2O, peralkaline nature of the Toongi Deposit trachyte developed via extensive fractionation of an alkali olivine basalt parental magma initially in the mid-crust and subsequently at shallow levels (ca. 0.1 GPa). This extended fractionation under low fO2 and relatively low H2O-activity conditions limited volatile release and allowed build-up of rare metal contents to ore grades. We speculate that the ore minerals may have originally formed from rare metal-rich sodic-silicate melt that formed immiscible

  13. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102152 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geology Survey,Changsha 410011,China);Zhou Kejun Study on Quaternary Tectonic-Sedimentary Evolution of Lujiao Area,East Edge of Yuanjiang Sag,Dongting Basin(Journal of Geomechanics,ISSN1006-6616,CN11-3672/P,15(4),2009,p.409-420,7 illus.,1 table,23 refs.)Key words:basins,Dongtinghu BasinQuaternary Yuanjiang sag is an eastern one of the secondary tectonic units of the Dongting Basin.Detailed geologic mapping and bore data were taken to reveal the Quaternary tectonic,sedimentary and

  14. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150342Guan Yu(Geo-Environment Monitoring Station of Anhui Province,Hefei230001,China);Chen Xun On Shallow Geothermal Energy Investigation in Urban Planning Zone of Bengbu in Anhui Province(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674-3636,CN32-1796/P,38(1),2014,p.88-93,2illus.,4tables,6refs.)Key words:geothermal energy,Anhui Province The authors conducted studies on shallow geothermal energy in urban planning zone in Bengbu of Anhui Province,depicted the geological settings of shallow geothermal energy,analyzed the natural features,heat exchange

  15. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140498An Shize(Sichuan Institute of Geological Engineering Investigation,Chengdu610072,China);Liu Zongxiang On the Failure Mechanism of a Bedding Landslide in Northeast Sichuan(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(1),2013,p.14-19,2illus.,9refs.)Key words:bedding faults,landslides The landslide was caused by excavation engineering.The failure mechanism is explored for slopes with soft interlayer in the red

  16. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140332 Jiang Lin(School of Earth and Space Sciences,Peking University,Beijing100871,China);Ji Jianqing Geologic Analysis on the Prospects of the Enhanced Geothermal System(EGS)in the Bohaiwan Basin(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,49(1),2013,p.167-178,5illus.,4tables,41refs.)Key words:geothermal systems,Bohaiwan Basin Great amounts of thermal energy is stored ubiquitously in rocks with high tempera-

  17. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102127 S.L.Shvartsev(Tomsk Department,Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics of Siberian Branch of the RAS)Self-Organizing Abiogenic Dissipative Structures in the Geologic History of the Earth(Earth Science Frontiers,ISSN1005-2321,CN11-3370/P,16(6),2009,p.257-275,3 illus.,4 tables,53 refs.)Key words:abiogenic,water-rock interaction,dissipative structureIt is shown that since the appearance of water on the Earth,a stationary disequilibrium-equilibrium

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110635 Bai Jinbin(Tianjin Institute of Geological Survey,Yingshui Road 20,Nankai 300191,China),Niu Xiujun Cenozoic Consolidation Characteristics and Land Subsidence in Tianjin(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2825/P,21(1),2010,p.42-46,4 illus.,4 tables,7 refs.)Key words:consolidation,land subsidence,TianjinAccording to the survey data of oil wells in Dagang oilfield and a lot of laboratory data,the paper discussed the relationship between the consolidation characteristics

  19. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110686 Bai Wancheng(Gold Headquarters of the Chinese Armed Police Force,Beijing 100055,China);Dong Jianle Statistic Prediction for Gold Ore Prospecting in China(Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research,ISSN1001-1412,CN12-1131/P,25(1),2010,p.1-4,11,1 illus,1 table,7 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:metallogenic prediction,gold ores,China 20110687 Dong Min(Institute of Geology and Exploration Engineering,Xinjiang University,Urumqi 830046,China);Sun Baosheng Drawing and S

  20. A statistical method for estimating rates of soil development and ages of geologic deposits: A design for soil-chronosequence studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, P.; Harden, J.W.; Mark, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    most probable age. The statistical variability of the ML-estimated calibration curve is assessed by a Monte Carlo method in which simulated data sets repeatedly are drawn from the distributional specification; calibration parameters are reestimated for each such simulation in order to assess their statistical variability. Several examples are used for illustration. The age of undated soils in a related setting may be estimated from the soil data using the fitted calibration curve. A second simulation to assess age estimate variability is described and applied to the examples. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  1. Discovery of Cu-Ni-Zn-Sn-Fe intermetallic compounds and S-bearing alloys in the Zhaishang gold deposit, southern Gansu Province and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Examination of ores by optical microscope and EPMA from the Zhaishang gold deposit, southern Gansu Province, has revealed an abundance of rare minerals. These include native metals, Cu-Ni-Zn-Sn-Fe polymetallic compounds and S-bearing alloys of Ni, Fe, Zn, Cu and Sn, occurring as native nickel, Zn-Cu alloy, Ni-Zn-Cu alloy, Sn-Zn-Ni-Cu alloy, Zn-Cu-Ni alloy, Zn-Fe-Cu-Sn-Ni alloy, Fe-Ni-S alloy, Sn-Fe-Ni-S alloy, Fe-Zn-Cu-Ni-S alloy, Zn-Ni-Cu-Fe-S alloy and others. Compared with the Zn-Cu alloy minerals discovered previously, these Zn-Cu minerals fall in the α or α+β portion in Zn-Cu alloy phase diagram, and the α portion has higher Cu content. Cu-Ni-Zn-Sn-Fe intermetallic compounds and S-bearing alloy minerals have not been previously reported in the literature. These rare alloys formed in a strongly reducing environment with absent oxygen and low sulfur activities.

  2. Regional tectonics, geology, magma chamber processes and mineralisation of the Jinchuan nickel-copper-PGE deposit, Gansu Province, China: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. (Mike Porter

    2016-05-01

    The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion was injected into three interconnected sub-chambers, each containing a separate orebody. It essentially comprises an olivine-orthopyroxene-chromite cumulate, with interstitial orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and phlogopite, and is predominantly composed of lherzolite (∼80%, with an outer rim of olivine pyroxenite and cores of mineralised dunite. Mineralisation occurs as disseminated and net-textured sulphides, predominantly within the dunite, with lesser, PGE rich lenses, late massive sulphide accumulations, small copper rich pods and limited mineralised diopside skarn in wall rock marbles. The principal ore minerals are pyrrhotite (the dominant sulphide, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, cubanite, mackinawite and pyrite, with a variety of platinum group minerals and minor gold. The deposit underwent significant post-magmatic tremolite-actinolite, chlorite, serpentine and magnetite alteration. The volume of the Jinchuan intrusion accounts for <3% of the total parental magma required to generate the contained olivine and sulphide. It is postulated that mafic melt, intruded into the lower crust, hydraulically supported by density contrast buoyancy from below the Moho, ponded in a large staging chamber, where crystallisation and settling formed a lower sulphide rich mush. This mush was subsequently injected into nearby shallow dipping faults to form the Jinchuan intrusion.

  3. Discovery of Cu-Ni-Zn-Sn-Fe intermetailic compounds and S-bearing alloys in the Zhaishang gold deposit,southern Gansu Province and its geological sisnificance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU JiaJun; MAO GuangJian; MA XingHua; LI LiXing; GUO YuQian; LIU GuangZhi

    2008-01-01

    Examination of ores by optical microscope and EPMA from the Zhaishang gold deposit, southern Gansu Province, has revealed an abundance of rare minerals. These include native metals, Cu-Ni-Zn-Sn-Fe polymetallic compounds and S-bearing alloys of Ni, Fe, Zn, Cu and Sn, occurring as native nickel, Zn-Cu alloy, Ni-Zn-Cu alloy, Sn-Zn-Ni-Cu alloy, Zn-Cu-Ni alloy, Zn-Fe-Cu-Sn-Ni alloy, Fe-Ni-S alloy, Sn-Fe-Ni-S alloy, Fe-Zn-Cu-Ni-S alloy, Zn-Ni-Cu-Fe-S alloy and others. Compared with the Zn-Cu alloy minerals discovered previously, these Zn-Cu minerals fall in the α or α+β portion in Zn-Cu alloy phase diagram, and the α portion has higher Cu content. Cu-Ni-Zn-Sn-Fe intermetallic compounds and S-bearing alloy minerals have not been previously reported in the literature. These rare alloys formed in a strongly reducing environment with absent oxygen and low sulfur activities.

  4. Theoretical geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical geology Present day geology is mostly empirical of nature. I claim that geology is by nature complex and that the empirical approach is bound to fail. Let's consider the input to be the set of ambient conditions and the output to be the sedimentary rock record. I claim that the output can only be deduced from the input if the relation from input to output be known. The fundamental question is therefore the following: Can one predict the output from the input or can one predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? If one can, than the empirical/deductive method has changes, if one can't than that method is bound to fail. The fundamental problem to solve is therefore the following: How to predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? It is interesting to observe that this question is never asked and many a study is conducted by the empirical/deductive method; it seems that the empirical method has been accepted as being appropriate without question. It is, however, easy to argument that a sedimentary system is by nature complex and that several input parameters vary at the same time and that they can create similar output in the rock record. It follows trivially from these first principles that in such a case the deductive solution cannot be unique. At the same time several geological methods depart precisely from the assumption, that one particular variable is the dictator/driver and that the others are constant, even though the data do not support such an assumption. The method of "sequence stratigraphy" is a typical example of such a dogma. It can be easily argued that all the interpretation resulting from a method that is built on uncertain or wrong assumptions is erroneous. Still, this method has survived for many years, nonwithstanding all the critics it has received. This is just one example of the present day geological world and is not unique. Even the alternative methods criticising sequence stratigraphy actually depart from the same

  5. Geological characteristics and prospecting direction of Zhagela gold deposit in Tibet%西藏扎格拉金矿床地质特征及找矿方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红强; 张红鹏; 安超; 王斌

    2015-01-01

    Zhagela gold deposit of Tibet was located in Bange-Tengchong magmatic arcbelt on the southern limb of Bangonghu-Nujiang conjunctive belt (or Dingqing conjunctive belt).The ore-bodies were strictly controlled by faulted fracture zone in epimetamorphic flysch rock series of Jurassic Xihu Group.The gold mineralization wall rock alteration included silicification,sericitization,pyritization (ferritization),carbon-atization,argillization and chloritization.In respect of geochemistry,anomalies of element associations of Au,As,Sb,W,Mo and Cu occurred and they were effective clues for gold prospecting.This paper compre-hensively summarized the metallogenic and geological characteristics of Zhagela gold deposit,and based on field survey it believed that Zhagela gold deposit was a metamorphic-hydrothermal gold deposit in term of genesis,and was low-sulfide gold ores in term of industry type.The paper also proposed the prospecting di-rection of such type of gold ores in this area.%西藏扎格拉金矿位于班公湖-怒江结合带(简称丁青结合带)南侧的班戈—腾冲岩浆弧带,矿体严格受侏罗统希湖群浅变质复理石岩系中断裂破碎带控制,金矿化围岩蚀变包括有硅化、绢云母化、黄铁矿化(褐铁矿化)、碳酸盐化、粘土化、绿泥石化等。地球化学有 Au、As、Sb、W、Mo、Cu 元素组合的异常,对金矿勘探具有很好的指示作用。全面详细总结了扎格拉金矿成矿地质特征,结合野外地质调查认为扎格拉金矿成因属于变质-热液型金矿床类,工业类型为少硫化物金矿石,同时提出本地区该类型金矿的找矿方向。

  6. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091163 Jiang Huichao(Tongji University College of Ocean and Earth Science,Shanghai 200092,China);Xiao Yongjun Analysis of Cenozoic Subsurface Temperatures of the Jiyang Depression,Shandong Province(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11- 1167/P,35(2),2008,p.273-278,3 illus.,2 tables,15 refs.)

  7. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151090 Bian Huiying(School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering,Chang’an University,Xi’an 10054,China);Wang Shuangming Hydrodynamic Conditions of Geothermal Water in Gushi Depression of Guanzhong Basin(Coal Geology&Exploration;,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,42(3),2014,p.50-54,60,9illus.,11refs.,

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20042333 Chen Cuibai (School of Water Resources and Environment, China University of Geosciences, Beijing); Yang Qi The Laboratory Study of Biodegradation and Adsorption and Desorption of Trichloroethylene to Mixed Bacteria (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN1000 - 3665, CN11-2202/P, 31(1), 2004, p. 47-51, 6 illus. , 4 tables, 14 refs. )

  9. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090720 Wang Haiqiao(Institute of Earth Resources and Information,China University of Petroleum(East China),Dongying 257061,China);Zhong Jianhua Theory of Geological Holography(Earth Science Frontiers, ISSN1005-2321,CN11-3370/P,15 (3),2008,p.370-379,8 illus.,24 refs.)

  10. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070403 Deng Xiaoying (Zhengzhou Geo-Engineering Exploration Institute, Zhengzhou 450053, China); Yang Guoping Features and Origin of Geothermal Fluid in the New District of Hebi, Henan Provionce (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 32(2), 2005, p.111-114, 4 illus., 1 table, 7 refs.) Key words: thermal waters, Henan Province

  11. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131375 Dai Deqiu(Institute of GeologyHunan University of Science and TechnologyXiangtan 411201,China);Wang Shijie Comparison of Petrography and Mineral Chemistry Characters between Plagioclase Olivine Inclusions and Typical Ca,Al-Rich Inclusions(Acta Mineralogica Sinica,ISSN1000-4734CN52-1045/P,32(3),2012,p.341-348,3

  12. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152724 Chen Dan(State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Fu Ronghua Study on the Responses of Landslide to Earthquake:Taking Kudiguazi Landslide as an Example(Geological Journal of China Universities,

  13. SEISMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160094Cao Lei(Institute of Geology and Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing100029,China);Hao Jinlai Rupture Process Of March 10,2014,M W6.9 Earthquake in the Northwestern Coast of California(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-

  14. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20130642 Bai Daoyuan (Hunan Institute of Geology Survey , Mineral Exploration and Development of Hunan Province , Changsha 410011 , China); Jia Baohua Potential Genesis of the Trending Changes of Jinning Period and Caledonian Structural Lineamens in Middle-Southern Hunan Province (Journal of Geomechanics , ISSN1006-6616 ,

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132755 Chang Ming(State Key Laboratory for Geo-Hazard Prevention and Geo-Environment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Tang Chuan Prediction Model for Debris Flow Hazard Zone on Alluvial Fan in Milin Section of Yarlungzangbo River,Tibet(Journal of Engineering Geology,ISSN1004-9665

  16. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101425 Dai Deqiu (Institute of Geology, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201, China); Lin Yangting Petrography, Mineral Chemistry of 6 New Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrites Collected from the Grove Mountains, Antarctica(Acta Mineralogica Sinica, ISSN1000-4734, CN52-1045/P, 29(3), 2009, p.405-412, 3 illus., 3 tables, 20 refs.)

  17. SEISMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101490 Chen Yuwei (Earthquake Administration of Anhui Province, Hefei 230031, China); Huang Xianliang Analysis of Impact of Source Region Structure on Seismology Parameter Scan Results (Seismology and Geology, ISSN0253-4967, CN11-2192/P, 31(3), 2009, p.433-440, 2 illus., 4 tables, 12 refs.)

  18. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131958 An Lili(China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Chen JianpingIntegration and Exploitation of 3DDigital Mine Information System(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674-3636,CN32-1796/P,36(3),2012,p.280-284,2illus.,14refs.)Key words:geographic information system,Sichuan Province

  19. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071578 Chen Song(College of Civil Engi- neering,Hohai University,Nanjing 210098, China);Han Xuewei Monitoring Program System for the Foundation of Large Bridge (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN 1000-3665,CN 11-2202/P,32(5), 2005,p.44-47,5 illus.,3 refs.) Key words:bridges,footing

  20. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080675 Chen Shucun(College of Civil Engineering,Hohai University,Nanjing 210098);Gao Zhengxia Application of a Refined BP Algorithm Based Elman Network to Settlement Prediction of Soft Soil Ground(Journal of Engineering Geology,ISSN1004-9665,CN11-3249/P,14(3),2006,p.394-397,4 illus.,2 tables,6 refs.)

  1. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20042360 Feng Zhihan (Geological Survey of Gansu Province, Lanzhou, Gansu) Adjustment of Gravitational Base Point Net Using MATLAB (Computing Techniques for Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, ISSN 1001-1749, CN51-1242/P, 25(4), 2003, p. 336-339, 1 illus. , 3 refs. )

  2. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070285 Fu Xiaofang (Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, SBGMR, Chengdu, Sichuan 610081); Hou Liwei Potential of Mineral Resources of Rare and Dispersed Elements in Sichuan Province and Countermeasures of Exploitation (Acta Geologica Sichuan, ISSN1006-0995, CN51-1273/P, 26(1), 2006, p.10-18, 6 illus., 15 refs.) Key words: mineral resources, Sichuan Province

  3. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080948 Deng Jinfu(State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Su Shangguo Yanshanian(Jura-Cretaceous)Orogenic Processes and Metallogenesis of the Taihangshan-Yanshan-West Liaoning Orogenic Belt,North China(Geoscience,ISSN1000-8527,CN11-2035/P,21(2)

  4. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080252 Zhai Yusheng(State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China) Earth System,Me-tallogenic System to Exploration System(Earth Science Frontiers,ISSN1005-2321,CN11-3370/P,14(1),2007,p.172-181,6 illus.,18 refs.,with English abstract)

  5. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20130838 Li Wenyuan (Xi ’ an Center , China Geological Survey , Xi ’ an 710054 , China); Niu Yaoling Geodynamic Setting and FurtherExploration of Magmatism-Related Mineralization Concentrated in the Late Paleozoic in the Northern Xinjiang Autonomous Region (Earth Science Frontiers , ISSN1005-2321 , CN11-3370/P , 19 (4)

  6. Geology and mineralogy of the Au-As (Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu-Sb polymetallic deposit of Valiña-Azúmara (Lugo, NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Abad, I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Valiña-Azúmara is a polymetallic Au-As (Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu-Sb deposit, located in the province of Lugo (NW Spain, that was mined for arsenic at the beginning of the 20th century. The mineralization is hosted in a Variscan thrust fault with a dip direction of N247-261ºE, and N-S and NE-SW Late-Variscan faults. These structures are hosted in black slates, Cambrian in age. To a lesser extent, the mineralization also occurs disseminated within narrow, weakly silicified and sericited selvages. Mineralization is divided into two hypogene stages. The first consists of quartz, calcite, rutile, sericite, arsenopyrite and pyrite. Two types of pyrite (Py-I and Py-II are defined according to their chemical and textural characteristics. Py-II occurs as overgrowth of previous Py-I crystals. Py-II is As-rich (≤1.7 wt.% and often contains traces of Te, Zn, Cu, Bi, Sb and Au. The mineralized drill core sections show a significant correlation between Au and As. This is due to Au occurring as invisible Au within the Py-II grains, with contents of up to 176 ppm. The Au/As ratios of Py-II indicate that Au was deposited as Au1+, as solid solution within the pyrite structure. The second stage of mineralization is enriched in Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu-Sb, replacing the first stage, and consists of quartz, calcite, chlorite, sphalerite, jamesonite, Ag-rich tetrahedrite, freibergite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and galena. Although jamesonite shows traces of Ag, the Cu-Ag sulfosalts are the main carriers of the Ag mineralization in the deposit, with contents that vary from 13.7 to 23.9 wt.% of Ag. In the most superficial levels of the area, secondary Fe oxide and hydroxide, scorodite and anglesite developed due to the oxidation of the ore.Valiña-Azúmara es un yacimiento filoniano de Au-As (Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu-Sb situado en la provincia de Lugo (NO España, que fue explotado por arsénico a principios del siglo XX. La mineralización se encuentra encajada en un cabalgamiento Varisco de direcci

  7. Porphyry copper deposits of the world

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Information on porphyry copper deposits from around the world with grade and tonnage models, a general classification based on geologic setting, mineralogy, with...

  8. Rare earth element mines, deposits, and occurrences

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains location, geologic and mineral economic data for world rare earth mines, deposits, and occurrences. The data in this compilation were derived...

  9. Major mineral deposits of the world

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Regional locations and general geologic setting of known deposits of major nonfuel mineral commodities. Originally compiled in five parts by diverse authors,...

  10. Geological Characteristics and Prospecting Direction of Zuoba Tungsten Ore Deposit%左拔钨矿床地质特征及找矿方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文; 林锦杰; 钟远生; 秦建云

    2016-01-01

    左拔矿区地处南岭东西复杂构造岩浆带东段与诸广山北北东断裂构造隆起区的复合交切部位,石英脉型钨矿体产于寒武系中下统浅变质岩中,受隐伏花岗岩凸起和构造裂隙复合控制。文章针对矿床特征、矿石特征、围岩蚀变进行分析,结合矿床成因和控矿因素,得出该矿床内接触带有望找到花岗岩浸染型钨矿体(“五层楼”的“地下室”)和内接触带石英脉型钨矿体(“楼下楼”)。隐伏岩体最高凸起位置可能位于中组脉带,中组脉带深部是寻找“地下室”“楼下楼”的重点部位。%Zuoba Tungsten Ore Deposit is located in the intersection of eastern parts of the Nanling complicated tectonomagmatic belt and the Zhuguangshan NNE tectonic uplift zone. Quartz vein type tungsten ore bodies are observed to occur in the lower-to upper Cambrian metamorphic rocks, which are controlled by structural fractures and a concealed embossment of a granitic batholith in a synergetic and coupled manner. It was suggested that disseminated tungsten orebodies (basement of the Five-story Floor) and quartz-vein type orebodies (floors under the Five-story Floor) might be found in the endomorphosed granite. Emphasis should be put on the location below the middle group of vein zone, where the concealed embossment of granite might be located, as far as the prospecting for the mentioned orebodies is concerned.

  11. Geologic map of Indonesia - Peta geologi Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigit, Soetarjo

    1965-01-01

    The geology, compiled by Th. H. F. Klompe in 1954 from published and unpublished maps of the Direktorat Geologi, has been brought up to date on the basis of investigations carried out to 1962 (Ref. Sigit, Soetarjo, "I. A brief outline of the geology of the Indonesian Archipelago, and II. Geological map of Indonesia;" Direktorat Geologi publication, 1962.)

  12. Geological characteristics and prospecting potential of Longmendian Ag-Pb deposit in Luoning of Henan%河南省洛宁县龙门店银铅矿地质特征及找矿前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范少军; 何文平

    2015-01-01

    Through the study of geological prospecting,production,exploration and comprehensive research, this paper elaborated on ore-controlling factors and deposit genesis.According to the results of transient elec-tromagnetic method geophysical exploration and integrated analysis on mineral-formation conditions,the au-thor made presumptions that locations around elevation 200m of K4,K6,K9,K1 1 and K1 were favorable places for prospecting,and the predicted prospective reserve of Ag was up to about 1,000 tons.The paper also pointed out that the area had the potential of prospecting for medium-large scale Ag-Pb polymetallic de-posits and it had great prospecting potential in deep part.%文章总结了龙门店矿区地质找矿、生产勘探和综合研究等地质成果,探讨了控矿因素和矿床成因;根据瞬变电磁法物探成果及成矿条件综合分析,推断 K4、K6、K9、K11、及 K1的200m 标高左右存在成矿有利地段,预测本区远景银金属量近千吨,指出了本区具有中大型银铅多金属矿床找矿前景,深部找矿潜力巨大。

  13. GEOLOGY AND METALLOGENY OF THE COPPER DEPOSITS IN THE SHANGSHAXIMAO FORMATION IN NORTHWEST GUIZHOU: A case study of the Tiaotai copper deposit in Xishui County%黔北上沙溪庙组铜矿地质特征及成矿作用——以习水县条台铜矿为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光龙; 崔登伟; 杨旭; 钟祖峰; 张辉

    2011-01-01

    黔北仁怀-习水地区含铜砂岩型铜矿产于四川台拗边缘大型内陆盆地红层组合中,含矿岩石主要为中侏罗统上沙溪庙组浅灰绿色富含硅(碳)化木的长石砂岩.以习水县条台铜矿为例,对上沙溪庙组铜矿床地质特征和成矿条件进行了总结和分析.其成矿作用过程经历了:①含铜砂岩层原生沉积;②表生氧化作用;③次生富集成矿3个阶段.该矿是一个含铜砂岩层原生沉积后经地下水渗滤再造的淋积矿床.%The cupreous sandstone type of copper deposit in Renhuai-Xishui area, Northern Guizhou Province occurs in the red beds in the large inland basin on the edge of Sichuan platform-depression. The ore-bearing rocks are mainly the arkose containing silicified or carbonized wood of Middle Jurassic Shangshaximiao Formation. Taking the Tiaotai copper deposit as an example, this paper summarizes and studies the geologic characters and metallogenic conditions of the copper deposits in Shangshaximiao Formation. The metallogenesis experienced three stages, I.e. 1) primary sedimentation of cupreous sandstone layer; 2) surface oxidation; and 3 ) secondary enrichment and mineralization. The deposit is formed by the groundwater leaching after the primary sedimentation of the cupreous sandstone layer.

  14. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091797 Cao Shenghua(Faculty of Earth Science,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Xiao Xiaolin Renew-Establishment of the Jurassic Mugagangri Groups and Its Geological Significance on the Western Side of the Bangong Co-Nujiang Junction Zone(Acta Sedimentologica Sinica,ISSN1000-0550,CN62-1038/P,26(4),2008,p.559-564,4 illus.,1 table,7 refs.)Key words:Jurassic,Qinghai-Tibetan PlateauMugagangri Groups is a suite of flysch-flyschoid elastic deposits,and is Early-Middle Jurassic abyssal sedimentary,which is widespread in the western side of the Bangong

  15. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150369Cai Xiongfei(State Key Laboratory of Biological and Environmental Geology,Faculty of Earth Sciences,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);He Wenjian New Advances in the Study of the Cambrian in Helan Mountains(Resources Survey&Environment;,ISSN1671-4814,CN32-1640/N,35(1),2014,p.12-18,2illus.,4tables,25refs.)Key words:Cambrian,Helan Mountains The Early Cambrian Suyukou Formation of the Helan Mountain is formed of the alluvial fan deposit including mixed sands and gravels with unequigranular texture,the Wudao-

  16. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111095 Chen Rong(Institute of Sedimentary Geology,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Li Yong Sequence Stratigraphy of Neogene in the Northern Slope of the Chengning Uplift(Journal of Stratigraphy,ISSN0253-4959,CN32-1187/P,34(2),2010,p.179-186,7 illus.,1 table,9 refs.)Key words:Neogene Period,stratigraphic framework,Huanghua Depression According to the tectonic evolutionary history and stratigraphic and depositional characteristics,and based on drill cores,cutting logs,well logs and high-resolution 3-D seismic data,sequences

  17. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (3)PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071077 An Zuoxiang(Petroleum Industry Press,Beijing 100011,China);Ma Ji On Bo- real-Style Petroliferous Domain(Xinjiang Petroleum Geology,ISSN1001-3873,CN65 -1107/TE,26(4),2005,p.432-436,4 illus.,9 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:oil and gas fields

  18. Second development of kaolin deposit geological samples in Shachuangou mining area of Shanxi%府谷沙川沟矿区高岭土矿实物地质资料开发利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋焕霞; 赵世煌; 赵桂军; 韩淑琛

    2015-01-01

    The thesis resumes the process of exploring Kaolin,and sums up the function by means of the second development to the drill core of previous coal exploration in Shachuangou mining area of Fugu of Shanxi.It suggests to pay attention to the exploitation of the paragenous,and associated deposits in coal stratum and second utilization of geological samples.%为研究实物地质资料二次开发利用在地质找矿工作中的重要作用,本文简述了陕西府谷沙川沟小区高岭土矿的找矿过程及矿床特征。阐明了在找高岭土矿过程中利用煤炭勘查钻孔岩芯二次开发取得的找矿成果。通过实例证明,对以往煤炭勘查钻孔岩芯资料的二次开发利用,是实现煤系共伴生矿产找矿突破的有效途径。

  19. Application of DIMINE software to three dimensional geological modeling of an in-situ leaching deposit%DIMINE矿业软件在某地浸矿床三维地质建模中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨润生

    2013-01-01

    According to the exploration data of an in-situ leaching deposit,a 3D model for the orebody was established by using DIMINE software.The 3D model of the orebody was divided into the block model,and space grade interpolation was maken on the block model by inverse distance weighted method,and the mineral resource and reserves estimation was completed.The error between reserves estimated by the software and reserves provided by the geological report is + 1.43 %,and it is showed that the results of software estimation is believable.%根据某地浸矿床勘查资料,应用DIMINE矿业软件建立了某地浸矿床矿体三维模型,对其进行了块体模型划分,采用距离幂次反比法对块体模型进行空间品位插值,并在此基础上估算了矿床资源储量.通过将软件估算结果与地质报告提交量对比,误差仅为+1.43%,表明软件估算的结果可信.

  20. Geological Characteristics and Prospecting Criteria of Xinanzi Tungsten-tin Deposit%江西崇义新安子钨锡矿地质特征及找矿标志

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖嘉裕

    2011-01-01

    江西崇义新安子钨锡矿位于钨(锡)矿床分布最密集的赣南"崇余犹"矿集区内,区域成矿条件得天独厚.该矿床在地质特征和找矿标志方面,既有赣南钨(锡)矿床一般共性,又有其特殊性.笔者在详细研究矿床地质特征的基础上,总结了该矿床的主要控矿因素并归纳了主要找矿标志,对矿区乃至整个赣南钨锡矿产资源的勘查与开发均具有指导意义.%Locating in the well-known Chongyi-Dayu-Shangyou concentrated mineral area in South Jiangxi, Xinanzi tungsten-tin ore deposit has favorable metallogenetie conditions.This paper summarizes the major ore-controlling factors and prospecting criteria on the basis of its geological characteristics.

  1. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110727 Dai Deqiu (Institute of Geology, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201, China); Wang Daode The Evolvement Models and Progress of Research on Formation of Ca-,Al-Rich inclusions in Chondrites (Geological Review, ISSN0371-5736, CN11-1952/P, 56(3), 2010, p.374-383, 2 illus., 1 table, 72 refs.)Key words: chondrites Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the earliest assemblages formed in the solar nebula. The formation models of CAIs include gas-soild condensation, crystallization from melting or partial melting and high-temperature evaporating residues. The latest study shows similar distribution patterns of the petrographic types and sizes of CAIs in various chondrites. The petrographic characters argue that CAIs in various chemical groups of chondrites formed under similar processes and conditions probably in a same region in the solar nebula.

  2. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111769 Bai Yubin(School of Oil and Gas Resources,Xi’an University of Petroleum,Xi’an 710065,China);Zhang Hai Physical Properties and Main Controlling Factors for the Low-Permeability Reservoirs from a Oil Field in the Ordos Basin(Sedimentary Geology and Tethyan Geology,ISSN1009-3850,CN51-1593/P,30(3),2010,p.104-108,4 illus.,2 tables,5 refs.)Key words:low permeability reservoirs,reservoir properties,Ordos BasinThe Chang-2 reservoirs in A oil field in the Ordos Basin dominantly consist of fine-grainded feldspar sandstones which have low porosity and low-permeability,

  3. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110016 Cheng Shoude(Xinjiang Institute of Geology and Mineral Recources,Urumqi 830000,China);Liu Tong The Brief Description of the Division of Tectonic Units in the Five-Countries in Central Asia(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(1),2010,p.16-21,1 illus.,21 refs.)Key words:tectonics,tectonic units,Central Asia The Five-Countries in Central-Asia border on Xinjiang in the West China,research have been performed in this area,the gists of the division of tectonic units are different from each other and the results are different in a thousand and one ways.According as the investigations of sedimentary formation,conformation,

  4. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080401 Ding Kuan(Coal Mine Managing Branch Company of Datong Mining Industry Group Company,Datong 037003,China) Surveying the Thickness of the Coal Bed by the Method of Reflecting Wave from Synchronistical Shifting of Stimulating and Receiving(Gansu Geology,ISSN1004-4116,CN62-1191/P,16(1-2),2007,p.93-96,70,3 illus.,4 tables,5 refs.)

  5. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151782 Ding Zhaoqin(Institute of Geophysical Exploration of Jilin Province,Changchun130012,China);Xu Zhihe The Possibility of Structure and Occurrence Geothermal Resources in Dunhua-Mishan Fault Zone(Huinan Section)(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,33(2),2014,p.98-102,5illus.,1table,4refs.)Key words:geothermal resources,fracture

  6. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041769 Fang Rui (Department of Earth Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu); Wu Jichun Design and Implementation of New Spatial Database of Groundwa-ter (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN 1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 30(5), 2003, p. 33 -36, 4 illus. , 1 table, 8 refs. ) Key words: groundwater, data basesBased on system of relational database, a data model of groundwater spatial information

  7. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080022 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geology Survey,Xiangtan 411100,China);Xong Yanwang Forming Ages and Uplift Size of the Middle Kunlun Mountain--Based on Study of Plantation Surface and Apatite Fission-Track Ages(Resources Survey & Environment,ISSN1671-4814,CN32-1640/N,28(1),2007,p.5-11,4 illus.,23 refs.)

  8. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141588 Guo Shiyan(Green Energy Geothermai Development Co.,SINOPEC,Xianyang 712000,China);Li Xiaojun Reservoir Stratum Characteristics and Geothermal Resources Potential of Rongcheng Uplift Geothermal Field in Baoding,Hebei Province(Chinese Journal of Geology,ISSN0563-5020,CN11-1937/P,48(3),2013,p.922-931,2 illus.,4 tables,10 refs.)Key words:geothermal fields,Hebei Province

  9. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082072 Chen Bailin(Institute of Geome- chanics,Chinese Academy of Geological Sci- ences,Beijing 100081,China);Wu Ganguo Baldunzl-Xiaoxigong Ductile Shear Zone and Its Ore-Controlling Effect in the Southern Beishan Area,Gansu Province (Journal of Geomeehanics,ISSN 1006—6616,CN11—3672/P,13(2),2007,p.99—109,3 illus.,4 tables,26 refs.)

  10. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082275 He Longqing(Yichang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,Yichang 443003,China);Ji Wei Ore-Controlling Effect of Nappe Structure in the East Ore Zone of the Baiyangping Area,Lanping Basin,Yunnan Province(Journal of Geome- ehanics,ISSN1006—6616,CN11—3672/P, 13(2),2007,p.110—118,6 illus.,2 tables,28 refs.) Key words:nappes,structural controls, Yunnan Province

  11. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122683 Cao Guangpeng ( State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China );Li Yusheng A Rock-Mechanical Study on the Stability of the Xigu Power Transmission Sta-tion Site in Jiulong County,Sichuan Province ( Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467 / P,22 ( 4 ), 2011,p.46-49,2illus.,3 tables,5refs. )

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140527Chen Hailong(State Key Laboratory of Geo-Hazard Prevention and Geo-Environment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Chen Dingcai Features of the Typical Mine Debris Flows in Guizhou Province(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(1),2013,p.9-13,2illus.,1table,6refs.)Key words:debris flows,mine,Guizhou Province

  13. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151407 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geology Survey,Changsha 410016,China);Zhong Xiang Study on the Deformation in the Southern Xuefeng Orogenic Belt(Geotectonica et Metallogenia,ISSN1001-1552,CN44-1595/P,38(3),2014,p.512-529,14illus.,71refs.,with English abstract)Key words:orogenic belts,tectonic deformation,Hunan Province

  14. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141574 Chen Hao(Exploration and Development Research Institute,Daqing Oilfield Company,Daqing 163712,China)High-Resolution Sequences and Coal Accumulating Laws in Nantun Formation of Huhe Lake Sag(Petroleum Geology&Oilfield Development in Daqing,ISSN1000-3754,CN23-1286/TQ,32(4),2013,p.15-19,5 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:coal accumulation regularity,coal

  15. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072979 Hang Bangming(Jiangning Branch,Nanjing Bureau of Land and Resources,Nanjing 211100,China);Hua Jianwei Application of 3-D GIS Technology in Environmental Supervision of Open Pit Mines(Jiangsu Geology,ISSN1003-6474,CN32-1258/P,30(4),2006,p.275-279,7 illus.,6 refs.)Key words:geographic information systems,mine environmentBased on a

  16. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140556Tang Hongxu(State Key Laboratory of Geo-Hazard Prevention and Geo-Environment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Zhu Jing Three-Dimensional Terrain Model Based on GAMBIT(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(1),2013,p.61-65,2illus.,7refs.)Key words:debris flows,three-dimensional models,ARCGIS,GAMBIT,C language

  17. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151343Chen Jianping(China University of Geosciences,Beijing100083,China);Yu Miao Method and Practice of 3DGeological Modeling at Key Metallogenic Belt with Large and Medium Scale(Acta Geologica Sinica,ISSN0001-5717,CN11-1951/P,88(6),2014,p.1187-1195,9illus.,22refs.)Key words:geological modeling,metallogenic

  18. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111702 He Ying(Depart ment of Geology,Northwest University,Xi’an710069,China);Yue KefenInhomogeneity of Relationship Between Lithospheric Thinning and Mineralization(Journal of Earth Sciences and Environment,ISSN1672-6561,CN61-1423/P,32(3),2010,p.221-224,233,63refs.)Key words:metallogenesis,lithosphere,crustal thinning

  19. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102798 Gao Shengxiang(School of Resource and Earth Science,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Ye Rongzhang Establishment of Complex Geological Body FLAC3D Model by Using MATLAB Interface Program(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,37(5),2009,p.51-53,5 illus.,4 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:FLAC3D,computer programs20102799 Li Xiuzhen(Key Laboratory of Mountain Hazards and Surface Processes,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Chengdu 610041,China);Wang Chenghua Potential Landslide Identification Model Based on Fisher Discrimination Analysis Method and Its Application(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2825/P,20(4),2009,p.23-26,40,2 tables,11 refs.)Key words:mathematical models,landslidesAiming at ancient(old)landslides,four kinds of discrimination indexes which included nine secondary indexes for potential landslides,such as landform character,slip surface character,landslide body structure and recent activities characters,were presented.Then according to Fisher Discrimination theory,Fisher Discrimination model for the potential landslides was built.The re

  20. Geological Features and Ore Prospecting of the Bilugangan Deposit, Abaga, Inner Mongolia%内蒙古阿巴嘎旗必鲁甘干钼铜多金属矿床地质特征及找矿前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐文龙; 曾威; 冉皞; 周勇; 孙文龙; 李富金; 闫汉卿

    2012-01-01

      内蒙古自治区阿巴嘎旗必鲁甘干钼铜矿床,是内蒙古二连-东乌旗成矿带上近几年新发现的一个中型斑岩型矿床,矿体主要赋存于二长花岗斑岩及二叠系沉积地层中。化探工作发现,成矿元素Ag、Pb、Zn、Cu、Mo、W异常形态复杂,存在多个浓集中心,总体呈NE向展布,各元素异常浓度中心吻合,元素间套合良好。矿体形成与硅化、钾化、绢英岩化等蚀变有关,成矿与构造、岩浆活动、成矿热液活动关系密切。本文在总结该矿床的地质与化探特征基础上提出其成矿规律,为本区下一步找矿提供借鉴。%  The Bilugangan molybdenum deposit in Abaga, Inner Mongolia, is a medium porphyry deposit found in the Erlian-Dongwuqi metallogenic belt in the recent years. Ore bodies occur mainly in the monzo-granite-pho-hyry and Permian strata. The geochemical prospecting shows that the ore-forming elements of Ag, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mo and W abnormal shapes very complex, and have many concentration centers, which distributed in north-east direction. The element concentration centers coincide with each other well. Ore body formation is associated with silication, sericition and K-metasomatioin. Metallogenesis is related to the deep faults, magma activities and hy-drothermal ore-forming solution. Summarizing the geological and geochemical prospecting characters for this de-posit, we put forward its metallogenic regularity, which is an important clue to further prospecting work in the study area.

  1. Mineral deposits in western Saudi Arabia; a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ralph Jackson; Greenwood, William R.; Worl, Ronald G.; Dodge, F.C.W.; Kiilsgaard, Thor H.

    1975-01-01

    Mineral deposits in Saudi Arabia include a variety of deposits which were formed in many geologic environments. These include magmatic and late magmatic deposits in igneous masses, contact metamorphic deposits along the margins of igneous bodies, and stratiform sulfide deposits and veins. Notable deposits of sedimentary origin include deposits of iron oxides and phosphate.

  2. 栾川县罗村钼矿成矿地质背景和矿床特征%Metallogenic Geologic Background and Characteristics of Luocun Molybdenum Deposit in Luanchuan County , Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张自森

    2011-01-01

    栾川县罗村钼矿为豫西东秦岭钼成矿带的重要组成部分,地处华北地台-华熊台缘坳陷-卢氏至栾川陷褶束内.区内太华群变质岩和熊耳群火山岩广泛发育,构造活动强烈,岩浆活动频繁,成矿地质条件有利.通过对矿区地质及矿床地质特征的分析,认为罗村斑岩体由中心细粒花岗斑岩、中环带角砾岩和外环带花岗闪长岩组成,罗村钼矿主要位于中环带角砾岩中.通过综合分析,认为罗村钼矿床形成于燕山中-晚期,陆内造山俯冲作用导致下地壳熔融与地幔楔分熔,形成富钼熔浆.其沿黑沟-栾川断裂带多次上侵,在罗村附近形成斑岩体.晚期岩浆期后热液对中环带角砾岩进行充填和交代,形成斑(角砾)岩型罗村钼矿床.%Luocun molybdenum deposit of Luanchuan county is an important part of the eastern Qinling molybdenum metallogenic belt in western Henan, it is located on the Lushi-Luanchuan depression folds bundle, that is a part of the Huaxiong margin depression in the North China Platform. The volcanic rocks of the Xiong' er Group and the metamorphic rocks of Taihua Group in the research area distribute extensively. For the intense tectonic movements and frequent magmatic activities, it is considered to be a favorable metallogenic area. Through the study of the characteristics of the geology in mining area and deposit, we know the Luocun granite-porphyry bodies are composed of fine granite-porphyry centre, breccia middle zones and Granodiorite rock outer zones, and the Luocun molybdenum deposit occur in breccia middle zones. It is concluded that the Luocun molybdenum deposit was formed during Later Yanshanian to middle Yanshanian. The intracontinental orogenesis and subduction result in the fusion of lower crust and the liquation of mantle wedge form the molybdenum rich magma. Its uptrusion into Heigou-Luanchuan fault zones are more than once, and formed granite-porphyry body near the Luocun. Postmagmatic

  3. QUATERNARY GEOLOGY & GEOMORPHOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111129 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geological Survey,Changsha 410011,China);Li Chang’an Quaternary Tectonic-Sedimentary Characteristics and Environmental Evolution of Anxiang Sag in Dongting Basin and Its West Periphery(Journal of Earth Sciences and Environment,ISSN1672-6561,CN61-1423/P,32(2),2010,p.120-129,6 illus.,1 table,48 refs.)Key words:Quaternary,sedimentary environment,structural evolution,Dongtinghu Basin Detailed geologic mapping and bore data was conducted to study on the Quaternary tectonic and sedimentary characteristics and environmental evolution of Anxiang Sag and its west periphery of Dongting Basin,which provided new materials for Quaternary geology of Jianghan-Dongting Basin.The sag trends north-south direction and is surrounded by normal faults.The thickness of Quaternary deposits in the sag is commonly 100~220 m with maximun thickness of 300 m,and from lower to upper,the Quaternary strata is composed of Early Pleistocene Huatian Formation and Miluo Formation,Middle Pleistocene Dongtinghu Formation

  4. The Geology of Callisto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    The geology of Callisto is not boring. Although cratered terrain dominates Callisto (a key end-member of the Jovian satellite system), a number of more interesting features are apparent. Cratered terrain is broken into irregular map-able bright and dark subunits that vary in albedo by a factor of 2, and several relatively smooth units are depleted of small craters. Some of these areas may have been volcanically resurfaced. Lineaments, including parallel and radial sets, may be evidence for early global tectonism. Frost deposition occurs in cold traps, and impact scars have formed from tidally disrupted comets. Geologic evidence suggests that Callisto does have a chemically differentiated crust. Central pit and central dome craters and palimpsests are common. The preferred interpretation is that a relatively ice-rich material, at depths of 5 km or more, has been mobilized during impact and exposed as domes or palimpsests. The close similarity in crater morphologies and dimensions indicates that the outermost 10 km or so of Callisto may be as differentiated as on Ganymede. The geology of cratered terrain on Callisto is simpler than that of cratered terrain on Ganymede, however. Orbital evolution and tidal heating may provide the answer to the riddle of why Callisto and Ganymede are so different (Malhotra, 1991). We should expect a few surprises and begins to answer some fundamental questions when Callisto is observed by Galileo in late 1996.

  5. Geologic Mapping of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High- Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  6. Geologic mapping of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-11-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  7. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110001 Chi Han (State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China); Li Chusi Shock-Metamorphosed Zircons in the Fragments of the Sudbury Breccias, Ontario, Canada (Earth Science Frontiers, ISSN1005-2321, CN11-3370/P, 17(1), 2010, p.86-92, 5 illus., 42 refs.)Key words: meteorite impacts, suevite, Canada It is widely accepted that the Sudbury structure formed by large bolide impact. To find more supporting evidences, the authors used elec

  8. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110263 Chen Anqing(State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Chen Hongde Difference of the Upper Paleozoic Lithostratigraphic Gas Reservoirs in Ordos Basin,China(Journal of Chengdu University of Technology,ISSN1671-9727,CN51-1634/N,37(2),2010,p.120-126,4 illus.,1 table,24 refs.)Key words:lithologic reservoir,stratigraphic reservoir,Ordos BasinThe Upper Paleozoic of Ordos Basin is characterized by "gas-generating in the whole basin,gas-bearing widely and gas controlled by lithology".The comparati

  9. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102418 Chen Hongde(Institute of Sedimentary Geology,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Huang Fuxi Distribution Rule and Main Controlling Factors of the Marine Facies Hydrocarbon Substances in the Middle and Upper Parts of Yangtze Region,China(Journal of Chengdu University of Technology,ISSN1671-9727,CN51-1634/N,36(6),2009,p.569-577,7 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:marine oil generation,oil and gas accumulation,Yangtze RegionUnder the guidance of the tectonic-sequence stratigraphy,sedimentology and lithofacies palaeogeography and dynamic evolutionary view,the au

  10. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091762 Guo Wancheng(Xining Jiulong Engineering Investigation Ltd.,Xining 810700,China);Shi Xingmei Development and Utilization of Guide Basin’s Geothermal Resources of Qinghai Province(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,35(3),2008,p.79-80,92,2 illus.,2 tables,2 refs.)Key words:geothermal resources,QinghaiThis paper introduced the background of geothermal conditions and the many years of geothermal exploration data in Guide Basin.Then,the authors discussed the geothermal resources feature of Guide basin and raised some opinions on the reasonable development and utilization of geothermal resources.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102721 Bian Jianmin(College of Environment and Resources,Jilin University,Changchun 130026,China);Tang Jie Hydrogeochemical Characteristics in the Arsenic Poisoning Area in Western Jilin Province(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,36(5),2009,p.80-83,4 illus.,2 tables,9 refs.)Key words:groundwater,arsenic,Jilin ProvinceSupported by field survey and sample test data,the SPSS is applied to analyze the relationship between arsenic concentration and chemical components.The results show that th

  12. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112074 Guo Si(Institute of Sedimentary Geology,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Guo Ke Solid Mineral Reserves Estimation System Development and Practice Based on Arcgis(Computing Techniques for Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1001-1749,CN51-1242/P,32(5),2010,p.560-564,458,10 illus.,4 tables,18 refs.)Key words:computer programs,prospective reservesGeostatistics is now the foundation of mineral reserves estimation,and it has become the industry standard for estimating reserves.The software development of solid mineral reserves estimates

  13. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090955 Chen Jianping(Institute of Land Resources and High Techniques,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083, China);Chen Yong 3-D Positioning and Quantitative Prediction of the Koktokay No.3 Pegmatite Dike,Xinjiang,China, Based on the Digital Mineral Deposit Model

  14. Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit model: Chapter D in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model for arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits. Presented within are geological, geochemical, and mineralogical characteristics that differentiate this deposit type from porphyry copper and alkali-feldspar rhyolite-granite porphyry molybdenum deposits. The U.S. Geological Survey's effort to update existing mineral deposit models spurred this research, which is intended to supplement previously published models for this deposit type that help guide mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments.

  15. Geology, S-Pb isotopes, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Zhaxikang Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in Southern Tibet: implications for multiple mineralization events at Zhaxikang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang; Zheng, Youye; Pirajno, Franco; McCuaig, T. Campbell; Yu, Miao; Xia, Shenlan; Song, Qingjie; Chang, Huifang

    2017-07-01

    Several Au, Sb, Sb-Au, Pb-Zn, and Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposits are present throughout the North Himalaya in southern Tibet, China. The largest Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposit is Zhaxikang (18 Mt at 0.6 wt% Sb, 2.0 wt% Pb, 3.5 wt% Zn, and 78 g/t Ag). Zhaxikang veins are hosted within N-S trending faults, which crosscut the Early-Middle Jurassic Ridang Formation consisting of shale interbedded with sandstone and limestone deposited on a passive continental margin. Ore paragenesis indicates that Zhaxikang mineralization occurred in two main phases composed of six total stages. The initial phase was characterized by assemblages of fine-grained Mn-Fe carbonate + arsenopyrite + pyrite + sphalerite (stage 1), followed by relatively coarse-grained Mn-Fe carbonate + Fe-rich sphalerite + galena + pyrite (stage 2). The second phase was marked by assemblages of quartz + pyrite + Fe-poor sphalerite and Ag-rich galena + tetrahedrite + sericite (stage 3), quartz + Sb-Pb sulfosalt minerals mainly composed of boulangerite and jamesonite (stage 4), quartz + stibnite ± cinnabar (stage 5), and quartz ± calcite (stage 6). Sulfides of stage 2 have δ34SV-CDT of 8.4-12.0‰, 206Pb/204Pb ratios of 19.648 to 19.659, 207Pb/204Pb ratios of 15.788 to 15.812, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of 40.035 to 40.153. Sulfides of stage 3 have similar δ34SV-CDT of 6.1-11.2‰ and relatively more radiogenic lead isotopes (206Pb/204Pb = 19.683-19.792). Stage 4 Sb-Pb sulfosalt minerals have δ34SV-CDT of 5.0-7.2‰ and even more radiogenic lead (206Pb/204Pb = 19.811-19.981). By contrast, stibnite of stage 5 has δ34SV-CDT of 4.5-7.8‰ and less radiogenic lead (206Pb/204Pb = 18.880-18.974). Taken together with the geological observations that the Pb-Zn-bearing Mn-Fe carbonate veins were crosscut by various types of quartz veins, sphalerite and galena of stage 2 underwent dissolution and remobilization, and that Sb-Pb(-Fe) sulfosalts formed at the expense of Pb from stage 2 galena and of Fe from stage 2 sphalerite, we argue that

  16. 西藏洞中松多铅锌多金属矿床地质特征及成因%A preliminary study of the geologic characteristics and genesis of the Dongzhongsongduo lead-zinc polymetallic deposit, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛存林; 都卫东; 张育平; 魏明; 陈世伟

    2013-01-01

    The Dongzhongsongduo lead-zinc polymetallic deposit is located in the east part of the eastern Gangdese polymetallic mineralization belt. The ore body has mainly occurred as strumiform and stratoid structures in the carbonatite within the skarns of the pre-Ordovician Songduo group complex and the mid-permian Luobadui formation. Wall rock is made up of carbonatite and has strongly altered. Two alterations and nine main ore zones have been delineated. Lead and zinc are the main useful elements in the ore, and silver, iron, copper, sulfur as beneficial groups in the ore. The length of the layered ore-bodies is between 2 620 and 4 100 m, 50∼150 m and the thickness is between the Songduo group complex and the Luobadui formation. The ore is 120∼2 881 m long and 2.1∼13.1 m thick. The footwall of the ore are limestone and tuff and the hanging wall is crystal tuff. The ore minerals include pyrrhotine, pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and sphalerite, etc. The gangue minerals include quartz, diopside, garnet, chlorite, epidote, calcite and feldspar, etc. The mineralization of lead and zinc was closely related to magmatic activity and meteoric, especially related to the magmatic hydrothermalism which had intruded into carbonatite in the period of late Yanshan-early Himalayas. Presumably, the formation of lead and zinc deposit has been related closely to the plate collision of the Indian-Eurasian Plate and the uplift zone in the Tibetan Plateau. This is the first study of the causes of the deposit. Through an analysis and discussion of the geological characteristics and metallogenic source materials, we believe that the Dongzhongsongduo lead-zinc polymetallic deposit has been related to the tectonic and magmatic activities. The structure has provided motive channels and accumulated space for the deposit. And the deep magma of late Yanshan period-early Himalayas has provided the main ore-forming materials and energy for the deposit. Therefore, it is considered that the

  17. CTD_DATABASE - Cascadia tsunami deposit database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have...

  18. Geologic Controls of Sand Boil Formation at Buck Chute, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Geology ........................................................................................................................... 4 2.3 Description of...18 3.1 Geology of the Lower Mississippi River Valley...Hypothesis Sand boil formation at the Buck Chute site is the result of geology consisting of point bar and abandoned channel deposits with a thin

  19. 浙西北杜家东坞斑岩型钼矿床特征及找矿前景分析%Geological Characteristics and Prospecting Potential of the Dujiadongwu Porphyry Molybdeum Deposit in Northwestern Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建芳; 解怀生; 龚瑞君; 许新苗; 高海发

    2012-01-01

    杜家东坞钼矿床位于钦杭成矿带北东端绍兴夏履桥-萧山浦阳火山构造洼地,成矿与青化山破火山口一龙角尖火山通道构造活动关系密切;钼矿化呈细脉浸染状赋存于火山通道周围的火山(角砾)岩裂隙及断裂中,成矿与钾化、硅化、黄铁矿化、磁铁矿化蚀变关系密切;矿床成因类型为斑岩型钼矿床。综合分析矿区成矿地质背景、矿化蚀变特征、地球物理特征及地球化学特征,认为在火山通道环形张性断裂与北西向断裂裂隙带、低阻带及中低阻过渡高极化带、磁异常零值区、负值区或正负值交界处等区域有望找到富矿体,龙角尖火山通道的深部有望找到小斑岩体,这说明在浙西北火山岩区具有寻找斑岩型矿床的良好前景。%The Dujiadongwu Cu-Mo deposit is located in the Xialvqiao-Xiaoshan Puyang volcanic- structure sag northeast of the Qinghang metallo- genic belt, Shoaxing, Zhejiang Province. Its mineralization is intimately related to the Qinghuashan caldera-Longjiaojian volcanic conduit structure. Based on the integrated analysis of geological setting, alteration, geophysical and geochemical characteristics, the regional metallogenic regularity and prospecting indicators are summarized as follows. The areas, including joint space of extension faults in the volcanic conduit, N-W faults, joints and crack belt, contact zone of low and moderate resistivity, zero-value aeromagnetic anomaly district, boundary district of negative and positive aemmagnetic anomalies, high gradient induced polarization district, are the potential places for finding high-concentration ore bodies or veins. Small porphyry intru- sions and porphyry deposits likely exist at depth in the Longjiaojian volcanic conduit.

  20. The environmental stability and the hazardous geology in seabed erosion and deposition of Jiaozhou bay%胶州湾冲淤灾害地质及环境稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘运令; 汪亚平; 高建华; 贾建军; 夏小明; 李炎

    2011-01-01

    通过对胶州湾1936~2002年4期海图的地形对比和1986年、2007年2期Landsat-5TM影像的对比,分析了近70多年来胶州湾的冲淤灾害地质形势。根据胶卅I湾近百年来的沉积速率特征将其冲淤灾害形势划分为9类,结果表明:胶州湾在1936~1963年间总体呈现轻微淤积态势,但显浪-红岛连线以东区域(含沧口水道)以轻微侵蚀为主。与前期相比,胶州湾在1963-1982年间的淤积强度明显减弱,基本由轻微淤积转为冲淤平衡状态。该时期内沧口水道转为以较强淤积为主,大沽河水道和岛耳河水道处于大面积轻微侵蚀状态。%Based upon the comparisons between underwater bathymetries digitized from nautical charts (1936--2002) and between coastlines derived from two landsat--5 TM images (1986--2007), the hazardous geology associated with erosion and deposition was ana- lyzed for the past 70 years. During the last century, the sedimentary pattern was divided into nine types according to the depositional rates. The results show that the slight sedi- mentation happened as a whole in Jiaozhou bay from 1936 to 1963, while the slight erosion appeared in the eastern embayment (including Cangkou channel). Unlike before, the dep- osition obviously decreased from 1963 to 1982 and then the sedimentary environment transferred into the equilibrium. Besides, the strong sedimentation was dominant in Cangkou channel during this period. However, the Daguhe and Daoerhe channels were slightly eroded. Subsequently, most of coasts extended obviously towards the sea between 1986 and 2007; the average coastline extending rate was 10^1-10^2 m yr^-1 and the slight erosion was observed on the seabed. Moreover, the analysis of tidal prism and cross-sectional area of tidal inlets shows that the current velocity amplitude and the corresponding equ-coefficient of friction had decreased over the past 70 years in Jiaozhou bay. This indicates that the

  1. Analysis of the Geological Characteristics and Genesis of Changlingzi Lead-Zinc Deposit in Inner Mongolia%内蒙古长岭子铅锌矿地质特征及矿床成因探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋均秋; 谷建军; 郎朋林

    2016-01-01

    Changlingzi Lead-Zinc deposit is located in the south of Huanggang-Ganzhuermiao polymetallic ore belt,which is one of the most important Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu polymetallic metallogenic belts in the Southern Da Hinggan Mountains.Based on the strata,lithology and structure,the geological characteristics and genesis of the deposit are discussed in this paper.It was thought that the Ⅰore belt of metallogenic material mainly comes from Permian carbonate rocks,deep source magma activity,the formation and migration of ore-bearing hydrothermal,and contact with carbonate metasomatism to form the skarn type zinc polymetallic ore body; Ⅱore zone of Yanshan period granite differentiation of ore and metallogenic hydrothermal ore-forming provide the heat source material, the occurence mode is hydrothermal filling vein,the formation and distribution of ore bodies are controlled by the north-east thrend structure significantly,formed the warm fluid pulse type metal body.%长岭子铅锌矿床位于黄岗—甘珠尔庙多金属矿带南部,该成矿带是大兴安岭南段地区最重要的银—铅—锌—铜等多金属成矿带。从地层、岩性和构造等方面入手对矿床地质特征及成因进行了探讨,认为Ⅰ号矿带成矿物质主要来源于二叠系碳酸盐岩,深源岩浆活动促使含矿热液形成和运移,并与碳酸盐岩发生接触交代作用,从而形成矽卡岩型锌多金属矿体;Ⅱ号矿带燕山期花岗岩分异出的含矿热液为成矿提供了热源和成矿物质,矿体产出方式为热液充填脉状,矿体的形成和分布受 NE 向断裂控制明显,形成了中温热液脉型多金属矿。

  2. Geological Characteristics, Metallogenic Regularities and Prospecting Direction of Hukeng Tungsten Deposit%浒坑钨矿床地质特征、成矿规律以及找矿方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周孝满; 韩顿

    2013-01-01

    Hukeng tungsten deposit is jointly controlled by the regional fracture, granite strains and its surrounding rock. Regional structure controls the stock emplacement and expand ore fissure. Tungsten-containing quartz vein mainly occurs in the contact area within 300-500 meters into the deep rock mass in the contact zone, which is close to the vertical interface with sectional rear type arrangement. Geological characteristics and metallogenic regulations are analyzed based on the related data, exploration results and mining practice. Based on comprehensive analysis of metallogenic conditions and prospecting results, this paper suggests that good ore prospects exist around the edges of the inner and outer contact zones of granite body.%浒坑钨业是一个开采60年的老矿山,矿床受区域断裂与花岗岩株及其围岩的联合控制。区域构造一方面控制浒坑岩株的侵位,另一方面拓展容矿裂隙。含钨石英矿脉主要赋存于自接触面往岩体深处300~500 m内接触带中,近于垂直接触面发育,在剖面上呈后侧式排列。根据前人的有关资料和浒坑钨矿床近年来勘查成果和采矿实践,分析总结出矿床地质特征和成矿规律新认识。最后,在综合分析成矿条件和找矿成果的基础上,指出围绕浒坑花岗岩体边缘内外接触带,有较好找矿前景。

  3. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090374 Li Shengli (School of Energy Resources, China University of Geosciences(Beijing), Beijing 100083, China); Zhao Shu Adopting the Distribution and Evolution Laws of Depositional Microfacies in Analyzing the Directions of Oilfield Development in the Zhenjing Oilfield, Ordos Basin (Earth Science Frontiers, ISSN1005-2321, CN11-3370/P, 15(1), 2008, 15(1), p.85-93,6 illus., 4 tables, 7 refs.)

  4. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20051134 Chen Aibing (Faculty of Land Resource Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology) Kunming, Yunnan 650093, China); Qin Dexian MathematicEconomical Model of No. 5 Orebody in Gejiu Tin Mine, Yunnan Province (Acta Mineralogica Sinica, ISSN 1000 - 4734, CN 52 -1045/P, 24(2), 2004, p. 171-175, 5 illus. , 5 tables, 7 refs. ) Key words: tin deposits, mathematical models, Yunnan Province

  5. TSUNAMI_DEPOSITS - Tsunami Deposits at Seaside, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a point shapefile representing tsunami deposits within the Seaside, Oregon region obtained by Brooke Fiedorowicz and Curt Peterson in 1997 and Bruce...

  6. TSUNAMI_DEPOSITS - Tsunami Deposits at Seaside, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a point shapefile representing tsunami deposits within the Seaside, Oregon region obtained by Brooke Fiedorowicz and Curt Peterson in 1997 and Bruce...

  7. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110743 Bai Bin(State Key Laboratory of Enhanced Oil Recovery,PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development,Beijing 100083,China);Zhou Lifa Definition of Some Unconformities in the South Margin of Junggar Basin,NW China(Petroleum Exploration and Development,ISSN1000-0747,CN11-2360/TE,37(3),2010,p.270-280,9 illus.,31 refs.)Key words:unconformities,Junggar Basin The analysis of the south margin of the Junggar Basin and the rock lithologies and attitudes of 18 field geologic sections in its adjacent area reveals that 9 regional unconformities,dominantly angular unconformities exist.The occurrence of these unconformities is justified by geophysical evidences of logging curve and seismic profile and by geochemical evidences of trace elements and rare elements in mudstone samples,sandstone

  8. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091943 Cao Zubao(Xi’an Branch of China Coal Research Institute,Xi’an 710054,China);Zhu Mingcheng Application of Pipe-Roof Curtain Grouting in Construction of Coal Mine Tunnel Crossing the Fractured Zone(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,35(8),2008,p.79-81,3 illus.,4 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:curtain grouting20091944 Chen Changfu(Civil Engineering College,Hunan University,Changsha 410082,China);Xiao Shujun Application of Weighted Residual Method in Whole Internal Force Calculation of Anti-Slide Pile(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,35(4),2008,p.75-79,3 illus.,9 refs.)Key words:slide-resistant

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091993 Cao Wei(Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute,CAS,Lanzhou 730000,China);Sheng Yu Grey Relation Projection Model for the Assessment of Permafrost Environment in Coal Mining Areas(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,35(4),2008,p.111-115,2 tables,15 refs.)Key words:miming,frozen ground,environment impact statementsDue to the intense effect of coal mining activity on permafrost,the permafrost environment in coal mining areas is very frail.It is very important to assess the permafrost environment in coal mining areas.The permafrost environment is

  10. Geological and geochemical characteristics and genesis of ferromolybdenum deposit in Wudaoling, Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江五道岭钼铁矿床地质地球化学特征及成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史鹏会; 杨言辰; 叶松青; 韩世炯

    2012-01-01

    Wudaoling ferromolybdenum deposit is a typical skarn deposit in Lesser Xing'an range-Zhangguang-cai range metallogenic belt. Orebodies are hosted in skarn zone between pyritized quartz porphyry, alterated product of alkali-feldspar granite, with tuffaceous sandstone and acid tuff of Wudaoling Formation. The mineral assemblage of skarn was composed of garnet, diopside, actinolite and epidote, etc. The orebodies are irregular in shape, and characterized by branch and composite form. The types of ores included molybdenum, iron and pyrite ores. The alkali-feldspar granite and quartz porphyry closely related to mineralization, are metaluminous-peraluminous in nature, belonging high potassium calc-alkaline Ⅰ-type granties. The granties were enriched in LILE (such as Rb, K, U) and depleted in HFSE (such as P, Ti) , which was compatible with the geochemical characteristics of subduc-tion granites. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating showed that the formation age of quartz porphyry and alkali feldspar granites were 193. 6 ± 1. 1 Ma and 193. 9 ± 1. 3 Ma, respectively. Combining with regional geological evolution characteristics, the authors suggested of that the formation of Wudaoling ferromolybdenum deposit was related to the extended environment after subduction of the ancient Pacific Plate. The metallogenic epoch was Early Jurassic (186 ±2 Ma) and genesis belonged to skarn type.%五道岭钼铁矿床是小兴安岭—张广才岭成矿带内典型的矽卡岩型矿床.矿体赋存于碱长花岗岩的蚀变产物-黄铁矿化石英斑岩与五道岭组凝灰质砂岩、酸性凝灰岩接触的矽卡岩带内.矽卡岩矿物组合为石榴子石、透辉石、阳起石和绿帘石等组成,矿体呈不规则脉状,具分枝复合形态特征,矿石类型包括钼矿石、铁矿石和黄铁矿矿石.与成矿密切相关的碱长花岗岩和石英斑岩为准铝质-过铝质、高钾钙碱性系列的Ⅰ型花岗岩;富集Rb、K、U等大离子亲石元素,亏损P、Ti等

  11. Old Geology and New Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 May 2003Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Old Geology and New Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 May 2003Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Geology and bedrock engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-11-15

    This book deals with geology of Korea which includes summary, geology in central part and southern part in Korea and characteristic of geology structure, limestone like geology property of limestone, engineered property of limestone, and design and construction case in limestone area. It also introduces engineered property of the cenozoic, clay rock and shale, geologic and engineered property of phyllite and stratum.

  14. 云南大民太铜镍矿床地质、地球化学特征及找矿潜力%Geological Characteristics and Geochemical Characteristics and its Prospecting Potential of Damintai Cu-Ni Sulfide Deposit in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷延祥; 彭建; 焦和

    2015-01-01

    Comparative study is one of the effective ways to conduct mineral exploration and evalua-tion,combing with system and solid geological work and dialectical comparative study thinking,the Dam-intai Cu-Ni sulfide deposit in Yunnan province and the typical magmatic type Cu-Ni-PGE deposits with the similar ore-forming conditions in domestic are conducted comparative study to analyze the geological characteristics,geochemical characteristics and prospecting potential of the Damintai Cu-Ni sulfide deposit in Yunnan province.The results show that the law of small rock mass becoming great ore deposits is not u-niversal,the Damintai Cu-Ni deposit in Yunnan province is the product of place liquation mineralization by magma single-emplacement,the mineralization of the Damintai Cu-Ni deposit in Yunnan province with the transitional type deposit characteristics of Cu-Ni sulfide deposit and V-TI magnetite deposit,it is has a certain degree of comparability to Xiangshanxi composite type deposits,therefore,the mining area of the Damintai Cu-Ni deposit in Yunnan province has a certain prospecting potential.%对比研究是矿产勘查评价的有效途径之一,结合系统扎实的地质工作和辩证的对比研究思维,通过将云南大民太铜镍矿床与国内成矿条件相似的典型岩浆型 Cu-Ni-PGE 矿床进行对比研究,分析其地质特征、地球化学特征以及找矿潜力。结果表明:“小岩体成大矿”并非普适性规律,大民太铜镍矿床为岩浆单式侵位就地熔离成矿作用的结果,矿化表征出铜镍硫化物矿床与钒钛磁铁矿床的过渡类型矿床的特点,与香山西复合型矿床具有可对比性,具有一定的找矿潜力。

  15. SEISMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091465 Cai Xuelin(College of Earth Sciences,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Cao Jiamin Preliminary Study on the 3-D Crust Structure for the Longmen Lithosphere and the Genesis of the Huge Wenchuan Earthquake,Sichuan Province,China(Journal of Chengdu University of Technology,ISSN1671-9727,CN51-1634/N,35(4),2008,p.357-365,8 illus.,39 refs.)Key words:deep-seated structures,large earthquakes,Longmenshan Fracture ZoneBased on a structural analysis of many seismic sounding profiles,there are two fault systems in Longmen collisional orogenic belt,Sichuan Province,China.They are both different obviously and correlative closely.One is shallow fault system composed mainly of brittle shear zones in surface crust,and the other is deep fault system composed mainly of crust-mantle ductile shear zones cutting Moho discontinuity.Based on the result of researching geological structure and seismic sounding profiles,

  16. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111053 Chen Jian(School of Earth and Environment,Anhui University of Science and Technology,Huainan 232001,China);Liu Wenzhong Organic Affinity of Trace Elements in Coal from No.10 Coal-Bed at Western Huagou,Guoyang(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(4),2010,p.16-20,24,3 illus.,3 tables,19 refs.)Key words:coal,minor elements,Anhui Province In order to study the organic affinity of trace elements in coal from No.10 coal-bed at western Huagou,Guoyang,10 borehole samples were collected at exploration area of Huaibei mining area.The contents of 12 kinds of trace elements were determined by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS),the total organic carbon(TOC)of coal was determined by LECO carbon and sulfur analyzer,and the organic affinity of trace elements were deduced from the correlations between contents and TOCs.The results showed that the contents of V,Cr,Co,Ni,Mo,Cd,Sb,Pb and Zn were lower than

  17. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110957 Bai Jingru(Engineering Research Centre of Ministry of Education for Comprehensive Utilization of Oil Shale,Northeast Dianli University,Jilin 132012,China);Wang Qing Basic Physicochemical Characteristics of the Huadian Oil Shale Semi-Cokes(Journal of Jilin University,ISSN1671-5888,CN22-1343/P,40(4),2010,p.905-911,5 illus.,8 tables,10 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:oil shale,Jilin Province20110958 Chen Jingyi(Faculty of Resources and Information Technology,China University of Petroleum,Beijing 102249,China);Wang Feiyu Maturity and Genetic Type of Crude Oils in Qikou Sag,Bohai Bay Basin(Xinjiang Petroleum Geology,ISSN1001-3873,CN65-1107/TE,31(3),2010,p.242-244,7 illus.,4 refs.)Key words:crude oil,Bohaiwan Basin Qikou sag is one of the rich-oil areas in Bohai Bay Basin,in which three sets of lacustrine source rocks developed in Tertiary and Paleozoic reservoirs.The geochemical analyses of 59 crude oil and 102 source rock samples from Qikou sag show that the crude oils in Qikou sag belong to mature oil,combined with the biomarkers of n-alkanes,steroid and terpenoid as well as light hydrocarbons index,

  18. Granitoid intrusions and related deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟良义; 李绪俊

    1996-01-01

    Taking the Bainaimiao copper and gold deposits, Inner Mongolia and the Wushan copper deposits, Jiangxi Province as examples, a discussion is devoted to the relationship between the granitoid intrusions and related deposits from different lines of evidence: the spatial distribution, country rocks and alteration of the deposits, trace element contents and vertical zoning of elements in deposits, the metallogenic preference of granitoid intrusions, the metallogenic models and stable isotopic geology. It is concluded that the ore-bearing fluids mainly come from granitoid magmas and granitoid intrusions are closely associated with the related deposits in space.

  19. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  20. Geologic Map of Alaska: geologic units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of a polygon coverage and associated attribute data derived from the 1980 Geologic Map of Alaska compiled by H.M. Beikman and published by the...

  1. Characteristics of stable isotopic compositions and its geological significances of the Yangla copper deposit, northwestern Yunnan Province%滇西北羊拉铜矿床稳定同位素特征及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思尧; 顾雪祥; 程文斌; 章永梅; 郑硌; 彭义伟; 刘瑞萍

    2013-01-01

    the sulfides is probably from magma. Summarize the discussions above and combine the geological characteristics of the deposit, we believe that the Yangla copper deposit is a typical skarn deposit.%云南羊拉铜矿床位于金沙江构造带中部,是中-晚三叠世金沙江洋盆向西俯冲闭合-碰撞造山过程中形成的一个大型铜矿床.矿体多呈层状、似层状产出,与酸性岩体关系密切,矿体受岩体、围岩和构造“三位一体”共同控制,具明显的夕卡岩型矿床特征.通过对矿区大理岩以及不同成矿阶段形成的典型矿物的稳定同位素地球化学研究,发现夕卡岩中最主要的矿物石榴石的δ18OSMOW为6.7‰,暗示了夕卡岩可能直接继承了酸性岩体的氧同位素组成;主成矿期石英的δD值变化范围为-112‰~-77‰,δ18OH2o值变化范围为-2.42‰~4.85‰,反映了成矿流体可能主要为岩浆水,并有大气降水的加入;方解石的δ13CPDB值变化范围为-5.2‰~-1.7‰,δ18 OSMOW值变化范围为12.7‰~ 20.1‰,表明其碳、氧可能主要来源于岩浆,部分可能来自于大理岩;围岩大理岩的δ13CPDB值为3.6‰~5.0‰,δ18 OSMOW值为21.2‰~ 25.4‰,说明大理岩是由海相碳酸盐岩经重结晶作用形成,随着大理岩与矿体距离的减小,其δ13C、δ18O值都有不断降低的趋势,说明在成矿流体交代大理岩围岩的过程中,低δ13C、δ18O值的流体不断与大理岩发生同位素交换,使大理岩的δ13C、δ18O值降低,且距离矿体越近,同位素交换越强烈;矿石硫化物的δ34S值为-6.9‰~2.5‰,集中于-2‰~1‰,说明矿石硫主要为岩浆硫.综上所述并结合矿床的地质特征,认为羊拉铜矿床为一个典型的夕卡岩型铜矿床.

  2. Arctic Geology (geoarcst)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  3. Caracterización geológica del skarn "El Abuelo" Alto Río Senguerr, Chubut Geological characterization of "El Abuelo" skarn deposit, Alto Rio Senguerr, Chubut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Lanfranchini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El skarn "El Abuelo" está situado en el extremo sudoccidental de la Provincia del Chubut, República Argentina. Se desarrolla en un ambiente tectónico de arco magmático, en corteza continental. Está emplazado en sedimentitas silicoclásticas con intercalaciones carbonáticas y se vincula a cuerpos intrusivos riodacíticos, conjunto atribuido al Cretácico inferior. En esta manifestación se reconocieron anomalías en elementos metalíferos (Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag que le confieren interés como guía para la exploración de recursos minerales en esta región. La presente contribución tiene por finalidad tipificar al skarn a través de una caracterización geológica y mineralógica. La asociación paragenética de minerales reconocidos permitió identificar dos episodios: uno metasomático y otro hidrotermal, ambos desarrollados en las sedimentitas (exoskarn. El primero fue originado por fluidos de derivación magmática, que provocaron la formación de minerales calcosilicáticos. Posteriormente la incorporación de agua en el sistema facilitó el desarrollo de minerales hidratados, retrogradando parcialmente al skarn, proceso que fue seguido por la depositación de hematita, magnetita y sulfuros, acompañados de sílice. La asociación de minerales calcosilicáticos, junto a la variación en la composición química de piroxenos y granates y la mineralización identificada, permiten tipificar al skarn "El Abuelo" como cálcico, con hierro como metal dominante."El Abuelo" skarn deposit is located in southwest Chubut province. It was formed in a magmatic arc tectonic environment, developed in continental crust. The skarn is hosted in low cretaceous silicoclastic sands interbedded with limestones, and it is related to small rhyodacitic sub-volcanic bodies. Anomalous contents of metals (Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag provide an interesting exploration guide. This paper is devoted to give a geological and a mineralogical characterization of the skarn, in order

  4. 澜沧老厂多金属矿床成矿地质体特征%Geological Characteristics of Ore-bearing Rocks in Laochang Polymetallic Deposit,Lancang County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刀艳; 杨帆; 李峰; 余璨

    2015-01-01

    The Volcanic rocks and granite porphyry are widely distributed in Laochang mining area, Lancang county, which are regarded as the main metallogenic geological body of volcanic gush flow depositing metallogenic system and deep por-phyry hydrothermal metallogenic system. The titanium magnetite in the olivine basalt of the volcanic rocks is conducted on spectrum analysis,the different minerals of amygdaloidal sodium trachyte lava and the microcrystaline potassium feldspar of al-mond-shaped potasium trachyte lava are analyzed by electron microprobe respectively. Besides that,the times and petrological characteristics of volcanic rock,the times,cause,source area and wall rock alteration characteristics of granite porphyry in min-ing area are summarized comprehensively. The analysis results show that:①the volcanic diagenetic age is the early carbonifer-ous epoch,and it owns the important ore-bearing lithology of the Ag-Pb-Zn mine in mining area,the space-time distribution of the ore deposit is controlled by the mining volcanism,which provides materials basis and important driving force of heat source for metallogenic activity;②concealed granite porphyry is the porphyry molybdenum ore-forming parent rock in mining area,and the granite porphyry intrusion period belongs to the early himalayan magmatic activity;③the early carboniferous volcanism and magmatism in himalayan period provide favorable conditions for the formation of metallogenic system. The above research re-sults have some certain reference value for analyzing the metallogenic system.%澜沧老厂矿区广泛分布的火山岩和花岗斑岩被分别作为火山喷流沉积成矿系统和深部斑岩热液成矿系统的主要成矿地质体。对火山岩中的橄榄玄武岩中的钛磁铁矿进行能谱分析,对杏仁状钠粗面质熔岩不同矿物和杏仁状钾质粗面质熔岩微晶钾长石分别进行电子探针分析,并对矿区火山岩年代、岩石学等特征,花岗斑岩年代

  5. Visible Geology - Interactive online geologic block modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockett, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geology is a highly visual science, and many disciplines require spatial awareness and manipulation. For example, interpreting cross-sections, geologic maps, or plotting data on a stereonet all require various levels of spatial abilities. These skills are often not focused on in undergraduate geoscience curricula and many students struggle with spatial relations, manipulations, and penetrative abilities (e.g. Titus & Horsman, 2009). A newly developed program, Visible Geology, allows for students to be introduced to many geologic concepts and spatial skills in a virtual environment. Visible Geology is a web-based, three-dimensional environment where students can create and interrogate their own geologic block models. The program begins with a blank model, users then add geologic beds (with custom thickness and color) and can add geologic deformation events like tilting, folding, and faulting. Additionally, simple intrusive dikes can be modelled, as well as unconformities. Students can also explore the interaction of geology with topography by drawing elevation contours to produce their own topographic models. Students can not only spatially manipulate their model, but can create cross-sections and boreholes to practice their visual penetrative abilities. Visible Geology is easy to access and use, with no downloads required, so it can be incorporated into current, paper-based, lab activities. Sample learning activities are being developed that target introductory and structural geology curricula with learning objectives such as relative geologic history, fault characterization, apparent dip and thickness, interference folding, and stereonet interpretation. Visible Geology provides a richly interactive, and immersive environment for students to explore geologic concepts and practice their spatial skills.; Screenshot of Visible Geology showing folding and faulting interactions on a ridge topography.

  6. Geotechnical Description of Mineral Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasvári Tibor

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Performing various mineral deposits extraction methods requires thorough knowledge of the rock masses` geomechanical parameters. In the geotechnical description of mineral deposits there is proposed a methodical approarch at the collection, registration, and evaluation of rock masses` geological properties for geotechnics being applied within the mining industry.

  7. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152177 Chen Hongjun(Key Laboratory of Marine Mineral Resources,Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey,Ministry of Land and Resources,Guangzhou 510075,China);Pen Xuechao A Brief Review of 1∶1 000 000 Marine Geological Survey and Mapping Results of the Hainan Sheet in the South China Sea(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,

  8. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140582 Fang Xisheng(Key Lab.of Marine Sedimentology and Environmental Geology,First Institute of Oceanography,State Oceanic Administration,Qingdao 266061,China);Shi Xuefa Mineralogy of Surface Sediment in the Eastern Area off the Ryukyu Islands and Its Geological Significance(Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37

  9. QUATERNARY GEOLOGY& GEOMORPHOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160466Cao Fugen(No.1Geological Survey Team,Xinjiang Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources and Development,Urumqi830013,China);Zhao Shuming Geological Characteristics and Significance of the Nanhua Period Tillite from Northern Yamansu Area in Eastern Tianshan,Xinjiang(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,33

  10. Ni-Co laterite deposits of the world

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Location, type, mineralogy, name, tonnage and grade, and geological setting for 120 deposits of this type. The US has no active nickel mines or nickel reserves.

  11. Database of recent tsunami deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a database of sedimentary characteristics of tsunami deposits derived from published accounts of tsunami deposit investigations conducted shortly after the occurrence of a tsunami. The database contains 228 entries, each entry containing data from up to 71 categories. It includes data from 51 publications covering 15 tsunamis distributed between 16 countries. The database encompasses a wide range of depositional settings including tropical islands, beaches, coastal plains, river banks, agricultural fields, and urban environments. It includes data from both local tsunamis and teletsunamis. The data are valuable for interpreting prehistorical, historical, and modern tsunami deposits, and for the development of criteria to identify tsunami deposits in the geologic record.

  12. Geology and coal potential of Somaliland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Y. Ali [Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-07-01

    Geological field mapping along with available geological and drilling data suggest that Somaliland (Northwestern Somalia) has favourable stratigraphy and structure for coal deposits. Lignitic to sub-bituminous coal deposits with ages from Jurassic to Oligocene-Miocene occur in various locations across the country including Hed-Hed valley south of Onkhor, Guveneh hills north of Las Dureh and Daban Basin southeast of Berbera. However, the coal occurrence at Hed-Hed has both the greatest thickness and highest quality. These deposits have the potential to provide an important alternative fuel resource which could alleviate the growing shortage of traditional fuels and assist in reducing the country's dependence on imported energy. However, further investigation, including drilling and laboratory analyses, still needs to be carried out, particularly on the Upper Cretaceous coal seams to evaluate the quality and resource potential of the deposits.

  13. Managing Geological Profiles in Databases for 3D Visualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarna, A.; Grøtan, B. O.; Henderson, I. H. C.; Iversen, S.; Khloussy, E.; Nordahl, B.; Rindstad, B. I.

    2016-10-01

    Geology and all geological structures are three-dimensional in space. GIS and databases are common tools used by geologists to interpret and communicate geological data. The NGU (Geological Survey of Norway) is the national institution for the study of bedrock, mineral resources, surficial deposits and groundwater and marine geology. 3D geology is usually described by geological profiles, or vertical sections through a map, where you can look at the rock structure below the surface. The goal is to gradually expand the usability of existing and new geological profiles to make them more available in the retail applications as well as build easier entry and registration of profiles. The project target is to develop the methodology for acquisition of data, modification and use of data and its further presentation on the web by creating a user-interface directly linked to NGU's webpage. This will allow users to visualise profiles in a 3D model.

  14. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.B. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. (Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Fractals in geology and geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    The definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects N with a characteristic size greater than r scales with the relation N of about r exp -D. The frequency-size distributions for islands, earthquakes, fragments, ore deposits, and oil fields often satisfy this relation. This application illustrates a fundamental aspect of fractal distributions, scale invariance. The requirement of an object to define a scale in photograhs of many geological features is one indication of the wide applicability of scale invariance to geological problems; scale invariance can lead to fractal clustering. Geophysical spectra can also be related to fractals; these are self-affine fractals rather than self-similar fractals. Examples include the earth's topography and geoid.

  16. Software development for geologic information management system on open-pit production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.; Tian, A.; Ren, Z.; Pang, Y. [China University of Mining and Technomogy, Xuzhou (China). College of Mineral and Energy Resources

    2001-09-01

    A software, including geological data gathering and processing, deposit modelling, reserves calculating and mine map plotting, for geologic information management of open-pit production was developed. Based on the interactive technique, CAD, the object-oriented simulation, and the characteristics of geologic structures, all the geologic information databases and geologic mapping sub-systems have been established for open-pit production, planning and management. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Application of GIS to Geological Information Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    GIS. a powerful tool for processing spatial data, is advantageous in its spatial overlaying. In this paper, GIS is applied to the extraction of geological information. Information associated with mineral resources is chosen to delineate the geo-anomalies, the basis of ore-forming anomalies and of mineral-deposit location. This application is illustrated with an example in Weixi area, Yunnan Province.

  18. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101892 Guo Hongjun (Tianjin Geological Exploration General Survey,Tianjin 300181,China);Lin Xiaohui The Precambrian Geological Characteristics of Kigoma-Mpanda Region,Tanzania and the New Data of U-Pb Age Determination on Zircon

  19. Geologic spatial analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the development of geologic spatial analysis research which focuses on conducting comprehensive three-dimensional analysis of regions using geologic data sets that can be referenced by latitude, longitude, and elevation/depth. (CBS)

  20. Geological Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers use computed tomography (CT) scanners at NETL’s Geological Services Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, to peer into geologic core samples to determine how...

  1. Geophysics & Geology Inspected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, E. R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

  2. Mapping urban geology of the city of Girona, Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Miquel; Torrades, Pau; Pi, Roser; Monleon, Ona

    2016-04-01

    A detailed and systematic geological characterization of the urban area of Girona has been conducted under the project '1:5000 scale Urban geological map of Catalonia' of the Catalan Geological Survey (Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya). The results of this characterization are organized into: i) a geological information system that includes all the information acquired; ii) a stratigraphic model focused on identification, characterization and correlation of the geological materials and structures present in the area and; iii) a detailed geological map that represents a synthesis of all the collected information. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment pre-existing cartographic documentation (geological and topographical), core data from compiled boreholes, descriptions of geological outcrops within the urban network and neighbouring areas, physico-chemical characterisation of representative samples of geological materials, detailed geological mapping of Quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits and, 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces. The stratigraphic model is structured in a system of geological units that from a chronostratigrafic point of view are structured in Palaeozoic, Paleogene, Neogene, Quaternary and Anthropocene. The description of the geological units is guided by a systematic procedure. It includes the main lithological and structural features of the units that constitute the geological substratum and represents the conceptual base of the 1:5000 urban geological map of the Girona metropolitan area, which is organized into 6 map sheets. These map sheets are composed by a principal map, geological cross sections and, several complementary maps, charts and tables. Regardless of the geological map units, the principal map also represents the main artificial deposits, features related to geohistorical processes, contours of outcrop areas, information obtained in stations, borehole data, and contour

  3. Geology of the Dolomites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AlfonsoBosellini; PieroGianolla; MarcoStefani

    2003-01-01

    The Dolomites region is a spectacularly exposed portion of the Southern Alps, a northern Italian chain derived from the comparatively gentle deformation of the Tethyan passive continental margin of Adria. The regionhad an active Permo-Jurassic tectono-magmatic evolu-tion, leading from Permian magmatism, through a Mid-die Triassic episode offast subsidence and volcanism, to the Jurassic oceanic break-up. Although the sedimentary succession ranges in age from Middle Permian to Creta-ceous, the geological landscape is largely dominated by the majestic Triassic carbonates, making the area a clas-sical one for the early Mesozoic stratigraphy. Particu-larly noteworthy are the Anisian to Carnian carbonate platforms, recording an evolution from regional muddy banks to isolated high-relief builduos. The hlline of the various basins and the development of a last generation of regional peritidal platform followed. The carbonate platforms of the Dolomites bear witness to a remarkable set of changes in the carbonate production and to signif-icant palaeoclimatic fluctuations,from arid to moist con-difions and vice versa; a great range of margin and slope depositional styles is therefore recorded. Alpine tectonic shortening strongly affected the area, with a first Eocenede formation, followed by later Neogene overthrusting and strike-slip movements.

  4. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20081140 Cheng Peng(State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology,Institute of Earth Environment,CAS,Xi’an 710075,China);Zhou Weijian Advances in Radiocarbon Dating Researches in the Loess-Paleosol Sequences(Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-

  5. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132178 Chen Hongjun(Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey,MLR,Guangzhou 510760,China);Cai Guanqiang Features of Canyon Morphology and Their Origin in the Shenhu Area,Northern Slope of the South China Sea(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,32(5),2012,p.19-26

  6. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151119Cui Zhengke(No.1 Marine Geological Investigation Party,Shanghai Offshore Petroleum Bureau,SINOPEC,Shanghai201208,China);Yang Wenda Late Quaternary Sequence Stratigraphy and Sedimentary Environment of East China Sea Continental Shelf(Marine Geology&Quaternary; Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,34(4),

  7. Main genetic types and geological characteristics of iron-rich ore deposits in China%中国主要富铁矿床类型及地质特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵一鸣

    2013-01-01

    中国铁矿总资源量相对较多,但大部分为贫矿,富铁矿的资源量很少,只占已探明铁矿总资源储量的4.6%;其中,可直接入炉的炼钢用富矿和炼铁用富矿则更少,仅11.8亿吨,占全国探明铁矿总资源储量的2.27%.已知主要富铁矿矿床的成因类型有:①沉积变质贫铁矿(BIF)中的热液改造型;②沉积变质贫铁矿(BIF)中的风化淋滤型;③陆相火山-侵入岩型;④海相火山(-侵入)岩型;⑤矽卡岩型;⑥热液充填交代型.文章简要介绍了各类富铁矿矿床的地质特征,认为矽卡岩型和海相火山(-侵入)岩型富铁矿有一定的找矿潜力.%The proven total reserves of iron ores in China are relatively abundant,but the iron ores mainly belong to low-grade ores.The reserves of high-grade iron ores are rare,and only possess 4.6 % of the total proven reserves of iron ores.Among them,the high-grade ores for steelmaking and for iron-smelting are even rarer,and only amount to 1180 million tones,which make up 2.27% of the proven reserves of iron ores in China.The main genetic types of iron deposits of high-grade ores in China include;@hydrothermal reformed type in sedimentary metamorphosed iron deposits (BIF); (~) weathered leaching type in sedimentary metamorphosed iron deposits (BIF) ; ③ iron deposits related to continental volcano-intrusive activities;@iron deposits related to marine volcanic (intrusive) activities;@skarn iron deposits;@hydrothermal iron deposits.Among these iron deposit types of high-grade iron ores,the skarn iron deposits and iron deposits related to marine volcanic (intrusive) activities are relatively important and have favorable ore-prospecting potential.

  8. Geological features and prospecting criteria of Firawaya area iron deposit in the Republic of Guinea%几内亚共和国Firawaya一带铁矿床地质特征及找矿标志

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵超; 马俊

    2014-01-01

    There are rich mineral resources in Guinea, at present, Mount Nimba and Simandou are world-class iron mine, located in southeastern Guinea, grade reached 66%-68%. In this paper, through the study of the geological features, the prospecting criteria of magnetite were established, which has practical signiifcance for geological prospecting of BIF type iron ore in the region.%几内亚拥有丰富的矿产资源,目前宁巴山铁矿和西芒杜铁矿均为世界级铁矿,位于几内亚东南部,品位均达到66%~68%。本文通过对矿区地质特征的研究,确立磁铁矿的找矿标志,对指导本区域BIF型铁矿的地质找矿具有实际意义。

  9. Point locations and characteristics of evaporite-related potash deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial database of evaporite-related potash deposits and occurrences provides location and descriptive information for 981 deposits and occurrences that are...

  10. Map Service Showing Geology and Geologic Provinces of South Asia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The geology data set for this map includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and rock type for South Asia. The geologic...

  11. Hydromechanical coupling in geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Earth's porous crust and the fluids within it are intimately linked through their mechanical effects on each other. This paper presents an overview of such "hydromechanical" coupling and examines current understanding of its role in geologic processes. An outline of the theory of hydromechanics and rheological models for geologic deformation is included to place various analytical approaches in proper context and to provide an introduction to this broad topic for nonspecialists. Effects of hydromechanical coupling are ubiquitous in geology, and can be local and short-lived or regional and very long-lived. Phenomena such as deposition and erosion, tectonism, seismicity, earth tides, and barometric loading produce strains that tend to alter fluid pressure. Resulting pressure perturbations can be dramatic, and many so-called "anomalous" pressures appear to have been created in this manner. The effects of fluid pressure on crustal mechanics are also profound. Geologic media deform and fail largely in response to effective stress, or total stress minus fluid pressure. As a result, fluid pressures control compaction, decompaction, and other types of deformation, as well as jointing, shear failure, and shear slippage, including events that generate earthquakes. By controlling deformation and failure, fluid pressures also regulate states of stress in the upper crust. Advances in the last 80 years, including theories of consolidation, transient groundwater flow, and poroelasticity, have been synthesized into a reasonably complete conceptual framework for understanding and describing hydromechanical coupling. Full coupling in two or three dimensions is described using force balance equations for deformation coupled with a mass conservation equation for fluid flow. Fully coupled analyses allow hypothesis testing and conceptual model development. However, rigorous application of full coupling is often difficult because (1) the rheological behavior of geologic media is complex

  12. THE GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF FORMATION AND MINERALIZATION FEATURES OF MICRO-FINE DISSEMINATED GOLD DEPOSITS IN CHINA%我国微细浸染型金矿床的形成条件及成矿作用特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王可勇

    2000-01-01

    微细浸染型金矿床是我国主要的热液金矿床类型之一,空间上多分布于扬子地台周边地区,其产出受大地构造背景及地层、构造和一定的热动力条件的控制.我国该类型金矿床成矿作用总体具有如下特点:①矿化点多面广,但规模相对较小;②区域上金矿化常与Hg、Sb、As及U等元素低温热液矿床密切共(伴)生;③矿床形成具多期多阶段性,且其成因复杂多样;④成矿时代主要为印支晚期-燕山期.%Micro-fine disseminated gold deposit is one of the most important hydrothermal deposit types in Cb ina. Most of th em are spatially distributed iu regions around the Yangtze platform, and their occurences are controlled by strata, structure and certain thermodynamic conditions in addition to tectonic backgrounds. The mineralization features of this type of gold deposits are as follows: (①) gold mineralization is distributed extensively in space, but the deposits are usually smaller in scale relatively; (②)regionally, gold mineralization often occurred in accompanion with low temperature hydrothermal deposits of Sb, As, Hg, U etc.; (③)the formation of the gold deposits experienced multiphases as well as polystages of mineralizing processes, and their origins are usually different and complex;and (④)the main metallogenic period is from late Indo-Chinese epoch to Yanshanian epoch.

  13. NOAA/WDC Global Tsunami Deposits Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Discover where, when and how severely tsunamis affected Earth in geologic history. Information regarding Tsunami Deposits and Proxies for Tsunami Events complements...

  14. Ultramafic-Hosted Talc-Magnesite Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Foley, Nora K.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation on the geology of ultramafic-hosted talc-magnesite deposits was given at the 42nd Forum on the Geology of Industrial Minerals, May 7-13, 2006, in Asheville, North Carolina (USA). Talc is a soft inert industrial mineral commodity commonly used as a component or filler in ceramic, paint, paper, plastic, roofing, and electrical applications. Ultramafic-hosted talc-magnesite deposits are important sources of talc.

  15. Tsunami Deposit Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, B. H.; Wanink, M.

    2007-05-01

    A digital database has been established describing tsunami deposits around the world (3 phases; 15 months). The projects involved the review and tabulation of data derived from books, catalogs, journals, preprints, citations and abstracts (currently 1000 references), into a database designed to provide a comprehensive review of the types of tsunami deposits, their geographic distribution and location, sedimentary characteristics, fossil content, age, preservation, run-up, wave height and inundation observations, etc. (34 parameters). The tsunami occurrences can be divided into many subjects, e.g., Volcanogenic (N=375), Seismites (N=49), Co-seismic (N=258), K/T Boundary Impact-triggered debris flows (N=97), Landslides (N=43), etc. Numerous publications compare tsunami deposits to storm deposits (N=38), or analyze the origin of megaboulders (N=22). Tsunami deposits occur throughout geologic time (Pre-Cambrian to present day), and because of plate tectonics, they occur along plate margins (primarily subduction zones) as well as interior to plates. In addition, they occur in epi-continental seas, fjords, etc. Few publications describe depositional processes. Deposits generated by tsunamis occur in multiple environments such as the marine, fresh water, and subaerial. Common characteristics of tsunami deposits include: 1) Deposition of thin sand sheets (can be normal, massive, inversely graded, chaotic or bimodal). 2) Erosional: basal uncomformity, mud balls, rip-up clasts, reworked fossils produced by scouring. 3) Lithology: Stacks of couplets reflecting marine incursions (often sands) into fresh water or subaerial environments (mud, soil, peat). 4) Fossil: Couplets reflects marine fossils, fresh water fossils or a mixed assemblage. 5) Geomorphology: The sand sheets taper landward and can rise in elevation. 6) Deformation: syn-depositional (soft sediments) and intraformational (stiff sediments).

  16. Engineering and Environmental Geology of the Indian Wells Valley Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-06

    expected thickness of the pyroclastic flow and surge deposits and the velocity at which they would be transported at various locations relative to the erup...34Ballistically Transported Fragments Within Pyroclastic Fall Deposits - Potential Uses and Assumptions," Geological Society of America, Abstracts with

  17. Geology, lithogeochemistry and paleotectonic setting of the host sequence to the Kangasjärvi Zn-Cu deposit, central Finland: implications for volcanogenic massive sulphide exploration in the Vihanti-Pyhäsalmi district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Roberts

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kangasjärvi Zn-Cu deposit is a highly deformed and metamorphosed Paleoproterozoic volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS deposit located in the Vihanti-Pyhäsalmi base metal mining district of central Finland. The host sequence to the deposit, referred to as the Inner Volcanic Sequence (IVS, is comprised of a bimodal suite of metavolcanic rocks and a regionally extensive tonalite-trondhjemite gneiss (sub-volcanic intrusions?. A separate and perhaps younger sequence of mafic volcanic rocks, with irregular intervals of undifferentiated intermediate to felsic schists and metalimestones, referred to as the Outer Volcanic Sequence (OVS, are separated from the IVS sequence by intervals of metagreywacke and U-P-bearing graphitic schists. A stratigraphic scheme for rocks within the IVS is proposed based on outcrop observations, locally preserved volcanic textures, aspects of seafloor-related hydrothermal alteration and lithogeochemistry. In this scheme, rare andesites form the lowermostvolcanic stratigraphy and are overlain by typical island-arc basalts that were erupted in a subaqueous setting. Tonalite-trondhjemite subvolcanic intrusions were locally emplaced within andesites and coeval rhyolites were extruded on the basaltic substrate. The extrusion of rhyolites, including high-silica rhyolites, was coeval with regional-scale, pre-metamorphic seafloor hydrothermal alteration and local sulphide mineralization. Extensively altered rhyolites envelope massive sulphides and are underlain by altered basalts. The latter rocks are now characterized by a variety of low-variance metamorphic mineral assemblages (e.g. orthoamphibole-cordierite rocks and define a domain of intense pre-metamorphic chlorite ± sericite alteration in the stratigraphic footwall of the deposit. The altered nature of these rocks is attributed to reaction with seawater-related hydrothermal fluids within a zone of upflow at or near the seafloor. The fundamental controls on convective

  18. Geology, Distribution and Classification of Gold Deposits in the Western Qinling Belt, Central China%西秦岭地区造山型与卡林型金矿床

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛景文

    2001-01-01

    Gold deposits of the western Qinling belt comprising Carlin-typeand orogenic type gold deposits. Carlin-like gold deposits are abundant (1) along a westward extension of the southern zone defined by a window of early Paleozoic clastic rocks extending into the basin to the west and (2) within the easternmost margin of the basinal rocks, south of the extension, and in adjacent cover rocks of the Yangtze craton. Triassic and Early Jurassic synkinematic granitoids are widespread across the central and southern zones, as well as in the Songpan-Ganzi basin and northern margin of the Yangtze craton.Orogenic lode gold deposits sited along brittle-ductile shear zones occur throughout the central zone within greenschist-facies, highly-deformed, Devonian and younger clastic rocks. Mainly coarse-grained gold, along with pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, and minor base metal sulfides, occur in networks of quartz veinlets, brecciated wallrock, and disseminated in altered wallrock. Isotopic dates suggest that the deposits formed during the Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic as the leading edge of the Yangtze craton was thrust beneath rocks of the western Qinling belt.Both Carlin-and orogenic types of gold deposits formed during extensional period of post-orogenesis, aged mainly from 210-180 Ma.%西秦岭金矿床分为卡林型和造山型两类。卡林型金矿床麇集于南秦岭和松潘—甘孜造山带的东北部。三叠纪和早侏罗世的同构造花岗闪长岩广泛分布于西秦岭中部和南部、松潘—甘孜盆地以及扬子克拉通边缘。造山型脉状金矿床主要分布于西秦岭造山带中的脆韧性剪切带内。大部分粗粒金主要赋存在网格状石英细脉和角砾状围岩中的黄铁矿、磁黄铁矿、毒砂和少量贱金属硫化物中和以分散状分布在蚀变围岩中。同位素资料表明晚三叠世-中侏罗世与扬子克拉通俯冲有关的作用控制了造山型金矿床的形成。

  19. Geology and origin of epigenetic lode gold deposits, Tintina Gold Province, Alaska and Yukon: Chapter A in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Marsh, Erin E.; Hart, Craig J.R.; Mair, John L.; Miller, Marti L.; Johnson, Craig; Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

    2007-01-01

    More than 50 million ounces of lode gold resources have been defined in the previous 15 years throughout accreted terranes of interior Alaska and in adjacent continental margin rocks of Yukon. The major deposits in this so-called Tintina Gold Province formed around 105 to 90 million years ago in east-central Alaska and Yukon, and around 70 million years ago in southwestern Alaska, late in the deformational history of their host rocks. All gold deposits studied to date formed from CO2

  20. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072053 Bao Qingzhon(Shenyang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Shenyang,Liaoning 110032,China);Zhang Changjie Carboniferous-Permian Marine Lithostratigraphy and Sequence Stratigraphy in Xi Ujimqin Qi,Southeastern Inner Mongolia,China(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,25(5),2006,p.572-579,4 illus.,2 tables,26 refs.,with English abstract)

  1. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082513 Chen Guocheng(State Key Labo- ratory of Marine Geology,Tongji University, Shanghai 200092,China);Zheng Hongbo Sedimentary Records of Volcanic Activities in the South China Sea over the Past 480 ka (Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, ISSN0256—1492,CN37—1117/P,27(4), 2007,p.69—76,4 illus.,1 table,25 refs., with English abstract) Key words:sedimentary sequence,South China Sea

  2. Hong Kong Geological Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R J Sewell

    2007-01-01

    @@ History and objectives The Hong Kong Geological Survey(HKGS) was created on 5 May,1982,wimin the then Engineering Development Department of the Hong Kong Govemment.The initial objective was to carry out a new geological survey of the Territory at 1∶20,000 scale.This followed recognition of an urgent need to produce high quality geological maps at a large scale with sufficient detail to facilitate physical planning and land use management of Hong Kong.

  3. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20081118 Bai Long(Guizhou Academy of Geology Surveying,Guiyang 550005,Guizhou,China);Shi Yuanhua Discovery of Permian Strata and Its Significance in the Mayidang Area,Yiwu County,Xinjiang(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,24(2),2007,p.134-137,141,3 illus.,9 refs.)Key words:Upper Permian,XinjiangIn the survey of regional geology and minera

  4. GEOLOGI KAMPUS TEMBALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahju Krisna H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Geological conditions at Tembalang areas and surround, Semarang, as a Undulating – Hillockymorphological. That’s can be representation lithological and structural conditions. This surveysused the Geoelectrical sounding and combined with geological surface mapping. There are 15points sounding of Geoelectrical, after interpreted with geological surface mapping, can beconclusion the Breccias lithologic overlay on the upper of Limestones lithologic and finding thereverse fault in the part north of areas survey.

  5. HYDROGEOLOGY & ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091306 Dong Hengbi(Geological Survey of Shaanxi Province,Xi’an 710054,China);Hu Xuesheng Geological Setting of Geotechnical Erosion in the Helong Portion at the Middle Reaches of Yellow River(Geology of Shaanxi,ISSN1001-6996,CN61-1150/ P,26(1),2008,p.69-75,4 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:soil erosion,Yellow River

  6. Geologic and Mineral Resource Map of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebrich, Jeff L.; Wahl, Ronald R.; With Contributions by Ludington, Stephen D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Orris, Greta J.; Bliss, James D.; Wasy, Abdul; Younusi, Mohammad O.

    2006-01-01

    Data Summary The geologic and mineral resource information shown on this map is derived from digitization of the original data from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977) and Abdullah and others (1977). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults as presented in Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977); however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. Labeling of map units has not been attempted where they are small or narrow, in order to maintain legibility and to preserve the map's utility in illustrating regional geologic and structural relations. Users are encouraged to refer to the series of USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) 1:250,000-scale geologic quadrangle maps of Afghanistan that are being released concurrently as open-file reports. The classification of mineral deposit types is based on the authors' interpretation of existing descriptive information (Abdullah and others, 1977; Bowersox and Chamberlin, 1995; Orris and Bliss, 2002) and on limited field investigations by the authors. Deposit-type nomenclature used for nonfuel minerals is modified from published USGS deposit-model classifications, as compiled in Stoeser and Heran (2000). New petroleum localities are based on research of archival data by the authors. The shaded-relief base is derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data having 85-meter resolution. Gaps in the original SRTM DEM dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). The marginal extent of geologic units corresponds to the position of the international boundary as defined by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977), and the international boundary as shown on this map was acquired from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af) in

  7. Treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. Program for encapsulation, deep geologic deposition and research, development and demonstration; Kaernkraftavfallets behandling och slutfoervaring. Program foer inkapsling, geologisk djupfoervaring samt forskning, utveckling och demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Programs for RD and D concerning disposal of radioactive waste are presented. Main topics include: Design, testing and manufacture of canisters for the spent fuels; Design of equipment for deposition of waste canisters; Material and process for backfilling rock caverns; Evaluation of accuracy and validation of methods for safety analyses; Development of methods for defining scenarios for the safety analyses. 471 refs, 67 figs, 21 tabs.

  8. Geological Features of the Tangjiawan Vanadio-Titano-magnetite Deposit in Miyi, Sichuan%四川米易县唐家湾钒钛磁铁矿矿床地质特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐学渊; 杨炯; 唐财明; 莫少鹏; 盛德波

    2015-01-01

    The Tangjiawan Vanadio-titano-magnetite deposit lies in the south of middle section of the Kangdian fault upwarping belt and on the western side of the Anninghe Fracture zone. The orebodies are confined to Hercynian ultrabasic rock. The ore consists of titanomagnetite and ilmenite with sideronitic texture. The deposit belongs to late magmatic ore deposit.%唐家湾钒钛磁铁矿位于扬子陆块与松潘—甘孜活动带的西南结合部康滇断隆带中段南部、安宁河断裂西侧。矿体产于华力西期基性超基性岩体中,矿石矿物主要为钛磁铁矿、钛铁矿等,多具海绵陨铁结构,在岩浆结晶晚期形成,围岩为印支期正长岩。矿床成因为晚期岩浆矿床。

  9. Groundwater in geologic processes, 2nd edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Sanford, Ward E.; Neuzil, Christopher E.

    2006-01-01

    Interest in the role of Groundwater in Geologic Processes has increased steadily over the past few decades. Hydrogeologists and geologists are now actively exploring the role of groundwater and other subsurface fluids in such fundamental geologic processes as crustal heat transfer, ore deposition, hydrocarbon migration, earthquakes, tectonic deformation, diagenesis, and metamorphism.Groundwater in Geologic Processes is the first comprehensive treatment of this body of inquiry. Chapters 1 to 4 develop the basic theories of groundwater motion, hydromechanics, solute transport, and heat transport. Chapter 5 applies these theories to regional groundwater flow systems in a generic sense, and Chapters 6 to 13 focus on particular geologic processes and environments. Relative to the first edition of Groundwater in Geologic Processes , this second edition includes a much more comprehensive treatment of hydromechanics (the coupling of groundwater flow and deformation). It also includes new chapters on "compaction and diagenesis," "metamorphism," and "subsea hydrogeology." Finally, it takes advantage of the substantial body of published research that has appeared since the first edition in 1998. The systematic presentation of theory and application, and the problem sets that conclude each chapter, make this book ideal for undergraduate- and graduate-level geology courses (assuming that the students have some background in calculus and introductory chemistry). It also serves as an invaluable reference for researchers and other professionals in the field

  10. 湖南醴陵肖家山金矿地质特征及成矿条件研究%Geological characteristics and metallogenic conditions of Xiaoj iashan gold deposit in Liling of Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶诗龙; 赖健清; 宋维国; 查道函

    2015-01-01

    肖家山金矿属于醴陵金矿田的一个典型金矿床。矿区主要出露的地层为中元古界冷家溪群,系一套巨厚的绿片岩相浅变质碎屑岩,为矿床的矿源层。区域岩浆活动强烈,主要出露中生代的花岗岩,为成矿提供了热源和动力。矿区褶皱、断裂构造发育,其中三斗田脆-韧性剪切带和雁林寺韧性剪切带为矿区主要的控矿容矿构造。矿脉主要产于断裂中,呈似脉状。矿床以热液成矿作用为主,成矿期可分为石英―黄铁矿阶段,含金石英―硫化物阶段,石英―铁白云石阶;矿区流体包裹体均为富液相的气液两相包裹体,流体均一温度介于180℃~360℃之间,盐度为3.12%~9.84%(wt%NaCl equiv),流体的密度介于0.67 g/cm3~0.92g/cm3。综合分析矿床是一中高温热液叠加改造型金矿床。%Xiaojiashan gold deposit was a typical gold deposit in Liling gold ore field.The main outcropped strata in the mining area were Mesoproterozoic Lengjiaxi Group,which was a set of thick green schist facies epimetamorphic clastic rock and was the ore source bed of the deposit.With the intensive magmatic activities in this area,mainly outcropped Mesozoic granite provided heat source and dynamic force for mineralization. Among the developed folds and faulted structures,Sandoutian brittle-ductile shear zone and Yanlinsi ductile shear zone were the primary ore-controlling and host structures in the mining area.Vein ores mainly oc-curred in the fractures in veinlike form.The deposit was mainly formed by hydatogenesis,and the minerali-zation periods included quartz-pyrite phase,gold-bearing quartz-sulfide phase and quartz-ankerite phase.The liquid inclusions in the mining area were rich-liquid phase gas-liquid inclusions,while the homogenization temperature of fluid ranged between 180℃ and 360℃ and the salinity ranged between 3.12% and 9.84%(wt%NaCl equiv)and the density of fluid ranged between 0.67g/cm3 and 0

  11. 甘肃龙尾沟斑岩型铜(钨)矿床成矿特征及形成环境%Geological Characteristics and Metallogenic Environment of the Longweigou Porphyry Copper(tungsten) Deposit,Gansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾群子; 马云海; 全守村; 王建军; 肖朝阳; 李金超

    2012-01-01

    龙尾沟铜(钨)矿床是祁连山地区新近发现的一处斑岩型矿床,其评价及研究对祁连山地区铜矿勘查具有重要的指导和借鉴作用.本文通过对含矿斑岩年代学及地球化学、矿体产出特征及矿石物质组成、围岩蚀变等进行了系统研究,结果表明,花岗闪长斑岩形成年龄为358.7 Ma;矿体呈似层状、透镜状和脉状产出,主要产于高钾碱性系列斑岩体内,并受近南北向构造控制;矿石矿物主要为黄铜矿、黄铁矿、磁黄铁矿、白钨矿,呈细脉一浸染状、浸染状产出;矿化以富铜、钨、金贫钼为特征;与成矿关系密切的围岩蚀变主要为绢英岩化,次为钾硅酸盐化和硅化;矿床成矿时代为海西早期,形成于陆内造山伸展环境.从成矿背景分析认为祁连山地区陆内造山环境所形成的斑岩型铜矿具有良好的找矿前景.%The Longweigou porphyry copper( tungsten) deposit, a newly found deposit, lies in the Oulongbuluke uplift belt of the Qilian orogenic belt. The evaluation and research of the Longweigou copperCtungsten) ore deposit will present important guidance and reference for copper exploration in the Qilian Mountain area. The chronology and the geochemistry of the ore-bearing porphyry deposit were studied and the occurrence features of the deposit, the components of gold mineral and the alteration of the wall rock were investigated. Results showed that the formation age of the granodiorite porphyry is 358. 7Ma; and that the ore-body, which has occurrences of stratiform or lenticular or vein, occurs mainly in the high potassium alkali series porphyry and is controlled by NS structures; and that chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and scheelite are main ore minerals, which have veinlet-disseminated and disseminated structures; and that mineralization is characterized by enriching copper, tungsten and gold and depleting molybdenum; and that the mineralization related wall-rock alterations are

  12. Geology's Impact on Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most people consider geology boring, static and difficult. The fields of astronomy and physics have "rebranded" themselves with exciting programs formatted so as to be readily understandable to the general public. The same thing can be done for geology. My research on geology's influence on other disciplines has resulted in a book, Tweeting da Vinci, in which I was able to show how geology affected Italy's art, architecture, medicine, religion, literature, engineering and just about everything else. The reaction to the book and my lectures by both students and the general public has been very positive, including four gold medals, with reviews and comments indicating that they never knew geology could be so exciting. The book is very user friendly, packed with facts, full-color photos, paintings, sketches and illustrations. Complex aspects of geology are presented in an easily understandable style. Widely diverse topics—such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion—are stitched together using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. The book can be used in classes such as physics, chemistry, literature, art history, medicine, Classical Studies, Latin, Greek and Italian. By incorporating a "geologic perspective" in these courses, it can be perceived as a more "all encompassing" discipline and encourage more students to study it. The lectures I have given on college campuses have resulted in students seeing their own majors from a different perspective and some have even signed up for introductory geology courses. One college organized summer course to the Bay of Naples based on the book. We followed the geology as well as the culture of the area and the students were profoundly moved. To encourage dialog, the book is linked to Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. This has enabled followers from

  13. Uranium deposit in Kumsan area (1979)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jong Yun; Kim, Jeong Taek; Kim, Dai Oap [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The survey on the nuclear raw mineral (uranium) deposits had been carried out for a long time from early 1960`s to late 1980`s by the Geological and Mineral Institute of Energy and Resources. Unpublished data of the uranium ore deposits of Kumsan area is published on this paper. Geology on the Ogcheon System have been controversial by many geologists, therefore we have reviewed on the geology and stratigraphy. Particularly, we have interpreted the host root rock on the magnetite bearing banded gneiss, which is named so called Kyemeongsan Formation. (author). 5 maps.

  14. Uranium deposit in Yongyuri Miwon area (1978)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Taek; Han, Jong Yun; Kim, Dai Oap; Im Hyun Chul [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The survey on the nuclear raw mineral (uranium) deposits had been carried out for a long time from early 1960`s to late 1980`s by the Geological and Mineral Institute of Energy and Resources. Unpublished data of the uranium ore deposit of Yongyuri Miwon area is published on this paper. Geology on the Ogcheon System have been controversial by many geologists, therefore we have reviewed on the geology and stratigraphy. Particularly, we have interpreted the host root rock on the magnetite bearing banded gneiss, which is named so called Kyemeongsan Formation. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 maps.

  15. Uranium deposit in Yiheonri area (1978)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Taek; Kim, Dai Oap [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The survey on the nuclear raw mineral (uranium) deposits had been carried out for a long time from early 1960`s to late 1980`s by the Geological and Mineral Institute of Energy and Resources. Unpublished data of the uranium ore deposit of Yiheonri area is published on this paper. Geology on the Ogcheon System have been controversial by many geologists, therefore we have reviewed on the geology and stratigraphy. Particularly, we have interpreted the host root rock on the magnetite bearing banded gneiss, which is named so called Kyemeongsan Formation. (author). 4 tabs., 3 maps.

  16. Uranium deposit in Geosan B area (1978)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gil Seung; Kim, Dai Oap; Kim, Jong Hwan [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The survey on the nuclear raw mineral (uranium) deposits had been carried out for a long time from early 1960`s to late 1980`s by the Geological and Mineral Institute of Energy and Resources. Unpublished data of the uranium ore deposit of Goesan Deokpyeongri B area is published on this paper. Geology on the Ogcheon System have been controversial by many geologists, therefore we have reviewed on the geology and stratigraphy. Particularly, we have interpreted the host root rock on the magnetite bearing banded gneiss, which is named so called Kyemeongsan Formation. (author). 8 maps.

  17. Geology of Lofn Crater, Callisto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Ronald; Heiner, Sarah; Klemaszewski, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Lofn crater is a 180-km-diameter impact structure in the southern cratered plains of Callisto and is among the youngest features seen on the surface. The Lofn area was imaged by the Galileo spacecraft at regional-scale resolutions (875 m/pixel), which enable the general geology to be investigated. The morphology of Lofn crater suggests that (1) it is a class of impact structure intermediate between complex craters and palimpsests or (2) it formed by the impact of a projectile which fragmented before reaching the surface, resulting in a shallow crater (even for Callisto). The asymmetric pattern of the rim and ejecta deposits suggests that the impactor entered at a low angle from the northwest. The albedo and other characteristics of the ejecta deposits from Lofn also provide insight into the properties of the icy lithosphere and subsurface configuration at the time of impact. The "target" for the Lofn impact is inferred to have included layered materials associated with the Adlinda multiring structure northwest of Loh and ejecta deposits from the Heimdall crater area to the southeast. The Lofn impact might have penetrated through these materials into a viscous substrate of ductile ice or possibly liquid water. This interpretation is consistent with models of the current interior of Callisto based on geophysical information obtained from the Galileo spacecraft.

  18. 内蒙古苏尼特右旗毕力赫大型斑岩型金矿床辉钼矿Re-Os同位素年龄及其地质意义%Molybdnite Re-Os isotope age of Bilihe large-size porphyry gold deposit in Sunid Right Banner of Inner Mongolia and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿敏; 葛良胜; 唐明国; 屈文俊; 袁士松; 赵玉锁

    2011-01-01

    between hypo-volcanic complex body and overlying volcanic rocks as well as volcanic clastic rocks, especially in the inner-contact zone. It is the first time that a large-sized porphyry gold deposit was found in the northern margin of North China plate, i.e., the Bilihe large-size porphyry gold deposit in Sunid Right Banner of Inner Mongolia. In order to identify the porphyry gold (copper) metallogenic age, the authors used Re-Os isotope to test 6 molybdnite samples collected from the porphyry, which yielded the isochron age of (272.7 ± 1.6) Ma (MSWD = 0.57). Redefinition of the late Paleozoic ore-forming geological event of the Bilihe gold deposit has provided new evidence for the convergent plate structural system in the northern part of North China in late Paleozoic, recognized some basic geological problems of the northern part of North China, and given enlightenments in search for low temperature shallow-seated porphyry gold-polymetallic deposits in the magmatic arc environment of the middle-east segments of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in late Paleozoic.

  19. 峨眉山大火成岩省烂纸厂铁矿床地质特征、成因及其找矿勘查启示%Geological Characteristics,Genesis,and Its Prospecting Exploration Enlightenment of Lanzhichang Iron Deposits in the Emeishan Large Igneous Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾令高; 张均; 孙腾; 李斌; 朱光辉; 贾子超; 方权; 陈庚户

    2016-01-01

    that the mineralization was affected by the hydrothermal sedimentary , magmatic evolution following the Fenner differentiation trend . The geological and geochemical characteristics indicate that Lanzhichang iron deposit is a continental syndepositional iron ore deposit with volcanic eruption or overflow . The discovery of this new type of iron deposit is a breakthrough to the ideological restraint in China that no such scaled iron deposit can be found in an igneous area .It provides a lot of inspirations and references for looking for iron ore in similar geological environments .

  20. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141014Wang Hairan(State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics,Department of Geology,Northwest University,Xi’an710069,China);Zhao Hongge Theory and Application of Zircon U-Pb Isotope Dating Technique(Geology and Resources,ISSN1671-1947,CN21-1458/P,22(3),2013,p.229