WorldWideScience

Sample records for geoinformation ski site-94

  1. SKI SITE-94. Deep Repository Performance Assessment Project. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The function of SITE-94 is to provide the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) with the capacity and supporting knowledge needed for reviewing the Swedish nuclear industry's R and D programs and for reviewing license applications, as stipulated in Swedish legislation. The report is structured as a Performance Assessment exercise needed for input to decisions regarding repository safety, but the SITE-94 is neither a safety assessment nor a model for future assessments to be undertaken by the prospective licensee. The specific project objectives of SITE-94 comprise site evaluation, performance assessment methodology, canister integrity and radionuclide release and transport calculations. The main report (SKI-R--96-36) gives a detailed description of the many inter-related studies undertaken as part of the research project, while the present report presents a condensed summary of the main report. 46 refs

  2. SKI SITE-94, deep repository performance assessment project, summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    SITE-94 is a comprehensive performance assessment exercise for a hypothetical repository for spent nuclear fuel at a real site in Sweden. SITE-94 was carried out to develop the capability and tools to enable Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) to review fully the proposals for a deep repository which are expected to be made by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, SKB (the implementor). Sweden is one of the leading countries in the research and development of geological disposal of radioactive waste. The developed methodology for performance assessment has attracted interests from other countries. The Summary of the main report of the SITE-94 project is translated here into Japanese to allow to make the information on the methodology and the related issues available among Japanese concerned. (author)

  3. SKI SITE-94. Deep Repository Performance Assessment Project Volume I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The function of SITE-94 is to provide the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) with the capacity and supporting knowledge needed for reviewing the Swedish nuclear industry`s R and D programs and for reviewing license applications, as stipulated in Swedish legislation. The report is structured as a Performance Assessment exercise needed for input to decisions regarding repository safety, but the SITE-94 is not a safety assessment or a model for future assessments to be undertaken by the prospective licensee. The specific project objectives of SITE-94 comprise site evaluation, performance assessment methodology, canister integrity and radionuclide release and transport calculations. The report gives a detailed description of the many inter-related studies undertaken as part of the research project. As a general conclusion it is noted that the SITE-94 project has significantly advanced SKI`s capability of reviewing performance assessments and has led to the development of a tool-kit for carrying out assessment calculations, both in terms of numerical and scoping analyses. The study has highlighted a number of key issues for safety assessment (and consequently for disposal system design): Canister performance; Derived parameters of geosphere retention properties; Spatial variability of groundwater flow and geochemistry of migration paths; Time dependency (more emphasis on transient, time-dependent processes); Buffer evolution over long time. 488 refs.

  4. SKI SITE-94. Deep Repository Performance Assessment Project Volume I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The function of SITE-94 is to provide the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) with the capacity and supporting knowledge needed for reviewing the Swedish nuclear industry's R and D programs and for reviewing license applications, as stipulated in Swedish legislation. The report is structured as a Performance Assessment exercise needed for input to decisions regarding repository safety, but the SITE-94 is not a safety assessment or a model for future assessments to be undertaken by the prospective licensee. The specific project objectives of SITE-94 comprise site evaluation, performance assessment methodology, canister integrity and radionuclide release and transport calculations. The report gives a detailed description of the many inter-related studies undertaken as part of the research project. As a general conclusion it is noted that the SITE-94 project has significantly advanced SKI's capability of reviewing performance assessments and has led to the development of a tool-kit for carrying out assessment calculations, both in terms of numerical and scoping analyses. The study has highlighted a number of key issues for safety assessment (and consequently for disposal system design): Canister performance; Derived parameters of geosphere retention properties; Spatial variability of groundwater flow and geochemistry of migration paths; Time dependency (more emphasis on transient, time-dependent processes); Buffer evolution over long time. 488 refs

  5. The SKI SITE-94 project approach to analyzing confidence in site-specific data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dverstorp, B.; Andersson, J.

    1995-01-01

    The ongoing SKI SITE-94 project is a fully integrated performance assessment based on a hypothetical repository at 500 m depth in crystalline rock. One main objective of the project is to develop a methodology for incorporating data from a site characterization into the performance assessment. The hypothetical repository is located at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory at Aspo in south-eastern Sweden. The site evaluation in SITE-94 uses data from the pre-excavation phase that comprised measurements performed on the ground and in boreholes, including cross-hole hydraulic and tracer experiments. Uncertainties related to measurement technique, equipment and methods for interpretation were evaluated through a critical review of geohydraulic measurement methods and a complete re-evaluation of the hydraulic packer tests using the generalised radial flow (GRF) theory. Groundwater chemistry samples were analyzed for representativeness and sampling errors. A wide range of site models within geology, hydrogeology, geochemistry and rock mechanics has been developed and tested with the site characterization data. (authors). 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. The SKI SITE-94 Project: An International Peer Review Carried out by an OECD/NEA Team of Experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Budhi; Devillers, C.; Smith, Paul; Laliuex, P.; Pescatore, C.

    1997-10-01

    The recently completed SITE-94 project is an SKI effort directed at building competence and capacity in the assessment of safety of a spent-fuel geologic repository. Emphasis is given to the assimilation of site-specific data, with its associated uncertainties, into the performance assessment. Specific attention is also given to improving the understanding of mechanisms that might compromise canister integrity. This report represents the common views of an International Review Team (IRT) established by the NEA Secretariat, at the request of SKI, to perform a peer review of SITE-94. The basis for the report is the understanding of SITE-94 and its background obtained by IRT in the course of several months of study of SITE-94 documentation, internal discussions and a meeting with SKI in Stockholm. The report is limited to the main findings of IRT. The intended audience of the report is the staff of SKI and, accordingly, the style of the report is suited to a technical audience familiar with the contents of the SITE-94 project

  7. A biosphere model for use in the SKI Project SITE-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrdahl, R.A.G.

    1995-04-01

    A simple biosphere model has been designed for use in the SKI Project SITE-94 related to a hypothetical repository for spent nuclear fuel on the island of Aespoe near Oskarshamn in southern Sweden. The model provides results in terms of radiation dose per Bq/y, unless otherwise indicated, and results will thus have to be scaled with actual flux of radionuclides per year entering the primary biosphere recipients. The model does not include radioactive decay as there is assumed no delay in the model system, except for where explicitly mentioned. Specifically, no radioactive transitions resulting in daughter nuclides are considered. Calculated yearly individual and population committed (50 years) radiation doses to man are expressed in terms of Sv/y and radiation dose rates to fish are expressed as mSv/h. Calculated radiation doses resulting from the present biosphere model are hypothetical, and should under no circumstances be considered as real. Neither should they be used as quantitative information for decision purposes. The biosphere model is of a rough and primitive character and its precision, relative to the real biosphere in the surroundings of Aespoe is envisaged to be several orders of magnitude

  8. SITE-94, Biosphere Model for SKI Project on the island of Aspro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrdahl, Runo Alfons Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: A simple biosphere model has been designed for use in the SKI project related to a hypothetical repository for spent nuclear fuel on the island of Aspro near Oskarshamn in Southern Sweden. Project SITE-94 studies the safety aspects of this hypothetical repository. Any weakness in repository performance will reveal itself as a leakage of radionuclides out of the repository, and finally into the biosphere where man and nature are at risk of being exposed. Thus, as the final link in estimating such leakage, a biosphere model will provide an estimate of resulting radiation impact on man and nature. 2 - Methods: The present biosphere model involves a stationary scenario (Reference Scenario) and a climate evolution and geological scenario (Central Scenario). The stationary and time evolution scenarios contain as primary recipients a well and the bay of Borholm, i.e., the waters surrounding the island of Aspo. The time evolution scenario additionally incorporates as primary recipients a waste sample from intrusion and, in a remote future time, the Baltic Sea. Transport of radionuclides within the model system is assumed to be essentially immediate, except for in sediment subject to land rise. Except for this pathway, radioactive decay is therefore not included at all in the model. Land rise sediment is modeled to be subject to radioactive decay from the time the sediment no longer constitutes sea bottom until the desired time point of the model. Correction for radioactive decay is thus generally supposed to be made outside the biosphere model. Unless otherwise indicated, yearly individual and population committed (50 years) radiation doses to man are considered, and all scenarios involve a constant flux of 1 Bq/y of each radionuclide considered into the respective primary recipient. Nominal values of radionuclide flux will finally be multiplied with the radiation dose per one Bq per year resulting from the model in order to obtain

  9. Quantification of glacial effects on radionuclide transport: transport sensitivity studies for SKI's SITE-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King-Clayton, L.M.; Smith, P.A.; Dverstorp, B.

    1996-01-01

    Site-scale radionuclide transport calculations have been carried out for a hypothetical deep repository at the Aespoe site, southeast Sweden. The work complements and utilizes results from regional-scale, variable density flow modelling in which the groundwater flow field is time-dependent, reflecting the impact of climate evolution over the next 130,000 years at the site. The climate evolution and its impacts are qualitatively described in the Central Climate Change Scenario, which specifies a hypothetical evolution of the local climate over the period modelled, including the periodic development of permafrost conditions and ice sheet advance and retreat. The work summarised here is complementary to the transport calculations undertaken as part of the SKI SITE-94 performance assessment project, with the specific objective of quantifying the impact of transient changes in flow direction and magnitude. The spatial evolution of 79 Se and 129 I contaminant plumes, released from the hypothetical repository under the influence of time-dependent (step-wise varying) head boundary conditions associated with ice sheet and permafrost development, is compared with that of a steady-state Base Case based on continuing present-day conditions. The results indicate that temporal changes in flow conditions due to future climate changes can have a significant effect on the transport of radionuclides from a source at depth. A case with high sub-ice sheet recharge and taliks (ie. gaps in the permafrost), creating groundwater fluxes up to an order of magnitude greater than the Base Case, has the greatest impact on radionuclide flux out of the geosphere, with a maximum 79 Se flux of over three orders of magnitude greater than that of the Base Case. The maximum 129 I flux is nearer one order of magnitude greater than the Base Case. In all cases modelled with time dependent boundary conditions, the greatest radionuclide fluxes occur towards the end of the main glacial periods (periods

  10. Iterative performance assessments as a regulatory tool for evaluating repository safety: How experiences from SKI Project-90 were used in formulating the new performance assessment project SITE-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, regulatory research program has to prepare for the process of licensing a repository for spent nuclear fuel, by building up the necessary knowledge and review capacity. SKIs main strategy for meeting this demand is to develop an independent performance assessment capability. SKIs first own performance assessment project, Project-90, was completed in 1991 and is now followed by a new project, SITE-94. SITE-94 is based on conclusions reached within Project-90. An independent review of Project-90, carried out by a NEA team of experts, has also contributed to the formation of the project. Another important reason for the project is that the implementing organization in Sweden, SKB, has proposed to submit an application to start detailed investigation of a repository candidate site around 1997. SITE-94 is a performance assessment of a hypothetical repository at a real site. The main objective of the project is to determine how site specific data should be assimilated into the performance assessment process, and to evaluate how uncertainties inherent in site characterization will influence performance assessment results. This will be addressed by exploring multiple interpretations, conceptual models, and parameters consistent with the site data. The site evaluation will strive for consistency between geological, hydrological, rock mechanical, and geochemical descriptions. Other important elements of SITE-94 are the development of a practical and defensible methodology for defining, constructing and analyzing scenarios, the development of approaches for treatment of uncertainties, evaluation of canister integrity, and the development and application of an appropriate quality assurance plan for performance assessments

  11. SITE-94. Radionuclide solubilities for SITE-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.; Apted, M. [QuantiSci, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-01

    In this report, solubility constraints are evaluated on radioelement source-term concentrations supporting the SITE-94 performance assessment. Solubility models are based on heterogeneous-equilibrium, mass- and charge-balance constraints incorporated into the EQ3/6 geochemical software package, which is used to calculate the aqueous speciation behavior and solubilities of U, Th, Pu, Np, Am, Ni, Ra, Se, Sn, Sr, Tc and Zr in site groundwaters and near-field solutions. The chemical evolution of the near field is approximated using EQ3/6 in terms of limiting conditions at equilibrium, or steady state, in three closed systems representing fully saturated bentonite, Fe{sup o} corrosion products of the canister, and spent fuel. The calculations consider both low-temperature (15 deg C) and high-temperature (80 deg C) conditions in the near field, and the existence of either reducing or strongly oxidizing conditions in each of the bentonite, canister, and spent-fuel barriers. Heterogeneities in site characteristics are evaluated through consideration of a range of initial groundwaters and their interactions with engineered barriers. Aqueous speciation models for many radioelements are constrained by thermodynamic data that are estimated with varying degrees of accuracy. An important question, however, is how accurate do these models need to be for purposes of estimating source-term concentrations? For example, it is unrealistic to expect a high degree of accuracy in speciation models if such models predict solubilities that are below the analytical detection limit for a given radioelement. From a practical standpoint, such models are irrelevant if calculated solubilities cannot be tested by direct comparison to experimental data. In the absence of models that are both accurate and relevant for conditions of interest, the detection limit could define a pragmatic upper limit on radioelement solubility 56 refs, 25 tabs, 10 figs

  12. SITE-94. Radionuclide solubilities for SITE-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, R.; Apted, M.

    1996-12-01

    In this report, solubility constraints are evaluated on radioelement source-term concentrations supporting the SITE-94 performance assessment. Solubility models are based on heterogeneous-equilibrium, mass- and charge-balance constraints incorporated into the EQ3/6 geochemical software package, which is used to calculate the aqueous speciation behavior and solubilities of U, Th, Pu, Np, Am, Ni, Ra, Se, Sn, Sr, Tc and Zr in site groundwaters and near-field solutions. The chemical evolution of the near field is approximated using EQ3/6 in terms of limiting conditions at equilibrium, or steady state, in three closed systems representing fully saturated bentonite, Fe o corrosion products of the canister, and spent fuel. The calculations consider both low-temperature (15 deg C) and high-temperature (80 deg C) conditions in the near field, and the existence of either reducing or strongly oxidizing conditions in each of the bentonite, canister, and spent-fuel barriers. Heterogeneities in site characteristics are evaluated through consideration of a range of initial groundwaters and their interactions with engineered barriers. Aqueous speciation models for many radioelements are constrained by thermodynamic data that are estimated with varying degrees of accuracy. An important question, however, is how accurate do these models need to be for purposes of estimating source-term concentrations? For example, it is unrealistic to expect a high degree of accuracy in speciation models if such models predict solubilities that are below the analytical detection limit for a given radioelement. From a practical standpoint, such models are irrelevant if calculated solubilities cannot be tested by direct comparison to experimental data. In the absence of models that are both accurate and relevant for conditions of interest, the detection limit could define a pragmatic upper limit on radioelement solubility

  13. SITE-94. Development of a geological and a structural model of Aespoe, southeastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiren, S.A.; Beckholmen, M.; Askling, P.; Voss, C.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the present study is to construct three-dimensional geological and structural models to be used within the SKI SITE-94 project as a base for modelling hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and rock mechanical bedrock conditions, mass transport and layout of a hypothetical repository. The basic input data in the SITE-94 geological and structural models are restricted to geological and structural readings and geophysical measurements made prior to building the Hard Rock Laboratory. 114 refs, 82 figs, 28 tabs

  14. SITE-94. Scenario development FEP audit list preparation: methodology and presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenhouse, M.; Chapman, N.; Sumerling, T.

    1993-04-01

    This report concerns a study which is part of the SKI performance assessment project SITE-94. SITE-94 is a performance assessment of a hypothetical repository at a real site. The main objective of the project is to determine how site specific data should be assimilated into the performance assessment process and to evaluate how uncertainties inherent in site characterization will influence performance assessment results. Other important elements of SITE-94 are the development of a practical and defensible methodology for defining, constructing and analyzing scenarios, the development of approaches for treatment of uncertainties , evaluation of canister integrity, and the development and application of an appropriate quality assurance plan for performance assessments

  15. A Biosphere model for use in SITE-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrdahl, R.

    1996-08-01

    A simple biosphere model has been designed for use in the SKI Project SITE-94 related to a hypothetical repository for spent nuclear fuel on the island of Aespoe. The model provides results in terms of radiation dose per 1 Bq/year, unless otherwise indicated, and results will thus have to be scaled with actual flux of radionuclides per year entering the primary biosphere recipients. The model does not include radioactive decay as there is assumed no delay in the model system, except for where explicitly mentioned. Specifically, no radioactive transitions resulting in daughter nuclides are considered. Calculated yearly individual and population committed (50 years) radiation doses to man are expressed as mSv/h, under the assumption of a flux of one Bq/year into the primary biosphere recipient. Calculated radiation doses resulting from the present biosphere model are hypothetical, and should under no circumstances be considered as real. Neither should they be used as quantitative information for decision purposes. The biosphere model is of a rough and primitive character and its precision, relative to the real biosphere in the surroundings of Aespoe is envisaged to be several orders of magnitude. 8 refs

  16. SITE-94. Mineralogy of the Aespoe site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Karin

    1996-12-01

    The water composition has several impacts on the repository. It will influence the behaviour of the engineered materials (e.g. corrosion). It may also determine the possible solubility and speciation of released radionuclides. It also acts as a transport medium for the released elements. The groundwater composition and the potential development of the composition due to the presence of the repository as well as due to external variations is thus an important issue in a safety analysis. The development of the groundwater composition is strongly dependent on reactions with the minerals present in water bearing fractures. Here equilibrium chemistry may be of importance, but also reaction kinetics is important to the long-term behaviour. Within the SITE-94 project, a safety analysis is performed for the conditions at the Aespoe site. The mineralogy of the area has been evaluated from drill cores at various places at the site. In this report a recommendation for selection of mineralogy to be used in geochemical modelling of the repository is given. Calcite and iron containing minerals dominate the fracture filling mineralogy at the Aespoe site. Some typical fracture filling mineralogies may be identified in the fractures: epidote, chlorite, calcite, hematite, some illite/smectite + quartz, fluorite, pyrite and goethite. In addition to these a number of minor minerals are found in the fractures. Uncertainties in the fracture filling data may be due to problems when taking out the drill cores. Drilling water may remove important clay minerals and sealed fractures may be reopened mechanically and treated as water conducting fractures. The problem of determining the variability of the mineralogy along the flow paths also remains. This problem will never be solved when the investigation is performed by drilling investigation holes

  17. Feedback from performance assessment to site characterisation. The SITE-94 example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dverstorp, B.; Geier, J.

    1999-01-01

    Interaction and information exchange between site characterisation and performance assessment are key features of any successful radioactive waste management programme. Some examples are presented of the types of feedback that can be offered from performance assessment to site characterisation, based on SKI's most recent performance assessment project, SITE-94. SITE-94 in Sweden was an assessment of a hypothetical repository for spent nuclear fuel, based on real data gathered in the surface-based investigation of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory site. Examples of feedback are given concerning quality control of data and site investigation procedures, identification of key parameters for the performance assessment, use of models for planning and evaluation of a site investigation, data sampling strategies, and guidance on future priorities for further development of site investigation methods. Because site characterisation serves multiple purposes, including provision of data for repository design and construction, it must account for and compromise among requirements from several lines of analyses in the performance assessment. (author)

  18. Geoinformation for Informed Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents the latest research developments in geoinformation science, which includes all the sub-disciplines of the field, such as: geomatic engineering, GIS, remote sensing, digital photogrammetry, digital cartography, etc.......This book presents the latest research developments in geoinformation science, which includes all the sub-disciplines of the field, such as: geomatic engineering, GIS, remote sensing, digital photogrammetry, digital cartography, etc....

  19. Skiing trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Goeldner; Stacy Standley

    1980-01-01

    A brief historical overview of skiing is presented, followed by a review of factors such as energy, population trends, income, sex, occupation and attitudes which affect the future of skiing. A. C. Neilson's Sports Participation Surveys show that skiing is the second fastest growing sport in the country. Skiing Magazine's study indicates there are...

  20. Abstraction of information in repository performance assessments. Examples from the SKI project Site-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dverstorp, B.; Andersson, J.

    1995-01-01

    Performance Assessment of a nuclear waste repository implies an analysis of a complex system with many interacting processes. Even if some of these processes may be known to large detail, problems arise when combining all information, and means of abstracting information from complex detailed models into models that couple different processes are needed. Clearly, one of the major objectives of performance assessment, to calculate doses or other performance indicators, implies an enormous abstraction of information compared to all information that is used as input. Other problems are that the knowledge of different parts or processes is strongly variable and adjustments, interpretations, are needed when combining models from different disciplines. In addition, people as well as computers, even today, always have a limited capacity to process information and choices have to be made. However, because abstraction of information clearly is unavoidable in performance assessment the validity of choices made, always need to be scrutinized and judgements made need to be updated in an iterative process

  1. SITE-94. Site specific base data for the performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, J.; Tiren, S.; Dverstorp, B.; Glynn, P.

    1996-06-01

    This report documents the site specific base data that were available, and the utilization of these data within SITE-94. A brief summary is given of SKB's preliminary site investigations for the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), which were the main source of site-specific data for SITE-94, and an overview is given of the field methods and instrumentation for the preliminary investigations. A compilation is given of comments concerning the availability and quality of the data for Aespoe, and specific recommendations are given for future site investigations. It was found that the HRL pre-investigations produced a large quantity of data which were, for the most part, of sufficient quality to be valuable for a performance assessment. However, some problems were encountered regarding documentation, procedural consistency, positional information, and storage of the data from the measurements. 77 refs, 4 tabs

  2. SITE-94. User Guide for Crystal version 2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worgan, K.

    1995-12-01

    The CRYSTAL program is described in report SKI-R--95-55, and this report describes how to install and run the code on a UNIX computer, preparation of data input files and format of output result files. Examples are given for a selection of verification problems. 1 ref

  3. Ski club

    CERN Multimedia

    Ski club

    2013-01-01

    For it 50 anniversary the ski club CERN organise a conference the Wednesday 23th of January from 7:00 pm to  8:30 pm in the council room at CERN. The subject of the conference will be : « Approche scientifique du ski : de la perception à l’action… », by Nicolas Coulmy, responsible of the technical and scientific department of the French Federation of Ski.

  4. Ski club

    CERN Multimedia

    Ski club

    2013-01-01

    Gym Comme chaque année, la première activité à reprendre du service au SKI Club du CERN est la gymnastique ; les cours reprendront le mardi 17 septembre prochain. Si vous voulez améliorer votre condition physique en vue de la prochaine saison de ski (alpin ou de fond, ou snowboard), venez participer à nos cours au CO La Golette à Meyrin. Vous pouvez déjà vous inscrire en vous rendant sur le site du Ski club : http://cern.ch/club-ski/.

  5. Ski Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Ski Club

    2012-01-01

    René Oberli, un très bon ami et un des membres importants des débuts du Ski Club CERN est décédé à Noël 2011. Membre co-fondateur du Ski Club CERN en 1963, René Oberli a été 13 ans au comité dont 11 ans en tant que président. Grace à son action, le Ski Club a pris de l’ampleur, et était devenu un club actif et familial, proposant des cours de ski pour enfants et adultes, des week-ends de ski, des randonnées pédestres en été. René était aussi un moniteur de ski très apprécié et a enseigné le ski pendant de longues années. Nous nous souviendrons de sa grande compétence, de sa gentillesse, de sa bonne humeur et de son enthousiasme.  

  6. Ski Club

    CERN Document Server

    Ski Club

    2012-01-01

    The Ski Club CERN invites you to a Public Information Meeting Thursday, 8th November at 6:30 pm Filtration Plant (222/R–001) for the presentation of its activities during the season 2012/2013. After the presentation, the people responsible for the different sections will be available to answer your questions and to provide you with detailed information about our activities. Come and learn more about our club over a drink! For more information on our activities please have look at our web site: http://club-ski.web.cern.ch/club-ski/

  7. Ski Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Ski Club

    2011-01-01

    The Ski Club CERN invites you to a Public Information Meeting Thursday, 3rd November at 6:30 pm Council Chamber (503/1–001) for the presentation of its activities during the season 2011/2012. After the presentation, the people responsible for the different sections will be available to answer your questions and to provide you with detailed information about our activities. Come and learn more about our club over a drink! For more information on our activities please have look at our web site: http://club-ski.web.cern.ch/club-ski/

  8. Ski Club

    CERN Document Server

    Ski Club

    2013-01-01

    The registration for the ski season 2013-2014 is open. The standard permanences for the inscriptions will start: Thursday, November 14th at 6 pm CERN, Restaurant 2 (Bldg 504) (1st floor) Old members can collect their Carte neige from the 28th of november. New members and members who did not have a carte neige before must produce a medical certificate certifying that there are no medical reasons for which they should not be allowed to ski (french (legally correct) formulation : certificat médical de "non-contre indication à la pratique du ski"). You can obtain one from your family doctor.

  9. SPACIAL GEOINFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRICHEK Yu. O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Providing reliable and relevant data for decision-making is the foundation for efficient and effective state policy on land management and real estate in general. In Ukraine and balance-owners of real estate, utilities, roads and communications have not always have information about their facilities with reference to existing geodetic network and do not commit action for making such information to the relevant inventories. On a separate note that in land and urban cadaster almost no information on most utilities, roads and communications and their forming mode security zone. Lack of information and communication engineering services prevents efficient work planning and territorial development of Ukraine. Analysis of existing inventories imperfect approach also shows the formation of objects of land relations and the information about actual land use (information about the land on which the immovable property is paid, usually initiated by the owner of the property, not the owner of the land initiative, which in turn is the main reason for the shortfall payment for the land the different levels. In the article the analysis of modern municipal geoinformation support of local communities in Ukraine, proposed primary ways to build on existing technical materials and a new database created with modern technology. These GIS even more relevant in terms of administrative and territorial reform in Ukraine and are suitable for use in combined local communities.

  10. Ski club

    CERN Multimedia

    Ski club

    2015-01-01

    The ski season 2015-2016 is approaching! An information evening will take place: Thursday, November 5th, at 6.30 pm in the Salle de Pas Perdus (next to the Council Chamber) Online registration to the Ski Club activities will open the same evening at http://cern.ch/club-ski. Regular permanences will take place every Thursday starting with November 12th, at 6 pm in the 1st floor of Bld. 504 (Restaurant 2). All members can collect their Carte Neige from the 26th of November. New members and members who did not have a Carte Neige before must provide when signing up a medical certificate certifying that there are no medical restrictions for practicing ski activities (French legally correct formulation: certificat médical de "non-contre indication à la pratique du ski"). You can obtain one from your family doctor: certificates in English, French, Italian, German, Spanish are accepted. Please note that you are the only responsible for the validity of your medical certificate ...

  11. Skiing research in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K

    1981-01-01

    Skiing and skiing techniques were introduced by the Austrians to Japanese soldiers in 1911. After that, skiing spread beyond the original purpose and recently produced the ski sciences. From a sports biomechanical aspect, the development of the study of ski jumping, alpine skiing, and the basic movement in skiing is introduced in this paper. One of the characteristic points of these studies in Japan was that the ski sciences were supported not only by biomechanists and physiologists, but also basically by physicists and engineers. The fundamental research and studies from divergent fields are supporting each other and being integrated into ski science.

  12. Physics and Skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinson, Derek B.

    1992-01-01

    Presents examples of physics as applied to the sport of skiing. Examples examine the physics of sliding, unweighting, ski turning, wind resistance, the parabolic and circular motion of aerial skiers, and the aerial maneuvers of ski jumpers. (MDH)

  13. Requirements elicitation for geo-information solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robbi Sluter, Claudia; van Elzakker, Corné P.J.M.; Ivanova, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Geo-information solutions can achieve a higher level of quality if they are developed in accordance with a user-centred design that requires definition of the user requirements in the first step of solution construction. We treat a geo-information solution as a system designed to support human-based

  14. Systems Analysis, Scenario Construction and Consequence Analysis Definition for SITE-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, N A; Robinson, P [Intera Information Technologies Ltd (United Kingdom); Andersson, Johan; Wingefors, S [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Skagius, K; Wiborgh, M [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Wene, C O [Chalmers Inst. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1995-06-01

    SITE-94 is a performance assessment of a hypothetical repository at a real site. The main objective of the project is to determine how site specific data should be assimilated into the performance assessment process and to evaluate how uncertainties inherent in site characterization will influence performance assessment results. This report uses scenario definition work as a vehicle to introduce the systems approach to performance assessment which has been developed and tested in SITE-94 and which constitutes one of the main advances made during the project. The results of the application of the methodology are presented separately, in the SITE-94 Summary Report. 40 refs, 21 figs, 12 tabs.

  15. Systems Analysis, Scenario Construction and Consequence Analysis Definition for SITE-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.; Robinson, P.; Andersson, Johan; Wingefors, S.; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M.; Wene, C.O.

    1995-06-01

    SITE-94 is a performance assessment of a hypothetical repository at a real site. The main objective of the project is to determine how site specific data should be assimilated into the performance assessment process and to evaluate how uncertainties inherent in site characterization will influence performance assessment results. This report uses scenario definition work as a vehicle to introduce the systems approach to performance assessment which has been developed and tested in SITE-94 and which constitutes one of the main advances made during the project. The results of the application of the methodology are presented separately, in the SITE-94 Summary Report. 40 refs, 21 figs, 12 tabs

  16. Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing and Geoinformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, M. A.; Patmio, E. N.

    2012-07-01

    Earth and its environment are studied by different scientific disciplines as geosciences, science of engineering, social sciences, geography, etc. The study of the above, beyond pure scientific interest, is useful for the practical needs of man. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS) is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. Therefore, according to this definition, photogrammetry and remote sensing can support studies of the above disciplines for acquisition of geoinformation. This paper concerns basic concepts of geosciences (geomorphology, geology, hydrology etc), and the fundamentals of photogrammetry-remote sensing, in order to aid the understanding of the relationship between photogrammetry-remote sensing and geoinformation and also structure curriculum in a brief, concise and coherent way. This curriculum can represent an appropriate research and educational outline and help to disseminate knowledge in various directions and levels. It resulted from our research and educational experience in graduate and post-graduate level (post-graduate studies relative to the protection of environment and protection of monuments and historical centers) in the Lab. of Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering Faculty of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

  17. Characterisation of alpine skis

    OpenAIRE

    Wikerman, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Skiing is a fast and competitive sport where skiers must push their performance limit to win medals, the di↵erence can be within hundreds of a second. Therefore, technical improvements are essential for assisting in the skier’s improvement. This thesis project is a joint project between KTH and the Swedish Ski Association and Swedish Ski Team with the purpose of obtaining a better understanding of the structural properties of alpine skis, aiming to improve the individual selection process of ...

  18. Study on geo-information modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Dana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2006), s. 1108-1113 ISSN 1109-2777 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : control GIS * geo-information modelling * uncertainty * spatial temporal approach Web Services Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  19. Model driven geo-information systems development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Guarin, J.M.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Williams, A.D.

    Continuous change of user requirements has become a constant for geo-information systems. Designing systems that can adapt to such changes requires an appropriate design methodology that supports abstraction, modularity and other mechanisms to capture the essence of the system and help controlling

  20. Towards sustainable and clean 3D Geoinformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, J.E.; Ledoux, H.; Zlatanova, S.; Biljecki, F.; Kolbe, T.H.; Bill, R.; Donaubauer, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarises the on going research activities of the 3D Geoinformation Group at the Delft University of Technology. The main challenge underpinning the research of this group is providing clean and appropriate 3D data about our environment in order to serve a wide variety of applications.

  1. Variable-scale Geo-information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of geo-information is changing by the advent of new mobile devices, such as tablet-pc's that harness a lot of computing power. This type of information is more and more applied in mainstream digital consumer products, in a net-centric environment (i.e. dissemination takes place via the

  2. Downhill Skiing Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, D H

    1981-01-01

    In brief: Lower extremity injuries are common in downhill skiing. Fifty-three percent of the skiing injuries in one study, and 81% in another, were below the knee. Twelve case reports are presented and their treatment is discussed. The author suggests that skiers undertake a physical fitness program to increase stamina and elasticity of muscles and ligaments.

  3. Geoinformation perspectives on innovation and economic growth

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available driving patterns, monitored through a tracking device placed in the insured person’s vehicle. circle6 Real estate: Real estate agencies have been pioneers of incorporating multimedia into a GIS, to link photographs and video footage of properties... geobrowsers. With markup languages such as the Keyhole Markup Language (KML), geobrowsers can be customised to drape one’s geoinformation over the virtual globe, attach one’s content (eg: photographs, video or sound recordings) to locations in the virtual...

  4. SITE-94. The SKN conceptual model of Aespoe. Based on pre-investigations 1986-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundquist, U.; Torssander, P.

    1996-12-01

    The present report describes the SKN (National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel) conceptual model, which is a combined structural, hydrogeological and geochemical model. The development of the model has been carried out by stages with commencement in 1990. This report summarizes the main parts of the work performed. Initially, the development of the model was part of the program of SKN regarding review of SKB R and D work at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. At a later stage, the SKN model was further developed and integrated into SITE-94. This development comprised evaluation of additional hydrogeological and geochemical data in order to strengthen the model. This report summarizes two earlier reports by SKN written in Swedish. Furthermore, a comprehensive description of the hydrogeological and geochemical evaluation is presented. 58 refs

  5. SITE-94. The SKN conceptual model of Aespoe. Based on pre-investigations 1986-1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundquist, U.; Torssander, P. [Bergab, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The present report describes the SKN (National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel) conceptual model, which is a combined structural, hydrogeological and geochemical model. The development of the model has been carried out by stages with commencement in 1990. This report summarizes the main parts of the work performed. Initially, the development of the model was part of the program of SKN regarding review of SKB R and D work at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. At a later stage, the SKN model was further developed and integrated into SITE-94. This development comprised evaluation of additional hydrogeological and geochemical data in order to strengthen the model. This report summarizes two earlier reports by SKN written in Swedish. Furthermore, a comprehensive description of the hydrogeological and geochemical evaluation is presented. 58 refs.

  6. The SKI communication programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlberg, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    Sweden has, since many years, an ongoing debate on nuclear power in general and nuclear safety and nuclear waste in particular. SKI is not the only part who wants to communicate about these subjects. The nuclear power plants, other authorities, the anti-nuclear groups and the politicians are other parts on the communication scene. The role of SKI is to provide the Swedish public with objective and prompt information based on facts. (author)

  7. Telemark skiing injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggy, M L

    1996-09-01

    Telemark skiing has become increasingly popular over the past 5 years. Telemark skiing poses unique risks when compared to alpine skiing, because of different equipment, technique, and varied skiing environments. A retrospective survey of telemark skiers was conducted in Western Washington in 1994 to obtain skier information on ski habits, demographics, frequency and types of injury, and equipment used at time of injury. During the 5 month survey period, 118 (63%) of 187 surveys distributed at 7 sites were returned. The overall injury rate was comparable to alpine skiing injury rates at 10.7/1000 skier days. Less experienced skiers and women had higher injury rates, 20/1000 and 13.1/1000 skier days, respectively. The predominant injury sites were knee (41%), hip (13%), and thumb (8%). The knee injuries sustained by telemark skiers appear to be less severe than alpine skiers, with less duration of disability and lower surgical rates. An association was found between the use of plastic reinforced boots and significant ligamentous knee injuries when compared to skiers with leather boots (p < 0.01, chi 2 = 5.43).

  8. Geoinformation dataware for radiological monitoring of territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatserkovnyi, V. I.; Kozachenko, E. V.; Shishenko, O. I.

    2015-10-01

    The paper provides a study, during which the fully accessible and open information from the literature and thematic maps is processed and systemized, reflecting the state of the problem of the radiological monitoring of the territories using the geoinformation technology. The stated ArcGIS technologies is used in the Web ecological Chernihiv region atlas for the map binding of sites and zones of the radioactive and chemical contamination of the territories as well as filling the atlas data with ecological and economical resources of the region.

  9. Ski jumping takeoff in a wind tunnel with skis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmavirta, Mikko; Kivekäs, Juha; Komi, Paavo

    2011-11-01

    The effect of skis on the force-time characteristics of the simulated ski jumping takeoff was examined in a wind tunnel. Takeoff forces were recorded with a force plate installed under the tunnel floor. Signals from the front and rear parts of the force plate were collected separately to examine the anteroposterior balance of the jumpers during the takeoff. Two ski jumpers performed simulated takeoffs, first without skis in nonwind conditions and in various wind conditions. Thereafter, the same experiments were repeated with skis. The jumpers were able to perform very natural takeoff actions (similar to the actual takeoff) with skis in wind tunnel. According to the subjective feeling of the jumpers, the simulated ski jumping takeoff with skis was even easier to perform than the earlier trials without skis. Skis did not much influence the force levels produced during the takeoff but they still changed the force distribution under the feet. Contribution of the forces produced under the rear part of the feet was emphasized probably because the strong dorsiflexion is needed for lifting the skis to the proper flight position. The results presented in this experiment emphasize that research on ski jumping takeoff can be advanced by using wind tunnels.

  10. PHOTOGRAMMETRY – REMOTE SENSING AND GEOINFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lazaridou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Earth and its environment are studied by different scientific disciplines as geosciences, science of engineering, social sciences, geography, etc. The study of the above, beyond pure scientific interest, is useful for the practical needs of man. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. Therefore, according to this definition, photogrammetry and remote sensing can support studies of the above disciplines for acquisition of geoinformation. This paper concerns basic concepts of geosciences (geomorphology, geology, hydrology etc, and the fundamentals of photogrammetry-remote sensing, in order to aid the understanding of the relationship between photogrammetry-remote sensing and geoinformation and also structure curriculum in a brief, concise and coherent way. This curriculum can represent an appropriate research and educational outline and help to disseminate knowledge in various directions and levels. It resulted from our research and educational experience in graduate and post-graduate level (post-graduate studies relative to the protection of environment and protection of monuments and historical centers in the Lab. of Photogrammetry – Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering Faculty of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

  11. SKI's research strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    SKI's research is a prerequisite for SKI's ability to fulfil its assignment. Research to support supervision is focused today on a number of strategically important areas such as reactor technology, material and fuel questions, human factors, waste and non-proliferation (safeguards). SKI's intelligence analysis shows that this focus should be maintained over the next few years. Some reallocation of priorities between research areas may be necessary due to changes in the nuclear area. For this research, SKI contracts universities as well as consulting companies. The resources that are of importance for nuclear research are concentrated to a few organisations in Sweden. But the national research resources alone do not cover the existing needs. One reason is that the previously highly competent and well funded Swedish expert organisations within the nuclear power utilities have gradually been phased out or transformed into consulting firms. Changes have also taken place at the Swedish vendor of boiling-water plants, now Westinghouse Atom, and the activities have been down sized considerably in Sweden. There has been a similar trend in other countries. Moreover, countries which previously conducted expensive experiments have themselves increasingly sought international support as their research resources have dwindled. As a result, numerous international projects have or are planned to be started. SKI notes that Swedish nuclear activities are also becoming increasingly dependent on international collaboration. SKI further notes that in order to fulfil its assignment, the Inspectorate needs not only financial resources but also competent personnel. This enables targeted support to be maintained to strategic national infrastructure and to international cooperation including internationally financed projects. With this is meant above all experimental research where small countries such as Sweden can join forces with other countries on to important research information at

  12. SITE-94. The CRYSTAL Geosphere Transport Model: Technical documentation version 2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worgan, K.; Robinson, P.

    1995-12-01

    CRYSTAL, a one-dimensional contaminant transport model of a densely fissured geosphere, was originally developed for the SKI Project-90 performance assessment program. It has since been extended to include matrix blocks of alternative basic geometries. CRYSTAL predicts the transport of arbitrary-length decay chains by advection, diffusion and surface sorption in the fissures and diffusion into the rock matrix blocks. The model equations are solved in Laplace transform space, and inverted numerically to the time domain. This approach avoids time-stepping and consequently is numerically very efficient. The source term for crystal may be supplied internally using either simple leaching or band release submodels or by input of a general time-series output from a near-field model. The time series input is interfaced with the geosphere model using the method of convolution. The response of the geosphere to delta-function inputs from each nuclide is combined with the time series outputs from the near-field, to obtain the nuclide flux emerging from the far-field. 14 refs

  13. SITE-94. CAMEO: A model of mass-transport limited general corrosion of copper canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worgan, K.J.; Apted, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    This report describes the technical basis for the CAMEO code, which models the general, uniform corrosion of a copper canister either by transport of corrodants to the canister, or by transport of corrosion products away from the canister. According to the current Swedish concept for final disposal of spent nuclear fuels, extremely long containment times are achieved by thick (60-100 mm) copper canisters. Each canister is surrounded by a compacted bentonite buffer, located in a saturated, crystalline rock at a depth of around 500 m below ground level. Three diffusive transport-limited cases are identified for general, uniform corrosion of copper: General corrosion rate-limited by diffusive mass-transport of sulphide to the canister surface under reducing conditions; General corrosion rate-limited by diffusive mass-transport of oxygen to the canister surface under mildly oxidizing conditions; General corrosion rate-limited by diffusive mass-transport of copper chloride away from the canister surface under highly oxidizing conditions. The CAMEO code includes general corrosion models for each of the above three processes. CAMEO is based on the well-tested CALIBRE code previously developed as a finite-difference, mass-transfer analysis code for the SKI to evaluate long-term radionuclide release and transport in the near-field. A series of scoping calculations for the general, uniform corrosion of a reference copper canister are presented

  14. Semenic Mountains’ alpine skiing area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru BANIAȘ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents, after a short history of alpine skiing which describes apparition, necessity, utility and universality of skiing during time, a comparative study referring to the alpine skiing domain in the Semenic Mountains area. In the paper are also presented general notions about alpine skiing methodology together with an ample description of the plateau area form Semenic Mountains, describing localization and touristic potential. Based on the SWOT analysis made for each slope, was realized a complex analysis of the entire skiing domain, an analysis which includes technical, financial, climatic and environmental aspects, along with an analysis of the marketing policy applied for the specific zone.

  15. SkiROS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovida, Francesco; Schou, Casper; Andersen, Rasmus Skovgaard

    During the last decades, the methods for intuitive task level programming of robots have become a fundamental point of interest for industrial application. The paper in hand presents SkiROS (Skill-based Robot Operating System) a novel software architecture based on the skills paradigm. The skill ...... of a flexible, highly modular system for the development of cognitive robot tasks....

  16. The impact of spatial variability of hydrogeological parameters - Monte Carlo calculations using SITE-94 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, A.; Broed, R.

    2002-03-01

    In this report, several issues related to the probabilistic methodology for performance assessments of repositories for high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel are addressed. Random Monte Carlo sampling is used to make uncertainty analyses for the migration of four nuclides and a decay chain in the geosphere. The nuclides studied are cesium, chlorine, iodine and carbon, and radium from a decay chain. A procedure is developed to take advantage of the information contained in the hydrogeological data obtained from a three-dimensional discrete fracture model as the input data for one-dimensional transport models for use in Monte Carlo calculations. This procedure retains the original correlations between parameters representing different physical entities, namely, between the groundwater flow rate and the hydrodynamic dispersion in fractured rock, in contrast with the approach commonly used that assumes that all parameters supplied for the Monte Carlo calculations are independent of each other. A small program is developed to allow the above-mentioned procedure to be used if the available three-dimensional data are scarce for Monte Carlo calculations. The program allows random sampling of data from the 3-D data distribution in the hydrogeological calculations. The impact of correlations between the groundwater flow and the hydrodynamic dispersion on the uncertainty associated with the output distribution of the radionuclides' peak releases is studied. It is shown that for the SITE-94 data, this impact can be disregarded. A global sensitivity analysis is also performed on the peak releases of the radionuclides studied. The results of these sensitivity analyses, using several known statistical methods, show discrepancies that are attributed to the limitations of these methods. The reason for the difficulties is to be found in the complexity of the models needed for the predictions of radionuclide migration, models that deliver results covering variation of several

  17. Application of geo-information science methods in ecotourism exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Suocheng; Hou, Xiaoli

    2004-11-01

    Application of geo-information science methods in ecotourism development was discussed in the article. Since 1990s, geo-information science methods, which take the 3S (Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing) as core techniques, has played an important role in resources reconnaissance, data management, environment monitoring, and regional planning. Geo-information science methods can easily analyze and convert geographic spatial data. The application of 3S methods is helpful to sustainable development in tourism. Various assignments are involved in the development of ecotourism, such as reconnaissance of ecotourism resources, drawing of tourism maps, dealing with mass data, and also tourism information inquire, employee management, quality management of products. The utilization of geo-information methods in ecotourism can make the development more efficient by promoting the sustainable development of tourism and the protection of eco-environment.

  18. Study on the standard architecture for geoinformation common services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Z.; Zhang, L.; Wang, C.; Jiang, J.; Huang, W.

    2014-04-01

    The construction of platform for geoinformation common services was completed or on going in in most provinces and cities in these years in China, and the platforms plays an important role in the economic and social activities. Geoinfromation and geoinfromation based services are the key issues in the platform. The standards on geoinormation common services play as bridges among the users, systems and designers of the platform. The standard architecture for geoinformation common services is the guideline for designing and using the standard system in which the standards integrated to each other to promote the development, sharing and services of geoinformation resources. To establish the standard architecture for geoinformation common services is one of the tasks of "Study on important standards for geonformation common services and management of public facilities in city". The scope of the standard architecture is defined, such as data or information model, interoperability interface or service, information management. Some Research work on the status of international standards of geoinormation common services in organization and countries, like ISO/TC 211, OGC and other countries or unions like USA, EU, Japan have done. Some principles are set up to evaluate the standard, such as availability, suitability and extensible ability. Then the development requirement and practical situation are analyzed, and a framework of the standard architecture for geoinformation common services are proposed. Finally, a summary and prospects of the geoinformation standards are made.

  19. Myths concerning alpine skiing injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert J; Ettlinger, Carl F; Shealy, Jasper E

    2009-11-01

    There are many commonly discussed myths about ski safety that are propagated by industry, physicians, and skiers. Through a review of the literature concerning 12 such topics, this article demonstrates that the following are untrue: (1) Broken legs have been traded for blown-out knees. (2) If you know your DIN (a slang term for release indicator value), you can adjust your own bindings. (3) Toe and heel piece settings must be the same to function properly. (4) Formal ski instruction will make you safer. (5) Very short skis do not need release bindings. (6) Spending a lot of money on children's equipment is not worth the cost. (7) Children need plenty of room in ski boots for their growing feet. (8) If you think you are going to fall, just relax. (9) Exercise can prevent skiing injuries. (10) Lower release settings can reduce the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. (11) Buying new ski equipment is safer than renting. (12) Skiing is among the most dangerous of activities. It is important for the skiing public, physicians, and all those interested in improving skiing safety to verify the measures they advocate. The statements analyzed here are simply untrue and have the potential to cause harm if taken as fact by those exposed to these unsupported opinions.

  20. SITE-94. Discrete-feature modelling of the Aespoe site: 4. Source data and detailed analysis procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, J E [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Specific procedures and source data are described for the construction and application of discrete-feature hydrological models for the vicinity of Aespoe. Documentation is given for all major phases of the work, including: Statistical analyses to develop and validate discrete-fracture network models, Preliminary evaluation, construction, and calibration of the site-scale model based on the SITE-94 structural model of Aespoe, Simulation of multiple realizations of the integrated model, and variations, to predict groundwater flow, and Evaluation of near-field and far-field parameters for performance assessment calculations. Procedures are documented in terms of the computer batch files and executable scripts that were used to perform the main steps in these analyses, to provide for traceability of results that are used in the SITE-94 performance assessment calculations. 43 refs.

  1. SITE-94. Discrete-feature modelling of the Aespoe site: 4. Source data and detailed analysis procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, J.E.

    1996-12-01

    Specific procedures and source data are described for the construction and application of discrete-feature hydrological models for the vicinity of Aespoe. Documentation is given for all major phases of the work, including: Statistical analyses to develop and validate discrete-fracture network models, Preliminary evaluation, construction, and calibration of the site-scale model based on the SITE-94 structural model of Aespoe, Simulation of multiple realizations of the integrated model, and variations, to predict groundwater flow, and Evaluation of near-field and far-field parameters for performance assessment calculations. Procedures are documented in terms of the computer batch files and executable scripts that were used to perform the main steps in these analyses, to provide for traceability of results that are used in the SITE-94 performance assessment calculations. 43 refs

  2. SITE-94. Geochemical characterization of Simpevarp ground waters near the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glynn, P D; Voss, C I [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1999-09-01

    possible range of values that need to be considered. Tritium measurements confirm that the recent ground water type, originally identified on the basis of deuterium and chloride measurements, contains a significant proportion of recent, post-1950, water. Better tritium analyses, together with a greater number of carbon-13 analyses on dissolved inorganic carbon, would have helped interpret the carbon-14 analyses that were obtained primarily from relatively shallow ground waters (< 500 m depth). The SITE-94 Central Scenario climate model suggests that three glaciations may occur in the Northern Hemisphere during the next 120,000 years. If such glaciations do occur, possible climate-driven changes in ground-water geochemistry, particularly in redox conditions, could occur in the Fennoscandian shield. During two of these glaciations, 2- to3-km high ice sheets are predicted to form over the Fennoscandian shield, extending over Aespoe island and further south. Modeling of ground-water flow and transport suggests the possibility of deep and fast penetration of glacial melt waters during periods of glacial advance. The intruding melt waters have a median travel time of less than 100 years to 500 m depth. Ice composition data from the base of the Greenland ice sheet suggests that the melt waters will be highly enriched in dissolved oxygen, with concentrations at least 3 to 5 times higher than would be obtained at atmospheric equilibrium. The relative scarcity of fast-reacting pyrite in hydraulically conductive fractures, and the expected scarcity of organic carbon that would be exposed to the intruding melt waters, implies that Fe(II)-rich silicate minerals would be the primary reductants for the intruding dissolved oxygen. Current information suggests that the reaction rates would not be sufficiently fast to prevent penetration of oxygenated melt waters to a depth of at least 500 m. Despite clear evidence of past, deep, glacial meltwater penetration, convincing geochemical

  3. [Influence of ski boots on balance performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildner, E; Lembert, S; Raschner, C

    2010-03-01

    Modern ski carving technique demands that skiers have a strong sense of balance and edge their skis with precision and feeling. Stiff ski boots facilitate the transfer of power to the ski but increase the difficulty of balancing. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of ski boots on balance performance of alpine skiers. 76 experienced skiers (female 33/male 43) and 76 ski racers of the Skigymnasium Stams (female 31/male 45) were tested on the MFT S 3 Check with and without ski boots. Ski boots significantly influenced balance. There were also significant differences between experienced skiers and ski racers, but gender differences were minimal. In addition to general conditioning, skiers should utilise general and ski-specific balance and sensomotor training which could help in ski injury prevention, especially knee injuries. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  4. Skiing injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, M S

    1982-07-01

    Skiing injuries in children continue to represent a significant health problem. The incidence of injuries in young teenagers remains significantly above the rate for all ages, and tibial fractures are particularly common. Continued efforts are needed to design adequate binding systems for the child that will account for the demands of a broad range of varying sizes and skill levels. As organized competition becomes more popular, there must be an increasing awareness and supervision of the unique musculoskeletal requirements of young competitors in both Alpine and Nordic events.

  5. [Sport today: ski acrobatics (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrück, K

    1978-03-17

    Stunt skiing is popular. It includes three disciplines: ski ballet, "hot dog" or "rough track" skiing and jumping. An extensive series of investigations showed that for well-trained professionals with suitable equipment and good outdoor conditions, the danger of injury is only slightly higher compared with normal skiing. Practising ballet figures considerably improves the stability of the good all-round skier.

  6. The live service of video geo-information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wu; Zhang, Yongsheng; Yu, Ying; Zhao, Ling

    2016-03-01

    In disaster rescue, emergency response and other occasions, traditional aerial photogrammetry is difficult to meet real-time monitoring and dynamic tracking demands. To achieve the live service of video geo-information, a system is designed and realized—an unmanned helicopter equipped with video sensor, POS, and high-band radio. This paper briefly introduced the concept and design of the system. The workflow of video geo-information live service is listed. Related experiments and some products are shown. In the end, the conclusion and outlook is given.

  7. [Development of Achilles tendon rupture in skiing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckert, K; Benedetto, K P; Vogel, A

    1983-06-01

    This is an analysis of decline of rupture of the Achilles tendon in skiing while there is a steady increase of skiing injuries. Three groups, equipped with three different types of ski boots were observed once on a plane slope on the other hand on a bump track. The simultaneous size of angle of knee and ankle was measured by telemetry. The high plastic ski boot, which obstructs the ankle forward and lateral is apart from the rise of heel in the boot, the safety binding and the new skiing style the main reason for decline of rupture of the Achilles tendon in skiing.

  8. An Epidemiological Investigation of Skiing Injuries in Erciyes Ski Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökmen Özen

    2017-06-01

    Material and Methods: This research was conducted using data that were recorded in the Erciyes Ski Centre Injury Surveillance System from 2012 to 2016 by ski patrols. We calculated the number of skiers from sold lift cards and tickets. A total of 616 cases of skiing injuries were recorded over the four seasons. Results: The calculated injury rate was 2.6 per 1000 skiers in the period of 2012-2016. A total of 372 (60.4% patients were males and 244 were (39.6% females and their mean ages were 27.2 ± 9.8 (range 7-65 years. The most common mechanisms of injuries were falling (82.3 followed by collision (11.5%. Skiing injuries occurred mostly at the lower extremities (52.6%, followed by upper extremities (20.4%.The most frequently seen cases were contusions (59.7% and sprains (12.5%. Conclusion: The rate of injury was compatible with reference ranges (2-4‰ for Erciyes Ski Centre during all seasons. Injuries were seen mostly in adults. The most frequent injuries were at the lower extremities, which were falling-related and contusions. There were no substantial proportional changes in terms of the variables between the seasons.

  9. 50 CFR 27.33 - Water skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water skiing. 27.33 Section 27.33 Wildlife... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.33 Water skiing. When water skiing is permitted upon national wildlife refuge waters, the public will be notified under...

  10. GEOINFORMATION ANALYSIS OF CRIME IN THE STAVROPOL REGION

    OpenAIRE

    R. K. Mahmudov; O. A. Gorban

    2015-01-01

    In nowadays community we can clearly see the growth of criminality. Recent data on occured crimes helps to effectively locate a criminal, and inform people of a potential threat. Moreover, this information can be used to allocate problem territories and puposes of criminality. Taking into account that 80% of information on crimes have its' geographical component, the process of defining location will take important part in work of law enforcement agencies. The use of Geo-Informational Systems...

  11. SITE-94. Discrete-feature modelling of the Aespoe site: 2. Development of the integrated site-scale model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, J.E. [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    A 3-dimensional, discrete-feature hydrological model is developed. The model integrates structural and hydrologic data for the Aespoe site, on scales ranging from semi regional fracture zones to individual fractures in the vicinity of the nuclear waste canisters. Hydrologic properties of the large-scale structures are initially estimated from cross-hole hydrologic test data, and automatically calibrated by numerical simulation of network flow, and comparison with undisturbed heads and observed drawdown in selected cross-hole tests. The calibrated model is combined with a separately derived fracture network model, to yield the integrated model. This model is partly validated by simulation of transient responses to a long-term pumping test and a convergent tracer test, based on the LPT2 experiment at Aespoe. The integrated model predicts that discharge from the SITE-94 repository is predominantly via fracture zones along the eastern shore of Aespoe. Similar discharge loci are produced by numerous model variants that explore uncertainty with regard to effective semi regional boundary conditions, hydrologic properties of the site-scale structures, and alternative structural/hydrological interpretations. 32 refs.

  12. SITE-94. Discrete-feature modelling of the Aespoe Site: 3. Predictions of hydrogeological parameters for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, J.E.

    1996-12-01

    A 3-dimensional, discrete-feature hydrological model is developed. The model integrates structural and hydrologic data for the Aespoe site, on scales ranging from semi regional fracture zones to individual fractures in the vicinity of the nuclear waste canisters. Predicted parameters for the near field include fracture spacing, fracture aperture, and Darcy velocity at each of forty canister deposition holes. Parameters for the far field include discharge location, Darcy velocity, effective longitudinal dispersion coefficient and head gradient, flow porosity, and flow wetted surface, for each canister source that discharges to the biosphere. Results are presented in the form of statistical summaries for a total of 42 calculation cases, which treat a set of 25 model variants in various combinations. The variants for the SITE-94 Reference Case model address conceptual and parametric uncertainty related to the site-scale hydrogeologic model and its properties, the fracture network within the repository, effective semi regional boundary conditions for the model, and the disturbed-rock zone around the repository tunnels and shafts. Two calculation cases simulate hydrologic conditions that are predicted to occur during future glacial episodes. 30 refs

  13. SITE-94. Discrete-feature modelling of the Aespoe site: 2. Development of the integrated site-scale model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, J.E.

    1996-12-01

    A 3-dimensional, discrete-feature hydrological model is developed. The model integrates structural and hydrologic data for the Aespoe site, on scales ranging from semi regional fracture zones to individual fractures in the vicinity of the nuclear waste canisters. Hydrologic properties of the large-scale structures are initially estimated from cross-hole hydrologic test data, and automatically calibrated by numerical simulation of network flow, and comparison with undisturbed heads and observed drawdown in selected cross-hole tests. The calibrated model is combined with a separately derived fracture network model, to yield the integrated model. This model is partly validated by simulation of transient responses to a long-term pumping test and a convergent tracer test, based on the LPT2 experiment at Aespoe. The integrated model predicts that discharge from the SITE-94 repository is predominantly via fracture zones along the eastern shore of Aespoe. Similar discharge loci are produced by numerous model variants that explore uncertainty with regard to effective semi regional boundary conditions, hydrologic properties of the site-scale structures, and alternative structural/hydrological interpretations. 32 refs

  14. ANALYSIS OF DESIGN ELEMENTS IN SKI SUITS

    OpenAIRE

    Çileroğlu, Birsen; Kelleci Özeren, Figen; Kıvılcımlar, İnci Seda

    2015-01-01

    Popularity of Ski Sport in 19th century necessitated a new perspective on protective skiing clothing against the mountain climates and excessive cold. Winter clothing were the basis of ski attire during this period.  By the beginning of 20th century lining cloth were used to minimize the wind effect. The difference between the men and women’s ski attire of the time consisted of a knee-length skirts worn over the golf trousers.  Subsequent to the First World War, skiing suit models were influe...

  15. Materials, Designs and Standards Used in Ski-Boots for Alpine Skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Moncalero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review article reports the recent advances in the study, design and production of ski-boots for alpine skiing. An overview of the different designs and the materials used in ski-boot construction is provided giving particular emphasis to the effect of these parameters on the final performances and on the prevention of injuries. The use of specific materials for ski-boots dedicated to different disciplines (race skiing, mogul skiing, ski-mountaineering etc. has been correlated with the chemical and physical properties of the polymeric materials employed. A review of the scientific literature and the most interesting patents is also presented, correlating the results reported with the performances and industrial production of ski-boots. Suggestions for new studies and the use of advanced materials are also provided. A final section dedicated to the standards involved in ski-boot design completes this review article.

  16. ANALYSIS OF DESIGN ELEMENTS IN SKI SUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsen Çileroğlu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Popularity of Ski Sport in 19th century necessitated a new perspective on protective skiing clothing ag ainst the mountain climates and excessive cold. Winter clothing were the basis of ski attire during this period. By the beginning of 20th century lining cloth were used to minimize the wind effect. The difference between the men and women’s ski attire of the time consisted of a knee - length skirts worn over the golf trousers. Subsequent to the First World War, skiing suit models were influenced by the period uniforms and the producers reflected the fashion trends to the ski clothing. In conformance with th e prevailing trends, ski trousers were designed and produced for the women thus leading to reduction in gender differences. Increases in the ski tourism and holding of the first winter olympics in 1924 resulted in variations in ski attires, development of design characteristics, growth in user numbers, and enlargement of production capacities. Designers emphasized in their collections combined presence of elegance and practicality in the skiing attire. In 1930s, the ski suits influenced by pilots’ uniforms included characteristics permitting freedom of motion, and the design elements exhibited changes in terms of style, material and aerodynamics. In time, the ski attires showed varying design features distinguishing professionals from the amateurs. While protective functionality was primary consideration for the amateurs, for professionals the aerodynamic design was also a leading factor. Eventually, the increased differences in design characteristics were exhibited in ski suit collections, World reknown brands were formed, production and sales volumes showed significant rise. During 20th century the ski suits influenced by fashion trends to acquire unique styles reached a position of dominance to impact current fashion trends, and apart from sports attir es they became a style determinant in the clothing of cold climates. Ski suits

  17. METHODICAL MODEL FOR TEACHING BASIC SKI TURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Kuna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of forming an expert model of the most important operators for basic ski turn teaching in ski schools, an experiment was conducted on a sample of 20 ski experts from different countries (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia. From the group of the most commonly used operators for teaching basic ski turn the experts picked the 6 most important: uphill turn and jumping into snowplough, basic turn with hand sideways, basic turn with clapping, ski poles in front, ski poles on neck, uphill turn with active ski guiding. Afterwards, ranking and selection of the most efficient operators was carried out. Due to the set aim of research, a Chi square test was used, as well as the differences between frequencies of chosen operators, differences between values of the most important operators and differences between experts due to their nationality. Statistically significant differences were noticed between frequencies of chosen operators (c2= 24.61; p=0.01, while differences between values of the most important operators were not obvious (c2= 1.94; p=0.91. Meanwhile, the differences between experts concerning thier nationality were only noticeable in the expert evaluation of ski poles on neck operator (c2=7.83; p=0.02. Results of current research are reflected in obtaining useful information about methodological priciples of learning basic ski turn organization in ski schools.

  18. GEOINFORMATION ANALYSIS OF CRIME IN THE STAVROPOL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Mahmudov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In nowadays community we can clearly see the growth of criminality. Recent data on occured crimes helps to effectively locate a criminal, and inform people of a potential threat. Moreover, this information can be used to allocate problem territories and puposes of criminality. Taking into account that 80% of information on crimes have its' geographical component, the process of defining location will take important part in work of law enforcement agencies. The use of Geo-Informational Systems (GIS lets effectively put into practice the appropriate actions, thereby building safer society.

  19. Probe into geo-information science and information science in nuclear and geography science in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Bin

    2001-01-01

    In the past ten years a new science-Geo-Information Science, a branch of Geoscience, developed very fast, which has been valued and paid much attention to. Based on information science, the author analyzes the flow of material, energy, people and information and their relations, presents the place of Geo-Information Science in Geo-science and its content from Geo-Informatics, Geo-Information technology and the application of itself. Finally, the author discusses the main content and problem existed in Geo-Information Science involved in Nuclear and Geography Science

  20. Improved safety in ski jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, K

    1988-01-01

    Among approximately 2,600 licensed Norwegian ski jumpers, only three injuries that caused a permanent medical disability of at least 10% were incurred during the 5 year period from 1982 through 1986. When compared to the previous 5 year period (1977 to 1981), a dramatic improvement in safety is seen, as both number and severity of such injuries were markedly reduced. There are several probable reasons for this improved safety record: better preparation of the jumps, the return to using only one standard heel block, and the fact that coaches are being more responsible, especially with younger jumpers.

  1. Snow management practices in French ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandre, Pierre; Francois, Hugues; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Morin, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Winter tourism plays a fundamental role in the economy of French mountain regions but also in other countries such as Austria, USA or Canada. Ski operators originally developed grooming methods to provide comfortable and safe skiing conditions. The interannual variability of snow conditions and the competition with international destinations and alternative tourism activities encouraged ski resorts to mitigate their dependency to weather conditions through snowmaking facilities. However some regions may not be able to produce machine made snow due to inadequate conditions and low altitude resorts are still negatively impacted by low snow seasons. In the meantime, even though the operations of high altitude resorts do not show any dependency to the snow conditions they invest in snowmaking facilities. Such developments of snowmaking facilities may be related to a confused and contradictory perception of climate change resulting in individualistic evolutions of snowmaking facilities, also depending on ski resorts main features such as their altitude and size. Concurrently with the expansion of snowmaking facilities, a large range of indicators have been used to discuss the vulnerability of ski resorts such as the so-called "100 days rule" which was widely used with specific thresholds (i.e. minimum snow depth, dates) and constraints (i.e. snowmaking capacity). The present study aims to provide a detailed description of snow management practices and major priorities in French ski resorts with respect to their characteristics. We set up a survey in autumn 2014, collecting data from 56 French ski operators. We identify the priorities of ski operators and describe their snowmaking and grooming practices and facilities. The operators also provided their perception of the ski resort vulnerability to snow and economic challenges which we could compare with the actual snow conditions and ski lift tickets sales during the period from 2001 to 2012.

  2. [Fractures of the lower extremity in skiing - the influence of ski boots and injury pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürkner, A; Simmen, H P

    2008-12-01

    Though the injury patterns of the lower extremities in skiing have changed since 1970, tibial fractures remain daily work of hospitals near ski slopes. A lot of medical studies have analysed the relevance of well adjusted bindings of the common lesions of the knee joint ligaments. However the influence of the flexibility of the ski boot and the injury pattern has been neglected. 49 tibial fractures have been analysed in a hospital near a large ski resort in the alpes. All fractures occurred during alpine skiing. The type of the fracture, according to the AO-classification and the injury pattern have been documented. Also demographic data, ski experience and specification concerning the ski boot have been questioned. The type of the ski boot and the grade of flexibility, have been documented if possible. It has also been recorded whether the binding opened. In contrast to other studies our patients are represented in widely spread age-groups with a large share of elderly and experienced persons. Young or unexperienced sportsmen suffer primarily from fractures of the tibial diaphysis. With increasing skiing experience the injury pattern is widening on the whole leg. 62 % of all fractures are caused by rotation traumas. Compression, dorsal forces and direct collisions are the other causes. In 59 % of all accidents the binding failed to open. There is an increased risk of complex fractures in the proximal or distal epiphysis if the binding has not opened. 23 % of all fractures occurred with rented ski boots. Only 16 % of all ski boots are labelled with a flexibility index. There is no standardized value for the flexibility of ski boots. The trend can be derived that rigid ski boots with a high flexibility index cause above all fractures of the diaphysis. 10 % of all fractures happened to patients wearing "snowblades". These short skis without safety bindings contributed a considerable share to tibial fractures, even though there is no big leverage. Tibial fractures are

  3. Biomechanical aspects of new techniques in alpine skiing and ski-jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Erich; Schwameder, Hermann

    2003-09-01

    There have been considerable changes in equipment design and movement patterns in the past few years both in alpine skiing and ski-jumping. These developments have been matched by methods of analysing movements in field conditions. They have yielded new insights into the skills of these specific winter sports. Analytical techniques have included electromyography, kinetic and kinematic methods and computer simulations. Our aim here is to review biomechanical research in alpine skiing and ski-jumping. We present in detail the techniques currently used in alpine skiing (carving technique) and ski-jumping (V-technique), primarily using data from the authors' own research. Finally, we present a summary of the most important results in biomechanical research both in alpine skiing and ski-jumping. This includes an analysis of specific conditions in alpine skiing (type of turn, terrain, snow, speed, etc.) and the effects of equipment, materials and individual-specific abilities on performance, safety and joint loading in ski-jumping.

  4. Particle-based model for skiing traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleczek, Thomas; Tröster, Gerhard

    2012-05-01

    We develop and investigate a particle-based model for ski slope traffic. Skiers are modeled as particles with a mass that are exposed to social and physical forces, which define the riding behavior of skiers during their descents on ski slopes. We also report position and speed data of 21 skiers recorded with GPS-equipped cell phones on two ski slopes. A comparison of these data with the trajectories resulting from computer simulations of our model shows a good correspondence. A study of the relationship among the density, speed, and flow of skiers reveals that congestion does not occur even with arrival rates of skiers exceeding the maximum ski lift capacity. In a sensitivity analysis, we identify the kinetic friction coefficient of skis on snow, the skier mass, the range of repelling social forces, and the arrival rate of skiers as the crucial parameters influencing the simulation results. Our model allows for the prediction of speed zones and skier densities on ski slopes, which is important in the prevention of skiing accidents.

  5. Morphologic analysis of the SKI preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstroem, Maria

    2003-08-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) is an independent government agency responsible for technical assessments and information concerning accidents involving nuclear facilities at home and abroad. With the events of September 11 in New York and Washington D.C., circumstances have also changed for Swedish government agencies. Increased focus had been placed on a broadened threat spectrum, especially as concerns terrorism and the use of non-conventional weapons and methods. This means that SKI must develop adequate preparedness for new types of threats and events. What types of threats, and how SKI's preparedness planning should be developed, are questions which were addressed in a study by a working group from SKI and FOI -the Swedish National Defence Research Agency. The purpose of the study was to identify serious threats and events, which would require SKI's involvement, and to analyze what resources and competencies would by needed in order for SKI to fulfill it responsibilities. Investigating a broadened threat spectrum involves defining and analyzing a multi-dimensional problem complex, which is both difficult to quantify and involves very complicated internal relationships. Morphological analysis is a method for structuring and analyzing such problem complexes, and for developing models based on natural language concepts. The working group developed and studied ten different scenarios, which defined the parameter space for a broadened threat spectrum for SKI. On the basis of these scenarios, a morphological model was developed which describes the demands that these scenarios place on SKI as an organization. On the basis of this, a further morphological model was developed, in order to systematically dimension the resources that would be needed in the face of these demands. Through this analysis, a clearer picture of the demands and required resources for future threats has emerged. The information and insights generated will serve to better develop

  6. Alpine ski sport injuries in Swedish Lapland

    OpenAIRE

    Made, Curt

    2009-01-01

    Downhill skiing is associated with recreation, youth, speed, aerials and crowded courses which carry increased risk of injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate downhill sport injuries in a Swedish ski resort. Material and methodsIn a case-control study ongoing 1989/90–2006/07, 3,696 injured skiers were registered. After informed consent the injured were assessed by a physician and asked to answer a questionnaire concerning skier, skiing and injury. ResultsAfter three years 481 injured ...

  7. Psychological factors of performance in ski jumping : a quantitative study of World Cup ski jumpers

    OpenAIRE

    Sklett, Vegard Haukø

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The present study investigated the relationship between psychological factors (self-efficacy, flow, positive- and negative affect, worry) and ski jumping performance, as well as the influential functions these psychological factors have on ski jumping performance. Method – World Cup ski jumpers (N = 40) responded to four questionnaires in the middle of the World Cup season, reporting their subjective experience during a competitive setting. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) (Bandura...

  8. Dynamics of human flight on skis: improvements in safety and fairness in ski jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W; Platzer, D; Schmölzer, B

    1996-08-01

    This study of ski jumping includes three areas of research: Wind tunnel measurements with world class athletes in various flight positions, field measurements during the World Championships in Ski Flying 1994 in Planica (Slovenia) and a highly reliable mapping of ski jumping to a computable simulation model. The results explain the effects of equipment, flight style changes, the reason for the enhanced tumbling risk and high gust sensitivity observed. Consequences can be drawn for changes to the FIS regulations, the design of jumping hills and training methods. The internationally induced anorexia of the athletes could be prohibited by a new ski length regulation. Women jumpers could become a real competitive threat.

  9. Do Maximal Roller Skiing Speed and Double Poling Performance Predict Youth Cross-Country Skiing Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Stöggl, Erich Müller, Thomas Stöggl

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to analyze whether specific roller skiing tests and cycle length are determinants of youth cross-country (XC skiing performance, and to evaluate sex specific differences by applying non-invasive diagnostics. Forty-nine young XC skiers (33 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 yrs and 16 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 yrs performed roller skiing tests consisting of both shorter (50 m and longer durations (575 m. Test results were correlated with on snow XC skiing performance (PXC based on 3 skating and 3 classical distance competitions (3 to 6 km. The main findings of the current study were: 1 Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys’, but not to girls’ PXC; 2 Significant moderate to acceptable correlations between girls’ and boys’ short duration maximal roller skiing speed (double poling, V2 skating, leg skating and PXC were found; 3 Boys’ PXC was best predicted by double poling test performance on flat and uphill, while girls’ performance was mainly predicted by uphill double poling test performance; 4 When controlling for maturity offset, boys’ PXC was still highly associated with the roller skiing tests. The use of simple non-invasive roller skiing tests for determination of PXC represents practicable support for ski clubs, schools or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent.

  10. Salzburg Skiing for the Elderly Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niederseer, David; Ledl-Kurkowski, E; Kvita, K

    2011-01-01

    the effects of alpine skiing on CVRF in elderly skiers. Subjects (n=42) were randomized into an intervention group (IG; n=22; 12 males/10 females; age: 66.6 ± 2.1 years) completing 12 weeks of guided skiing or a control group (CG; n=20; 10 males/10 females; age: 67.3 ± 4.4 years). CVRF were assessed before......: -2.3%, Pelderly is safe with respect to cardiovascular events, and improves some, but not all CVRF....

  11. Nordic (cross-country) skiing injuries in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, E; Asquith, J

    1987-03-02

    A retrospective study of 88 nordic skiing injuries from the 1984 and 1985 skiing seasons in Australia is presented. To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date of such injuries. These injuries are compared with alpine skiing injuries from the same medical clinic for the 1985 skiing season. There was a much lower incidence of injury from nordic skiing; however, when injuries did occur, they tended to be more serious than those of alpine skiing and frequently required immediate evacuation to hospital for treatment. As the nordic skier is relatively isolated from medical services, these findings need to be considered in the future planning of rescue services for such skiers.

  12. 3D GEO-INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS FOR DISASTER AND EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Demir Ozbek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual approach is proposed to define 3D geo-information requirement for different types of disasters. This approach includes components such as Disaster Type-Sector-Actor-Process-Activity-Task-Data. According to disaster types processes, activities, tasks, sectors, and responsible and operational actors are derived. Based on the tasks, the needed level of detail for 3D geo-information model is determined. The levels of detail are compliant with the 3D international standard CityGML. After a brief introduction on the disaster phases and geo-information requirement for actors to perform the tasks, the paper discusses the current situation of disaster and emergency management in Turkey and elaborates on components of conceptual approach. This paper discusses the 3D geo-information requirements for the tasks to be used in the framework of 3D geo-information model for Disaster and Emergency Management System in Turkey. The framework is demonstrated for an industrial fire case in Turkey.

  13. SITE-94. Chemical and physical transport parameters for SITE-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Technical Environmental Planning

    1996-02-01

    Important parameters are the interactions of radionuclides with solid surfaces, parameters describing the geometrical conditions like porosity, data on water composition (ionic strength, pH, redox conditions, complex formers etc) and data on the solids that may be of importance to the water and radionuclide chemistry. In this report some of these data of relevance for the Aespoe site are discussed. Based on a literature survey, sorption data as well as values for some other parameters have been selected for rock, fracture fillings and bentonite relevant to the chemical conditions in and around a repository at Aespoe. A comparison to data used for earlier, site-specific as well as general, safety assessments of underground repositories has been performed. The data are recommendations for modelling of radionuclide release from a hypothetical high level waste repository at Aespoe. Since the data to a large extent are not based on experimental measurements, more accurate predictions may be expected if more experimental data are available. Before such studies are performed for a specific site, a variational analysis in order to evaluate the importance of the single parameters is recommended. After such a study, the key parameters may be investigated in detail and the modelling can be expected to be more accurate what concerns influence of single parameters. However, the uncertainty in conceptual areas like how to model accurately the long term hydrology of the site etc still remains. 32 refs.

  14. SKI Project-90: Chemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Karin

    1988-11-01

    In this report a set of parameter values for transport calculations is given for the safety assessment of a deep geological repository in crystalline rock. The selected data are intended for use in the performance assessment exercise of SKI, Project 90. Thus, they are primarily to be used for testing of transport models and evaluation of model performance, and the listed data must not be regarded as a set recommended for licensing purposes. 'Best estimates' are given for solubilities and sorption (distribution) data. Ranges of data are also provided that should be used to evaluate, e.g. by means of variational analysis, the need for more efforts in areas such as site characterization, geochemical modelling or review of thermodynamical data bases. Since the Project 90 performance assessment calculations are based on a synthetic site, without the possibility of correlation of hydraulic and geochemical parameters, the data given are generic for a typical Swedish crystalline rock. This also means that the ranges given are much broader than would be the case for a data set founded on site specific information (40 refs.) (au)

  15. Historical Development of Skiing with Special Retrospection in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajko Milašinović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is the history of skiing, while the main goal will be the historical development of skiing in Montenegro. The study consists three goals. The first goal is the emergence of the first ski in the world and benefits that are brought. Another goal is focused on the development of skiing in the former Yugoslavia. The third and the main goal is the occurrence and development of skiing and ski sports in the territory of Montenegro. During the making of this study, the author used descriptive method with consulting of competent literature. The previous author experience in this field was also so useful. Moreover, the author used the analytic method and parallel method that is the most productive if you make some inferences about some appearance. Consequently, the main outcome of this study was showing of historical progress of ski sports in Montenegro from early beginnings to the modern Olympic skiing.

  16. 14 medals for the CERN Ski Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    From 22 to 29 January, the ski resort of La Clusaz in Haute Savoie hosted the 11th Winter Atomiades. With nine gold medals and four silver medals in cross-country skiing, and a bronze medal in downhill skiing, the team from the CERN Ski Club finished third in the medals table.   Group photo at the 2011 Atomiades Organised by the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, nearly 260 participants from 15 research centres throughout Europe competed against each other in this skiing event. Each in their own discipline and age category, the fourteen members of the CERN team defended the colours of the Organization in the spirit of fun and fair play: “I had a really good week,” explained Simone Campana from the IT Department. “There was a great atmosphere. I’m only sorry that there was no general ranking this year. Let’s hope they’ll think about having one next time!” Despite the competition, the event is ...

  17. SKI`s Evaluation of SKB`s RD and D Programme 95. Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    SKI (the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) has sent SKB`s (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.) RD and D Programme 95 to sixty authorities and organizations for review. 35 reviewing bodies have replied. In various ways, most of the comments are related to the decision-making process, both with regard to site selection and choice of method and only a small number of reviewing bodies have dealt with the more purely technical issues such as the function of the barriers and the safety assessment methodology. SKI`s review of the programme is based on the premises of establishing whether and how the programme can fulfill its actual purpose to identify and implement solutions for the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel from the Swedish nuclear power plants. SKI`s statement to the Government includes a `Summary and Conclusions` of the `Review Report`. In (the present) `Review Report` SKI reviews the programme and deals with comments from the other reviewing bodies. Furthermore, SKI has commissioned a separate report with the `Comments of the Reviewing Bodies`. 32 refs.

  18. Sir Galahad, skiing and a woman's quest for freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2013-01-01

    in winter. She also learned ski jumping. The little information that is available about her skiing activities clearly demonstrates that this sport played a key role in her life. Besides perfectly keeping up with her self-image as a competent woman, skiing provided her with the opportunity of escaping normal...

  19. 78 FR 38842 - Definition of a Ski Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ..., local, or tribal government or anyone in the private sector. Therefore, a statement under section 202 of... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service 36 CFR Part 251 RIN 0596-AD12 Definition of a Ski Area... definition of a ski area in its regulations to make it consistent with the authority in section 3 of the Ski...

  20. Lift mechanics of downhill skiing and snowboarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qianhong; Igci, Yesim; Andreopoulos, Yiannis; Weinbaum, Sheldon

    2006-06-01

    This study is conducted to develop a simplified mathematical model to describe the lift mechanics of downhill skiing and snowboarding, where the lift contributions due to both the transiently trapped air and the compressed solid phase (snow crystals) are determined. To our knowledge, this is the first time that anyone has attempted to realistically estimate the relative contribution of the transiently trapped air to the total lift in skiing and snowboarding. The model uses Shimizu's empirical relation to predict the local variation in Darcy permeability due to the compression of the solid phase. The forces and moments on the skier or snowboarder are used to predict the angle of attack of the planing surface, the penetration depth at the leading edge, and the shift in the center of pressure for two typical snow types, fresh and wind-packed snow. We present numerical solutions for snowboarding and asymptotic analytic solutions for skiing for the case where there are no edging or turning maneuvers. The force and moment balance are then used to develop a theory for control and stability in response to changes in the center of mass as the individual shifts his/her weight. Our model predicts that for fine-grained, windpacked snow that when the velocity (U) of the snowboarder or skier is 20 m.s, approximately 50% of the total lift force is generated by the trapped air for snowboarding and 40% for skiing. For highly permeable fresh powder snow, the lift contribution from the pore air pressure drops substantially. This paper develops a new theoretical framework for analyzing the lift mechanics and stability of skis and snowboards that could have important applications in future ski and snowboard design.

  1. Modelling of Aerodynamic Drag in Alpine Skiing

    OpenAIRE

    Elfmark, Ola

    2017-01-01

    Most of the breaking force in the speed disciplines in alpine skiing is caused by the aerodynamic drag, and a better knowledge of the drag force is therefore desirable to gain time in races. In this study a complete database of how the drag area (CDA) changes, with respect to the different body segments, was made and used to explain a complete body motion in alpine skiing. Three experiments were performed in the wind tunnel at NTNU, Trondheim. The database from a full body measurement on an a...

  2. [Skiing injuries in school sport and possibilioties to prevent them].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greier, K

    2011-12-01

    Tyrol (Austria) is one of the regions which pioneered skiing. Skiing is considered as a national sport and is deeply rooted within the school system. Thus most pupils partake in skiing courses in this period. It is clear that such a large group of pupils also leads to a significant number of skiing injuries. Preventive issues may be derived from an analysis of the pattern and circumstances of skiing injuries. During a period of ten years (2000 - 2009) 1522 school sports injuries have been reported to the health insurance agency (Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt) from all secondary schools in Tyrol. The major disciplines were ski (48 %, n = 734) ice skateing (23 %, n = 349) and snowboard injuries (21 %, n = 315), followed by tobogganing (6 %, n = 91), cross-country skiing (1 %, n = 17) and other wintersports (1 %, n = 16). Fractures (31 %) dominated in skiing, followed by contusions (23 %), and sprains (22 %). In the analysis of the distribution of injuries during alpine skiing accidents, lower extremity injuries (39 %) dominated followed by upper extremity injuries (34 %). Head and spine injuries (13 %) were rare. Analysing the circumstances of the injuries, most injuries during skiing occurred without person to person collision (82 %), 81 % either shortly before lunch-break or in the afternoon. Skiing injuries account for a significant proportion of all school sport-related injuries in Tyrol. Lower extremity injuries account for the vast majority of all injuries. Overestimation and overtiredness may be responsible for skiing sport injuries. Preventive measures such as a fitness training (e. g., skiing exercises) prior to skiing courses, appropriate breaks and proper protective gear (i. e., helmet and spine protector) may reduce the injury rate in skiing school sport. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Development of a geo-information system for the evaluation of active faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dong Won; Pi, Nuen; Ger, Tien; Choi, Jun Hyoung [Paichai Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    In this work, we exploit hypermedia web database of geo-information system in order to access and share the multimedia data such as text,. graphics, animation, audio and video. It is gaining interest as a tool for effectively accessing the large amount of information that is available.

  4. Development of a geo-information system for the evaluation of active faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dong Won; Pi, Nuen; Ger, Tien; Choi, Jun Hyoung

    2003-02-01

    In this work, we exploit hypermedia web database of geo-information system in order to access and share the multimedia data such as text,. graphics, animation, audio and video. It is gaining interest as a tool for effectively accessing the large amount of information that is available

  5. Towards a 3D geo-information standard in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, J.E.; Reuvers, M.; Vosselman, G.; Goos, J.; Van Berlo, L.; Zlatanova, S.; Verbree, E.; Klooster, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the ongoing research project in The Netherlands in which a large number of stakeholders are realising a 3D testbed based on selected use cases and test areas. The findings of the project will result in a Proof of Concept for a 3D Geoinformation standard and a 3D data

  6. Towards a methodology for the use of geo-information technology in disaster assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawie van Vuuren

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Disaster assessment entails the description of disaster events and their impact on human lives, property and the environment. Information is a vital component of this process, and geo-information technology in particular should have a key role in this regard.

  7. 3D Geo-Information requirements for disaster and emergency management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demir Ozbek, E.; Zlatanova, S.; Ates Aydar, S.; Yomralioglu, T

    2016-01-01

    A conceptual approach is proposed to define 3D geo-information requirement for different types of disasters. This approach includes components such as Disaster Type-Sector-Actor-Process-Activity-Task-Data. According to disaster types processes, activities, tasks, sectors, and responsible and

  8. Development of a geo-information system for the evaluation of active faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sang Gi; Lim, Yu Jin [Paichai Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-15

    This project aims to develop an effective field system and database structure by analyzing the quantitative and qualitative geological data and establish its application plan. The contents and the scope of this study are as follows : developing a geo-information software, producing digital data from previous works and information-geological, age dating, trench information, topographic and geologic maps, establish a home page.

  9. A 3d model for geo-information in the netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbree, E.; Stoter, J.; Zlatanova, S.; Haan, G. de; Reuvers, M.; Vosselman, G.; Goos, J.; Berlo, L. van; Klooster, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the work in progress of a research project that aims at establishing a reference model for 3D geo-information in the Netherlands. The research project is initiated by four national organizations: 1) Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, 2) Kadaster, 3)

  10. Maps and geoinformation on the Internet or how do people feel abour e-democracy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brande-Lavridsen, Hanne

    2005-01-01

    Danish Municipal Internet pages today swarm with examples of geoinformation by way of maps in a more or less active form (from scanned maps to GIS solutions), planning data, demographic data, etc. At first the intentions were to give the citizens the possibility of commenting on planning proposal...

  11. Snowboarding and ski boarding injuries in Niigata, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yuko; Sakuraba, Keishoku

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the injury patterns and incidence of snowboarding and ski boarding injuries with that of alpine skiing in 2000 to 2005, as there are few previous studies comparing these 3 sports, especially in Asia. The injury patterns are different among the 3 snow sports. Descriptive epidemiology study. The subjects were alpine skiers (1240 cases), snowboarders (2220 cases), and ski boarders (132 cases) who were injured in 2 ski resorts located in Niigata prefecture in Japan and visited the authors' clinics in these ski resorts between 2000 and 2005. On visiting the clinics, patients completed a questionnaire reviewing the circumstances surrounding the injury event, and physicians documented the diagnosis. The injury rate, which was based on all purchased lift tickets, in snowboarding decreased gradually, although it was still 2 times higher than that of alpine skiing. Snowboarding and ski boarding had a higher fracture and dislocation rate. Both sports also had a 4 times higher rate of injuries because of jumping. The characteristics of ski boarding were a lower head and neck injury rate and collision injury rate than those of the other 2 snow sports, as well as a 2 times higher rate of fractures compared with alpine skiing injuries and a 1.4 times higher incidence than that of snowboarding injuries. Of the fractures caused by ski boarding accidents, 39.6% affected the lower leg bones. Injury prevention strategies should focus on jumps for snowboarders and ski boarders.

  12. Spinal column damage from water ski jumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, J.; Cockshott, W.P.; Shannon, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    We conducted a radiographic survey of 117 competitive water ski jumpers to determine whether this sport can cause spinal column damage and, if so, whether damage is more likely to occur in those who participate during the period of spinal growth and development (age 15 years or younger). We found a high prevalence of two types of abnormality: Scheuermann (adolescent) spondylodystrophy (present in 26% of the skiers) and vertebral body wedging (present in 34%). The prevalence of adolescent spondylodystrophy increased with the number of years of participation in the sport before age 15 years or less. Of those in this age group who had skied for 5 years or more, 57 showed adolescent spondylodystrophy; of those in the same age group who had skied for 9 years or more, 100% were affected. Wedged vertebrae increased as time of participation increased, regardless of the age at which exposure began. We conclude that competitive water ski jumping may damage the spinal column and that consideration should be given to regulating this sport, particularly for children. (orig.)

  13. Spinal column damage from water ski jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, J; Cockshott, W P; Shannon, H S

    1987-01-01

    We conducted a radiographic survey of 117 competitive water ski jumpers to determine whether this sport can cause spinal column damage and, if so, whether damage is more likely to occur in those who participate during the period of spinal growth and development (age 15 years or younger). We found a high prevalence of two types of abnormality: Scheuermann (adolescent) spondylodystrophy (present in 26% of the skiers) and vertebral body wedging (present in 34%). The prevalence of adolescent spondylodystrophy increased with the number of years of participation in the sport before age 15 years or less. Of those in this age group who had skied for 5 years or more, 57 showed adolescent spondylodystrophy; of those in the same age group who had skied for 9 years or more, 100% were affected. Wedged vertebrae increased as time of participation increased, regardless of the age at which exposure began. We conclude that competitive water ski jumping may damage the spinal column and that consideration should be given to regulating this sport, particularly for children.

  14. Skis to demonstrate new atomic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Skis in which part of the material consists of birch wood impregnated with the basic chemicals of plastic and then irradiated are now undergoing tests. They are a demonstration of the new material created when this technique is applied to wood and fibres. (author)

  15. Spinal column damage from water ski jumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, J.; Cockshott, W.P.; Shannon, H.S.

    1987-11-01

    We conducted a radiographic survey of 117 competitive water ski jumpers to determine whether this sport can cause spinal column damage and, if so, whether damage is more likely to occur in those who participate during the period of spinal growth and development (age 15 years or younger). We found a high prevalence of two types of abnormality: Scheuermann (adolescent) spondylodystrophy (present in 26% of the skiers) and vertebral body wedging (present in 34%). The prevalence of adolescent spondylodystrophy increased with the number of years of participation in the sport before age 15 years or less. Of those in this age group who had skied for 5 years or more, 57 showed adolescent spondylodystrophy; of those in the same age group who had skied for 9 years or more, 100% were affected. Wedged vertebrae increased as time of participation increased, regardless of the age at which exposure began. We conclude that competitive water ski jumping may damage the spinal column and that consideration should be given to regulating this sport, particularly for children. (orig.)

  16. SKI's research strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    SKI's research is a prerequisite for SKI's ability to fulfil its assignment. Research to support supervision is focused today on a number of strategically important areas such as reactor technology, material and fuel questions, human factors, waste and non-proliferation (safeguards). SKI's intelligence analysis shows that this focus should be maintained over the next few years. Some reallocation of priorities between research areas may be necessary due to changes in the nuclear area. For this research, SKI contracts universities as well as consulting companies. The resources that are of importance for nuclear research are concentrated to a few organisations in Sweden. But the national research resources alone do not cover the existing needs. One reason is that the previously highly competent and well funded Swedish expert organisations within the nuclear power utilities have gradually been phased out or transformed into consulting firms. Changes have also taken place at the Swedish vendor of boiling-water plants, now Westinghouse Atom, and the activities have been down sized considerably in Sweden. There has been a similar trend in other countries. Moreover, countries which previously conducted expensive experiments have themselves increasingly sought international support as their research resources have dwindled. As a result, numerous international projects have or are planned to be started. SKI notes that Swedish nuclear activities are also becoming increasingly dependent on international collaboration. SKI further notes that in order to fulfil its assignment, the Inspectorate needs not only financial resources but also competent personnel. This enables targeted support to be maintained to strategic national infrastructure and to international cooperation including internationally financed projects. With this is meant above all experimental research where small countries such as Sweden can join forces with other countries on to important research

  17. Consumption Skill Acquisition in Ski Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woermann, Niklas; Wieser, Verena

    2016-01-01

    Remedying the absence of a cultural theory of consumption skill acquisition, we use video data to explore how consumers learn in ski schools. We identify six modes of skill acquisition and theorize the interplay between the sensori-motor system, the conscious state of skillful coping...

  18. Frostbite in ski boots for marines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heus, R.; Schols, E.; Kistemaker, L.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research have showed that cold injuries of feet occur more often than cold injuries of hands. Recently, an unexpectedly large number of cold injuries were observed during military training in Norway and a relationship between cold injuries and the use of the Alico ski boot was suspected.

  19. [Changes in stress to the knee joint in skiing from a medical viewpoint with special reference to the modern ski shoe and the skiing technic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörterer, H

    1982-01-21

    The changed skiing-technique with more knee flexion (so called jet-position) has lead to rising pressures in the femoro-patellar joint. The danger of traumatic and arthritic diseases has increased as well. We suggest to avoid extreme anteflexed crural position in the ski-boots (more than 5 degrees). It should be possible to walk and stand in ski-boots without pressure on the knee-joint. This problem is most important in the growing locomotor system.

  20. Fundamental considerations in ski binding analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, C D; Hull, M L

    1976-01-01

    1. The static adjustment of a ski binding by hand or by available machines is only an adjustment and is neither a static nor a dynamic evaluation of the binding design. Bindings of different design with identical static adjustments will perform differently in environments in which the forces are static or dynamic. 2. The concept of binding release force is a useful measure of binding adjustment, but it is inappropriate as a criterion for binding evaluation. First, it does not direct attention toward the injury causing mechanism, strain, or displacement in the leg. Second, it is only part of the evaluation in dynamic problems. 3. The binding release decision in present bindings is displacement controlled. The relative displacement of the boot and ski is the system variable. For any specified relative displacement the binding force can be any of an infinite number of possibilities determined by the loading path. 4. The response of the leg-ski system to external impulses applied to the ski is independent of the boot-ski relative motion as long as the boot recenters quickly in the binding. Response is dependent upon the external impulse plus system inertia, damping and stiffness. 5. When tested under half sinusoidal forces applied to a test ski, all bindings will demonstrate static and impulse loading regions. In the static region the force drives the binding to a relative release displacement. In the impulse region the initial velocity of the ski drives the binding to a release displacement. 6. The transition between the static and impulse loading regions is determined by the binding's capacity to store and dissipate energy along the principal loading path. Increased energy capacity necessitates larger external impulses to produce release. 7. In all bindings examined to date, the transmitted leg displacement or strain at release under static loading exceeds leg strain under dynamic or impact loading. Because static loading is responsible for many injuries, a skier

  1. Alpine ski bindings and injuries. Current findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natri, A; Beynnon, B D; Ettlinger, C F; Johnson, R J; Shealy, J E

    1999-07-01

    In spite of the fact that the overall incidence of alpine ski injuries has decreased during the last 25 years, the incidence of serious knee sprains usually involving the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has risen dramatically since the late 1970s. This trend runs counter to a dramatic reduction in lower leg injuries that began in the early 1970s and to date has lowered the risk of injury below the knee by almost 90%. One of the primary design objectives of modern ski boots and bindings has been to protect the skier from tibia and ankle fractures. So, in that sense, they have done an excellent job. However, despite advances in equipment design, modern ski bindings have not protected the knee from serious ligament trauma. At the present time, we are unaware of any binding design, settings or function that can protect both the knee and lower extremities from serious ligament sprains. No innovative change in binding design appears to be on the horizon that has the potential to reduce the risk of these severe knee injuries. Indeed, only 1 study has demonstrated a means to help reduce this risk of serious knee sprains, and this study involved education of skiers, not ski equipment. Despite the inability of bindings to reduce the risk of severe knee injuries there can be no doubt that improvement in ski bindings has been the most important factor in the marked reduction in incidence of lower leg and ankle injuries during the last 25 years. The authors strongly endorse the application of present International Standards Organisation (ISO) and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards concerning mounting, setting and maintaining modern 'state of the art' bindings.

  2. Comparison of the SKI, SKB, and SKN geological and structural models of the Aespoe area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiren, S.A.

    1996-06-01

    Three sets of geological and structural models produced by three different groups are compared. The same set of basic data has been available to each of the groups. The models, all of which are 2 by 2 km by 1 km deep - or smaller, are based entirely on surface-based investigations. The modelled area is centered on the island of Aespoe, where SKB has built the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in plutonic bedrock at a depth of 500 m. SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has recorded the basic data during the period 1986 to 1991, before starting the underground work. One of the main tasks in the SKB characterization of the HRL rock mass was to predict which of the geological structures will have the greatest rock-mechanical and hydraulic significance. The National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) constructed alternative models in 1992 to verify the SKB model. However, the SKN models were subsequently modified and converted into a hydrogeological model. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) chose Aespoe as a hypothetical site for storage of nuclear waste in their SITE 94 project. The objective of the project is to assist SKI in their future review of SKB's application for a license to dispose of spent nuclear fuel underground. The agreement of the three models is found to be best where the density of information is greatest. The main difference between the two geological models is related to the inferred effects of block faulting on the rock type distribution. The correlation of moderately to gently inclined zones between the models is relatively poor at depth

  3. Comparison of the SKI, SKB, and SKN geological and structural models of the Aespoe area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiren, S.A. [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-06-01

    Three sets of geological and structural models produced by three different groups are compared. The same set of basic data has been available to each of the groups. The models, all of which are 2 by 2 km by 1 km deep - or smaller, are based entirely on surface-based investigations. The modelled area is centered on the island of Aespoe, where SKB has built the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in plutonic bedrock at a depth of 500 m. SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has recorded the basic data during the period 1986 to 1991, before starting the underground work. One of the main tasks in the SKB characterization of the HRL rock mass was to predict which of the geological structures will have the greatest rock-mechanical and hydraulic significance. The National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) constructed alternative models in 1992 to verify the SKB model. However, the SKN models were subsequently modified and converted into a hydrogeological model. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) chose Aespoe as a hypothetical site for storage of nuclear waste in their SITE 94 project. The objective of the project is to assist SKI in their future review of SKB`s application for a license to dispose of spent nuclear fuel underground. The agreement of the three models is found to be best where the density of information is greatest. The main difference between the two geological models is related to the inferred effects of block faulting on the rock type distribution. The correlation of moderately to gently inclined zones between the models is relatively poor at depth. 46 refs, 30 figs, 18 tabs.

  4. Historical Development of Skiing: Case Study in Durmitor Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajko Milašinović

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is the history of skiing, while the main goal will be the historical development of skiing in the mountain Durmitor area in Montenegro. The study consists two goals. The first goal is the emergence of the first ski in the Montenegro and benefits that are brought. The second and the main goal is the occurrence and development of skiing and ski sports in the territory of mountain Durmitor. During the making of this study, the authors used descriptive method with consulting of competent literature. The previous authors’ experience in this field was also so useful. Moreover, the author used the analytic method and parallel method that is the most productive if you make some inferences about some appearance. The main outcome of this study was showing of historical progress of ski sports in the territory of mountain Durmitor from early beginnings to the modern Olympic skiing. Skis and ski sport were early appeared in the region of Mount Durmitor. The mountain and the region around it, are very rich with slopes with Olympic diameter, with plenty of snowfall and long winters. However, lack of financial investment, channeling money to other centers, led to the fact that the skiing in this area is at a low level.

  5. Nordic ski jumping injuries. A survey of active American jumpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J R; McIntyre, L; Rand, J J; Hixson, E G

    1991-01-01

    Little data are available in the medical literature on nordic ski jumping injuries. Injury questionnaires were sent to all active American ski jumpers registered either with the United States Ski Association or with a jumping club registered with the United States Ski Association. One hundred thirty-three of 286 (46.5%) injury questionnaires were returned. Eighty-one of the 133 respondents (60.9%) had been injured sufficiently to require examination by a physician at least once during their jumping careers. This report describes the types and frequencies of injuries sustained by this group of nordic ski jumpers as well as provides demographic data about American ski jumpers. The risk of injury per 100 participant years was 9.4, a rate less than that reported for most high school or college intermural sports.

  6. Muscle glycogen depletion and lactate concentration during downhill skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, P; Larsson, L; Eriksson, A; Karlsson, J

    1978-01-01

    Skilled and unskilled skiers were studied during downhill skiing. Muscle glycogen and muscle lactate concentrations in the vastus lateralis muscle were determined following different skiing conditions. Heavy glycogen utilization was found in the groups studied during a day of skiing. The skilled and unskilled skiers differed with respect to selective glycogen depletion pattern and the skilled subjects demonstrated greater depletion of slow twitch fibers than the unskilled subjects. Lactate concentrations ranged from approximately 5-26 mmoles x kg-1 wet muscle after approximately one minute of maximal skiing. This wide range was not found to be related to the level of skiing proficiency. However, skiing with varyingly angled boots, resulting in different knee angles, did affect lactate concentration. Lactate concentration was positively correlated to individual muscle fiber composition expressed as a percent of fast twitch fibers. The results suggest more pronounced involvement of aerobic energy metabolism in skilled skiers than in unskilled skiers.

  7. Knee injuries in skiing. A prospective study from northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, G; Gedda, S; Hemborg, A

    1980-01-01

    This paper evaluates 420 ski injuries occurring in Northern Sweden in 1977. Our main aim was to correlate knee injuries with types of skiing and to note a change in incidence with evolution of equipment. Fifty-eight lesions (13.8%) affected the knee joint which is about the same frequency as 10 years earlier nor has introduction of high stiff boots in downhill skiing increased incidence of knee injuries. Cross-country and long-distance skiing produced more knee injuries (24.7%) than downhill skiing (11.4%). Cross-country skiers were older and more women in this group sustained knee injuries. The use of non-release type bindings is probably the main reason for this higher incidence but age and different skiing techniques seem to contribute.

  8. Skiing in the Great Lakes States: the industry and the skier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Leuschner

    1970-01-01

    Describes the skiers and ski areas in the Midwest. Analyzes market structure for the industry, the factors associated with financial success, the impact of spending on local economies, and the potential of ski area investment. Includes ski area financial statements.

  9. Take-off aerodynamics in ski jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmavirta, M; Kivekäs, J; Komi, P V

    2001-04-01

    The effect of aerodynamic forces on the force-time characteristics of the simulated ski jumping take-off was examined in a wind tunnel. Vertical and horizontal ground reaction forces were recorded with a force plate installed under the wind tunnel floor. The jumpers performed take-offs in non-wind conditions and in various wind conditions (21-33 m s(-1)). EMGs of the important take-off muscles were recorded from one jumper. The dramatic decrease in take-off time found in all jumpers can be considered as the result of the influence of aerodynamic lift. The loss in impulse due to the shorter force production time with the same take-off force is compensated with the increase in lift force, resulting in a higher vertical velocity (V(v)) than is expected from the conventional calculation of V(v) from the force impulse. The wind conditions emphasized the explosiveness of the ski jumping take-off. The aerodynamic lift and drag forces which characterize the aerodynamic quality of the initial take-off position (static in-run position) varied widely even between the examined elite ski jumpers. According to the computer simulation these differences can decisively affect jumping distance. The proper utilization of the prevailing aerodynamic forces before and during take-off is a very important prerequisite for achieving a good flight position.

  10. Attitude Estimation of Skis in Ski Jumping Using Low-Cost Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Fang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to estimate the attitude of skis for an entire ski jump using wearable, MEMS-based, low-cost Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs. First of all, a kinematic attitude model based on rigid-body dynamics and a sensor error model considering bias and scale factor error are established. Then, an extended Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS smoother is used to combine measurement data provided by both gyroscope and magnetometer to achieve an attitude estimation. Moreover, parameters for the bias and scale factor error in the sensor error model and the initial attitude are determined via a maximum-likelihood principle based parameter estimation algorithm. By implementing this approach, an attitude estimation of skis is achieved without further sensor calibration. Finally, results based on both the simulated reference data and the real experimental measurement data are presented, which proves the practicability and the validity of the proposed approach.

  11. Injuries among World Cup ski and snowboard athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flørenes, T W; Nordsletten, L; Heir, S; Bahr, R

    2012-02-01

    There is little information available on injuries to World Cup skiers and snowboarders. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the injury risk to World Cup athletes in alpine skiing, freestyle skiing, snowboarding, ski jumping, Nordic combined and cross country skiing. We performed retrospective interviews with the International Ski Federation (FIS) World Cup athletes from selected nations during the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 winter seasons and recorded all acute injuries occurring during the seasons. We interviewed 2121 athletes and recorded 705 injuries. There were 520 (72%) time-loss injuries and 196 (28%) severe injuries (absence >28 days). In freestyle skiing, alpine skiing and snowboarding, there were 27.6, 29.8 and 37.8 time-loss and 14.4, 11.3 and 13.8 severe injuries per 100 athletes per season, respectively. In Nordic combined, ski jumping and cross country skiing, there were 15.8, 13.6 and 6.3 time-loss and 3.3, 5.6 and 0.7 severe injuries per 100 athletes per season, respectively. In conclusion about 1/3 of the World Cup alpine, freestyle and snowboard athletes sustain a time-loss injury each season, while the risk is low in the Nordic disciplines. A particular concern was the high proportion of severe injuries observed among alpine, freestyle and snowboard athletes, which is in contrast to most other sports. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Motor abilities and anthropometrics in youth cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, R; Müller, E; Stöggl, T

    2015-02-01

    The purposes were to validate whether general motor abilities and anthropometrics are determinants of youth cross-country (XC) skiing performance; evaluate gender-specific differences; and to establish noninvasive diagnostics. Fifty-one youth XC skiers (34 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 years and 17 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 years) performed motor skill and laboratory tests, and anthropometric data were collected and correlated with XC skiing performance. Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys but not to girls XC skiing performance. Push-ups and 20-m sprint were correlated to XC skiing performance in both boys and girls. XC skiing performance of boys was predominantly influenced by upper body and trunk strength capacities (medicine ball throw, push-ups, and pull-ups) and jumping power (standing long and triple jump), whereas XC skiing of girls was mainly influenced by aerobic capacities (3000-m run). Laboratory measures did not reveal greater correlations to XC skiing performance compared with simple test concepts of speed, strength, and endurance. Maturity was a major confounding variable in boys but not girls. Use of noninvasive simple test concepts for determination of upper body strength, speed, and endurance represent practicable support for ski clubs, schools, or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent, being aware of the effect of maturity especially in boys. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Climate Change Risk Appraisal in the Austrian Ski Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsegger, C.

    2009-04-01

    Ski tourism is an economically and culturally important industry in many parts of Europe. A growing number of studies in Europe, North America, Japan, and Australia have concluded that climate change has potentially serious implications for the sustainability of ski operations by reducing the average length of ski seasons and, where applicable, increasing snowmaking costs. To date, however, the climate change risk awareness and adaptive responses of stakeholders in the ski industry have not been examined. A survey of managers at low elevation ski areas in Austria was undertaken to explore their perceptions of climate change (past and future), how climate change had/will affect their operations, and their adaptive responses (past and planned). The results indicate that climate change is not perceived to be a serious threat to ski operations and that with technological adaptation, principally snowmaking, ski area managers believe they will be able to effectively cope with climate change in the 21st century. The consequences of these perceptions for the future operation of these ski areas are discussed and conclusions drawn for the future of ski tourism in Austria.

  14. Development of geoinformation zoning model of urban territories for use in urban cadaster systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Денис Вікторович Горковчук

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure and composition of zoning spatial resources is explored. Geoinformation mode of geospatial zoning data on the basis of object-relational database management system is developed. Developed zoning model is tested in the environment of open-source database management system PostgreSQL. Applied SQL-function for automatic creation of build conditions and restrictions of land development is implemented

  15. Products for geoinformation support for spatial planning and management within the framework of the project ONIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc J. Zakrajšek

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a brief description of four products in the subproject Geoinformation support for physical planning and spatial management on the local level in the framework of the Onix project. The products are a result of a comprehensive approach to the development of information support, whose main features are unified dealing with planning acts, from the statutory plan and development plans to permitting procedures, multi-disciplinary approach and object oriented information approach.

  16. Downhill ski injuries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Michael C; Laurent, C Matthew; Higgins, Robert W; Skelly, William A

    2007-01-01

    Downhill skiing is considered to be an enjoyable activity for children and adolescents, but it is not without its risks and injuries. Injury rates now range between 3.9 and 9.1 injuries per 1000 skier days, and there has been a well documented increase in the number of trauma cases and fatalities associated with this sport. Head and neck injuries are considered the primary cause of fatal injuries and constitute 11-20% of total injuries among children and adolescents. Cranial trauma is responsible for up to 54% of total hospital injuries and 67% of all fatalities, whereas thoracoabdominal and spine injuries comprise 4-10% of fatalities. Furthermore, there has been an increase in the proportion of upper extremity trauma with acromioclavicular dislocations, and clavicle and humeral fractures accounting for the majority (22-79%) of the injuries. However, the most common and potentially serious injuries in children and adolescents are those to the lower extremity, with knee sprains and anterior cruciate ligament tears accounting for up to 47.7% of total injuries. Knee sprains and grade III ligament trauma associated with lower leg fractures account for 39-77% of ski injuries in this young population. Approximately 15% of downhill skiing injuries among children and adolescents are caused by musculoskeletal immaturity. Other factors include excessive fatigue, age, level of experience, and inappropriate or improperly adjusted equipment. Collisions and falls constitute a significant portion (up to 76%) of trauma, and are commonly associated with excessive speed, adverse slope conditions, overconfidence leading to carelessness, and behavioural patterns within and among gender. The type and severity of injuries are typically functions of biomechanical efficiency, skiing velocity or slope conditions; however, a multiplicative array of intrinsic and extrinsic factors may simultaneously be involved. Despite extensive efforts to provide a comprehensive picture of the aetiology of

  17. Biomechanical comparison of the double-push technique and the conventional skate skiing technique in cross-country sprint skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Lindinger, Stefan

    2008-09-01

    The aims of the study were to: (1) adapt the "double-push" technique from inline skating to cross-country skiing; (2) compare this new skiing technique with the conventional skate skiing cross-country technique; and (3) test the hypothesis that the double-push technique improves skiing speed in a short sprint. 13 elite skiers performed maximum-speed sprints over 100 m using the double-push skate skiing technique and using the conventional "V2" skate skiing technique. Pole and plantar forces, knee angle, cycle characteristics, and electromyography of nine lower body muscles were analysed. We found that the double-push technique could be successfully transferred to cross-country skiing, and that this new technique is faster than the conventional skate skiing technique. The double-push technique was 2.9 +/- 2.2% faster (P push technique had a longer cycle length and a lower cycle rate, and it was characterized by higher muscle activity, higher knee extension amplitudes and velocities, and higher peak foot forces, especially in the first phase of the push-off. Also, the foot was more loaded laterally in the double-push technique than in the conventional skate skiing technique.

  18. Effect of ski boot settings on tibio-femoral abduction and rotation during standing and simulated skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Harald; Senner, Veit

    2008-01-01

    Ski boots are designed to transfer high forces from the skier to the ski. For this purpose they are made of stiff materials and constrain the leg of the skier to an unnatural position. To overcome the problem of unnatural knee posture, the ski boots can be adjusted in the frontal plane as well as in the horizontal plane by the canting mechanism and the "v-position", respectively. Canting enables lateral and medial orientation of the shaft with respect to the base of the boot. The "v-position" is a pronounced outward rotation of the boot's base with respect to the ski's long axis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of different foot rotations and ski boot canting settings on knee kinematics during standing and simulated skiing. Knee kinematics was measured by means of motion analysis and with the help of skin-mounted markers on 20 subjects. The ski boots in their standard settings significantly constrained the skier to an unnatural valgus position. Ski boot base rotation had a significant effect on internal external knee rotation, whereas canting had an effect on varus-valgus angles during standing. However, for the simulated skiing position no effects were observed. The study suggests that the constraints of the ski boots result in a clinically relevant valgus misalignment. Canting settings reduced the misalignment but only by about 10%. Increased ski boot canting settings would therefore be desirable. Knee kinematics showed that rotational misalignment could not be linked to any significant increase in injury risk.

  19. Aerodynamics of ski jumping flight and its control: I. Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Daehan; Bang, Kyeongtae; Kim, Heesu; Ahn, Eunhye; Choi, Haecheon

    2015-11-01

    In a ski jumping competition, it is essential to analyze the effect of various posture parameters of a ski jumper to achieve a longer flight distance. For this purpose, we construct a model of a ski jumper by using three-dimensional surface data obtained by scanning a ski jumper's body (Mr. Chil-Ku Kang, member of the Korean national team). An experiment on this model is conducted in a wind tunnel. We consider four posture parameters (forward leaning angle, ski opening angle, ski rolling angle, and ski spacing) and measure the drag and lift forces for various flight postures at various angles of attack (α = 0° - 40°) and Reynolds numbers (Re = 5.4 × 105 - 1.6 × 106) based on the length of the jump ski. Then, we derive optimum values of posture parameters for maximum lift-to-drag ratio using a response surface method. We also conduct a full-scale wind tunnel experiment with members of the Korean national team and confirm the results obtained from the experiment on the model. Supported by the NRF program (2014M3C1B1033848).

  20. Aerodynamics of ski jumping flight and its control: II. Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungil; Lee, Hansol; Kim, Woojin; Choi, Haecheon

    2015-11-01

    In a ski jumping competition, it is essential to analyze the effect of various posture parameters of a ski jumper to achieve a longer flight distance. For this purpose, we conduct a large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flow past a model ski jumper which is obtained by 3D scanning a ski jumper's body (Mr. Chil-Ku Kang, member of the Korean national team). The angle of attack of the jump ski is 30° and the Reynolds number based on the length of the jump ski is 540,000. The flow statistics including the drag and lift coefficients in flight are in good agreements with our own experimental data. We investigate the flow characteristics such as the flow separation and three-dimensional vortical structures and their effects on the drag and lift. In addition to LES, we construct a simple geometric model of a ski jumper where each part of the ski jumper is modeled as a canonical bluff body such as the sphere, cylinder and flat plate, to find its optimal posture. The results from this approach will be compared with those by LES and discussed. Supported by NRF program (2014M3C1B1033848, 2014R1A1A1002671).

  1. High Performance Skiing. How to Become a Better Alpine Skier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacenda, John

    This book is intended for people who desire to improve their skiing by exploring high performance techniques leading to: (1) more consistent performance; (2) less fatigue and more endurance; (3) greater strength and flexibility; (4) greater versatility; (5) greater confidence in all skiing conditions; and (6) the knowledge to participate in…

  2. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  3. The influence of ski helmets on sound perception and sound localisation on the ski slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Ružić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ski helmet interferes with the sound localization and the time of sound perception in the frontal plane. Material and Methods: Twenty-three participants (age 30.7±10.2 were tested on the slope in 2 conditions, with and without wearing the ski helmet, by 6 different spatially distributed sound stimuli per each condition. Each of the subjects had to react when hearing the sound as soon as possible and to signalize the correct side of the sound arrival. Results: The results showed a significant difference in the ability to localize the specific ski sounds; 72.5±15.6% of correct answers without a helmet vs. 61.3±16.2% with a helmet (p < 0.01. However, the performance on this test did not depend on whether they were used to wearing a helmet (p = 0.89. In identifying the timing, at which the sound was firstly perceived, the results were also in favor of the subjects not wearing a helmet. The subjects reported hearing the ski sound clues at 73.4±5.56 m without a helmet vs. 60.29±6.34 m with a helmet (p < 0.001. In that case the results did depend on previously used helmets (p < 0.05, meaning that that regular usage of helmets might help to diminish the attenuation of the sound identification that occurs because of the helmets. Conclusions: Ski helmets might limit the ability of a skier to localize the direction of the sounds of danger and might interfere with the moment, in which the sound is firstly heard.

  4. Geoinformation postgraduate education at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia - towards a centre of high quality postgraduate education and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S.; Kanniah, K. D.; Rahman, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Studying at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) will ensure academic and technological excellence. The Faculty of Geoinformation and Real Estate (FGHT), established in 1972, focus on education and research for undergraduate as well as postgraduate programs in the related disciplines such as geomatic engineering, geoinformatics, remote sensing, property management and land administration & development. FGHT strives to be a leading academic center in geoinformation and real estate in Southeast Asia. Graduates and alumni form major strong professional societies and work force in the related industries. Many of our graduates end up with good jobs not just in Malaysia but also in other countries (Asian, Middle East, Africa and Europe). The strong team and knowledgeable academic members in this faculty provide excellent ingredients for the success of the programs (i.e. with the relevant and up-to-date curriculum and syllabus). FGHT is continuously working to provide and offer first-class geoinformation and real estate education and research in the country and be at a par with other leading institutions in other parts of the globe. The Department of Geoinformation at FGHT runs a Bachelor of Engineering in Geomatic and a Bachelor of Science in Geoinformatics. At the postgraduate levels, namely M.Sc. and PhD programs, the offered disciplines are Geomatic Engineering, Geoinformatics and Remote Sensing. In the following, the state of the art of FGHT's postgraduate education in Geoinformation is presented, including a comparison with other universities in Malaysia, program content and curriculum information, alumni statistics as well as future strategies.

  5. The effect of skiing on soil, hydrology and erosion hazard in the ski area of Sölden, Tyrol, Austria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thonon, I.

    2006-01-01

    In July and August 1999, we investigated the influence of skiing on the catchment hydrology and soil (erosion) in the surroundings of Sölden, Tyrol, Austria. Sölden is a ski village located in the Ötztal valley in between the Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. During this research, we conducted 122

  6. Multidimensional building objects in a Danish geo-information infrastructure perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Lise

    2002-01-01

    The emerging multidimensional GI- and VR-technologies within the professional disciplines dealing with design, planning and management processes is leading to a demand for four-dimensional building objects as part of the public geo-information infrastructure. The other way around the recognition...... of the building as a four-dimensional geo-phenomenon will provide a reference between different data sets whether representing buildings in two, three or four dimensions. Finally a central issue is the potential in using frameworks of multidimensional representations as interfaces to the available data sets...

  7. Geospatial data infrastructure: The development of metadata for geo-information in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baiquan; Yan, Shiqiang; Wang, Qianju; Lian, Jian; Wu, Xiaoping; Ding, Keyong

    2014-03-01

    Stores of geoscience records are in constant flux. These stores are continually added to by new information, ideas and data, which are frequently revised. The geoscience record is in restrained by human thought and technology for handling information. Conventional methods strive, with limited success, to maintain geoscience records which are readily susceptible and renewable. The information system must adapt to the diversity of ideas and data in geoscience and their changes through time. In China, more than 400,000 types of important geological data are collected and produced in geological work during the last two decades, including oil, natural gas and marine data, mine exploration, geophysical, geochemical, remote sensing and important local geological survey and research reports. Numerous geospatial databases are formed and stored in National Geological Archives (NGA) with available formats of MapGIS, ArcGIS, ArcINFO, Metalfile, Raster, SQL Server, Access and JPEG. But there is no effective way to warrant that the quality of information is adequate in theory and practice for decision making. The need for fast, reliable, accurate and up-to-date information by providing the Geographic Information System (GIS) communities are becoming insistent for all geoinformation producers and users in China. Since 2010, a series of geoinformation projects have been carried out under the leadership of the Ministry of Land and Resources (MLR), including (1) Integration, update and maintenance of geoinformation databases; (2) Standards research on clusterization and industrialization of information services; (3) Platform construction of geological data sharing; (4) Construction of key borehole databases; (5) Product development of information services. "Nine-System" of the basic framework has been proposed for the development and improvement of the geospatial data infrastructure, which are focused on the construction of the cluster organization, cluster service, convergence

  8. Geospatial data infrastructure: The development of metadata for geo-information in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Baiquan; Yan, Shiqiang; Wang, Qianju; Lian, Jian; Wu, Xiaoping; Ding, Keyong

    2014-01-01

    Stores of geoscience records are in constant flux. These stores are continually added to by new information, ideas and data, which are frequently revised. The geoscience record is in restrained by human thought and technology for handling information. Conventional methods strive, with limited success, to maintain geoscience records which are readily susceptible and renewable. The information system must adapt to the diversity of ideas and data in geoscience and their changes through time. In China, more than 400,000 types of important geological data are collected and produced in geological work during the last two decades, including oil, natural gas and marine data, mine exploration, geophysical, geochemical, remote sensing and important local geological survey and research reports. Numerous geospatial databases are formed and stored in National Geological Archives (NGA) with available formats of MapGIS, ArcGIS, ArcINFO, Metalfile, Raster, SQL Server, Access and JPEG. But there is no effective way to warrant that the quality of information is adequate in theory and practice for decision making. The need for fast, reliable, accurate and up-to-date information by providing the Geographic Information System (GIS) communities are becoming insistent for all geoinformation producers and users in China. Since 2010, a series of geoinformation projects have been carried out under the leadership of the Ministry of Land and Resources (MLR), including (1) Integration, update and maintenance of geoinformation databases; (2) Standards research on clusterization and industrialization of information services; (3) Platform construction of geological data sharing; (4) Construction of key borehole databases; (5) Product development of information services. ''Nine-System'' of the basic framework has been proposed for the development and improvement of the geospatial data infrastructure, which are focused on the construction of the cluster organization, cluster

  9. "no snow - no skiing excursion - consequences of climatic change?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunzig, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    Climatology and climate change have become central topics in Geography at our school. Because of that we set up a climatological station at our school. The data are an important basis to observe sudden changes in the weather. The present winter (2013/2014) shows the importance of climate change in Alzey / Germany. In winter many students think of the yearly skiing trip to Schwaz / Austria which is part of our school programme. Due to that the following questions arise: Will skiing still be possible if climate change accelerates? How are the skiing regions in the Alpes going to change? What will happen in about 20 years? How does artificial snow change the landscape and the skiing sport? Students have to be aware of the ecological damage of skiing trips. Each class has to come up with a concept how these trips can be as environmentally friendly as possible. - the trip is for a restricted number of students only (year 8 only) - a small skiing region is chosen which is not overcrowded - snow has to be guaranteed in the ski area to avoid the production of artificial snow (avoidance of high water consumption) - the bus arrives with a class and returns with the one that had been there before These are but a few ideas of students in order to make their trip as environmentally friendly as possible. What is missing is only what is going to happen in the future. What will be the effect of climate change for skiing regions in the secondary mountains? How is the average temperature for winter going to develop? Are there possibilities for summer tourism (e.g. hiking) instead of skiing in winter? The students are going to try to find answers to these questions which are going to be presented on a poster on the GIFT-Workshop in Vienna.

  10. Ski jumping boots limit effective take-off in ski jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmavirta, M; Komi, P V

    2001-12-01

    In this study, we measured the vertical and horizontal take-off forces, plantar pressures and activation patterns of four muscles (vastus lateralis, gluteus maximus, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius) in 10 ski jumpers in simulated laboratory conditions when wearing either training shoes or ski jumping boots. We found significant differences in vertical (P boots condition resulted in a smaller displacement in the final position of the following joint angles: ankle angle (P knee angle (P boots condition, significantly more pressure was recorded under the heel (P knee and hip extensors when wearing jumping boots. We conclude that the stiffness of the structure of the jumping boots may result in a forward shift of pressure, thus limiting the effective vertical force. To avoid this pressure shift, the pattern of movement of simulated take-offs should be carefully controlled, particularly when wearing training shoes.

  11. Flight style optimization in ski jumping on normal, large, and ski flying hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Alexander; Staat, Manfred; Müller, Wolfram

    2014-02-07

    In V-style ski jumping, aerodynamic forces are predominant performance factors and athletes have to solve difficult optimization problems in parts of a second in order to obtain their jump length maximum and to keep the flight stable. Here, a comprehensive set of wind tunnel data was used for optimization studies based on Pontryagin's minimum principle with both the angle of attack α and the body-ski angle β as controls. Various combinations of the constraints αmax and βmin(t) were analyzed in order to compare different optimization strategies. For the computer simulation studies, the Olympic hill profiles in Esto-Sadok, Russia (HS 106m, HS 140m), and in Harrachov, Czech Republic, host of the Ski Flying World Championships 2014 (HS 205m) were used. It is of high importance for ski jumping practice that various aerodynamic strategies, i.e. combinations of α- and β-time courses, can lead to similar jump lengths which enables athletes to win competitions using individual aerodynamic strategies. Optimization results also show that aerodynamic behavior has to be different at different hill sizes (HS). Optimized time courses of α and β using reduced drag and lift areas in order to mimic recent equipment regulations differed only in a negligible way. This indicates that optimization results presented here are not very sensitive to minor changes of the aerodynamic equipment features when similar jump length are obtained by using adequately higher in-run velocities. However, wind tunnel measurements with athletes including take-off and transition to stabilized flight, flight, and landing behavior would enable a more detailed understanding of individual flight style optimization. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Cross-country skiing movement factorization to explore relationships between skiing economy and athletes' skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, B; Zoppirolli, C; Boccia, G; Bortolan, L; Schena, F

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the relationships between the biomechanics of the double poling (DP) technique in cross-country skiing, its economy, and athletes' skill. To this aim, skiers' motion has been factorized into components through principal component analysis (PCA). Eight high-level (HL) and eight regional level (RL) male cross-country skiers performed a 5-minute submaximal DP trial while roller skiing on a treadmill at 14 km h -1 and 2° incline. Whole-body kinematics was recorded with a motion capture system. PCA was applied to markers coordinates to extract principal movements (PM k ), which were ranked by their variance. Energy cost (EC) of locomotion was calculated from ergospirometric measurements. Results showed that 96.7%±0.6% of total skiing pattern variance can be described with the first three PM k. (Shoulder and trunk flexion-extension are described PM 1 and PM 2 and elbow flexion-extension are mainly represented in PM 2 and PM 3. The variance of further components, consisting of residual movements (eg, slow postural changes or high-frequency vibrations), was greater for the RL than the HL skiers (4.0%±0.5% vs 2.6%±0.3%; P<.001) and was positively correlated with EC (R 2 =.646; P<.001). PCA permitted to describe the biomechanics of the DP technique through a limited set of principal movements. Skiing skills and economy appeared to be related to a skier's ability to simplify movement complexity, suggesting that an efficient skier is better able to reduce superfluous movement components during DP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The effectiveness of ski bindings and their professional adjustment for preventing alpine skiing injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C F; Kelsall, H L

    1998-06-01

    This article presents a critical review of the extent to which alpine ski bindings and their adjustment have been formally demonstrated to prevent injuries. It considers a range of evidence, from anecdotal evidence and informed opinion to biomechanical studies, testing of equipment, epidemiological studies and controlled field evaluations. A total of 15 published studies examining the effectiveness of bindings and their adjustment were identified. All of these included anecdotal or informed opinion, and all but one focused on equipment design. Seven studies involved the testing of bindings or binding prototypes, 2 studies presented biomechanical models of the forces involved in binding operation, 6 reported an epidemiological evaluation of ski bindings and 2 considered skiers' behaviours towards binding adjustment. Some of the reviewed articles relate to the study of the biomechanics of ski bindings and their release in response to various loads and loading patterns. Other studies examined the contribution of bindings and binding-release to lower extremity, equipment-related injuries, the effect of various methods of binding adjustment on injury risk and the determinants of skiers' behaviour relating to professional binding adjustment. Most of the evidence suggests that currently used bindings are insufficient for the multidirectional release required to reduce the risk of injury to the lower limb, especially at the knee. This evidence suggests that further technical developments and innovations are required. The standard of the manufacture of bindings and boots also needs to be considered. The optimal adjustment of bindings using a testing device has been shown to be associated with a reduced risk of lower extremity injury. Generally, however, the adjustment of bindings has been shown to be inadequate, especially for children's bindings. Recommendations for further research, development and implementation with respect to ski binding and their adjustment are given

  14. Additional Smooth and Rough Water Trials of SKI-CAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ADDITIONAL SMOOTH AND ROUGH WATER TRIALS OF FINAL SKI- CAT S. PERFORMING ORO. REPORT NUMSER 7. AUTHOR() I. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMUr...Identif by bloc membe) ’ " -Further tests of SKI- CAT were made in smooth and rough water. Smooth water results confirmed the performance results of...reductions in the accelerations and motions of SKI- CAT over against the head seasreut DD , +A ,3 1473 EDITION OF I NOVS IS OBSOLETE UNCIbSJFIED SIME 0102-014

  15. Serious ski jumping injuries in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, K

    1985-01-01

    Injuries caused by ski jumping have been poorly investigated. Among approximately 2,200 licensed jumpers in Norway, there occurred at least 12 injuries with a permanent medical disability of greater than or equal to 10%. The risk of being seriously injured is approximately 5% in a 5 year period (1977 to 1981); it is higher in the age group 15 to 17 years. Seven injuries were very serious [four central nervous system (CNS) lesions, two leg amputations, and one blindness of one eye], and five were less serious (sequelae to fractures of the lower extremities). The first jump of the day is particularly dangerous, and so is the beginning and end of the season. It seems dangerous to use more than one standard heel block. Poor preparation of the jump may have contributed to the accidents. Based on the findings, several prophylactic measures are suggested.

  16. Concept of Operating Indoor Skiing Halls with

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    Indoor skiing halls are conventionally operated at low temperatures and with either crushed ice as snow substitute or snow made from freezing water in cold air. Both systems have a high energy demand for air cooling, floor freezing and consequently snow harvest. At the same time the snow at the top...... floor cooling/freezing and insulation become obsolete, significant savings in piping and building costs can be achieved. Due to the much higher evaporating temperature for the refrigeration system, the energy demand is kept low. Since the same equipment is used for both snowmaking and air cooling......, the running time of the equipment is high, resulting in a better economy. Using Binary Snow, with its unique qualities such as fluffy, crisp, white and ¿ since made daily ¿ "fresh and hygienic", offers great advantages in operating costs, investment costs and quality....

  17. Crossing physical simulations of snow conditions and a geographic model of ski area to assess ski resorts vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Hugues; Spandre, Pierre; Morin, Samuel; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Lejeune, Yves

    2016-04-01

    In order to face climate change, meteorological variability and the recurrent lack of natural snow on the ground, ski resorts adaptation often rely on technical responses. Indeed, since the occurrence of episodes with insufficient snowfalls in the early 1990's, snowmaking has become an ordinary practice of snow management, comparable to grooming, and contributes to optimise the operation of ski resorts. It also participates to the growth of investments and is associated with significant operating costs, and thus represents a new source of vulnerability. The assessment of the actual effects of snowmaking and of snow management practices in general is a real concern for the future of the ski industry. The principal model use to simulate snow conditions in resorts, Ski Sim, has also been moving this way. Its developers introduced an artificial input of snow on ski area to complete natural snowfalls and considered different organisations of ski lifts (lower and upper zones). However the use of a degree-day model prevents them to consider the specific properties of artificial snow and the impact of grooming on the snowpack. A first proof of concept in the French Alps has shown the feasibility and the interest to cross the geographic model of ski areas and the output of the physically-based reanalysis of snow conditions SAFRAN - Crocus (François et al., CRST 2014). Since these initial developments, several ways have been explored to refine our model. A new model of ski areas has been developed. Our representation is now based on gravity derived from a DEM and ski lift localisation. A survey about snow management practices also allowed us to define criteria in order to model snowmaking areas given ski areas properties and tourism infrastructures localisation. We also suggest to revisit the assessment of ski resort viability based on the "one hundred days rule" based on natural snow depth only. Indeed, the impact of snow management must be considered so as to propose

  18. Telemark skiing injuries: characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federiuk, C S; Mann, N C

    1999-01-01

    To determine the types of injuries associated with telemark skiing and the effects of ability level, equipment, and terrain. A survey was mailed to a sample of North American telemark skiers. Completed surveys were returned by 548 telemarkers (response rate = 74.5%). The mean age was 42.7 (+/- 9.3) years, and 69% were male. A total of 439 injury events resulted in 494 body injuries, reported by 285 skiers (52%). Lower-extremity injuries (n = 231) were more frequent than upper-extremity injuries (n = 187). Knee injuries were most common with 128 cases, followed by 80 thumb, 66 shoulder, and 44 ankle injuries. Surgery was required in 39 cases. Skiers suffering thumb injuries with sequela lasting greater than 3 months were 10.1 times less likely to have sought medical attention than skiers with other long-term injuries (p boot type and overall knee or ankle injury, but risk of severe ankle injury was increased in leather boots compared to plastic (OR = 8.0, CI = 1.05, 60.59). Release bindings were used by 27.9% of all skiers but were in use in only 18.7% of injury events, suggesting that release plates have a protective effect against injury (OR = 0.59, p knee, thumb, shoulder, and ankle are most frequently injured telemark skiing. Injuries are more likely to occur at lift-served areas than in the backcountry. Thumb injuries are often ignored and may result in long-term sequela. Ankle injuries appear more severe in leather boots. Release bindings appear protective against injury, but they often do not release.

  19. The relationship between performance in core exercises and performance ability in ski jumping : a cross-sectional study of competitive ski jumpers

    OpenAIRE

    Norwich, Andreas Tørum

    2017-01-01

    Background: The concept of core stability and balance are emphasized during athletic training for Norwegian ski jumpers. The impression of how important it can be for sport performance has long been a matter of interest within research. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between core stability, balance and ski-jumping performance ability in competitive ski jumpers. Methods: Eleven male ski jumpers were tested for steadiness in two commonly used core exercises (plank a...

  20. Geoinformation monitoring of the educational risk in educational institutions of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr N. Kolesenkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect, received by a person and society from mastering the basic professional educational programs is problematic to quantify, which leads to the emergence of a risk that characterizes the quality of management decision-making procedures for implementing the educational process in higher education institutions in terms of the level of achievement of the set criteria and indicators.The aim of the work is the development of technology for monitoring of the educational risk based on the geoinformation approach and methods of data mining. Assessment of the educational risk can be implemented through monitoring the quality of the implementation of the main professional educational programs of the institution.Monitoring of the educational risk in the implementation of the educational process in institutions of higher education means the collection, cataloging, pre-processing, analysis and visualization of the data, aimed at improving the efficiency and quality of providing educational services. To accomplish this goal, the following methods and approaches are used: geoinformation approach, cluster analysis, probability theory, data classification methods, forecasting methods, forecasting, and data visualization technologies.The scientific and methodological aspects of the development of the methodical, informational and instrumental support of the educational risk management system in educational institutions of higher education are examined. According to the results of the work, it is revealed that the use of geoinformation technologies increases the efficiency of management by the collection automation, processing and analysis of data on the implementation of educational programs.Modern geoinformation technologies provide the opportunity to create and integrate a system that has innovative analytical functionality, and implements new effective technologies, methods and algorithms in the tasks of monitoring the educational programs. The use of

  1. ENERGY MANAGEMENT INNOVATION IN THE US SKI INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ski areas represent a unique opportunity to develop innovative energy management practices in an industrial setting. Through a unique synergy of onsite generation, preferably by renewable sources and innovative technologies, and the energy storage potential of exis...

  2. Restoration of eroded surfaces in Serbian ski-areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Ratko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts in Serbian ski areas are very strong, leading to landscape degradation and functionality losses. Construction or improvement works cause serious destruction of topsoil and native vegetation. Some activities enhance erosion production and sediment yield: clear cuttings; trunk transport down the slope; road construction and large excavations. Also, lack of erosion control works in ski areas, especially between April and October, result in various forms of land degradation such as furrows, gullies, landslides, or debris from rock weathering. The consequences of mismanagement in ski areas are noticeable in downstream sections of river beds, causing floods and bed-load deposition. Planning and designing activities, with the application of technical and biotechnical erosion control structures, through the concept of restoration, are necessary measures in the protection of ski areas.

  3. Perspectives for comprehensive biomechanical analyses in Mogul skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpiers, Nicolas; McAlpine, Paul R; Kersting, Uwe G

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using a force measurement device on riding technique in mogul skiing. A mock-up version of such a device was positioned between ski boot and binding. Data on three-dimensional kinematics and perception were collected for eight subjects skiing down a mogul course. Parameters analysed were knee angle, side and forward lean of the trunk and hip, and the path of the body's centre of mass. A perception questionnaire was used on selective aspects to assess the skiers' perception of the performances. Perception ratings showed no significant detrimental effects. All assessed components showed a trend of improvement from the first to last run, thus suggesting familiarisation was achieved. Kinematic analysis revealed that no significant alterations occurred. In conclusion, it is intended to utilise a functional force plate similar to the one presented by Kiefmann et al. (2006) for future studies in freestyle skiing.

  4. Anterior cruciate ligament injury/reinjury in alpine ski racing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2017-01-01

    and return to sport after ACL injury in alpine ski racing. Given that most of the scientific studies on ACL injuries in alpine ski racing have been descriptive, and that very few studies contributed higher level scientific evidence, a nonsystematic narrative review was employed. Three scholarly databases...... were searched for articles on ACL injury or knee injury in alpine ski racing. Studies were classified according to their relevance in relation to epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and return to sport/reinjury prevention. Alpine ski racers (skiers) were found to be at high risk for knee injuries...... injuries in development-level skiers, there was limited scientific data on ACL injury risk factors among elite skiers. Based on expert opinion, research on injury risk factors should focus on equipment design, course settings/speed, and athlete factors (eg, fitness). While skiers seem to make a successful...

  5. Searching for ski-lift injury: an uphill struggle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartt, Pam; Chalmers, David

    2010-03-01

    Injuries arising from ski-lift malfunction are rare. Most arise from skier error when embarking or disembarking, or from improper lift operation. A search of the literature failed to uncover any studies focusing specifically on ski-lift injuries. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise ski-lift injury resulting in hospitalisation and comment on barriers to reporting and reporting omissions. New Zealand hospitalised injury discharges 2000-2005 formed the primary dataset. To aid case identification these data were linked to ACC compensated claims for the same period and the data searched for all hospitalised cases of injury arising from ski-lifts. 44 cases were identified representing 2% of snow-skiing/snowboarding cases. 28 cases (64%) were male and 16 (36%) female, the average age was 32 yrs (range 5-73 yrs). The majority of cases were snow-skiers (35 cases, 80%). Most of the injuries were serious, or potentially so, with 1 case of traumatic pneumothorax, one of pulmonary embolism (after jumping from a ski-lift) and 28 cases sustaining fractures (six to the neck-of-femur, one to the lumbar spine and one to the pubis). ICISS scores for all cases ranged from 1.00 to 0.8182 (probability of dying in hospital 0-18.18%). Only 14 (32%) cases could be easily identified from ICD-10-AM e-codes and activity codes in the discharge summary. The ICD-10-AM external cause code for ski-lift injury V98 ("other specified transport accidents") was only assigned to 39% of cases. The type of ski-lift could only be determined in 24 cases (55%). Copyright 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Developing a business plan for Ski School Jasna

    OpenAIRE

    Dubovská, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The Master's Thesis analyses and evaluates the conditions for the Ski & Snowboard School Lúčky development in the Jasná Nízke Tatry ski resort as well as it illustrates specific steps and actions in the realistic business plan. Firstly, it introduces theoretical background of feasibility analysis, business model, and the business plan focusing on the importance and structure of each topic. Secondly, the thesis portrays the results of an empirical research conducted on the target audience that...

  7. Changes in Quadriceps Muscle Activity During Sustained Recreational Alpine Skiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröll, Josef; Müller, Erich; Seifert, John G.; Wakeling, James M.

    2011-01-01

    During a day of skiing thousands of repeated contractions take place. Previous research on prolonged recreational alpine skiing show that physiological changes occur and hence some level of fatigue is inevitable. In the present paper the effect of prolonged skiing on the recruitment and coordination of the muscle activity was investigated. Six subjects performed 24 standardized runs. Muscle activity during the first two (PREskiing) and the last two (POSTskiing) runs was measured from the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) using EMG and quantified using wavelet and principal component analysis. The frequency content of the EMG signal shifted in seven out of eight cases significantly towards lower frequencies with highest effects observed for RF on outside leg. A significant pronounced outside leg loading occurred during POSTskiing and the timing of muscle activity peaks occurred more towards turn completion. Specific EMG frequency changes were observed at certain time points throughout the time windows and not over the whole double turn. It is suggested that general muscular fatigue, where additional specific muscle fibers have to be recruited due to the reduced power output of other fibers did not occur. The EMG frequency decrease and intensity changes for RF and VL are caused by altered timing (coordination) within the turn towards a most likely more uncontrolled skiing technique. Hence, these data provide evidence to suggest recreational skiers alter their skiing technique before a potential change in muscle fiber recruitment occurs. Key points The frequency content of the EMG signal shifted in seven out of eight cases significantly towards lower frequencies with highest effects observed for RF. General muscular fatigue, where additional specific fibers have to be recruited due to the reduced power output of other fibers, did not occur. A modified skiing style towards a less functional and hence more uncontrolled skiing technique seems to be a key

  8. Formal modelling of processes and tasks to support use and search of geo-information in emergency response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanova, S.

    2010-01-01

    Many Command& Control or Early warning systems have been developed providing access to large amounts of data (and metadata) via geo-portals, or by accessing predefined data sets relaying on Spatial Data Infrastructure. However, the users involved in emergency response are usually not geoinformation

  9. Biomechanics research in ski jumping, 1991-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwameder, Hermann

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I review biomechanics research in ski jumping with a specific focus on publications presented between 1991 and 2006 on performance enhancement, limiting factors of the take-off, specific training and conditioning, aerodynamics, and safety. The first section presents a brief description of ski jumping phases (in-run, take-off, early flight, stable flight, and landing) regarding the biomechanical and functional fundamentals. The most important and frequently used biomechanical methods in ski jumping (kinematics, ground reaction force analyses, muscle activation patterns, aerodynamics) are summarized in the second section. The third section focuses on ski jumping articles and research findings published after the establishment of the V-technique in 1991, as the introduction of this technique has had a major influence on performance enhancement, ski jumping regulations, and the construction of hill profiles. The final section proposes topics for future research in the biomechanics of ski jumping, including: take-off and early flight and the relative roles of vertical velocity and forward somersaulting angular momentum; optimal jumping patterns utilizing the capabilities of individual athletes; development of kinematic and kinetic feedback systems for hill jumps; comparisons of simulated and hill jumps; effect of equipment modifications on performance and safety enhancement.

  10. Kinematic Chains in Ski Jumping In-run Posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janurová, Eva; Janura, Miroslav; Cabell, Lee; Svoboda, Zdeněk; Vařeka, Ivan; Elfmark, Milan

    2013-12-18

    The concept of kinematic chains has been systematically applied to biological systems since the 1950s. The course of a ski jump can be characterized as a change between closed and open kinematic chains. The purpose of this study was to determine a relationship between adjacent segments within the ski jumper's body's kinematic chain during the in-run phase of the ski jump. The in-run positions of 267 elite male ski jumpers who participated in the FIS World Cup events in Innsbruck, Austria, between 1992 and 2001 were analyzed (656 jumps). Two-dimensional (2-D) kinematic data were collected from the bodies of the subjects. Relationships between adjacent segments of the kinematic chain in the ski jumper's body at the in-run position are greater nearer the chain's ground contact. The coefficient of determination between the ankle and knee joint angles is 0.67. Changes in the segments' positions in the kinematic chain of the ski jumper's body are stable during longitudinal assessment. Changes in shank and thigh positions, in the sense of increase or decrease, are the same.

  11. Land degradation at the Stara Planina ski resort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, Ratko; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Radić, Boris; Nikić, Zoran; Vasiljević, Nevena

    2012-03-01

    The environmental impacts of ski resorts in the Balkan region are great and can lead to landscape degradation and loss of land functionality. In this study, we present an example of the negative effects of human activities at the Stara Planina ski resort in southeastern Serbia. The objective of this study is detailed analysis of the characteristics of environmental impacts at the Stara Planina. The management of the ski area and ski slope development caused severe degradation of topsoil and native vegetation. The morphological characteristics of the area, lithological properties of the exposed material and climate conditions resulted in various geomorphic impacts, including rills, deep gullies, solifluctions and debris from rock weathering. Significant changes in land usage altered hydrological conditions, resulting in more frequent torrential floods in the downstream sections of the Zubska River and increased the sediment yield. Environmental impacts were analyzed in the immediate and wider zones of the ski resort in accordance with the specific topography and visual exposure. The restoration and erosion control measures have stopped degradation processes and helped to rehabilitate the appearance and functions of the landscape. The results show the importance of considering lithological (the type and characteristics of minerals present) and hydrological (precipitation, water storage capacity of soil, runoff) factors under the conditions of significant changes in land usage. The results of this investigation can contribute to the improvement of planning processes and the implementation of development projects in ski areas.

  12. The Russians Are the Fastest in Marathon Cross-Country Skiing: The “Engadin Ski Marathon”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that athletes from a specific region or country are dominating certain sports disciplines such as marathon running or Ironman triathlon; however, little relevant information exists on cross-country skiing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the aspect of region and nationality in one of the largest cross-country skiing marathons in Europe, the “Engadin Ski Marathon.” All athletes (n=197,125 who finished the “Engadin Ski Marathon” between 1998 and 2016 were considered. More than two-thirds of the finishers (72.5% in women and 69.6% in men were Swiss skiers, followed by German, Italian, and French athletes in both sexes. Most of the Swiss finishers were from Canton of Zurich (20.5%, Grisons (19.2%, and Berne (10.3%. Regarding performance, the Russians were the fastest and the British the slowest. Considering local athletes, finishers from Canton of Uri and Glarus were the fastest and those from Canton of Geneva and Basel the slowest. Based on the findings of the present study, it was concluded that local athletes were not the fastest in the “Engadin Ski Marathon.” Future studies need to investigate other cross-country skiing races in order to find the nationalities and regions of the fastest cross-country skiers.

  13. Anatol Stern e Bruno Jasieński [Anatol Stern and Bruno Jasieński

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Tomassucci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Author presents her first Italian translation of Anatol Stern’s article (excerpted from his monograph on Polish Avantgarde Rebelled Poetry. Sketches on Interwar Period Poetry [1964, 2nd issue 1970] about another prominent initiator and ideologist of Polish futurism, Bruno Jasieński. After the Thaw, Stern first contributed to Jasieński’s rehabilitation, publishing his poetry and the novel I burn Paris and writing several essays about his work. The article presented also offers a choice of translated fragments of Jasieński’s poetry, just a few known in Italy, and an artistic profile of Stern.

  14. Changes in the Balance Performance of Polish Recreational Skiers after Seven Days of Alpine Skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojtyczek Beata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alpine skiing is one of the most popular leisure time winter sporting activities. Skiing imposes high requirements concerning physical fitness, particularly regarding balance abilities. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in balance performance of recreational skiers after a seven-day ski camp. A total of 78 students - 24 women and 54 men - participated in the study. The ski course was held in accordance with the official program of the Polish Ski Federation. The study sample was comprised of 43 beginners and 35 intermediate skiers. All students were tested with the MFT S3-Check, the day before and the day after the ski camp. The test system consisted of an unstable uniaxial platform, with an integrated sensor and corresponding software. Changes in balance performance (sensory and stability index were evaluated using paired t-tests. Additionally, changes in sensory and stability categories, which were based on the norm data, were analyzed. Female and male participants showed significantly better sensory and stability indices after skiing. Considerable changes from weak or very weak to average or good balance categories could be seen after skiing for both sexes. Regarding skiing experience, both beginners and intermediate skiers improved their sensory and stability indices significantly after skiing. Hence, recreational alpine skiing resulted in better balance performance regardless of sex or skiing experience. Skiing as an outdoor activity offers the opportunity to improve balance performance with a positive impact on everyday life activities.

  15. Exercise economy in skiing and running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eLosnegard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL•kg-1•min-1 participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis with subsequent criteria for interpreting the magnitude of correlation (r. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81 and a large correlation between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53 and double poling and running (r = 0.58. There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and VO2peak (r = 0.00-0.23, cycle rate (r = 0.03-0.46, body mass (r = -0.09-0.46 and body height (r = 0.11-0.36. In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could only moderately be explained by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height and therefore we suggest that other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUE FOR ZONING THE FORMER SEMIPALATINSK TEST SITE TERRITORY USINHG GEOINFORMATIONAL MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Yu. Yakovenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on radio-ecological assessment of pollution carried out at the former Semipalatinsk test site. The technique of radio-ecological zoning with methods of geoinformation mapping, including the determination of qualitative and qualitative criteria depending on the degree of superficial soil layer pollution, exposed to anthropogenic radiative impact, is offered. The result of such zoning makes it possible to evaluate the degree of radiation impact on the surveyed area, identify areas with high background radiation and define the borders representing potential risks to the public, residing or carrying out business activities within the area.

  17. Geoinformation evaluation of soil resource potential for horticulture in Krasnodar region and the Republic of Adygea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, I. Yu.; Dragavtseva, I. A.; Mironenko, N. Ya.; Sergeeva, N. N.; Domozhirova, V. V.; Morenets, A. S.; Ovechkin, S. V.

    2016-04-01

    A geoinformation database for assessing soil resource potential for horticulture in Krasnodar region and Adygea has been developed. The results of geoinformation analysis indicate that only 55-60% of soils in these regions are suitable for growing horticultural crops without limitations; about 35-40% of the total soil area is unsuitable for horticultural purposes. For plum trees, the area of unsuitable soils is somewhat lower than for other horticultural crops. Geographically, the areas of soils suitable and unsuitable for horticulture are close to one another. The thickness of the loose earthy soil material, the gravel content, the degree of salinization, the soil texture, and the degree of soil hydromorphism are the major soil properties imposing considerable limitations for the development of fruit-growing industry in the studied regions. The highest portions of soils suitable for horticulture are found in Eiskii, Kushchevskii, Krylovskii, Shcherbinovskii, and Novokubanskii districts of Krasnodar region. The development of horticulture in Tuapsinskii, Slavyanskii, and Primorsko-Akhtarskii districts is limited because of the unsuitability of soils for this purpose. About 8% of the existing orchards are found on soils recognized as unsuitable for horticulture, and only about 20% of the existing orchards are found on soils suitable for fruit growing without limitations. About 70% of the existing fruit orchards are located on degraded soils or on soils with certain limitations for horticulture. The profitability of fruit orchards on such soils is lower than that of the orchards planted on soils without limitations for horticulture. This information is necessary for the adequate economic evaluation of the degree of soil degradation.

  18. A Practice Approach of Multi-source Geospatial Data Integration for Web-based Geoinformation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W.; Jiang, J.; Zha, Z.; Zhang, H.; Wang, C.; Zhang, J.

    2014-04-01

    Geospatial data resources are the foundation of the construction of geo portal which is designed to provide online geoinformation services for the government, enterprise and public. It is vital to keep geospatial data fresh, accurate and comprehensive in order to satisfy the requirements of application and development of geographic location, route navigation, geo search and so on. One of the major problems we are facing is data acquisition. For us, integrating multi-sources geospatial data is the mainly means of data acquisition. This paper introduced a practice integration approach of multi-source geospatial data with different data model, structure and format, which provided the construction of National Geospatial Information Service Platform of China (NGISP) with effective technical supports. NGISP is the China's official geo portal which provides online geoinformation services based on internet, e-government network and classified network. Within the NGISP architecture, there are three kinds of nodes: national, provincial and municipal. Therefore, the geospatial data is from these nodes and the different datasets are heterogeneous. According to the results of analysis of the heterogeneous datasets, the first thing we do is to define the basic principles of data fusion, including following aspects: 1. location precision; 2.geometric representation; 3. up-to-date state; 4. attribute values; and 5. spatial relationship. Then the technical procedure is researched and the method that used to process different categories of features such as road, railway, boundary, river, settlement and building is proposed based on the principles. A case study in Jiangsu province demonstrated the applicability of the principle, procedure and method of multi-source geospatial data integration.

  19. A spatial study of networking in the Vistula Lagoon region using geoinformation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gritsenko Vladimir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Network cooperation — the most efficient form of unlocking the economic and natural potential of territories — is rapidly developing in Russia under the influence of global processes. Due to its unique geopolitical position, the Kaliningrad region is one of the regions where such networks develop at both the regional and international levels. When studying such forms of cooperation, the traditional methods of social sciences as research tools are not sufficient, which is explained by the dynamic nature of network cooperation as well as the fact that it involves a significant number of independent agents. We believe that one of the important tools of research on network cooperation is regional integral geoinformation systems (GIS. Modern GIS are successfully used in related fields, such as environmental and climate studies, geology, urban studies, and serve as rather efficient tools of analysing spatial objects and phenomena. One of such systems has been developed and is successfully functioning at the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, which makes it possible to use it in studying network cooperation in the framework of crossborder development with the involvement of Kaliningrad municipalities. The key objective set by the authors of the article is to justify the need for studying the emerging network cooperation with the help of both traditional methods of geography and modern GIS; a specific case is made of the cross-border Vistula lagoon region — the one that brings together Russian and Polish municipalities. The authors provide with the background for the search of possible development strategies in the region, and note that the creation of a regional GIS structure can become a necessary component of the region’s information and communication structure; this conclusion can be considered the key result of the research conducted. The practical significance of the article lies in justifying the use of modern geoinformation systems

  20. The effects of skiing velocity on mechanical aspects of diagonal cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik; Pellegrini, Barbara; Sandbakk, Oyvind; Stüggl, Thomas; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-09-01

    Cycle and force characteristics were examined in 11 elite male cross-country skiers using the diagonal stride technique while skiing uphill (7.5°) on snow at moderate (3.5 ± 0.3 m/s), high (4.5 ± 0.4 m/s), and maximal (5.6 ± 0.6 m/s) velocities. Video analysis (50 Hz) was combined with plantar (leg) force (100 Hz), pole force (1,500 Hz), and photocell measurements. Both cycle rate and cycle length increased from moderate to high velocity, while cycle rate increased and cycle length decreased at maximal compared to high velocity. The kick time decreased 26% from moderate to maximal velocity, reaching 0.14 s at maximal. The relative kick and gliding times were only altered at maximal velocity, where these were longer and shorter, respectively. The rate of force development increased with higher velocity. At maximal velocity, sprint-specialists were 14% faster than distance-specialists due to greater cycle rate, peak leg force, and rate of leg force development. In conclusion, large peak leg forces were applied rapidly across all velocities and the shorter relative gliding and longer relative kick phases at maximal velocity allow maintenance of kick duration for force generation. These results emphasise the importance of rapid leg force generation in diagonal skiing.

  1. Kinematic structure at the early flight position in ski jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodičar, Janez; Coh, Milan; Jošt, Bojan

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of our research was to establish the variability of correlation between the length of the jumps and selected multi-item kinematic variables (n=9) in the early flight phase technique of ski jumping. This study was conducted on a sample of elite Slovenian ski jumpers (N=29) who participated in the experiment on a jumping hill in Hinterzarten, Germany (HS95m) on the 20(th) of August, 2008. The highest and most significant correlations (p=0.01) with the length of the ski jump were found in the multi-item variable height of flying, which was also expressed with the highest level of stability of the explained total variance (TV) on the first factor (TV=69.13%). The most important characteristic of the aerodynamic aspect of early flight was the variable angle between the body chord and the horizontal axis with significantly high correlations (pjump. Only two more variables, the angle between the upper body and the horizontal plane (TV=53.69%), and the angle between left ski and left leg (TV=50.13%), had an explained common variance on the first factor greater than 50% of total variance. The results indicated that some kinematic parameters of ski jumping early flight technique were more important for success considering the length of the jump.

  2. Epistolary testimony of filial love (Zygmunt Krasiński – Wincenty Krasiński [Epistolarne świadectwa miłości synowskiej (Zygmunt Krasiński – Wincenty Krasiński

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk GRADKOWSKI

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the motif of filial love of distinctive romantic poet, the author of Nie-Boska Komedia, Zygmunt Krasiński. The unusual fascination by the paternal will mainly shown in letters written by the son to his father, as Zygmunt Krasiński spent most of his life abroad and from there he maintained a continuous correspondence with his father, general Wincenty Krasiński, the deputy and then the chief warden of the Polish Kingdom. The poet’s father, the former Napoleonic general, chose the service for the new leader – the Russian tsar. That was something irreconcilable for the feeble son who kept using the services of bathing sanatoria and maintained epistolary discussion with the beloved father. The ideological conflict usually concluded in admitting the righteousness to the “beloved daddy” in particular matters. That, however, caused real ethical dilemmas for the sensitive condescending youth. The unusually rich correspondence of Zygmunt Krasiński is undoubtedly a precious contribution to nineteenth century thought, and also into family and existential aspects of the two uncommon men – Zygmunt and Wincenty Krasiński.

  3. CHANGES IN QUADRICEPS MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING SUSTAINED RECREATIONAL ALPINE SKIING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Kröll

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During a day of skiing thousands of repeated contractions take place. Previous research on prolonged recreational alpine skiing show that physiological changes occur and hence some level of fatigue is inevitable. In the present paper the effect of prolonged skiing on the recruitment and coordination of the muscle activity was investigated. Six subjects performed 24 standardized runs. Muscle activity during the first two (PREskiing and the last two (POSTskiing runs was measured from the vastus lateralis (VL and rectus femoris (RF using EMG and quantified using wavelet and principal component analysis. The frequency content of the EMG signal shifted in seven out of eight cases significantly towards lower frequencies with highest effects observed for RF on outside leg. A significant pronounced outside leg loading occurred during POSTskiing and the timing of muscle activity peaks occurred more towards turn completion. Specific EMG frequency changes were observed at certain time points throughout the time windows and not over the whole double turn. It is suggested that general muscular fatigue, where additional specific muscle fibers have to be recruited due to the reduced power output of other fibers did not occur. The EMG frequency decrease and intensity changes for RF and VL are caused by altered timing (coordination within the turn towards a most likely more uncontrolled skiing technique. Hence, these data provide evidence to suggest recreational skiers alter their skiing technique before a potential change in muscle fiber recruitment occurs

  4. The prevalence of ski jumping among pupils in the first triad of primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Vtič, Maja

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most widespread sports discipline in Slovenia, ski jumping has a long tradition. Ski jumping is a competitive sport at which recreational engagement is not possible because of its special features and specifics. It is one of the basic sports activities for the development of children's motor skills, since ski jumping requires an integrated training of the trainee. Ski jumping is basically a winter sport, whereas in the summer season, it has also become increasingly present with ...

  5. Ski jump takeoff performance predictions for a mixed-flow, remote-lift STOVL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.

    1992-01-01

    A ski jump model was developed to predict ski jump takeoff performance for a short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft. The objective was to verify the model with results from a piloted simulation of a mixed flow, remote lift STOVL aircraft. The prediction model is discussed. The predicted results are compared with the piloted simulation results. The ski jump model can be utilized for basic research of other thrust vectoring STOVL aircraft performing a ski jump takeoff.

  6. Determinants of a simulated cross-country skiing sprint competition using V2 skating technique on roller skis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, Jussi; Laaksonen, Marko; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Vesterinen, Ville; Nummela, Ari

    2010-04-01

    The present study investigated the performance-predicting factors of a simulated cross-country (XC) skiing sprint competition on roller skis, on a slow surface. Sixteen elite male XC skiers performed a simulated sprint competition (4 x 850 m heat with a 20-minute recovery) using V2 skating technique on an indoor tartan track. Heat velocities, oxygen consumption, and peak lactate were measured during or after the heats. Maximal skiing velocity was measured by performing a 30-m speed test. Explosive and maximal force production in the upper body was determined by bench press (BP). Subjects also performed maximal anaerobic skiing test (MAST) and the 2 x 2-km double poling (DP) test. The maximal velocity of MAST (VMAST) and velocities at 3 (V3), 5 (V5), 7 (V7) mmol.L lactate levels in MAST were determined. In the 2 x 2-km test, DP economy (VO2SUBDP) and maximal 2-km DP velocity (VDP2KM) were determined. The best single performance-predicting factors for the sprint performance were VDP2KM (r = 0.73, p < 0.01), V7 (r = 0.70, p < 0.01), and VO2SUBDP (r = -0.70, p < 0.01). Faster skiers in sprint simulation had a higher absolute VO2 (L.min) (p < 0.05-0.01) during sprint heats, and higher anaerobic skiing power (VMAST, p < 0.05) and better anaerobic skiing economy (V3, V5, V7, p < 0.05-0.001) than slower skiers. Faster skiers were also stronger in BP, with regard to both absolute (p < 0.01) and relative (p < 0.05) values. In addition, anaerobic characteristics seem to be of importance at the beginning of the XC skiing sprint competition, whereas the aerobic characteristics become more important as the XC skiing sprint competition progressed. This study indicates that sprint skiers should emphasize sport-specific upper body training, and training skiing economy at high speeds.

  7. Biomechanical factors influencing the performance of elite Alpine ski racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Supej, Matej; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-04-01

    Alpine ski racing is a popular international winter sport that is complex and challenging from physical, technical, and tactical perspectives. Despite the vast amount of scientific literature focusing on this sport, including topical reviews on physiology, ski-snow friction, and injuries, no review has yet addressed the biomechanics of elite alpine ski racers and which factors influence performance. In World Cup events, winning margins are often mere fractions of a second and biomechanics may well be a determining factor in podium place finishes. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the scientific literature to identify the biomechanical factors that influence the performance of elite alpine ski racers, with an emphasis on slalom, giant slalom, super-G, and downhill events. Four electronic databases were searched using relevant medical subject headings and key words, with an additional manual search of reference lists, relevant journals, and key authors in the field. Articles were included if they addressed human biomechanics, elite alpine skiing, and performance. Only original research articles published in peer-reviewed journals and in the English language were reviewed. Articles that focused on skiing disciplines other than the four of primary interest were excluded (e.g., mogul, ski-cross and freestyle skiing). The articles subsequently included for review were quality assessed using a modified version of a validated quality assessment checklist. Data on the study population, design, location, and findings relating biomechanics to performance in alpine ski racers were extracted from each article using a standard data extraction form. A total of 12 articles met the inclusion criteria, were reviewed, and scored an average of 69 ± 13% (range 40-89%) upon quality assessment. Five of the studies focused on giant slalom, four on slalom, and three on downhill disciplines, although these latter three articles were also relevant to super-G events

  8. Telemark skiing injuries: an 11-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Made, C; Borg, H; Thelander, D; Elmqvist, L G

    2001-11-01

    This study evaluated telemark injuries in a Swedish ski area in terms of injury ratio, location, and causes over time. During the seasons of 1989-2000 all injured telemark skiers ( n=94) who attended the medical center in Tärnaby, Sweden, within 48 h after the accident were registered and asked to fill in an injury form. A control group of noninjured telemark skiers were interviewed in the season of 1999-2000. The most common cause of injury was fall (70%) and the injury ratio was 1.2. There was a higher proportion of beginners in the injured population, and they had a fall/run ratio of 0.7, compared with 0.3 for average and advanced skiers. Ankle/foot injuries were most common (28% of injuries) followed by knee (20%) and head/neck (17%). The ankle/foot injuries decreased from 35% to 22% in the seasons 1989-1995 to 1995-2000. Beginners had more ankle/foot injuries than skilled participants. The severity of ankle/foot injuries classified as the Abbreviated Injury Scale group 2 or higher decreased from 33% to 21% during the study period. Twenty-seven percent used plastic and 73% leather boots. We found no association between boot material and ankle/foot injuries. The proportion of high boots with two or more buckles was 51%. High boots appeared to be protective against ankle/foot injuries. The proportion of high boots increased from 24% to 67% during the study period. Thus ankle/foot injuries were the most common injury location, but have decreased over time. The severity of these injuries has also decreased. A possible explanation could be the increased use of high boots.

  9. Induction of Ski Protein Expression upon Luteinization in Rat Granulosa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ski protein is implicated in proliferation/differentiation in a variety of cells. We had previously reported that Ski protein is present in granulosa cells of atretic follicles, but not in preovulatory follicles, suggesting that Ski has a role in apoptosis of granulosa cells. The alternative fate of granulosa cells other than apoptosis is to differentiate to luteal cells; however, it is unknown whether Ski is expressed and has a role in granulosa cells undergoing luteinization. Thus, the aim of the present study was to locate Ski protein in the rat ovary during luteinizationto predict the possible role of Ski. In order to examine the expression pattern of Ski protein along with the progress of luteinization, follicular growth was induced by administration of equine chorionic gonadtropin to immature female rats, and luteinization was induced by human chorionic gonadtropin treatment to mimic luteinizing hormone (LH surge. While no Ski-positive granulosa cells were present in preovulatory follicle, Ski protein expression was induced in response to LH surge, and was maintained after the formation of the corpus luteum (CL. Though Ski protein is absent in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicle, its mRNA (c-Ski was expressed and the level was unchanged even after LH surge. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Ski protein expression is induced in granulosa cells upon luteinization, and suggests that its expression is regulated post-transcriptionally.

  10. Cross-Country Skiing Injuries and Training Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Kyle B

    2015-01-01

    Cross-country skiing is a low injury-risk sport that has many health benefits and few long-term health risks. Some concern exists that cross-country skiing may be associated with a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation; however, mortality rates among skiers are lower than those among the general population. While continuing to emphasize aerobic and anaerobic training, training methods also should promote ski-specific strength training to increase maximum force and its rate of delivery and to build muscular endurance to maintain that power through a race. Multiple tests are available to monitor training progress. Which tests are most appropriate depends on the specific events targeted. In addition to laboratory-based tests, there also are many simpler, more cost-effective tests, such as short time trials, that can be used to monitor training progress and predict performance particularly at the junior skier level where access and cost may be more prohibitive.

  11. SKIs evaluation of SKBs RD and D programme 92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    Section 11 of the Act (1984:3) on Nuclear Activities stipulates that the holder of a licence to own or operate a nuclear power reactor shall ensure that the necessary comprehensive research and development work is conducted in order to safely handle and finally dispose of the nuclear waste produced and to safely decommission and dismantle installation where the nuclear activity is no longer carried out. According to section 12 of the Act on nuclear activities, the reactor owners shall, in consultation with each other, prepare or have prepared a programme for the necessary comprehensive research and development work and the other measures. The programme shall contain an overview of all measures that may be necessary and also specify, in detail, the measures that are intended to be taken within a period of at least six years. The programme shall be submitted to the Government or to the authority designated by the Government for examination and evaluation. According to section 22 of the ordinance on nuclear activities, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) shall ensure that the research and development work which the reactor owners are responsible for undertaking according to sections 11 and 12 of the act of nuclear activities, is actually carried out. SKIs premise for evaluating the programme has been to examine it as an integrated R and D programme, which essentially focusses on structure, strategy and planning in order to effectively realize the defined goals of the programme, i.e. finding a safe, final solution to the disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Keeping to the time-schedule should not be the controlling factor in carrying out the research and development programme. The essential objective is to attain the goal without jeopardizing quality. SKIs examination has been documented in the form of the following: summary and conclusions, evaluation report, report of comments by reviewing bodies, and consultants reports. SKIs statement to the Government has been

  12. Profesor Kazimierz Bartoszyński (1921–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kosowska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Prof. Kazimierz Bartoszyński was one of the most respected theoreticians of literature in Poland. He worked closely with the Institute of Literary Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The period of Professor Bartoszyński’s greatest activity as a researcher coincided with the time when he was fascinated with structuralism, but his interests went far beyond these methodological issues. The author of this memoir, who was the Professor’s doctoral student, portrays him through the prism of their conversations on scholarly topics and her private relationship with Mr. and Mrs. Bartoszyński, which lasted for many years.

  13. Alpine Skiing With total knee ArthroPlasty (ASWAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koesters, A.; Poetzelsberger, B.; Dela, F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the long-term effects of skiing on health-related parameters and implant related factors like loosening and wear in patients with total knee arthroplasty. This paper describes the overall study design, general demographics, and physiological demand of the inte......The aim of this study was to monitor the long-term effects of skiing on health-related parameters and implant related factors like loosening and wear in patients with total knee arthroplasty. This paper describes the overall study design, general demographics, and physiological demand...

  14. [Ski shoe versus knee joint--3: Risk for falling backward].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, P; Hauser, W

    1990-12-01

    In contrast to the drop in the incidence of fractures of the lower leg that has been observed in recent years, the incidence of knee injuries has not decreased in skiing. There has even been a relative increase of severe knee lesions and isolated ACL ruptures, prompting us to conduct a comprehensive study of the causes of this phenomena. The goal of the study was to develop a new measuring device for alpine skiing research by combining motion analysis, pressure and force measurement, comprehensive examine the forward/backward movement in skiboots in the lab and by means of telemetry on the slope (Skiboot versus knee joint part 1/Sportverlerletzung. Sportschaden 3, 1989, pp. 149-161) and to come up with a proposal for a new safety concept to reduce the high number of knee injuries in alpine skiing in the future. The first study was devoted to the forward movement in skiboots (Skiboot versus knee joint part 2/Sportverletzung. Sportschaden 4, 1990, pp. 1-13). The results showed that a skiing style in backward lean position was adopted by skiers wearing boots with a stiff forward flexion and was supported by the fixed backward spoiler. In order to quantify the influence of the backward spoiler a special skiboot was constructed allowing the rear spoiler to give way at a variable, defined stiffness and register the angular displacement and horizontal force Fh. The results showed most clearly that even a medium rear spoiler resistance will sign, reduce the peak force values by a factor of 5.5. The acceleration at the knee joint level is significantly higher (factor 1.6, p less than 0.05) in case of a rigid spoiler. The lab tests could be confirmed on the slope (sign. reduction of max. force by factor 8). It also proved that normal skiing can be performed in such a boot without limitations. In consideration of our facts it is concluded that the principle of safety bindings must definitely apply in future in equal measure also to the ski boot. As a proposal for future

  15. The use of geoinformation technologies for renewable energy and regional aspects of developing renewable energy in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafikova Y.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the results of development of the geoinformation system “Renewable Energy Sources of Russia”. Regional maps of installations and resources are presented. The problem of determination of small hydropower potential connected with the shortage of hydrological data is stated. Assessment of efficiency of techno-economic analysis of simulation-based autonomous solar lighting systems is described. Overview of regional experience, policies and targets is included.

  16. Simulation of realization of ski-racers’ functional potentials in passing ski trails of different complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Khmelnytska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to substantiate model characteristics of functional fitness components of elite ski-racers, depending on competitions’ conditions. Material: We tested 20 sportsmen of combined team of Ukraine. Results: it was found that climbing hills of different length and steepness is accompanied by certain functional tension of organism and changes in cardio-respiratory system. It influences on effectiveness of further descent and moving on plain. It was also determined that correlation of aerobic and anaerobic efficiency changes according to trail relief. Conclusions: we worked out model characteristics of skiers’ fitness most important parameters, usage of which can facilitate maintaining high special workability on all segments of competition distance. In particular it concerns climbing hills of different steepness.

  17. Integrating Global Open Geo-Information for Major Disaster Assessment: A Case Study of the Myanmar Flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suju Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Major disasters typically impact large areas, cause considerable damages, and result in significant human and economic losses. The timely and accurate estimation of impacts and damages is essential to better understand disaster conditions and to support emergency response operations. Geo-information drawn from various sources at multi spatial-temporal scales can be used for disaster assessments through a synthesis of hazard, exposure, and post disaster information based on pertinent approaches. Along with the increased availability of open sourced data and cooperation initiatives, more global scale geo-information, including global land cover datasets, has been produced and can be integrated with other information for disaster dynamic damage assessment (e.g., impact estimation immediately after a disaster occurs, physical damage assessment during the emergency response stage, and comprehensive assessment following an emergency response. Residential areas and arable lands affected by the flood disaster occurring from July to August 2015 in Myanmar were assessed based on satellite images, GlobeLand30 data, and other global open sourced information as a study case. The results show that integrating global open geo-information could serve as a practical and efficient means of assessing damage resulting from major disasters worldwide, especially at the early emergency response stage.

  18. Remote sensing and geoinformation technologies in support of nuclear non-proliferation and arms control verification regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemeyer, Irmgard [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung, IEK-6: Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    A number of international agreements and export control regimes have been concluded in order to reduce the risk and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In order to provide confidence that Member States are complying with the agreed commitments, most of the treaties and agreements include verification provisions. Different types of verification measures exist, e.g. cooperative measures; national technical means; technical monitoring or measurement devices placed at or near sites; on-site inspections; intelligence information; open-source information, such as commercial internet data and satellite imagery. The study reviews the technical progress in the field of satellite imaging sensors and explores the recent advances in satellite imagery processing and geoinformation technologies as to the extraction of significant observables and signatures. Moreover, it discusses how satellite data and geoinformation technologies could be used complementary for confirming information gathered from other systems or sources. The study also aims at presenting the legal and political aspects and the cost benefits of using imagery from both national and commercial satellites in the verification procedure. The study concludes that satellite imagery and geoinformation technologies are expected to enhance the verification efficiency and effectiveness.

  19. Ski protein levels increase during in vitro progression of HPV16-immortalized human keratinocytes and in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi; Pirisi, Lucia; Creek, Kim E.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the levels of the Ski oncoprotein, an inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling, in normal human keratinocytes (HKc), HPV16 immortalized HKc (HKc/HPV16), and differentiation resistant HKc/HPV16 (HKc/DR) in the absence and presence of TGF-β. Steady-state Ski protein levels increased in HKc/HPV16 and even further in HKc/DR, compared to HKc. TGF-β treatment of HKc, HKc/HPV16, and HKc/DR dramatically decreased Ski. TGF-β-induced Ski degradation was delayed in HKc/DR. Ski and phospho-Ski protein levels are cell cycle dependent with maximal Ski expression and localization to centrosomes and mitotic spindles during G2/M. ShRNA knock down of Ski in HKc/DR inhibited cell proliferation. More intense nuclear and cytoplasmic Ski staining and altered Ski localization were found in cervical cancer samples compared to adjacent normal tissue in a cervical cancer tissue array. Overall, these studies demonstrate altered Ski protein levels, degradation and localization in HPV16-transformed human keratinocytes and in cervical cancer. - Highlights: • Ski oncoprotein levels increase during progression of HPV16-transformed cells. • Ski and phospho-Ski protein levels are cell cycle dependent. • Ski knock-down in HPV16-transformed keratinocytes inhibited cell proliferation. • Cervical cancer samples overexpress Ski

  20. Geoinformation web-system for processing and visualization of large archives of geo-referenced data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E. P.; Okladnikov, I. G.; Titov, A. G.; Shulgina, T. M.

    2010-12-01

    Developed working model of information-computational system aimed at scientific research in area of climate change is presented. The system will allow processing and analysis of large archives of geophysical data obtained both from observations and modeling. Accumulated experience of developing information-computational web-systems providing computational processing and visualization of large archives of geo-referenced data was used during the implementation (Gordov et al, 2007; Okladnikov et al, 2008; Titov et al, 2009). Functional capabilities of the system comprise a set of procedures for mathematical and statistical analysis, processing and visualization of data. At present five archives of data are available for processing: 1st and 2nd editions of NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, ECMWF ERA-40 Reanalysis, JMA/CRIEPI JRA-25 Reanalysis, and NOAA-CIRES XX Century Global Reanalysis Version I. To provide data processing functionality a computational modular kernel and class library providing data access for computational modules were developed. Currently a set of computational modules for climate change indices approved by WMO is available. Also a special module providing visualization of results and writing to Encapsulated Postscript, GeoTIFF and ESRI shape files was developed. As a technological basis for representation of cartographical information in Internet the GeoServer software conforming to OpenGIS standards is used. Integration of GIS-functionality with web-portal software to provide a basis for web-portal’s development as a part of geoinformation web-system is performed. Such geoinformation web-system is a next step in development of applied information-telecommunication systems offering to specialists from various scientific fields unique opportunities of performing reliable analysis of heterogeneous geophysical data using approved computational algorithms. It will allow a wide range of researchers to work with geophysical data without specific programming

  1. The Effects of a Ski Training Program Employing“ Buddy Systems” on the Skiing Techniques of Women’s University Students from the Cooperative Learning’s Viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    松本, 裕史; 中西, 匠; Hiroshi, Matsumoto; Takumi, Nakanishi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a ski training program, grounded in the“ buddy system,” on the skiing techniques of students at a women’s university. A group of twelve students, serving as the intervention group, participated in the ski training program using the buddy system, while another group of twelve students participated in program lacking the buddy system, as a control group. The measurement of skiing techniques( parallel turn, stem turn and wedeln) was conduct...

  2. Full-field Strain Analysis of a Ski Boot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.; Singer, G.; Major, Z.

    2010-06-01

    The quality of the ski boots plays an extraordinary important role in the performance and in the safety of the skiers. The deformation behavior of a racing class ski boot was characterized by using the digital image correlation technique in this study. The boot was gripped in the ski binding and 3 types of motions of the skiers and the deformations of the boot were simulated by a professional skier in the laboratory. First, the buckles were closed in 4 stages and the resulting strains were measured. Furthermore, the skier positioned his balance continuously forward, resulting in a high overall bending deformation of the boot. The leg of the skier acted as a bending arm and pushed the upper part of the boot forward. This loading situation was assumed as quasistatic and was repeated several times. Finally, the skier jumped and this dynamic movement was recorded by using two high speed cameras for 3D analysis. Special focus was devoted to the measurement of the deformation of the boot during the contact of the ski with the ground of the laboratory. Both the displacement of the upper part and the local strain in selected areas of the boot was determined for both quasi-static and dynamic test conditions and are discussed in the paper.

  3. No Snow? No Problem! Ski Statutes Still Provide Legal Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Melanie E.; Young, Sarah J.

    2018-01-01

    In August 2012, Barbara Fakhouri visited Ober Gatlinburg, a ski resort located in eastern Tennessee to vacation with her family. Ms. Fakhouri used a wheelchair to ambulate. Despite the absence of snow on the ground, the resort operated year-round with many amenities such as an amusement park, restaurant, lounge, and shopping center to captivate…

  4. Biomechanical pole and leg characteristics during uphill diagonal roller skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Stefan Josef; Göpfert, Caroline; Stöggl, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2009-11-01

    Diagonal skiing as a major classical technique has hardly been investigated over the last two decades, although technique and racing velocities have developed substantially. The aims of the present study were to 1) analyse pole and leg kinetics and kinematics during submaximal uphill diagonal roller skiing and 2) identify biomechanical factors related to performance. Twelve elite skiers performed a time to exhaustion (performance) test on a treadmill. Joint kinematics and pole/plantar forces were recorded separately during diagonal roller skiing (9 degrees; 11 km/h). Performance was correlated to cycle length (r = 0.77; P Push-off demonstrated performance correlations for impulse of leg force (r = 0.84), relative duration (r= -0.76) and knee flexion (r = 0.73) and extension ROM (r = 0.74). Relative time to peak pole force was associated with performance (r = 0.73). In summary, diagonal roller skiing performance was linked to 1) longer cycle length, 2) greater impulse of force during a shorter push-off with larger flexion/extension ROMs in leg joints, 3) longer leg swing, and 4) later peak pole force, demonstrating the major key characteristics to be emphasised in training.

  5. [Anorectal injury after a fall from a jet ski

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, T.E.; Assmann, R.F.; Withagen, M.I.J.; Geeraedts, L.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    A 28-year-old female sustained an anorectal rupture after a fall from a jet ski. The rupture was sutured and a double-loop colostomy was created. Three months later, following a test of functional continence, the colostomy was removed. The patient recovered without complications and with

  6. Evaluation of a specific test in cross-country skiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Erik; Larsson, Benny; Klausen, Tom

    1991-01-01

    -poling was correlated with performance, expressed as a ranking score during 10 ski races. The tests were undertaken in September, December and April. Upper body maximal oxygen uptake increased 5.8% from September to December, decreasing to 2.3% above the September level in April. Upper body work output (2 min...

  7. 76 FR 40322 - Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort Parking Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... fleet. Also, the location of the current maintenance shop impedes traffic flow and removes potential... new Sunrise Vehicle Maintenance Shop on the north side of the Sunrise parking lot. DATES: Comments... increasing parking capacity and improving traffic flow in at Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort. Parking capacity...

  8. a geometric property of the sierpiński carpet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this paper is to find formulae for the computation of the geodesic metric on the Sierpiński carpet. This is accomplished by introducing carpet coordinates. Subsequently we show the equivalence of the Euclidean and the geodesic metric on this fractal. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 28A80, 54E35 ...

  9. Alpine Skiing With total knee ArthroPlasty (ASWAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Pötzelsberger, B.; Scheiber, P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of alpine skiing for 12 weeks on skeletal muscle characteristics and biomarkers of glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular risk factors. Twenty-three patients with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were studied 2.9 ± 0.9 years (mean ± SD) after the operation. Fourteen...

  10. Effect of ski mountaineering track on foot sole loading pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselbacher, Matthias; Mader, Katharina; Werner, Maximiliane; Nogler, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Ski mountaineering is becoming a popular sport. The ascending techniques (tracks) can be divided into 3 different groups: flat field, direct ascent, and traversing. This study examines the relationship between different mechanical loads on the foot and the 4 different mountaineering ascending techniques. All subjects used the same pair of ski boots and the same skis while performing the 4 different ascending techniques. An in-shoe dynamic pressure measuring system was used to measure the mechanical load on the foot soles of each ski mountaineer. The foot sole was divided into 6 anatomic sections to measure the different loads in each section. Thirteen men with an average age of 29 years were enrolled in the study. The results showed small, not significant differences in the mechanical foot load in the flat field or in the direct ascent. The average mechanical foot load was highest on the valley side foot while traversing (179 kPa to 117 kPa). The higher load forces were in the medial ball of the foot and the longitudinal aspect of the foot side closer to the hill. The higher impact placed on the valley side foot and the concentration of force placed on the medial ball of the valley side foot suggested the influence of the track on the load pattern of the foot sole. This higher impact may result in upward forces that affect the force distribution in the ankle and knee joints. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. A Coupled Snow Operations-Skier Demand Model for the Ontario (Canada) Ski Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Marc; Scott, Daniel; Steiger, Robert; Rutty, Michelle; Johnson, Peter; Vilella, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The multi-billion dollar global ski industry is one of the tourism subsectors most directly impacted by climate variability and change. In the decades ahead, the scholarly literature consistently projects decreased reliability of natural snow cover, shortened and more variable ski seasons, as well as increased reliance on snowmaking with associated increases in operational costs. In order to develop the coupled snow, ski operations and demand model for the Ontario ski region (which represents approximately 18% of Canada's ski market), the research utilized multiple methods, including: a in situ survey of over 2400 skiers, daily operations data from ski resorts over the last 10 years, climate station data (1981-2013), climate change scenario ensemble (AR5 - RCP 8.5), an updated SkiSim model (building on Scott et al. 2003; Steiger 2010), and an agent-based model (building on Pons et al. 2014). Daily snow and ski operations for all ski areas in southern Ontario were modeled with the updated SkiSim model, which utilized current differential snowmaking capacity of individual resorts, as determined from daily ski area operations data. Snowmaking capacities and decision rules were informed by interviews with ski area managers and daily operations data. Model outputs were validated with local climate station and ski operations data. The coupled SkiSim-ABM model was run with historical weather data for seasons representative of an average winter for the 1981-2010 period, as well as an anomalously cold winter (2012-13) and the record warm winter in the region (2011-12). The impact on total skier visits and revenues, and the geographic and temporal distribution of skier visits were compared. The implications of further climate adaptation (i.e., improving the snowmaking capacity of all ski areas to the level of leading resorts in the region) were also explored. This research advances system modelling, especially improving the integration of snow and ski operations models with

  12. Development of a geo-information system for the evaluation of active faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sang Gi; Lee, G. B.; Kim, H. J. [Paichai Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2002-03-15

    This project aims to assist the participants of the active fault project by computerizing the field and laboratory data of the study area. The geo-information system, therefore, not only contributes to the participants while they are organizing and analyzing their data but also gathers detailed information in digital form. A geological database can be established by organizing the gathered digital information from the participants, and the database can easily be sheared among specialists. In such purpose, a field system, which can be used by the project participants, has been attempting to be developed during the first project year. The field system contains not only a software but also available topographic and geological maps of the study area. The field system is coded by visual basic, and the mapobject component of ESRI and the TrueDBGrid OCX are also utilized. Major functions of the system are tools for vector and raster form topographic maps, database design and application, geological symbol plot, and the database search for the plotted geological symbol.

  13. Crowdsourcing-Based Geoinformation, Disadvantaged Urbanisation Challenges, Subsaharan Africa: Theoretical Perspectives and Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingwe Richard

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Scholars and practitioners concerned with geoinformation, cyber-cartography, development studies, and other subjects increasingly explore crowdsourcing and its huge advantages for development. Some have advocated it for adoption/promotion by government as a means of citizen engagement. The objective of this article is to increase the appreciation of the contribution that crowdsourcing can make towards resolving challenges associated with disadvantaged urbanisation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. We review urban challenges of SSA and three practices of crowdsourcing: volunteered geographic information (VGI, Citizen Science (CS, and Participatory Mapping (PM. Then we examine problems associated with the advocacy for government adoption of those practices in SSA. We argue that civil society collaboration with an international governmental organisation (IGO instead of government promises a better way of adopting and promoting them. This suggestion is based on the fact that work related to this strategy is carried out by a global coalition of civil society, the UN-NGLS. This strategy promises a more rapid way of taking advantage of fast-tracking public engagement in the economic region, SSA.

  14. Acknowledgement of reviewer services to the International Journal Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Freek

    2017-06-01

    Peer review is the backbone of the scientific process. In 2016 a total of 866 scientist provided reviewer services for the International Journal Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. Frequent reviewers receive a recognition from the publisher in form of a Certificate of Outstanding Contribution in Reviewing and receive a 30 days free access to Scopus and ScienceDirect. More importantly they gain first hand insight into the latest developments in science as they are the first to read exciting new scientific papers. Nevertheless it is hard to find reviewers as the number of papers submitted to our journal has increased substantially over the last years and more remote sensing journals are put in the market each year. We are grateful to all those individuals that have devoted their precious time to reviewing papers for JAG. This has improved the quality of our communications which is well reflected in the number of citations our papers receive and the impact factor of the journal. JAG ranks third of all 28 remote sensing journals not the least because of the quality of the reviews we provide. As a token of our appreciation it is my pleasure to thank all reviewers that were active in 2016 on behalf of the editorial board, the associate editors, the Publisher and myself as Editor-in-Chief of JAG. To honor them we list all reviewers that provide four or more reviews in 2016:

  15. Geoinformation Systems as a Tool of the Integrated Tourist Spaces Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnikovich Victor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Currently tourist activity management is in need of creating special conditions for the development of integrated management tools based on the general information and analytical base. Material and methods. The creation of architecture and the content of geoinformation and hybrid information systems are oriented at the usage of the Integrated Tourist Spaces Management (ITSM to set up a specific claim related to the features of management model. The authors created the concept of tourist space. The information and the analytical system are used to create the information model of tourist space. Information support development of ITSM system is a sort of a hybrid system: an expert system constructed on the basis of GIS. Results and conclusions. By means of GIS collecting, storage, analysis and graphic visualization of spatial data and the related information on the objects presented in an expert system is provided. The offered approach leads to the formation of an information system and the analytical maintenance of not only human decision-making, but it also promotes the creation of new tourist products based on more and more differentiated inquiries of clients or a ratio of the price and quality (from the point of view of satisfaction of inquiries.

  16. A Comparison between Alpine Skiing, Cross-Country Skiing and Indoor Cycling on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stöggl, Christoph Schwarzl, Edith E. Müller, Masaru Nagasaki, Julia Stöggl, Peter Scheiber, Martin Schönfelder, Josef Niebauer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since physical inactivity especially prevails during winter months, we set out to identify outdoor alternatives to indoor cycling (IC by comparing the metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses during alpine skiing (AS, cross-country skiing (XCS and IC and analyse the effects of sex, age and fitness level in this comparison. Twenty one healthy subjects performed alpine skiing (AS, cross-country skiing (XCS, and IC. Oxygen uptake (VO2, total energy expenditure (EE, heart rate (HR, lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion (RPE were determined during three 4-min stages of low, moderate and high intensity. During XCS and IC VO2max and EE were higher than during AS. At least 2½ hours of AS are necessary to reach the same EE as during one hour of XCS or IC. HR, VO2, lactate, and RPEarms were highest during XCS, whereas RPEwhole-body was similar and RPElegs lower than during AS and IC, respectively. Weight adjusted VO2 and EE were higher in men than in women while fitness level had no effect. Male, fit and young participants were able to increase their EE and VO2 values more pronounced. Both AS and XCS can be individually tailored to serve as alternatives to IC and may thus help to overcome the winter activity deficit. XCS was found to be the most effective activity for generating a high EE and VO2 while AS was the most demanding activity for the legs.

  17. [Ski boots versus the knee joint. 2: What produces the forward leaning position of the ski boot?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, P; Hauser, W

    1990-03-01

    In contrast to the drop in the incidence of fracture of the lower leg that has been observed in recent years, the incidence of knee injuries has not decreased in skiing. There has even been a relative increase of severe knee lesions and isolated ACL ruptures, prompting us to conduct a comprehensive study of the causes of this phenomena. The goal of part 2 of the study was to comprehensively examine the forward movement in skiboots in the lab and on the slope. Studying nine beginners and eight experts, we found a 20% (sign. 0.05) lower forward-lean capability for the beginner group in the same boot. A randomized study with crossover design conducted on the slope, where we equipped 16 skiers with either soft or stiff boots for the duration of five ski days, revealed the learning behaviour and forward position on the slope depending on the boot. The pupils became definitely less adept at learning if they were required to wear stiff skiboots and showed a sign, lower forward flex angle. A skiiing style in backward lean position was adopted and supported by the fixed backward spoiler. Therefore another study was necessary and will follow (part 3) to examine the effect of a stiff backward spoiler and skiing in a backward lean position. In consideration of the facts known up to now, it is concluded that to improve safety in skiing recommendations must be given as to which boot to choose, according to the skiing level. In addition, the setting of safety bindings must consider the type of skiboot used.

  18. Chemical exposure among professional ski waxers--characterization of individual work operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freberg, Baard Ingegerdsson; Olsen, Raymond; Thorud, Syvert; Ellingsen, Dag G; Daae, Hanne Line; Hersson, Merete; Molander, Paal

    2013-04-01

    Preparation of skis prior to skiing competitions involves several individual work operations and the use of a wide variety of chemically based ski waxing products to improve the performance of the skis, including products used after skiing for wax removal and ski sole cleaning. Modern ski waxes consist mainly of petroleum-derived straight-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, perfluoro-n-alkanes or polyfluorinated n-alkanes. The wax cleaning products contain solvents such as neat aliphatic hydrocarbons (aliphates) or a mixture with limonene. Different ski waxing work operations can result in contaminated workroom atmospheres. The aim of this study was to assess the chemical exposures related to the individual ski waxing work operations by investigating the specific work operations in controlled model experiments. Four main work operations with potential exposures were identified: (i) application of glider waxes, (ii) scraping and brushing of applied glider waxes, (iii) application of base/grip waxes, and (iv) ski sole cleaning. Aerosol particle masses were sampled using conical samplers equipped with 37-mm PVC, 5-µm pore size filters and cyclones equipped with 37-mm PVC, 0.8-µm pore size filters for the inhalable and the respirable aerosol mass fractions, respectively. For measurements of particle number concentrations, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer was used. Mean aerosol particle mass concentrations of 18.6 mg m(-3) and 32.2 mg m(-3) were measured during application of glider wax powders in the respirable and in the inhalable aerosol mass fractions, respectively. Particle number concentration of ~900 000 particles cm(-3) was measured during application of glider wax powder products. Ski sole cleaning with products containing aliphates displayed solvent air concentrations up to 62.5 p.p.m. This study shows that the potential exposure to generated particles during ski waxing and ski preparation is considerable, especially during work using glide wax powders.

  19. Underweight in ski jumping: The solution of the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W; Gröschl, W; Müller, R; Sudi, K

    2006-11-01

    Underweight is becoming increasingly prevalent in many sports. Among world class ski jumpers, the body mass index BMI has decreased by 4 units since 1970. The BMI ignores different body properties of individuals. Particular care should be taken in groups with unusual leg length to avoid classifying them inappropriately as thin or overweight (WHO). The improved measure MI (mass index) for relative body weight overcomes this shortcoming. Anthropometric data of ski jumpers was collected during the Olympic Games in Salt Lake City (2002; participation 81 %, n = 57), during the Summer Grand Prix in Hinterzarten (2000; participation 100 %, n = 92), and during the World Cup in Planica (2000; n = 56). The BMI and the MI were determined. The MI considers the individual leg length: A person with longer legs than average has an MI > BMI, and vice versa: MI = 0.28 m/s2 (m: mass in kg, s: sitting height in meters). BMI classes of ski jumpers in the season 2004/2005 were calculated from their official individual ski length limitation which is a function of their BMI. BMI means were 19.84 in Planica, 19.58 in Hinterzarten, and 19.43 kg m(-2) in SLC. Lowest BMI was 16.4 kg m(-2). The percentage of underweight ski jumpers (BMI ski jumping regulations. The ratio s/h = C (s = sitting height, h = height, C = cormic index) ranged from 0.49 to 0.57. Accordingly, the MI values (which are leg length corrected BMI values according to MI = BMI (C /C) (k) with k = 2 and C = 0.53) deviated remarkably from BMI values. For the 49 cases with BMI or MI or both below 18.5 kg m(-2), the classification to be underweight or not changed in 69 % when the MI was used instead of the BMI. Underweight or overweight is not only a question of cut-off points; the measure used determines the classification accuracy. A substantial improvement of weight analyses in sports medicine, public health, and general medicine as well can be obtained by using the MI instead of the BMI.

  20. GEOINFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF CHANGING BOUNDARIES OF FOREST TRACTS OF THE REGION OF CAUCASIAN MINERAL WATERS OF STAVROPOL TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Anikeeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deterioration of the state of forests and illegal logging are a global problem of our time. The region of the Caucasian Mineral Waters has a small number of forest areas, so the need to introduce new methods for analyzing the state of forests is an important task in the conservation of forests in this area. One such method is geoinformational analysis. For the survey, the geoinformation systems ScanEx Image Processor 4.0, Mapinfo Professional 12, QGIS 2.8 have been used.The species composition of the largest forest tracts of the Caucasian Mineral Waters is considered. The main reasons for changing the boundaries of forest areas have been determined. A geoinformational analysis of the changes in the boundaries of the forest tracts of the region has been carried out using remote sensing data for the period from 1987 to 2014. For the analysis, space images of the Landsat 5 and 8 system were used for the period from 1987 to 2014.A classification of multi-temporal optical images has been made, which allowed obtaining the values of forest areas in different years and to calculate their percentage of forest cover. In 1987, the forest area of the region was 35.2 thousand hectares; in 1998, 41.99 thousand hectares, and by 2014 it was reduced to 33.16 thousand hectares.On the basis of the data obtained, a series of maps characterizing the forests of the Caucasian Mineral Waters in different years has been constructed.The conducted study led to the conclusion that the main changes in the forest boundaries occurred in the Mashuk, Lysoy, Zheleznaya, Beshtau, Verblud and Bik mountains. This is due primarily to the proximity to the most densely populated cities in the region: Pyatigorsk, Zheleznovodsk, Essentuki and the city of Mineralnye Vody.

  1. The influence of the Bible geographic objects peculiarities on the concept of the spatiotemporal geoinformation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsebarth, A.; Moscicka, A.

    2010-01-01

    The article describes the infl uence of the Bible geographic object peculiarities on the spatiotemporal geoinformation system of the Bible events. In the proposed concept of this system the special attention was concentrated to the Bible geographic objects and interrelations between the names of these objects and their location in the geospace. In the Bible, both in the Old and New Testament, there are hundreds of geographical names, but the selection of these names from the Bible text is not so easy. The same names are applied for the persons and geographic objects. The next problem which arises is the classification of the geographical object, because in several cases the same name is used for the towns, mountains, hills, valleys etc. Also very serious problem is related to the time-changes of the names. The interrelation between the object name and its location is also complicated. The geographic object of this same name is located in various places which should be properly correlated with the Bible text. Above mentioned peculiarities of Bible geographic objects infl uenced the concept of the proposed system which consists of three databases: reference, geographic object, and subject/thematic. The crucial component of this system is proper architecture of the geographic object database. In the paper very detailed description of this database is presented. The interrelation between the databases allows to the Bible readers to connect the Bible text with the geography of the terrain on which the Bible events occurred and additionally to have access to the other geographical and historical information related to the geographic objects.

  2. Thermal comfort of dual-chamber ski gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotti, F.; Colonna, M.; Ferri, A.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, the special design of a pair of ski gloves has been assessed in terms of thermal comfort. The glove 2in1 Gore-Tex has a dual-chamber construction, with two possible wearing configurations: one called “grip” to maximize finger flexibility and one called “warm” to maximize thermal insulation in extremely cold conditions. The dual-chamber gloves has been compared with two regular ski gloves produced by the same company. An intermittent test on a treadmill was carried out in a climatic chamber: it was made of four intense activity phases, during which the volunteer ran at 9 km/h on a 5% slope for 4 minutes, spaced out by 5-min resting phases. Finger temperature measurements were compared with the thermal sensations expressed by two volunteers during the test.

  3. [Ski boots from an orthopedic point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, E

    1976-01-22

    1. A ski-boot should have an adequate arch support and a variable, as well as an exact fitting of the dorsal part. This can be achieved with flow, foam, air or wax. 2. Isolated pressure of compression systems of different kinds should be avoided (e.g. pressure of buckles above the ankle). New results are demonstrated by the possibility of putting on the boot from behind and having the buckles at the back of the boot. 3. The strap from ankle to foot has to be continuous to avoid pressure points. 4. It should be possible to walk and stand in a ski-boot without either muscular strain or pressure on the knee-joint. In addition, the sole has to give an optimal grip also on icy ground to prevent slipping.

  4. Extended probabilistic system assessment calculations within the SKI project-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, A.

    1993-03-01

    The probabilistic system assessment calculation reported in the SKI Project-90 final documents were restricted to the following nuclides: 14 C, 129 I, 135 Cs, 237 Np and 240 Pu. In this report we have extended those calculations to another five nuclides: 79 Se, 243 Am, 240 Pu, 93 Zr and 99 Tc. The execution of probabilistic assessment calculations integrated in the context of SKIs first safety analysis exercise of an hypothetic final repository for high-level nuclear waste in Sweden, was a learning experience of relevance for the conduction of probabilistic safety assessment in future exercises. Some major conclusions and viewpoints of future need related with probabilistic assessment were withdrawn from this work and are presented in our report

  5. Analysis of Landing in Ski Jumping by Means of Inertial Sensors and Force Insoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Bessone

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Landing and its preparation are important phases for performance and safety of ski jumpers. A correct ski positioning could influence the jump length as also the cushioning effect of the aerodynamic forces that permits the reduction of landing impacts. Consequently, the detection of ski angles during landing preparation could allow for analyzing landing techniques that result in reduced impact forces for the athletes. In this study, two athletes performed with force insoles and inertial sensors positioned on the ski during training conditions on the ski jumping hill. The results confirmed previous studies, showing that impact forces can reach more than four times body weight. In the analyzed cases, the force distribution resulted to be more concentrated on the forefoot and the main movement influencing the impact was the pitch. The combination of inertial sensors, in particular gyroscopes, plus force insoles demonstrated to be an interesting set up for ski jumping movement analysis.

  6. Engineering movement of qualified skiers-racers skating style in the current development of ski races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kotliar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: analysis of technique of skiing skating style of leading sportsmen of the world. Material and Methods: research was conducted by means of analysis of video data and кинограмм of of skilled racing cross-country ski and biathlon of leading countries of the world. Results: the analysis of dynamic descriptions of technique of the same name ski motions educed the row of factors, from that sportsmen, what applied «Double Push» in the technique of skiing, increase speed of passing of short segments on 4-6%. Conclusions: implementation of «Double Push» can useful for racing cross-country ski and biathlon on competitions on a sprint, on rollers-ski and at implementation of short accelerations on distance, and also on a finish

  7. Vaginal laceration following a jet-ski accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, H K; Andersen, H F; Johnson, M P

    1991-11-01

    A 17-year-old woman riding as a passenger on a jet-ski fell behind the jet nozzle while jumping waves. A vaginal laceration with intra-abdominal extension occurred as a result of the accident. Hypogastric artery ligation controlled the hemorrhage and avoided more extensive surgery. The case represents an unusual injury from this type of watercraft and illustrates important points in the management of genital tract trauma.

  8. Ski Resort Real Estate: Does Supply prevent Appreciation?

    OpenAIRE

    William C. Wheaton

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the behavior of ski resort property in a major New England market over the last 25 years. A constructed property price series reveals that nominal prices are quite volatile and only slightly higher today than in 1980. These ?uctuations and trends are investigated with a time series VAR model. The ?ndings indicate that (1) natural snowfall is crucial to business;(2) regional annual business is central to individual resort demand and hence price appreciation; and (3) resort ...

  9. Nordic ski jumping fatalities in the United States: a 50-year summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J R

    1988-06-01

    Nordic ski-jumping fatalities are rare events. Six jumping fatalities have occurred in the United States during the past 50 years. The fatality rate for nordic ski jumping, estimated to be roughly 12 fatalities/100,000 participants annually, appears to be within the range of fatality rates for other "risky" outdoor sports. Cervical fractures appear to be the most frequent fatal ski-jumping injury.

  10. Numerical investigation of the early flight phase in ski-jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardan, N; Schneider, A; Polidori, G; Trenchard, H; Seigneur, J M; Beaumont, F; Fourchet, F; Taiar, R

    2017-07-05

    The purpose of this study is to develop a numerical methodology based on real data from wind tunnel experiments to investigate the effect of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic forces in a wide range of angles of attack. To improve our knowledge of the aerodynamic behavior of the ski jumper and his equipment during the early flight phase of the ski jump, we applied CFD methodology to evaluate the influence of angle of attack (α=14°, 21.5°, 29°, 36.5° and 44°) and speed (u=23, 26 and 29m/s) on aerodynamic forces in the situation of stable attitude of the ski jumper's body and skis. The standard k-ω turbulence model was used to investigate both the influence of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic performance during the early flight phase. Numerical results show that the ski jumper's speed has very little impact on the lift and drag coefficients. Conversely, the lift and drag forces acting on the ski jumper's body during the early flight phase of the jump are strongly influenced by the variations of the angle of attack. The present results suggest that the greater the ski jumper's angle of inclination, with respect to the relative flow, the greater the pressure difference between the lower and upper parts of the skier. Further studies will focus on the dependency of the parameters with both the angle of attack α and the body-ski angle β as control variables. It will be possible to test and optimize different ski jumping styles in different ski jumping hills and investigate different environmental conditions such as temperature, altitude or crosswinds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evolution of revegetated ski slopes in different environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argenti G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Revegetation of ski slopes is a useful technique to limit soil erosion, reduce the visual impact of the tracks and lengthen the duration of snow cover. Restoration is often performed with commercial forage mixtures with the aim of creating a fast soil cover, then allowing the natural recolonization of artificial swards in the mid-long term. To investigate on the recolonization dynamics, data were collected from 21 different plots from the Alps and the Apennines (Valtellina, Plan de Corones, Sappada, Cimone. Knowledge of both the original mixtures used for restoration and the timespan since intervention (ranging from 1 to 21 years allowed to throw light on the naturalization process for the studied plots. Ground cover, floristic richness and relative presence of sown and native species were measured along linear transects established on the analyzed ski tracks. Results showed the effectiveness of plant restoration, in terms of soil coverage and (in some cases persistence of species of the original mixtures. Recovery of autochthonous species was strongly affected by site elevation and time elapsed since restoration. Moreover, the distance of ski lanes from forest edges seems to influence the dynamics of recolo­nisation process. Renaturalization was remarkably faster in the lower-altitude Apennine study plot. Application of a regression analysis revealed that elevation and timespan since restoration may be considered useful predictors of the level of naturalization of the restored canopies.

  12. Investigations on socio economic indicators of French Alps ski industry from an explicit spatial modelling of managed snow on ski slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandre, Pierre; François, Hugues; Morin, Samuel; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Lafaysse, Matthieu

    2017-04-01

    Investigations of the capacity of ski resorts to anticipate, cope with and recover from the impact of natural snow scarcity through snow management (grooming, snowmaking) have been realized in most of the major regions in terms of international ski offer although not in the French Alps hitherto. The present work therefore introduces an innovative approach for the investigation of socio economic implications of changes in snow conditions for the French Alps ski resorts based on a panel of 129 resorts representing 96% of the total French Alps ski lifts infrastructures. We integrated detailed spatial representations of ski resorts (including priority areas for snowmaking equipment) along with physically based snowpack modelling (including the physical impact of grooming and snowmaking). The viability of ski resorts was further adressed thanks to a commonly used rule based on the snow season duration at the village and ski lifts average elevations along with the development of original viability indicators of snow conditions in the French Alps ski resorts based on the specific periods for the economic success of winter sports: Christmas and February school holidays. Such indicators were correlated to the number of ski lifts tickets sales over the 2001 - 2014 period and proved to be relevant to investigate and predict the evolutions of ski lifts tickets sales under the current ski market conditions in the French Alps. Our results outlined the contrast of snow conditions between French Alps ski resorts, even when accounting for snow management, particularly regarding the geographical location of resorts (Southern versus Northern Alps), the size and related elevation range of ski resorts. Our physically based approach also allowed to compute the water and energy requirements for the production of Machine Made snow since the start of the development of snowguns in the French Alps. Our computations proved to be strongly correlated to the observed amounts of water from the

  13. A sit-ski design aimed at controlling centre of mass and inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelier, Eve; Martel, Stéphane; Millot, Anne; Lessard, Jean-Luc; Smeesters, Cécile; Rancourt, Denis

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces a sit-ski developed for the Canadian Alpine Ski Team in view of the Vancouver 2010 Paralympic games. The design is predominantly based on controlling the mass distribution of the sit-ski, a critical factor in skiing performance and control. Both the antero-posterior location of the centre of mass and the sit-ski moment of inertia were addressed in our design. Our design provides means to adjust the antero-posterior centre of mass location of a sit-ski to compensate for masses that would tend to move the antero-posterior centre of mass location away from the midline of the binding area along the ski axis. The adjustment range provided is as large as 140 mm, thereby providing sufficient adaptability for most situations. The suspension mechanism selected is a four-bar linkage optimised to limit antero-posterior seat movement, due to suspension compression, to 7 mm maximum. This is about 5% of the maximum antero-posterior centre of mass control capacity (151 mm) of a human participant. Foot rest inclination was included in the design to modify the sit-ski inertia by as much as 11%. Together, these mass adjustment features were shown to drastically help athletes' skiing performance.

  14. SKI - ASAR - O3. As operated Safety Analysis Report. Recurring safety review 1996 Oskarshamn 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    According to Swedish law, the reactor owner is responsible for performing a safety review and writing a ''ASAR''-report. The Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) examines this report, and reports the findings to the government (the ''SKI-ASAR'' report). Each Swedish reactor should pass through three full ASAR reviews during its life-time, similar to the licensing inspection before start-up of the reactor. The first series ASAR was delivered by OKG to SKI in December 1996, and forms the basis for the SKI analysis in the present report

  15. SKI - ASAR - F3. As operated Safety Analysis Report. Recurring safety review 1996 Forsmark 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    According to Swedish law, the reactor owner is responsible for performing a safety review and writing a ''ASAR''-report. The Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) examines this report, and reports the findings to the government (the ''SKI-ASAR'' report). Each Swedish reactor should pass through three full ASAR reviews during its life-time, similar to the licensing inspection before start-up of the reactor. The first series ASAR was delivered by FKA to SKI in December 1996, and forms the basis for the SKI analysis in the present report

  16. SKI - ASAR - R1. As operated Safety Analysis Report. Recurring safety review 1995 Ringhals 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    According to Swedish law, the reactor owner is responsible for performing a safety review and writing a so called ASAR-report. The Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) examines this report, and reports the findings to the government (the so called SKI-ASAR-report). Each Swedish reactor should pass through three full ASAR reviews during its lifetime, similar to the licensing inspection before start-up of the reactor. The second series ASAR was delivered by the Ringhals utility to SKI in September 1995, and forms the basis for the SKI analysis in the present report

  17. Wetlands and ski resorts in the French Alps: main issues and innovative ideas for the preservation of wetlands in ski areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucherand, S.; Evette, A.; François, H.; Paccard, P.; Perretier, C.; Wlerick, L.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation is a synthesis of a symposium held last October in Cemagref, Grenoble with contributions from scientists as well as lift operators, NGO's, and administrations. In the context of global change, ski resorts must rethink their development models. The diversification of the touristic offer is encouraged and the specificity of the mountain territory is at the heart of a sustainable development. In this context, the preservation of interesting and fragile habitats such as wetlands is topical. Wetlands have many recognized functions: flooding reduction, water remediation, fertilization, biodiversity conservation… In mountain areas, wetlands are small and scattered. They are of special interest in particular for their role in biodiversity conservation and for their cultural and recreational benefits. However, in ski areas, wetlands can interact with the ski activity. Indeed, wetlands can speed up snow melting in spring and they often occupy ledges, which are strategic positions for the establishment of ski resort's facilities. The development of ski resorts can lead to the destruction or the deterioration of wetlands because of hydrologic interferences, fill in, pollution, etc. However, a few judicious steps can be taken to reduce or suppress these negative effects. In the Alps, geographical and administrative tools have been developed to help the decisions of ski-resort's administrators. Meetings between lift-operators, administrators of protected areas scientists and NGO's have also proved efficient when done at an early stage of a project, as shown by the example of the ski-resort "Les Saisies".

  18. Kinematic analysis of the flight phase of the Nordic combined and ski jump on a large hill (HS-134 m) during the 2009 Nordic World Ski Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Zdenek; Janura, Miroslav; Cabell, Lee; Janurová, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the execution of the flight phase in the Nordic combined (NC) among three groups of competitors, representing different skill levels, and to compare them with three groups of ski jumpers (SJs). Thirty NC and thirty SJ competitors, who performed ski jumps on an HS-134 m jumping hill, were divided into three subgroups based on jump length execution. Two-dimensional (2-D) kinematic data were collected from the lower extremities, trunks, and skis of the competitors. The SJ group had a smaller lower extremity angle ( p jump lengths comparable to those of the SJ competitors by having significantly higher in-run velocities.

  19. SITE-94. Modelling of near-field chemistry for SITE-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.; Apted, M. [QuantiSci, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-01

    This report evaluates methods for the incorporation of site data into models simulating the long-term chemical evolution of the near field. The models are based on limiting conditions at equilibrium, or steady state, in three closed systems representing fully saturated bentonite, Fe{sup o} corrosion products of the canister and spent fuel. A l kg reference mass of site groundwater is assumed to equilibrate first with bentonite and then with the canister`s corrosion products. A third closed system representing spent fuel is modeled in terms of spent-fuel dissolution in 1 kg of water evolved from the canister, coupled with steady-state constraints on the rate of oxidant production by {alpha} radiolysis of H{sub 2}O(l). Precipitation of secondary minerals controlling the solubilities of radioelements dissolved from spent fuel is also simulated in this model. Version 7.2 of the EQ3/6 geochemical software package and its supporting composite thermodynamic database, dataO.com.R22, are used to carry out these calculations. It is concluded that chemical models of near-field evolution combined with thermodynamic models of radionuclide speciation-solubility behavior can assist efforts to assimilate site characterization data into the performance assessment process, and to deal with uncertainties that are inherent in both site properties and in concepts of near field chemistry. It is essential, however, that expert judgement and prudence should be exercised such that model results are conservative with respect to acknowledged and documented uncertainties. Most importantly, it must be recognized that it is probably not possible to model with a high-level of accuracy the complex chemical environments and long timescales involved in disposal technologies for nuclear wastes. For performance assessment, however, only bounding values are needed, and modeling approaches such as described in this report are useful for this purpose. Technical peer review and cross-comparisons of near-field modeling concepts adopted in other performance assessments provides a basis for building confidence in the results of near-field modeling 34 refs, 7 figs, 5 tabs

  20. SITE-94. The central scenario for SITE-94: A climate change scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King-Clayton, L.M.; Chapman, N.A.; Kautsky, F.; Svensson, N.O.; Ledoux, E.

    1995-12-01

    The central scenario includes the following main components: a deterministic description of the most probable climatic state for Sweden (with special ref. to the Aespoe area) for the next c. 120,000 years, a description of the likely nature of the surface and geological environment in the area at each stage of the climate sequence selected, and quantitative information on how these changes might affect the disposal system. The climate models suggest glacial maxima at c. 5, 20, 60 and 100 thousand years from now. The Aespoe region is predicted to be significantly affected by the latter three glacial episodes, with the ice sheet reaching and covering the area during the latter two episodes (by up to c 2200m and 1200m thickness of ice, resp.). Permafrost thicknesses over the next 120,000 years have been calculated. Assumptions, estimates and alternatives to the prescribed climate evolution are discussed. Following definition of a realistic, albeit non-unique, climate sequence, the objective of scenario development is to provide an indicator of the physical, chemical and hydrogeological conditions at the front of and beneath the advancing and retreating ice sheets, with the aim of identifying critical aspects for Performance Assessment modelling. The effect of various factors, such as ice loading, development of permafrost, temperature changes and sea level changes are considered in terms of their impact on hydrogeology, groundwater chemistry, rock stress and surface environments. 183 refs

  1. SITE-94. The central scenario for SITE-94: A climate change scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King-Clayton, L M; Chapman, N A [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Kautsky, F [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, N O [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Quaternary Geology; Marsily, G de [Univ. VI Paris (France); Ledoux, E [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 77 - Fontainebleau (France)

    1995-12-01

    The central scenario includes the following main components: a deterministic description of the most probable climatic state for Sweden (with special ref. to the Aespoe area) for the next c. 120,000 years, a description of the likely nature of the surface and geological environment in the area at each stage of the climate sequence selected, and quantitative information on how these changes might affect the disposal system. The climate models suggest glacial maxima at c. 5, 20, 60 and 100 thousand years from now. The Aespoe region is predicted to be significantly affected by the latter three glacial episodes, with the ice sheet reaching and covering the area during the latter two episodes (by up to c 2200m and 1200m thickness of ice, resp.). Permafrost thicknesses over the next 120,000 years have been calculated. Assumptions, estimates and alternatives to the prescribed climate evolution are discussed. Following definition of a realistic, albeit non-unique, climate sequence, the objective of scenario development is to provide an indicator of the physical, chemical and hydrogeological conditions at the front of and beneath the advancing and retreating ice sheets, with the aim of identifying critical aspects for Performance Assessment modelling. The effect of various factors, such as ice loading, development of permafrost, temperature changes and sea level changes are considered in terms of their impact on hydrogeology, groundwater chemistry, rock stress and surface environments. 183 refs.

  2. A characterisation of the paddle-ski fishery in KwaZulu-Natal, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... many were confused by the safety requirements for paddle-skis. The future management of this fishery is discussed in light of its comparatively low impact on coastal resources. Keywords: catch and effort, fisher demographics, fisheries management, paddle-ski, recreational fishing. African Journal of Marine Science 2012, ...

  3. Supervision of School and Youth Groups on Lift-Served Ski Slopes: A Research Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Andrew; Holmes, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Supervised practice is a common feature of many snow sports excursions to downhill ski resorts by school or youth groups, often in combination with lessons from a ski school. What is the role of supervision in preventing mishaps, injury, or fatalities? This article presents results of a search of published snow sports safety research for evidence…

  4. The Effect of 12 Weeks of Ski Training on Some Biometric Features of Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Murat; Kiyici, Elif; Kiyci, Fatih

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of skiing on the biomotoric characteristics of children with evaluating tests of girls between the ages of eight and 14 before and after the season. The experimental group of this study was 15 girls who had just started skiing and the control group of 30 girls. In total, 45 volunteers joined the…

  5. Ecological impacts of revegetation and management practices of ski slopes in northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Katja; Tolvanen, Anne; Kälkäjä, Tarja; Siikamäki, Pirkko

    2009-09-01

    Outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism represent an increasingly intensive form of land use that has considerable impacts on native ecosystems. The aim of this paper is to investigate how revegetation and management of ski runs influence soil nutrients, vegetation characteristics, and the possible invasion of nonnative plant species used in revegetation into native ecosystems. A soil and vegetation survey at ski runs and nearby forests, and a factorial experiment simulating ski run construction and management (factors: soil removal, fertilization, and seed sowing) were conducted at Ruka ski resort, in northern Finland, during 2003-2008. According to the survey, management practices had caused considerable changes in the vegetation structure and increased soil nutrient concentrations, pH, and conductivity on the ski runs relative to nearby forests. Seed mixture species sown during the revegetation of ski runs had not spread to adjacent forests. The experimental study showed that the germination of seed mixture species was favored by treatments simulating the management of ski runs, but none of them could eventually establish in the study forest. As nutrient leaching causes both environmental deterioration and changes in vegetation structure, it may eventually pose a greater environmental risk than the spread of seed mixture species alone. Machine grading and fertilization, which have the most drastic effects on soils and vegetation, should, therefore, be minimized when constructing and managing ski runs.

  6. Ecological Impacts of Revegetation and Management Practices of Ski Slopes in Northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Katja; Tolvanen, Anne; Kälkäjä, Tarja; Siikamäki, Pirkko

    2009-09-01

    Outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism represent an increasingly intensive form of land use that has considerable impacts on native ecosystems. The aim of this paper is to investigate how revegetation and management of ski runs influence soil nutrients, vegetation characteristics, and the possible invasion of nonnative plant species used in revegetation into native ecosystems. A soil and vegetation survey at ski runs and nearby forests, and a factorial experiment simulating ski run construction and management (factors: soil removal, fertilization, and seed sowing) were conducted at Ruka ski resort, in northern Finland, during 2003-2008. According to the survey, management practices had caused considerable changes in the vegetation structure and increased soil nutrient concentrations, pH, and conductivity on the ski runs relative to nearby forests. Seed mixture species sown during the revegetation of ski runs had not spread to adjacent forests. The experimental study showed that the germination of seed mixture species was favored by treatments simulating the management of ski runs, but none of them could eventually establish in the study forest. As nutrient leaching causes both environmental deterioration and changes in vegetation structure, it may eventually pose a greater environmental risk than the spread of seed mixture species alone. Machine grading and fertilization, which have the most drastic effects on soils and vegetation, should, therefore, be minimized when constructing and managing ski runs.

  7. Projected climate change impacts on skiing and snowmobiling: A case study of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A physically-based water and energy balance model is used to simulate natural snow accumulation at 247 winter recreation locations across the continental United States. We combine this model with projections of snowmaking conditions to determine downhill skiing, cross-country ski...

  8. The use of computer graphics in the visual analysis of the proposed Sunshine Ski Area expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Angelo

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the use of computer graphics in designing part of the Sunshine Ski Area in Banff National Park. The program used was capable of generating perspective landscape drawings from a number of different viewpoints. This allowed managers to predict, and subsequently reduce, the adverse visual impacts of ski-run development. Computer graphics have proven,...

  9. Modern Approaches to the Establishment of National Geoinformation Systems as a Means of Combating Nuclear Terrorism and Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navumenka, M.; Ivasechko, A.

    2015-01-01

    The report deals with the approaches to the establishment of National geoinformation systems as a means of combating nuclear terrorism and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials (hereinafter National geoinformation systems), which represent the integration of already existing and brand-new hardware and software into a single system for illicit trafficking control. It illustrates the model of transition from current operation system, which is based on engagement of different resources used by governmental agencies, to network solutions enabling to automatize and optimize the process of radiation control, to organize on-line radiological information exchange, thus, enhancing efficiency of reacting on illicit trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive materials. The report also describes operational algorithm of National geoinformation systems and experience of implementation of modern radiological network based equipment, which enables to indicate location, to take measurements and transfer results to the remote expert centre on-line using different data transmission means. Web-application of National geoinformation systems enables to automatize processing of radiological information, which is transferred from different users to a single server, to display the location on the map, to maintain the database of illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials, and to exchange information between concerned member-states and IAEA contact points. In general, the suggested system combines new possibilities, which allow to integrate a number of devices into a single network, to display radiological data with GPS-location marks, to give access to the experts for estimating the results of the radiological measurements, to manage the actions of different users from a single remote expert centre and, if necessary, to render on-line expert assistance. The described in the report National geoinformation system has been adopted by a number of users, has turned

  10. Injury patterns in nordic ski jumpers. A retrospective analysis of injuries occurring at the Intervale Ski Jump Complex from 1980 to 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J R; Hixson, E G; Rand, J J

    1986-01-01

    No studies describing the types and frequencies of nordic ski jumping injuries have been reported in the medical literature. We examined records of injuries sustained at the Intervale Ski Jump Complex (15, 40, 70, and 90 meter jumps) in Lake Placid from 1980 to 1985. Forty-seven injured jumpers sustained 72 total injuries. The most frequent injuries were contusions. Fractures occurred in 11 jumpers; most were nondisplaced. Upper extremity fractures outnumbered lower extremity fractures. Injuries requiring hospitalization were uncommon; none of these resulted in permanent disability. Injury rates for non-World Cup and for World Cup competitions were 4.3 and 1.2 injuries per 1,000 skier-days, respectively. This is roughly equivalent to injury rates in alpine skiing. Our study suggests that the dangers of nordic ski jumping have been overestimated.

  11. Biomechanics of optimal flight in ski-jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remizov, L P

    1984-01-01

    The flight in a vertical plane of a ski-jumper after take-off was studied with the purpose of maximising flight distance. To solve the problem of optimal flight (how a jumper must change his angle of attack to obtain the longest jump) the basic theorem of the optimal control theory--Pontriagin's maximum principle--was applied. The calculations were based on data from wind tunnel experiments. It was shown that the maximum flight distance is achieved when the angle of attack is gradually increased according to a convex function the form of which depends on the individual aerodynamic parameters.

  12. Long-Term Athletic Development in Youth Alpine Ski Racing: The Effect of Physical Fitness, Ski Racing Technique, Anthropometrics and Biological Maturity Status on Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Müller, Erich; Fink, Christian; Raschner, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Alpine ski racing is known to be a sport with a high risk of injuries. Because most studies have focused mainly on top-level athletes and on traumatic injuries, limited research exists about injury risk factors among youth ski racers. The aim of this study was to determine the intrinsic risk factors (anthropometrics, biological maturity, physical fitness, racing technique) for injury among youth alpine ski racers. Study participants were 81 youth ski racers attending a ski boarding school (50 males, 31 females; 9–14 years). A prospective longitudinal cohort design was used to monitor sports-related risk factors over two seasons and traumatic (TI) and overuse injuries (OI). At the beginning of the study, anthropometric characteristics (body height, body weight, sitting height, body mass index); biological maturity [status age at peak height velocity (APHV)]; physical performance parameters related to jump coordination, maximal leg and core strength, explosive and reactive strength, balance and endurance; and ski racing technique were assessed. Z score transformations normalized the age groups. Multivariate binary logistic regression (dependent variable: injury yes/no) and multivariate linear regression analyses (dependent variable: injury severity in total days of absence from training) were calculated. T-tests and multivariate analyses of variance were used to reveal differences between injured and non-injured athletes and between injury severity groups. The level of significance was set to p jump contact time; and higher drop jump reactive strength index were at a lower injury risk or more vulnerable for fewer days of absence from training. However, significant differences between injured and non-injured athletes were only observed with respect to the drop jump reactive strength index. Regular documentation of anthropometric characteristics, biological maturity and physical fitness parameters is crucial to help to prevent injury in youth ski racing. The present

  13. Long-Term Athletic Development in Youth Alpine Ski Racing: The Effect of Physical Fitness, Ski Racing Technique, Anthropometrics and Biological Maturity Status on Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Müller, Erich; Fink, Christian; Raschner, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Alpine ski racing is known to be a sport with a high risk of injuries. Because most studies have focused mainly on top-level athletes and on traumatic injuries, limited research exists about injury risk factors among youth ski racers. The aim of this study was to determine the intrinsic risk factors (anthropometrics, biological maturity, physical fitness, racing technique) for injury among youth alpine ski racers. Study participants were 81 youth ski racers attending a ski boarding school (50 males, 31 females; 9-14 years). A prospective longitudinal cohort design was used to monitor sports-related risk factors over two seasons and traumatic (TI) and overuse injuries (OI). At the beginning of the study, anthropometric characteristics (body height, body weight, sitting height, body mass index); biological maturity [status age at peak height velocity (APHV)]; physical performance parameters related to jump coordination, maximal leg and core strength, explosive and reactive strength, balance and endurance; and ski racing technique were assessed. Z score transformations normalized the age groups. Multivariate binary logistic regression (dependent variable: injury yes/no) and multivariate linear regression analyses (dependent variable: injury severity in total days of absence from training) were calculated. T -tests and multivariate analyses of variance were used to reveal differences between injured and non-injured athletes and between injury severity groups. The level of significance was set to p core flexion strength; smaller core flexion:extension strength ratio; shorter drop jump contact time; and higher drop jump reactive strength index were at a lower injury risk or more vulnerable for fewer days of absence from training. However, significant differences between injured and non-injured athletes were only observed with respect to the drop jump reactive strength index. Regular documentation of anthropometric characteristics, biological maturity and physical fitness

  14. Online community marketing of ski resorts : an in-depth best practice study of aspen/snowmass and breckenridge ski resort

    OpenAIRE

    Kráľ, Branislav

    2013-01-01

    Online brand community is a novel phenomenon that carries a number of benefits, but lack of clarity in antecedents of its effectiveness as a marketing alternative. Aspen/Snowmass and Breckenridge Ski Resort are two leading players in the ski industry, and this paper analyzes their activity in-depth in order to bring clarity by extracting implications on best practice. For the purpose, a tailor-made methodology is constructed. It consists of combining two analytical frameworks, interviews with...

  15. Geo-information for sustainable urban development of Greater Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Andreas; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Bahls, Rebecca; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun

    2015-04-01

    Greater Dhaka City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six-storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing areas are projected in marshy areas modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In many areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions, and reliable geospatial information is a major prerequisite for risk-sensitive urban planning. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Greater Dhaka City area. Geospatial information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, GSB prepared a detailed geomorphologic map matching the DAP both in areal extent and scale. The geomorphological setting can be used as an important spatial proxy for the characterization of the subsurface since highly segmented, elevated terraces consisting of consolidated sandy Pliocene deposits overlain by stiff Plio-Pleistocene sediments are sharply bordered by low lying-areas. The floodplain and marsh areas are consisting of thick, mechanically weak Holocene fluvial sandy-silty sediments that are sometimes alternated by organic layers. A first expert-based engineering geological reclassification of the geomorphological map resulting in five building ground suitability classes is highly supported by the spatial analysis of extensive archive borehole information consisting of depth-continuous standard

  16. Comparison of tibial shaft ski fractures in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Tomo; Matsumoto, Kazu; Ishimaru, Daichi; Sumi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2014-09-01

    To examine whether child and adult skiers have different risk factors or mechanisms of injury for tibial shaft fractures. Descriptive epidemiological study. Prospectively analyzed the epidemiologic factors, injury types, and injury mechanisms at Sumi Memorial Hospital. This study analyzed information obtained from 276 patients with tibial fractures sustained during skiing between 2004 and 2012. We focused on 174 ski-related tibial shaft fractures with respect to the following factors: age, gender, laterality of fracture, skill level, mechanism of fracture (fall vs collision), scene of injury (steepness of slope), snow condition, and weather. Fracture pattern was graded according to Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) classification and mechanical direction [external (ER) or internal rotation (IR)]. Tibial shaft fractures were the most common in both children (89.3%) and adults (47.4%). There were no significant differences in gender, side of fracture, mechanism of fracture, snow condition, or weather between children and adults. Skill levels were significantly lower in children than in adults (P differences in some of these parameters, suggesting that child and adult skiers have different risk factors or mechanisms of injury for tibial shaft fractures.

  17. Effect of ski geometry and standing height on kinetic energy: equipment designed to reduce risk of severe traumatic injuries in alpine downhill ski racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgien, Matthias; Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Injuries in downhill (DH) are often related to high speed and, therefore, to high energy and forces which are involved in injury situations. Yet to date, no study has investigated the effect of ski geometry and standing height on kinetic energy (EKIN) in DH. This knowledge would be essential to define appropriate equipment rules that have the potential to protect the athletes' health. During a field experiment on an official World Cup DH course, 2 recently retired world class skiers skied on 5 different pairs of skis varying in width, length and standing height. Course characteristics, terrain and the skiers' centre of mass position were captured by a differential Global Navigational Satellite System-based methodology. EKIN, speed, ski-snow friction force (FF), ground reaction force (FGRF) and ski-snow friction coefficient (CoeffF) were calculated and analysed in dependency of the used skis. In the steep terrain, longer skis with reduced width and standing height significantly decreased average EKIN by ∼ 3%. Locally, even larger reductions of EKIN were observed (up to 7%). These local decreases in EKIN were mainly explainable by higher FF. Moreover, CoeffF differences seem of greater importance for explaining local FF differences than the differences in FGRF. Knowing that increased speed and EKIN likely lead to increased forces in fall/crash situations, the observed equipment-induced reduction in EKIN can be considered a reasonable measure to improve athlete safety, even though the achieved preventative gains are rather small and limited to steep terrain. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. The influence of increased distal loading on metabolic cost, efficiency, and kinematics of roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Conor M; Bessone, Veronica; Federolf, Peter; Ettema, Gertjan; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of increased loading of the roller ski on metabolic cost, gross efficiency, and kinematics of roller ski skating in steep and moderate terrain, while employing two incline-specific techniques. Ten nationally ranked male cross-country skiers were subjected to four 7-minute submaximal intervals, with 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg added beneath the roller-ski in a randomized order. This was done on two separate days, with the G2 skating at 12% incline and 7 km/h speed and G3 skating at 5% incline and 14 km/h speed, respectively. At 12% incline, there was a significant increase in metabolic rate and a decrease in gross efficiency with added weight (P0.05). No changes in cycle characteristics were observed between the different ski loadings at either incline, although the lateral and vertical displacements of the foot/skis were slightly altered at 12% incline with added weight. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that increased loading of the ski increases the metabolic cost and reduces gross efficiency during steep uphill roller skiing in G2 skating, whereas no significant effect was revealed when skating on relatively flat terrain in G3. Cycle characteristics remained unchanged across conditions at both inclines, whereas small adjustments in the displacement of the foot coincided with the efficiency changes in uphill terrain. The increased RPE values with added ski-weight at both inclines indicates that other factors than those measured here could have influenced effort and/or fatigue when lifting a heavier ski.

  19. A Retrospective Analysis of Concurrent Pathology in ACL-Reconstructed Knees of Elite Alpine Ski Racers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Doyle-Baker, Patricia; Heard, Mark

    2017-01-01

    /chondral surgery, 60% of meniscal tears and 80% of chondral lesions had worsened since the time of primary ACLR. CONCLUSION: Concurrent injury was common in this group of elite ski racers. Primary ACL tears were typically accompanied by lateral compartment chondral lesions and complex meniscal tears that worsened...... over time. ACL/MCL tears were the most common multiligament injury pattern.......BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is the most frequent injury in alpine ski racing, and there is a high prevalence of ACL reinjury. Limited data exist on the concurrent pathology with primary ACL tears in elite alpine ski racers and the magnitude of injury progression after primary...

  20. The relative age effect and the influence on performance in youth alpine ski racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2015-03-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup) at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup). Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative. Key pointsThe relative age influences not only the participation in youth ski

  1. THE ROLE OF MARKETING IN MODERN SPORT PROCEDURE AT EXAMPLE OF SKIING

    OpenAIRE

    Stevo Popović; Blažo Jabučanin

    2008-01-01

    The object of this project is marketing in modern sport procedure. The main focus will be directional to skiing and specific marketing in the area where it participated. The questions of sport marketing will be tested at Ski club “Mogren” from Budva. The main goal refers the requirement that sport in modern world should be presented as less simpler, cheaper and more attractive way. During last 30 years, sports, including the skiing, alike one of the Olympic sports, became much more active in ...

  2. [The ski camp doctor's role in the the prevention of winter sport accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkai, Péter

    2007-08-26

    Skiing is a risky sport for many, even for children and beginners. When the ski-group is escorted by doctors who are able to provide advanced life support on the scene and are trained either in the field of emergency medicine or in travel medicine, a good possibility is given for the prevention of ski-accidents and for decreasing the number of travel related illnesses. This fact has led to the basic idea of training ski-camp doctors in Hungary. There is no similar initiative in the Hungarian literature. Therefore the article tries to summarise the medical knowledge and requirements of a ski-camp doctor, and analyses the prevention tasks of the doctor as well. The camp doctor must be well informed and highly trained in the field of emergency and travel medicine. The main tasks are: pre-travel advice, treatment of the common (travel-related) diseases, providing basic and advanced life-support on the scene, and to organise the hospitalisation and repatriation of patient, in cooperation with the hospital and insurance doctor. Moreover, the prevention should start before departure: the estimation of the physical and health condition of the skiers, a continuous care of the chronic people, and supervision of the place (hygienic circumstances, rescue forces available, the condition of the ski slopes, etc.) are vital--as for the primary prevention. The secondary level of the prevention is the treatment of the injured/sick persons, and assistance in the medical evacuation. During the training, not only postgraduate medical, mountain and alpine medicine lessons have been provided, but basic legal and insurance information as well. Moreover, the doctors received ski-course from professional ski-trainers in order to improve their ski-technique and skills on different slopes and off-piste places. In the future the local mountain rescue and air-rescue forces have to be involved in postgraduate training. Hopefully different travel-insurance companies and travel offices will use

  3. Influence of facilities of ski preparation on the bodily condition of teenagers 11-12 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorona V.V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The indexes of bodily condition of teenagers were determined. A dynamics and increase of the explored indexes were analyzed in the process of ski preparation in the system of lessons of the physical culture of schoolchildren. The 156 teenagers at the age 11-12 years old took part in the experiment. The positive effect of ski training in the bodily condition of the investigated teenagers is proved. Reliable intercommunication was determined between the ski movements and indexes of bodily condition, which characterize work of the cardiovascular system.

  4. Snow reliability in ski resorts considering artificial snowmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstätter, M.; Formayer, H.; Haas, P.

    2009-04-01

    Snow reliability is the key factor to make skiing on slopes possible and to ensure added value in winter tourism. In this context snow reliability is defined by the duration of a snowpack on the ski runs of at least 50 mm snow water equivalent (SWE), within the main season (Dec-Mar). Furthermore the snowpack should form every winter and be existent early enough in season. In our work we investigate the snow reliability of six Austrian ski resorts. Because nearly all Austrian resorts rely on artificial snowmaking it is of big importance to consider man made snow in the snowpack accumulation and ablation in addition to natural snow. For each study region observed weather data including temperature, precipitation and snow height are used. In addition we differentiate up to three elevations on each site (valley, intermediate, mountain top), being aware of the typical local winter inversion height. Time periods suitable for artificial snow production, for several temperature threshold (-6,-4 or -1 degree Celsius) are calculated on an hourly base. Depending on the actual snowpack height, man made snow can be added in the model with different defined capacities, considering different technologies or the usage of additives. To simulate natural snowpack accumulation and ablation we a simple snow model, based on daily precipitation and temperature. This snow model is optimized at each site separately through certain parameterization factors. Based on the local observations and the monthly climate change signals from the climate model REMO-UBA, we generate long term time series of temperature and precipitation, using the weather generator LARS. Thereby we are not only able to simulate the snow reliability under current, but also under future climate conditions. Our results show significant changes in snow reliability, like an increase of days with insufficient snow heights, especially at mid and low altitudes under natural snow conditions. Artificial snowmaking can partly

  5. Development of geo-information data management system and application to geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on information technology, a geo-information database was established and a geo-information data management system (named as HLW-GIS was developed to facilitate data management work of the multi-source and multidisciplinary data been which are generated during site selection process of geological repository in China. Many important functions, such as basic create, retrieve, update, and delete operations, full text search and download functions, can be achieved through this management system. Even the function of statistics and analysis for certain professional data can be provided. Finally, a few hundred gigabytes of data from numerous different disciplines were integrated, stored, and managed successfully. Meanwhile, the management system can also provide a significant reference for data management work of related research fields, such as decommissioning and management of nuclear facilities, resource prospection and environmental protection.

  6. Aerodynamics of ski jumping: experiments and CFD simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meile, W.; Reisenberger, E.; Brenn, G. [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Graz (Austria); Mayer, M. [VRVis GmbH, Vienna (Austria); Schmoelzer, B.; Mueller, W. [Medical University of Graz, Department for Biophysics, Graz (Austria)

    2006-12-15

    The aerodynamic behaviour of a model ski jumper is investigated experimentally at full-scale Reynolds numbers and computationally applying a standard RANS code. In particular we focus on the influence of different postures on aerodynamic forces in a wide range of angles of attack. The experimental results proved to be in good agreement with full-scale measurements with athletes in much larger wind tunnels, and form a reliable basis for further predictions of the effects of position changes on the performance. The comparison of CFD results with the experiments shows poor agreement, but enables a clear outline of simulation potentials and limits when accurate predictions of effects from small variations are required. (orig.)

  7. Aerodynamics of ski jumping: experiments and CFD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meile, W.; Reisenberger, E.; Mayer, M.; Schmölzer, B.; Müller, W.; Brenn, G.

    2006-12-01

    The aerodynamic behaviour of a model ski jumper is investigated experimentally at full-scale Reynolds numbers and computationally applying a standard RANS code. In particular we focus on the influence of different postures on aerodynamic forces in a wide range of angles of attack. The experimental results proved to be in good agreement with full-scale measurements with athletes in much larger wind tunnels, and form a reliable basis for further predictions of the effects of position changes on the performance. The comparison of CFD results with the experiments shows poor agreement, but enables a clear outline of simulation potentials and limits when accurate predictions of effects from small variations are required.

  8. Alpine Skiing With total knee ArthroPlasty (ASWAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narici, Marco; Conte, M; Salvioli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated features of skeletal muscle ageing in elderly individuals having previously undergone unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and whether markers of sarcopenia could be mitigated by a 12-week alpine skiing intervention. Novel biomarkers agrin, indicative of neuromuscular...... junction (NMJ) degeneration, tumor suppressor protein p53, associated with muscle atrophy, and a new ultrasound-based muscle architecture biomarker were used to characterize sarcopenia. Participant details and study design are presented by Kösters et al. (2015). The results of this study show that NMJ...... degeneration is widespread among active septuagenarians previously subjected to TKA: all participants showed elevated agrin levels upon recruitment. At least 50% of individuals were identified as sarcopenic based on their muscle architecture, supporting the hypothesis that NMJ alterations precede sarcopenia...

  9. Vulnerability assessment of skiing-dependent businesses to the effects of climate change in Banff and Jasper National Parks, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, David Michael

    This qualitative study examines the potential positive and negative socio-economic impacts that may emerge from the long-term effects of climate change on skiing-dependent businesses in Banff and Jasper National Parks, Canada. My goal was to determine whether or not skiing-related tourism in the parks in the 2020s and 2050s is more or less socio-economically vulnerable to the effects of climate change on snow cover, temperatures and ski season length at ski resorts in the parks. My study explored the level of awareness and personal perceptions of 60 skiing-dependent business managers about how the impact of climate change on ski resorts may influence future socio-economics of ski tourism businesses. I employed a vulnerability assessment approach and adopted some elements of grounded theory. My primary data sources are interviews with managers and the outcome of the geographical factors index (GFI). Supporting methods include: an analysis and interpretation of climate model data and an interpretation of the economic analysis of skiing in the parks. The interview data were sorted and coded to establish concepts and findings by interview questions, while the GFI model rated and ranked 24 regional ski resorts in the Canadian Cordillera. The findings answered the research questions and helped me conclude what the future socio-economic vulnerability may be of skiing-dependent businesses in the parks. The interviews revealed that managers are not informed about climate change and they have not seen any urgency to consider the effects on business. The GFI revealed that the ski resorts in the parks ranked in the top ten of 24 ski resorts in the Cordillera based on 14 common geographical factors. The economic reports suggest skiing is the foundation of the winter economy in the parks and any impact on skiing would directly impact other skiing-dependent businesses. Research indicates that the effects of climate change may have less economic impact on skiing

  10. SKI review of SKB research programs 1992. Compilation of scientific reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) has reviewed the research programs 1992 of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB). This report presents the examination of the individual programs

  11. Alpine ski and snowboarding traumatic injuries: incidence, injury patterns, and risk factors for 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeth, Paul B; Ball, Chad G; Mulloy, Robert H; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W

    2009-05-01

    Alpine skiing and snowboarding are popular winter sports in Canada. Every year participation in these activities results in traumatic injury. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence and injury patterns, as well as risk factors associated with ski and snowboarding injuries. A comprehensive 10-year retrospective review of Alpine ski and snowboarding injuries from 1996 to 2006 was conducted. The Alberta Trauma Registry was used as the primary source of data. A total of 196 patients (56.6% skiers, 43.4% snowboarders) were identified as having major traumatic injuries (Injury Severity Score, >or=12). Forty-three patients required intensive care unit support. The majority of injuries were related to falls and collisions with natural objects. Head injuries were most common, followed by chest, spinal, and extremity trauma. Seventy-nine patients required emergency surgery. Skiing and snowboarding represent activities with high potential for traumatic injury. Safety initiatives should be developed to target this population.

  12. Effects of an Arctic Ocean Ski Traverse on the Protective Capabilities of Expedition Footwear

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Endrusick, Thomas; Frykman, Peter; O'Brien, Catherine; Giblo, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    A traverse of the Arctic Ocean during a 2000-km unsupported ski expedition provided an opportunity to assess the impact of an extreme cold environment on the protective capabilities of a specialized footwear system (FS...

  13. Application software GeoniCS when designing the olympic ski runs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin N. Makarov

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available GeoniCS implementation for Olympic mountain skiing routes designing is considered an international standard. This program allows optimizing plan and profiling development. Besides, the author adapted the program for lines engineering protection with special metal mesh.

  14. A kinematic and kinetic study of alpine skiing technique in slalom

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Avhandling (doktorgrad) - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2010. Despite a large body of lay and professional literature covering numerous aspects of alpine skiing technique, only a limited number of published scientific investigations have examined the relationship between skier technical and tactical characteristics and racing performance. As a consequence, our scientific understanding of how the underlying mechanics of alpine ski racing technique relate to performance is surprisin...

  15. Chromosomal instability in mouse embryonic fibroblasts null for the transcriptional co-repressor Ski

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelain, Katherine; Armisen, Ricardo; Aguirre, Adam; Ueki, Nobuhide; Toro, Jessica; Colmenares, Clemencia; Hayman, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Ski is a transcriptional regulator that has been considered an oncoprotein, given its ability to induce oncogenic transformation in avian model systems. However, studies in mouse and in some human tumor cells have also indicated a tumor suppressor activity for this protein. We found that Ski−/− mouse embryo fibroblasts exhibit high levels of genome instability, namely aneuploidy, consistent with a tumor suppressor function for Ski. Time-lapse microscopy revealed lagging chromosomes and chroma...

  16. [Doctor's degree thesis of Tomasz Adolf Wołkowiński "Carditidis rheumaticae historia"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stembrowicz, W

    2001-01-01

    In 1817 on the University of Vilnius Faculty of Medicine, T. A. Wołkowiński, a student of the eminent clinician Józef Frank, defended his doctor's degree thesis about a direct relation between rheumatic disease and cardiomegaly. It was probably the first paper in Poland describing with details the rheumatic heart disease. Unfortunately we don't know much about T. A. Wołkowiński's life.

  17. VALIDITY OF THE DIMENSIONAL CONFIGURATION OF THE REDUCED POTENTIAL PERFORMANCE MODEL IN SKI JUMPING

    OpenAIRE

    Ulaga, Maja; Čoh, Milan; Jošt, Bojan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the validity of the dimensional configuration of the reduced po-tential performance model in ski jumping. Two performance models were prepared (models A and B), dif-fering only in terms of their method of determining the weights (dimensional configuration). Model A in-volves the dependent determination of weights while model B includes the independent determination of weights. The sample consisted of 104 Slovenian ski jumpers from the senior-men’s categor...

  18. Whole-Body Vibrations Associated With Alpine Skiing: A Risk Factor for Low Back Pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Supej

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alpine skiing, both recreational and competitive, is associated with high rates of injury. Numerous studies have shown that occupational exposure to whole-body vibrations is strongly related to lower back pain and some suggest that, in particular, vibrations of lower frequencies could lead to overuse injuries of the back in connection with alpine ski racing. However, it is not yet known which forms of skiing involve stronger vibrations and whether these exceed safety thresholds set by existing standards and directives. Therefore, this study was designed to examine whole-body vibrations connected with different types of skiing and the associated potential risk of developing low back pain. Eight highly skilled ski instructors, all former competitive ski racers and equipped with five accelerometers and a Global Satellite Navigation System to measure vibrations and speed, respectively, performed six different forms of skiing: straight running, plowing, snow-plow swinging, basic swinging, short swinging, and carved turns. To estimate exposure to periodic, random and transient vibrations the power spectrum density (PSD and standard ISO 2631-1:1997 parameters [i.e., the weighted root-mean-square acceleration (RMS, crest factor, maximum transient vibration value and the fourth-power vibration dose value (VDV] were calculated. Ground reaction forces were estimated from data provided by accelerometers attached to the pelvis. The major novel findings were that all of the forms of skiing tested produced whole-body vibrations, with highest PSD values of 1.5–8 Hz. Intensified PSD between 8.5 and 35 Hz was observed only when skidding was involved. The RMS values for 10 min of short swinging or carved turns, as well as all 10-min equivalent VDV values exceeded the limits set by European Directive 2002/44/EC for health and safety. Thus, whole-body vibrations, particularly in connection with high ground reaction forces, contribute to a high risk for low back

  19. The importance of being light: aerodynamic forces and weight in ski jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmölzer, B; Müller, W

    2002-08-01

    Many contemporary world class ski jumpers are alarmingly underweight and several cases of anorexia nervosa have come to light. Athletes strive for low body weight because it gives them a major competitive advantage. In order to stop this hazardous development, changes to the regulations are being discussed, and the International Ski Federation and the International Olympic Committee wish to be proactive in safe guarding the interest of the athletes and their health. This study of ski jumping uses field studies conducted during World Cup competitions, large-scale wind tunnel measurements with 1:1 models of ski jumpers in current equipment and highly accurate computer simulations of the flight phase that include the effects due to the athlete's position changes. Particular attention has been directed to the design of a reference jump that mirrors current flight style and equipment regulations (2001), and to the investigation of effects associated with variation in body mass, air density, and wind gusts during the simulated flight. The detailed analysis of the physics of ski jumping described here can be used for the investigation of all initial value and parameter variations that determine the flight path of a ski jumper and will form a reliable basis for setting regulations that will make it less attractive or even disadvantageous for the athlete to be extremely light.

  20. Measurement of the dynamics in ski jumping using a wearable inertial sensor-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardonnens, Julien; Favre, Julien; Cuendet, Florian; Gremion, Gérald; Aminian, Kamiar

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics is a central aspect of ski jumping, particularly during take-off and stable flight. Currently, measurement systems able to measure ski jumping dynamics (e.g. 3D cameras, force plates) are complex and only available in few research centres worldwide. This study proposes a method to determine dynamics using a wearable inertial sensor-based system which can be used routinely on any ski jumping hill. The system automatically calculates characteristic dynamic parameters during take-off (position and velocity of the centre of mass perpendicular to the table, force acting on the centre of mass perpendicular to the table and somersault angular velocity) and stable flight (total aerodynamic force). Furthermore, the acceleration of the ski perpendicular to the table was quantified to characterise the skis lift at take-off. The system was tested with two groups of 11 athletes with different jump distances. The force acting on the centre of mass, acceleration of the ski perpendicular to the table, somersault angular velocity and total aerodynamic force were different between groups and correlated with the jump distances. Furthermore, all dynamic parameters were within the range of prior studies based on stationary measurement systems, except for the centre of mass mean force which was slightly lower.

  1. Characteristics of the early flight phase in the Olympic ski jumping competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmavirta, Mikko; Isolehto, Juha; Komi, Paavo; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Müller, Erich; Schwameder, Hermann

    2005-11-01

    Early flight phase (approximately 40 m) of the athletes participating in the final round of the individual large hill ski jumping competition in Salt Lake City Olympics was filmed with two high-speed pan & tilt video cameras. The results showed that jumpers' steady flight position was almost completed within 0.5s. The most significant correlation with the length of the jump was found in the angle between the skis and body (r=.714, p.001 at 1.1s after the take-off). This particular phase seemed to be important because the ski angle of attack was also related to the jumping distance at the same phase. Although the more upright ski position relative to flight path resulted in longer jumping distance, the winner of the competition had significantly lower ski position as compared to the other good jumpers. This may be due to the high altitude (>2000 m) of the ski jumping stadium in this competition. Because of the low air density, the aerodynamic forces were also low and this probably caused less skillful jumpers to lean too much forward at this phase. Maintenance of speed seemed to be emphasized in this particular competition.

  2. Radioprotective effect of c-ski on rat skin fibroblast in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xia; Li Ping; Zhang En; Liu Ping; Zhou Ping; Zhou Yuanguo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine radioprotective effect of c-ski on rat skin fibroblast in vitro and explore its possible mechanism. Methods: The effect of soft X-ray irradiation at dose varied from 2 to 8 Gy on cell apoptosis in rat skin fibroblast were determined by flow cytometry with Annexin-V-FITC-PI labelling. The effect of c-ski gene transfection on cell apoptosis was evaluated after soft X-ray irradiation of 4 Gy. The protein expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 after c-ski gene transfection were measured with the Western blot method. Results: Soft X-ray irradiation increases cell apoptosis, and the increase is proportional to the irradiation dose. Apoptosis ratio increases with time since the irradiation, and reaches its peak at 36h after the irradiation, c-ski gene was observed to markedly decrease apoptosis index at 24 h after soft X-ray irradiation of 4 Gy compared to the control group, significant increase of the protein expression of Bcl-2 was observed. C-ski gene was found no significant effect on the protein expression of Bax. Conclusion: c-ski gene can decrease radiation sensitivity of skin fibroblast, promoting Bcl-2 protein expression is one of its possible mechanism for this radioprotective effects. (authors)

  3. Impact assessment of proposed ski areas: A GIS approach integrating biological, physical and landscape indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geneletti, Davide

    2008-01-01

    Ski centres are characterized by significant environmental impacts that occur during both the construction and the operation phase. In Trentino, a well-known ski destination located in northern Italy, new ski areas were identified by planning tools without conducting a formal assessment of their effects on the environment. This paper presents a study to assess and compare the impacts of the proposed ski areas within two valleys strongly linked to winter tourism: the Fiemme and Fassa Valleys. The method is based on the computation of spatial indicators using a Geographical Information System (GIS) to predict and quantify critical impacts, such as ecosystem loss and fragmentation, soil erosion, geomorphologic hazards, interference with flora and fauna, and visibility. Subsequently, multicriteria analysis was applied to generate composite indices, and to rank ski areas according to their overall suitability. Finally, sensitivity analyses allowed to test the stability of the results. The study concluded that two of the proposed ski areas are located in highly unsuitable environment, and the relevant plan provisions should be revised

  4. a Study on Mental Representations for Realistic Visualization the Particular Case of Ski Trail Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarini, R.; Dalmasso, A.; Murat, M.

    2015-08-01

    This article presents preliminary results from a research project in progress that brings together geographers, cognitive scientists, historians and computer scientists. The project investigates the evolution of a particular territorial model: ski trails maps. Ski resorts, tourist and sporting innovations for mountain economies since the 1930s, have needed cartographic representations corresponding to new practices of the space.Painter artists have been involved in producing ski maps with painting techniques and panoramic views, which are by far the most common type of map, because they allow the resorts to look impressive to potential visitors. These techniques have evolved throughout the mutations of the ski resorts. Paper ski maps no longer meet the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to digital media. In a computerized process perspective, the early stage of the project aims to identify the artist-representations, based on conceptual and technical rules, which are handled by users-skiers to perform a task (location, wayfinding, decision-making) and can be transferred to a computer system. This article presents the experimental phase that analyzes artist and user mental representations that are at stake during the making and the reading of a paper ski map. It particularly focuses on how the invention of the artist influences map reading.

  5. Does listening to music with an audio ski helmet impair reaction time to peripheral stimuli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Pocecco, E; Wolf, M; Schöpf, S; Burtscher, M; Kopp, M

    2012-12-01

    With the recent worldwide increase in ski helmet use, new market trends are developing, including audio helmets for listening to music while skiing or snowboarding. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether listening to music with an audio ski helmet impairs reaction time to peripheral stimuli. A within-subjects design study using the Compensatory-Tracking-Test was performed on 65 subjects (36 males and 29 females) who had a mean age of 23.3 ± 3.9 years. Using repeated measures analysis of variance, we found significant differences in reaction times between the 4 test conditions (p=0.039). The lowest mean reaction time (± SE) was measured for helmet use while listening to music (507.9 ± 13.2 ms), which was not different from helmet use alone (514.6 ± 12.5 ms) (p=0.528). However, compared to helmet use while listening to music, reaction time was significantly longer for helmet and ski goggles used together (535.8 ± 14.2 ms, p=0.005), with a similar trend for helmet and ski goggles used together while listening to music (526.9 ± 13.8 ms) (p=0.094). In conclusion, listening to music with an audio ski helmet did not increase mean reaction time to peripheral stimuli in a laboratory setting. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. The Effect of a Vibration Absorber on the Damping Properties of Alpine Skis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schwanitz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coupled bending-torsion vibrations at the shovel are a severe problem when running an alpine ski at high velocities on hard or icy slopes. Thus, a major goal for ski manufacturers is to dampen vibrations through a proper multi-material design and/or additional absorbers. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a particular vibration absorber on a commercial slalom ski through a series of laboratory tests as well as a subjective field evaluation. Therefore, two identical pairs of ski were used and the absorber was deactivated on one pair. Laboratory tests revealed reductions of 5% to 49% of bending vibrations on skis with activated absorber. Subjective evaluation by 6 subjects suggested minor differences in the mean of the evaluated criteria turnablity, edge grip, steering behavior and stability towards a better performance of the skis with activated absorber. Subjects were able to identify the absorber mode with a success rate of 61.1%.

  7. Enhanced UV exposure on a ski-field compared with exposures at sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Martin; McKenzie, Richard

    2005-05-01

    Personal erythemal UV monitoring badges, which were developed to monitor the UV exposure of school children, were used to measure UV exposures received by one of the authors (MA) at the Mt Hutt ski-field, in New Zealand. These were then compared with measurements taken at the same times from a nearby sea level site in Christchurch city. The badges were designed to give instantaneous readings of erythemally-weighted (i.e., "sun burning") UV radiation and were cross-calibrated against meteorological grade UV instruments maintained by the National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research (NIWA). All skiing and calibration days were clear and almost exclusively cloud free. It was found that the UV maxima for horizontal surfaces at the ski-field (altitude approximately 2 km) were 20-30% greater than at the low altitude site. Larger differences between the sites were observed when the sensor was oriented perpendicular to the sun. The personal doses of UV received by a sensor on the skier's lapel during two days of skiing activity were less than those received by a stationary detector on a horizontal surface near sea level. The exposures depended strongly on the time of year, and in mid-October the maximum UV intensity on the ski-field was 60% greater than in mid-September. The UV exposure levels experienced during skiing were smaller than the summer maxima at low altitudes.

  8. A STUDY ON MENTAL REPRESENTATIONS FOR REALISTIC VISUALIZATION THE PARTICULAR CASE OF SKI TRAIL MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balzarini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents preliminary results from a research project in progress that brings together geographers, cognitive scientists, historians and computer scientists. The project investigates the evolution of a particular territorial model: ski trails maps. Ski resorts, tourist and sporting innovations for mountain economies since the 1930s, have needed cartographic representations corresponding to new practices of the space.Painter artists have been involved in producing ski maps with painting techniques and panoramic views, which are by far the most common type of map, because they allow the resorts to look impressive to potential visitors. These techniques have evolved throughout the mutations of the ski resorts. Paper ski maps no longer meet the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to digital media. In a computerized process perspective, the early stage of the project aims to identify the artist-representations, based on conceptual and technical rules, which are handled by users-skiers to perform a task (location, wayfinding, decision-making and can be transferred to a computer system. This article presents the experimental phase that analyzes artist and user mental representations that are at stake during the making and the reading of a paper ski map. It particularly focuses on how the invention of the artist influences map reading.

  9. Injuries in skiing and snowboarding: Epidemiology and risk factors as a basis for prevention measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropret Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the subject of injury in alpine skiing and snowboarding and the aim was to define the characteristics of injuries and the risk factors as the basis for establishing preventive measures. The types of injuries and risk factors were analyzed by examining previous papers. During the last thirty years, the number of injuries has generally decreased by 50-70%. The changes were recorded in the types of injuries, and the number of certain injuries increased. It was found that there was a mutual difference in the number and structure of the injuries of skiers and snowboarders. Injuries can be classified topologically and according to risk factors. The risk factors may be manifold: the characteristics of the equipment, the characteristics of the trail and snow surface, protective equipment, age, gender, physical fitness, risky behaviours, time of day, skiing discipline, climate factors, the presence of other skiers and others. By the analysis of these factors it was concluded that there were three entities in the implementation of security measures: the state that stipulates laws (relevant ministries, owners or organizers who provide services in skiing (ski centres, ski services, ski schools, clubs and skiers and snowboarders themselves.

  10. A reappraisal of success factors for Olympic cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-01-01

    Cross-country (XC) skiing has been an Olympic event since the first Winter Games in Chamonix, France, in 1924. Due to more effective training and tremendous improvements in equipment and track preparation, the speed of Olympic XC-ski races has increased more than that of any other Olympic endurance sport. Moreover, pursuit, mass-start, and sprint races have been introduced. Indeed, 10 of the 12 current Olympic competitions in XC skiing involve mass starts, in which tactics play a major role and the outcome is often decided in the final sprint. Accordingly, reappraisal of the success factors for performance in this context is required. The very high aerobic capacity (VO2max) of many of today's world-class skiers is similar that of their predecessors. At the same time, the new events provide more opportunities to profit from anaerobic capacity, upper-body power, high-speed techniques, and "tactical flexibility." The wide range of speeds and slopes involved in XC skiing requires skiers to continuously alternate between and adapt different subtechniques during a race. This technical complexity places a premium on efficiency. The relative amounts of endurance training performed at different levels of intensity have remained essentially constant during the past 4 decades. However, in preparation for the Sochi Olympics in 2014, XC skiers are performing more endurance training on roller skis on competition-specific terrain, placing greater focus on upper-body power and more systematically performing strength training and skiing at high speeds than previously.

  11. Long-Term Athletic Development in Youth Alpine Ski Racing: The Effect of Physical Fitness, Ski Racing Technique, Anthropometrics and Biological Maturity Status on Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Müller

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alpine ski racing is known to be a sport with a high risk of injuries. Because most studies have focused mainly on top-level athletes and on traumatic injuries, limited research exists about injury risk factors among youth ski racers. The aim of this study was to determine the intrinsic risk factors (anthropometrics, biological maturity, physical fitness, racing technique for injury among youth alpine ski racers. Study participants were 81 youth ski racers attending a ski boarding school (50 males, 31 females; 9–14 years. A prospective longitudinal cohort design was used to monitor sports-related risk factors over two seasons and traumatic (TI and overuse injuries (OI. At the beginning of the study, anthropometric characteristics (body height, body weight, sitting height, body mass index; biological maturity [status age at peak height velocity (APHV]; physical performance parameters related to jump coordination, maximal leg and core strength, explosive and reactive strength, balance and endurance; and ski racing technique were assessed. Z score transformations normalized the age groups. Multivariate binary logistic regression (dependent variable: injury yes/no and multivariate linear regression analyses (dependent variable: injury severity in total days of absence from training were calculated. T-tests and multivariate analyses of variance were used to reveal differences between injured and non-injured athletes and between injury severity groups. The level of significance was set to p < 0.05. Relatively low rates of injuries were reported for both traumatic (0.63 TI/athlete and overuse injuries (0.21 OI/athlete. Athletes with higher body weight, body height, and sitting height; lower APHV values; better core flexion strength; smaller core flexion:extension strength ratio; shorter drop jump contact time; and higher drop jump reactive strength index were at a lower injury risk or more vulnerable for fewer days of absence from training. However

  12. Impact of climate change on the operation of ski slopes in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Park, J. H.; Lee, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to predict changes in the operation of ski slopes due to climate change and offer meaningful implications that the ski industry can refer to when preparing to address climate change. All 17 ski resorts in South Korea were selected as study sites. To determine the weather and managerial conditions for the operation of ski slopes, interviews with operators and a review of past weather and operational conditions were conducted. To project future changes in the season of operation for ski slopes, future weather data for the 2030s, 2060s, and 2090s from RCP scenarios were adapted to the conditions for the operation of ski slopes.The study found that the artificial snowmaking begins when the temperature reaches -2 °C, the slope is opened 9 days after artificial snowmaking starts, and the slope is closed when the temperature reaches 0 °C. By applying future weather data to these conditions, it is estimated that the ski season will decrease in the future as follows: from around 130 days at present to around 120 days based on RCP 2.0 and RCP 6.0, around 130 days based on RCP 4.5, and 90 days based on RCP 8.5 in the areas where the average temperature of the ski season is below -2 °C; from around 120 days at present to around 120 days based on RCP 2.0 and 4.5, around 100-days based on RCP 6.0, and 60 days based on RCP 8.5 in the areas where the average temperature of the ski season is below 0 °C; from around 90 days at present to around 80 days based on RCP 2.0, around 90 days based on RCP 4.5, around 50 days based on RCP 6.0, and 10 days based on RCP 8.5 in the areas where the average temperature of the ski season is above 0 °C. In addition, it is also estimated that in the 2090s, 16 of 17 ski resorts can survive based on RCP 2.6 and RCP 4.5, 13 ski resorts can survive based on RCP 6.0, and none of the resorts can survive based on RCP 8.5, according to the 100-days rule, which is the minimum required duration of the operation of ski resorts

  13. THE REGIONAL ASPECT OF USING GEOINFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES AT THE STAGE OF INCREASING THE INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF ENGINEERING-PREPARED TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Volkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the advantages of geoinformation technologies using in the formation of perspective land plots for construction to increase the investment attractiveness of engineering prepared territories. It discusses the formation of land plots, which were prepared for placement of new enterprises, their legal registration and the necessary infrastructure. It analyzes the approaches to pricing prepared land plots in the market, as well as their demand among investors for major investment projects in the construction sector. The paper describes the characteristics of types of sites for construction, substantiating the creation of a data base for prospective engineering prepared territories.The emphasis is made on the question of working with a large amount of spatial information being analyzed that dictates the use of GIS technologies for increasing efficiency of interaction of interested parties. The article analyzes the structure of the Federal geographic information system, created to provide electronic interaction at the level of the Federal Executive power, local government bodies, legal persons and individuals.Geographic information system (GIS of this level can provide a comprehensive assessment of the quality of the prepared documents, execution of project agreements of territorial planning and information support for decision for all levels of government in planning of territory development. GIS allow us to operatively evaluate the investment attractiveness of prospective land plots for construction. The use of technologies of collecting and providing information about engineering prepared territories to potential investors improves the investment attractiveness of the Russian Federation on the whole. 

  14. A Novel Approach to Semantic Similarity Measurement Based on a Weighted Concept Lattice: Exemplifying Geo-Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of semantic similarity has been widely recognized as having a fundamental and key role in information science and information systems. Although various models have been proposed to measure semantic similarity, these models are not able effectively to quantify the weights of relevant factors that impact on the judgement of semantic similarity, such as the attributes of concepts, application context, and concept hierarchy. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that comprehensively considers the effects of various factors on semantic similarity judgment, which we name semantic similarity measurement based on a weighted concept lattice (SSMWCL. A feature model and network model are integrated together in SSMWCL. Based on the feature model, the combined weight of each attribute of the concepts is calculated by merging its information entropy and inclusion-degree importance in a specific application context. By establishing the weighted concept lattice, the relative hierarchical depths of concepts for comparison are computed according to the principle of the network model. The integration of feature model and network model enables SSMWCL to take account of differences in concepts more comprehensively in semantic similarity measurement. Additionally, a workflow of SSMWCL is designed to demonstrate these procedures and a case study of geo-information is conducted to assess the approach.

  15. SKI - ASAR - B1/B2 As operated Safety Analysis Report. Recurring safety review 1995 Barsebaeck 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    According to Swedish law, the reactor owner is responsible for performing a safety review and writing a so called ASAR-report. The Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) examines this report, and reports the findings to the government (the so called SKI-ASAR-report). Each Swedish reactor should pass through three full ASAR reviews during its lifetime, similar to the licensing inspection before start-up of the reactor. The second series ASAR was delivered by the Barsebaeck utility to SKI in September 1995, and forms the basis for the SKI analysis in the present report

  16. A local scale assessment of the climate change sensitivity of snow in Pyrenean ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesado, Cristina; Pons, Marc; Vilella, Marc; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    The Pyrenees host one of the largest ski area in Europe after the Alps that encompasses the mountain area of the south of France, the north of Spain and the small country of Andorra. In this region, winter tourism is one of the main source of income and driving force of local development on these mountain communities. However, this activity was identified as one of the most vulnerable to a future climate change due to the projected decrease of natural snow and snowmaking capacity. However, within the same ski resorts different areas showed to have a very different vulnerability within the same resort based on the geographic features of the area and the technical management of the slopes. Different areas inside a same ski resort could have very different vulnerability to future climate change based on aspect, steepness or elevation. Furthermore, the technical management of ski resorts, such as snowmaking and grooming were identified to have a significant impact on the response of the snowpack in a warmer climate. In this line, two different ski resorts were deeply analyzed taken into account both local geographical features as well as the effect of the technical management of the runs. Principal Component Analysis was used to classify the main areas of the resort based on the geographic features (elevation, aspect and steepness) and identify the main representative areas with different local features. Snow energy and mass balance was simulated in the different representative areas using the Cold Regions Hydrological Model (CRHM) assuming different magnitudes of climate warming (increases of 2°C and 4°C in the mean winter temperature) both in natural conditions and assuming technical management of the slopes. Theses first results showed the different sensitivity and vulnerability to climate changes based on the local geography of the resort and the management of the ski runs, showing the importance to include these variables when analyzing the local vulnerability

  17. Anterior cruciate ligament injury/reinjury in alpine ski racing: a narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present review was to: 1) provide an overview of the current understanding on the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and prevention methods for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in alpine ski racing; and 2) provide an overview of what is known pertaining to ACL reinjury and return to sport after ACL injury in alpine ski racing. Given that most of the scientific studies on ACL injuries in alpine ski racing have been descriptive, and that very few studies contributed higher level scientific evidence, a nonsystematic narrative review was employed. Three scholarly databases were searched for articles on ACL injury or knee injury in alpine ski racing. Studies were classified according to their relevance in relation to epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and return to sport/reinjury prevention. Alpine ski racers (skiers) were found to be at high risk for knee injuries, and ACL tears were the most frequent diagnosis. Three primary ACL injury mechanism were identified that involved tibial internal rotation and anteriorly directed shear forces from ski equipment and the environment. While trunk muscle strength imbalance and genetics were found to be predictive of ACL injuries in development-level skiers, there was limited scientific data on ACL injury risk factors among elite skiers. Based on expert opinion, research on injury risk factors should focus on equipment design, course settings/speed, and athlete factors (eg, fitness). While skiers seem to make a successful recovery following ACL injury, there may be persistent neuromuscular deficits. Future research efforts should be directed toward prospective studies on ACL injury/reinjury prevention in both male and female skiers and toward the effects of knee injury on long-term health outcomes, such as the early development of osteoarthritis. International collaborations may be necessary to generate sufficient statistical power for ACL injury/reinjury prevention research in alpine ski racing

  18. The Relative Age Effect and the Influence on Performance in Youth Alpine Ski Racing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Müller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE, which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup. Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative.

  19. Impact of lowering ski binding settings on the outcome of the self-release test of ski bindings among female recreational skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posch M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Markus Posch,1 Martin Burtscher,1 Alois Schranz,2 Katja Tecklenburg,2 Kenneth Helle,2 Gerhard Ruedl1 1Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria; 2Medalp Sportclinic, Imst, Austria Background and purpose: The ability to successfully self-release the ski binding can prevent skiing-related injuries of the lower extremities. Failure of binding release associated with a knee injury is significantly higher among females compared to males. The International Standards Organization ISO 11088 standard for binding setting values allows a lowering by 15% upon request of the skier. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of lowered ski binding settings by 15% on the outcome of the self-release test among female recreational skiers. Materials and methods: In this randomized single-blinded study, a cohort of 20 females (24.5±2.7 years performed the self-release test in the laboratory thrice with each leg under two conditions: 1 with an actual ISO 11088 setting and 2 with a setting lowered by 15%. For each attempt, torques calculated via the force plate were normalized to torques measured by a binding adjustment system (relative release torque, RRT. Results: Among 240 trials in total, more females were significantly able to self-release their ski bindings with lowered binding settings when compared to their actual ISO settings (53% vs 9%, p<0.001. Thirteen females (65% were able to release their bindings at least once with both legs with lowered binding settings compared to only three females (15% with their actual binding settings (p<0.001. Mean RRT of all failure of binding release trials significantly differed between lowered and actual binding settings (58.6%±22.2% vs 50.5%±20.4%, p=0.003. Conclusion: Four times more females were able to self-release their ski bindings at least once with both legs with a 15% lowered binding setting compared to their normal ISO 11088 setting. The fact that the ISO standard

  20. Electronic confining effects in Sierpiński triangle fractals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Xue; Jiang, Zhuoling; Wang, Yongfeng; Hou, Shimin

    2018-03-01

    Electron confinement in fractal Sierpiński triangles (STs) on Ag(111) is investigated using scanning tunneling spectroscopy and theoretically simulated by employing an improved two-dimensional (2D) multiple scattering theory in which the energy-dependent phase shifts are explicitly calculated from the electrostatic potentials of the molecular building block of STs. Well-defined bound surface states are observed in three kinds of triangular cavities with their sides changing at a scale factor of 2. The decrease in length of the cavities results in an upshift of the resonances that deviates from an expected inverse quadratic dependence on the cavity length due to the less efficient confinement of smaller triangular cavities. Differential conductance maps at some specific biases present a series of alternative bright and dark rounded triangles preserving the symmetry of the boundary. Our improved 2D multiple scattering model reproduces the characteristics of the standing wave patterns and all features in the differential conductance spectra measured in experiments, illustrating that the elastic loss boundary scattering dominates the resonance broadening in these ST quantum corrals. Moreover, the self-similar structure of STs, that a larger central cavity is surrounded by three smaller ones with a half side length, gives rise to interactions of surface states confined in neighboring cavities, which are helpful for the suppression of the linewidth in differential conductance spectra.

  1. Effect of ski geometry and standing height on kinetic energy: equipment designed to reduce risk of severe traumatic injuries in alpine downhill ski racing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgien, Matthias; Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Background Injuries in downhill (DH) are often related to high speed and, therefore, to high energy and forces which are involved in injury situations. Yet to date, no study has investigated the effect of ski geometry and standing height on kinetic energy (EKIN) in DH. This knowledge would be essential to define appropriate equipment rules that have the potential to protect the athletes’ health. Methods During a field experiment on an official World Cup DH course, 2 recently retired world class skiers skied on 5 different pairs of skis varying in width, length and standing height. Course characteristics, terrain and the skiers’ centre of mass position were captured by a differential Global Navigational Satellite System-based methodology. EKIN, speed, ski–snow friction force (FF), ground reaction force (FGRF) and ski–snow friction coefficient (CoeffF) were calculated and analysed in dependency of the used skis. Results In the steep terrain, longer skis with reduced width and standing height significantly decreased average EKIN by ∼3%. Locally, even larger reductions of EKIN were observed (up to 7%). These local decreases in EKIN were mainly explainable by higher FF. Moreover, CoeffF differences seem of greater importance for explaining local FF differences than the differences in FGRF. Conclusions Knowing that increased speed and EKIN likely lead to increased forces in fall/crash situations, the observed equipment-induced reduction in EKIN can be considered a reasonable measure to improve athlete safety, even though the achieved preventative gains are rather small and limited to steep terrain. PMID:26702013

  2. THE COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL ABILITIES BETWEEN ALPINE SKIING SKIERS' AND TENNIS PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanis Vassilis.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was the physical abilities diagnosis of Alpine skiing skiers and tennis players, as well the comparison of these before and after the ski period. The sample of 54 individuals emanated from two teams of different sports: skiing (N = 28 and tennis (N = 26, while the level was advancing for both. For the diagnosis and the comparison of physical abilities used four tests of Alpine skiing on dry ground the same day of December 2008 and April 2009 respectively: 30m flight start, eight continuous jumping, slalom on "folder", jumping up and down on a step with height 40cm x 40sec. The statistical analysis done with SPSS 18 program, included controls t - test, p=bilateral, for dependent samples and correlation analysis at significance level a= 0.05 with freedom degrees df = N - 1. In conclusion, in the present research the ski team (men and women presented the improvement afterwards the season in 2 of 4 tests and in the corresponding physical abilities (explosive force, t = 2,970, p < .01 and agility t = 3.533, p < .00, while also the tennis team (men and women presented improvement in 2 of 4 tests (explosive force, t = 2,397, p < .02 and anaerobic ability, t = 3.192, p < .00. Finally the common characteristic of the two teams was the performance improvement in the explosive force and their decreased attribution in speed.

  3. Frequency of injuries, in particular dental injuries, in ski jumping and Nordic combined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillhard, Angela; Buschor, Cornel; Krastl, Gabriel; Kühl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    This study investigates the frequency of injuries, in particular dental injuries, among ski jumpers and Nordic combined athletes. It also examines the level of knowledge regarding tooth protection and tooth rescue boxes in this population. Of the 465 sportswomen and sportsmen who took part in the study, 230 (62.5%) of the 368 ski jumpers and 56 (56.5%) of the 97 Nordic combined athletes had sustained an injury. In both disciplines injury was most likely among professionals. The survey participants reported injuries to the limbs (n = 216), head and lips (n = 273 and n = 253, respectively), torso or spine (n = 249), teeth (n = 246), nose (n = 229) and jaw (n = 26). Dental injuries were more common among professionals than either amateur or junior ski jumpers, whereas, among the Nordic combined athletes, juniors were most likely to sustain a dental injury. Overall, the frequency of dental injury was significantly (p = 0.019) higher among adults 12.7% (n = 234) than junior athletes 6.1% (n = 212). The level of awareness of mouthguards and tooth rescue boxes varied between countries. The high injury rate recorded in this study demonstrates that ski jumping contains a considerable risk of injury, including tooth damage. Consequently, it seems reasonable to inform skiing organisations, trainers and athletes about the potential benefits of mouthguards and tooth rescue boxes in order to reduce the risk of dental injury.

  4. Kinematics and Kinetics of Squats, Drop Jumps and Imitation Jumps of Ski Jumpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Carole A; Keller, Melanie; Ammann, Fabian; Hübner, Klaus; Lindorfer, Julia; Taylor, William R; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2016-03-01

    Squats, drop jumps, and imitation jumps are commonly used training exercises in ski jumping to enhance maximum force, explosive force, and sport-specific skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinetics and kinematics of training exercises in ski jumping and to find objective parameters in training exercises that most correlate with the competition performance of ski jumpers. To this end, barbell squats, drop jumps, and imitation jumps were measured in a laboratory environment for 10 elite ski jumpers. Force and motion data were captured, and the influence of maximum vertical force, force difference, vertical take-off velocity, knee moments, knee joint power, and a knee valgus/varus index was evaluated and correlated with their season jump performance. The results indicate that, especially for the imitation jumps, a good correlation exists between the vertical take-off velocity and the personal jump performance on the hill (R = 0.718). Importantly, however, the more the athletes tended toward a valgus knee alignment during the measured movements, the worse their performance (R = 0.729 imitation jumps; R = 0.685 squats). Although an evaluation of the athletes' lower limb alignment during competitive jumping on the hill is still required, these preliminary data suggest that performance training should additionally concentrate on improving knee alignment to increase ski jumping performance.

  5. In-frame mutations in exon 1 of SKI cause dominant Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmignac, Virginie; Thevenon, Julien; Adès, Lesley; Callewaert, Bert; Julia, Sophie; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Gueneau, Lucie; Courcet, Jean-Benoit; Lopez, Estelle; Holman, Katherine; Renard, Marjolijn; Plauchu, Henri; Plessis, Ghislaine; De Backer, Julie; Child, Anne; Arno, Gavin; Duplomb, Laurence; Callier, Patrick; Aral, Bernard; Vabres, Pierre; Gigot, Nadège; Arbustini, Eloisa; Grasso, Maurizia; Robinson, Peter N; Goizet, Cyril; Baumann, Clarisse; Di Rocco, Maja; Sanchez Del Pozo, Jaime; Huet, Frédéric; Jondeau, Guillaume; Collod-Beroud, Gwenaëlle; Beroud, Christophe; Amiel, Jeanne; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Boileau, Catherine; De Paepe, Anne; Faivre, Laurence

    2012-11-02

    Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS) is characterized by severe marfanoid habitus, intellectual disability, camptodactyly, typical facial dysmorphism, and craniosynostosis. Using family-based exome sequencing, we identified a dominantly inherited heterozygous in-frame deletion in exon 1 of SKI. Direct sequencing of SKI further identified one overlapping heterozygous in-frame deletion and ten heterozygous missense mutations affecting recurrent residues in 18 of the 19 individuals screened for SGS; these individuals included one family affected by somatic mosaicism. All mutations were located in a restricted area of exon 1, within the R-SMAD binding domain of SKI. No mutation was found in a cohort of 11 individuals with other marfanoid-craniosynostosis phenotypes. The interaction between SKI and Smad2/3 and Smad 4 regulates TGF-β signaling, and the pattern of anomalies in Ski-deficient mice corresponds to the clinical manifestations of SGS. These findings define SGS as a member of the family of diseases associated with the TGF-β-signaling pathway. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chromosomal instability in mouse embryonic fibroblasts null for the transcriptional co-repressor Ski.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelain, Katherine; Armisen, Ricardo; Aguirre, Adam; Ueki, Nobuhide; Toro, Jessica; Colmenares, Clemencia; Hayman, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Ski is a transcriptional regulator that has been considered an oncoprotein given its ability to induce oncogenic transformation in avian model systems. However, studies in mouse and in some human tumor cells have also indicated a tumor suppressor activity for this protein. We found that Ski-/- mouse embryo fibroblasts exhibit high levels of genome instability, namely aneuploidy, consistent with a tumor suppressor function for Ski. Time-lapse microscopy revealed lagging chromosomes and chromatin/chromosome bridges as the major cause of micronuclei (MN) formation and the subsequent aneuploidy. Although these cells arrested in mitosis after treatment with spindle disrupting drugs and exhibited a delayed metaphase/anaphase transition, spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) was not sufficient to prevent chromosome missegregation, consistent with a weakened SAC. Our in vivo analysis also showed dynamic metaphase plate rearrangements with switches in polarity in cells arrested in metaphase. Importantly, after ectopic expression of Ski the cells that displayed this metaphase arrest died directly during metaphase or after aberrant cell division, relating SAC activation and mitotic cell death. This increased susceptibility to undergo mitosis-associated cell death reduced the number of MN-containing cells. The presented data support a new role for Ski in the mitotic process and in maintenance of genetic stability, providing insights into the mechanism of tumor suppression mediated by this protein. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. SKI's Evaluation of SKB's RD and D Programme 95. Review Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    SKI (the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) has sent SKB's (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.) RD and D Programme 95 to sixty authorities and organizations for review. 35 reviewing bodies have replied. In various ways, most of the comments are related to the decision-making process, both with regard to site selection and choice of method and only a small number of reviewing bodies have dealt with the more purely technical issues such as the function of the barriers and the safety assessment methodology. SKI's review of the programme is based on the premises of establishing whether and how the programme can fulfill its actual purpose to identify and implement solutions for the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel from the Swedish nuclear power plants. SKI's statement to the Government includes a 'Summary and Conclusions' of the 'Review Report'. In (the present) 'Review Report' SKI reviews the programme and deals with comments from the other reviewing bodies. Furthermore, SKI has commissioned a separate report with the 'Comments of the Reviewing Bodies'. 32 refs

  8. Unique aspects of downhill ski injuries part 1: epidemiology and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, P G; Sophocles, A M; Beckenbauch, R D

    1982-03-01

    Skiing is an exciting sport with a significant potential /or serious injury. This potential for injury can be minimized but never entirely eliminated by modern safety equipment.Upper extremity injuries have become relatively more common as the incidence of lower extremity injuries has decreased. Ankle and foot injuries have become infrequent since the advent of the rigid plastic boot, while the incidence of knee injuries has remained essentially constant.Three major mechanisms of injury to the lower extremity include external rotation and abduction, forward fall, and internal rotation. Each mechanism can produce a distinctive set of injured structures.The "skier at risk" is characterized by a lower level of ability, lighter weight, and extremes of age. Injuries can be minimized by purchasing good quality equipment and maintaining it properly; discarding obsolete equipment; using ski brakes, antifriction devices and pistol grip poles; using multirelease bindings for beginners or intermediates; good physical conditioning; taking ski lessons and coupling this with skiing experience; and skiing in control and using common sense on the slopes.Areas which need the most improvement in equipment design include multi-release bindings suitable for all skiers and children's boots. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. ECOLOGICAL GEOINFORMATION SYSTEMS AS A TOOL FOR ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TERRITORY OF KIZILYURT CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Guseynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Astract. Aim. Research of ecological and geochemical pollution of soils of Kizilyurt city with use of GIS for an assessment of an ecological condition of an urban area as indicator of a sustainable development. Methods. Investigation in field conditions and by methods of chemical analyses of tests of soil samples. Laboratory and analytical researches are executed by using of the standard techniques on the nuclear and absorbing spectrophotometer. Mathematical and statistical methods are applied. Ecological maps and relational Databases are constructed by using of GIS-technologies. Results. The analysis of results of urban soils on the content of heavy metals showed that the greatest contribution to complex pollution of soils of the city is made by lead. The raised content of lead in soils of the city proves the fact of that the soil is the long-term concentrator of pollyutants. Distribution of lead pollution speaks from positions of intensity of an automobile stream. Data on the content of lead in soils of an urban soils indicate essential dispersion of indicators of a mobile form (from 18 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg. Excess is observed not only in comparison with the background contents, also repeatedly (from 3rd to 16 times indicators of maximum permissible concentration of lead are exceeded. Zc values vary from values 7,2 to 12,1 in various points of the city depending on an arrangement in relation to highways or the industrial enterprises. Main conclusions. On a estimating scale of pollution danger of Kizilyurt soil treat category "moderately dangerous" and "dangerous" pollution by heavy metals. The ecological assessment of city soils shows an adverse and dangerous situation for population health. The relational Database of environmental monitoring of natural and technogenic systems on the example of Kizilyurt city is created. According to an ecological and geochemical assessment digital geoinformation cartographical models of a condition of an

  10. GEOINFORMATION AND CARTOGRAPHIC SUPPORT FOR MONITORING NATURAL AND TECHNOGENIC PROCESSES BASED ON ATLAS MAPPING IN THE SAKHALIN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Melkiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing anthropogenic impact often leads to emergence and development of negative processes on the lands, thereby reducing their economic value. Land of the Sakhalin Region located on the border of the Eurasian continent and the Pacific ocean, where interaction between geospheric shells is intense and therefore, exposed to a variety of active natural processes characteristic of such zones. Among the many processes that take place here very actively, one can be name seismic, volcanic, abrasion, morpholithodynamic, monsoon atmospheric circulation and several others. Active geothermal processes, combined with abundant moisture lead to changes in the biosphere (the gigantism of plants. It is therefore important to conduct periodic monitoring to assess the state of the environment, the pace of development and definition of processes speed.The operative regional land monitoring is possible only on the basis of data of Earth remote sensing with the regular updating of thematic maps using GIS technologies.The Sakhalin State University has been performing the analysis of the peculiarities of naturalclimatic conditions of the region, affecting the method of conducting monitoring of lands, as well as the interpretation of its results. When conducting scientific research the methods of geoinformation mapping, spatial analysis, thematic interpretation were used etc.As a result technology of integrated regional land monitoring in the Sakhalin has been developed and implemented on the Station of satellite data reception by Sakhalin State University, allowing one to receive, store, analyze, and provide map information on the assessment of the condition of lands, taking into account the specific natural conditions of the territory.The article presents a technological scheme of integrated regional monitoring of the land, reveals the content of databases on processes that change the state of the land and evidence-based period of space observations for them

  11. The Effects of Short-Term Ski Trainings on Dynamic Balance Performance and Vertical Jump in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camliguney, Asiye Filiz

    2013-01-01

    Skiing is a sport where balance and strength are critical and which can be practiced actively especially from early years to old age. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a 5-day training of skiing skills on dynamic balance performance and development of vertical jump strength in adolescents. Sixteen adolescent volunteers who do…

  12. 78 FR 39608 - Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox River, Green Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox River, Green Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... River in Green Bay, WI. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Fox River... Waterboard Warrior Ski Team will perform two 30-minute shows on the Fox River between the Hwy 141 Bridge and...

  13. 78 FR 33047 - Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, Carson Ranger District Mt. Rose Ski Tahoe-Atoma Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Mt. Rose Ski Tahoe--Atoma Area Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... the effects of a proposal from Mt. Rose Ski Tahoe (Mt. Rose) to expand its lift and terrain network. The project is located approximately 12 miles west of the intersection of Mt. Rose Highway (Nevada...

  14. The effect of wind on jumping distance in ski jumping--fairness assessed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmavirta, Mikko; Kivekäs, Juha

    2012-09-01

    The special wind compensation system recently adopted by Fédération Internationale de Ski (FIS; International Ski Federation) to consider the effects of changing wind conditions has caused some controversy. Here, the effect of wind on jumping distance in ski jumping was studied by means of computer simulation and compared with the wind compensation factors used by FIS during the World Cup season 2009/2010. The results showed clearly that the effect of increasing head/tail wind on jumping distance is not linear: +17.4 m/-29.1 m, respectively, for a wind speed of 3 m/s. The linear formula used in the trial period of the wind compensation system was found to be appropriate only for a limited range of jumping distances as the gradient of the landing slope slows down the rate of distance change in long jumps.

  15. Automatic measurement of key ski jumping phases and temporal events with a wearable system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardonnens, Julien; Favre, Julien; Le Callennec, Benoit; Cuendet, Florian; Gremion, Gérald; Aminian, Kamiar

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method, based on inertial sensors, to automatically measure at high frequency the durations of the main phases of ski jumping (i.e. take-off release, take-off, and early flight). The kinematics of the ski jumping movement were recorded by four inertial sensors, attached to the thigh and shank of junior athletes, for 40 jumps performed during indoor conditions and 36 jumps in field conditions. An algorithm was designed to detect temporal events from the recorded signals and to estimate the duration of each phase. These durations were evaluated against a reference camera-based motion capture system and by trainers conducting video observations. The precision for the take-off release and take-off durations (indoor jumping technique did not influence the error of take-off release and take-off. Therefore, the proposed system can provide valuable information for performance evaluation of ski jumpers during training sessions.

  16. The role of eccentric regime of leg muscle work in alpine skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropret Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine skiing is characterized by a great number of leg movements with muscle contractions in eccentric regime. The role of these movements is to absorb gravitation and inertial forces, manage skis more precisely and maintain balance. Recent studies have determined the volume, duration and intenisty of eccentric contractions as well as the basic characteristics of movement amplitudes and velocities. Based on the previous findings the experiments involving eccentric training using a bicycle ergometer confirmed a positive impact that this kind of training has on increasing maximum power, strength, endurance, coordination, injury prevention, metabolic work efficiency, more efficient work with longer muscle length and its role in miming skiers' movements. This paper is an review of the studies so far in the field of kinematics, skiing dynamics and the effect of eccentric training on the development of athletes' performances.

  17. Adjustments of muscle capillarity but not mitochondrial protein with skiing in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ginkel, S; Amami, M; Dela, F

    2015-01-01

    Downhill skiing in the elderly increases maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and carbohydrate handling, and produces muscle hypertrophy. We hypothesized that adjustments of the cellular components of aerobic glucose combustion in knee extensor muscle, and cardiovascular adjustments, would increase...... lateralis muscle were analyzed for capillary density and expression of respiratory chain markers (NDUFA9, SDHA, UQCRC1, ATP5A1) and the glucose transporter GLUT4. Statistical significance was assessed with a repeated analysis of variance and Fisher's post-hoc test at a P value of 5%. VO2max increased...... selectively with ski training (+7 ± 2%). Capillary density (+11 ± 5%) and capillary-to-fiber ratio (12 ± 5%), but not the concentration of metabolic proteins, in vastus lateralis were increased after skiing. Cardiovascular parameters did not change. Fold changes in VO2max and capillary-to-fiber ratio were...

  18. The effects of poling on physiological, kinematic and kinetic responses in roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasaas, Erik; Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Ettema, Gertjan; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effects of poling on physiological, kinematic and kinetic responses in the G4 skating technique where the poling movement is synchronized with the leg push-off on one side (strong side) followed by a forward arm swing during the leg push-off on the other side (weak side). G4 skating with (G4-P) and without (G4-NP) poling was compared in 17 elite male cross-country skiers during 4-min submaximal tests on a 2% inclined roller ski treadmill at 10, 15 and 20 km h(-1). G4-P demonstrated less ventilatory stress and higher gross efficiency compared to G4-NP at all velocities, and the blood lactate concentration was lower at the high velocity (all P skating technique. Thus, poling provides possibilities to increase total propulsion, to reduce ski forces and to enhance skiing efficiency.

  19. The effects of the arm swing on biomechanical and physiological aspects of roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Ettema, Gertjan; de Koning, Jos J; Rognstad, Asgeir Bakken; Hoset, Martin; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzed the biomechanical and physiological effects of the arm swing in roller ski skating, and compared leg-skating (i.e. ski skating without poles) using a pronounced arm swing (SWING) with leg-skating using locked arms (LOCKED). Sixteen elite male cross-country skiers performed submaximal stages at 10, 15 and 20kmh(-1) on a 2% inclined treadmill in the two techniques. SWING demonstrated higher peak push-off forces and a higher force impulse at all speeds, but a longer cycle length only at the highest speed (all Pskating increases the ski forces and aerobic energy cost at low and moderate speeds, whereas the greater forces at high speed lead to a longer cycle length and smaller anaerobic contribution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental Management and Sustainable Labels in the Ski Industry: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Duglio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is increasing in importance in relation to the competitiveness of winter tourism, particularly when considering mountain destinations. Exploring in more detail winter tourism related to ski resorts, operators are especially concerned about environmental issues caused by climate change. Therefore, they have gradually become aware of the importance of finding adequate solutions to cope with such issues as well as being able to sensitize tourists. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the different sustainable tools that can be adopted by the ski industry. In this field there appear to be two main approaches. The first line is that of sustainable labels being applied to local ski resorts; whereas the second consists in operators—such as the managers of cable cars—making use of specific labels or management systems that are environmentally oriented.

  1. SKI's evaluation of SKB's Supplement to RD and D Programme 92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    On December 16, 1993, the Government decided (M93/2525/6), with regard to the 1992 Programme for Research, Development, Demonstration and Other Measures (RD and D Programme 92), compiled by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) in accordance with Section 12 of the Act on Nuclear Activities, that RD and D Programme 92 should be supplemented by SKB in the manner specified in the decision. On August 19, 1992, SKB submitted the requested supplement to the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). SKI has examined the supplement and has requested and obtained comments from a large number of reviewing bodies. SKI hereby submits the documents on the matter along with its own review report. The review report contains an evaluation of SKB's supplement in relation to the government decision and certain recommendations for the structuring of the licensing procedure for planned facilities. These recommendations have taken into account the statements of the reviewing bodies

  2. The physiological and biomechanical contributions of poling to roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Ettema, Gertjan; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2013-08-01

    Poling is considered to make a significant contribution to cross-country skiing with the skating technique. To better understand this contribution, the current investigation compared roller ski skating on a treadmill with the so-called G3 skating technique with (G3-P) and without poling (G3-NP). Seven male elite skiers performed 5-min submaximal tests at 8, 12, and 15 km h(-1), as well as an incremental test to exhaustion with both techniques on a 5 % incline. Ventilatory variables were assessed by open-circuit indirect calorimetry and three-dimensional kinematics analyzed using the Qualisys Pro Reflex system. G3-P was associated with approximately 15 % higher peak velocity and 10 % higher peak oxygen uptake than G3-NP in the incremental test (both P skating, specifically by enhancing peak oxygen uptake, skiing efficiency and associated biomechanical variables.

  3. Energy system contributions and determinants of performance in sprint cross-country skiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, E; Björklund, G; Holmberg, H-C

    2017-01-01

    To improve current understanding of energy contributions and determinants of sprint-skiing performance, 11 well-trained male cross-country skiers were tested in the laboratory for VO2max , submaximal gross efficiency (GE), maximal roller skiing velocity, and sprint time-trial (STT) performance...... during the STT was predicted from the submaximal relationships for GE against velocity and incline, allowing computation of metabolic rate and O2 deficit. The skiers completed the STT in 232 ± 10 s (distributed as 55 ± 3% DP and 45 ± 3% DS) with a mean power output of 324 ± 26 W. The anaerobic energy......-skiing has demonstrated an anaerobic energy contribution of 18%, with GE being the strongest predictor of performance....

  4. A system to measure the kinematics during the entire ski jump sequence using inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardonnens, Julien; Favre, Julien; Cuendet, Florian; Gremion, Gérald; Aminian, Kamiar

    2013-01-04

    Three-dimensional analysis of the entire sequence in ski jumping is recommended when studying the kinematics or evaluating performance. Camera-based systems which allow three-dimensional kinematics measurement are complex to set-up and require extensive post-processing, usually limiting ski jumping analyses to small numbers of jumps. In this study, a simple method using a wearable inertial sensors-based system is described to measure the orientation of the lower-body segments (sacrum, thighs, shanks) and skis during the entire jump sequence. This new method combines the fusion of inertial signals and biomechanical constraints of ski jumping. Its performance was evaluated in terms of validity and sensitivity to different performances based on 22 athletes monitored during daily training. The validity of the method was assessed by comparing the inclination of the ski and the slope at landing point and reported an error of -0.2±4.8°. The validity was also assessed by comparison of characteristic angles obtained with the proposed system and reference values in the literature; the differences were smaller than 6° for 75% of the angles and smaller than 15° for 90% of the angles. The sensitivity to different performances was evaluated by comparing the angles between two groups of athletes with different jump lengths and by assessing the association between angles and jump lengths. The differences of technique observed between athletes and the associations with jumps length agreed with the literature. In conclusion, these results suggest that this system is a promising tool for a generalization of three-dimensional kinematics analysis in ski jumping. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Müller

    Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup. Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition. Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.

  6. Kinematics and Kinetics of Squats, Drop Jumps and Imitation Jumps of Ski Jumpers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Carole A.; Keller, Melanie; Ammann, Fabian; Hübner, Klaus; Lindorfer, Julia; Taylor, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pauli, CA, Keller, M, Ammann, F, Hübner, K, Lindorfer, J, Taylor, WR, and Lorenzetti, S. Kinematics and kinetics of squats, drop jumps and imitation jumps of ski jumpers. J Strength Cond Res 30(3): 643–652, 2016—Squats, drop jumps, and imitation jumps are commonly used training exercises in ski jumping to enhance maximum force, explosive force, and sport-specific skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinetics and kinematics of training exercises in ski jumping and to find objective parameters in training exercises that most correlate with the competition performance of ski jumpers. To this end, barbell squats, drop jumps, and imitation jumps were measured in a laboratory environment for 10 elite ski jumpers. Force and motion data were captured, and the influence of maximum vertical force, force difference, vertical take-off velocity, knee moments, knee joint power, and a knee valgus/varus index was evaluated and correlated with their season jump performance. The results indicate that, especially for the imitation jumps, a good correlation exists between the vertical take-off velocity and the personal jump performance on the hill (R = 0.718). Importantly, however, the more the athletes tended toward a valgus knee alignment during the measured movements, the worse their performance (R = 0.729 imitation jumps; R = 0.685 squats). Although an evaluation of the athletes' lower limb alignment during competitive jumping on the hill is still required, these preliminary data suggest that performance training should additionally concentrate on improving knee alignment to increase ski jumping performance. PMID:26418370

  7. SKI's Evaluation of SKB's RD and D Programme 95. Summary and Conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    In SKI's opinion, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) has presented a research and development program which fulfills the basic requirements stipulated in the Act on Nuclear Activities. On the whole, the program is appropriate with regard to the development and evaluation of a method for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste in the Swedish bedrock. The quality of the supporting research program is high. However, in SKI's view, the General Siting Study should be supplemented with regard to certain points and the siting factors should be further specified

  8. Modelling technical snow production for skiing areas in the Austrian Alps with the physically based snow model AMUNDSEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzer, F.; Marke, T.; Steiger, R.; Strasser, U.

    2012-04-01

    Tourism and particularly winter tourism is a key factor for the Austrian economy. Judging from currently available climate simulations, the Austrian Alps show a particularly high vulnerability to climatic changes. To reduce the exposure of ski areas towards changes in natural snow conditions as well as to generally enhance snow conditions at skiing sites, technical snowmaking is widely utilized across Austrian ski areas. While such measures result in better snow conditions at the skiing sites and are important for the local skiing industry, its economic efficiency has also to be taken into account. The current work emerges from the project CC-Snow II, where improved future climate scenario simulations are used to determine future natural and artificial snow conditions and their effects on tourism and economy in the Austrian Alps. In a first step, a simple technical snowmaking approach is incorporated into the process based snow model AMUNDSEN, which operates at a spatial resolution of 10-50 m and a temporal resolution of 1-3 hours. Locations of skiing slopes within a ski area in Styria, Austria, were digitized and imported into the model environment. During a predefined time frame in the beginning of the ski season, the model produces a maximum possible amount of technical snow and distributes the associated snow on the slopes, whereas afterwards, until to the end of the ski season, the model tries to maintain a certain snow depth threshold value on the slopes. Due to only few required input parameters, this approach is easily transferable to other ski areas. In our poster contribution, we present first results of this snowmaking approach and give an overview of the data and methodology applied. In a further step in CC-Snow, this simple bulk approach will be extended to consider actual snow cannon locations and technical specifications, which will allow a more detailed description of technical snow production as well as cannon-based recordings of water and energy

  9. A COMPARISON OF GROUND REACTION FORCES DETERMINED BY PORTABLE FORCE-PLATE AND PRESSURE-INSOLE SYSTEMS IN ALPINE SKIING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Nakazato

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of ground reaction forces in alpine skiing, pressure insole (PI systems and portable force plate (FP systems are well known and widely used in previous studies. The purposes of this study were 1 to provide reference data for the vertical component of the ground reaction forces (vGRF during alpine skiing measured by the PI and FP systems, and 2 to analyze whether the differences in the vGRF measured by the PI and the FP depend on a skier's level, skiing mode and pitch. Ten expert and ten intermediate level skiers performed 10 double turns with the skiing technique "Carving in Short Radii" as High Dynamic Skiing mode and "Parallel Ski Steering in Long Radii" as Low Dynamic Skiing mode on both the steep (23 ° and the flat (15 ° slope twice. All subjects skied with both the PI and the FP system simultaneously. During the outside phase, the mean vGRF and the maximum vGRF determined by the FP are greater than the PI (p < 0.01. Additionally during the inside phase, the mean vGRF determined by the FP were greater than the PI (p < 0.01. During the edge changing phases, the mean vGRF determined by the FP were greater than the PI (p < 0.01. However, the minimum vGRF during the edge changing phases determined by the FP were smaller than the PI (p < 0.01 in the High-Steep skiing modes of Experts and Intermediates (p < 0.001. We have found that generally, the PI system underestimates the total vGRF compared to the FP system. However, this difference depends not only the phase in the turn (inside, outside, edge changing, but also is affected by the skier's level, the skiing mode performed and pitch.

  10. SphK1 inhibitor II (SKI-II) inhibits acute myelogenous leukemia cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Li; Weng, Wei; Sun, Zhi-Xin; Fu, Xian-Jie; Ma, Jun; Zhuang, Wen-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) as a potential drug target for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the current study, we investigated the potential anti-leukemic activity of a novel and specific SphK1 inhibitor, SKI-II. We demonstrated that SKI-II inhibited growth and survival of human AML cell lines (HL-60 and U937 cells). SKI-II was more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors SK1-I and FTY720 in inhibiting AML cells. Meanwhile, it induced dramatic apoptosis in above AML cells, and the cytotoxicity by SKI-II was almost reversed by the general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. SKI-II treatment inhibited SphK1 activation, and concomitantly increased level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) precursor ceramide in AML cells. Conversely, exogenously-added S1P protected against SKI-II-induced cytotoxicity, while cell permeable short-chain ceramide (C6) aggravated SKI-II's lethality against AML cells. Notably, SKI-II induced potent apoptotic death in primary human AML cells, but was generally safe to the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from healthy donors. In vivo, SKI-II administration suppressed growth of U937 leukemic xenograft tumors in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. These results suggest that SKI-II might be further investigated as a promising anti-AML agent. - Highlights: • SKI-II inhibits proliferation and survival of primary and transformed AML cells. • SKI-II induces apoptotic death of AML cells, but is safe to normal PBMCs. • SKI-II is more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors in inhibiting AML cells. • SKI-II inhibits SphK1 activity, while increasing ceramide production in AML cells. • SKI-II dose-dependently inhibits U937 xenograft growth in SCID mice

  11. SphK1 inhibitor II (SKI-II) inhibits acute myelogenous leukemia cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Li; Weng, Wei; Sun, Zhi-Xin; Fu, Xian-Jie; Ma, Jun, E-mail: majuntongrensh1@126.com; Zhuang, Wen-Fang, E-mail: wenfangzhuangmd@163.com

    2015-05-15

    Previous studies have identified sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) as a potential drug target for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the current study, we investigated the potential anti-leukemic activity of a novel and specific SphK1 inhibitor, SKI-II. We demonstrated that SKI-II inhibited growth and survival of human AML cell lines (HL-60 and U937 cells). SKI-II was more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors SK1-I and FTY720 in inhibiting AML cells. Meanwhile, it induced dramatic apoptosis in above AML cells, and the cytotoxicity by SKI-II was almost reversed by the general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. SKI-II treatment inhibited SphK1 activation, and concomitantly increased level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) precursor ceramide in AML cells. Conversely, exogenously-added S1P protected against SKI-II-induced cytotoxicity, while cell permeable short-chain ceramide (C6) aggravated SKI-II's lethality against AML cells. Notably, SKI-II induced potent apoptotic death in primary human AML cells, but was generally safe to the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from healthy donors. In vivo, SKI-II administration suppressed growth of U937 leukemic xenograft tumors in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. These results suggest that SKI-II might be further investigated as a promising anti-AML agent. - Highlights: • SKI-II inhibits proliferation and survival of primary and transformed AML cells. • SKI-II induces apoptotic death of AML cells, but is safe to normal PBMCs. • SKI-II is more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors in inhibiting AML cells. • SKI-II inhibits SphK1 activity, while increasing ceramide production in AML cells. • SKI-II dose-dependently inhibits U937 xenograft growth in SCID mice.

  12. Impact of the initial classic section during a simulated cross-country skiing skiathlon on the cardiopulmonary responses during the subsequent period of skate skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourot, Laurent; Fabre, Nicolas; Andersson, Erik; Willis, Sarah J; Hébert-Losier, Kim; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential changes in the performance and cardiorespiratory responses of elite cross-country skiers following transition from the classic (CL) to the skating (SK) technique during a simulated skiathlon. Eight elite male skiers performed two 6 km (2 × 3 km) roller-skiing time trials on a treadmill at racing speed: one starting with the classic and switching to the skating technique (CL1-SK2) and another employing the skating technique throughout (SK1-SK2), with continuous monitoring of gas exchanges, heart rates, and kinematics (video). The overall performance times in the CL1-SK2 (21:12 ± 1:24) and SK1-SK2 (20:48 ± 2:00) trials were similar, and during the second section of each performance times and overall cardiopulmonary responses were also comparable. However, in comparison with SK1-SK2, the CL1-SK2 trial involved significantly higher increases in minute ventilation (V̇E, 89.8 ± 26.8 vs. 106.8 ± 17.6 L·min(-1)) and oxygen uptake (V̇O2; 3.1 ± 0.8 vs 3.5 ± 0.5 L·min(-1)) 2 min after the transition as well as longer time constants for V̇E, V̇O2, and heart rate during the first 3 min after the transition. This higher cardiopulmonary exertion was associated with ∼3% faster cycle rates. In conclusion, overall performance during the 2 time trials did not differ. The similar performance times during the second sections were achieved with comparable mean cardiopulmonary responses. However, the observation that during the initial 3-min post-transition following classic skiing cardiopulmonary responses and cycle rates were slightly higher supports the conclusion that an initial section of classic skiing exerts an impact on performance during a subsequent section of skate skiing.

  13. Constantly operating geoinformation system for geoenvironment as a tool for pre-project investigations in city infrastructure development (on the example of moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyaev Valeriy L’vovich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a geoinformation system for urban geoenvironment is concerned. Geological data is necessary for the sustainable development of city infrastructure. The municipal departments should use geological and environmental information for perspective planning, selecting the location for important infrastructure objects, solving ecologycal problems, and in decision making. The concept includes a preliminary list of system’s users, their informational needs, main functionalities, methodical approaches to the system design and development. Geological data must contain source documents from geological archives “as is” and geodata based on its interpretation for various tasks. These data must be checked carefully and updated with new engineering-geological investigations. Geoinformation system must integrate various geological, engineering-geological, hydrogeological, and environmental data. Sophisticated procedures must be provided to check complicated logical dependences in the system database and to analyze contradictions between source documents. 3D modeling is an adequate language for presenting geological data, therefore, the considered system must include 3D models of various scales. In the suggested concept 3D modeling is considered as a tool for investigations, not only for presentations. The end users should have possibilities to get results of their queries in various formats: tables, geological and thematic maps, geological cross-sections, 2D and 3D grids as source data for mathematical modeling, etc. In conclusion, the paper briefly describes IEG RAS activities in GIS technologies for geological cartography and 3D modeling.

  14. The Year Without a Ski Season: An Analysis of the Winter of 2015 for Three Ski Resorts in Western Canada Using Historical and Simulation Model Forecasted Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidwirny, M. J.; Goode, J. D.; Pedersen, S.

    2015-12-01

    The winter of 2015 will go down as "the year without a ski season" for many ski resorts located close to the west coast of Canada and the USA. During this winter season, a large area of the eastern North Pacific Ocean had extremely high sea surface temperatures. These high sea surface temperatures influenced weather patterns on the west coast of North America producing very mild temperatures inland. Further, in alpine environments precipitation that normally arrives in the form of snow instead fell as rain. This research examines the climate characteristics of the winter of 2015 in greater detail for three ski resorts in British Columbia, Canada: Mount Washington, Cypress Mountain and Hemlock Valley. For these resorts, historical (1901 to 2013) and IPCC AR5 climate model forecasted climate data (RCP8.5 for 2025, 2055, and 2085) was generated for the variable winter degree days climate database ClimateBC. A value for winter degree days climate data at nearby meteorological stations for comparative analysis. For all three resorts, the winter of 2015 proved to be warmer than any individual year in the period 1901 to 2013. Interpolations involving the multi-model ensemble forecast means suggest that the climate associated with winter of 2015 will become the average normal for these resorts in only 35 to 45 years under the RCP8.5 emission scenario.

  15. Variations in relative age effects in individual sports: skiing, figure skating and gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph; Janning, Christina; Wong, Harmonie; Cobley, Stephen; Schorer, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    In many sports, policy-makers and administrators employ annual cohorts to reduce differences between athletes during childhood and youth. Although well-intended, unintended relative age effects (RAEs) usually occur. RAEs refer to the specific selection, participation and attainment disadvantages associated with participants' birthdates relative to an arbitrary 'cutoff' date used to group participants within annual age groups. To date, we have little understanding of RAEs in individual sports. In this article, Study 1 considered the presence of RAEs in 1474 ski jumping, 7501 cross-country skiing, 15,565 alpine skiing, 4179 snowboarders and 713 Nordic combined athletes. Chi-square analyses revealed significant RAEs for most of these contexts across sexes. In Study 2, RAEs in the aesthetic sports of figure skating (n=502) and female gymnastics (n=612) were considered. There was no effect for the figure skaters and an atypical effect for the gymnasts. The significant effects across most ski sports coupled with the null effects in figure skating and atypical effect in gymnastics suggest that sport-specific contextual factors are important elements in understanding the mechanisms of RAEs, although further work is necessary to validate these findings.

  16. Take-off analysis of the Olympic ski jumping competition (HS-106m).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmavirta, Mikko; Isolehto, Juha; Komi, Paavo; Schwameder, Hermann; Pigozzi, Fabio; Massazza, Giuseppe

    2009-05-29

    The take-off phase (approximately 6m) of the jumps of all athletes participating in the individual HS-106m hill ski jumping competition at the Torino Olympics was filmed with two high-speed cameras. The high altitude of the Pragelato ski jumping venue (1600m) and slight tail wind in the final jumping round were expected to affect the results of this competition. The most significant correlation with the length of the jump was found in the in-run velocity (r=0.628, pski jumping, and suggests that good jumpers simply had smaller friction between their skis and the in-run tracks and/or the aerodynamic quality of their in-run position was better. Angular velocity of the hip joint of the best jumpers was also correlated with jumping distance (r=0.651, pjumped approximately the same distance. This certainly improves the interests in ski jumping among athletes and spectators. The comparison between the take-off techniques of the best jumpers showed that even though the more marked upper body movement creates higher air resistance, it does not necessarily result in shorter jumping distance if the exposure time to high air resistance is not too long. A comparison between the first and second round jumps of the same jumpers showed that the final results in this competition were at least partly affected by the wind conditions.

  17. EMG activities and plantar pressures during ski jumping take-off on three different sized hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmavirta, M; Perttunen, J; Komi, P V

    2001-04-01

    Different profiles of ski jumping hills have been assumed to make the initiation of take-off difficult especially when moving from one hill to another. Neuromuscular adaptation of ski jumpers to the different jumping hills was examined by measuring muscle activation and plantar pressure of the primary take-off muscles on three different sized hills. Two young ski jumpers volunteered as subjects and they performed several trials from each hill (K-35 m, K-65 m and K-90 m) with the same electromyographic (EMG) electrode and insole pressure transducer set-up. The results showed that the differences in plantar pressure and EMGs between the jumping hills were smaller than expected for both jumpers. The small changes in EMG amplitudes between the hills support the assumption that the take-off was performed with the same intensity on different jumping hills and the timing of the gluteus EMG demonstrates well the similarity of the muscle activation on different hills. On the basis of the results obtained it seems that ski jumping training on small hills does not disturb the movement patterns for bigger hills and can also be helpful for special take-off training with low speed.

  18. TRAVEL PLANNING PROPOSALS SKI AREA IN NORTH OLTENIA TO INCREASE VISIBILITY AT NATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANŢA ENEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mountain tourism potential is complex and varied in structure, size and spatial distribution, which is related to massive expansion, differentiation altitude, geological composition, configuration and specific geological landforms, fragmentation, vegetation cover and peculiarities of the river system, etc. Therefore under the mountain in northern Oltenia highlights some differences in the regions in terms of structure, volume, value, capitalizing on opportunities in tourism mountain tourism potential. Mountain tourism is one of the traditional forms of tourism in affirming Romanian tourism internationally, both through natural potential available by the low level of degradation of landscapes and through investment efforts that were made in the specific offer. European alpine countries (France, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, etc. attaches great importance to the potential of mountain tourism available and submitted in this regard, special efforts for the development of mountain resorts attract millions of tourists annually amateur ski of sports winter mountain in general. Romania has a great value ski area that can compete successfully with the ski areas of central and Western Europe. What are the strengths and weaknesses of Romanian mountain tourism potential in comparability with famous country ski area for winter sports will see throughout this paper.

  19. Skier and Snowboarder Motivations and Knowledge Related to Voluntary Environmental Programs at an Alpine Ski Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Christopher M.; Needham, Mark D.

    2011-11-01

    Many alpine ski areas have recently adopted voluntary environmental programs (VEPs) such as using recycling, renewable energy, and biofuels to help reduce their environmental impacts. Studies have addressed the performance of these VEPs in mitigating environmental impacts of this industry, but little is known about visitor awareness and perceptions of these programs. This article addresses this knowledge gap by exploring skier and snowboarder knowledge of VEPs at a ski area and the influence of these programs on their motivations to visit this area currently and behavioral intentions to visit again in the future. Data were obtained from an onsite survey at the Mt. Bachelor ski area in Oregon, USA ( n = 429, 89.7% response rate). Few skiers and snowboarders were knowledgeable of VEPs at this area and fewer than 20% were motivated to visit on their current trip because of these programs. Other attributes such as scenery, snow conditions, and access were more important for influencing visitation. Up to 38% of skiers and snowboarders, however, intend to visit this ski area more often if it adopts and promotes more VEPs. Managers can use these results to inform communication and marketing of their environmental programs and performance to visitors. Additional implications for management and future research are discussed.

  20. Comprehensive outreach, prevention education, and skin cancer screening for Utah ski resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varedi, Amir; Secrest, Aaron M; Harding, Garrett; Maness, Lori; Branson, Donna; Smith, Kristi; Hull, Christopher M

    2018-02-15

    Outdoor recreation can lead to substantial sun exposure. Employees of outdoor recreation establishments with extended time outdoors have amplified cumulative exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and an increased risk of skin cancer. The "Sun Safe on the Slopes" program was created by Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah and the Utah Cancer Action Network to address increased UV exposure and skin cancer risk with free skin cancer screenings, outreach, and prevention education to local ski resorts. Herein, we describe the processes and barriers to implementation of a ski resort skin screening and education program and our 5-year report of the experience and screening data. Nine free skin cancer screenings were held at Utah ski resorts between 2011 and 2016, resulting in the presumptive diagnosis of 38 skin cancers (9.6%) in 394 participants. Behavioral data collected from participants indicates suboptimal sun safety practices, including underuse of sunscreen and protective clothing. Ski resort employees who experience sun exposure during peak hours at high altitudes and UV reflection from the snow are at an increased risk of skin cancer. These data indicate a need for emphasis on sun safety education and screening and can serve as a model for future endeavors.

  1. Investigating potential effects of heli-skiing on golden eagles in the Wasatch Mountains, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; David K. Delaney; William W. Bowerman

    2007-01-01

    Implementing further research was beyond the scope of the U.S. Forest Service's 2004 Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) and 2005 Wasatch Powderbird Guides (WPG) Special Use Permit Renewal process for heli-skiing in the Tri-Canyon Area in the Wasatch Mountains, just east of Salt Lake City, Utah. However, in their Record of Decision the Wasaatch-Cache (WCNF...

  2. Comparisons of Two Commercial and Two Low-cost Interfaces for Virtual Skiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present two comparisons of two novel physical interface for interacting with a virtual environment in the form of a skiing game. The interfaces were compared through two separate within-subjects studies. In the first study we compared a wobble board augmented with a low-cost 3D a...

  3. Degradation of landscape in Serbian ski resorts-aspects of scale and transfer of impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Ratko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts in Serbian ski resorts (Kopaonik, Zlatibor, Stara planina, Divčibare are very strong, leading to degradation of unique mountain landscape, and functionality losses. Processes of urbanization, construction or improvement works, cause hard degradation of topsoil and native vegetation. The logging, large excavation activities, erosion, noise and water pollution constantly impact the habitats of all animal and plant species residing in small areas. The process leads to severe fragmentation of the remaining old-growth forests, endangering future subsistence. Consequences of mismanagement in ski areas are noticeable in downstream sections of river beds, causing floods and bed-load deposition, with high concentration of pollutants, in reservoirs for water supply. Legal nature-protection standards are weakly implemented in regional ski areas. Effective protection of landscape in Serbian ski-areas is based on careful considerations of impact assessment at all levels of planning (spatial and urban planning and designing activities, which enables application of restoration concept, in accordance with general goals of environmental protection (preserving biodiversity, CO2 sequestration, attenuation of effects of global climate changes.

  4. MARKETING POLICIES THROUGH THE INTERNET: THE CASE OF SKIING CENTERS IN GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis LEFAKIS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lately, Internet constitutes a major tool for transactions in every aspect and supports innovative marketing policies. Broadband Internet has become “the key to success” for businesses, as it offers various advantages and benefits through Internet marketing (e-marketing policies. In Greece, mountainous areas are usually covered with snow during winter months; so, skiing centers have become an important asset for winter tourism. The Internet evolution and the development of network infrastructure enhance marketing policies for winter tourism activities. This paper studies the use of marketing policies in Greek skiing centers through the Internet, such as promotional activities, website interactivity, accommodation & entertainment information, online weather forecast, guest book, etc Therefore, the paper aims to optimize and evaluate skiing centers in Greece, qualitatively and quantitatively according to e-marketing policies used as criteria, based on the multicriteria method of PROMETHEE II and further to classify them in groups. Finally we identify and describe the optimum group of skiing centers to be used as a model with enhanced customer communication services.

  5. Assignment of the porcine SKI and GABRD genes to chromosome 6q22-q23

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stratil, Antonín; Knorr, C.; Knoll, Aleš; Kubíčková, S.; Musilová, P.; Van Poucke, M.; Rubeš, J.; Brenig, B.; Peelman, L. J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2005), s. 272-273 ISSN 0268-9146 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/03/0858 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : SKI gene * GABRD gene Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.437, year: 2005

  6. THE ROLE OF MARKETING IN MODERN SPORT PROCEDURE AT EXAMPLE OF SKIING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Popović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The object of this project is marketing in modern sport procedure. The main focus will be directional to skiing and specific marketing in the area where it participated. The questions of sport marketing will be tested at Ski club “Mogren” from Budva. The main goal refers the requirement that sport in modern world should be presented as less simpler, cheaper and more attractive way. During last 30 years, sports, including the skiing, alike one of the Olympic sports, became much more active in the filed of selling the irproducts. The main tasks of this project are presenting and arranging the concept of marketing, strategic marketing, specific marketing in sport, marketing and sponsorship and importance of marketing in the modern sport at example of skiing. During the making of this project the authors used descriptive method with consulting of competent literature. The previous author’s experience in this field was so useful. More over, the authors used the analytic method and parallel method which is the most productive if you make some inferences about some appearance.

  7. The Relationship among Leg Strength, Leg Power and Alpine Skiing Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettman, Larry R.; Huckel, Jack R.

    The purpose of this study was to relate leg strength and power to alpine skiing success as measured by FIS points. Isometric leg strength was represented by the knee extension test described by Clarke. Leg power was measured by the vertical jump test and the Margaria-Kalamen stair run. Results in the strength and power tests were correlated with…

  8. Toonart Rääski ja Aivar Riisalu firma ostab Rocca al Mare Suurhalli / Kristina Traks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Traks, Kristina, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 22. okt. lk. 7. Rocca al Mare Suurhalli aktsionärid otsustasid müüa suurhalli hotelliärimehe Toonart Rääski ja meelelahutusettevõtja Aivar Riisaluga seotud firmale Neckman Group. Diagramm: Lemminkäinen Eesti, Neckman Groupi, Eesti riigi ja Tallinna linna osalused Rocca al Mare Suurhallis

  9. Automatic Identification of Subtechniques in Skating-Style Roller Skiing Using Inertial Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Fujita, Zenya; Ishige, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop and validate an automated system for identifying skating-style cross-country subtechniques using inertial sensors. In the first experiment, the performance of a male cross-country skier was used to develop an automated identification system. In the second, eight male and seven female college cross-country skiers participated to validate the developed identification system. Each subject wore inertial sensors on both wrists and both roller skis, and a small video camera on a backpack. All subjects skied through a 3450 m roller ski course using a skating style at their maximum speed. The adopted subtechniques were identified by the automated method based on the data obtained from the sensors, as well as by visual observations from a video recording of the same ski run. The system correctly identified 6418 subtechniques from a total of 6768 cycles, which indicates an accuracy of 94.8%. The precisions of the automatic system for identifying the V1R, V1L, V2R, V2L, V2AR, and V2AL subtechniques were 87.6%, 87.0%, 97.5%, 97.8%, 92.1%, and 92.0%, respectively. Most incorrect identification cases occurred during a subtechnique identification that included a transition and turn event. Identification accuracy can be improved by separately identifying transition and turn events. This system could be used to evaluate each skier’s subtechniques in course conditions. PMID:27049388

  10. Automatic Identification of Subtechniques in Skating-Style Roller Skiing Using Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Sakurai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop and validate an automated system for identifying skating-style cross-country subtechniques using inertial sensors. In the first experiment, the performance of a male cross-country skier was used to develop an automated identification system. In the second, eight male and seven female college cross-country skiers participated to validate the developed identification system. Each subject wore inertial sensors on both wrists and both roller skis, and a small video camera on a backpack. All subjects skied through a 3450 m roller ski course using a skating style at their maximum speed. The adopted subtechniques were identified by the automated method based on the data obtained from the sensors, as well as by visual observations from a video recording of the same ski run. The system correctly identified 6418 subtechniques from a total of 6768 cycles, which indicates an accuracy of 94.8%. The precisions of the automatic system for identifying the V1R, V1L, V2R, V2L, V2AR, and V2AL subtechniques were 87.6%, 87.0%, 97.5%, 97.8%, 92.1%, and 92.0%, respectively. Most incorrect identification cases occurred during a subtechnique identification that included a transition and turn event. Identification accuracy can be improved by separately identifying transition and turn events. This system could be used to evaluate each skier’s subtechniques in course conditions.

  11. Kinematics of cross-country sit skiing during a Paralympic race

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardi, Marco; Janssen, Thomas; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Pellegrini, Barbara; Fischer, Gabriela; Schena, Federico

    The study had three purposes: to verify a hypothesized speed decrease during the 15km cross-country sit skiing (CCSS) race; documenting this possible fatigue effect (speed decrease), to evaluate changes among the four laps in kinematics parameters (cycle speed, cycle duration, cycle length, duty

  12. Physical training of 30–40 years old tourists skiers to ski sports hiking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Toporkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: compare the test results obtained at different stages of physical training of tourists skiers, immediately after passing of the ski sports hiking of the third category of complexity and 14 days after hiking. Determine the effectiveness of the designed program to improve the physical readiness of 30–40 years old tourists skiers. Material and Methods: 14 people aged 30 to 40 years old who have a different experience in water, hiking and mountain as well as ski-sport hiking took part in research. Analysis of scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical observations, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics is used. Results: the test results of 30–40 years old tourists skiers which are the participants in the experimental group received at different stages of preparation and preparatory period and the results after passing ski sports hiking of the third category of complexity are processed. Their comparative analysis is held. Conclusions: it was found that the developed training program can effectively influence the physical readiness of tourists skiers, as well as all functions and systems that contribute to the successful passage of ski sports categorized hike.

  13. Motivational Factors Affecting Athletes in Selecting the Sport Branches of Athletics, Ski and Tennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Murat; Agar, Muharrem; Akyüz, Öznur; Dogru, Yeliz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to research the motivational factors affecting athletes to select the branches of athletics, ski and tennis. Within the scope of the research, the survey developed by H. Sunay in 1996 was implemented and solution for the problem of the research was searched through the findings that were obtained from the survey. SPSS…

  14. A contribution to the knowledge of the species Rafalskia olympica (Kulczyński, 1903

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaman, Ivo M.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Balkan populations of Rafalskia olympica (Kulczyński, 1903 are distinguished as separate subspecies Rafalskia olympica bulgarica Staręga, 1963 nov. stat.. Certain novel details of the R. olympica female body structure are presented. It is stated that Metaplatybunus drenskii Šilhavý, 1965 in not a synonym of R. olympica.

  15. The use of multimedia tools for improving movement notion and increasing the efficiency of motor learning in skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzicka Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is focused on the problem of improving movement notion and increasing the efficiency of motor learning in skiing using multimedia tools. The text approaches the system providing a targeted feedback in the process of the acquisition of skiing skills. The platform influencing the movement notion introduces innovative means of the acquisition of essential skiing skills in ski courses organized by the Department of PE and Sport of the Faculty of Education, University of Hradec Králové. The paper presents the selected results of the survey realized by an enquiring method, which was aimed to find out opinions on a monitored platform among students specializing in physical education and sport, who took part in this form of education. The research results indicate that the use of multimedia tools in providing visual feedback can effectively influence the process and the final effect of the acquisition of skiing skills. Positive opinions of the overwhelming majority of respondents illustrate that the use of video analysis in combination with verbal mistake correction is an effective support in skiing practice and it is an efficient platform that accelerates results in learning skiing technique, especially in the context of educational courses. Conclusions also point to some of the negative aspects related to the use of multimedia tools within the platform.

  16. In-Field Validation of an Inertial Sensor-Based System for Movement Analysis and Classification in Ski Mountaineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Gellaerts

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ski Mountaineering (SkiMo is a fast growing sport requiring both endurance and technical skills. It involves different types of locomotion with and without the skis. The aim of this study is to develop and validate in the snowfield a novel inertial-based system for analysing cycle parameters and classifying movement in SkiMo in real-time. The study was divided into two parts, one focused on real-time parameters estimation (cadence, distance from strides, stride duration, stride length, number of strides, slope gradient, and power and, second, on transition detection (kickturns, skin on, skin off, ski on and off backpack in order to classify between the different types of locomotion. Experimental protocol involved 16 experienced subjects who performed different SkiMo trials with their own equipment instrumented with a ski-mounted inertial sensor. The results obtained by the algorithm showed precise results with a relative error near 5% on all parameters. The developed system can, therefore, be used by skiers to obtain quantitative training data analysis and real-time feedback in the field. Nevertheless, a deeper validation of this algorithm might be necessary in order to confirm the accuracy on a wider population of subjects with various skill levels.

  17. [Effect of equipment on current ski injuries, their development in the last 20 years and their prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucco, P

    1994-01-01

    Ski injuries depend from many factors which involve the skier and his behavior, the environment, especially the weather and slopes conditions, but first of all, the typical equipment, skis, boots and bindings. These materials have undergone a great technical improvement in recent years which allowed a significant decrease of ski injuries, first of all of the typical lower leg fracture, the so called "boot fracture". Nevertheless alpine skiers are exposed to conditions not encountered in other sports. The ski and the stiff plastic ski boot combine to form an extension to the human anatomy, which subjects the lower extremities to loads not normally encountered in other activities. The velocity of the skier combine with the equipment used to expose to a risk of injury that by type, severity and incidence is unusual. The more frequent ski injury in the last 15 years involve the knee and his ligaments. These lesions often involve the medial and lateral compartment and the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL, more than 65% of all knee lesions) and the etiology is related to both the boot and bindings characteristics. Many studies have shown the direct relationship between injuries of the lower extremity and equipment (the so called LEER-injuries, near 46% of all lesions in US studies) and also the importance of a proper binding setting for a lower risk. Ski boots are indicated as the primary cause of the ACL tears but, at this moment, for this lesion 4 mechanisms are described.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Multi-Axis Prosthetic Knee Resembles Alpine Skiing Movements of an Intact Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Demšar, Jože Duhovnik, Blaž Lešnik, Matej Supej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyse the flexion angles of the ski boot, ankle and knee joints of an above-knee prosthesis and to compare them with an intact leg and a control group of skiers. One subject with an above-knee amputation of the right leg and eight healthy subjects simulated the movement of a skiing turn by performing two-leg squats in laboratory conditions. By adding additional loads in proportion to body weight (BW; +1/3 BW, +2/3 BW, +3/3 BW, various skiing regimes were simulated. Change of Flexion Angle (CoFA and Range of Motion (RoM in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were calculated and compared. An average RoM in the skiing boot on the side of prosthesis (4.4 ± 1.1° was significantly lower compared to an intact leg (5.9 ± 1.8° and the control group (6.5 ± 2.3°. In the ankle joint, the average RoM was determined to be 13.2±2.9° in the prosthesis, 12.7 ± 2.8° in an intact leg and 14.8±3.6 in the control group. However, the RoM of the knee joint in the prosthesis (42.2 ± 4.2° was significantly larger than that of the intact leg (34.7 ± 4.4°. The average RoM of the knee joint in the control group was 47.8 ± 5.4°. The influences of additional loads on the kinematics of the lower extremities were different on the side of the prosthesis and on the intact leg. In contrast, additional loads did not produce any significant differences in the control group. Although different CoFAs in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were used, an above-knee prosthesis with a built-in multi-axis prosthetic knee enables comparable leg kinematics in simulated alpine skiing.

  19. Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Winter Tourism: Challenges for Ski Area Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, A.; Köberl, J.; Prettenthaler, F.; Töglhofer, C.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing temperatures and snow scarce winter seasons pose a big challenge for the winter tourism industry. Changing natural snow reliability influences tourism demand and ski area operators are faced with an enhanced need of technical snow production. The goal of the present research work is to analyze the economic effects of technical snow production under future climate conditions. Snowmaking as an adaptation strategy to climate change impacts on the ski tourism industry is already taken into consideration in several studies from a scientific perspective concerning snowmaking potentials under future climate conditions and the impacts on ski season length (e.g. Scott et al. 2003; Scott & McBoyle 2007; Hennessy et al. 2008; Steiger 2010). A few studies considered economic aspects of technical snowmaking (e.g. Teich et al. 2007; Gonseth 2008). However, a detailed analysis of the costs and benefits of snowmaking under future climate and snow conditions based on sophisticated climate and snow models has not been carried out yet. The present study addresses the gap of knowledge concerning the economic profitability of prospective snowmaking requirements under future climate scenarios. We carry out a detailed cost-revenue analysis of snowmaking under current and future climate conditions for a case study site in Styria (Austria) using dynamic investment models. The starting point of all economic calculations is the daily demand for artificial snow that determines the requirements for additional snowmaking investments and additional operating costs. The demand for artificial snow is delivered by the snow cover model AMUNDSEN (see Strasser et al. 2011) and is driven by four climate scenarios. Apart from future climate conditions the profitability of snowmaking depends on changes in costs and visitor numbers. The results of a ski tourism demand model analyzing daily visitor numbers and their dependencies of prevailing weather conditions enter the cost-revenue analysis of

  20. Anterior cruciate ligament injury/reinjury in alpine ski racing: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan MJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Matthew J Jordan,1 Per Aagaard,2 Walter Herzog1 1Human Performance Laboratory, The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, SDU Muscle Research Cluster (SMRC, University of Southern Denmark, Odense M, Denmark Abstract: The purpose of the present review was to: 1 provide an overview of the current understanding on the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and prevention methods for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury in alpine ski racing; and 2 provide an overview of what is known pertaining to ACL reinjury and return to sport after ACL injury in alpine ski racing. Given that most of the scientific studies on ACL injuries in alpine ski racing have been descriptive, and that very few studies contributed higher level scientific evidence, a nonsystematic narrative review was employed. Three scholarly databases were searched for articles on ACL injury or knee injury in alpine ski racing. Studies were classified according to their relevance in relation to epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and return to sport/reinjury prevention. Alpine ski racers (skiers were found to be at high risk for knee injuries, and ACL tears were the most frequent diagnosis. Three primary ACL injury mechanism were identified that involved tibial internal rotation and anteriorly directed shear forces from ski equipment and the environment. While trunk muscle strength imbalance and genetics were found to be predictive of ACL injuries in development-level skiers, there was limited scientific data on ACL injury risk factors among elite skiers. Based on expert opinion, research on injury risk factors should focus on equipment design, course settings/speed, and athlete factors (eg, fitness. While skiers seem to make a successful recovery following ACL injury, there may be persistent neuromuscular deficits. Future research efforts should be directed toward prospective studies on ACL injury/reinjury prevention in both

  1. Multi-Axis Prosthetic Knee Resembles Alpine Skiing Movements of an Intact Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demšar, Ivan; Duhovnik, Jože; Lešnik, Blaž; Supej, Matej

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse the flexion angles of the ski boot, ankle and knee joints of an above-knee prosthesis and to compare them with an intact leg and a control group of skiers. One subject with an above-knee amputation of the right leg and eight healthy subjects simulated the movement of a skiing turn by performing two-leg squats in laboratory conditions. By adding additional loads in proportion to body weight (BW; +1/3 BW, +2/3 BW, +3/3 BW), various skiing regimes were simulated. Change of Flexion Angle (CoFA) and Range of Motion (RoM) in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were calculated and compared. An average RoM in the skiing boot on the side of prosthesis (4.4 ± 1.1°) was significantly lower compared to an intact leg (5.9 ± 1.8°) and the control group (6.5 ± 2.3°). In the ankle joint, the average RoM was determined to be 13.2±2.9° in the prosthesis, 12.7 ± 2.8° in an intact leg and 14.8±3.6 in the control group. However, the RoM of the knee joint in the prosthesis (42.2 ± 4.2°) was significantly larger than that of the intact leg (34.7 ± 4.4°). The average RoM of the knee joint in the control group was 47.8 ± 5.4°. The influences of additional loads on the kinematics of the lower extremities were different on the side of the prosthesis and on the intact leg. In contrast, additional loads did not produce any significant differences in the control group. Although different CoFAs in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were used, an above-knee prosthesis with a built-in multi-axis prosthetic knee enables comparable leg kinematics in simulated alpine skiing. Key points The RoM in the ski boot on the side of the prosthetic leg was smaller than the RoM of the intact leg and the control group of healthy subjects. The RoM in the ankle joint of prosthetic leg was comparable to that of the intact leg and the control group of healthy subjects. The RoM in the prosthetic knee joint was greater than the RoM in the knee joint of the

  2. Development of SKI's Regulatory Approach to the Siting of a Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerlind, Magnus

    2003-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, is actively working with the siting of a spent nuclear fuel repository. Feasibility studies have been completed in a total of eight municipalities, and in December 2000 three municipalities (Oskarshamn, Tierp and Oesthammar) were proposed for further investigations. These site investigations include surface based site characterisation from deep bore holes but also further studies of infrastructure, land use, transportation etc. SKB's proposal was reviewed by SKI and about 60 other organisations, including municipalities, NGOs, government agencies etc. during the winter/spring 2000/2001. In June 2001 SKI reported the review findings to the Government. In parallel with SKI also the Swedish Council for Nuclear Waste (KASAM) reviewed SKB's proposal and reported to the Government. In its decision in November 2001 the Government supported SKB's proposal to continue with site investigations. Based on SKB's material, the reviews and the Government's decision the municipalities of Oesthammar and Oskarshamn have agreed to site investigations while Tierp have decided no to continue. The site investigations in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn started during 2002. The siting process has meant that several new actors have been engaged in nuclear waste management in general and disposal of spent nuclear fuel in particular. This has meant that 'old' actors, particularly SKB, the regulators (the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI) have had to evaluate, develop and clarify their roles and strategies for dialogue. This paper presents reflections on the impacts on some of SKI's regulatory activities

  3. Effects of changes in skiing posture on the kinetics of the knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Maki; Shino, Konsei; Yoshimoto, Yoji; Inoue, Satoru; Sato, Mutsumi; Nakata, Ken

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of changes in the skiing posture on mechanical stress across the knee joint. The aim of the present study was to establish a safer form of skiing for the prevention of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee (ACL). Ten healthy volunteers were placed on a force plate on an artificial slope, and assumed forward and backward bending postures with a single leg by changing their centre of gravity. The knee flexion angles were limited to approximately 30 degrees by orthotics in each posture. Joint moments of the lower extremity were analyzed using a motion analysis system, and the muscle activities of the lower extremity were recorded by EMG and digitised to integrated EMG in each posture. In addition, extrusion of the lower leg by the boot was measured using a force sensor sheet inserted behind the calf. We found that the extension moment of the hip and ankle joints, and muscular activity of the hamstrings were increased in forward bending, whereas the extension moment of the knee and muscular activity of the quadriceps were decreased. Conversely, the muscular activity of the quadriceps, the flexion moment of the hip, extension moment of the knee joint, and pressure of the boot were increased in backward bending, whereas muscular activity of the hamstrings was decreased. The dependency on the hamstrings increased in forward bending in a skiing posture on a slope with slight knee flexion. Therefore, forward bending seemed to be an advantageous posture for the prevention of ACL injury. Conversely, in a backward bending skiing posture, the extension moment of the knee joint produced by muscle contraction of the quadriceps also increased imbalance in the hamstrings. The results of this study suggest that the internal force exerted by the quadriceps, in addition to the passive factor of extrusion of the lower leg by the boot, may contribute to non-contact ACL injury in a backward bending posture while skiing.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF SOME OF STUDENTS` MOTORIC ABILITIES AFTER TEN-DAY-SKIING COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubiša Lilić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that one of the most fundamental tasks of training is developing motoric dimensions of sportsmen, the common goal of this work was to achieve relevant knowledge on the infl uence of ten-day-skiing course on students`* development and to establish their level. The special aim of this work was diagnosing the amount of some of the students` motoric abilities. According to the subjects, problems and goal of the research, there was a hypothesis put: motoric and morphological dimensions of students are coherent with their chrono logical growth and development ten-day-skiing course has signifi cant infl uence on developing some of the students` motoric abilities Besides remaining, the choice of examined samples was put under limits of organizational capacities for realizing researching procedure.It was necessary to insure required devices and standardized conditions under which planned research was supposed to be realized. The sample is taken from students` population implied in regular skiing course. Examined sample consists of thirty male students, each of which is twenty years old. Because of technical and organizational reasons it was not possible to diagnose the whole motoric range of tested students. Due to that a specifi c selection of tests was done and only six variables (that reliably predict levels of motoric abilities on which the training affects were taken: foot tapping, medicine ball throwing, pull-ups with undertaking, trunk lifting in 60 seconds and deep forward band. The level of students` motoric abilities after ten-day-skiing course is on a higher level then initial measuring, and we can certainly claim that it is the result of programmed training process during skiing course. According to the data gained from control and fi nal measuring you can fi nd out the effects of applied resources towards initial measuring.

  5. Forming technique of ski sport of students of the first course of sporting institute of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorova T.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Is certain the most rational method of the speed-up teaching of students of the first course of discipline «Ski sport». Positions are taken into account to credit-module departmental teaching. The individual differentiated technology of the accelerated training to ways of movement on a ski is proved. Technology includes three methods of teaching. Application of methods is varied depending on sporting specialization of students and development of their physical qualities. The rational parity of employment on training to technics of classical and skating styles of movement on a ski is determined.

  6. Professor Adam Stalony-Dobrzański - the Master and the Teacher of Jerzy Nowosielski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Szmajda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available When analyzing the history of Polish religious art of the XX century, we can affirm that the entire creative work of Adam Stalony-Dobrzański, professor at Kraków Academy of Fine Arts, remains in the shadow of the artistic output of Prof. Jerzy Nowosielski, his student and follower. Jerzy Nowosielski had a noticeable impact on the interest in the problems of the sacred in modern painting. The follower of Prof. Adam Stalony-Dobrzański was inspired by the art and the spirituality of Eastern Christianity. Prof. Jerzy Nowosielski filled some kind of a void in Polish religious art in the period of its evident crisis. Prof. Jerzy Nowosielski together with Prof. Adam Stalony-Dobrzański created polychrome frescoes of numerous religious buildings. The styling and the artistic accomplishments of Prof. Adam Stalony-Dobrzański are unknown for the wide audience which makes an evident gap in the history of Polish art. Polychrome frescoes and stainedglass windows can be seen in interiors of Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant temples. The creative work of the Kraków artist is an example of the great and highly authentic vision of the sacred, which was stronger than communist censorship. The concept of Adam Stalony-Dobrzański’s art is not based on his theoretical conclusions but only on the analysis of correspondence of the artist with the then Metropolitan Archbishop of Kraków Karol Wojtyła - now St. Pope JohnPaul II. The topic of their letters was the issues of modern art and religious art, in particular the attempt to define a way in which art should be developed to meet the current needs of the Church. In contrast to the master, Prof. Adam Stalony-Dobrzański, his follower Prof. Jerzy Nowosielski has left ample commentary on his artwork. Prof. Adam Stalony-Dobrzański was rather a practitioner than a theoretician. Thus the fact of how great an impact he had on the character and the artwork of Jerzy Nowosielski is puzzling. In the first half of the

  7. Evaluation of Explosive Power Performance in Ski Jumpers and Nordic Combined Competitive Athletes: A 19-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janura, Miroslav; Cabell, Lee; Svoboda, Zdenek; Elfmark, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Between 1992 and 2010, a total of 334 males participated in this study that assessed the differences and relationships between anthropometric variables and lower limb muscle strength in young and adult ski jumpers (n = 207) and Nordic combined (NC, n = 127) athletes. All athletes completed a maximal vertical jump from an in-run position and a maximal relative isometric force (MRIF) of the knee extensor measurement in a laboratory setting. The body mass index (BMI) in young competitors was lower than in adult groups (NC: p ski jumping [SJ]: p jump height (VJH) was lower for young competitors than for adults (NC: p ≤ 0.05; SJ: p ski jumpers even at lower-body weights. These changes are in accordance with the change in ski jump techniques.

  8. The preparation of tourists to the ski sports tours in a limited time in order to prevent injuries and accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Toporkov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: compare indicators of testing tourist skiers at different stages of the preparatory period to ski sports hike of third grade. Determine the effectiveness of training programs created to the tourists Categorical ski sports to prevent injuries and accidents in a limited time. Material: The study involved 13 people aged from 21 to 65 (4 women and 9 men with different experiences of hiking trails and various levels of total tourist preparedness. Results: The test results obtained before beginning the process of preparation are treated upon its completion, and immediately after passing categorical hike. In practice, the effectiveness of the proposed training programs of tourists to ski sports tours is proved. Conclusions : The created program can be recommended to tourist clubs, associations and organizations as the base in preparation for ski sports campaigns for the prevention of accidents and injuries.

  9. Land use/land cover change geo-informative Tupu of Nujiang River in Northwest Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-liang; Yang, Yue-yuan; Huang, You-ju; Fu, Lei; Rao, Qing

    2008-10-01

    Land Use/Land Cover Change (LUCC) is the core components of global change researches. It is significant for understanding regional ecological environment and LUCC mechanism of large scale to develop the study of LUCC of regional level. Nujiang River is the upper reaches of a big river in the South Asia--Salween River. Nujiang River is a typical mountainous river which is 3200 kilometer long and its basin area is 32.5 × 105 square kilometer. It locates in the core of "Three Parallel Rivers" World Natural Heritage. It is one of international biodiversity conservation center of the world, the ecological fragile zone and key ecological construction area, as well as a remote undeveloped area with high diversity ethnic. With the rapidly development of society and economy, the land use and land cover changed in a great degree. The function of ecosystem has being degraded in some areas which will not only impact on the ecological construction of local area, but also on the ecological safety of lower reaches -- Salween River. Therefore it is necessary to carry out the research of LUCC of Nujiang River. Based on the theory and methods of geo-information Tupu, the "Spatial Pattern" and "Change Process" of land use of middle reach in Nujiang River from 1974 to 2004 had been studied in quantification and integration, so as to provide a case study in local area and mesoscale in time. Supported by the remote sensing and GIS technology, LUCC Tupu of 1974-2004 had been built and the characteristics of LUCC have been analyzed quantificationally. The results showed that the built-up land (Included in this category are cities, towns, villages, strip developments along highways, transportation, power, and communications facilities, and areas such as those occupied by mills, shopping centers, industrial and commercial complexes, and institutions that may, in some instances, be isolated from urban areas), agriculture land, shrubbery land, meadow & grassland, difficultly/unused land

  10. Application of dGNSS in Alpine Ski Racing: Basis for Evaluating Physical Demands and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgien, Matthias; Kröll, Josef; Spörri, Jörg; Crivelli, Philip; Müller, Erich

    2018-01-01

    External forces, such as ground reaction force or air drag acting on athletes' bodies in sports, determine the sport-specific demands on athletes' physical fitness. In order to establish appropriate physical conditioning regimes, which adequately prepare athletes for the loads and physical demands occurring in their sports and help reduce the risk of injury, sport-and/or discipline-specific knowledge of the external forces is needed. However, due to methodological shortcomings in biomechanical research, data comprehensively describing the external forces that occur in alpine super-G (SG) and downhill (DH) are so far lacking. Therefore, this study applied new and accurate wearable sensor-based technology to determine the external forces acting on skiers during World Cup (WC) alpine skiing competitions in the disciplines of SG and DH and to compare these with those occurring in giant slalom (GS), for which previous research knowledge exists. External forces were determined using WC forerunners carrying a differential global navigation satellite system (dGNSS). Combining the dGNSS data with a digital terrain model of the snow surface and an air drag model, the magnitudes of ground reaction forces were computed. It was found that the applied methodology may not only be used to track physical demands and loads on athletes, but also to simultaneously investigate safety aspects, such as the effectiveness of speed control through increased air drag and ski-snow friction forces in the respective disciplines. Therefore, the component of the ground reaction force in the direction of travel (ski-snow friction) and air drag force were computed. This study showed that (1) the validity of high-end dGNSS systems allows meaningful investigations such as characterization of physical demands and effectiveness of safety measures in highly dynamic sports; (2) physical demands were substantially different between GS, SG, and DH; and (3) safety-related reduction of skiing speed might be

  11. Assessment of the economic risk for the ski resorts of changes in snow cover duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sokratov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter tourism that is intensively developed in the Russian Federation in recent years strongly depends on the snow availability and properties in the region. Climate changes exert significant influence on the functioning of mountain ski resorts, especially if they are located in areas with relatively high air temperatures in winter season. At the present time, a snowy cluster of mountain ski resorts is intensively progressing in vicinity of Krasnaya Polyana. This region in the West Caucasus (Russia is characterized by relatively warm climate conditions. The snow cover thickness (of 1% insurance in area of the Aibga mountain range may reach 8.1 m. But the snow cover thickness is not the only characteristic of the mountain skiing attractiveness. According to the Swiss standards a mountain ski resort can be considered reliable if during seven seasons of ten ones the snow cover with minimal thickness of 30–50 cm exists for a time not shorter than 100 days during a period from 1st December till 15th April.According to the forecast, during future decades the calculated amount of solid precipitation should reduce by 25–30% in mountain regions on the south macro-slope of the Great Caucasus. As the calculations show, by 2041–2050 the maximal decade thickness of snow cover will decrease by 29–35% while a number of days with snow – by 35–40%. If this is the case, artificial snow will be needed in addition to the natural one. But, under warm climate conditions using of plants for artificial snow production will require a certain perfecting of the nowadays technologies, and very likely, with use of chemicals. That is why a shadowing of existing mountain ski routes by means of the tree planting along them could be ecologically more promising. As for the mountain ski resorts of the West Caucasus, we should mention a possible weakening of the avalanche activity as a potential positive effect of the climate warming predicted by models.

  12. Soil nitrogen dynamics in high-altitude ski runs during the winter season (Monterosaski - Vallée d

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freppaz, M.; Icardi, M.; Filippa, G.; Zanini, E.

    2009-04-01

    In many Alpine catchments, the development of winter tourism determined a widespread change in land use, shifting from forested and cultivated lands to ski slopes. The construction of a ski slope implies a strong impact on the landscape, with potential consequences on the soil quality. In most cases, the construction procedures include the total or partial removal of the soil body, the reallocation of the fine hearth fraction, the subsequent seeding of plants and the use of organic fertilizers. This work aims to evaluate soil physical and chemical properties and nitrogen (N) dynamics in anthropogenic soils from ski slopes of different age. Study sites were located in Champoluc (AO)- NW Italy between 2400 and 2700 m ASL. Topsoils (0-10 cm depth) were sampled in 4 ski slopes hydroseeded with commercial mixtures 4, 6, 10 and 12 years earlier, and in 4 control plots at the same exposure and altitude as the ski slopes. Soil samples were characterized, N dynamics in winter was evaluated with the buried bag technique and snowpack was analyzed for chemical and physical properties. Total nitrogen (TN) content in topsoil ranged 0.75-1.06 g kg-1 and was not correlated with the ski slope age. In all but one site, the TN content was significantly lower in the ski slope than in the control plot. A positive net ammonification and nitrification throughout the winter were found in all but one ski runs. These results suggest a high variability in the evolution degree of these anthropogenic soils. The net overwinter N mineralization that we report demonstrates that these soils are biologically active during the winter season. Such activity results in a pool of labile inorganic nitrogen potentially available for plant demand at the spring snowmelt.

  13. The SKI proto-oncogene enhances the in vivo repopulation of hematopoietic stem cells and causes myeloproliferative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singbrant, Sofie; Wall, Meaghan; Moody, Jennifer; Karlsson, Göran; Chalk, Alistair M; Liddicoat, Brian; Russell, Megan R; Walkley, Carl R; Karlsson, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    The proto-oncogene SKI is highly expressed in human myeloid leukemia and also in murine hematopoietic stem cells. However, its operative relevance in these cells remains elusive. We have over-expressed SKI to define its intrinsic role in hematopoiesis and myeloid neoplasms, which resulted in a robust competitive advantage upon transplantation, a complete dominance of the stem and progenitor compartments, and a marked enhancement of myeloid differentiation at the expense of other lineages. Accordingly, enforced expression of SKI induced a gene signature associated with hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid differentiation, as well as hepatocyte growth factor signaling. Here we demonstrate that, in contrast to what has generally been assumed, the significant impact of SKI on hematopoiesis is independent of its ability to inhibit TGF-beta signaling. Instead, myeloid progenitors expressing SKI are partially dependent on functional hepatocyte growth factor signaling. Collectively our results demonstrate that SKI is an important regulator of hematopoietic stem cell activity and its overexpression leads to myeloproliferative disease.

  14. A simulation of cross-country skiing on varying terrain by using a mathematical power balance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxnes, John F; Sandbakk, Oyvind; Hausken, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    The current study simulated cross-country skiing on varying terrain by using a power balance model. By applying the hypothetical inductive deductive method, we compared the simulated position along the track with actual skiing on snow, and calculated the theoretical effect of friction and air drag on skiing performance. As input values in the model, air drag and friction were estimated from the literature, whereas the model included relationships between heart rate, metabolic rate, and work rate based on the treadmill roller-ski testing of an elite cross-country skier. We verified this procedure by testing four models of metabolic rate against experimental data on the treadmill. The experimental data corresponded well with the simulations, with the best fit when work rate was increased on uphill and decreased on downhill terrain. The simulations predicted that skiing time increases by 3%-4% when either friction or air drag increases by 10%. In conclusion, the power balance model was found to be a useful tool for predicting how various factors influence racing performance in cross-country skiing.

  15. Kinematic characteristics of the ski jump inrun: a 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janura, Miroslav; Cabell, Lee; Elfmark, Milan; Vaverka, Frantisek

    2010-05-01

    The athlete's inrun position affects the outcome for take-off in ski jumping. The purpose of this study was to examine the kinematic parameters between skiers' adjacent body segments during their first straight path of the inrun. Elite ski jumpers participated in the study at the World Cup events in Innsbruck, Austria, during the years 1992 through 2001. A video image was taken at a right angle to the tracks of the K-110 (meter) jumping hill. Kinematic data were collected from the lower extremities and trunk of the athletes. Findings indicated that jumpers had diminished ankle and knee joint angles and increased trunk and hip angles over the 10 years. In recent years, the best athletes achieved a further length of their jumps, while they experienced slower inrun average velocity. These results are perhaps explained by several possible contributing factors, such as new technique of the jumper's body kinematics, advancements in equipment technology, and somatotype of the jumpers.

  16. Metabolic Responses and Pacing Strategies during Successive Sprint Skiing Time Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Erik; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Ørtenblad, Niels

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the metabolic responses and pacing strategies during the performance of successive sprint time trials (STTs) in cross-country skiing. METHODS: Ten well-trained male cross-country skiers performed four self-paced 1300-m STTs on a treadmill, each separated by 45 min of recovery...... to estimate the anaerobic energy supply. RESULTS: The individual trial-to-trial variability in STT performance time was 1.3%, where variations in O2 deficit and V˙O2 explained 69% (P 0.05) of the variation in performance. The first and last STTs were equally fast (228 ± 10 s), and ~ 1...... on the first than second course half. In addition, metabolic rates were substantially higher (~_30%) for uphill than for flat skiing, indicating that pacing was regulated to the terrain. CONCLUSIONS: The fastest STTs were characterized primarily by a greater anaerobic energy production, which also explained 69...

  17. Localization and roles of Ski8p protein in Sordaria meiosis and delineation of three mechanistically distinct steps of meiotic homolog juxtaposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessé, Sophie; Storlazzi, Aurora; Kleckner, Nancy; Gargano, Silvana; Zickler, Denise

    2003-10-28

    Ski8p is implicated in degradation of non-poly(A) and double-stranded RNA, and in meiotic DNA recombination. We have identified the Sordaria macrospora SKI8 gene. Ski8p is cytoplasmically localized in all vegetative and sexual cycle cells, and is nuclear localized, specifically in early-mid-meiotic prophase, in temporal correlation with Spo11p, the meiotic double-strand break (DSB) transesterase. Localizations of Ski8p and Spo11p are mutually interdependent. ski8 mutants exhibit defects in vegetative growth, entry into the sexual program, and sporulation. Diverse meiotic defects, also seen in spo11 mutants, are diagnostic of DSB absence, and they are restored by exogenous DSBs. These results suggest that Ski8p promotes meiotic DSB formation by acting directly within meiotic prophase chromosomes. Mutant phenotypes also divide meiotic homolog juxtaposition into three successive, mechanistically distinct steps; recognition, presynaptic alignment, and synapsis, which are distinguished by their differential dependence on DSBs.

  18. Injury situations in Freestyle Ski Cross (SX): a video analysis of 33 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randjelovic, Stefan; Heir, Stig; Nordsletten, Lars; Bere, Tone; Bahr, Roald

    2014-01-01

    Although injury risk in Freestyle Ski Cross (SX) is high, little is known about the situations leading up to time-loss injuries. To describe the situations leading up to time-loss injuries in elite Freestyle SX. Descriptive video analysis. Thirty-three video recordings of SX injuries reported through the International Ski Federation Injury Surveillance System for four World Cup seasons (2006/2007 through 2010) were obtained. Five experts in the fields of sport medicine and SX analysed each case to describe in detail the situation leading up to the injury (skiing situation and skier behaviour). Injuries occurred in four different skiing situations: jumping (n=16), turning (n=8), jumping and turning (n=7) and rollers (n=2). All injured skiers lost control before time of injury (n=33), due to skier-opponent contact (n=13), technical errors (n=8) or inappropriate strategy (n=8), which led to a fall (n=29). Contact occurred in 21 of 33 cases, usually unintentional at landing or take-off, caused by the opponent (n=11) or injured skier (n=8). The technical error cases (n=8) were dominated by bad jumping technique (n=6) and too much inside lean in turning situations (n=2), while inappropriate course line and bad timing at take off (n=7) dominated the inappropriate strategy cases (n=8). We identified four main injury situations in elite SX, dominated by jumping situations. The primary cause of injury was unintentional skier-opponent contact in jumping, bank turning and roller situations. Another common cause of injury was personal errors (inappropriate technique and strategy) at take-off and in turning situations.

  19. Network brand management : study of competencies of place branding ski destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Moilanen, Teemu

    2008-01-01

    Several industries have turned to a network form of organization to coordinate complex products or services in uncertain and competitive environments, and the network form of organization also appears to be becoming more common in the field of branding. Examples of brands formed by a network of independent firms include One-World and Star Alliance brands in the airline industry, Verbier and Chamonix ski destination brands in tourism industry and the Santa Foods brand in food production. Many ...

  20. Course Setting as a Prevention Measure for Overuse Injuries of the Back in Alpine Ski Racing

    OpenAIRE

    Sp?rri, J?rg; Kr?ll, Josef; Fasel, Benedikt; Aminian, Kamiar; M?ller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Background: A combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk has been suggested to be a mechanism leading to overuse injuries of the back in Alpine ski racing. However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of course setting on the aforementioned back-loading patterns. Purpose: To investigate the effect of increased gate offset on the skier?s overall trunk kinematics and the occurring ground-reaction forces and to compare these variables between the com...

  1. Virtual reality balance training for elderly: Similar skiing games elicit different challenges in balance training

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, Aijse W.; Faber, Gert; Jonkers, Ilse; Van Dieen, Jaap H.; Verschueren, Sabine M.P.

    2018-01-01

    Background Virtual Reality (VR) balance training may have advantages over regular exercise training in older adults. However, results so far are conflicting potentially due to the lack of challenge imposed by the movements in those games. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess to which extent two similar skiing games challenge balance, as reflected in center of mass (COM) movements relative to their Functional Limits of Stability (FLOS). Methods Thirty young and elderly participants p...

  2. RiSKi: A Framework for Modeling Cyber Threats to Estimate Risk for Data Breach Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Panou, Angeliki; Ntantogian, Christoforos; Xenakis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Historically, the financial benefits of cyber security investments have not been calculated with the same financial discipline used to evaluate other material investments. This was mainly due to a lack of readily available data on cyber incidents impacts and systematic methodology to support the efficacy of cyber investments. In this paper we propose an innovative, cyber investment management framework named RiSKi that incorporates detection and continuous monitoring of insiders societal beha...

  3. From après-ski to après-tourism: the Alps in transition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bourdeau

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter sports occupy a prominent place in European tourism, not only because of their economic importance in mountainous areas but also due to their major symbolic significance in the "leisure civilisation". Yet the world of winter tourism is full of uncertainties connected with climate change and also with evolutions and structural breaks that call into question the development model on which it is based. This context of profound change gives us the opportunity to question the limits of the industrial model that has governed the development of the Alps for the practice of skiing and to examine alternative future scenarios to "all-out skiing" and even "all-out tourism".Les sports d’hiver occupent une place de premier plan dans le tourisme européen, non seulement du fait de leur poids économique dans les régions de montagne, mais aussi par leur forte dimension symbolique dans la « civilisation des loisirs ». Pourtant l’univers du tourisme hivernal est parcouru par de nombreuses incertitudes liées au changement climatique, mais aussi à des évolutions et des ruptures structurelles qui remettent en question le modèle de développement sur lequel il repose. Ce contexte de mutation permet d’interroger les limites du modèle industriel qui a présidé à l’aménagement des Alpes pour la pratique du ski et d’examiner des figures d’avenir alternatives au « tout ski » et même au « tout tourisme ».

  4. The impact of training process on the stress tests results of women cross country skiing representation.

    OpenAIRE

    Fusková, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Title: The impact of training process on the stress tests results of women cross country skiing representation. Aim: The aim of this thesis is the comparison of the results of stress tests carried out preparatory period before and after the preparation period and whether the results were influenced by the applied training process. Methods: In this thesis was used background research of professional publications, content analyzes of documents and comparison of the results of stress tests and c...

  5. Influence of a nine-day alpine ski training programme on the postural stability of people with different levels of skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staniszewski Michał

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: In alpine skiing, balance is one of the key elements that determine the effectiveness of the ride. Because of ski boots, the foot and ankle joint complex is excluded from the process of maintaining the stability of the body. The aim of the study was to determine to what extent a few days of skiing activities and the level of technical skills affect the skiers’ level of postural stability.

  6. Dynamics of the in-run in ski jumping: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettema, Gertjan J C; Bråten, Steinar; Bobbert, Maarten F

    2005-08-01

    A ski jumper tries to maintain an aerodynamic position in the in-run during changing environmental forces. The purpose of this study was to analyze the mechanical demands on a ski jumper taking the in-run in a static position. We simulated the in-run in ski jumping with a 4-segment forward dynamic model (foot, leg, thigh, and upper body). The curved path of the in-run was used as kinematic constraint, and drag, lift, and snow friction were incorporated. Drag and snow friction created a forward rotating moment that had to be counteracted by a plantar flexion moment and caused the line of action of the normal force to pass anteriorly to the center of mass continuously. The normal force increased from 0.88 G on the first straight to 1.65 G in the curve. The required knee joint moment increased more because of an altered center of pressure. During the transition from the straight to the curve there was a rapid forward shift of the center of pressure under the foot, reflecting a short but high angular acceleration. Because unrealistically high rates of change of moment are required, an athlete cannot do this without changing body configuration which reduces the required rate of moment changes.

  7. How do elite ski jumpers handle the dynamic conditions in imitation jumps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettema, Gertjan; Hooiveld, Jo; Braaten, Steinar; Bobbert, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effect of boundary conditions in imitation ski jumping on movement dynamics and coordination. We compared imitation ski jumps with--and without--the possibility to generate shear propulsion forces. Six elite ski jumpers performed imitation jumps by jumping from a fixed surface and from a rolling platform. The ground reaction force vector, kinematics of body segments, and EMG of eight lower limb muscles were recorded. Net joint dynamics were calculated using inverse dynamics. The two imitation jumps differed considerably from each other with regard to the dynamics (moments, forces), whereas the kinematics were very similar. Knee power was higher and hip power was lower on the rolling platform than on the fixed surface. Mean EMG levels were very similar for both conditions, but differences in the development of muscle activity were indicated for seven of eight muscles. These differences are reflected in a subtle difference of the alignment of ground reaction force with centre of mass: the ground reaction force runs continuously close to but behind the centre of mass on the rolling platform and fluctuates around it on the fixed surface. This likely reflects a different strategy for controlling angular momentum.

  8. Determination of the centre of mass kinematics in alpine skiing using differential global navigation satellite systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgien, Matthias; Spörri, Jörg; Chardonnens, Julien; Kröll, Josef; Limpach, Philippe; Müller, Erich

    2015-01-01

    In the sport of alpine skiing, knowledge about the centre of mass (CoM) kinematics (i.e. position, velocity and acceleration) is essential to better understand both performance and injury. This study proposes a global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-based method to measure CoM kinematics without restriction of capture volume and with reasonable set-up and processing requirements. It combines the GNSS antenna position, terrain data and the accelerations acting on the skier in order to approximate the CoM location, velocity and acceleration. The validity of the method was assessed against a reference system (video-based 3D kinematics) over 12 turn cycles on a giant slalom skiing course. The mean (± s) position, velocity and acceleration differences between the CoM obtained from the GNSS and the reference system were 9 ± 12 cm, 0.08 ± 0.19 m · s(-1) and 0.22 ± 1.28 m · s(-2), respectively. The velocity and acceleration differences obtained were smaller than typical differences between the measures of several skiers on the same course observed in the literature, while the position differences were slightly larger than its discriminative meaningful change. The proposed method can therefore be interpreted to be technically valid and adequate for a variety of biomechanical research questions in the field of alpine skiing with certain limitations regarding position.

  9. Multi-Body Ski Jumper Model with Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Muscle Control for Trajectory Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Piprek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to model a ski jumper as a multi-body system for an optimal control application. The modeling is based on the constrained Newton-Euler-Equations. Within this paper the complete multi-body modeling methodology as well as the musculoskeletal modeling is considered. For the musculoskeletal modeling and its incorporation in the optimization model, we choose a nonlinear dynamic inversion control approach. This approach uses the muscle models as nonlinear reference models and links them to the ski jumper movement by a control law. This strategy yields a linearized input-output behavior, which makes the optimal control problem easier to solve. The resulting model of the ski jumper can then be used for trajectory optimization whose results are compared to literature jumps. Ultimately, this enables the jumper to get a very detailed feedback of the flight. To achieve the maximal jump length, exact positioning of his body with respect to the air can be displayed.

  10. Rapid Hamstrings/Quadriceps strength in ACL-reconstructed elite alpine ski racers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Due to the importance of hamstrings (HAM) and quadriceps (QUAD) strength for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention, and the high incidence of ACL injury in ski racing, HAM and QUAD maximal and explosive strength was assessed in ski racers with and without ACL reconstruction...... (ACL-R). METHODS: Uninjured (n=13 males; n=8 females) and ACL-R (n=3 males; n=5 females; 25.0±11.3 months post-op) elite ski racers performed maximal voluntary isometric HAM and QUAD contractions to obtain maximal torque (MVC) and rate of torque development (RTD) at 0-50, 0-100, 0-150 and 0-200 ms. MVC...... and RTD (per kg body mass) were calculated for the uninjured group to compare between sexes, and to compare the control group with the ACL-R limb and unaffected limb of the ACL-R skiers. H/Q MVC and RTD strength ratios were also compared RESULTS: The ACL-R limb demonstrated significant HAM and QUAD...

  11. Using the power balance model to simulate cross-country skiing on varying terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxnes, John F; Sandbakk, Oyvind; Hausken, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    The current study adapts the power balance model to simulate cross-country skiing on varying terrain. We assumed that the skier's locomotive power at a self-chosen pace is a function of speed, which is impacted by friction, incline, air drag, and mass. An elite male skier's position along the track during ski skating was simulated and compared with his experimental data. As input values in the model, air drag and friction were estimated from the literature based on the skier's mass, snow conditions, and speed. We regard the fit as good, since the difference in racing time between simulations and measurements was 2 seconds of the 815 seconds racing time, with acceptable fit both in uphill and downhill terrain. Using this model, we estimated the influence of changes in various factors such as air drag, friction, and body mass on performance. In conclusion, the power balance model with locomotive power as a function of speed was found to be a valid tool for analyzing performance in cross-country skiing.

  12. Ski and snowboard school programs: Injury surveillance and risk factors for grade-specific injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sran, R; Djerboua, M; Romanow, N; Mitra, T; Russell, K; White, K; Goulet, C; Emery, C; Hagel, B

    2018-05-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate incidence rates and profile of school program ski and snowboard-related injuries by school grade group using a historical cohort design. Injuries were identified via Accident Report Forms completed by ski patrollers. Severe injury was defined as those with ambulance evacuation or recommending patient transport to hospital. Poisson regression analysis was used to examine the school grade group-specific injury rates adjusting for risk factors (sex, activity, ability, and socioeconomic status) and accounting for the effect of clustering by school. Forty of 107 (37%) injuries reported were severe. Adolescents (grades 7-12) had higher crude injury rates (91 of 10 000 student-days) than children (grades 1-3: 25 of 10 000 student-days; grades 4-6: 65 of 10 000 student-days). Those in grades 1-3 had no severe injuries. Although the rate of injury was lower in grades 1-3, there were no statistically significant grade group differences in adjusted analyses. Snowboarders had a higher rate of injury compared with skiers, while higher ability level was protective. Participants in grades 1-3 had the lowest crude and adjusted injury rates. Students in grades 7-12 had the highest rate of overall and severe injuries. These results will inform evidence-based guidelines for school ski/snowboard program participation by school-aged children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Using the power balance model to simulate cross-country skiing on varying terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moxnes JF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available John F Moxnes,1 Øyvind Sandbakk,2 Kjell Hausken31Department for Protection, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Kjeller, Norway; 2Center for Elite Sports Research, Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, NorwayAbstract: The current study adapts the power balance model to simulate cross-country skiing on varying terrain. We assumed that the skier’s locomotive power at a self-chosen pace is a function of speed, which is impacted by friction, incline, air drag, and mass. An elite male skier’s position along the track during ski skating was simulated and compared with his experimental data. As input values in the model, air drag and friction were estimated from the literature based on the skier's mass, snow conditions, and speed. We regard the fit as good, since the difference in racing time between simulations and measurements was 2 seconds of the 815 seconds racing time, with acceptable fit both in uphill and downhill terrain. Using this model, we estimated the influence of changes in various factors such as air drag, friction, and body mass on performance. In conclusion, the power balance model with locomotive power as a function of speed was found to be a valid tool for analyzing performance in cross-country skiing.Keywords: air drag, efficiency, friction coefficient, speed, locomotive power

  14. Effects of frequency on gross efficiency and performance in roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leirdal, S; Sandbakk, O; Ettema, G

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of frequency on efficiency and performance during G3 roller ski skating. Eight well-trained male cross-country skiers performed three submaximal 5-min speeds (10, 13, and 16 km/h) and a time-to-exhaustion (TTE) performance (at 20 km/h) using the G3 skating technique using freely chosen, high, and low frequency at all four speeds. All tests were done using roller skis on a large treadmill at 5% incline. Gross efficiency (GE) was calculated as power divided by metabolic rate. Power was calculated as the sum of power against frictional forces and power against gravity. Metabolic rate was calculated from oxygen consumption and blood lactate concentration. Freely chosen frequency increased from 60 to 70 strokes/min as speed increased from 10 to 20 km/h. GE increased with power. At high power (20 km/h performance test), both efficiency and performance were significantly reduced by high frequency. In regard to choice of frequency during G3 roller ski skating, cross-country skiers seems to be self-optimized both in relation to energy saving (efficiency) and performance (TTE). © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. SNOW AVALANCHE ACTIVITY IN PARÂNG SKI AREA REVEALED BY TREE-RINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. MESEȘAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Snow Avalanche Activity in Parâng Ski Area Revealed by Tree-Rings. Snow avalanches hold favorable conditions to manifest in Parâng Mountains but only one event is historically known, without destructive impact upon infrastructure or fatalities and this region wasn’t yet the object of avalanche research. The existing ski infrastructure of Parâng resort located in the west of Parâng Mountains is proposed to be extended in the steep slopes of subalpine area. Field evidence pinpoints that these steep slopes were affected by snow avalanches in the past. In this study we analyzed 11 stem discs and 31 increment cores extracted from 22 spruces (Picea abies (L. Karst impacted by avalanches, in order to obtain more information about past avalanches activity. Using the dendrogeomorphological approach we found 13 avalanche events that occurred along Scărița avalanche path, since 1935 until 2012, nine of them produced in the last 20 years. The tree-rings data inferred an intense snow avalanche activity along this avalanche path. This study not only calls for more research in the study area but also proves that snow avalanches could constitute an important restrictive factor for the tourism infrastructure and related activities in the area. It must be taken into consideration by the future extension of tourism infrastructure. Keywords: snow avalanche, Parâng Mountains, dendrogeomorphology, ski area.

  16. Snowboarding injuries, a four-year study with comparison with alpine ski injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, T M; Laliotis, A T

    1996-03-01

    Snowboarding is a rapidly growing winter sport. Its unorthodox maneuvers and young participants raise many safety concerns. We examined injury patterns in recreational snowboarders, comparing these patterns with those found in alpine skiers. Snowboarding and skiing injury patterns differed significantly (P knee (17% versus 39%) or thumb (2% versus 4%) injuries than skiers. For snowboarders, wrist injuries were most common in beginners (30%), knee injuries in low intermediates (28%), ankle injuries in intermediates (17%), and shoulder or clavicle injuries in advanced snowboarders (14%). Most snowboarders (90%) wore soft-shelled boots, 73% of lower extremity injuries occurred to the lead-foot side, and 73% of wrist injuries occurred during backward falls; 67% of knee injuries occurred during forward falls. Of all injuries, 8% occurred while loading onto or unloading from a ski lift. The sport of snowboarding brings with it a different set of injuries from those seen in alpine skiing. The data focus attention on improvements such as wrist guards or splints, releasable front-foot bindings, and better instruction for beginner snowboarders to improve the safety of this sport. Finally, the data confirm that snowboarders and skiers may be safely combined on the same slopes.

  17. How Hinge Positioning in Cross-Country Ski Bindings Affect Exercise Efficiency, Cycle Characteristics and Muscle Coordination during Submaximal Roller Skiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Conor M.; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Ettema, Gertjan; Federolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the current study were to 1) test if the hinge position in the binding of skating skis has an effect on gross efficiency or cycle characteristics and 2) investigate whether hinge positioning affects synergistic components of the muscle activation in six lower leg muscles. Eleven male skiers performed three 4-min sessions at moderate intensity while cross-country ski-skating and using a klapskate binding. Three different positions were tested for the binding’s hinge, ranging from the front of the first distal phalange to the metatarsal-phalangeal joint. Gross efficiency and cycle characteristics were determined, and the electromyographic (EMG) signals of six lower limb muscles were collected. EMG signals were wavelet transformed, normalized, joined into a multi-dimensional vector, and submitted to a principle component analysis (PCA). Our results did not reveal any changes to gross efficiency or cycle characteristics when altering the hinge position. However, our EMG analysis found small but significant effects of hinge positioning on muscle coordinative patterns (P skating klapskates. Finally, the within-subject results of the EMG analysis suggested that in addition to the between-subject effects, further forms of muscle coordination patterns appear to be employed by some, but not all participants. PMID:27203597

  18. How Hinge Positioning in Cross-Country Ski Bindings Affect Exercise Efficiency, Cycle Characteristics and Muscle Coordination during Submaximal Roller Skiing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor M Bolger

    Full Text Available The purposes of the current study were to 1 test if the hinge position in the binding of skating skis has an effect on gross efficiency or cycle characteristics and 2 investigate whether hinge positioning affects synergistic components of the muscle activation in six lower leg muscles. Eleven male skiers performed three 4-min sessions at moderate intensity while cross-country ski-skating and using a klapskate binding. Three different positions were tested for the binding's hinge, ranging from the front of the first distal phalange to the metatarsal-phalangeal joint. Gross efficiency and cycle characteristics were determined, and the electromyographic (EMG signals of six lower limb muscles were collected. EMG signals were wavelet transformed, normalized, joined into a multi-dimensional vector, and submitted to a principle component analysis (PCA. Our results did not reveal any changes to gross efficiency or cycle characteristics when altering the hinge position. However, our EMG analysis found small but significant effects of hinge positioning on muscle coordinative patterns (P < 0.05. The changed patterns in muscle activation are in alignment with previously described mechanisms that explain the effects of hinge positioning in speed-skating klapskates. Finally, the within-subject results of the EMG analysis suggested that in addition to the between-subject effects, further forms of muscle coordination patterns appear to be employed by some, but not all participants.

  19. A COMPARISON OF WAKEBOARD-, WATER SKIING-, AND TUBING-RELATED INJURIES IN THE UNITED STATES, 2000-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Baker

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare tubing-related injuries to wakeboarding- and water skiing-related injuries. Data was collected from the 2000-2007 National Electronic Injury Surveillance Survey for 1,761 individuals seeking care at an emergency department due to a tubing-, wakeboarding, or water skiing-related injury. Data included patient age and sex, as well as injury characteristics including body region injured (i.e., head and neck, trunk, shoulder and upper extremity, and hip and lower extremity and diagnosis of injury (e.g., contusion, laceration, or fracture. Case narratives were reviewed to ensure that a tubing-, wakeboarding-, or water skiing-related injury occurred while the individual was being towed behind a boat. Severe injury (defined as an injury resulting in the individual being hospitalized, transferred, held for observation was compared among the groups using logistic regression. Wakeboard- and tubing-related injuries more commonly involved the head and neck, while water skiing- related injuries were likely to involve the hip and lower extremity. Tubing-related injuries, compared to water skiing-related injuries, were more likely to be severe (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.23-4. 33. Like wakeboarding and water skiing, tubing has inherent risks that must be understood by the participant. While tubing is generally considered a safer alternative to wakeboarding and water skiing, the results of the current study suggest otherwise. Both the number and severity of tubing- related injuries could be prevented through means such as advocating the use of protective wear such as helmets while riding a tube or having recommended safe towing speeds prominently placed on inner tubes

  20. A comparison of wakeboard-, water skiing-, and tubing-related injuries in the United States, 2000-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John I; Griffin, Russell; Brauneis, Paul F; Rue, Loring W; McGwin, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare tubing-related injuries to wakeboarding- and water skiing-related injuries. Data was collected from the 2000-2007 National Electronic Injury Surveillance Survey for 1,761 individuals seeking care at an emergency department due to a tubing-, wakeboarding, or water skiing-related injury. Data included patient age and sex, as well as injury characteristics including body region injured (i.e., head and neck, trunk, shoulder and upper extremity, and hip and lower extremity) and diagnosis of injury (e.g., contusion, laceration, or fracture). Case narratives were reviewed to ensure that a tubing-, wakeboarding-, or water skiing-related injury occurred while the individual was being towed behind a boat. Severe injury (defined as an injury resulting in the individual being hospitalized, transferred, held for observation) was compared among the groups using logistic regression. Wakeboard- and tubing-related injuries more commonly involved the head and neck, while water skiing- related injuries were likely to involve the hip and lower extremity. Tubing-related injuries, compared to water skiing-related injuries, were more likely to be severe (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.23-4. 33). Like wakeboarding and water skiing, tubing has inherent risks that must be understood by the participant. While tubing is generally considered a safer alternative to wakeboarding and water skiing, the results of the current study suggest otherwise. Both the number and severity of tubing- related injuries could be prevented through means such as advocating the use of protective wear such as helmets while riding a tube or having recommended safe towing speeds prominently placed on inner tubes. Key pointsIncrease annual injury rate trend in wakeboard injuries.Wakeboard- and tubing-related injuries more often to head and neck, waterskiing-related injuries more often to hip and lower extremity.Tubing-related injuries over 2-times as likely to be severe compared to

  1. Technical snow production in skiing areas: conditions, practice, monitoring and modelling. A case study in Mayrhofen/Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Ulrich; Hanzer, Florian; Marke, Thomas; Rothleitner, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The production of technical snow today is a self-evident feature of modern alpine skiing resort management. Millions of Euros are invested every year for the technical infrastructure and its operation to produce a homogeneous and continuing snow cover on the skiing slopes for the winter season in almost every larger destination in the Alps. In Austria, skiing tourism is a significant factor of the national economic structure. We present the framing conditions of technical snow production in the mid-size skiing resort of Mayrhofen (Zillertal Alps/Austria, 136 km slopes, elevation range 630 - 2.500 m a.s.l.). Production conditions are defined by the availability of water, the planned date for the season opening, and the climatic conditions in the weeks before. By means of an adapted snow production strategy an attempt is made to ecologically and economically optimize the use of water and energy resources. Monitoring of the snow cover is supported by a network of low-cost sensors and mobile snow depth recordings. Finally, technical snow production is simulated with the spatially distributed, physically based hydroclimatological model AMUNDSEN. The model explicitly considers individual snow guns and distributes the produced snow along the slopes. The amount of simulated snow produced by each device is a function of its type, of actual wet-bulb temperature at the location, of ski area infrastructure (in terms of water supply and pumping capacity), and of snow demand.

  2. Opinions on SKB's Safety Assessments SR 97 and SFL 3-5. A Review by SKI Consultants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) has presented their safety assessment 'Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, SR 97 - Post-closure safety'. SKB's report is part of the documentation that has been required by the Government before the start of site investigations. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) is reviewing SR 97 according to earlier Government decisions. In its review work SKI has asked several consultants, that recently have been performing research work for SKI, to give their opinions on SR 97. SKI and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) have used these reports from the consultants as one complementary basis for the formulation of the SKI/SSI review report. This is a compilation of the reports from the different consultants, and therefore the different contributions vary in length, style and language. Included are also two consultant reports, giving comments on SKB's preliminary safety assessment for SFL 3-5 (deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste). The 17 contributions have all been separately indexed.

  3. CAN A SMALL WINTER RESORT BE MANAGED AND MARKETED LIKE A LARGE ONE: A CASE OF BULGARIAN SKI RESORT BANSKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Shabanski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world today there are about 80 countries which practice various winter sports. Regardless of the wide geographical range demand in terms of existing infrastructure is highly concentrated in a few regions of the world. To be competitive ski resorts have to deliver good experiences and excellent value to tourists. Current community officials and destination managers of the Bulgarian ski resort of Bansko believe that the main weakness of this ski centre is the extensive waiting at the bottom gondola station and advocates expansion of the ski runs and lift capacity. The aim of the article is to research the strengths and weaknesses of the resort in regional and world context and to prove that further expansion will not forge a strong emotional connection with visitors and thus will not bring success in destination markets. The methodology used in this article follows three steps: 1 Literature review on the nature of the ski market in the world, as well as factors contributing to effective destination management; 2 International, national and regional data analysis of existing secondary data on winter sports market and 3 Qualitative study carried out with a purposive sample of key informants. The SWOT analysis based on the results of the qualitative study show that touristic shareholders in Bansko should apply an appropriate strategy for small winter resorts by offering a unique product that speaks to the world instead of trying to promote universal broad product for the mass market.

  4. Opinions on SKB's Safety Assessments SR 97 and SFL 3-5. A Review by SKI Consultants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) has presented their safety assessment 'Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, SR 97 - Post-closure safety'. SKB's report is part of the documentation that has been required by the Government before the start of site investigations. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) is reviewing SR 97 according to earlier Government decisions. In its review work SKI has asked several consultants, that recently have been performing research work for SKI, to give their opinions on SR 97. SKI and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) have used these reports from the consultants as one complementary basis for the formulation of the SKI/SSI review report. This is a compilation of the reports from the different consultants, and therefore the different contributions vary in length, style and language. Included are also two consultant reports, giving comments on SKB's preliminary safety assessment for SFL 3-5 (deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste). The 17 contributions have all been separately indexed.

  5. Opinions on SKB's Safety Assessments SR 97 and SFL 3-5. A Review by SKI Consultants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) has presented their safety assessment 'Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, SR 97 - Post-closure safety'. SKB's report is part of the documentation that has been required by the Government before the start of site investigations. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) is reviewing SR 97 according to earlier Government decisions. In its review work SKI has asked several consultants, that recently have been performing research work for SKI, to give their opinions on SR 97. SKI and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) have used these reports from the consultants as one complementary basis for the formulation of the SKI/SSI review report. This is a compilation of the reports from the different consultants, and therefore the different contributions vary in length, style and language. Included are also two consultant reports, giving comments on SKB's preliminary safety assessment for SFL 3-5 (deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste). The 17 contributions have all been separately indexed

  6. How Do World-Class Nordic Combined Athletes Differ From Specialized Cross-Country Skiers and Ski Jumpers in Sport-Specific Capacity and Training Characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Rasdal, Vegard; Bråten, Steinar; Moen, Frode; Ettema, Gertjan

    2016-10-01

    To compare sport-specific laboratory capacities and the annual training of world-class Nordic combined (NC) athletes with specialized ski jumpers (SJ) and cross-country (XC) skiers. Five world-class athletes from each sports discipline were compared. Ski jump imitations were performed on a 3-dimensional force plate in NC athletes and SJ, whereas XC skiing characteristics were obtained from submaximal and maximal roller ski skating on a treadmill in NC athletes and XC skiers. In addition, anthropometrics and annual training characteristics were determined. NC athletes demonstrated 9% higher body mass and showed 17% lower vertical speed in the ski jump imitation than SJ (all P ski-jumping-specific sessions and outdoor ski jumps compared with SJ. NC athletes performed 31% less endurance training, mainly caused by lower amounts of low- and moderate-intensity training in the classical technique, whereas high-intensity strength and speed training and endurance training in the skating technique did not differ substantially from XC skiers. To simultaneously optimize endurance, explosive, and technical capacities in 2 different disciplines, world-class NC athletes train approximately two-thirds of the XC skier's endurance training volume and perform one-half of the ski-jump-specific training compared with SJ. Still, the various laboratory capacities differed only 10-17% compared with SJ and XC skiers.

  7. Determinants of ski-jump performance and implications for health, safety and fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Wolfram

    2009-01-01

    Ski jumping puts high demands on the athlete's ability to control posture and movement. The athlete has to solve extremely difficult optimization problems. These implicit decisions and the resulting control manoeuvres can be understood by means of computer simulations. Computer simulations based on wind tunnel input data can identify the determinants for high performance and answer many questions of training methods, safety and health, role of weight, fairness, optimized hill design, sport development, and changes to the regulations. Each of the performance determinants has to be seen in the context of all others in order to understand its importance; the predominant factors are: high in-run velocity, high momentum perpendicular to the ramp at take-off due to the jump and the lift force, accurate timing of the take-off with respect to the ramp edge, appropriate angular momentum at take-off in order to obtain an aerodynamically advantageous and stable flight position as soon as possible, choice of advantageous body and equipment configurations during the entire flight in order to obtain optimum lift and drag values, and the ability to control the flight stability. Wind blowing up the hill increases the jump length dramatically and decreases the landing velocity, which eases the landing, and vice versa for wind from behind. Improvements to reduce unfairness due to changing wind are urgently needed. The current practice of the judges to reduce the score when the athlete has to perform body movements in order to counteract dangerous gusts is irrational. The athletes should rather be rewarded and not punished for their ability to handle such dangerous situations. For the quantification of underweight it is suggested to use the mass index: MI=0.28 m/s2 (where m is the jumper mass and s is the sitting height), which indirectly considers the individual leg length. The MI formula is similar to the body mass index (BMI) formula: the height is replaced by the sitting height s

  8. Effect of posture on the aerodynamic characteristics during take-off in ski jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keizo; Tsubokura, Makoto; Ikeda, Jun; Onishi, Keiji; Baleriola, Sophie

    2016-11-07

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of posture of a ski jumper on aerodynamic characteristics during the take-off using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD method adopted for this study was based on Large-Eddy Simulation. Body surface data were obtained by 3-D laser scanning of an active ski jumper. Based on video analysis of the actual take-off movement, two sets of motion data were generated (world-class jumper A and less-experienced jumper B). The inlet flow velocity that corresponds to the in-run velocity in actual ski jumping was set to 23.23m/s in the CFD. The aerodynamic force, flow velocity, and vortexes for each model were compared between models. The total drag force acting upon jumper A was lower than that acting upon jumper B through the whole movement. Regarding the total lift force, although jumper A׳s total lift force was less in the in-run posture, it became greater than that of jumper B at the end of the movement. In the latter half of the movement, low air-speed domain expansion was observed at the model׳s back. This domain of jumper B was larger. There were two symmetric vortexes in the wake of jumper A, but the disordered vortexes were observed behind the jumper B. In the case of jumper A, these two distinct vortexes generated by the arms produced a downwash flow in the wake. It is considered that the positioning of the arms in a very low position strongly influences the flow structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the anaerobic ability of alpine skiing skiers through the slalom simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilios Giovanis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the research was the evaluation of efficiency of anaerobic ability (power, anaerobic endurance, anaerobic fatigue and the restitution of the pulse rate of alpine skiing students through the slalom simulator. In addition, the aim of the research was the correlation of the special tests of alpine skiing on dry ground (octagon test and in snow (triangle test and slalom test with the target of determining ability levels. Methods: The 20 people sample was composed by two teams of male and female who took the course for advanced (n = 7 aged 23±1.40 years and for beginners course (n = 13 aged 20±1.49 years. For the evaluation process two special tests were used, on the ground and in snow. The ground test was completed in the slalom simulator for 40 seconds. The second ground test was the octagon bouncing (40cm each side x 3. The snow test was the Haczkiewicz test (triangle test and the slalom (7 gates, where the time of a try was measured. Results: The best efficiency in anaerobic power was made by the advanced males and females, while in the anaerobic endurance by the beginners males and females. The best performance in the dexterity tests in snow on the triangle and slalom test was made by the advanced males and beginners females respectively. Conclusions: The significant correlation between the results of anaerobic performance in the slalom simulator and the triangle test in snow confirms the means of diagnosing skill and fitness on dry ground and snow respectively. There is a significant correlation between snow test results and there is no correlation with the octagon test. The aforementioned results can be used in the talent selection process of alpine skiing.

  10. Expert - Non-expert differences in visual behaviour during alpine slalom skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroix, Marjolein; Wazir, Mohd Rozilee Wazir Norjali; Zeuwts, Linus; Deconinck, Frederik F J A; Lenoir, Matthieu; Vansteenkiste, Pieter

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate visual behaviour of expert and non-expert ski athletes during an alpine slalom. Fourteen non-experts and five expert slalom skiers completed an alpine slalom course in an indoor ski slope while wearing a head-mounted eye tracking device. Experts completed the slalom clearly faster than non-experts, but no significant difference was found in timing and position of the turn initiation. Although both groups already looked at future obstacles approximately 0,5s before passing the upcoming pole, the higher speed of experts implied that they shifted gaze spatially earlier in the bend than non-experts. Furthermore, experts focussed more on the second next pole while non-expert slalom skiers looked more to the snow surface immediately in front of their body. No difference was found in the fixation frequency, average fixation duration, and quiet eye duration between both groups. These results suggest that experts focus on the timing of their actions while non-experts still need to pay attention to the execution of these actions. These results also might suggest that ski trainers should instruct non-experts and experts to focus on the next pole and, shift their gaze to the second next pole shortly before reaching it. Based on the current study it seems unadvisable to instruct slalom skiers to look several poles ahead during the actual slalom. However, future research should test if these results still hold on a real outdoor slope, including multiple vertical gates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Swedish skiers knowledge, experience and attitudes towards off-piste skiing and avalanches

    OpenAIRE

    Mårtensson, Stefan; Wikberg, Per-Olov; Palmgren, Petter

    2013-01-01

    The winter of 2012/2013 was the most accident-prone season in the Swedish avalanche history with a total of seven dead Swedes. In April 2013 the Swedish Mountain Safety Council initiated a web-based survey aimed towards Swedish skiers. The aim was to identify the target group's knowledge, experience and attitudes towards off-piste skiing and avalanches. Respondents were asked to answer a total of 28 questions. 1047 Swedish off-piste skiers answered, and we analysed them in more detail. The Sw...

  12. SKI's engagement in the process for siting a spent nuclear fuel repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeivioe Jonsson, Josefin; Westerlind, Magnus [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    In Sweden, issues concerning the disposal of nuclear waste historically required co-operation among primarily two main actors: The nuclear industry and the state. Municipalities involved in SKB's feasibility studies objected to the fact that they lacked resources to keep the people in the municipality informed about the ongoing work. As a result the Parliament decided that municipalities involved in SKB's siting process should receive money from the nuclear waste fund for their engagement. Since 2005 resources also have been made available for NGO's participating in SKB's ongoing EIA-process. In total they can yearly receive up to 2.5 million Swedish kronor. The fact that new actors continuously have been engaged in disposal of spent nuclear fuel has meant that 'old' actors, particularly SKB, the regulators (the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI) have had to evaluate, develop and clarify their roles and strategies for dialogue and regulatory oversight. This paper presents the effects the increased engagement has had on SKI's regulatory activities. Looking back it is possible to identify two well-defined break points in SKI's views on communication and active participation in the siting process. The first was the so-called DIALOGUE-project, which was initiated by SKI in the early 1990s. In this research project there were participants from e.g. SKI and SSI, municipalities and environmental organisations. The two most important conclusions for SKI were firstly that regulators can and should participate already in the early stages of a siting process, and that this can be done without loosing credibility as an independent reviewer of a licence application and secondly that actors (in the siting process) with conflicting interests and views can reach agreement on the basis for decisions. The second break point occurred in the mid 1990s when SKB announced that the

  13. Isolated Rupture of the Teres Major Muscle When Water Skiing: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Cousin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated lesions to the teres major muscle are rare. They generally occur in patients participating in sports such as baseball, tennis, or boxing. We report the case of a sports patient who suffered an isolated injury to the teres major while water skiing. The clinical presentation was confirmed by MRI. Conservative treatment was chosen and consisted of brief analgesic immobilization, followed by rehabilitative treatment. The rapid recovery of this patient with normal isokinetic strength evaluation at 6 months was interesting for objectifying full muscle recovery. Our results and the data from the literature suggest that functional rather than surgical treatment is preferable in isolated lesions to the teres major muscle.

  14. Individuality as expression of human emancipation. Reflection on the conception of Jan Szczepański

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Leszniewski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper raises the issue of “the individual factor” in the sociological reflection on social reality. Referring to Jan Szczepański's concept of individuality it analyzes the problem of human nature and the inner world as a source of resistance to the negative consequences of collective mechanisms. The paper presents the thesis that individuality is the culmination of the process of human development. However, in the context of socio-cultural category of individuality, it is an attempt to transcend the current data and the tension between individual- ism and collectivism. Human Individuality is a potential criticism regarding the public order and social change.

  15. Progressivity of Basic Elements of the Slovenian National Alpine Ski School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Lešnik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Progressivity of Basic Elements of the Slovenian National Alpine Ski School Ski school programmes in different countries are adapted to the local conditions and skiing trends. The aim of the study was to establish the progressivity of the three basic elements of the Slovenian ski school in terms of the duration of individual turns and their phases. Eight participants were recorded as they performed three basic elements of the Slovenian national ski school: wedge curves – E1, turns with a wedge push-off – E2 and basic swinging – E3. According to the ski school, the elements were divided into phases. The results of the computer-aided video analysis showed that in the beginning types of skiing in the same conditions on the same length of terrain, the average durations of turns and the times of comparable initiation and steering phases of the elements shortened on the methodical upward scale (from E1 to E3. The number of turns executed on the same length of terrain from E1 to E3 increased. A larger step in motor task complexity was indicated when a pole plant was included in skiing elements. Further, relatively large differences were observed in time durations among subjects executing the same elements. In conclusion, it can be assessed that the basic elements of the ski school are placed gradually in terms of progressivity in time durations. Progresivita základních elementů slovinské národní školy alpského lyžování Programy lyžařských škol v různých zemích jsou přizpůsobeny místním podmínkám a lyžařským trendům. Cílem této studie bylo stanovit progresivitu tří základních prvků slovinské lyžařské školy, pokud jde o dobu trvání jednotlivých zatočení a jejich fází. U osmi účastníků bylo zaznamenáno, jak provádějí tři základní prvky ze slovinské národní lyžařské školy: E1 – oblouk z pluhu; E2 – oblouk z přívratu vyšší lyží E3 – paralelní oblouk. Podle lyžařské

  16. The evaluation of the tourist capacity in the Roztoczański National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeczko Emilia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the methodological assumptions and the results of the assessment of the capacities of Roztoczański Park Narodowy (RPN. Evaluation was a result of the capacity of hiking trails and educational paths and capacity of the surface of recreational facilities located in the RPN. Measure of capacity assessment of recreational trails was their length, average speed of movement the user, the nature of tourism (individual tourists and groups and living life paths. Results of the research can serve as a basis for identifying principles of tourism and recreational use of RPN.

  17. Zero-temperature entropy of fully frustrated generalized Sierpiński gaskets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. Y.; Hui, P. M.; Yu, K. W.

    1993-01-01

    The Ising model with antiferromagnetic couplings on a family of generalized Sierpiński gaskets is studied using an exact technique developed recently by Stinchcombe [Phys. Rev. B 41 (1990) 2510]. A general expression of the zero-temperature entropy per spin, SAFMb(0), is given for general b, where b is a rescaling factor characterizing the fractals. Exact expressions for SAFMb (0) are derived for the cases b = 2,3,4,5,6. These expressions are evaluated numerically and results are compared to those obtained previously by numerical iterations of renormalization-group equations. The asymptotic behavior of SAFMb(0) in the limit of large b is discussed.

  18. Plantar pressure and EMG activity of simulated and actual ski jumping take-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmavirta, M; Komi, P V

    2001-10-01

    Plantar pressures and activation of the four muscles (VL - vastus lateralis, GL - gluteus, TA - tibialis anterior and GA - lat. gastrocnemius) were measured from ten ski jumpers under simulated laboratory conditions with training shoes (Lab TS) and with jumping boots (Lab JB) as well as in actual hill jumping conditions (Hill). The most significant differences between measured conditions were found in muscle activation patterns and plantar pressures prior to take-off. The centrifugal force due to the curvature of the inrun under actual hill jumping conditions caused extra pressure under the fore and rear parts of the feet (Pknee and hip extensor muscles.

  19. Uwarunkowania sektorowe i perspektywy rozwoju firmy "Litwiński - Transport - Sprzęt - Budownictwo"

    OpenAIRE

    Pociecha, Bernadeta

    2013-01-01

    Streszczenie Analiza otoczenia konkurencyjnego, w którym działa przedsiębiorstwo, dostarcza wielu istotnych informacji o zmieniających się warunkach jego funkcjonowania. Do opracowania adekwatnych koncepcji, podejść i narzędzi zarządzania wykorzystywane są podstawowe etapy procesu zarządzania strategicznego, czyli: analiza strategiczna, projektowanie strategii i jej realizacja. W części empirycznej pracy przeprowadzono, za pomocą metody SWOT, analizę firmy "Litwiński- Tra...

  20. Customer Journey and Experience in The FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Pelttari, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    This report covers a research of a Customer Journey and Customer Experience in the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2017. The key aim of this research is to do a research for the event and analyse their customer journey and customer experience. In that way aim is also to help event organizers with de-veloping events in the future. Specific service points and service touch points along the customer journey are analysed in this research. Commissioner of this research is the FIS Nordic Wo...

  1. Mechanism of Folding and Activation of Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/Site-1 Protease (S1P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Palma, Joel Ramos; Cendron, Laura; Seidah, Nabil Georges; Pasquato, Antonella; Kunz, Stefan

    2016-01-29

    The proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/site-1 protease (S1P) is implicated in lipid homeostasis, the unfolded protein response, and lysosome biogenesis. The protease is further hijacked by highly pathogenic emerging viruses for the processing of their envelope glycoproteins. Zymogen activation of SKI-1/S1P requires removal of an N-terminal prodomain, by a multistep process, generating the mature enzyme. Here, we uncover a modular structure of the human SKI-1/S1P prodomain and define its function in folding and activation. We provide evidence that the N-terminal AB fragment of the prodomain represents an autonomous structural and functional unit that is necessary and sufficient for folding and partial activation. In contrast, the C-terminal BC fragment lacks a defined structure but is crucial for autoprocessing and full catalytic activity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequence of the AB domain is highly conserved, whereas the BC fragment shows considerable variation and seems even absent in some species. Notably, SKI-1/S1P of arthropods, like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, contains a shorter prodomain comprised of full-length AB and truncated BC regions. Swapping the prodomain fragments between fly and human resulted in a fully mature and active SKI-1/S1P chimera. Our study suggests that primordial SKI-1/S1P likely contained a simpler prodomain consisting of the highly conserved AB fragment that represents an independent folding unit. The BC region appears as a later evolutionary acquisition, possibly allowing more subtle fine-tuning of the maturation process. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Mechanism of Folding and Activation of Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/Site-1 Protease (S1P)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Palma, Joel Ramos; Cendron, Laura; Seidah, Nabil Georges; Pasquato, Antonella; Kunz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/site-1 protease (S1P) is implicated in lipid homeostasis, the unfolded protein response, and lysosome biogenesis. The protease is further hijacked by highly pathogenic emerging viruses for the processing of their envelope glycoproteins. Zymogen activation of SKI-1/S1P requires removal of an N-terminal prodomain, by a multistep process, generating the mature enzyme. Here, we uncover a modular structure of the human SKI-1/S1P prodomain and define its function in folding and activation. We provide evidence that the N-terminal AB fragment of the prodomain represents an autonomous structural and functional unit that is necessary and sufficient for folding and partial activation. In contrast, the C-terminal BC fragment lacks a defined structure but is crucial for autoprocessing and full catalytic activity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequence of the AB domain is highly conserved, whereas the BC fragment shows considerable variation and seems even absent in some species. Notably, SKI-1/S1P of arthropods, like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, contains a shorter prodomain comprised of full-length AB and truncated BC regions. Swapping the prodomain fragments between fly and human resulted in a fully mature and active SKI-1/S1P chimera. Our study suggests that primordial SKI-1/S1P likely contained a simpler prodomain consisting of the highly conserved AB fragment that represents an independent folding unit. The BC region appears as a later evolutionary acquisition, possibly allowing more subtle fine-tuning of the maturation process. PMID:26645686

  3. Straight into the Eyes - Jacek Łumiński and the Silesian Dance Theatre (1991-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Iwańska

    2012-01-01

    The final decade of the 20th century was the turning-point for the development of Polish contemporary dance. In 1991 Jacek Łumiński established the Silesian Dance Theatre in Bytom. The theatre is said to be in the avant-garde of all activities related to contemporary dance development in Poland. It was J. Łumiński and his theatre who pioneered new trends in contemporary dance at the beginning of the nineties of the 20th century, at the same time they have conducted educational activity over t...

  4. PROSNOW - Provision of a prediction system allowing for management and optimization of snow in Alpine ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Samuel; Ghislain, Dubois

    2017-04-01

    Snow on the ground is a critical resource for mountain regions to sustain river flow, to provide freshwater input to ecosystems and to support winter tourism, in particular in ski resorts. The level of activity, employment, turnover and profit of hundreds of ski resorts in the European Alps primarily depends on meteorological conditions, in particular natural snowfall but also increasingly conditions favourable for snowmaking (production of machine made snow, also referred to as technical snow). Ski resorts highly depend on appropriate conditions for snowmaking (mainly the availability of cold water, as well as sub-freezing temperature with sufficiently low humidity conditions). However, beyond the time scale of weather forecasts (a few days), managers of ski resorts have to rely on various and scattered sources of information, hampering their ability to cope with highly variable meteorological conditions. Improved anticipation capabilities at all time scales, spanning from "weather forecast" (up to 5 days typically) to "climate prediction" at the seasonal scale (up to several months) holds significant potential to increase the resilience of socio-economic stakeholders and supports their real-time adaptation potential. To address this issue, the recently funded (2017-2020) H2020 PROSNOW project will build a demonstrator of a meteorological and climate prediction and snow management system from one week to several months ahead, specifically tailored to the needs of the ski industry. PROSNOW will apply state-of-the-art knowledge relevant to the predictability of atmospheric and snow conditions, and investigate and document the added value of such services. The project proposes an Alpine-wide system (including ski resorts located in France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria and Italy). It will join and link providers of weather forecasts and climate predictions at the seasonal scale, research institutions specializing in snowpack modelling, a relevant ensemble of at least

  5. On-line measurement of ski-jumper trajectory: combining stereo vision and shape description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunner, T.; Sidla, O.; Paar, G.; Nauschnegg, B.

    2010-01-01

    Ski jumping has continuously raised major public interest since the early 70s of the last century, mainly in Europe and Japan. The sport undergoes high-level analysis and development, among others, based on biodynamic measurements during the take-off and flight phase of the jumper. We report on a vision-based solution for such measurements that provides a full 3D trajectory of unique points on the jumper's shape. During the jump synchronized stereo images are taken by a calibrated camera system in video rate. Using methods stemming from video surveillance, the jumper is detected and localized in the individual stereo images, and learning-based deformable shape analysis identifies the jumper's silhouette. The 3D reconstruction of the trajectory takes place on standard stereo forward intersection of distinct shape points, such as helmet top or heel. In the reported study, the measurements are being verified by an independent GPS measurement mounted on top of the Jumper's helmet, synchronized to the timing of camera exposures. Preliminary estimations report an accuracy of +/-20 cm in 30 Hz imaging frequency within 40m trajectory. The system is ready for fully-automatic on-line application on ski-jumping sites that allow stereo camera views with an approximate base-distance ratio of 1:3 within the entire area of investigation.

  6. A power function profile of a ski jumping in-run hill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanevskyy, Ihor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to find a function of the curvilinear segment profile which could make possible to avoid an instantaneous increasing of a curvature and to replace a circle arc segment on the in-run of a ski jump without any correction of the angles of inclination and the length of the straight-line segments. The methods of analytical geometry and trigonometry were used to calculate an optimal in-run hill profile. There were two fundamental conditions of the model: smooth borders between a curvilinear segment and straight-line segments of an in-run hill and concave of the curvilinear segment. Within the framework of this model, the problem has been solved with a reasonable precision. Four functions of a curvilinear segment profile of the in-run hill were investigated: circle arc, inclined quadratic parabola, inclined cubic parabola, and power function. The application of a power function to the in-run profile satisfies equal conditions for replacing a circle arc segment. Geometrical parameters of 38 modern ski jumps were investigated using the methods proposed.

  7. Heart rate profiles and energy cost of locomotion during cross-country skiing races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mognoni, P; Rossi, G; Gastaldelli, F; Canclini, A; Cotelli, F

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare heart rate responses and speed in two cross-country skiing races, which were run by seven male and seven female subjects by using classic and free style. Heart rates and skiing velocities were analyzed over flat, uphill and downhill sections, which were run from one to three times. Heart rates were higher in uphill sections than in flat sections; a steady-state heart rate was never reached in the downhill section. When the same uphill section was repeated, the heart rate tended to increase but the speed to decrease. Oxygen uptake (VO2) was calculated from heart rate:VO2 ratio, measured during uphill walking with the aid of poles. The mean (SD) energy cost of locomotion (i.e., the ratio between net VO2 and speed) was 162.1 (9.4) ml.km(-1).kg(-1) and 147.7 (7.1) ml.km(-1).kg(-1) when male subjects ran the flat section after first downhill by using classic and free style, respectively. Females had lower values for VO2 and speed, but similar energy costs. In general, the variability of the energy cost of locomotion in skiers of a similar competitive level is of the same order as that found in uphill walking on a treadmill.

  8. Effective long term adaptation and metabolic state regulation of ski-racers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Bakhareva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to scientifically substantiate effective mechanisms of organism’s bio-chemical adaptation of ski-racers in competition period with the help of lipid peroxidation indicators, oxidative modification of proteins and activity of hypothalamus pituitary adrenocortical system. Material: in the research 14 sportsmen of 18-25 years’ age (combined team of university with different level of sportsmanship participated. Assessment of free radical oxidation, anti-oxidant system, cortisol level was fulfilled with the help of indicators’ quantitative analysis by bio-chemical methods applied to blood serum samples. Results: it was found that in the basis of bio-chemical changes under intensive physical loads is increase of catabolic processes’ speed. Change of organism’s metabolic orientation of ski racers at optimal level results in working muscles’ energy supply improvement, increase of energy systems’ power and sports efficiency. Conclusions: Application of interval trainings at stages of preparation to special significant competitions results in expected adaptation and increase of sports efficiency. We also showed their effective role in ensuring long term reactions, conditioning high sports efficiency.

  9. Individual flight styles in ski jumping: results obtained during Olympic Games competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmölzer, B; Müller, W

    2005-05-01

    From the physics point of view, the jump length in ski jumping depends on: the in-run velocity v(0), the velocity perpendicular to the ramp v(p0) due to the athlete's jumping force, the lift and drag forces acting during take-off and during the flight, and the weight of the athlete and his equipment. The aerodynamic forces are a function of the flight position and of the equipment features. They are a predominant performance factor and can largely be influenced by the athlete. The field study conducted during the Olympic Games competitions 2002 at Park City (elevation: 2000 m) showed an impressive ability of the Olympic medallists to reproduce their flight style and remarkable differences between different athletes have been found. The aerodynamic forces are proportional to the air density. Elite athletes are able to adapt their flight style to thin air conditions in order to maximise jump length and to keep the flight stable. The effects of flight position variations on the performance have been analysed by means of a computer model which is based on the equations of motion and on wind tunnel data corresponding to the flight positions found in the field. Athletes have to solve extremely difficult optimisation problems within fractions of a second. The computer simulation can be used as a reliable starting point for the improvement of training methods and gives an insight into the "implicit" knowledge of physics that the ski jumping athlete must have available for a good performance.

  10. Jumping for recognition: Women's ski jumping viewed as a struggle for rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, W; Loland, S

    2017-03-01

    With the campaign for women's participation in international and Olympic ski jumping as a practical case, sport's potential for recognition of individual rights is explored. In line with Honneth's influential ethical theory, recognition of rights refers to a mutual recognition between persons of each other as rational and responsible agents with an equal right to take part in the public formation and development of their community or practice. The argument is that women ski jumpers were entitled to compete as they had actual and/or potential capabilities and skills to contribute in the public formation and development of their sport. Their exclusion was a violation of individual rights. At a more general level, sport is discussed as a sphere for recognition of rights. It is argued that the basic principles of equal opportunity to take part and to perform make sport a particularly clear and potent sphere for such recognition, and also for the identification of rights violations. In sport, rights, or the violation of rights, are demonstrated in concrete and embodied ways. It is concluded that struggles for recognition and individual rights are a continuous process in sport as in most other human institutions and practices. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A non-foodborne norovirus outbreak among school children during a skiing holiday, Austria, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hung-Wei; Schmid, Daniela; Schwarz, Karin; Pichler, Anna-Margaretha; Klein, Heidelinde; König, Christoph; de Martin, Alfred; Allerberger, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Norovirus is increasingly recognized as a leading cause of outbreaks of foodborne disease. We report on an outbreak in Austria that reached a total of 176 cases, affecting pupils and teachers from four schools on a skiing holiday in a youth hostel in the province of Salzburg in December 2007. A questionnaire was sent to the four schools in order to obtain data from persons attending the school trip on disease status, clinical onset, duration of illness and hospitalization. A cohort study was undertaken to identify the sources of infection. The school trip attendees were interviewed by questionnaire or face-to-face on their exposure to food items from the menu provided by the hostel owner. Of the 284 school holiday-makers, 176 fitted the definition of an outbreak case (attack rate 61.9%). A total of 264 persons on the ski holiday participated in the cohort study (response rate 93%). The day-by-day food-specific analyses did not find any food items served on any of five days (December 8-12) of the holiday to be associated with infection risk. The day-specific risk analyses revealed Monday December 10 (RR: 9.04; 95% CI: 6.02-13.6; P Tourism is one of the primary industries in Austria. Timely involvement of the relevant public health authorities is essential in any outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis, irrespective of its genesis.

  12. Snowmaking in ski resorts: spatial decision support for management of snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubier, Jean-Christophe; Kanevski, Mikhail; Doctor, Marut; Schumacher, Michael; Timonin, Vadim

    2010-05-01

    Since the early 2000s, the question of snowmaking that ensures activity in ski areas is controversial, because solutions to face climate change and sustainable development seem to be opposed to the economical needs of winter tourism. Actually, according to the Advisory Body on Climate Change (OCCC), we can expect an average rise of the limit of 0 degrees to 360 m in 2050. The application of the rule of 100 days (30 cm of snow for 100 days) shows that 1 ° increase in temperature reduced by 20% the number of viable skiing areas. Snowmaking seems thus to be a solution for continuing an optimal economical usage of the ski resorts. The usage of machine-made snow raises environmental issues which can no longer be denied. [Badre et al.2009] However, these issues should not be disconnected from local economic specificities of the high mountain valleys, where the ski economy is critical. This paper presents a study at the economic-environmental interface. The aim is to develop a tool for managing the production of artificial snow, with the goal to: • Reduce production costs and improve profit margins of companies operating ski areas; • Reduce environmental impacts by an optimized snow production "just in time". In this way, water and energy needs will be reduced. The problem of managing the snow is a highly complex problem: it cannot be solved analytically. Indeed, changes in height of snow are subject to intakes of snow (natural or manufactured) associated with changing weather conditions and the impact of skiers. Therefore, the work presented in this paper has chosen a probabilistic approach in a simulation using neural networks to predict and to manage snow height. We do this in two points: • We measure snowpack heights with radars mounted on grooming machines; • We produce a snow cover prediction in relation with weather prediction using a neuron network. This neural approach thus deals with the spatial prediction of snow cover [Kanevski et al., 2009] The

  13. Realizing User-Relevant Conceptual Model for the Ski Jump Venue of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teakles, Andrew; Mo, Ruping; Dierking, Carl F.; Emond, Chris; Smith, Trevor; McLennan, Neil; Joe, Paul I.

    2014-01-01

    As was the case for most other Olympic competitions, providing weather guidance for the ski jump and Nordic combined events involved its own set of unique challenges. The extent of these challenges was brought to light before the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics during a series of outflow wind events in the 2008/2009 winter season. The interactions with the race officials during the difficult race conditions brought on by the outflows provided a new perspective on the service delivery requirements for the upcoming Olympic Games. In particular, the turbulent nature of the winds and its impact on the ski jump practice events that season highlighted the need of race officials for nowcasting advice at very short time scales (from 2 min to 1 h) and forecast products tailored to their decision-making process. These realizations resulted in last minute modifications to the monitoring strategy leading up to the Olympic Games and required forecasters' conceptual models for flow within the Callaghan Valley to be downscaled further to reflect the evolution of turbulence at the ski jump site. The SNOW-V10 (Science of Nowcasting Olympic Weather for Vancouver 2010) team provided support for these efforts by supplying diagnostic case analyses of important events using numerical weather data and by enhancing the real-time monitoring capabilities at the ski jump venue.

  14. Cardiorespiratory endurance evaluation using heart rate analysis during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Roh, Hyo Lyun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Efficient management using exercise programs with various benefits should be provided by educational institutions for children in their growth phase. We analyzed the heart rates of children during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test to evaluate the cardiopulmonary endurance by calculating their post-exercise recovery rate. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects (n = 77) were categorized into a normal weight and an overweight/obesity group by body mass index. They performed each exercise for 3 minutes. The cardiorespiratory endurance was calculated using the Physical Efficiency Index formula. [Results] The ski simulator and Harvard step test showed that there was a significant difference in the heart rates of the 2 body mass index-based groups at each minute. The normal weight and the ski-simulator group had higher Physical Efficiency Index levels. [Conclusion] This study showed that a simulator exercise can produce a cumulative load even when performed at low intensity, and can be effectively utilized as exercise equipment since it resulted in higher Physical Efficiency Index levels than the Harvard step test. If schools can increase sport durability by stimulating students' interests, the ski simulator exercise can be used in programs designed to improve and strengthen students' physical fitness.

  15. 78 FR 60816 - Proposed Directive for Additional Seasonal or Year-Round Recreation Activities at Ski Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... land management plan. Since SAROEA provides that snow sports must remain paramount at ski areas on NFS... Winter Sports Program Manager, 707-562-8842. Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf...., Eastern Daylight Time, Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 1. Background and Need for the...

  16. The role of incline, performance level, and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency of roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Oyvind; Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Ettema, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    The ability to efficiently utilize metabolic energy to produce work is a key factor for endurance performance. The present study investigated the effects of incline, performance level, and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency during roller ski skating. Thirty-one male and nineteen female elite cross-country skiers performed a 5-min submaximal session at approximately 75% of VO2peak on a 5% inclined treadmill using the G3 skating technique. Thereafter, a 5-min session on a 12% incline using the G2 skating technique was performed at a similar work rate. Gross efficiency was calculated as the external work rate against rolling friction and gravity divided by the metabolic rate using gas exchange. Performance level was determined by the amount of skating FIS points [the Federation of International Skiing (FIS) approved scoring system for ski racing] where fewer points indicate a higher performance level. Strong significant correlations between work rate and metabolic rate within both inclines and gender were revealed (r = -0.89 to 0.98 and P gender differences being apparent. Significant correlations between gross efficiency and performance level were found for both inclines and genders (r = -0.65 to 0.81 and P genders used less metabolic energy to perform the same amount of work at steeper inclines, and that the better ranked elite male and female skiers skied more efficiently.

  17. Tibial Fractures in Alpine Skiing and Snowboarding in Finland: A Retrospective Study on Fracture Types and Injury Mechanisms in 363 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenroos, A; Pakarinen, H; Jalkanen, J; Mälkiä, T; Handolin, L

    2016-09-01

    Alpine skiing and snowboarding share the hazards of accidents accounting for tibial fractures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture patterns and mechanisms of injury of tibial fractures taking place in downhill skiing and snowboarding. All patients with tibial fracture due to alpine skiing or snowboarding accident treated in four trauma centers next to the largest ski resorts in Finland were analyzed between 2006 and 2012. The hospital records were retrospectively reviewed for data collection: equipment used (skis or snowboard), age, gender, and mechanism of injury. Fractures were classified according to AO-classification. There were 342 skiing and 30 snowboarding related tibial fractures in 363 patients. Tibial shaft fracture was the most common fracture among skiers (n = 215, 63%), followed by proximal tibial fractures (n = 92, 27%). Snowboarders were most likely to suffer from proximal tibial fracture (13, 43%) or tibial shaft fracture (11, 37%). Snowboarders were also more likely than skiers to suffer complex AO type C fractures (23% vs 9%, p jumping (46%). The most important finding was the relatively high number of the tibial plateau fractures among adult skiers. The fracture patterns between snowboarding and skiing were different; the most common fracture type in skiers was spiral tibial shaft fracture compared to proximal tibial fractures in snowboarders. Children had more simple fractures than adults. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2016.

  18. Stages of Geoinformation Evolution Related to the Territories Described in the Bible - from the 3Rd Millennium B.C. to Modern Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsenbarth, Adam

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents consecutive stages of the evolution of geoinformation related to the territories of the events described in the Bible. Two geoinformation sources are presented: the Bible and non-Bible sources. In the Bible there is much, often some highly detailed information regarding terrain topography. The oldest non-Bible sources are incorporated in the ancient documents, which were discovered in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Some of them are related to the 3rd millen- nium B.C. The further stages are related to the onomasticons and itineraries written by travellers and pilgrims to the Holy Land. The most famous onomasticons include: onomasticons prepared by bishop Eusebius from Caesarea and those pre- pared by St. Jerome. One of the oldest maps of Palestine's territory is the so-called mosaic map of Madaba dated to 565. In the 15th century several Bible maps were edited. The most rapid evolution occurred in the 16th and 17* centuries, when the world famous cartographers such as Mercator and Ortelius edited several maps of Palestine's territory. Cartographers from several European countries edited more than 6,000 maps presenting the Biblical territories and Biblical events. Modem maps, based on detailed topographical surveys, were edited m the second half of the 19* and 20th centuries. W artykule przedstawiono kolejne etapy rozwoju geoinformacji dotyczącej terenówr biblijnych. Omówiono dwa źródła informacji, a mianowicie geoinformacje biblijne i pozabiblijne. W tekstach biblijnych można znaleźć wiele, często bardzo detalicznych informacji topograficznych. Najstarsze źródła pozabiblijne, to starożytne dokumenty odnalezione na terenach Egiptu i Mezopotamii. Niektóre z nich pochodzą z trzeciego milenium przed Chr. Kolejnym etapem geoinformacji były onomastikony oraz dzienniki podróży pisane przez podróżników i pielgrzymów do Ziemi Świętej. Do najbardziej znanych należy onomastikon sporządzony przez biskupa Euzebiusza z Cezarei oraz

  19. The effect of swinging the arms on muscle activation and production of leg force during ski skating at different skiing speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göpfert, Caroline; Lindinger, Stefan J; Ohtonen, Olli; Rapp, Walter; Müller, Erich; Linnamo, Vesa

    2016-06-01

    The study investigated the effects of arm swing during leg push-off in V2-alternate/G4 skating on neuromuscular activation and force production by the leg muscles. Nine skilled cross-country skiers performed V2-alternate skating without poles at moderate, high, and maximal speeds, both with free (SWING) and restricted arm swing (NOSWING). Maximal speed was 5% greater in SWING (P<0.01), while neuromuscular activation and produced forces did not differ between techniques. At both moderate and high speed the maximal (2% and 5%, respectively) and average (both 5%) vertical force and associated impulse (10% and 14%) were greater with SWING (all P<0.05). At high speed range of motion and angular velocity of knee flexion were 24% greater with SWING (both P<0.05), while average EMG of m. biceps femoris was 31% lower (all P<0.05) in SWING. In a similar manner, the average EMG of m. vastus medialis and m. biceps femoris were lower (17% and 32%, P<0.05) during the following knee extension. Thus, swinging the arms while performing V2-alternate can enhance both maximal speed and skiing economy at moderate and, in particularly, high speeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Satellite Based Education and Training in Remote Sensing and Geo-Information AN E-Learning Approach to Meet the Growing Demands in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Gupta, P. K.

    2012-07-01

    One of the prime activities of Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO) Space Program is providing satellite communication services, viz., television broadcasting, mobile communication, cyclone disaster warning and rescue operations etc. so as to improve their economic conditions, disseminate technical / scientific knowledge to improve the agriculture production and education for rural people of India. ISRO, along with National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) conducted experimental satellite communication project i.e. Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) using NASA's Advanced Telecommunication Satellite (i.e. ATS 6) with an objective to educate poor people of India via satellite broadcasting in 1975 and 1976, covering more than 2600 villages in six states of India and territories. Over the years India built communication satellites indigenously to meet the communication requirements of India. This has further lead to launch of an exclusive satellite from ISRO for educational purposes i.e. EDUSAT in 2004 through which rich audio-video content is transmitted / received, recreating virtual classes through interactivity. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS) established in 1966, a premier institute in south East Asia in disseminating Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS), mainly focusing on contact based programs. But expanded the scope with satellite based Distance Learning Programs for Universities, utilizing the dedicated communication satellite i.e. EDUSAT in 2007. IIRS conducted successfully eight Distance Learning Programs in the last five years and training more than 6000 students mainly at postgraduate level from more than 60 universities /Institutions spread across India. IIRS obtained feedback and improved the programs on the continuous basis. Expanded the scope of IIRS outreach program to train user departments tailor made in any of the applications of Remote Sensing and Geoinformation, capacity

  1. Analysis of Settlement Expansion and Urban Growth Modelling Using Geoinformation for Assessing Potential Impacts of Urbanization on Climate in Abuja City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ibrahim Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of settlement expansion in Abuja, Nigeria, one of West Africa’s fastest developing cities, using geoinformation and ancillary datasets. Three epochs of Land-use Land-cover (LULC maps for 1986, 2001 and 2014 were derived from Landsat images using support vector machines (SVM. Accuracy assessment (AA of the LULC maps based on the pixel count resulted in overall accuracy of 82%, 92% and 92%, while the AA derived from the error adjusted area (EAA method stood at 69%, 91% and 91% for 1986, 2001 and 2014, respectively. Two major techniques for detecting changes in the LULC epochs involved the use of binary maps as well as a post-classification comparison approach. Quantitative spatiotemporal analysis was conducted to detect LULC changes with specific focus on the settlement development pattern of Abuja, the federal capital city (FCC of Nigeria. Logical transitions to the urban category were modelled for predicting future scenarios for the year 2050 using the embedded land change modeler (LCM in the IDRISI package. Based on the EAA, the result showed that urban areas increased by more than 11% between 1986 and 2001. In contrast, this value rose to 17% between 2001 and 2014. The LCM model projected LULC changes that showed a growing trend in settlement expansion, which might take over allotted spaces for green areas and agricultural land if stringent development policies and enforcement measures are not implemented. In conclusion, integrating geospatial technologies with ancillary datasets offered improved understanding of how urbanization processes such as increased imperviousness of such a magnitude could influence the urban microclimate through the alteration of natural land surface temperature. Urban expansion could also lead to increased surface runoff as well as changes in drainage geography leading to urban floods.

  2. Intra-articular temperatures of the knee in sports – An in-vivo study of jogging and alpine skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerulli Guiliano

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to date, no information exists about the intra-articular temperature changes of the knee related to activity and ambient temperature. Methods In 6 healthy males, a probe for intra-articular measurement was inserted into the notch of the right knee. Each subject was jogging on a treadmill in a closed room at 19°C room temperature and skiing in a ski resort at -3°C outside temperature for 60 minutes. In both conditions, temperatures were measured every fifteen minutes intra-articulary and at the skin surface of the knee. A possible influence on joint function and laxity was evaluated before and after activity. Statistical analysis of intra-articular and skin temperatures was done using nonparametric Wilcoxon's sign rank sum test and Mann-Whitney's-U-Test. Results Median intra-articular temperatures increased from 31.4°C before activity by 2.1°C, 4°C, 5.8°C and 6.1°C after 15, 30, 45 and 60 min of jogging (all p ≤ 0.05. Median intra-articular temperatures dropped from 32.2°C before activity by 0.5°C, 1.9°C, 3.6°C and 1.1°C after 15, 30, 45 and 60 min of skiing (all n.s.. After 60 minutes of skiing (jogging, the median intra-articular temperature was 19.6% (8.7% higher than the skin surface temperature at the knee. Joint function and laxity appeared not to be different before and after activity within both groups. Conclusion This study demonstrates different changes of intra-articular and skin temperatures during sports in jogging and alpine skiing and suggests that changes are related to activity and ambient temperature.

  3. Demand-supply dynamics in tourism systems: A spatio-temporal GIS analysis. The Alberta ski industry case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzon, Stefania

    The present research focuses on the interaction of supply and demand of down-hill ski tourism in the province of Alberta. The main hypothesis is that the demand for skiing depends on the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the population living in the province and outside it. A second, consequent hypothesis is that the development of ski resorts (supply) is a response to the demand for skiing. From the latter derives the hypothesis of a dynamic interaction between supply (ski resorts) and demand (skiers). Such interaction occurs in space, within a range determined by physical distance and the means available to overcome it. The above hypotheses implicitly define interactions that take place in space and evolve over time. The hypotheses are tested by temporal, spatial, and spatio-temporal regression models, using the best available data and the latest commercially available software. The main purpose of this research is to explore analytical techniques to model spatial, temporal, and spatio-temporal dynamics in the context of regional science. The completion of the present research has produced more significant contributions than was originally expected. Many of the unexpected contributions resulted from theoretical and applied needs arising from the application of spatial regression models. Spatial regression models are a new and largely under-applied technique. The models are fairly complex and a considerable amount of preparatory work is needed, prior to their specification and estimation. Most of this work is specific to the field of application. The originality of the solutions devised is increased by the lack of applications in the field of tourism. The scarcity of applications in other fields adds to their value for other applications. The estimation of spatio-temporal models has been only partially attained in the present research. This apparent limitation is due to the novelty and complexity of the analytical methods applied. This opens new

  4. creation of unificed geoinformation system for monitoring social and economic developments of departamento quindio (colombia) on the basis of the isolated data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buravlev, V.; Sereshnikov, S. V.; Mayorov, A. A.; Vila, J. J.

    At each level of the state and municipal management the information resources which provide the support of acceptance of administrative decisions, usually are performed as a number of polytypic, untied among themselves electronic data sources, such as databases, geoinformation projects, electronic archives of documents, etc. These sources are located in the various organizations, they function in various programs, and are actualized according to various rules. Creation on the basis of such isolated sources of the uniform information systems which provide an opportunity to look through and analyze any information stored in these sources in real time mode, will help to promote an increase in a degree of adequacy of accepted administrative decisions. The Distributed Data Service technology - TrisoftDDS, developed by company Trisoft, Ltd, provides the construction of horizontal territorially distributed heterogeneous information systems (TeRGIS). Technology TrisoftDDS allows the quickly creation and support, easy modification of systems, the data sources for which are already existing information complexes, without any working capacity infringements of the last ones, and provides the remote regulated multi-user access to the different types of data sources by the Internet/Intranet. Relational databases, GIS projects, files of various types (documents MS Office, images, html documents, etc.) can be used as data sources in TeRGIS. TeRGIS is created as Internet/Intranet application representing three-level client-server system. Access to the information in existing data sources is carried out by means of the distributed DDS data service, the nucleus of which is the distributed data service server - the DSServer, settling down on an intermediate level. TrisoftDDS Technology includes the following components: Client DSBrowser (Data Service Browser) - the client application connected through the Internet/intranet to the DSServer and provides both - a choice and viewing of

  5. Water demand for ski resort development in the Austrian Alps: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiling, M.; Sokratov, S.

    2012-04-01

    Austria has the highest national added value from winter tourism in Europe, as well as worldwide. 15.7 million arrivals were counted in Austrian accommodation establishments in the 2010/11 winter season. There were more than 62 million overnight stays and 51.2 million skier-days were consumed. 588 million transports were carried out by more than 3000 lifts (cable cars, chair lifts and T-bars). Including indirect and induced effects, this resulted in more than 10 billion euros in added value being generated. The lack of snow in many Austrian skiing areas during the 2006/2007 winter season demonstrated the extent to which meteorological conditions influence operations. Declines in the number of skiers transported and total skier days were the result. The cable-car operators also had to struggle with little snow in the 2010/2011 winter. The Austrian Cable Car Operators' Association stated that the opening of 70-80% of all skiing areas outside of the peak season could only be assured through the use of snowmaking equipment. The central criterion for winter sports enthusiasts to make a trip is the guarantee that they will find snow at their destination and Austria's cable-car operators invest more than 100 million euros in the erection and improvement of snowmaking complexes every year to satisfy this deand. In the 2010/2011 season, this provided for 17,800 jobs. Cable car operators set up snowmaking equipment to become independent from meteorological conditions and improve the capacity utilisation of their expensive investments in transport systems in the early winter. Austria has a skiing area of around 25,400 hectares - around 17,000 hectares at altitudes between 600m and 3200m are currently suitable for snowmaking. As much as 70% of the snow is produced immediately before the start of the season. This recent trend is responsible that the irrigation pattern of Austrian land use changed significantly in the last decade. Previously maize fields and low lands in summer

  6. [Skiing and snowboarding trauma in children: epidemiology, physiopathology, prevention and main injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohin, B; Kohler, R

    2008-11-01

    Skiing and snowboarding are leading to a risk of injuries in children. Beginners and experienced have higher risk of injuries, however, the first have less severe injuries than the latest. Risk factors of injury are: ability and experience, binding adjustment, slope characteristics, speed, collisions with objects or jumping and risky behavior of the young skiers and snowboarders. Lower limb injuries are most common in skier, especially knee sprains, conversely snowboarders present more upper limb injuries, especially wrist fractures. The frequency of head injuries does not decrease while helmet use increases but severity decreases. Despite prevention and wearing protections, the frequency of trauma does not decrease significantly, which could be in relation with higher speed and increased risky behavior. Main prevention factors are safety knowledge and safety behavior, correct binding adjustment, and use of protections.

  7. Głowiński: identity in prose (from the beginning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kuczyńska-Koschany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to reach the first statements and texts by Michał Głowiński, relating to Jewish identity in Poland, the condition of a child of the Holocaust, the trauma of a Holocaust survivor, and the situation of an intelectual. The author of the article tries to demonstrate continuity of all creative gestures, from the frist writings and statements, signed with pseudonyms, through Czarne sezony [The Black Seasons] and their continuations, to the autobiographical Kręgi obcości [Circles of strangeness]; the continuity is seen in the perspective of identity. The author is also interested, in the given subject scope, in Głowiński’s spatial obsessions (especially claustrophobia and phantasmagoria. The stake of literary “self-therapy” is in the most crucial things: truth of oneself, memory, self-identification.

  8. Virtual reality balance training for elderly: Similar skiing games elicit different challenges in balance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Aijse W; Faber, Gert; Jonkers, Ilse; Van Dieen, Jaap H; Verschueren, Sabine M P

    2018-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) balance training may have advantages over regular exercise training in older adults. However, results so far are conflicting potentially due to the lack of challenge imposed by the movements in those games. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess to which extent two similar skiing games challenge balance, as reflected in center of mass (COM) movements relative to their Functional Limits of Stability (FLOS). Thirty young and elderly participants performed two skiing games, one on the Wii Balance board (Wiiski), which uses a force plate, and one with the Kinect sensor (Kinski), which performs motion tracking. During gameplay, kinematics were captured using seven opto-electronical cameras. FLOS were obtained for eight directions. The influence of games and trials on COM displacement in each of the eight directions, and maximal COM speed, were tested with Generalized Estimated Equations. In all directions with anterior and medio-lateral, but not with a posterior component, subjects showed significantly larger maximal %FLOS displacements during the Kinski game than during the Wiiski game. Furthermore, maximal COM displacement, and COM speed in Kinski remained similar or increased over trials, whereas for Wiiski it decreased. Our results show the importance of assessing the movement challenge in games used for balance training. Similar games impose different challenges, with the control sensors and their gain settings playing an important role. Furthermore, adaptations led to a decrease in challenge in Wiiski, which might limit the effectiveness of the game as a balance-training tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Landing Gear Stroke and Load Predictions for the AV-8B Aircraft and Three Ski Jump Ramp Profiles for the Italian Carrier Andrea Doria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imhof, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    .... The effort was funded through a 90-day contract to use the NAVAIR AV-8B simulation to assess the landing gear stroke and load characteristics of the AV-8B aircraft with three potential ski jump...

  10. 15th June 2009-His Excellency Mr Lech Kaczyński,President of the Republic of Poland,visiting CMS Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    Tirage 1;16-17:First Lady,H.E. M. KACZYŃSKA,President of the Republic of Poland,H.E. L. KACZYŃSKI with Technology Department,Machine Protection & Electrical Integrity Group Leader,A.Siemko Tirage 2;10:CMS Collaboration Spokesperson,T. Virdee with H.E. M. KACZYŃSKA,H.E. L. KACZYŃSKI and Coordinator for External Relations,F. Pauss visiting CMS experimental area Tirage 3:Representative of the French Republic,Sous-Préfet de Gex,Mr O. Laurens-Bernard and H.E. L. KACZYŃSKI Tirage 6 to 9:Signature of the Guest book with the Director-General,R. Heuer Tirage 11-12:the delegation visiting CMS experimental area Tirage 18-26:H.E. L. KACZYŃSKI with Polish scientists at CERN

  11. HEART RATE, MOOD STATES, AND RATING OF PERCEIVED EXERTION AMONG ELDERLY SUBJECTS DURING 3.5 HOURS OF RECREATIONAL ALPINE SKIING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Krautgasser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A decline in physiological functioning and mental wellbeing is common with advancing age. However, these changes may vary among elderly individuals. Physical activity and the response of the elderly to exercise during recreational activities, i.e., recreational alpine skiing, may serve as a catalyst for the improvement of wellbeing and general health. Purpose: The aim of the study was to assess the heart rate (HR response modulations in a group of elderly recreational alpine skiers during 3.5h of skiing. In addition, each group's perceived responses of mood state (MS and rating of perceived exertion (RPE were collected to determine possible contributions to changes in wellbeing as a result of recreational skiing. Methods: Forty-nine healthy elderly participants (mean age: 63±6 yrs, weight: 75.4+13.1 kg, height: 170.5+9.1 cm, BMI: 26+3.2 with at least basic alpine skiing ability participated in a 3.5h ski test. GPS data (GPS Garmin Forerunner 301 were used to monitor altitude and HR and were recorded continuously during the 3.5h of skiing. During skiing, participants were asked at three different times to report RPE and MS. Results: The time spent on the lift during the 3.5h skiing ranged from 21-58% followed by recovery breaks of 17-53% and time spent in downhill skiing ranged from 12-40%. Participants completed 9-23 downhill runs in 3.5h. Average intensities during 3.5 h downhill runs for over 80% of the group were between 50-80% of maximal heart rate (HRmax (220-age. Peak heart rate (HRpeak values during downhill runs for 35% of the group were between 60-70% of HRmax. Statistical analysis revealed numerous significant differences between RPE and MS values for the three different sampling times. The MS in general remained positive and even increased in the categories of happiness and sociability despite an increase in fatigue. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the duration and intensity of skiing was appropriate and yielded

  12. THE ACCOUNTING OF A FACTOR OF TRANSBOUNDARY CLUSTERING DYNAMICS OF ECONOMIC AND RESIDENTIAL SYSTEMS OF COASTAL ZONES OF RUSSIA: GEOINFORMATION ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Druzhinin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Both thalasso-attractiveness of the whole Russia and its poly-scale inversions (existing at macro- and meso-levels have been pointed out. Their causes have been shown (including the conjugation with economic clustering and the development of cross-border and transnational ties. On the basis of geoinformation approach the inventory and typology of cross-border clusters in the coastal zones of European Russia has been implemented; the factors and prospects for their formation, functioning and development are analyzed and theoretically considered. Based on the synthesis of instrumental approaches implemented in the study (including the socio-economic zoning and economic (eco-economic structuring of the World’s oceans, the full-scale delimitation and typology of the coastal zone have been made (for all coastal regions of the European part of Russia, taking into account its regional socio-economic and residential specifics, geo-economic and geopolitical context, as well as the extent and nature of cross-border economic and socio-cultural relations. The prototype of the cartographic model of the settlement systems’ evolution in the coastal zone of the European part of Russia has been proposed (including its indicators and principles of scale. Based on it, as well as on the generated database (containing detailed demographic and socio-economic information for 14 regions and 94 “seaside” municipalities, the schematic map of the localization and dynamics of the seaside settlement is developed for the Baltic (Saint Petersburg, Leningrad Region, Kaliningrad Region and the Black Sea coast (Crimea. Analytical matrix of the settlement system has been submitted with the application of cluster and network structures and key infrastructure components. The model has allowed us to assess the projection of structural, technological, market-cyclical and geopolitical factors on the dynamics of settlement in coastal zones (with the emphasis on the dynamics of

  13. SATELLITE BASED EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN REMOTE SENSING AND GEO-INFORMATION: AN E-LEARNING APPROACH TO MEET THE GROWING DEMANDS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. N. Raju

    2012-07-01

    Geoinformation, capacity building for ISRO’s operational projects / new satellite missions, developing e-learning contents and launching e-learning courses under twelfth five year (i.e. 2012–17 plan period of Government of India, in addition to continuing of existing distance learning programs for universities.

  14. Using Real-time Event Tracking Sensitivity Analysis to Overcome Sensor Measurement Uncertainties of Geo-Information Management in Drilling Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, S.; Poslad, S.; Fruhwirth, R.; Winter, M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper introduces an application of a novel EventTracker platform for instantaneous Sensitivity Analysis (SA) of large scale real-time geo-information. Earth disaster management systems demand high quality information to aid a quick and timely response to their evolving environments. The idea behind the proposed EventTracker platform is the assumption that modern information management systems are able to capture data in real-time and have the technological flexibility to adjust their services to work with specific sources of data/information. However, to assure this adaptation in real time, the online data should be collected, interpreted, and translated into corrective actions in a concise and timely manner. This can hardly be handled by existing sensitivity analysis methods because they rely on historical data and lazy processing algorithms. In event-driven systems, the effect of system inputs on its state is of value, as events could cause this state to change. This 'event triggering' situation underpins the logic of the proposed approach. Event tracking sensitivity analysis method describes the system variables and states as a collection of events. The higher the occurrence of an input variable during the trigger of event, the greater its potential impact will be on the final analysis of the system state. Experiments were designed to compare the proposed event tracking sensitivity analysis with existing Entropy-based sensitivity analysis methods. The results have shown a 10% improvement in a computational efficiency with no compromise for accuracy. It has also shown that the computational time to perform the sensitivity analysis is 0.5% of the time required compared to using the Entropy-based method. The proposed method has been applied to real world data in the context of preventing emerging crises at drilling rigs. One of the major purposes of such rigs is to drill boreholes to explore oil or gas reservoirs with the final scope of recovering the content

  15. Estimation of Cs-137 hillslope patterns of Polesje landscapes using geo-information modeling techniques (on example of the Bryansk region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Nenko, Kristina; Sokolov, Alexander; Saveliev, Anatoly

    2015-04-01

    In the result of Chernobyl disaster on 26 April 1986 many regions of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia were contaminated by radionuclides. Vast areas of farmlands and woodlands were contaminated in Russia. The deposited radionuclides continue to cause concern about the possible contamination of food (in particular, mushrooms and berries). But the radioactive materials are also an ideal marker for understanding of hillslope processes in natural and seminatural landscapes. Model area chosen for the research (Opolje landscapes located in the central part of the Bryansk region) is characterized by relatively low levels of Cs-137 contamination. It just 4-33 times higher than global fallout which was equal 1,75 kBq/m2 in 1986 . According the results of air gamma survey (grid size: 100 m x100 m), which was done in 1993, it was explicitly to identify that the processes of Cs-137 lateral migration took place due to nearly fourfold increase of Cs-137 in the lower slope in comparison with the surface of the watershed during a seven-year period after Chernobyl accident. Erosion processes which define Cs-137 pattern in the lowest part of hillslope depend upon such parameters as slope, hillslope forms, vegetation, land use and the roads, which intersect a streamline. GIS-modeling of Cs-137 was carried out in SAGA software. The spatial modeling resolution was equal 100x100 m according the air-gamma data. SRTM data was resampled to a grid 100x100 m. Erosion rates were the highest on the slope of southern exposure. There the processes of lateral migration are more intensive and observed within the entire slope. The main contribution in receipt of Cs-137 to floodplain on the northern slopes comes only from the lower part of the slope and gullies and ravines network. We have used geo-information modeling techniques and some kind of interpolation and statistical models to predict or understand forming of Cs-137 spatial patterns and trends in soil erosion. To study the role of some

  16. SKI's and SSI's experiences from their participation in the siting of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerlind, M.; Hedberg, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarises some experiences gained by the SKI and SSI during the ongoing process for siting a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The focus is on activities in the municipalities involved in the siting process. In order to give the proper context some basic elements in the legislation, which are important for public participation and confidence in the siting process, are outlined. The importance of clearly defined responsibilities and early participation of the regulators in the siting process are emphasised. It should be pointed out that this paper is not a comprehensive review of the Swedish situation but only contains a few selected issues and personal remarks from the authors. Thus, the views and opinions do not necessarily coincide with those of SKI and SSI. (authors)

  17. SKI Project-90. Geosphere calculations using CRYSTAL: Stand-alone and CALIBRE-CRYSTAL-biosphere integrated results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worgan, K.; Shaw, W.

    1992-02-01

    In Project-90, the far-field transport of nuclides is assumed to take place in a 200 m long section of rock mass, which starts at the outer boundary of the near-field and ends in a fracture zone. The nuclides are eventually discharged to the biosphere. This document provides an overview of the results obtained with the far-field model CRYSTAL developed by Intera Environmental Division for the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). It reports on the results of a series of calculation that have been performed within the SKIs Project-90, and provides some indication of the key parameters for the far field. A more thorough discussion of the implications for performance assessment is given in the Project-90 reports. (au)

  18. Biomechanical characteristics and speed adaptation during kick double poling on roller skis in elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göpfert, Caroline; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Stöggl, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Lindinger, Stefan Josef

    2013-06-01

    Recent developments in cross-country ski racing should promote the use of kick double poling. This technique, however, has not been the focus in athletes' training and has barely been investigated. The aims of the present study were to develop a function-based phase definition and to analyse speed adaptation mechanisms for kick double poling in elite cross-country skiers. Joint kinematics and pole/plantar forces were recorded in 10 athletes while performing kick double poling at three submaximal roller skiing speeds. A speed increase was associated with increases in cycle length and rate, while absolute poling and leg push-off durations shortened. Despite maintained impulses of force, the peak and average pole/leg forces increased. During double poling and leg push-off, ranges of motion of elbow flexion and extension increased (p push-off showed high variability among elite skiers, thus illustrating important aspects for technique training.

  19. Features of construction of the training process skiers aged 17-18 years to compete in different styles of skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sidorova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the improvement of precompetitive preparation of skiers, taking into account the need to participate in competitions of different styles of skiing. The experiment included 20 athletes aged 17-18 years. Isolated model characteristics of athletes who successfully perform classic and skating style of movement. The range of indicators of physical fitness of athletes, which is the norm for this level of qualification. The technique of constructing precompetitive preparation of athletes on the basis of a combination of style of movement. It was established experimentally that the combination of training sessions during the day improves athletic performance in racing classic and skating style. In this case, primary and secondary occupation to carry out a different style of skiing with a change of their rotation on the next day.

  20. Prediction of performance in Vasaloppet through long lasting ski- ergometer and rollerski tests in cross-country skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Erik; Wulff, Kristian; Jensen, Mads Rosenkilde

    2015-01-01

    -ergometer and Rollerski field tests correlate strongly with performance in Vasaloppet and therefore might be useful test tools for recreational skiers who wish to participate in long lasting c-c competitions. Keywords: Cross-country ski training, Upper body, Exercise intensity, Field test, Body composition blood lactate......The main purpose was to investigate if long lasting cross-country (c-c) test procedures could predict performance time in ‘Vasaloppet’ and secondly the effect of a 16 weeks training period on a 90 min double poling performance test. 24 moderate trained c-c skiers participated in the study...... and completed Vasaloppet. All skiers carried out pre and post training tests in a 90 minutes ski-ergometer double poling test and a 120 minutes rollerski field test on a closed paved circuit. 19 skiers provided detailed training logs that could sufficiently establish their training preparation for Vasaloppet...

  1. Performance changes during a weeklong high-altitude alpine ski-racing training camp in lowlander young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydren, Jay R; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; Hooper, David R; Denegar, Craig R; Maresh, Carl M

    2013-04-01

    Thousands of youth athletes travel to high altitude to participate in lift-access alpine sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of acute high-altitude exposure on balance, choice reaction time, power, quickness, flexibility, strength endurance, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in youth lowlander athletes during a weeklong preseason training camp in Summit County, CO, USA. Eleven youth ski racers (4 boys and 7 girls; age, 13.7 ± 0.5 years; height, 157.2 ± 12.6 cm; weight, 52.4 ± 6.8 kg) with 7.7 ± 2.2 skiing years of experience participated in baseline testing at 160 m one week before the camp and a set of daily tests in the morning and afternoon at 2,828 m and skied between 3,328 and 3,802 m during a 6-day camp. Balance and choice reaction time tests were stagnant or improved slightly during the first 3 days and then improved on days 4 and 6. Vertical jump, flexibility, T-agility test, and push-ups in 1 minute improved on day 6. The number of sit-ups in 1 minute did not improve, and scores on the multistage fitness test decreased 20.34%. There was no effect of Lake Louise acute mountain sickness (AMS) questionnaire scores on performance variables measured. Athletes sojourning to high altitude for ski camps can train on immediate ascent but should slowly increase training volume over the first 3 days. Athletes should expect improvements in balance and reaction time 3-6 days into acclimatization. Coaches and athletes should expect about 20% of youth lowlander athletes to have signs and symptoms of AMS during the first 3 days of altitude exposure for alpine lift access sports at altitudes of up to 3,800 m.

  2. Cyanophytes on limestone rocks in the Szopczański Gorge (Pieniny Mountains – their ecomorphology and ultrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is devoted to the ecomorphology and ultrastructure of cyanophytes on limestone rocks collected in the Szopczański Gorge (Pieniny Mountains during the years 2006-2008. There were selected cyanophyte species for examination such as following: Nostoc microscopicum, Phormidium favosum, Leptolyngbya foveolarum, Tolypothrix distorta var. penicillatum, Pseudanabaena catenata. The ultrastructural analysis (TEM confirmed that the structure and placement of the thylakoids is genus/species specific.

  3. Decline of Low-Frequency Hearing in People With Ski-Slope Hearing Loss; Implications for Electrode Array Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurbiers, Jasper; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Metselaar, Mick

    2017-12-01

    The decline of low-frequency hearing in people with ski-slope hearing loss varies and might depend on etiology. People with ski-sloping hearing loss might benefit from cochlear implantation with preservation of residual hearing. To reduce the risk of losing low-frequency hearing after implantation, the electrode-array can be inserted partially up to the desired frequency. That, however, obstructs electrical stimulation of lower frequencies. To decide between complete or partial insertion, knowledge regarding the natural decline of low-frequency hearing is helpful. Patients with at least two ski-slope audiograms over time were selected. We calculated progression at lower frequencies for 320 patients. Etiologies for hearing loss were retrieved from medical records. Progression of hearing loss was analyzed separately for patients with uni- and bilateral hearing losses. Relative progression of hearing loss was obtained by comparing progression to a reference group. Average progression of PTA was 1.73 dB/yr and was not significantly different in the bilateral and unilateral group. Etiologies that did not show significantly more progression compared with the reference group could be identified as single or short-lasting pathologic events, whereas long-lasting conditions had significant more progression of PTA. Patients with a ski-slope hearing loss that was caused by a single or short-lasting event have low progression rate and are viable for partial insertion to minimize the risk of damaging residual low-frequency hearing. In the absence of such an event, complete insertion should be considered because faster than normal deterioration of low-frequency hearing over time will probably limit the advantage of preservation of residual hearing.

  4. The systemic roles of SKI and SSI in the Swedish nuclear waste management system. Syncho's report for project RISCOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo, R.; Gill, A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to share and summarize our findings about the regulatory roles of SKI/SSI in the context of the Swedish Nuclear System (SNS), with an emphasis on nuclear waste management. The driving force in this review is to make decision processes more transparent. What is reported is based on interviews conducted with employees at SKI/SSI/SKB during early December 1996, the presentation to SKI/SSI in January 1997, discussions during the Shap Wells meeting in Cumbria during March 1997 and RISCOM internal discussions. We offer two hypotheses about the way the Nuclear Waste Management System (NWMS) appears to work. We choose one and derive from it a view about structural issues in SNS and NWMS. The conclusion is a set of systemic roles for the regulators. It is the comparison between these systemic roles and the actual situation that may trigger some adjustments in the system. Our hope is that these findings will make apparent feasible and desirable changes in the system in order to increase the chances for transparent decisions in the Nuclear Waste Management System. In summary, Section 2 includes a general background of the NWMS based on interviews and general information. Section 3 makes a more focused attempt to work out the issues expressed by people in the interviews. Section 4 discusses at a more conceptual level systemic ideas such as the unfolding of complexity. Section 5 is an attempt to organize viewpoints about the NWMS and offers hypotheses to support a preliminary diagnosis of the system in Section 6. We call this section 'A problem of identity'. It is only in Section 7 that basic systemic arguments are unfolded with the intention of supporting an appreciation of SKI/SSI's regulatory roles in the nuclear industry as a whole and nuclear waste management in particular. Section 8 offers a summary of conclusions

  5. The role of incline, performance level, and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency of roller ski skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Ettema, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    The ability to efficiently utilize metabolic energy to produce work is a key factor for endurance performance. The present study investigated the effects of incline, performance level, and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency during roller ski skating. Thirty-one male and nineteen female elite cross-country skiers performed a 5-min submaximal session at approximately 75% of VO2peak on a 5% inclined treadmill using the G3 skating technique. Thereafter, a 5-min session on a 12% incline using the G2 skating technique was performed at a similar work rate. Gross efficiency was calculated as the external work rate against rolling friction and gravity divided by the metabolic rate using gas exchange. Performance level was determined by the amount of skating FIS points [the Federation of International Skiing (FIS) approved scoring system for ski racing] where fewer points indicate a higher performance level. Strong significant correlations between work rate and metabolic rate within both inclines and gender were revealed (r = −0.89 to 0.98 and P < 0.05 in all cases). Gross efficiency was higher at the steeper incline, both for men (17.1 ± 0.4 vs. 15.8 ± 0.5%, P < 0.05) and women (16.9 ± 0.5 vs. 15.7 ± 0.4%, P < 0.05), but without any gender differences being apparent. Significant correlations between gross efficiency and performance level were found for both inclines and genders (r = −0.65 to 0.81 and P < 0.05 in all cases). The current study demonstrated that cross-country skiers of both genders used less metabolic energy to perform the same amount of work at steeper inclines, and that the better ranked elite male and female skiers skied more efficiently. PMID:24155722

  6. Balance-related exercise as a preparation to cross-country skiing practice in visually impaired children

    OpenAIRE

    Chmelíčková, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Title: Balance-related excercise as a preparation to cross-country skiing practice in visually impaired children. Objectives of the Thesis: The goal of this thesis is to test the possibilitiy of implementation of selected balance- related excercise in visually impaired children. Method: The testing pool consisted of six pupils attending the Special school for Visually Impaired Children between 14 and 15 years of age. Over the period of ten weeks, selected exercise geared towards the cross-cou...

  7. The role of incline, performance level and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency of roller ski skating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind eSandbakk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to efficiently utilize metabolic energy to produce work is a key factor for endurance performance. The present study investigated the effects of incline, performance level and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency during roller ski skating. Thirty-one male and nineteen female elite cross-country skiers performed a 5-min submaximal session at approximately 75% of VO2peak on a 5% inclined treadmill using the G3 skating technique. Thereafter, a 5-min session on a 12% incline using the G2 skating technique was performed at a similar work rate. Gross efficiency was calculated as the external work rate against rolling friction and gravity divided by the metabolic rate using gas exchange. Performance level was determined by the amount of skating FIS points (the Federation of International Skiing approved scoring system for ski racing where fewer points indicate a higher performance level. Strong significant correlations between work rate and metabolic rate within both inclines and gender were revealed (r=-0.89-0.98 and P

  8. Straight into the Eyes - Jacek Łumiński and the Silesian Dance Theatre (1991-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Iwańska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The final decade of the 20th century was the turning-point for the development of Polish contemporary dance. In 1991 Jacek Łumiński established the Silesian Dance Theatre in Bytom. The theatre is said to be in the avant-garde of all activities related to contemporary dance development in Poland. It was J. Łumiński and his theatre who pioneered new trends in contemporary dance at the beginning of the nineties of the 20th century, at the same time they have conducted educational activity over the intervening twenty years. The aim of this article is to present the artistic and educational activity of the Silesian Dance Theatre of the recent twenty years. In the beginning the author presents a choreographic portrait of J. Łumiński, the founder and choreographer of the Silesian Dance Theatre, and creator of the Polish contemporary dance technique. Then an analysis of J. Łumiński’s dance style is carried out, and the review of the Silesian Dance Theatre’s choreographic attainments is presented. The final part of the article discusses the wide spectrum of educational activities undertaken in the field of contemporary professional dance by the Silesian Dance Theatre, and the phenomenon of the theatre on the Polish stage.

  9. Alpine Skiing With total knee ArthroPlasty (ASWAP): physical self-concept, pain, and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amesberger, G; Müller, E; Würth, S

    2015-08-01

    Physical self-concept in the elderly is assumed to be structured in terms of different domains and to contribute substantially to life satisfaction. However, little is known about the role of the physical self-concept in older persons that are engaged in physical activity while suffering from typical age-related impairments or chronic diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the structure of physical self-concept in a group of older persons with total knee arthroplasty (TKA), its development throughout a 12-week skiing intervention, and its importance to life satisfaction. Factor analyses of the present data reveal that the physical self-concept consists of four dimensions addressing strength, flexibility/coordination, endurance, and sportiness. One higher order factor extracted by hierarchical factor analyses reflects a global physical self-concept. The 12-week skiing intervention had no substantial impact in terms of an improvement of self-concept. Life satisfaction is best predicted by positive changes in the subjective ratings between pre- and post-test (i.e., global physical self-concept, flexibility and coordination, and perceived sportiness) and not by objective physical performance (isokinetic strength, endurance, or coordination). Results support the assumption that physical self-concept of older people with TKA is only marginally sensitive to a 12-week skiing intervention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Expert judgements in performance assessments. Report of an SKI/SSI seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Galson, D.A.; Hora, S.C.

    2000-09-01

    Expert judgements are an important element of all performance assessments and are made when alternative approaches to decision-making are not available or are not feasible. Decisions regarding the scope of a particular assessment or the type of modelling approach adopted must be made through judgements because there are no observations that can be made. Similarly, any assumptions concerning human activities in the far future are essentially speculative and must be based on expert judgement. Observations of spatial heterogeneity within a disposal system may, on the other hand, be theoretically possible but not be feasible because of excessive cost or because they would adversely affect the system they were intended to characterise. Because there is a wide range of judgements made within a performance assessment, there are several ways of making the judgements and of assessing how they have been made. Judgements may, for example, be made by individuals or by groups, and they may be formally elicited or made without formal elicitation. Dialogue with stake holders can be an important means of assessing judgements, as can peer review. Documentation is a key element throughout the process of making and reviewing judgements, and appropriate quality assurance procedures can also build confidence in judgements. In order to develop an understanding of the processes of making and assessing judgements, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) jointly sponsored a seminar entitled 'The Use of Expert Judgements in Performance Assessments'. The seminar was held in Norrtaelje, Sweden, on 17-19 January 2000. The seminar was organised by Galson Sciences Ltd (GSL) on behalf of SKI, and conducted jointly by GSL and Professor Steve Hora of the University of Hawaii. Participants at the seminar included SKI and SSI staff and independent experts. A key element of the seminar was an illustrative expert elicitation session, designed to

  11. Expert judgements in performance assessments. Report of an SKI/SSI seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Galson, D.A. [Galson Sciences Ltd, Oakham (United Kingdom); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    2000-09-01

    Expert judgements are an important element of all performance assessments and are made when alternative approaches to decision-making are not available or are not feasible. Decisions regarding the scope of a particular assessment or the type of modelling approach adopted must be made through judgements because there are no observations that can be made. Similarly, any assumptions concerning human activities in the far future are essentially speculative and must be based on expert judgement. Observations of spatial heterogeneity within a disposal system may, on the other hand, be theoretically possible but not be feasible because of excessive cost or because they would adversely affect the system they were intended to characterise. Because there is a wide range of judgements made within a performance assessment, there are several ways of making the judgements and of assessing how they have been made. Judgements may, for example, be made by individuals or by groups, and they may be formally elicited or made without formal elicitation. Dialogue with stake holders can be an important means of assessing judgements, as can peer review. Documentation is a key element throughout the process of making and reviewing judgements, and appropriate quality assurance procedures can also build confidence in judgements. In order to develop an understanding of the processes of making and assessing judgements, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) jointly sponsored a seminar entitled 'The Use of Expert Judgements in Performance Assessments'. The seminar was held in Norrtaelje, Sweden, on 17-19 January 2000. The seminar was organised by Galson Sciences Ltd (GSL) on behalf of SKI, and conducted jointly by GSL and Professor Steve Hora of the University of Hawaii. Participants at the seminar included SKI and SSI staff and independent experts. A key element of the seminar was an illustrative expert elicitation session

  12. Application of dGNSS in Alpine Ski Racing: Basis for Evaluating Physical Demands and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgien, Matthias; Kröll, Josef; Spörri, Jörg; Crivelli, Philip; Müller, Erich

    2018-01-01

    External forces, such as ground reaction force or air drag acting on athletes' bodies in sports, determine the sport-specific demands on athletes' physical fitness. In order to establish appropriate physical conditioning regimes, which adequately prepare athletes for the loads and physical demands occurring in their sports and help reduce the risk of injury, sport-and/or discipline-specific knowledge of the external forces is needed. However, due to methodological shortcomings in biomechanical research, data comprehensively describing the external forces that occur in alpine super-G (SG) and downhill (DH) are so far lacking. Therefore, this study applied new and accurate wearable sensor-based technology to determine the external forces acting on skiers during World Cup (WC) alpine skiing competitions in the disciplines of SG and DH and to compare these with those occurring in giant slalom (GS), for which previous research knowledge exists. External forces were determined using WC forerunners carrying a differential global navigation satellite system (dGNSS). Combining the dGNSS data with a digital terrain model of the snow surface and an air drag model, the magnitudes of ground reaction forces were computed. It was found that the applied methodology may not only be used to track physical demands and loads on athletes, but also to simultaneously investigate safety aspects, such as the effectiveness of speed control through increased air drag and ski–snow friction forces in the respective disciplines. Therefore, the component of the ground reaction force in the direction of travel (ski–snow friction) and air drag force were computed. This study showed that (1) the validity of high-end dGNSS systems allows meaningful investigations such as characterization of physical demands and effectiveness of safety measures in highly dynamic sports; (2) physical demands were substantially different between GS, SG, and DH; and (3) safety-related reduction of skiing speed might

  13. Application of dGNSS in Alpine Ski Racing: Basis for Evaluating Physical Demands and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Gilgien

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available External forces, such as ground reaction force or air drag acting on athletes' bodies in sports, determine the sport-specific demands on athletes' physical fitness. In order to establish appropriate physical conditioning regimes, which adequately prepare athletes for the loads and physical demands occurring in their sports and help reduce the risk of injury, sport-and/or discipline-specific knowledge of the external forces is needed. However, due to methodological shortcomings in biomechanical research, data comprehensively describing the external forces that occur in alpine super-G (SG and downhill (DH are so far lacking. Therefore, this study applied new and accurate wearable sensor-based technology to determine the external forces acting on skiers during World Cup (WC alpine skiing competitions in the disciplines of SG and DH and to compare these with those occurring in giant slalom (GS, for which previous research knowledge exists. External forces were determined using WC forerunners carrying a differential global navigation satellite system (dGNSS. Combining the dGNSS data with a digital terrain model of the snow surface and an air drag model, the magnitudes of ground reaction forces were computed. It was found that the applied methodology may not only be used to track physical demands and loads on athletes, but also to simultaneously investigate safety aspects, such as the effectiveness of speed control through increased air drag and ski–snow friction forces in the respective disciplines. Therefore, the component of the ground reaction force in the direction of travel (ski–snow friction and air drag force were computed. This study showed that (1 the validity of high-end dGNSS systems allows meaningful investigations such as characterization of physical demands and effectiveness of safety measures in highly dynamic sports; (2 physical demands were substantially different between GS, SG, and DH; and (3 safety-related reduction of skiing

  14. Alpine skiing: Effects of mental training program of junior representatives of the Czech republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Hřebíčková

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Qualitative evaluation case study deals with the implementation of mental skills training program conducted with the Czech national junior alpine skiing team over a period of an annual training cycle and evaluation of its effects by one of the members of the team. The concept of the study is based on current findings of sport psychology in the field of mental training in alpine skiing and other sports. The theoretical framework of the study is the socio-cognitive psychological paradigm (Bandura, 1986, 1997 and cognitive-behavioral approach. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the work is a qualitative evaluation of a program involving relaxation, concentration and imaginative techniques and goal setting by one of its participants. METHODS: Evaluation is carried out through semi-structured interview with the participant. The interview was analyzed in a scientific software Atlas.ti 6.2. The method of creating clusters were used for analysis. RESULTS: From the participants answers we understand the subjectively perceived benefit of the program based on understanding of the possibility of influencing the mental part of his performance. The racer presents that he learned the practical application of certain techniques of the mental preparation, particularly imagery and the mental plan of the race, which contributed to better coping with the race situation. The racer achieved the improvement in his FIS ranking standings in all the disciplines over the monitored season. Research findings are used in the proposal of practical recommendations for mental preparation in the training of top and performing skiers. CONCLUSION: An important factor in the success of the mental skills training program is cooperation of all interested participants, that are athlete, coach and psychologist. With applying the psychological techniques the key factors are mental support, encouragement, and development of confidence of the athlete in his own abilities. A well

  15. SKI's and SSI's review of SKB's safety report SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dverstorp, Bjoern; Stroemberg, Bo

    2008-03-01

    This report summarises SKI's and SSI's joint review of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's (SKB) safety report SR-Can (SKB TR-06-09). SR-Can is the first assessment of post-closure safety for a KBS-3 spent nuclear fuel repository at the candidate sites Forsmark and Laxemar, respectively. The analysis builds on data from the initial stage of SKB's surface-based site investigations and on data from full-scale manufacturing and testing of buffer and copper canisters. SR-Can can be regarded as a preliminary version of the safety report that will be required in connection with SKB's planned licence application for a final repository in late 2009. The main purpose of the authorities' review is to provide feedback to SKB on their safety reporting as part of the pre-licensing consultation process. However, SR-Can is not part of the formal licensing process. In support of the authorities' review three international peer review teams were set up to make independent reviews of SR-Can from three perspectives, namely integration of site data, representation of the engineered barriers and safety assessment methodology, respectively. Further, several external experts and consultants have been engaged to review detailed technical and scientific issues in SR-Can. The municipalities of Oesthammar and Oskarshamn where SKB is conducting site investigations, as well NGOs involved in SKB's programme, have been invited to provide their views on SR-Can as input to the authorities' review. Finally, the authorities themselves, and with the help of consultants, have used independent models to reproduce part of SKB's calculations and to make complementary calculations. All supporting review documents are published in SKI's and SSI's report series. The main findings of the review are: -SKB's safety assessment methodology is overall in accordance with applicable regulations, but part of the methodology needs to be further developed for the licence application. -SKB's quality

  16. Alpine skiing habitual practices as free time entertainment for the students of West University of Timişoara – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Sinitean-Singer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The students of the West University of Timişoara represent a numerous social category, thus quite significant, continuously in search of new ways to practice sports in their free time. The winter season brings to our attention a number of specific activities, most appealing, amongst which alpine skiing, too. The present paper aims at defining the students’ habits regarding the way they spend their spare time, mainly as practicing alpine skiing. This sports branch enhances its attractiveness by the very special environment it can be practiced – into the mountains, in the open air, which actually raises the students’ interest for this free time activity, mainly during the winter vacation or the vacation between semesters, when the number of students largely exceeds the number of those practicing ski during the week or in weekends. We must take into account the fact that they prefer mountain resorts in Romania, not being picky at all when it comes to meals and accommodation facilities, but very demanding about the quality of the ski slopes and the correspondent facilities. The window of time allocated for skiing activities, an average between 1-3 hours/day, illustrates the students’ interest in spending their spare time in an active way. The relatively high costs of this sports branch, mainly because of the expensive equipments but also because of the high costs of the activity itself- courses, utilities, etc.- haven’t kept the students away; they have been manifesting their availability to invest the necessary amounts of money in order to be able to practice this sport. An excellent promotion factor of the alpine skiing amongst students has been the Timisoara West University by organizing theme camps – like ski teaching, but also a number of activities related to such a camp.

  17. Spatial Analysis of the Effects of the Anomalous Winter of 2014/15 on 157 Ski Resorts Located in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahbahani, K. M.; Pidwirny, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The winter of 2014/2015 was one of the warmest in recent history for many locations in western North America. The cause of this climate irregularity was the development of extremely warm ocean surface waters (The Blob) over much of the eastern North Pacific Ocean. During this winter season, many ski resorts in western Canada and the United States either did not open or were forced to close their ski season early. Here, we examine climate data from 157 ski resorts to develop a picture of where the effected locations were in western North America. Using the climate database software ClimateBC and ClimateNA, high quality downscaled historical data was generated for the winter season (December, January, and February) for the variables mean temperature, snowfall, and rainfall. Values for winter of 2014/15 were statistically compared to the 30-year normal period from 1981-2010. Z-scores were calculated for 2014/15 relative to the selected 30-year normal period. These Z-score values were then mapped using ArcGIS. From the mean winter temperature map, it is apparent that abnormally warm temperatures influenced many ski resorts in California, Nevada, western Oregon, Washington, Arizona, Utah, southern Idaho, and parts of southern British Columbia. The winter snowfall map shows anomalous below normal conditions only at two resorts in south-central British Columbia and a single above normal situation at one site in central Colorado. The winter rainfall map displays that many ski resorts in New Mexico, Arizona, southern Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, western Washington, and southwestern British Columbia experienced exceptional above normal winter season rainfalls. It is highly likely that the next Blob will be forecasted many months in advance of its occurrence. The results of this study have identified which ski resorts could be climatically influenced by such an event. This information may help reduce potential financial losses to ski resorts and their associated

  18. Robust Trajectory Optimization of a Ski Jumper for Uncertainty Influence and Safety Quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Piprek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of a robust optimal control framework for a previously developed multi-body ski jumper simulation model by the authors. This framework is used to model uncertainties acting on the jumper during his jump, e.g., wind or mass, to enhance the performance, but also to increase the fairness and safety of the competition. For the uncertainty modeling the method of generalized polynomial chaos together with the discrete expansion by stochastic collocation is applied: This methodology offers a very flexible framework to model multiple uncertainties using a small number of required optimizations to calculate an uncertain trajectory. The results are then compared to the results of the Latin-Hypercube sampling method to show the correctness of the applied methods. Finally, the results are examined with respect to two major metrics: First, the influence of the uncertainties on the jumper, his positioning with respect to the air, and his maximal achievable flight distance are examined. Then, the results are used in a further step to quantify the safety of the jumper.

  19. [Factors affecting the pressure distribution underneath the foot sole in ski boots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, P; Kulot, M; Hauser, W; Rosemeyer, B

    1988-12-01

    The determination of pressure patterns underneath the footsole inside skiboots, may reveal reasons for footpain and injury risk. In our study, a new developed 72 point measuring mat was used in 5 different skiboots. Data were collected in 10 subjects in different forward flexion positions. In addition a determination of the pressure distribution over the instep was done by means of single measuring points. The results proof, that a proper adapting along the dorsum of the foot does lower the forefoot load during flexion. A tightly closed and well adapted boot will lead to a significant reduction of the total load on the footsole. High shaft models show similar pressure patterns even at earlier forward flexion angles. A pressure related discrimination between rear entry and traditional boots, that was found along the tibia, was not the case underneath the footsole. The force transmission is mainly performed along the shaft of the boot. The effect of orthotics designed mainly to support steerability of the ski, is therefore doubtful. The results may help to improve our knowledge of the interaction between boot and skier and lead, together with future field research, to a reduction of equipment related injuries.

  20. Three withered leaves, three sad poems (Garczyński, Lenartowicz, Asnyk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Hamerski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This text provides an interpretation of three poems, written by nineteenth century poets, that share a common theme of Autumn, with a particular attention given to the motif of a withered leaf. The author is interested how the poems in question match the elegiac convention of autumn lyric poetry and, at the same time, how each in its own way tries to overcome this convention. In Odpowiedź na list written by Stefan Garczyński, the acceptance of passing is concurrently met with defiance, expressed in a language of paradoxical metaphor. Teofil Lenartowicz in his Liście zwiędłe breaches the formal elegiac tone with the application of underlying vitalistic overtones included in the poem. Adam Asnyk’s Zwiędły listek, through a superposition of metonymies, achieves the effect of multilayered mediation and erasure of the trace of experience. The reading and understanding of the three poems, composed in Romanticism and post-Romanticism periods, make it possible to observe, fragmentarily of course, the multiplicity of different poetic attitudes that accompany the process of re-enchantment of the world.

  1. Conditioning exercises in ski jumping: biomechanical relationship of squat jumps, imitation jumps, and hill jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Silvio; Ammann, Fabian; Windmüller, Sabrina; Häberle, Ramona; Müller, Sören; Gross, Micah; Plüss, Michael; Plüss, Stefan; Schödler, Berni; Hübner, Klaus

    2017-11-22

    As hill jumps are very time-consuming, ski jumping athletes often perform various imitation jumps during training. The performed jumps should be similar to hill jumps, but a direct comparison of the kinetic and kinematic parameters has not been performed yet. Therefore, this study aimed to correlate 11 common parameters during hill jumps (Oberstdorf Germany), squat jumps (wearing indoor shoes), and various imitation jumps (rolling 4°, rolling flat, static; jumping equipment or indoor shoes) on a custom-built instrumented vehicle with a catch by the coach. During the performed jumps, force and video data of the take-off of 10 athletes were measured. The imitation and squat jumps were then ranked. The main difference between the hill jumps and the imitation and squat jumps is the higher maximal force loading rate during the hill jumps. Imitation jumps performed on a rolling platform, on flat ground were the most similar to hill jumps in terms of the force-time, and leg joint kinematic properties. Thus, non-hill jumps with a technical focus should be performed from a rolling platform with a flat inrun with normal indoor shoes or jumping equipment, and high normal force loading rates should be the main focus of imitation training.

  2. Sex Differences in Balance Among Alpine Ski Racers: Cross-Sectional Age Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschner, Christian; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Mohr, Johanna; Müller, Lisa

    2017-12-01

    Although balance is a key ability in the strength demands of alpine ski racing, affecting both performance and injury prevention, few studies have examined balance or related sex differences among still-maturing athletes. In this 10-year study, we investigated cross-sectional balance performances at different age periods of a representative sample of over 500 11-18-year-old elite skiers of both genders. Participants performed balance tests using the MFT S3-Check. Left-right and forward-backward movements were used to calculate sensory and symmetry balance scores, which were both incorporated into a stability score. Mann-Whitney U tests assessed gender-specific differences by age-group with a significance level set at p gender differences only on forward-backward measurements for 14-16-year-olds, with females showing better stability and sensory (but not symmetry) scores than males. Thus, gender interacted with age and maturation to influence balance ability in these participants. Additionally, these rare 10-year data support coaches in their training and talent development of maturing athletes by providing important sport-, age-, and gender-specific normative comparison data for individual trainees.

  3. Comparison of the efficacy and tolerance of isoxicam and piroxicam following surgery for skiing accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massart, P.; Bèzes, H.

    1986-01-01

    1 A 10 day double-blind study was carried out comparing isoxicam (300 mg day-1) and piroxicam (40 mg day-1 for the first two days and 20 mg day-1 for the remaining days) following surgery in patients who had sustained skiing accidents. There were 20 patients in each group. The isoxicam-treated group had a slightly greater mean pain score prior to treatment. 2 Both isoxicam and piroxicam reduced pain and nocturnal awakening at days 5 and 10, but isoxicam was significantly superior to piroxicam in producing improvement in pain (at day 5, P < 0.05) and in nocturnal awakenings (at day 10, P < 0.05). 3 Both agents facilitated rehabilitation and there was no significant difference between them in this regard. 4 All patients in both groups considered themselves `better' or `much better' on day 5 of treatment. 5 Both agents were well tolerated by most patients but one patient in each group left the trial because of abdominal pain. One patient stopped isoxicam when she was found to be pregnant. PMID:3620276

  4. Speed and heart-rate profiles in skating and classical cross-country skiing competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Conor M; Kocbach, Jan; Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2015-10-01

    To compare the speed and heart-rate profiles during international skating and classical competitions in male and female world-class cross-country skiers. Four male and 5 female skiers performed individual time trials of 15 km (men) and 10 km (women) in the skating and classical techniques on 2 consecutive days. Races were performed on the same 5-km course. The course was mapped with GPS and a barometer to provide a valid course and elevation profile. Time, speed, and heart rate were determined for uphill, flat, and downhill terrains throughout the entire competition by wearing a GPS and a heart-rate monitor. Times in uphill, flat, and downhill terrain were ~55%, 15-20%, and 25-30%, respectively, of the total race time for both techniques and genders. The average speed differences between skating and classical skiing were 9% and 11% for men and women, respectively, and these values were 12% and 15% for uphill, 8% and 13% for flat (all P skating and classical, respectively, with corresponding numbers of 11% and 14% for uphill, 6% and 11% for flat, and 4% and 5% for downhill terrain (all P skating and classical techniques and between the 2 genders were found on uphill terrain. Therefore, these speed differences could not be explained by variations in exercise intensity.

  5. Identification of Cross-Country Skiing Movement Patterns Using Micro-Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Chapman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potential of micro-sensors for use in the identification of the main movement patterns used in cross-country skiing. Data were collected from four elite international and four Australian athletes in Europe and in Australia using a MinimaxXTM unit containing accelerometer, gyroscope and GPS sensors. Athletes performed four skating techniques and three classical techniques on snow at moderate velocity. Data from a single micro-sensor unit positioned in the centre of the upper back was sufficient to visually identify cyclical movement patterns for each technique. The general patterns for each technique were identified clearly across all athletes while at the same time distinctive characteristics for individual athletes were observed. Differences in speed, snow condition and gradient of terrain were not controlled in this study and these factors could have an effect on the data patterns. Development of algorithms to process the micro-sensor data into kinematic measurements would provide coaches and scientists with a valuable performance analysis tool. Further research is needed to develop such algorithms and to determine whether the patterns are consistent across a range of different speeds, snow conditions and terrain, and for skiers of differing ability.

  6. Modern Climate Change and Mountain Skiing Tourism: the Alps and the Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Pestereva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of the research of modern climate change is beyond all doubts at the moment. Climate is, first of all, a significant share of any country’s resources. Losses due to global climate change can affect virtually all branches of economy and social aspects, including energy production, eco-systems, agriculture, forests, construction, transport, tourism etc.Climate change imposes certain mode of economy, a strategy of economy’s development years ahead. According to forecasts, for example the one of European environmental agency (EEA, one of the first “hostages” of climate change will be winter tourism and alpine skiing resorts. Climate change seriously influences incomes of countries and certain regions located in mountain areas and developing winter sports.Yet, forecasts of climatologists on modern climate change trends are ambiguous and sometimes controversial. For this reason definite scientific and practical interest is raised by research in climate change trends in mountain areas based on mostly state network of meteorological stations.

  7. Geoinformation systems and web services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Růžička

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available State-of-art systems provide comprehensive solutions almost to all users from the data pre-processing through data processing to their final presentation. Consequently, these solutions are very expensive and unavailable for some potential end users. Thus, several questions come up. Do we really need all these functions and, if not why do we have to pay for them? Is it possible to develop such a system with all these functions but without the need of end users to pay extra money for that? In the following text the authors will try to answer the above questions. Web services are a hit of the day. On many experts opinions web services represent a standard for a new information system generation. A prove of this statement could be the fact that every new software product support this form of the internet use. Also in the geoinformatics, this facility is successfully used for a long time (e.g. WMS, WFS. But as all, even web services are further developed and also native protocols, based on the XML format, are subsequently replaced by general protocols (e.g. SOAP.These protocols also use XML, but they enable the development of distributed systems with paralleled features using the Internet as a communication middleware. Thus, it is possible to develop wide information systems with a high level of modularity and integration with existing systems. The paper describes the architecture for the development of open and modular systems.

  8. GeoForum MV 2012. GIS schafft Energie. Contributions of geo-information science to the energy turnaround; GeoForum MV 2012. GIS schafft Energie. Beitraege der Geoinformationswirtschaft zur Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill, Ralf [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Professur fuer Geodaesie und Geoinformatik; Flach, Guntram [Fraunhofer IGD, Rostock (Germany); Klammer, Ulf; Lerche, Tobias (eds.) [GeoMV e.V. Verein der Geoinformationswirtschaft Mecklenburg-Vorpommern e.V., Rostock (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Geo-information systems (GIS) have become indispensable in the development and implementation of concepts for enhanced use of renewable energy sources. Publications in geo-informatics so far have tended to focus on potential studies and regional planning aspects, but also on the establishment of land registers for energy sources and heat consumption. This year's GeoForum presented a comprehensive and concise picture of all these trends. Further subjects were discussed as well, i.e. 1. Logistics, eMobility and the development of individualised services in public transportation; 2. Geodata especially of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania state and with a view to the power supply sector; 3. Basic technologies as current trends in INSPIRE with increasing data volumes and services will enhance their uses in the energy sector.

  9. Impact of Climate Change on Natural Snow Reliability, Snowmaking Capacities, and Wind Conditions of Ski Resorts in Northeast Turkey: A Dynamical Downscaling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Cenk Demiroglu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many ski resorts worldwide are going through deteriorating snow cover conditions due to anthropogenic warming trends. As the natural and the artificially supported, i.e., technical, snow reliability of ski resorts diminish, the industry approaches a deadlock. For this reason, impact assessment studies have become vital for understanding vulnerability of ski tourism. This study considers three resorts at one of the rapidly emerging ski destinations, Northeast Turkey, for snow reliability analyses. Initially one global circulation model is dynamically downscaled by using the regional climate model RegCM4.4 for 1971–2000 and 2021–2050 periods along the RCP4.5 greenhouse gas concentration pathway. Next, the projected climate outputs are converted into indicators of natural snow reliability, snowmaking capacity, and wind conditions. The results show an overall decline in the frequencies of naturally snow reliable days and snowmaking capacities between the two periods. Despite the decrease, only the lower altitudes of one ski resort would face the risk of losing natural snow reliability and snowmaking could still compensate for forming the base layer before the critical New Year’s week. On the other hand, adverse high wind conditions improve as to reduce the number of lift closure days at all resorts. Overall, this particular region seems to be relatively resilient against climate change.

  10. SKI2 mediates degradation of RISC 5′-cleavage fragments and prevents secondary siRNA production from miRNA targets in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscheid, Anja; Marchais, Antonin; Schott, Gregory; Lange, Heike; Gagliardi, Dominique; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Voinnet, Olivier; Brodersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Small regulatory RNAs are fundamental in eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene regulation. In plants, an important element of post-transcriptional control is effected by 20–24 nt microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) bound to the ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) protein in an RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). AGO1 may cleave target mRNAs with small RNA complementarity, but the fate of the resulting cleavage fragments remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that SKI2, SKI3 and SKI8, subunits of a cytoplasmic cofactor of the RNA exosome, are required for degradation of RISC 5′, but not 3′-cleavage fragments in Arabidopsis. In the absence of SKI2 activity, many miRNA targets produce siRNAs via the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) pathway. These siRNAs are low-abundant, and map close to the cleavage site. In most cases, siRNAs were produced 5′ to the cleavage site, but several examples of 3′-spreading were also identified. These observations suggest that siRNAs do not simply derive from RDR6 action on stable 5′-cleavage fragments and hence that SKI2 has a direct role in limiting secondary siRNA production in addition to its function in mediating degradation of 5′-cleavage fragments. PMID:26464441

  11. SKI2 mediates degradation of RISC 5'-cleavage fragments and prevents secondary siRNA production from miRNA targets in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscheid, Anja; Marchais, Antonin; Schott, Gregory; Lange, Heike; Gagliardi, Dominique; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Voinnet, Olivier; Brodersen, Peter

    2015-12-15

    Small regulatory RNAs are fundamental in eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene regulation. In plants, an important element of post-transcriptional control is effected by 20-24 nt microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) bound to the ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) protein in an RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). AGO1 may cleave target mRNAs with small RNA complementarity, but the fate of the resulting cleavage fragments remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that SKI2, SKI3 and SKI8, subunits of a cytoplasmic cofactor of the RNA exosome, are required for degradation of RISC 5', but not 3'-cleavage fragments in Arabidopsis. In the absence of SKI2 activity, many miRNA targets produce siRNAs via the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) pathway. These siRNAs are low-abundant, and map close to the cleavage site. In most cases, siRNAs were produced 5' to the cleavage site, but several examples of 3'-spreading were also identified. These observations suggest that siRNAs do not simply derive from RDR6 action on stable 5'-cleavage fragments and hence that SKI2 has a direct role in limiting secondary siRNA production in addition to its function in mediating degradation of 5'-cleavage fragments. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Simulating the potential effects of climate change in two Colorado basins and at two Colorado ski areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, William; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The mountainous areas of Colorado are used for tourism and recreation, and they provide water storage and supply for municipalities, industries, and agriculture. Recent studies suggest that water supply and tourist industries such as skiing are at risk from climate change. In this study, a distributed-parameter watershed model, the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), is used to identify the potential effects of future climate on hydrologic conditions for two Colorado basins, the East River at Almont and the Yampa River at Steamboat Springs, and at the subbasin scale for two ski areas within those basins.Climate-change input files for PRMS were generated by modifying daily PRMS precipitation and temperature inputs with mean monthly climate-change fields of precipitation and temperature derived from five general circulation model (GCM) simulations using one current and three future carbon emission scenarios. All GCM simulations of mean daily minimum and maximum air temperature for the East and Yampa River basins indicate a relatively steady increase of up to several degrees Celsius from baseline conditions by 2094. GCM simulations of precipitation in the two basins indicate little change or trend in precipitation, but there is a large range associated with these projections. PRMS projections of basin mean daily streamflow vary by scenario but indicate a central tendency toward slight decreases, with a large range associated with these projections.Decreases in water content or changes in the spatial extent of snowpack in the East and Yampa River basins are important because of potential adverse effects on water supply and recreational activities. PRMS projections of each future scenario indicate a central tendency for decreases in basin mean snow-covered area and snowpack water equivalent, with the range in the projected decreases increasing with time. However, when examined on a monthly basis, the projected decreases are most dramatic during fall and spring

  13. SKIING ON GLACIERS – A MODERN TREND OF ACTIVE HOLIDAYS AND EXTREME SPORTS CHALLENGES

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    Vukan Vujović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Skiing on the glaciers has emerged as one more of the prominent and interesting representatives of unusual and relatively young extreme discipline. His appearance has reflected at the same time on the direction of the tourist group, which are rightfully called the adrenaline lovers or adventurers (in the broadest sense. All this has contributed to expanding the current tourism and sports exploited space, stirring the limits of human movement high, ie. deep in the untouched area of permafrost. In the paper are noted the facts of the genesis of the glacier, the conditions that prevailing at this height (ie. improvised tracks, and of numerous effects that the presence of visitors leave on this particularly sensitive and specific eco-system. In the framework of the paper was conducted a research about the possible interest and awareness of domestic tourists (in the area of Novi Sad for this kind of active rest. The idea was to present data which suggest to a certain conclusions on these issues, with the aim of determining the relationship of citizens of Serbia to the current trends in the field of sports and recreational tourism (having in mind the objective possibility of taking an participate in the category of special travel arrangements, material restrictions and difficulties in implementation of the same by the tour. A general task of the paper was to draw the attention of respondents to the chosen topic indirectly, and that among the educated and professionally qualified persons from the world of sports and tourism, additionally promote the new direction of global interest in the domain of extreme and adventure sports. Viewed from another aspect, it is about desire to foster thinking on the possibilities and purposes of further commercialization of worldwide trend in our area (at a higher level than the existing one.

  14. Injury Prevention for Ski-Area Employees: A Physiological Assessment of Lift Operators, Instructors, and Patrollers

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    Delia Roberts

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Momentary lapses in concentration contribute to workplace accidents. Given that blood glucose (BG and hydration levels have been shown to affect vigilance, this study proposed to investigate these parameters and functional movement patterns of ski-resort workers and to determine whether an educational program to stabilize BG and hydration and encourage joint stability had an effect in decreasing occupational injuries. Methods. Seventy-five instructors, patrollers and, lift-operators at five snowsport resorts were evaluated for BG, vigilance, workload, dietary/hydration practices, and functional-movement patterns. Injury rates were tabulated before and after an educational program for nutrition and functional-movement awareness and compared to other resorts. Results. Workers showed poor stability at the lumbar spine, knee, and shoulder. BG levels were normal but variable (%CV = 14±6. Diets were high in sugar and fat and low in water and many nutrients. Medical Aid and Lost Time claims declined significantly by 65.1±20.0% (confidence interval −90.0% ≤μ≤−40.2% in resorts that used the educational program whereas four control resorts not using the program experienced increases of 33.4±42.9% (confidence interval −19.7% ≤μ≤−86.7%; F[2,12] = 21.35, P<0.0001 over the same season. Conclusion. Provision of snowsport resort workers with educational programs encouraging hydration, diet to stabilize BG, and functional-movement awareness was effective in reducing worksite injuries in this population.

  15. A new approach to momentum flux determinations using SKiYMET meteor radars

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    W. K. Hocking

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The current primary radar method for determination of atmospheric momentum fluxes relies on multiple beam studies, usually using oppositely directed coplanar beams. Generally VHF and MF radars are used, and meteor radars have never been successfully employed. In this paper we introduce a new procedure that can be used for determination of gravity wave fluxes down to time scales of 2-3h, using the SKiYMET meteor radars. The method avoids the need for beam forming, and allows simultaneous determination of the three components of the wind averaged over the radar volume, as well as the variance and flux components $overline {u'^2},overline {v'^2},overline {w'^2}, overline {u'v'},overline {u'w'} {rm and} : overline {v'w'}$, where $u'$ refers to the fluctuating eastward wind, $v'$ refers to the fluctuating northward wind, and $w'$ refers to the fluctuating vertical wind. Data from radars in New Mexico and Resolute Bay are used to illustrate the data quality, and demonstrate theoretically expected seasonal forcing.

    Keywords. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Middle atmosphere dynamics; Waves and tides; Climatology

  16. THE EFFECTS OF A CARBOHYDRATE-PROTEIN GEL SUPPLEMENT ON ALPINE SLALOM SKI PERFORMANCE

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    John G. Seifert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Alpine slalom ski racing is a high intensity, complex sport in which racers execute turns every second. Acute fatigue can make the difference in not finishing a run (DNF or finishing out of contention. The quantity and quality of training often dictates racing success. It is not known if nutritional supplementation can improve performance in this high intensity, short duration activity. The objective of this study was to determine if ingesting a carbohydrate-protein energy gel (GEL improves finishing success and number of gates completed during 2 hr slalom sessions on two consecutive days of training. Twenty-four racers were matched; one group ingested the GEL, the second group received a liquid placebo (PLA. Total carbohy-drate, protein, and water ingested by the GEL group were 60g, 15g, and 450 mL, while the PLA group ingested 450 mL of PLA. The GEL group had significantly fewer DNF's (7/48 vs. 18/48; p = 0.02 on both days, completed a greater number of training gates on Day 2 (260.3 ± 20.1 vs. 246.3 ± 17.5 gates; p = 0.03, and had a lower RPE (3.9 ± 1.2 vs. 5.3 ± 1.2 on Day 2 (p = 0.004 vs. PLA. The statistical analysis of combined finishing times was not possible due to the high number of DNF's in the PLA group. High intensity slalom performance can be im-proved by the ingestion of an energy gel. The GEL allowed the athletes to improve training quantity and quality and their per-ception of effort was less than skiers who ingested a placebo

  17. Professional ski waxers' exposure to PFAS and aerosol concentrations in gas phase and different particle size fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Helena; Kärrman, Anna; Rotander, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Lindström, Gunilla; Westberg, Håkan

    2013-04-01

    Previous reports show that professional ski waxers have elevated blood levels of perfluorinated substances (PFAS) such as perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and are exposed to very high concentrations of PFAS in air during ski waxing. Aerosol exposure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, and PFOA is a potential hormonal disruptor and carcinogen, and can affect the fatty acid metabolism. Animal studies have shown that 8:2 FTOH can undergo biotransformation to PFOA. For the first time, this study presents an occupational scenario of professional ski waxers who are exposed to extremely high dust levels as well as per- and polyfluorinated compounds. Personal and fixed measurements of total aerosol, inhalable and respirable fractions were performed during World Cup events 2007-2010. The occupational exposure limit (OEL) is exceeded in 37% of the personal measurements with concentrations up to 15 mg m(-3) in air. There are differences between personal and area total aerosol concentrations with levels from personal measurements twice as high as those from the area measurements. The personal levels for FTOH ranged up to 996 μg m(-3) (mean = 114 μg m(-3)) and for PFOA up to 4.89 μg m(-3) (mean = 0.53 μg m(-3)) in ENV+ sorbent samples as compared to the general exposure levels from air reaching only low ng m(-3) (PFAS is not in compliance with the occupational exposure standards and by far exceed the general populations' exposure. Preventive measures must be taken to minimize the exposure in this occupational group.

  18. Comparing the impacts of hiking, skiing and horse riding on trail and vegetation in different types of forest.

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    Törn, A; Tolvanen, A; Norokorpi, Y; Tervo, R; Siikamäki, P

    2009-03-01

    Nature-based tourism in protected areas has increased and diversified dramatically during the last decades. Different recreational activities have a range of impacts on natural environments. This paper reports results from a comparison of the impacts of hiking, cross-country skiing and horse riding on trail characteristics and vegetation in northern Finland. Widths and depths of existing trails, and vegetation on trails and in the neighbouring forests were monitored in two research sites during 2001 and 2002. Trail characteristics and vegetation were clearly related to the recreational activity, research site and forest type. Horse trails were as deep as hiking trails, even though the annual number of users was 150-fold higher on the hiking trails. Simultaneously, cross-country skiing had the least effect on trails due to the protective snow cover during winter. Hiking trail plots had little or no vegetation cover, horse riding trail plots had lower vegetation cover than forest plots, while skiing had no impact on total vegetation cover. On the other hand, on horse riding trails there were more forbs and grasses, many of which did not grow naturally in the forest. These species that were limited to riding trails may change the structure of adjacent plant communities in the long run. Therefore, the type of activities undertaken and the sensitivity of habitats to these activities should be a major consideration in the planning and management of nature-based tourism. Establishment of artificial structures, such as stairs, duckboards and trail cover, or complete closure of the site, may be the only way to protect the most sensitive or deteriorated sites.

  19. Influence of slope steepness, foot position and turn phase on plantar pressure distribution during giant slalom alpine ski racing.

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    Thomas Falda-Buscaiot

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the evolution of ground reaction force during alpine skiing turns. Specifically, this study investigated how turn phases and slope steepness affected the whole foot normal GRF pattern while performing giant slalom turns in a race-like setting. Moreover, the outside foot was divided into different plantar regions to see whether those parameters affected the plantar pressure distribution. Eleven skiers performed one giant slalom course at race intensity. Runs were recorded synchronously using a video camera in the frontal plane and pressure insoles under both feet's plantar surface. Turns were divided according to kinematic criteria into four consecutive phases: initiation, steering1, steering2 and completion; both steering phases being separated by the gate passage. Component of the averaged Ground Reaction Force normal to the ski's surface([Formula: see text], /BW, and Pressure Time Integral relative to the entire foot surface (relPTI, % parameters were calculated for each turn phases based on plantar pressure data. Results indicated that [Formula: see text] under the total foot surface differed significantly depending on the slope (higher in steep sections vs. flat sections, and the turn phase (higher during steering2 vs. three other phases, although such modifications were observable only on the outside foot. Moreover, [Formula: see text] under the outside foot was significantly greater than under the inside foot.RelPTI under different foot regions of the outside foot revealed a global shift from forefoot loading during initiation phase, toward heel loading during steering2 phase, but this was dependent on the slope studied. These results suggest a differentiated role played by each foot in alpine skiing turns: the outside foot has an active role in the turning process, while the inside foot may only play a role in stability.

  20. Optimizing Half Squat Postactivation Potential Load in Squat Jump Training for Eliciting Relative Maximal Power in Ski Jumpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołaś, Artur; Wilk, Michal; Stastny, Petr; Maszczyk, Adam; Pajerska, Katarzyna; Zając, Adam

    2017-11-01

    Gołaś, A, Wilk, M, Stastny, P, Maszczyk, A, Pajerska, K, and Zając, A. Optimizing half squat postactivation potential load in squat jump training for eliciting relative maximal power in ski jumpers. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3010-3017, 2017-Training load manipulation in a single workout session can increase or decrease training effectiveness in terms of athletes' strength or power gains. In ski jumping, the complex training that elicits maximal power gains may take advantage of the postactivation potentiation (PAP) mechanism. The aim of this research was to evaluate the changes in rate of force development (RFD), rate of power development (RPD), and jump height during a complex training session consisted of the barbell half squat (Sq) as a conditioning exercise with loads ranged between 60 and 100% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM), followed by a body weight squat jump (SqJ) as a performance task. The study was conducted with 16 elite athletes from the Polish National Ski Jumping Team, age 23 ± 8 years, body mass 56 ± 9 kg, and height 172 ± 12 cm. Complex training session started with the Sq at 60% of 1RM as the conditioning exercise, followed by 3 minutes of rest and the SqJ. The conditioning barbell half Sq was performed with 70, 80, 90, and 100% of 1RM with 5 minutes of rest. The differences in RFD occurred between an SqJ following the application of 80% of 1RM and all other SqJs (p = 0.01), and in RPD between SqJ without conditioning, SqJ after 60% of 1RM and 80% of 1RM (p = 0.02). On average, the most effective load in inducing PAP during ski jumpers' SqJ training is 80% of 1RM. The intensity of the conditioning exercise that elicits the greatest PAP effect should be individualized (60-100% 1RM), as it is dependent on the level of maximal strength.