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Sample records for geographically weighted poisson

  1. Parameter estimation and statistical test of geographically weighted bivariate Poisson inverse Gaussian regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, Junita; Purhadi, Otok, Bambang Widjanarko

    2017-11-01

    Poisson distribution is a discrete distribution with count data as the random variables and it has one parameter defines both mean and variance. Poisson regression assumes mean and variance should be same (equidispersion). Nonetheless, some case of the count data unsatisfied this assumption because variance exceeds mean (over-dispersion). The ignorance of over-dispersion causes underestimates in standard error. Furthermore, it causes incorrect decision in the statistical test. Previously, paired count data has a correlation and it has bivariate Poisson distribution. If there is over-dispersion, modeling paired count data is not sufficient with simple bivariate Poisson regression. Bivariate Poisson Inverse Gaussian Regression (BPIGR) model is mix Poisson regression for modeling paired count data within over-dispersion. BPIGR model produces a global model for all locations. In another hand, each location has different geographic conditions, social, cultural and economic so that Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is needed. The weighting function of each location in GWR generates a different local model. Geographically Weighted Bivariate Poisson Inverse Gaussian Regression (GWBPIGR) model is used to solve over-dispersion and to generate local models. Parameter estimation of GWBPIGR model obtained by Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method. Meanwhile, hypothesis testing of GWBPIGR model acquired by Maximum Likelihood Ratio Test (MLRT) method.

  2. Development of planning level transportation safety tools using Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression.

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    Hadayeghi, Alireza; Shalaby, Amer S; Persaud, Bhagwant N

    2010-03-01

    A common technique used for the calibration of collision prediction models is the Generalized Linear Modeling (GLM) procedure with the assumption of Negative Binomial or Poisson error distribution. In this technique, fixed coefficients that represent the average relationship between the dependent variable and each explanatory variable are estimated. However, the stationary relationship assumed may hide some important spatial factors of the number of collisions at a particular traffic analysis zone. Consequently, the accuracy of such models for explaining the relationship between the dependent variable and the explanatory variables may be suspected since collision frequency is likely influenced by many spatially defined factors such as land use, demographic characteristics, and traffic volume patterns. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the spatial variations in the relationship between the number of zonal collisions and potential transportation planning predictors, using the Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression modeling technique. The secondary objective is to build on knowledge comparing the accuracy of Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression models to that of Generalized Linear Models. The results show that the Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression models are useful for capturing spatially dependent relationships and generally perform better than the conventional Generalized Linear Models. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A coregionalization model can assist specification of Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression: Application to an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Manuel Castro; Sousa, António Jorge; Pereira, Maria João

    2016-05-01

    The geographical distribution of health outcomes is influenced by socio-economic and environmental factors operating on different spatial scales. Geographical variations in relationships can be revealed with semi-parametric Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (sGWPR), a model that can combine both geographically varying and geographically constant parameters. To decide whether a parameter should vary geographically, two models are compared: one in which all parameters are allowed to vary geographically and one in which all except the parameter being evaluated are allowed to vary geographically. The model with the lower corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) is selected. Delivering model selection exclusively according to the AICc might hide important details in spatial variations of associations. We propose assisting the decision by using a Linear Model of Coregionalization (LMC). Here we show how LMC can refine sGWPR on ecological associations between socio-economic and environmental variables and low birth weight outcomes in the west-north-central region of Portugal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Poisson regression approach for modelling spatial autocorrelation between geographically referenced observations.

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    Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Wolfe, Rory; Jolley, Damien

    2011-10-03

    Analytic methods commonly used in epidemiology do not account for spatial correlation between observations. In regression analyses, omission of that autocorrelation can bias parameter estimates and yield incorrect standard error estimates. We used age standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) of esophageal cancer (EC) from the Babol cancer registry from 2001 to 2005, and extracted socioeconomic indices from the Statistical Centre of Iran. The following models for SIR were used: (1) Poisson regression with agglomeration-specific nonspatial random effects; (2) Poisson regression with agglomeration-specific spatial random effects. Distance-based and neighbourhood-based autocorrelation structures were used for defining the spatial random effects and a pseudolikelihood approach was applied to estimate model parameters. The Bayesian information criterion (BIC), Akaike's information criterion (AIC) and adjusted pseudo R2, were used for model comparison. A Gaussian semivariogram with an effective range of 225 km best fit spatial autocorrelation in agglomeration-level EC incidence. The Moran's I index was greater than its expected value indicating systematic geographical clustering of EC. The distance-based and neighbourhood-based Poisson regression estimates were generally similar. When residual spatial dependence was modelled, point and interval estimates of covariate effects were different to those obtained from the nonspatial Poisson model. The spatial pattern evident in the EC SIR and the observation that point estimates and standard errors differed depending on the modelling approach indicate the importance of accounting for residual spatial correlation in analyses of EC incidence in the Caspian region of Iran. Our results also illustrate that spatial smoothing must be applied with care.

  5. A poisson regression approach for modelling spatial autocorrelation between geographically referenced observations

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    Jolley Damien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analytic methods commonly used in epidemiology do not account for spatial correlation between observations. In regression analyses, omission of that autocorrelation can bias parameter estimates and yield incorrect standard error estimates. Methods We used age standardised incidence ratios (SIRs of esophageal cancer (EC from the Babol cancer registry from 2001 to 2005, and extracted socioeconomic indices from the Statistical Centre of Iran. The following models for SIR were used: (1 Poisson regression with agglomeration-specific nonspatial random effects; (2 Poisson regression with agglomeration-specific spatial random effects. Distance-based and neighbourhood-based autocorrelation structures were used for defining the spatial random effects and a pseudolikelihood approach was applied to estimate model parameters. The Bayesian information criterion (BIC, Akaike's information criterion (AIC and adjusted pseudo R2, were used for model comparison. Results A Gaussian semivariogram with an effective range of 225 km best fit spatial autocorrelation in agglomeration-level EC incidence. The Moran's I index was greater than its expected value indicating systematic geographical clustering of EC. The distance-based and neighbourhood-based Poisson regression estimates were generally similar. When residual spatial dependence was modelled, point and interval estimates of covariate effects were different to those obtained from the nonspatial Poisson model. Conclusions The spatial pattern evident in the EC SIR and the observation that point estimates and standard errors differed depending on the modelling approach indicate the importance of accounting for residual spatial correlation in analyses of EC incidence in the Caspian region of Iran. Our results also illustrate that spatial smoothing must be applied with care.

  6. Geographically weighted regression model on poverty indicator

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    Slamet, I.; Nugroho, N. F. T. A.; Muslich

    2017-12-01

    In this research, we applied geographically weighted regression (GWR) for analyzing the poverty in Central Java. We consider Gaussian Kernel as weighted function. The GWR uses the diagonal matrix resulted from calculating kernel Gaussian function as a weighted function in the regression model. The kernel weights is used to handle spatial effects on the data so that a model can be obtained for each location. The purpose of this paper is to model of poverty percentage data in Central Java province using GWR with Gaussian kernel weighted function and to determine the influencing factors in each regency/city in Central Java province. Based on the research, we obtained geographically weighted regression model with Gaussian kernel weighted function on poverty percentage data in Central Java province. We found that percentage of population working as farmers, population growth rate, percentage of households with regular sanitation, and BPJS beneficiaries are the variables that affect the percentage of poverty in Central Java province. In this research, we found the determination coefficient R2 are 68.64%. There are two categories of district which are influenced by different of significance factors.

  7. Mapping soil organic carbon content by geographically weighted regression

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    Song, Xiao Dong; Brus, Dick J.; Liu, Feng; Li, De Cheng; Zhao, Yu Guo; Yang, Jin Ling; Zhang, Gan Lin

    2016-01-01

    In large heterogeneous areas the relationship between soil organic carbon (SOC) and environmental covariates may vary throughout the area, bringing about difficulty for accurate modeling of the regional SOC variation. The benefit of local, geographically weighted regression (GWR) coefficients was

  8. Satellite and gauge rainfall merging using geographically weighted regression

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    Q. Hu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A residual-based rainfall merging scheme using geographically weighted regression (GWR has been proposed. This method is capable of simultaneously blending various satellite rainfall data with gauge measurements and could describe the non-stationary influences of geographical and terrain factors on rainfall spatial distribution. Using this new method, an experimental study on merging daily rainfall from the Climate Prediction Center Morphing dataset (CMOROH and gauge measurements was conducted for the Ganjiang River basin, in Southeast China. We investigated the capability of the merging scheme for daily rainfall estimation under different gauge density. Results showed that under the condition of sparse gauge density the merging rainfall scheme is remarkably superior to the interpolation using just gauge data.

  9. Geographically weighted negative binomial regression applied to zonal level safety performance models.

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    Gomes, Marcos José Timbó Lima; Cunto, Flávio; da Silva, Alan Ricardo

    2017-09-01

    Generalized Linear Models (GLM) with negative binomial distribution for errors, have been widely used to estimate safety at the level of transportation planning. The limited ability of this technique to take spatial effects into account can be overcome through the use of local models from spatial regression techniques, such as Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (GWPR). Although GWPR is a system that deals with spatial dependency and heterogeneity and has already been used in some road safety studies at the planning level, it fails to account for the possible overdispersion that can be found in the observations on road-traffic crashes. Two approaches were adopted for the Geographically Weighted Negative Binomial Regression (GWNBR) model to allow discrete data to be modeled in a non-stationary form and to take note of the overdispersion of the data: the first examines the constant overdispersion for all the traffic zones and the second includes the variable for each spatial unit. This research conducts a comparative analysis between non-spatial global crash prediction models and spatial local GWPR and GWNBR at the level of traffic zones in Fortaleza/Brazil. A geographic database of 126 traffic zones was compiled from the available data on exposure, network characteristics, socioeconomic factors and land use. The models were calibrated by using the frequency of injury crashes as a dependent variable and the results showed that GWPR and GWNBR achieved a better performance than GLM for the average residuals and likelihood as well as reducing the spatial autocorrelation of the residuals, and the GWNBR model was more able to capture the spatial heterogeneity of the crash frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression Applied to Credit Scoring Models

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    Pedro Henrique Melo Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Abstract This study used real data from a Brazilian financial institution on transactions involving Consumer Direct Credit (CDC, granted to clients residing in the Distrito Federal (DF, to construct credit scoring models via Logistic Regression and Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression (GWLR techniques. The aims were: to verify whether the factors that influence credit risk differ according to the borrower’s geographic location; to compare the set of models estimated via GWLR with the global model estimated via Logistic Regression, in terms of predictive power and financial losses for the institution; and to verify the viability of using the GWLR technique to develop credit scoring models. The metrics used to compare the models developed via the two techniques were the AICc informational criterion, the accuracy of the models, the percentage of false positives, the sum of the value of false positive debt, and the expected monetary value of portfolio default compared with the monetary value of defaults observed. The models estimated for each region in the DF were distinct in their variables and coefficients (parameters, with it being concluded that credit risk was influenced differently in each region in the study. The Logistic Regression and GWLR methodologies presented very close results, in terms of predictive power and financial losses for the institution, and the study demonstrated viability in using the GWLR technique to develop credit scoring models for the target population in the study.

  11. Alcohol outlet density and violence: A geographically weighted regression approach.

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    Cameron, Michael P; Cochrane, William; Gordon, Craig; Livingston, Michael

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the relationship between outlet density (of different types) and violence (as measured by police activity) across the North Island of New Zealand, specifically looking at whether the relationships vary spatially. We use New Zealand data at the census area unit (approximately suburb) level, on police-attended violent incidents and outlet density (by type of outlet), controlling for population density and local social deprivation. We employed geographically weighted regression to obtain both global average and locally specific estimates of the relationships between alcohol outlet density and violence. We find that bar and night club density, and licensed club density (e.g. sports clubs) have statistically significant and positive relationships with violence, with an additional bar or night club is associated with nearly 5.3 additional violent events per year, and an additional licensed club associated with 0.8 additional violent events per year. These relationships do not show significant spatial variation. In contrast, the effects of off-licence density and restaurant/café density do exhibit significant spatial variation. However, the non-varying effects of bar and night club density are larger than the locally specific effects of other outlet types. The relationships between outlet density and violence vary significantly across space for off-licences and restaurants/cafés. These results suggest that in order to minimise alcohol-related harms, such as violence, locally specific policy interventions are likely to be necessary. [Cameron MP, Cochrane W, Gordon C, Livingston M. Alcohol outlet density and violence: A geographically weighted regression approach. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:280-288]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. Mapping the results of local statistics: Using geographically weighted regression

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    Stephen A. Matthews

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The application of geographically weighted regression (GWR - a local spatial statistical technique used to test for spatial nonstationarity - has grown rapidly in the social, health, and demographic sciences. GWR is a useful exploratory analytical tool that generates a set of location-specific parameter estimates which can be mapped and analysed to provide information on spatial nonstationarity in the relationships between predictors and the outcome variable. OBJECTIVE A major challenge to users of GWR methods is how best to present and synthesize the large number of mappable results, specifically the local parameter parameter estimates and local t-values, generated from local GWR models. We offer an elegant solution. METHODS This paper introduces a mapping technique to simultaneously display local parameter estimates and local t-values on one map based on the use of data selection and transparency techniques. We integrate GWR software and GIS software package (ArcGIS and adapt earlier work in cartography on bivariate mapping. We compare traditional mapping strategies (i.e., side-by-side comparison and isoline overlay maps with our method using an illustration focusing on US county infant mortality data. CONCLUSIONS The resultant map design is more elegant than methods used to date. This type of map presentation can facilitate the exploration and interpretation of nonstationarity, focusing map reader attention on the areas of primary interest.

  13. On existence and multiplicity for Schrödinger–Poisson systems involving weighted sublinear nonlinearities

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    Sara Barile

    2017-04-01

    where $V, K: \\mathbb{R}^3 \\rightarrow \\mathbb{R}^+$ are suitable potentials and $f: \\mathbb{R}^3 \\times \\mathbb{R} \\rightarrow \\mathbb{R}$ satisfies sublinear growth assumptions involving a finite number of positive weights $W_i$, $i= 1,\\dots,r$ with $r \\geq 1$. By exploiting compact embeddings of the functional space on which we work in every weighted space $L_{W_i}^{w_i}(\\mathbb{R}^3$, $w_i \\in (1, 2$, we establish existence by means of a generalized Weierstrass theorem. Moreover, we prove multiplicity of solutions if $f$ is odd in $u$ and $g(x \\equiv 0$ thanks to a variant of the symmetric mountain pass theorem stated by R. Kajikiya for subquadratic functionals.

  14. Examining spatially varying relationships between coca crops and associated factors in Colombia, using geographically weight regression.

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    Rincón-Ruiz, A.; Pascual, U.; Flantua, S.

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the expansion of illicit crops (coca) and the associated socio-institutional and geographical drivers in Colombia between 2001 and 2008. The analysis is based on a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models and shows that the relationships between the analyzed variables

  15. Parameters Estimation of Geographically Weighted Ordinal Logistic Regression (GWOLR) Model

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    Zuhdi, Shaifudin; Retno Sari Saputro, Dewi; Widyaningsih, Purnami

    2017-06-01

    A regression model is the representation of relationship between independent variable and dependent variable. The dependent variable has categories used in the logistic regression model to calculate odds on. The logistic regression model for dependent variable has levels in the logistics regression model is ordinal. GWOLR model is an ordinal logistic regression model influenced the geographical location of the observation site. Parameters estimation in the model needed to determine the value of a population based on sample. The purpose of this research is to parameters estimation of GWOLR model using R software. Parameter estimation uses the data amount of dengue fever patients in Semarang City. Observation units used are 144 villages in Semarang City. The results of research get GWOLR model locally for each village and to know probability of number dengue fever patient categories.

  16. Poisson Autoregression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fokianos, Konstantinos; Rahbek, Anders Christian; Tjøstheim, Dag

    This paper considers geometric ergodicity and likelihood based inference for linear and nonlinear Poisson autoregressions. In the linear case the conditional mean is linked linearly to its past values as well as the observed values of the Poisson process. This also applies to the conditional...... variance, implying an interpretation as an integer valued GARCH process. In a nonlinear conditional Poisson model, the conditional mean is a nonlinear function of its past values and a nonlinear function of past observations. As a particular example an exponential autoregressive Poisson model for time...... series is considered. Under geometric ergodicity the maximum likelihood estimators of the parameters are shown to be asymptotically Gaussian in the linear model. In addition we provide a consistent estimator of the asymptotic covariance, which is used in the simulations and the analysis of some...

  17. Poisson Autoregression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fokianos, Konstantinos; Rahbek, Anders Christian; Tjøstheim, Dag

    2009-01-01

    In this article we consider geometric ergodicity and likelihood-based inference for linear and nonlinear Poisson autoregression. In the linear case, the conditional mean is linked linearly to its past values, as well as to the observed values of the Poisson process. This also applies to the condi......In this article we consider geometric ergodicity and likelihood-based inference for linear and nonlinear Poisson autoregression. In the linear case, the conditional mean is linked linearly to its past values, as well as to the observed values of the Poisson process. This also applies...... to the conditional variance, making possible interpretation as an integer-valued generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity process. In a nonlinear conditional Poisson model, the conditional mean is a nonlinear function of its past values and past observations. As a particular example, we consider...... ergodicity proceeds via Markov theory and irreducibility. Finding transparent conditions for proving ergodicity turns out to be a delicate problem in the original model formulation. This problem is circumvented by allowing a perturbation of the model. We show that as the perturbations can be chosen...

  18. Poisson Autoregression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fokianos, Konstantinos; Rahbæk, Anders; Tjøstheim, Dag

    This paper considers geometric ergodicity and likelihood based inference for linear and nonlinear Poisson autoregressions. In the linear case the conditional mean is linked linearly to its past values as well as the observed values of the Poisson process. This also applies to the conditional...... proceeds via Markov theory and irreducibility. Finding transparent conditions for proving ergodicity turns out to be a delicate problem in the original model formulation. This problem is circumvented by allowing a perturbation of the model. We show that as the perturbations can be chosen to be arbitrarily...

  19. A Poisson Cluster Stochastic Rainfall Generator That Accounts for the Interannual Variability of Rainfall Statistics: Validation at Various Geographic Locations across the United States

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    Dongkyun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for a Poisson cluster stochastic rainfall generator was validated in its ability to reproduce important rainfall and watershed response characteristics at 104 locations in the United States. The suggested novel approach, The Hybrid Model (THM, as compared to the traditional Poisson cluster rainfall modeling approaches, has an additional capability to account for the interannual variability of rainfall statistics. THM and a traditional approach of Poisson cluster rainfall model (modified Bartlett-Lewis rectangular pulse model were compared in their ability to reproduce the characteristics of extreme rainfall and watershed response variables such as runoff and peak flow. The results of the comparison indicate that THM generally outperforms the traditional approach in reproducing the distributions of peak rainfall, peak flow, and runoff volume. In addition, THM significantly outperformed the traditional approach in reproducing extreme rainfall by 2.3% to 66% and extreme flow values by 32% to 71%.

  20. EXPLORING SCALE EFFECT USING GEOGRAPHICALLY WEIGHTED REGRESSION ON MASS DATASET OF URBAN ROBBERY

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    Ö. Yavuz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban geographers have been studying to explain factors influencing crime on cases limited by their study areas. Researchers have a common opinion that explanatory variables modelling crime on those cases might be irrelevant for another one. None of the researchers tested significance of these variables with changing scales of the study area. Because their data did not allow them to study with different scales. This research examines the scale effect with various data from a wide range of data sources. Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR method is used to explain that effect, after organizing data by Geographical Information System (GIS technologies. Explanatory variables deduced for district scale are different from those for grid scale. Hence, the explanatory variables may change not only for different geographical areas but also for different scales of the same area.

  1. Exploring Scale Effect Using Geographically Weighted Regression on Mass Dataset of Urban Robbery

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    Yavuz, Ö.; Tecim, V.

    2013-05-01

    Urban geographers have been studying to explain factors influencing crime on cases limited by their study areas. Researchers have a common opinion that explanatory variables modelling crime on those cases might be irrelevant for another one. None of the researchers tested significance of these variables with changing scales of the study area. Because their data did not allow them to study with different scales. This research examines the scale effect with various data from a wide range of data sources. Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) method is used to explain that effect, after organizing data by Geographical Information System (GIS) technologies. Explanatory variables deduced for district scale are different from those for grid scale. Hence, the explanatory variables may change not only for different geographical areas but also for different scales of the same area.

  2. Spatio-temporal water quality mapping from satellite images using geographically and temporally weighted regression

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    Chu, Hone-Jay; Kong, Shish-Jeng; Chang, Chih-Hua

    2018-03-01

    The turbidity (TB) of a water body varies with time and space. Water quality is traditionally estimated via linear regression based on satellite images. However, estimating and mapping water quality require a spatio-temporal nonstationary model, while TB mapping necessitates the use of geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models, both of which are more precise than linear regression. Given the temporal nonstationary models for mapping water quality, GTWR offers the best option for estimating regional water quality. Compared with GWR, GTWR provides highly reliable information for water quality mapping, boasts a relatively high goodness of fit, improves the explanation of variance from 44% to 87%, and shows a sufficient space-time explanatory power. The seasonal patterns of TB and the main spatial patterns of TB variability can be identified using the estimated TB maps from GTWR and by conducting an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis.

  3. Geographically weighted regression based methods for merging satellite and gauge precipitation

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    Chao, Lijun; Zhang, Ke; Li, Zhijia; Zhu, Yuelong; Wang, Jingfeng; Yu, Zhongbo

    2018-03-01

    Real-time precipitation data with high spatiotemporal resolutions are crucial for accurate hydrological forecasting. To improve the spatial resolution and quality of satellite precipitation, a three-step satellite and gauge precipitation merging method was formulated in this study: (1) bilinear interpolation is first applied to downscale coarser satellite precipitation to a finer resolution (PS); (2) the (mixed) geographically weighted regression methods coupled with a weighting function are then used to estimate biases of PS as functions of gauge observations (PO) and PS; and (3) biases of PS are finally corrected to produce a merged precipitation product. Based on the above framework, eight algorithms, a combination of two geographically weighted regression methods and four weighting functions, are developed to merge CMORPH (CPC MORPHing technique) precipitation with station observations on a daily scale in the Ziwuhe Basin of China. The geographical variables (elevation, slope, aspect, surface roughness, and distance to the coastline) and a meteorological variable (wind speed) were used for merging precipitation to avoid the artificial spatial autocorrelation resulting from traditional interpolation methods. The results show that the combination of the MGWR and BI-square function (MGWR-BI) has the best performance (R = 0.863 and RMSE = 7.273 mm/day) among the eight algorithms. The MGWR-BI algorithm was then applied to produce hourly merged precipitation product. Compared to the original CMORPH product (R = 0.208 and RMSE = 1.208 mm/hr), the quality of the merged data is significantly higher (R = 0.724 and RMSE = 0.706 mm/hr). The developed merging method not only improves the spatial resolution and quality of the satellite product but also is easy to implement, which is valuable for hydrological modeling and other applications.

  4. THE CRASH INTENSITY EVALUATION USING GENERAL CENTRALITY CRITERIONS AND A GEOGRAPHICALLY WEIGHTED REGRESSION

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    M. Ghadiriyan Arani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, one of the social problems influencing on the lives of many people is the road traffic crashes especially the highway ones. In this regard, this paper focuses on highway of capital and the most populous city in the U.S. state of Georgia and the ninth largest metropolitan area in the United States namely Atlanta. Geographically weighted regression and general centrality criteria are the aspects of traffic used for this article. In the first step, in order to estimate of crash intensity, it is needed to extract the dual graph from the status of streets and highways to use general centrality criteria. With the help of the graph produced, the criteria are: Degree, Pageranks, Random walk, Eccentricity, Closeness, Betweenness, Clustering coefficient, Eigenvector, and Straightness. The intensity of crash point is counted for every highway by dividing the number of crashes in that highway to the total number of crashes. Intensity of crash point is calculated for each highway. Then, criteria and crash point were normalized and the correlation between them was calculated to determine the criteria that are not dependent on each other. The proposed hybrid approach is a good way to regression issues because these effective measures result to a more desirable output. R2 values for geographically weighted regression using the Gaussian kernel was 0.539 and also 0.684 was obtained using a triple-core cube. The results showed that the triple-core cube kernel is better for modeling the crash intensity.

  5. A Geographically Temporal Weighted Regression Approach with Travel Distance for House Price Estimation

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    Jiping Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that non-Euclidean distance metrics can improve model fit in the geographically weighted regression (GWR model. However, the GWR model often considers spatial nonstationarity and does not address variations in local temporal issues. Therefore, this paper explores a geographically temporal weighted regression (GTWR approach that accounts for both spatial and temporal nonstationarity simultaneously to estimate house prices based on travel time distance metrics. Using house price data collected between 1980 and 2016, the house price response and explanatory variables are then modeled using both the GWR and the GTWR approaches. Comparing the GWR model with Euclidean and travel distance metrics, the GTWR model with travel distance obtains the highest value for the coefficient of determination ( R 2 and the lowest values for the Akaike information criterion (AIC. The results show that the GTWR model provides a relatively high goodness of fit and sufficient space-time explanatory power with non-Euclidean distance metrics. The results of this study can be used to formulate more effective policies for real estate management.

  6. The Crash Intensity Evaluation Using General Centrality Criterions and a Geographically Weighted Regression

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    Ghadiriyan Arani, M.; Pahlavani, P.; Effati, M.; Noori Alamooti, F.

    2017-09-01

    Today, one of the social problems influencing on the lives of many people is the road traffic crashes especially the highway ones. In this regard, this paper focuses on highway of capital and the most populous city in the U.S. state of Georgia and the ninth largest metropolitan area in the United States namely Atlanta. Geographically weighted regression and general centrality criteria are the aspects of traffic used for this article. In the first step, in order to estimate of crash intensity, it is needed to extract the dual graph from the status of streets and highways to use general centrality criteria. With the help of the graph produced, the criteria are: Degree, Pageranks, Random walk, Eccentricity, Closeness, Betweenness, Clustering coefficient, Eigenvector, and Straightness. The intensity of crash point is counted for every highway by dividing the number of crashes in that highway to the total number of crashes. Intensity of crash point is calculated for each highway. Then, criteria and crash point were normalized and the correlation between them was calculated to determine the criteria that are not dependent on each other. The proposed hybrid approach is a good way to regression issues because these effective measures result to a more desirable output. R2 values for geographically weighted regression using the Gaussian kernel was 0.539 and also 0.684 was obtained using a triple-core cube. The results showed that the triple-core cube kernel is better for modeling the crash intensity.

  7. A Spatial Disaster Assessment Model of Social Resilience Based on Geographically Weighted Regression

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    Hwikyung Chun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since avoiding the occurrence of natural disasters is difficult, building ‘resilient cities’ is gaining more attention as a common objective within urban communities. By enhancing community resilience, it is possible to minimize the direct and indirect losses from disasters. However, current studies have focused more on physical aspects, despite the fact that social aspects may have a closer relation to the inhabitants. The objective of this paper is to develop an assessment model for social resilience by measuring the heterogeneity of local indicators that are related to disaster risk. Firstly, variables were selected by investigating previous assessment models with statistical verification. Secondly, spatial heterogeneity was analyzed using the Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR method. A case study was then undertaken on a flood-prone area in the metropolitan city, Seoul, South Korea. Based on the findings, the paper proposes a new spatial disaster assessment model that can be used for disaster management at the local levels.

  8. Poisson integrators for Lie-Poisson structures on R3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lina

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the study of Poisson integrators. We are interested in Lie-Poisson systems on R 3 . First, we focus on Poisson integrators for constant Poisson systems and the transformations used for transforming Lie-Poisson structures to constant Poisson structures. Then, we construct local Poisson integrators for Lie-Poisson systems on R 3 . Finally, we present the results of numerical experiments for two Lie-Poisson systems and compare our Poisson integrators with other known methods.

  9. Geographically weighted lasso (GWL) study for modeling the diarrheic to achieve open defecation free (ODF) target

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    Arumsari, Nurvita; Sutidjo, S. U.; Brodjol; Soedjono, Eddy S.

    2014-03-01

    Diarrhea has been one main cause of morbidity and mortality to children around the world, especially in the developing countries According to available data that was mentioned. It showed that sanitary and healthy lifestyle implementation by the inhabitants was not good yet. Inadequacy of environmental influence and the availability of health services were suspected factors which influenced diarrhea cases happened followed by heightened percentage of the diarrheic. This research is aimed at modelling the diarrheic by using Geographically Weighted Lasso method. With the existence of spatial heterogeneity was tested by Breusch Pagan, it was showed that diarrheic modeling with weighted regression, especially GWR and GWL, can explain the variation in each location. But, the absence of multi-collinearity cases on predictor variables, which were affecting the diarrheic, resulted in GWR and GWL modelling to be not different or identical. It is shown from the resulting MSE value. While from R2 value which usually higher on GWL model showed a significant variable predictor based on more parametric shrinkage value.

  10. Estimation of Geographically Weighted Regression Case Study on Wet Land Paddy Productivities in Tulungagung Regency

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    Danang Ariyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Regression is a method connected independent variable and dependent variable with estimation parameter as an output. Principal problem in this method is its application in spatial data. Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR method used to solve the problem. GWR  is a regression technique that extends the traditional regression framework by allowing the estimation of local rather than global parameters. In other words, GWR runs a regression for each location, instead of a sole regression for the entire study area. The purpose of this research is to analyze the factors influencing wet land paddy productivities in Tulungagung Regency. The methods used in this research is  GWR using cross validation  bandwidth and weighted by adaptive Gaussian kernel fungtion.This research using  4 variables which are presumed affecting the wet land paddy productivities such as:  the rate of rainfall(X1, the average cost of fertilizer per hectare(X2, the average cost of pestisides per hectare(X3 and Allocation of subsidized NPK fertilizer of food crops sub-sector(X4. Based on the result, X1, X2, X3 and X4  has a different effect on each Distric. So, to improve the productivity of wet land paddy in Tulungagung Regency required a special policy based on the GWR model in each distric.

  11. Geographically weighted regression as a generalized Wombling to detect barriers to gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Soares, Thannya Nascimento; de Campos Telles, Mariana Pires

    2016-08-01

    Barriers to gene flow play an important role in structuring populations, especially in human-modified landscapes, and several methods have been proposed to detect such barriers. However, most applications of these methods require a relative large number of individuals or populations distributed in space, connected by vertices from Delaunay or Gabriel networks. Here we show, using both simulated and empirical data, a new application of geographically weighted regression (GWR) to detect such barriers, modeling the genetic variation as a "local" linear function of geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude). In the GWR, standard regression statistics, such as R(2) and slopes, are estimated for each sampling unit and thus are mapped. Peaks in these local statistics are then expected close to the barriers if genetic discontinuities exist, capturing a higher rate of population differentiation among neighboring populations. Isolation-by-Distance simulations on a longitudinally warped lattice revealed that higher local slopes from GWR coincide with the barrier detected with Monmonier algorithm. Even with a relatively small effect of the barrier, the power of local GWR in detecting the east-west barriers was higher than 95 %. We also analyzed empirical data of genetic differentiation among tree populations of Dipteryx alata and Eugenia dysenterica Brazilian Cerrado. GWR was applied to the principal coordinate of the pairwise FST matrix based on microsatellite loci. In both simulated and empirical data, the GWR results were consistent with discontinuities detected by Monmonier algorithm, as well as with previous explanations for the spatial patterns of genetic differentiation for the two species. Our analyses reveal how this new application of GWR can viewed as a generalized Wombling in a continuous space and be a useful approach to detect barriers and discontinuities to gene flow.

  12. When homogeneity meets heterogeneity: the geographically weighted regression with spatial lag approach to prenatal care utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoff, Carla; Chen, Vivian Yi-Ju; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Using geographically weighted regression (GWR), a recent study by Shoff and colleagues (2012) investigated the place-specific risk factors for prenatal care utilization in the US and found that most of the relationships between late or not prenatal care and its determinants are spatially heterogeneous. However, the GWR approach may be subject to the confounding effect of spatial homogeneity. The goal of this study is to address this concern by including both spatial homogeneity and heterogeneity into the analysis. Specifically, we employ an analytic framework where a spatially lagged (SL) effect of the dependent variable is incorporated into the GWR model, which is called GWR-SL. Using this innovative framework, we found evidence to argue that spatial homogeneity is neglected in the study by Shoff et al. (2012) and the results are changed after considering the spatially lagged effect of prenatal care utilization. The GWR-SL approach allows us to gain a place-specific understanding of prenatal care utilization in US counties. In addition, we compared the GWR-SL results with the results of conventional approaches (i.e., OLS and spatial lag models) and found that GWR-SL is the preferred modeling approach. The new findings help us to better estimate how the predictors are associated with prenatal care utilization across space, and determine whether and how the level of prenatal care utilization in neighboring counties matters. PMID:24893033

  13. Key Factors Affecting the Price of Airbnb Listings: A Geographically Weighted Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Airbnb has been increasingly gaining popularity since 2008 due to its low prices and direct interactions with the local community. This paper employed a general linear model (GLM and a geographically weighted regression (GWR model to identify the key factors affecting Airbnb listing prices using data sets of 794 samples of Airbnb listings of business units in Metro Nashville, Tennessee. The results showed that the GWR model performs better than the GLM in terms of accuracy and affected variable selections. Statistically significant differences varied across regions in Metro Nashville. The coefficients illustrate a decreasing trend while there is an increase in the distance from the listed units to the convention center, which indicates that Airbnb listing prices are more sensitive to the distance from the convention center in the central area than in other areas. These findings can also provide implications for stakeholders such as Airbnb hosts to gain a better understanding of the market situation and formulate a suitable pricing strategy.

  14. Fisher Scoring Method for Parameter Estimation of Geographically Weighted Ordinal Logistic Regression (GWOLR) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyaningsih, Purnami; Retno Sari Saputro, Dewi; Nugrahani Putri, Aulia

    2017-06-01

    GWOLR model combines geographically weighted regression (GWR) and (ordinal logistic reression) OLR models. Its parameter estimation employs maximum likelihood estimation. Such parameter estimation, however, yields difficult-to-solve system of nonlinear equations, and therefore numerical approximation approach is required. The iterative approximation approach, in general, uses Newton-Raphson (NR) method. The NR method has a disadvantage—its Hessian matrix is always the second derivatives of each iteration so it does not always produce converging results. With regard to this matter, NR model is modified by substituting its Hessian matrix into Fisher information matrix, which is termed Fisher scoring (FS). The present research seeks to determine GWOLR model parameter estimation using Fisher scoring method and apply the estimation on data of the level of vulnerability to Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) in Semarang. The research concludes that health facilities give the greatest contribution to the probability of the number of DHF sufferers in both villages. Based on the number of the sufferers, IR category of DHF in both villages can be determined.

  15. [Spatial interpolation of soil organic matter using regression Kriging and geographically weighted regression Kriging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shun-hua; Zhang, Hai-tao; Guo, Long; Ren, Yan

    2015-06-01

    Relative elevation and stream power index were selected as auxiliary variables based on correlation analysis for mapping soil organic matter. Geographically weighted regression Kriging (GWRK) and regression Kriging (RK) were used for spatial interpolation of soil organic matter and compared with ordinary Kriging (OK), which acts as a control. The results indicated that soil or- ganic matter was significantly positively correlated with relative elevation whilst it had a significantly negative correlation with stream power index. Semivariance analysis showed that both soil organic matter content and its residuals (including ordinary least square regression residual and GWR resi- dual) had strong spatial autocorrelation. Interpolation accuracies by different methods were esti- mated based on a data set of 98 validation samples. Results showed that the mean error (ME), mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) of RK were respectively 39.2%, 17.7% and 20.6% lower than the corresponding values of OK, with a relative-improvement (RI) of 20.63. GWRK showed a similar tendency, having its ME, MAE and RMSE to be respectively 60.6%, 23.7% and 27.6% lower than those of OK, with a RI of 59.79. Therefore, both RK and GWRK significantly improved the accuracy of OK interpolation of soil organic matter due to their in- corporation of auxiliary variables. In addition, GWRK performed obviously better than RK did in this study, and its improved performance should be attributed to the consideration of sample spatial locations.

  16. Analysis of the relationship between community characteristics and depression using geographically weighted regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungyun; Kim, Ho

    2017-01-01

    Achieving national health equity is currently a pressing issue. Large regional variations in the health determinants are observed. Depression, one of the most common mental disorders, has large variations in incidence among different populations, and thus must be regionally analyzed. The present study aimed at analyzing regional disparities in depressive symptoms and identifying the health determinants that require regional interventions. Using health indicators of depression in the Korea Community Health Survey 2011 and 2013, the Moran's I was calculated for each variable to assess spatial autocorrelation, and a validated geographically weighted regression analysis using ArcGIS version 10.1 of different domains: health behavior, morbidity, and the social and physical environments were created, and the final model included a combination of significant variables in these models. In the health behavior domain, the weekly breakfast intake frequency of 1-2 times was the most significantly correlated with depression in all regions, followed by exposure to secondhand smoke and the level of perceived stress in some regions. In the morbidity domain, the rate of lifetime diagnosis of myocardial infarction was the most significantly correlated with depression. In the social and physical environment domain, the trust environment within the local community was highly correlated with depression, showing that lower the level of trust, higher was the level of depression. A final model was constructed and analyzed using highly influential variables from each domain. The models were divided into two groups according to the significance of correlation of each variable with the experience of depression symptoms. The indicators of the regional health status are significantly associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms within a region. The significance of this correlation varied across regions.

  17. Analysis of the relationship between community characteristics and depression using geographically weighted regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungyun Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Achieving national health equity is currently a pressing issue. Large regional variations in the health determinants are observed. Depression, one of the most common mental disorders, has large variations in incidence among different populations, and thus must be regionally analyzed. The present study aimed at analyzing regional disparities in depressive symptoms and identifying the health determinants that require regional interventions. METHODS Using health indicators of depression in the Korea Community Health Survey 2011 and 2013, the Moran’s I was calculated for each variable to assess spatial autocorrelation, and a validated geographically weighted regression analysis using ArcGIS version 10.1 of different domains: health behavior, morbidity, and the social and physical environments were created, and the final model included a combination of significant variables in these models. RESULTS In the health behavior domain, the weekly breakfast intake frequency of 1-2 times was the most significantly correlated with depression in all regions, followed by exposure to secondhand smoke and the level of perceived stress in some regions. In the morbidity domain, the rate of lifetime diagnosis of myocardial infarction was the most significantly correlated with depression. In the social and physical environment domain, the trust environment within the local community was highly correlated with depression, showing that lower the level of trust, higher was the level of depression. A final model was constructed and analyzed using highly influential variables from each domain. The models were divided into two groups according to the significance of correlation of each variable with the experience of depression symptoms. CONCLUSIONS The indicators of the regional health status are significantly associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms within a region. The significance of this correlation varied across regions.

  18. Testing the water-energy theory on American palms (Arecaceae using geographically weighted regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf L Eiserhardt

    Full Text Available Water and energy have emerged as the best contemporary environmental correlates of broad-scale species richness patterns. A corollary hypothesis of water-energy dynamics theory is that the influence of water decreases and the influence of energy increases with absolute latitude. We report the first use of geographically weighted regression for testing this hypothesis on a continuous species richness gradient that is entirely located within the tropics and subtropics. The dataset was divided into northern and southern hemispheric portions to test whether predictor shifts are more pronounced in the less oceanic northern hemisphere. American palms (Arecaceae, n = 547 spp., whose species richness and distributions are known to respond strongly to water and energy, were used as a model group. The ability of water and energy to explain palm species richness was quantified locally at different spatial scales and regressed on latitude. Clear latitudinal trends in agreement with water-energy dynamics theory were found, but the results did not differ qualitatively between hemispheres. Strong inherent spatial autocorrelation in local modeling results and collinearity of water and energy variables were identified as important methodological challenges. We overcame these problems by using simultaneous autoregressive models and variation partitioning. Our results show that the ability of water and energy to explain species richness changes not only across large climatic gradients spanning tropical to temperate or arctic zones but also within megathermal climates, at least for strictly tropical taxa such as palms. This finding suggests that the predictor shifts are related to gradual latitudinal changes in ambient energy (related to solar flux input rather than to abrupt transitions at specific latitudes, such as the occurrence of frost.

  19. AN INVESTIGATION OF LOCAL EFFECTS ON SURFACE WARMING WITH GEOGRAPHICALLY WEIGHTED REGRESSION (GWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xue

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban warming is sensitive to the nature (thermal properties, including albedo, water content, heat capacity and thermal conductivity and the placement (surface geometry or urban topography of urban surface. In the literature the spatial dependence and heterogeneity of urban thermal landscape is widely observed based on thermal infrared remote sensing within the urban environment. Urban surface warming is conceived as a big contribution to urban warming, the study of urban surface warming possesses significant meaning for probing into the problem of urban warming.The urban thermal landscape study takes advantage of the continuous surface derived from thermal infrared remote sensing at the landscape scale, the detailed variation of local surface temperature can be measured and analyzed through the systematic investigation. At the same time urban environmental factors can be quantified with remote sensing and GIS techniques. This enables a systematic investigation of urban thermal landscape with a link to be established between local environmental setting and surface temperature variation. The goal of this research is utilizing Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR to analyze the spatial relationship between urban form and surface temperature variation in order to clarify the local effects on surface warming, moreover to reveal the possible dynamics in the local influences of environmental indicators on the variation of local surface temperature across space and time. In this research, GWR analysis proved that the spatial variation in relationships between environmental setting and surface temperature was significant with Monte Carlo significance test and distinctive in day-night change. Comparatively, GWR facilitated the site specific investigation based on local statistical technique. The inference based on GWR model provided enriched information regarding the spatial variation of local environment effect on surface temperature variation which

  20. An Introduction to Macro- Level Spatial Nonstationarity: a Geographically Weighted Regression Analysis of Diabetes and Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siordia, Carlos; Saenz, Joseph; Tom, Sarah E

    2012-01-01

    Type II diabetes is a growing health problem in the United States. Understanding geographic variation in diabetes prevalence will inform where resources for management and prevention should be allocated. Investigations of the correlates of diabetes prevalence have largely ignored how spatial nonstationarity might play a role in the macro-level distribution of diabetes. This paper introduces the reader to the concept of spatial nonstationarity-variance in statistical relationships as a function of geographical location. Since spatial nonstationarity means different predictors can have varying effects on model outcomes, we make use of a geographically weighed regression to calculate correlates of diabetes as a function of geographic location. By doing so, we demonstrate an exploratory example in which the diabetes-poverty macro-level statistical relationship varies as a function of location. In particular, we provide evidence that when predicting macro-level diabetes prevalence, poverty is not always positively associated with diabetes.

  1. A geographically weighted regression model for geothermal potential assessment in mediterranean cultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arpa, S.; Zaccarelli, N.; Bruno, D. E.; Leucci, G.; Uricchio, V. F.; Zurlini, G.

    2012-04-01

    Geothermal heat can be used directly in many applications (agro-industrial processes, sanitary hot water production, heating/cooling systems, etc.). These applications respond to energetic and environmental sustainability criteria, ensuring substantial energy savings with low environmental impacts. In particular, in Mediterranean cultural landscapes the exploitation of geothermal energy offers a valuable alternative compared to other exploitation systems more land-consuming and visual-impact. However, low enthalpy geothermal energy applications at regional scale, require careful design and planning to fully exploit benefits and reduce drawbacks. We propose a first example of application of a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) for the modeling of geothermal potential in the Apulia Region (South Italy) by integrating hydrological (e.g. depth to water table, water speed and temperature), geological-geotechnical (e.g. lithology, thermal conductivity) parameters and land-use indicators. The GWR model can effectively cope with data quality, spatial anisotropy, lack of stationarity and presence of discontinuities in the underlying data maps. The geothermal potential assessment required a good knowledge of the space-time variation of the numerous parameters related to the status of geothermal resource, a contextual analysis of spatial and environmental features, as well as the presence and nature of regulations or infrastructures constraints. We create an ad hoc geodatabase within ArcGIS 10 collecting relevant data and performing a quality assessment. Cross-validation shows high level of consistency of the spatial local models, as well as error maps can depict areas of lower reliability. Based on low enthalpy geothermal potential map created, a first zoning of the study area is proposed, considering four level of possible exploitation. Such zoning is linked and refined by the actual legal constraints acting at regional or province level as enforced by the regional

  2. Modeling Fire Occurrence at the City Scale: A Comparison between Geographically Weighted Regression and Global Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chao; Kwan, Mei-Po; Zhu, Jiping

    2017-04-08

    An increasing number of fires are occurring with the rapid development of cities, resulting in increased risk for human beings and the environment. This study compares geographically weighted regression-based models, including geographically weighted regression (GWR) and geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR), which integrates spatial and temporal effects and global linear regression models (LM) for modeling fire risk at the city scale. The results show that the road density and the spatial distribution of enterprises have the strongest influences on fire risk, which implies that we should focus on areas where roads and enterprises are densely clustered. In addition, locations with a large number of enterprises have fewer fire ignition records, probably because of strict management and prevention measures. A changing number of significant variables across space indicate that heterogeneity mainly exists in the northern and eastern rural and suburban areas of Hefei city, where human-related facilities or road construction are only clustered in the city sub-centers. GTWR can capture small changes in the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of the variables while GWR and LM cannot. An approach that integrates space and time enables us to better understand the dynamic changes in fire risk. Thus governments can use the results to manage fire safety at the city scale.

  3. A comparison of least squares regression and geographically weighted regression modeling of West Nile virus risk based on environmental parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Abhishek K; Tiwari, Chetan; Mikler, Armin R; Atkinson, Samuel F

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of the study reported here was to determine the effectiveness of utilizing local spatial variations in environmental data to uncover the statistical relationships between West Nile Virus (WNV) risk and environmental factors. Because least squares regression methods do not account for spatial autocorrelation and non-stationarity of the type of spatial data analyzed for studies that explore the relationship between WNV and environmental determinants, we hypothesized that a geographically weighted regression model would help us better understand how environmental factors are related to WNV risk patterns without the confounding effects of spatial non-stationarity. We examined commonly mapped environmental factors using both ordinary least squares regression (LSR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR). Both types of models were applied to examine the relationship between WNV-infected dead bird counts and various environmental factors for those locations. The goal was to determine which approach yielded a better predictive model. LSR efforts lead to identifying three environmental variables that were statistically significantly related to WNV infected dead birds (adjusted R 2  = 0.61): stream density, road density, and land surface temperature. GWR efforts increased the explanatory value of these three environmental variables with better spatial precision (adjusted R 2  = 0.71). The spatial granularity resulting from the geographically weighted approach provides a better understanding of how environmental spatial heterogeneity is related to WNV risk as implied by WNV infected dead birds, which should allow improved planning of public health management strategies.

  4. Modeling Fire Occurrence at the City Scale: A Comparison between Geographically Weighted Regression and Global Linear Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Song

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of fires are occurring with the rapid development of cities, resulting in increased risk for human beings and the environment. This study compares geographically weighted regression-based models, including geographically weighted regression (GWR and geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR, which integrates spatial and temporal effects and global linear regression models (LM for modeling fire risk at the city scale. The results show that the road density and the spatial distribution of enterprises have the strongest influences on fire risk, which implies that we should focus on areas where roads and enterprises are densely clustered. In addition, locations with a large number of enterprises have fewer fire ignition records, probably because of strict management and prevention measures. A changing number of significant variables across space indicate that heterogeneity mainly exists in the northern and eastern rural and suburban areas of Hefei city, where human-related facilities or road construction are only clustered in the city sub-centers. GTWR can capture small changes in the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of the variables while GWR and LM cannot. An approach that integrates space and time enables us to better understand the dynamic changes in fire risk. Thus governments can use the results to manage fire safety at the city scale.

  5. Homogeneous Poisson structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafei Deh Abad, A.; Malek, F.

    1993-09-01

    We provide an algebraic definition for Schouten product and give a decomposition for any homogenenous Poisson structure in any n-dimensional vector space. A large class of n-homogeneous Poisson structures in R k is also characterized. (author). 4 refs

  6. The Weight of Categories: Geographically Inscribed Otherness in Botkyrka Municipality, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beiyi Hu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper asked a paradoxical question: why have immigrants to Sweden (particularly refugees become geographically, economically, and symbolically segregated despite the putatively generous provisions of Sweden’s welfare state? I sought to understand how people and institutions perceived and deployed categories that created geographically inscribed “Otherness” through a year-long fieldwork in Botkyrka Municipality of the Greater Stockholm area. My analysis weaved together three models for explaining social segregation: the relational, the symbolic, and the spatial. I then augmented these models by taking into account the legal and bureaucratic frameworks that influence social exclusion, as well as historical factors of geographical exclusion. My study revealed how the Swedish government has, despite repeated attempts to integrate immigrant populations into the national identity, nonetheless continued to demarcate immigrant populations both symbolically and geographically, first through a long history of categorizing immigrants as “non-Swedes” (whether as “foreigner,” “immigrant,” or “people with a foreign background”, and through policies that have inadvertently separated the spaces in which immigrants are able to live. Finally, I concluded that the nation’s ethnocultural and Volk-centered definition of nationhood makes it almost impossible for immigrants to be integrated into the Swedish society and propose a shift of academic interests in three aspects.

  7. Use of Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR Method to Estimate the Effects of Location Attributes on the Residential Property Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Faris Dziauddin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the effect of locational attributes on residential property values in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Geographically weighted regression (GWR enables the use of the local parameter rather than the global parameter to be estimated, with the results presented in map form. The results of this study reveal that residential property values are mainly determined by the property’s physical (structural attributes, but proximity to locational attributes also contributes marginally. The use of GWR in this study is considered a better approach than other methods to examine the effect of locational attributes on residential property values. GWR has the capability to produce meaningful results in which different locational attributes have differential spatial effects across a geographical area on residential property values. This method has the ability to determine the factors on which premiums depend, and in turn it can assist the government in taxation matters.

  8. Zeroth Poisson Homology, Foliated Cohomology and Perfect Poisson Manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Torres, David; Miranda, Eva

    2018-01-01

    We prove that, for compact regular Poisson manifolds, the zeroth homology group is isomorphic to the top foliated cohomology group, and we give some applications. In particular, we show that, for regular unimodular Poisson manifolds, top Poisson and foliated cohomology groups are isomorphic. Inspired by the symplectic setting, we define what a perfect Poisson manifold is. We use these Poisson homology computations to provide families of perfect Poisson manifolds.

  9. Modifications to POISSON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    At MSU we have used the POISSON family of programs extensively for magnetic field calculations. In the presently super-saturated computer situation, reducing the run time for the program is imperative. Thus, a series of modifications have been made to POISSON to speed up convergence. Two of the modifications aim at having the first guess solution as close as possible to the final solution. The other two aim at increasing the convergence rate. In this discussion, a working knowledge of POISSON is assumed. The amount of new code and expected time saving for each modification is discussed

  10. Implementations of geographically weighted lasso in spatial data with multicollinearity (Case study: Poverty modeling of Java Island)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyorini, Anis; Suprijadi, Jadi; Handoko, Budhi

    2017-03-01

    Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is a regression model that takes into account the spatial heterogeneity effect. In the application of the GWR, inference on regression coefficients is often of interest, as is estimation and prediction of the response variable. Empirical research and studies have demonstrated that local correlation between explanatory variables can lead to estimated regression coefficients in GWR that are strongly correlated, a condition named multicollinearity. It later results on a large standard error on estimated regression coefficients, and, hence, problematic for inference on relationships between variables. Geographically Weighted Lasso (GWL) is a method which capable to deal with spatial heterogeneity and local multicollinearity in spatial data sets. GWL is a further development of GWR method, which adds a LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) constraint in parameter estimation. In this study, GWL will be applied by using fixed exponential kernel weights matrix to establish a poverty modeling of Java Island, Indonesia. The results of applying the GWL to poverty datasets show that this method stabilizes regression coefficients in the presence of multicollinearity and produces lower prediction and estimation error of the response variable than GWR does.

  11. Factors affecting CO2 emissions in China’s agriculture sector: Evidence from geographically weighted regression model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bin; Lin, Boqiang

    2017-01-01

    China is currently the world's largest emitter of carbon dioxide. Considered as a large agricultural country, carbon emission in China’s agriculture sector keeps on growing rapidly. It is, therefore, of great importance to investigate the driving forces of carbon dioxide emissions in this sector. The traditional regression estimation can only get “average” and “global” parameter estimates; it excludes the “local” parameter estimates which vary across space in some spatial systems. Geographically weighted regression embeds the latitude and longitude of the sample data into the regression parameters, and uses the local weighted least squares method to estimate the parameters point–by–point. To reveal the nonstationary spatial effects of driving forces, geographically weighted regression model is employed in this paper. The results show that economic growth is positively correlated with emissions, with the impact in the western region being less than that in the central and eastern regions. Urbanization is positively related to emissions but produces opposite effects pattern. Energy intensity is also correlated with emissions, with a decreasing trend from the eastern region to the central and western regions. Therefore, policymakers should take full account of the spatial nonstationarity of driving forces in designing emission reduction policies. - Highlights: • We explore the driving forces of CO 2 emissions in the agriculture sector. • Urbanization is positively related to emissions but produces opposite effect pattern. • The effect of energy intensity declines from the eastern region to western region.

  12. Scaling the Poisson Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, David L.

    2014-01-01

    We derive the additive property of Poisson random variables directly from the probability mass function. An important application of the additive property to quality testing of computer chips is presented.

  13. On Poisson Nonlinear Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Ganikhodjaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the family of Poisson nonlinear transformations defined on the countable sample space of nonnegative integers and investigate their trajectory behavior. We have proved that these nonlinear transformations are regular.

  14. Extended Poisson Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Fatima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new mixture of Modified Exponential (ME and Poisson distribution has been introduced in this paper. Taking the Maximum of Modified Exponential random variable when the sample size follows a zero truncated Poisson distribution we have derived the new distribution, named as Extended Poisson Exponential distribution. This distribution possesses increasing and decreasing failure rates. The Poisson-Exponential, Modified Exponential and Exponential distributions are special cases of this distribution. We have also investigated some mathematical properties of the distribution along with Information entropies and Order statistics of the distribution. The estimation of parameters has been obtained using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation procedure. Finally we have illustrated a real data application of our distribution.

  15. Poisson branching point processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, K.; Teich, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule--Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers

  16. Weighted Poisson analyses à la Goodman using SAS-GENMOD. [Paper presented at 15th SAS European Users Group International SEUGI Conference, Madrid, 12-16 May 1997].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelesang, A.W.

    2010-01-01

    In traffic safety analysis, weight factors are often applied, to correct for road length, traffic volume, numbers of kilometers driven, etc. Also, many data are subdivided into classes (road type: freeway, 80 km/hr, two lanes, rural area, etc); combining factors often leads to a

  17. Mixed geographically weighted regression (MGWR) model with weighted adaptive bi-square for case of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in Surakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, H. N.; Saputro, D. R. S.; Susanti, Y.

    2017-06-01

    MGWR model is combination of linear regression model and geographically weighted regression (GWR) model, therefore, MGWR model could produce parameter estimation that had global parameter estimation, and other parameter that had local parameter in accordance with its observation location. The linkage between locations of the observations expressed in specific weighting that is adaptive bi-square. In this research, we applied MGWR model with weighted adaptive bi-square for case of DHF in Surakarta based on 10 factors (variables) that is supposed to influence the number of people with DHF. The observation unit in the research is 51 urban villages and the variables are number of inhabitants, number of houses, house index, many public places, number of healthy homes, number of Posyandu, area width, level population density, welfare of the family, and high-region. Based on this research, we obtained 51 MGWR models. The MGWR model were divided into 4 groups with significant variable is house index as a global variable, an area width as a local variable and the remaining variables vary in each. Global variables are variables that significantly affect all locations, while local variables are variables that significantly affect a specific location.

  18. Geographically weighted regression for modelling the accessibility to the public hospital network in Concepción Metropolitan Area, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Bascuñán, Marcela; Rojas Quezada, Carolina

    2016-11-22

    Accessibility models in transport geography based on geographic information systems have proven to be an effective method in determining spatial inequalities associated with public health. This work aims to model the spatial accessibility from populated areas within the Concepción metropolitan area (CMA), the second largest city in Chile. The city's public hospital network is taken into consideration with special reference to socio-regional inequalities. The use of geographically weighted regression (GWR) and ordinary least squares (OLS) for modelling accessibility with socioeconomic and transport variables is proposed. The explanatory variables investigated are: illiterate population, rural housing, alternative housing, homes with a motorised vehicle, public transport routes, and connectivity. Our results identify that approximately 4.1% of the population have unfavourable or very unfavourable accessibility to public hospitals, which correspond to rural areas located south of CMA. Application of a local GWR model (0.87 R2 adjusted) helped to improve the settings over the use of traditional OLS methods (multiple regression) (0.67 R2 adjusted) and to find the spatial distribution of both coefficients of the explanatory variables, demonstrating the local significance of the model. Thus, accessibility studies have enormous potential to contribute to the development of public health and transport policies in turn to achieve equality in spatial accessibility to specialised health care.

  19. Exploring racial disparities in CHD mortality between blacks and whites across the United States: A geographically weighted regression approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreab, Samson Y.; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2012-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality is one of the major contributors to racial disparities in health in the United States (US). We examined spatial heterogeneity in black–white differences in CHD mortality across the US and assessed the contributions of poverty and segregation. We used county-level, age-adjusted CHD mortality rates for blacks and whites in the continental US between 1996 and 2006. Geographically weighted regression was employed to assess spatial heterogeneity. There was significant spatial heterogeneity in black–white differences in CHD mortality (median black–white difference 17.7 per 100,000, 25th–75th percentile (IQR): 4.0, 34.0, P value for spatial non-stationarity racial disparities in CHD mortality. Additional research to identify the individual and contextual factors that explain the local variations in racial disparities is warranted. PMID:22835483

  20. Paretian Poisson Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2008-05-01

    Many random populations can be modeled as a countable set of points scattered randomly on the positive half-line. The points may represent magnitudes of earthquakes and tornados, masses of stars, market values of public companies, etc. In this article we explore a specific class of random such populations we coin ` Paretian Poisson processes'. This class is elemental in statistical physics—connecting together, in a deep and fundamental way, diverse issues including: the Poisson distribution of the Law of Small Numbers; Paretian tail statistics; the Fréchet distribution of Extreme Value Theory; the one-sided Lévy distribution of the Central Limit Theorem; scale-invariance, renormalization and fractality; resilience to random perturbations.

  1. Scale Effects of the Relationships between Urban Heat Islands and Impact Factors Based on a Geographically-Weighted Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Luo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban heat island (UHI effect, the side effect of rapid urbanization, has become an obstacle to the further healthy development of the city. Understanding its relationships with impact factors is important to provide useful information for climate adaptation urban planning strategies. For this purpose, the geographically-weighted regression (GWR approach is used to explore the scale effects in a mountainous city, namely the change laws and characteristics of the relationships between land surface temperature and impact factors at different spatial resolutions (30–960 m. The impact factors include the Soil-adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI, the Index-based Built-up Index (IBI, and the Soil Brightness Index (NDSI, which indicate the coverage of the vegetation, built-up, and bare land, respectively. For reference, the ordinary least squares (OLS model, a global regression technique, is also employed by using the same dependent variable and explanatory variables as in the GWR model. Results from the experiment exemplified by Chongqing showed that the GWR approach had a better prediction accuracy and a better ability to describe spatial non-stationarity than the OLS approach judged by the analysis of the local coefficient of determination (R2, Corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc, and F-test at small spatial resolution (< 240 m; however, when the spatial scale was increased to 480 m, this advantage has become relatively weak. This indicates that the GWR model becomes increasingly global, revealing the relationships with more generalized geographical patterns, and then spatial non-stationarity in the relationship will tend to be neglected with the increase of spatial resolution.

  2. Fractional Poisson Fields and Martingales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletti, Giacomo; Leonenko, Nikolai; Merzbach, Ely

    2018-01-01

    We present new properties for the Fractional Poisson process (FPP) and the Fractional Poisson field on the plane. A martingale characterization for FPPs is given. We extend this result to Fractional Poisson fields, obtaining some other characterizations. The fractional differential equations are studied. We consider a more general Mixed-Fractional Poisson process and show that this process is the stochastic solution of a system of fractional differential-difference equations. Finally, we give some simulations of the Fractional Poisson field on the plane.

  3. Fractional Poisson Fields and Martingales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletti, Giacomo; Leonenko, Nikolai; Merzbach, Ely

    2018-02-01

    We present new properties for the Fractional Poisson process (FPP) and the Fractional Poisson field on the plane. A martingale characterization for FPPs is given. We extend this result to Fractional Poisson fields, obtaining some other characterizations. The fractional differential equations are studied. We consider a more general Mixed-Fractional Poisson process and show that this process is the stochastic solution of a system of fractional differential-difference equations. Finally, we give some simulations of the Fractional Poisson field on the plane.

  4. Spatial Analysis of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in China Using a Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS is caused by severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV, which has had a serious impact on public health in parts of Asia. There is no specific antiviral drug or vaccine for SFTSV and, therefore, it is important to determine the factors that influence the occurrence of SFTSV infections. This study aimed to explore the spatial associations between SFTSV infections and several potential determinants, and to predict the high-risk areas in mainland China. The analysis was carried out at the level of provinces in mainland China. The potential explanatory variables that were investigated consisted of meteorological factors (average temperature, average monthly precipitation and average relative humidity, the average proportion of rural population and the average proportion of primary industries over three years (2010–2012. We constructed a geographically weighted logistic regression (GWLR model in order to explore the associations between the selected variables and confirmed cases of SFTSV. The study showed that: (1 meteorological factors have a strong influence on the SFTSV cover; (2 a GWLR model is suitable for exploring SFTSV cover in mainland China; (3 our findings can be used for predicting high-risk areas and highlighting when meteorological factors pose a risk in order to aid in the implementation of public health strategies.

  5. Geographically Weighted Regression Models in Estimating Median Home Prices in Towns of Massachusetts Based on an Urban Sustainability Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxiong Ma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Housing is a key component of urban sustainability. The objective of this study was to assess the significance of key spatial determinants of median home price in towns in Massachusetts that impact sustainable growth. Our analysis investigates the presence or absence of spatial non-stationarity in the relationship between sustainable growth, measured in terms of the relationship between home values and various parameters including the amount of unprotected forest land, residential land, unemployment, education, vehicle ownership, accessibility to commuter rail stations, school district performance, and senior population. We use the standard geographically weighted regression (GWR and Mixed GWR models to analyze the effects of spatial non-stationarity. Mixed GWR performed better than GWR in terms of Akaike Information Criterion (AIC values. Our findings highlight the nature and spatial extent of the non-stationary vs. stationary qualities of key environmental and social determinants of median home price. Understanding the key determinants of housing values, such as valuation of green spaces, public school performance metrics, and proximity to public transport, enable towns to use different strategies of sustainable urban planning, while understanding urban housing determinants—such as unemployment and senior population—can help modify urban sustainable housing policies.

  6. A Mixed Application of Geographically Weighted Regression and Unsupervised Classification for Analyzing Latex Yield Variability in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Seok Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a mixed method approach for analyzing the determinants of natural latex yields and the associated spatial variations and identifying the most suitable regions for producing latex. Geographically Weighted Regressions (GWR and Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA are jointly applied to the georeferenced data points collected from the rubber plantations in Xishuangbanna (in Yunnan province, south China and other remotely-sensed spatial data. According to the GWR models, Age of rubber tree, Percent of clay in soil, Elevation, Solar radiation, Population, Distance from road, Distance from stream, Precipitation, and Mean temperature turn out statistically significant, indicating that these are the major determinants shaping latex yields at the prefecture level. However, the signs and magnitudes of the parameter estimates at the aggregate level are different from those at the lower spatial level, and the differences are due to diverse reasons. The ISODATA classifies the landscape into three categories: high, medium, and low potential yields. The map reveals that Mengla County has the majority of land with high potential yield, while Jinghong City and Menghai County show lower potential yield. In short, the mixed method can offer a means of providing greater insights in the prediction of agricultural production.

  7. Determinants of the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease in China using geographically weighted regression models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maogui Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, major epidemics of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD have occurred throughout most of the West-Pacific Region countries, causing thousands of deaths among children. However, few studies have examined potential determinants of the incidence of HFMD. METHODS: Reported HFMD cases from 2912 counties in China were obtained for May 2008. The monthly HFMD cumulative incidence was calculated for children aged 9 years and younger. Child population density (CPD and six climate factors (average-temperature [AT], average-minimum-temperature [AT(min], average-maximum-temperature [AT(max], average-temperature-difference [AT(diff], average-relative-humidity [ARH], and monthly precipitation [MP] were selected as potential explanatory variables for the study. Geographically weighted regression (GWR models were used to explore the associations between the selected factors and HFMD incidence at county level. RESULTS: There were 176,111 HFMD cases reported in the studied counties. The adjusted monthly cumulative incidence by county ranged from 0.26 cases per 100,000 children to 2549.00 per 100,000 children. For local univariate GWR models, the percentage of counties with statistical significance (p<0.05 between HFMD incidence and each of the seven factors were: CPD 84.3%, AT(max 54.9%, AT 57.8%, AT(min 61.2%, ARH 54.4%, MP 50.3%, and AT(diff 51.6%. The R(2 for the seven factors' univariate GWR models are CPD 0.56, AT(max 0.53, AT 0.52, MP 0.51, AT(min 0.52, ARH 0.51, and AT(diff 0.51, respectively. CPD, MP, AT, ARH and AT(diff were further included in the multivariate GWR model, with R(2 0.62, and all counties show statistically significant relationship. CONCLUSION: Child population density and climate factors are potential determinants of the HFMD incidence in most areas in China. The strength and direction of association between these factors and the incidence of HFDM is spatially heterogeneous at the local geographic

  8. The Poisson aggregation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and analyze the Poisson Aggregation Process (PAP): a stochastic model in which a random collection of random balls is stacked over a general metric space. The scattering of the balls’ centers follows a general Poisson process over the metric space, and the balls’ radii are independent and identically distributed random variables governed by a general distribution. For each point of the metric space, the PAP counts the number of balls that are stacked over it. The PAP model is a highly versatile spatial counterpart of the temporal M/G/∞ model in queueing theory. The surface of the moon, scarred by circular meteor-impact craters, exemplifies the PAP model in two dimensions: the PAP counts the number of meteor-impacts that any given moon-surface point sustained. A comprehensive analysis of the PAP is presented, and the closed-form results established include: general statistics, stationary statistics, short-range and long-range dependencies, a Central Limit Theorem, an Extreme Limit Theorem, and fractality.

  9. Impacts of land use and population density on seasonal surface water quality using a modified geographically weighted regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Mei, Kun; Dahlgren, Randy A; Wang, Ting; Gong, Jian; Zhang, Minghua

    2016-12-01

    As an important regulator of pollutants in overland flow and interflow, land use has become an essential research component for determining the relationships between surface water quality and pollution sources. This study investigated the use of ordinary least squares (OLS) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models to identify the impact of land use and population density on surface water quality in the Wen-Rui Tang River watershed of eastern China. A manual variable excluding-selecting method was explored to resolve multicollinearity issues. Standard regression coefficient analysis coupled with cluster analysis was introduced to determine which variable had the greatest influence on water quality. Results showed that: (1) Impact of land use on water quality varied with spatial and seasonal scales. Both positive and negative effects for certain land-use indicators were found in different subcatchments. (2) Urban land was the dominant factor influencing N, P and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in highly urbanized regions, but the relationship was weak as the pollutants were mainly from point sources. Agricultural land was the primary factor influencing N and P in suburban and rural areas; the relationship was strong as the pollutants were mainly from agricultural surface runoff. Subcatchments located in suburban areas were identified with urban land as the primary influencing factor during the wet season while agricultural land was identified as a more prevalent influencing factor during the dry season. (3) Adjusted R 2 values in OLS models using the manual variable excluding-selecting method averaged 14.3% higher than using stepwise multiple linear regressions. However, the corresponding GWR models had adjusted R 2 ~59.2% higher than the optimal OLS models, confirming that GWR models demonstrated better prediction accuracy. Based on our findings, water resource protection policies should consider site-specific land-use conditions within each watershed to

  10. Modelling long-term fire occurrence factors in Spain by accounting for local variations with geographically weighted regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fernández, J.; Chuvieco, E.; Koutsias, N.

    2013-02-01

    Humans are responsible for most forest fires in Europe, but anthropogenic factors behind these events are still poorly understood. We tried to identify the driving factors of human-caused fire occurrence in Spain by applying two different statistical approaches. Firstly, assuming stationary processes for the whole country, we created models based on multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression to find factors associated with fire density and fire presence, respectively. Secondly, we used geographically weighted regression (GWR) to better understand and explore the local and regional variations of those factors behind human-caused fire occurrence. The number of human-caused fires occurring within a 25-yr period (1983-2007) was computed for each of the 7638 Spanish mainland municipalities, creating a binary variable (fire/no fire) to develop logistic models, and a continuous variable (fire density) to build standard linear regression models. A total of 383 657 fires were registered in the study dataset. The binary logistic model, which estimates the probability of having/not having a fire, successfully classified 76.4% of the total observations, while the ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model explained 53% of the variation of the fire density patterns (adjusted R2 = 0.53). Both approaches confirmed, in addition to forest and climatic variables, the importance of variables related with agrarian activities, land abandonment, rural population exodus and developmental processes as underlying factors of fire occurrence. For the GWR approach, the explanatory power of the GW linear model for fire density using an adaptive bandwidth increased from 53% to 67%, while for the GW logistic model the correctly classified observations improved only slightly, from 76.4% to 78.4%, but significantly according to the corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc), from 3451.19 to 3321.19. The results from GWR indicated a significant spatial variation in the local

  11. Estimating Sub-Pixel Soybean Fraction from Time-Series MODIS Data Using an Optimized Geographically Weighted Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Hu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soybean cultivation in China has significantly decreased due to the rising import of genetically modified soybeans from other countries. Understanding soybean’s extent and change information is of great value for national agricultural policy implications and global food security. Some previous studies have explored the quantitative relationships between crop area and spectral variables derived from remote sensing data. However, both those linear or non-linear relationships were expressed by global regression models, which ignored the spatial non-stationarity of crop spectral signature and may limit the prediction accuracy. This study presented a geographically weighted regression model (GWR to estimate fractional soybean at 250 m spatial resolution in Heilongjiang Province, one of the most important food production regions in China, using time-series MODIS data and high-quality calibration information derived from Landsat data. A forward stepwise optimization strategy was embedded with the GWR model to select the optimal subset of independent variables for soybeans. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI of Julian day 233 to 257 when soybeans are filling seed was found to be the most important temporal period for sub-pixel soybean area estimation. Our MODIS-based soybean area compared well with Landsat-based results at pixel-level. Also, there was a good agreement between the MODIS-based result and census data at county level, with the coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.80 and the root mean square error (RMSE was 340.21 km2. Additionally, F-test results showed GWR model had better model goodness-of-fit and higher prediction accuracy than the traditional ordinary least squares (OLS model. These promising results suggest crop spectral variations both at temporal and spatial scales should be considered when exploring its relationship with pixel-level crop acreage. The optimized GWR model by combining an automated feature selection

  12. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannidou, Theodora, E-mail: ti3@auth.gr [Faculty of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54249, Thessaloniki (Greece); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200, Tours (France); Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-01-28

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  13. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidou, Theodora; Niemi, Antti J.

    2016-01-01

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  14. Analysis on Poisson and Gamma spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kondratiev, Yuri; Silva, Jose Luis; Streit, Ludwig; Us, Georgi

    1999-01-01

    We study the spaces of Poisson, compound Poisson and Gamma noises as special cases of a general approach to non-Gaussian white noise calculus, see \\cite{KSS96}. We use a known unitary isomorphism between Poisson and compound Poisson spaces in order to transport analytic structures from Poisson space to compound Poisson space. Finally we study a Fock type structure of chaos decomposition on Gamma space.

  15. Coordination of Conditional Poisson Samples

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    Grafström Anton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sample coordination seeks to maximize or to minimize the overlap of two or more samples. The former is known as positive coordination, and the latter as negative coordination. Positive coordination is mainly used for estimation purposes and to reduce data collection costs. Negative coordination is mainly performed to diminish the response burden of the sampled units. Poisson sampling design with permanent random numbers provides an optimum coordination degree of two or more samples. The size of a Poisson sample is, however, random. Conditional Poisson (CP sampling is a modification of the classical Poisson sampling that produces a fixed-size πps sample. We introduce two methods to coordinate Conditional Poisson samples over time or simultaneously. The first one uses permanent random numbers and the list-sequential implementation of CP sampling. The second method uses a CP sample in the first selection and provides an approximate one in the second selection because the prescribed inclusion probabilities are not respected exactly. The methods are evaluated using the size of the expected sample overlap, and are compared with their competitors using Monte Carlo simulation. The new methods provide a good coordination degree of two samples, close to the performance of Poisson sampling with permanent random numbers.

  16. Spatiotemporal Pattern of PM2.5 Concentrations in Mainland China and Analysis of Its Influencing Factors using Geographically Weighted Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jieqiong; Du, Peijun; Samat, Alim; Xia, Junshi; Che, Meiqin; Xue, Zhaohui

    2017-01-01

    Based on annual average PM2.5 gridded dataset, this study first analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of PM2.5 across Mainland China during 1998-2012. Then facilitated with meteorological site data, land cover data, population and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) data, etc., the contributions of latent geographic factors, including socioeconomic factors (e.g., road, agriculture, population, industry) and natural geographical factors (e.g., topography, climate, vegetation) to PM2.5 were explored through Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model. The results revealed that PM2.5 concentrations increased while the spatial pattern remained stable, and the proportion of areas with PM2.5 concentrations greater than 35 μg/m3 significantly increased from 23.08% to 29.89%. Moreover, road, agriculture, population and vegetation showed the most significant impacts on PM2.5. Additionally, the Moran’s I for the residuals of GWR was 0.025 (not significant at a 0.01 level), indicating that the GWR model was properly specified. The local coefficient estimates of GDP in some cities were negative, suggesting the existence of the inverted-U shaped Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) for PM2.5 in Mainland China. The effects of each latent factor on PM2.5 in various regions were different. Therefore, regional measures and strategies for controlling PM2.5 should be formulated in terms of the local impacts of specific factors.

  17. R programming for parameters estimation of geographically weighted ordinal logistic regression (GWOLR) model based on Newton Raphson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhdi, Shaifudin; Saputro, Dewi Retno Sari

    2017-03-01

    GWOLR model used for represent relationship between dependent variable has categories and scale of category is ordinal with independent variable influenced the geographical location of the observation site. Parameters estimation of GWOLR model use maximum likelihood provide system of nonlinear equations and hard to be found the result in analytic resolution. By finishing it, it means determine the maximum completion, this thing associated with optimizing problem. The completion nonlinear system of equations optimize use numerical approximation, which one is Newton Raphson method. The purpose of this research is to make iteration algorithm Newton Raphson and program using R software to estimate GWOLR model. Based on the research obtained that program in R can be used to estimate the parameters of GWOLR model by forming a syntax program with command "while".

  18. PROVIDING THE FIRE RISK MAP IN FOREST AREA USING A GEOGRAPHICALLY WEIGHTED REGRESSION MODEL WITH GAUSSIN KERNEL AND MODIS IMAGES, A CASE STUDY: GOLESTAN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shah-Heydari pour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the industrialization of cities and the apparent increase in pollutants and greenhouse gases, the importance of forests as the natural lungs of the earth is felt more than ever to clean these pollutants. Annually, a large part of the forests is destroyed due to the lack of timely action during the fire. Knowledge about areas with a high-risk of fire and equipping these areas by constructing access routes and allocating the fire-fighting equipment can help to eliminate the destruction of the forest. In this research, the fire risk of region was forecasted and the risk map of that was provided using MODIS images by applying geographically weighted regression model with Gaussian kernel and ordinary least squares over the effective parameters in forest fire including distance from residential areas, distance from the river, distance from the road, height, slope, aspect, soil type, land use, average temperature, wind speed, and rainfall. After the evaluation, it was found that the geographically weighted regression model with Gaussian kernel forecasted 93.4% of the all fire points properly, however the ordinary least squares method could forecast properly only 66% of the fire points.

  19. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M

    2009-01-01

    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  20. Independent production and Poisson distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvastov, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    The well-known statement of factorization of inclusive cross-sections in case of independent production of particles (or clusters, jets etc.) and the conclusion of Poisson distribution over their multiplicity arising from it do not follow from the probability theory in any way. Using accurately the theorem of the product of independent probabilities, quite different equations are obtained and no consequences relative to multiplicity distributions are obtained. 11 refs

  1. Exploring Determinants of Spatial Variations in the Dengue Fever Epidemic Using Geographically Weighted Regression Model: A Case Study in the Joint Guangzhou-Foshan Area, China, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Ren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever (DF is a common and rapidly spreading vector-borne viral disease in tropical and subtropical regions. In recent years, this imported disease has posed an increasing threat to public health in China, especially in many southern cities. Although the severity of DF outbreaks in these cities is generally associated with known risk factors at various administrative levels, spatial heterogeneities of these associations remain little understood on a finer scale. In this study, the neighboring Guangzhou and Foshan (GF cities were considered as a joint area for characterizing the spatial variations in the 2014 DF epidemic at various grid levels from 1 × 1 km2 to 6 × 6 km2. On an appropriate scale, geographically weighted regression (GWR models were employed to interpret the influences of socioeconomic and environmental factors on this epidemic across the GF area. DF transmissions in Guangzhou and Foshan cities presented synchronous temporal changes and spatial expansions during the main epidemic months. Across the GF area, this epidemic was obviously spatially featured at various grid levels, especially on the 2 × 2 km2 scale. Its spatial variations were relatively sufficiently explained by population size, road density, and economic status integrated in the GWR model with the lowest Akaike Information Criterion (AICc = 5227.97 and highest adjusted R square (0.732 values. These results indicated that these three socioeconomic factors acted as geographical determinants of spatial variability of the 2014 DF epidemic across the joint GF area, although some other potential factors should be added to improve the explaining the spatial variations in the central zones. This work improves our understanding of the effects of socioeconomic conditions on the spatial variations in this epidemic and helps local hygienic authorities to make targeted joint interventions for preventing and controlling this epidemic across the GF area.

  2. Assessment of Brown Bear\\'s (Ursus arctos syriacus Winter Habitat Using Geographically Weighted Regression and Generalized Linear Model in South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Zarei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter dens are one of the important components of brown bear's (Ursus arctos syriacus habitat, affecting their reproduction and survival. Therefore identification of factors affecting the habitat selection and suitable denning areas in the conservation of our largest carnivore is necessary. We used Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression (GWLR and Generalized Linear Model (GLM for modeling suitability of denning habitat in Kouhkhom region in Fars province. In the present research, 20 dens (presence locations and 20 caves where signs of bear were not found (absence locations were used as dependent variables and six environmental factors were used for each location as independent variables. The results of GLM showed that variables of distance to settlements, altitude, and distance to water were the most important parameters affecting suitability of the brown bear's denning habitat. The results of GWLR showed the significant local variations in the relationship between occurrence of brown bear dens and the variable of distance to settlements. Based on the results of both models, suitable habitats for denning of the species are impassable areas in the mountains and inaccessible for humans.

  3. Exploring the Non-Stationary Effects of Forests and Developed Land within Watersheds on Biological Indicators of Streams Using Geographically-Weighted Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Jin An

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the non-stationary relationship between the ecological condition of streams and the proportions of forest and developed land in watersheds using geographically-weighted regression (GWR. Most previous studies have adopted the ordinary least squares (OLS method, which assumes stationarity of the relationship between land use and biological indicators. However, these conventional OLS models cannot provide any insight into local variations in the land use effects within watersheds. Here, we compared the performance of the OLS and GWR statistical models applied to benthic diatom, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities in sub-watershed management areas. We extracted land use datasets from the Ministry of Environment LULC map and data on biological indicators in Nakdong river systems from the National Aquatic Ecological Monitoring Program in Korea. We found that the GWR model had superior performance compared with the OLS model, as assessed based on R2, Akaike’s Information Criterion, and Moran’s I values. Furthermore, GWR models revealed specific localized effects of land use on biological indicators, which we investigated further. The results of this study can be used to inform more effective policies on watershed management and to enhance ecological integrity by prioritizing sub-watershed management areas

  4. Evaluation of Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) for Water Quality Monitoring: A Case Study for the Estimation of Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeer, Majid; Bilal, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) dataset have been used to estimate salinity in the coastal area of Hong Kong. Four adjacent Landsat TM images were used in this study, which was atmospherically corrected using the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer code. The atmospherically corrected images were further used to develop models for salinity using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) based on in situ data of October 2009. Results show that the coefficient of determination ( R 2) of 0.42 between the OLS estimated and in situ measured salinity is much lower than that of the GWR model, which is two times higher ( R 2 = 0.86). It indicates that the GWR model has more ability than the OLS regression model to predict salinity and show its spatial heterogeneity better. It was observed that the salinity was high in Deep Bay (north-western part of Hong Kong) which might be due to the industrial waste disposal, whereas the salinity was estimated to be constant (32 practical salinity units) towards the open sea.

  5. Land Use Analysis on Land Surface Temperature in Urban Areas Using a Geographically Weighted Regression and Landsat 8 Imagery, a Case Study: Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, A.; Pahlavani, P.; Bigdeli, B.

    2017-09-01

    Due to urbanization and changes in the urban thermal environment and because the land surface temperature (LST) in urban areas are a few degrees higher than in surrounding non-urbanized areas, identifying spatial factors affecting on LST in urban areas is very important. In this regard, due to the unique properties of spatial data, in this study, a geographically weighted regression (GWR) was used to identify effective spatial factors. The GWR is a suitable method for spatial regression issues, because it is compatible with two unique properties of spatial data, i.e. the spatial autocorrelation and spatial non-stationarity. In this study, the Landsat 8 satellite data on 18 August 2014 and Tehran land use data in 2006 was used for determining the land surface temperature and its effective factors. As a result, R2 value of 0.765983 was obtained by taking the Gaussian kernel. The results showed that the industrial,military, transportation, and roads areas have the highest surface temperature.

  6. Parasites et parasitoses des poissons

    OpenAIRE

    De Kinkelin, Pierre; Morand, Marc; Hedrick, Ronald; Michel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Cet ouvrage, richement illustré, offre un panorama représentatif des agents parasitaires rencontrés chez les poissons. S'appuyant sur les nouvelles conceptions de la classification phylogénétique, il met l'accent sur les propriétés biologiques, l'épidémiologie et les conséquences cliniques des groupes d'organismes en cause, à la lumière des avancées cognitives permises par les nouveaux outils de la biologie. Il est destiné à un large public, allant du monde de l'aquaculture à ceux de la santé...

  7. Dualizing the Poisson summation formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, R J; Weinberger, H F

    1991-01-01

    If f(x) and g(x) are a Fourier cosine transform pair, then the Poisson summation formula can be written as 2sumfrominfinityn = 1g(n) + g(0) = 2sumfrominfinityn = 1f(n) + f(0). The concepts of linear transformation theory lead to the following dual of this classical relation. Let phi(x) and gamma(x) = phi(1/x)/x have absolutely convergent integrals over the positive real line. Let F(x) = sumfrominfinityn = 1phi(n/x)/x - integralinfinity0phi(t)dt and G(x) = sumfrominfinityn = 1gamma (n/x)/x - integralinfinity0 gamma(t)dt. Then F(x) and G(x) are a Fourier cosine transform pair. We term F(x) the "discrepancy" of phi because it is the error in estimating the integral phi of by its Riemann sum with the constant mesh spacing 1/x. PMID:11607208

  8. Singular reduction of Nambu-Poisson manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Apurba

    The version of Marsden-Ratiu Poisson reduction theorem for Nambu-Poisson manifolds by a regular foliation have been studied by Ibáñez et al. In this paper, we show that this reduction procedure can be extended to the singular case. Under a suitable notion of Hamiltonian flow on the reduced space, we show that a set of Hamiltonians on a Nambu-Poisson manifold can also be reduced.

  9. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  10. A Seemingly Unrelated Poisson Regression Model

    OpenAIRE

    King, Gary

    1989-01-01

    This article introduces a new estimator for the analysis of two contemporaneously correlated endogenous event count variables. This seemingly unrelated Poisson regression model (SUPREME) estimator combines the efficiencies created by single equation Poisson regression model estimators and insights from "seemingly unrelated" linear regression models.

  11. Associative and Lie deformations of Poisson algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Remm, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Considering a Poisson algebra as a non associative algebra satisfying the Markl-Remm identity, we study deformations of Poisson algebras as deformations of this non associative algebra. This gives a natural interpretation of deformations which preserves the underlying associative structure and we study deformations which preserve the underlying Lie algebra.

  12. Localization of Point Sources for Poisson Equation using State Observers

    KAUST Repository

    Majeed, Muhammad Usman

    2016-08-09

    A method based On iterative observer design is presented to solve point source localization problem for Poisson equation with riven boundary data. The procedure involves solution of multiple boundary estimation sub problems using the available Dirichlet and Neumann data from different parts of the boundary. A weighted sum of these solution profiles of sub-problems localizes point sources inside the domain. Method to compute these weights is also provided. Numerical results are presented using finite differences in a rectangular domain. (C) 2016, IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control) Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improving EWMA Plans for Detecting Unusual Increases in Poisson Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Sparks

    2009-01-01

    adaptive exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA plan is developed for signalling unusually high incidence when monitoring a time series of nonhomogeneous daily disease counts. A Poisson transitional regression model is used to fit background/expected trend in counts and provides “one-day-ahead” forecasts of the next day's count. Departures of counts from their forecasts are monitored. The paper outlines an approach for improving early outbreak data signals by dynamically adjusting the exponential weights to be efficient at signalling local persistent high side changes. We emphasise outbreak signals in steady-state situations; that is, changes that occur after the EWMA statistic had run through several in-control counts.

  14. Scrub typhus islands in the Taiwan area and the association between scrub typhus disease and forest land use and farmer population density: geographically weighted regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pui-Jen; Yeh, Hsi-Chyi

    2013-04-29

    The Taiwan area comprises the main island of Taiwan and several small islands located off the coast of the Southern China. The eastern two-thirds of Taiwan are characterized by rugged mountains covered with tropical and subtropical vegetation. The western region of Taiwan is characterized by flat or gently rolling plains. Geographically, the Taiwan area is diverse in ecology and environment, although scrub typhus threatens local human populations. In this study, we investigate the effects of seasonal and meteorological factors on the incidence of scrub typhus infection among 10 local climate regions. The correlation between the spatial distribution of scrub typhus and cultivated forests in Taiwan, as well as the relationship between scrub typhus incidence and the population density of farm workers is examined. We applied Pearson's product moment correlation to calculate the correlation between the incidence of scrub typhus and meteorological factors among 10 local climate regions. We used the geographically weighted regression (GWR) method, a type of spatial regression that generates parameters disaggregated by the spatial units of analysis, to detail and map each regression point for the response variables of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR)-district scrub typhus. We also applied the GWR to examine the explanatory variables of types of forest-land use and farm worker density in Taiwan in 2005. In the Taiwan Area, scrub typhus endemic areas are located in the southeastern regions and mountainous townships of Taiwan, as well as the Pescadore, Kinmen, and Matou Islands. Among these islands and low-incidence areas in the central western and southwestern regions of Taiwan, we observed a significant correlation between scrub typhus incidence and surface temperature. No similar significant correlation was found in the endemic areas (e.g., the southeastern region and the mountainous area of Taiwan). Precipitation correlates positively with scrub typhus incidence in

  15. A Geographically and Temporally Weighted Regression Model for Ground-Level PM2.5 Estimation from Satellite-Derived 500 m Resolution AOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regional haze episodes have occurred frequently in eastern China over the past decades. As a critical indicator to evaluate air quality, the mass concentration of ambient fine particulate matters smaller than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5 is involved in many studies. To overcome the limitations of ground measurements on PM2.5 concentration, which is featured in disperse representation and coarse coverage, many statistical models were developed to depict the relationship between ground-level PM2.5 and satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD. However, the current satellite-derived AOD products and statistical models on PM2.5–AOD are insufficient to investigate PM2.5 characteristics at the urban scale, in that spatial resolution is crucial to identify the relationship between PM2.5 and anthropogenic activities. This paper presents a geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR model to generate ground-level PM2.5 concentrations from satellite-derived 500 m AOD. The GTWR model incorporates the SARA (simplified high resolution MODIS aerosol retrieval algorithm AOD product with meteorological variables, including planetary boundary layer height (PBLH, relative humidity (RH, wind speed (WS, and temperature (TEMP extracted from WRF (weather research and forecasting assimilation to depict the spatio-temporal dynamics in the PM2.5–AOD relationship. The estimated ground-level PM2.5 concentration has 500 m resolution at the MODIS satellite’s overpass moments twice a day, which can be used for air quality monitoring and haze tracking at the urban and regional scale. To test the performance of the GTWR model, a case study was carried out in a region covering the adjacent parts of Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan, and Anhui provinces in central China. A cross validation was done to evaluate the performance of the GTWR model. Compared with OLS, GWR, and TWR models, the GTWR model obtained the highest value of coefficient of determination

  16. Constructions and classifications of projective Poisson varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pym, Brent

    2018-03-01

    This paper is intended both as an introduction to the algebraic geometry of holomorphic Poisson brackets, and as a survey of results on the classification of projective Poisson manifolds that have been obtained in the past 20 years. It is based on the lecture series delivered by the author at the Poisson 2016 Summer School in Geneva. The paper begins with a detailed treatment of Poisson surfaces, including adjunction, ruled surfaces and blowups, and leading to a statement of the full birational classification. We then describe several constructions of Poisson threefolds, outlining the classification in the regular case, and the case of rank-one Fano threefolds (such as projective space). Following a brief introduction to the notion of Poisson subspaces, we discuss Bondal's conjecture on the dimensions of degeneracy loci on Poisson Fano manifolds. We close with a discussion of log symplectic manifolds with simple normal crossings degeneracy divisor, including a new proof of the classification in the case of rank-one Fano manifolds.

  17. The Poisson equation on Klein surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Rosiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We obtain a formula for the solution of the Poisson equation with Dirichlet boundary condition on a region of a Klein surface. This formula reveals the symmetric character of the solution.

  18. Poisson point processes imaging, tracking, and sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Streit, Roy L

    2010-01-01

    This overview of non-homogeneous and multidimensional Poisson point processes and their applications features mathematical tools and applications from emission- and transmission-computed tomography to multiple target tracking and distributed sensor detection.

  19. Geographic tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patches on the tongue; Tongue - patchy; Benign migratory glossitis; Glossitis - benign migratory ... The exact cause of geographic tongue is unknown. It may be caused by a lack of vitamin B. It also may be due to irritation from hot ...

  20. Estimation of Poisson noise in spatial domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švihlík, Jan; Fliegel, Karel; Vítek, Stanislav; Kukal, Jaromír.; Krbcová, Zuzana

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with modeling of astronomical images in the spatial domain. We consider astronomical light images contaminated by the dark current which is modeled by Poisson random process. Dark frame image maps the thermally generated charge of the CCD sensor. In this paper, we solve the problem of an addition of two Poisson random variables. At first, the noise analysis of images obtained from the astronomical camera is performed. It allows estimating parameters of the Poisson probability mass functions in every pixel of the acquired dark frame. Then the resulting distributions of the light image can be found. If the distributions of the light image pixels are identified, then the denoising algorithm can be applied. The performance of the Bayesian approach in the spatial domain is compared with the direct approach based on the method of moments and the dark frame subtraction.

  1. High order Poisson Solver for unbounded flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a high order method for solving the unbounded Poisson equation on a regular mesh using a Green’s function solution. The high order convergence was achieved by formulating mollified integration kernels, that were derived from a filter regularisation of the solution field...... the equations of fluid mechanics as an example, but can be used in many physical problems to solve the Poisson equation on a rectangular unbounded domain. For the two-dimensional case we propose an infinitely smooth test function which allows for arbitrary high order convergence. Using Gaussian smoothing....... The method was implemented on a rectangular domain using fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to increase computational efficiency. The Poisson solver was extended to directly solve the derivatives of the solution. This is achieved either by including the differential operator in the integration kernel...

  2. Selective Contrast Adjustment by Poisson Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Belen Petro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Poisson Image Editing is a new technique permitting to modify the gradient vector field of an image, and then to recover an image with a gradient approaching this modified gradient field. This amounts to solve a Poisson equation, an operation which can be efficiently performed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. This paper describes an algorithm applying this technique, with two different variants. The first variant enhances the contrast by increasing the gradient in the dark regions of the image. This method is well adapted to images with back light or strong shadows, and reveals details in the shadows. The second variant of the same Poisson technique enhances all small gradients in the image, thus also sometimes revealing details and texture.

  3. Poisson-Jacobi reduction of homogeneous tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, J; Iglesias, D; Marrero, J C; Padron, E; Urbanski, P

    2004-01-01

    The notion of homogeneous tensors is discussed. We show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between multivector fields on a manifold M, homogeneous with respect to a vector field Δ on M, and first-order polydifferential operators on a closed submanifold N of codimension 1 such that Δ is transversal to N. This correspondence relates the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket of multivector fields on M to the Schouten-Jacobi bracket of first-order polydifferential operators on N and generalizes the Poissonization of Jacobi manifolds. Actually, it can be viewed as a super-Poissonization. This procedure of passing from a homogeneous multivector field to a first-order polydifferential operator can also be understood as a sort of reduction; in the standard case-a half of a Poisson reduction. A dual version of the above correspondence yields in particular the correspondence between Δ-homogeneous symplectic structures on M and contact structures on N

  4. Evaluating the double Poisson generalized linear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaotian; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy; Lord, Dominique

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study are to: (1) examine the applicability of the double Poisson (DP) generalized linear model (GLM) for analyzing motor vehicle crash data characterized by over- and under-dispersion and (2) compare the performance of the DP GLM with the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson (COM-Poisson) GLM in terms of goodness-of-fit and theoretical soundness. The DP distribution has seldom been investigated and applied since its first introduction two decades ago. The hurdle for applying the DP is related to its normalizing constant (or multiplicative constant) which is not available in closed form. This study proposed a new method to approximate the normalizing constant of the DP with high accuracy and reliability. The DP GLM and COM-Poisson GLM were developed using two observed over-dispersed datasets and one observed under-dispersed dataset. The modeling results indicate that the DP GLM with its normalizing constant approximated by the new method can handle crash data characterized by over- and under-dispersion. Its performance is comparable to the COM-Poisson GLM in terms of goodness-of-fit (GOF), although COM-Poisson GLM provides a slightly better fit. For the over-dispersed data, the DP GLM performs similar to the NB GLM. Considering the fact that the DP GLM can be easily estimated with inexpensive computation and that it is simpler to interpret coefficients, it offers a flexible and efficient alternative for researchers to model count data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Equilibrium stochastic dynamics of Poisson cluster ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Bogachev

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution μ of a Poisson cluster process in Χ=Rd (with n-point clusters is studied via the projection of an auxiliary Poisson measure in the space of configurations in Χn, with the intensity measure being the convolution of the background intensity (of cluster centres with the probability distribution of a generic cluster. We show that μ is quasi-invariant with respect to the group of compactly supported diffeomorphisms of Χ, and prove an integration by parts formula for μ. The corresponding equilibrium stochastic dynamics is then constructed using the method of Dirichlet forms.

  6. White Noise of Poisson Random Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Proske, Frank; Øksendal, Bernt

    2002-01-01

    We develop a white noise theory for Poisson random measures associated with a Lévy process. The starting point of this theory is a chaos expansion with kernels of polynomial type. We use this to construct the white noise of a Poisson random measure, which takes values in a certain distribution space. Then we show, how a Skorohod/Itô integral for point processes can be represented by a Bochner integral in terms of white noise of the random measure and a Wick product. Further, we apply these co...

  7. Bayesian regression of piecewise homogeneous Poisson processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sevilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Bayesian method for piecewise regression is adapted to handle counting processes data distributed as Poisson. A numerical code in Mathematica is developed and tested analyzing simulated data. The resulting method is valuable for detecting breaking points in the count rate of time series for Poisson processes. Received: 2 November 2015, Accepted: 27 November 2015; Edited by: R. Dickman; Reviewed by: M. Hutter, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.070018 Cite as: D J R Sevilla, Papers in Physics 7, 070018 (2015

  8. Spatial Nonhomogeneous Poisson Process in Corrosion Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López De La Cruz, J.; Kuniewski, S.P.; Van Noortwijk, J.M.; Guriérrez, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    A method to test the assumption of nonhomogeneous Poisson point processes is implemented to analyze corrosion pit patterns. The method is calibrated with three artificially generated patterns and manages to accurately assess whether a pattern distribution is random, regular, or clustered. The

  9. Efficient information transfer by Poisson neurons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košťál, Lubomír; Shinomoto, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2016), s. 509-520 ISSN 1547-1063 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08066S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : information capacity * Poisson neuron * metabolic cost * decoding error Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.035, year: 2016

  10. Natural Poisson structures of nonlinear plasma dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, A.N.

    1982-06-01

    Hamiltonian field theories, for models of nonlinear plasma dynamics, require a Poisson bracket structure for functionals of the field variables. These are presented, applied, and derived for several sets of field variables: coherent waves, incoherent waves, particle distributions, and multifluid electrodynamics. Parametric coupling of waves and plasma yields concise expressions for ponderomotive effects (in kinetic and fluid models) and for induced scattering

  11. Natural Poisson structures of nonlinear plasma dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    Hamiltonian field theories, for models of nonlinear plasma dynamics, require a Poisson bracket structure for functionals of the field variables. These are presented, applied, and derived for several sets of field variables: coherent waves, incoherent waves, particle distributions, and multifluid electrodynamics. Parametric coupling of waves and plasma yields concise expressions for ponderomotive effects (in kinetic and fluid models) and for induced scattering. (Auth.)

  12. Poisson brackets for fluids and plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    Noncanonical yet Hamiltonian descriptions are presented of many of the non-dissipative field equations that govern fluids and plasmas. The dynamical variables are the usually encountered physical variables. These descriptions have the advantage that gauge conditions are absent, but at the expense of introducing peculiar Poisson brackets. Clebsch-like potential descriptions that reverse this situations are also introduced

  13. Almost Poisson integration of rigid body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, M.A.; Krishnaprasad, P.S.; Li-Sheng Wang

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the numerical integration of Lie-Poisson systems using the mid-point rule. Since such systems result from the reduction of hamiltonian systems with symmetry by lie group actions, we also present examples of reconstruction rules for the full dynamics. A primary motivation is to preserve in the integration process, various conserved quantities of the original dynamics. A main result of this paper is an O(h 3 ) error estimate for the Lie-Poisson structure, where h is the integration step-size. We note that Lie-Poisson systems appear naturally in many areas of physical science and engineering, including theoretical mechanics of fluids and plasmas, satellite dynamics, and polarization dynamics. In the present paper we consider a series of progressively complicated examples related to rigid body systems. We also consider a dissipative example associated to a Lie-Poisson system. The behavior of the mid-point rule and an associated reconstruction rule is numerically explored. 24 refs., 9 figs

  14. Dimensional reduction for generalized Poisson brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acatrinei, Ciprian Sorin

    2008-02-01

    We discuss dimensional reduction for Hamiltonian systems which possess nonconstant Poisson brackets between pairs of coordinates and between pairs of momenta. The associated Jacobi identities imply that the dimensionally reduced brackets are always constant. Some examples are given alongside the general theory.

  15. Affine Poisson Groups and WZW Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ctirad Klimcík

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a detailed description of a dynamical system which enjoys a Poisson-Lie symmetry with two non-isomorphic dual groups. The system is obtained by taking the q → ∞ limit of the q-deformed WZW model and the understanding of its symmetry structure results in uncovering an interesting duality of its exchange relations.

  16. A generalized Poisson and Poisson-Boltzmann solver for electrostatic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisicaro, G., E-mail: giuseppe.fisicaro@unibas.ch; Goedecker, S. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Genovese, L. [University of Grenoble Alpes, CEA, INAC-SP2M, L-Sim, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Andreussi, O. [Institute of Computational Science, Università della Svizzera Italiana, Via Giuseppe Buffi 13, CH-6904 Lugano (Switzerland); Theory and Simulations of Materials (THEOS) and National Centre for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials (MARVEL), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Marzari, N. [Theory and Simulations of Materials (THEOS) and National Centre for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials (MARVEL), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-01-07

    The computational study of chemical reactions in complex, wet environments is critical for applications in many fields. It is often essential to study chemical reactions in the presence of applied electrochemical potentials, taking into account the non-trivial electrostatic screening coming from the solvent and the electrolytes. As a consequence, the electrostatic potential has to be found by solving the generalized Poisson and the Poisson-Boltzmann equations for neutral and ionic solutions, respectively. In the present work, solvers for both problems have been developed. A preconditioned conjugate gradient method has been implemented for the solution of the generalized Poisson equation and the linear regime of the Poisson-Boltzmann, allowing to solve iteratively the minimization problem with some ten iterations of the ordinary Poisson equation solver. In addition, a self-consistent procedure enables us to solve the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann problem. Both solvers exhibit very high accuracy and parallel efficiency and allow for the treatment of periodic, free, and slab boundary conditions. The solver has been integrated into the BigDFT and Quantum-ESPRESSO electronic-structure packages and will be released as an independent program, suitable for integration in other codes.

  17. A generalized Poisson and Poisson-Boltzmann solver for electrostatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisicaro, G.; Goedecker, S.; Genovese, L.; Andreussi, O.; Marzari, N.

    2016-01-01

    The computational study of chemical reactions in complex, wet environments is critical for applications in many fields. It is often essential to study chemical reactions in the presence of applied electrochemical potentials, taking into account the non-trivial electrostatic screening coming from the solvent and the electrolytes. As a consequence, the electrostatic potential has to be found by solving the generalized Poisson and the Poisson-Boltzmann equations for neutral and ionic solutions, respectively. In the present work, solvers for both problems have been developed. A preconditioned conjugate gradient method has been implemented for the solution of the generalized Poisson equation and the linear regime of the Poisson-Boltzmann, allowing to solve iteratively the minimization problem with some ten iterations of the ordinary Poisson equation solver. In addition, a self-consistent procedure enables us to solve the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann problem. Both solvers exhibit very high accuracy and parallel efficiency and allow for the treatment of periodic, free, and slab boundary conditions. The solver has been integrated into the BigDFT and Quantum-ESPRESSO electronic-structure packages and will be released as an independent program, suitable for integration in other codes

  18. Geographical Indications

    OpenAIRE

    Anechitoae Constantin; Grigoru? Lavinia-Maria

    2011-01-01

    “The denomination of origin” may be the name of a region, a specific place or country used to describe an agricultural or food product. "The geographical indication" may be the name of a region, a specific place or a country, used to describe an agricultural or food product. The indication of provenance and the denomination of origin serve to identify the source and origin of goods or services.

  19. Geographic dialectics?

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Sheppard

    2008-01-01

    As radical geography, inflected by Marx, has transformed into critical geography, influenced by poststructuralism and feminism, dialectical reasoning has come under attack from some poststructural geographers. Their construction of dialectics as inconsistent with poststructural thinking, difference, and assemblages is based, however, on a Hegelian conception of the dialectic. This Hegelian imaginary reflects the intellectual history of radical and/or critical anglophone geography. Yet, dialec...

  20. a Geographic Weighted Regression for Rural Highways Crashes Modelling Using the Gaussian and Tricube Kernels: a Case Study of USA Rural Highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghayari, M.; Pahlavani, P.; Bigdeli, B.

    2017-09-01

    Based on world health organization (WHO) report, driving incidents are counted as one of the eight initial reasons for death in the world. The purpose of this paper is to develop a method for regression on effective parameters of highway crashes. In the traditional methods, it was assumed that the data are completely independent and environment is homogenous while the crashes are spatial events which are occurring in geographic space and crashes have spatial data. Spatial data have spatial features such as spatial autocorrelation and spatial non-stationarity in a way working with them is going to be a bit difficult. The proposed method has implemented on a set of records of fatal crashes that have been occurred in highways connecting eight east states of US. This data have been recorded between the years 2007 and 2009. In this study, we have used GWR method with two Gaussian and Tricube kernels. The Number of casualties has been considered as dependent variable and number of persons in crash, road alignment, number of lanes, pavement type, surface condition, road fence, light condition, vehicle type, weather, drunk driver, speed limitation, harmful event, road profile, and junction type have been considered as explanatory variables according to previous studies in using GWR method. We have compered the results of implementation with OLS method. Results showed that R2 for OLS method is 0.0654 and for the proposed method is 0.9196 that implies the proposed GWR is better method for regression in rural highway crashes.

  1. Linear odd Poisson bracket on Grassmann variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroka, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    A linear odd Poisson bracket (antibracket) realized solely in terms of Grassmann variables is suggested. It is revealed that the bracket, which corresponds to a semi-simple Lie group, has at once three Grassmann-odd nilpotent Δ-like differential operators of the first, the second and the third orders with respect to Grassmann derivatives, in contrast with the canonical odd Poisson bracket having the only Grassmann-odd nilpotent differential Δ-operator of the second order. It is shown that these Δ-like operators together with a Grassmann-odd nilpotent Casimir function of this bracket form a finite-dimensional Lie superalgebra. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Degenerate odd Poisson bracket on Grassmann variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroka, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    A linear degenerate odd Poisson bracket (antibracket) realized solely on Grassmann variables is proposed. It is revealed that this bracket has at once three Grassmann-odd nilpotent Δ-like differential operators of the first, second and third orders with respect to the Grassmann derivatives. It is shown that these Δ-like operators, together with the Grassmann-odd nilpotent Casimir function of this bracket, form a finite-dimensional Lie superalgebra

  3. Poisson/Superfish codes for personal computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Poisson/Superfish codes calculate static E or B fields in two-dimensions and electromagnetic fields in resonant structures. New versions for 386/486 PCs and Macintosh computers have capabilities that exceed the mainframe versions. Notable improvements are interactive graphical post-processors, improved field calculation routines, and a new program for charged particle orbit tracking. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab., figs

  4. Elementary derivation of Poisson structures for fluid dynamics and electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    The canonical Poisson structure of the microscopic Lagrangian is used to deduce the noncanonical Poisson structure for the macroscopic Hamiltonian dynamics of a compressible neutral fluid and of fluid electrodynamics

  5. A GEOGRAPHIC WEIGHTED REGRESSION FOR RURAL HIGHWAYS CRASHES MODELLING USING THE GAUSSIAN AND TRICUBE KERNELS: A CASE STUDY OF USA RURAL HIGHWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aghayari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on world health organization (WHO report, driving incidents are counted as one of the eight initial reasons for death in the world. The purpose of this paper is to develop a method for regression on effective parameters of highway crashes. In the traditional methods, it was assumed that the data are completely independent and environment is homogenous while the crashes are spatial events which are occurring in geographic space and crashes have spatial data. Spatial data have spatial features such as spatial autocorrelation and spatial non-stationarity in a way working with them is going to be a bit difficult. The proposed method has implemented on a set of records of fatal crashes that have been occurred in highways connecting eight east states of US. This data have been recorded between the years 2007 and 2009. In this study, we have used GWR method with two Gaussian and Tricube kernels. The Number of casualties has been considered as dependent variable and number of persons in crash, road alignment, number of lanes, pavement type, surface condition, road fence, light condition, vehicle type, weather, drunk driver, speed limitation, harmful event, road profile, and junction type have been considered as explanatory variables according to previous studies in using GWR method. We have compered the results of implementation with OLS method. Results showed that R2 for OLS method is 0.0654 and for the proposed method is 0.9196 that implies the proposed GWR is better method for regression in rural highway crashes.

  6. Poisson Plus Quantification for Digital PCR Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Nivedita; Banerjee, Swapnonil; Pallas, Michael; Wessel, Thomas; Hegerich, Patricia

    2017-08-29

    Digital PCR, a state-of-the-art nucleic acid quantification technique, works by spreading the target material across a large number of partitions. The average number of molecules per partition is estimated using Poisson statistics, and then converted into concentration by dividing by partition volume. In this standard approach, identical partition sizing is assumed. Violations of this assumption result in underestimation of target quantity, when using Poisson modeling, especially at higher concentrations. The Poisson-Plus Model accommodates for this underestimation, if statistics of the volume variation are well characterized. The volume variation was measured on the chip array based QuantStudio 3D Digital PCR System using the ROX fluorescence level as a proxy for effective load volume per through-hole. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed correction. Empirical measurement of model parameters characterizing the effective load volume on QuantStudio 3D Digital PCR chips is presented. The model was used to analyze digital PCR experiments and showed improved accuracy in quantification. At the higher concentrations, the modeling must take effective fill volume variation into account to produce accurate estimates. The extent of the difference from the standard to the new modeling is positively correlated to the extent of fill volume variation in the effective load of your reactions.

  7. Reduction of Nambu-Poisson Manifolds by Regular Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Apurba

    2018-03-01

    The version of Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem for Nambu-Poisson manifolds by a regular distribution has been studied by Ibáñez et al. In this paper we show that the reduction is always ensured unless the distribution is zero. Next we extend the more general Falceto-Zambon Poisson reduction theorem for Nambu-Poisson manifolds. Finally, we define gauge transformations of Nambu-Poisson structures and show that these transformations commute with the reduction procedure.

  8. Geographical Tatoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cazetta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with maps tattooed on bodies. My interest in studying the corporeality is inserted in a broader project entitled Geographies and (in Bodies. There is several published research on tattoos, but none in particular about tattooed maps. However some of these works interested me because they present important discussions in contemporary about body modification that helped me locate the body modifications most within the culture than on the nature. At this time, I looked at pictures of geographical tattoos available in several sites of the internet.

  9. Analysis of overdispersed count data by mixtures of Poisson variables and Poisson processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougaard, P; Lee, M L; Whitmore, G A

    1997-12-01

    Count data often show overdispersion compared to the Poisson distribution. Overdispersion is typically modeled by a random effect for the mean, based on the gamma distribution, leading to the negative binomial distribution for the count. This paper considers a larger family of mixture distributions, including the inverse Gaussian mixture distribution. It is demonstrated that it gives a significantly better fit for a data set on the frequency of epileptic seizures. The same approach can be used to generate counting processes from Poisson processes, where the rate or the time is random. A random rate corresponds to variation between patients, whereas a random time corresponds to variation within patients.

  10. Algebraic properties of compatible Poisson brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pumei

    2014-05-01

    We discuss algebraic properties of a pencil generated by two compatible Poisson tensors A( x) and B( x). From the algebraic viewpoint this amounts to studying the properties of a pair of skew-symmetric bilinear forms A and B defined on a finite-dimensional vector space. We describe the Lie group G P of linear automorphisms of the pencil P = { A + λB}. In particular, we obtain an explicit formula for the dimension of G P and discuss some other algebraic properties such as solvability and Levi-Malcev decomposition.

  11. Binomial vs poisson statistics in radiation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.; Kouris, K.; Spyrou, N.M.; Matthews, I.P.; Welsh National School of Medicine, Cardiff

    1983-01-01

    The processes of radioactive decay, decay and growth of radioactive species in a radioactive chain, prompt emission(s) from nuclear reactions, conventional activation and cyclic activation are discussed with respect to their underlying statistical density function. By considering the transformation(s) that each nucleus may undergo it is shown that all these processes are fundamentally binomial. Formally, when the number of experiments N is large and the probability of success p is close to zero, the binomial is closely approximated by the Poisson density function. In radiation and nuclear physics, N is always large: each experiment can be conceived of as the observation of the fate of each of the N nuclei initially present. Whether p, the probability that a given nucleus undergoes a prescribed transformation, is close to zero depends on the process and nuclide(s) concerned. Hence, although a binomial description is always valid, the Poisson approximation is not always adequate. Therefore further clarification is provided as to when the binomial distribution must be used in the statistical treatment of detected events. (orig.)

  12. How does Poisson kriging compare to the popular BYM model for mapping disease risks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebreab Samson

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geostatistical techniques are now available to account for spatially varying population sizes and spatial patterns in the mapping of disease rates. At first glance, Poisson kriging represents an attractive alternative to increasingly popular Bayesian spatial models in that: 1 it is easier to implement and less CPU intensive, and 2 it accounts for the size and shape of geographical units, avoiding the limitations of conditional auto-regressive (CAR models commonly used in Bayesian algorithms while allowing for the creation of isopleth risk maps. Both approaches, however, have never been compared in simulation studies, and there is a need to better understand their merits in terms of accuracy and precision of disease risk estimates. Results Besag, York and Mollie's (BYM model and Poisson kriging (point and area-to-area implementations were applied to age-adjusted lung and cervix cancer mortality rates recorded for white females in two contrasted county geographies: 1 state of Indiana that consists of 92 counties of fairly similar size and shape, and 2 four states in the Western US (Arizona, California, Nevada and Utah forming a set of 118 counties that are vastly different geographical units. The spatial support (i.e. point versus area has a much smaller impact on the results than the statistical methodology (i.e. geostatistical versus Bayesian models. Differences between methods are particularly pronounced in the Western US dataset: BYM model yields smoother risk surface and prediction variance that changes mainly as a function of the predicted risk, while the Poisson kriging variance increases in large sparsely populated counties. Simulation studies showed that the geostatistical approach yields smaller prediction errors, more precise and accurate probability intervals, and allows a better discrimination between counties with high and low mortality risks. The benefit of area-to-area Poisson kriging increases as the county

  13. On a Poisson homogeneous space of bilinear forms with a Poisson-Lie action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekhov, L. O.; Mazzocco, M.

    2017-12-01

    Let \\mathscr A be the space of bilinear forms on C^N with defining matrices A endowed with a quadratic Poisson structure of reflection equation type. The paper begins with a short description of previous studies of the structure, and then this structure is extended to systems of bilinear forms whose dynamics is governed by the natural action A\\mapsto B ABT} of the {GL}_N Poisson-Lie group on \\mathscr A. A classification is given of all possible quadratic brackets on (B, A)\\in {GL}_N× \\mathscr A preserving the Poisson property of the action, thus endowing \\mathscr A with the structure of a Poisson homogeneous space. Besides the product Poisson structure on {GL}_N× \\mathscr A, there are two other (mutually dual) structures, which (unlike the product Poisson structure) admit reductions by the Dirac procedure to a space of bilinear forms with block upper triangular defining matrices. Further generalisations of this construction are considered, to triples (B,C, A)\\in {GL}_N× {GL}_N× \\mathscr A with the Poisson action A\\mapsto B ACT}, and it is shown that \\mathscr A then acquires the structure of a Poisson symmetric space. Generalisations to chains of transformations and to the quantum and quantum affine algebras are investigated, as well as the relations between constructions of Poisson symmetric spaces and the Poisson groupoid. Bibliography: 30 titles.

  14. PENERAPAN REGRESI BINOMIAL NEGATIF UNTUK MENGATASI OVERDISPERSI PADA REGRESI POISSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUTU SUSAN PRADAWATI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Poisson regression was used to analyze the count data which Poisson distributed. Poisson regression analysis requires state equidispersion, in which the mean value of the response variable is equal to the value of the variance. However, there are deviations in which the value of the response variable variance is greater than the mean. This is called overdispersion. If overdispersion happens and Poisson Regression analysis is being used, then underestimated standard errors will be obtained. Negative Binomial Regression can handle overdispersion because it contains a dispersion parameter. From the simulation data which experienced overdispersion in the Poisson Regression model it was found that the Negative Binomial Regression was better than the Poisson Regression model.

  15. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    This paper describes methods for randomly thinning certain classes of spatial point processes. In the case of a Markov point process, the proposed method involves a dependent thinning of a spatial birth-and-death process, where clans of ancestors associated with the original points are identified......, and where one simulates backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and thus can...... be used as a diagnostic for assessing the goodness-of-fit of a spatial point process model. Several examples, including clustered and inhibitive point processes, are considered....

  16. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe methods for randomly thinning certain classes of spatial point processes. In the case of a Markov point process, the proposed method involves a dependent thinning of a spatial birth-and-death process, where clans of ancestors associated with the original points...... are identified, and where we simulate backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and......, thus, can be used as a graphical exploratory tool for inspecting the goodness-of-fit of a spatial point process model. Several examples, including clustered and inhibitive point processes, are considered....

  17. Periodic Poisson Solver for Particle Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohlus, M.; Henning, C.

    2015-05-01

    A method is described to solve the Poisson problem for a three dimensional source distribution that is periodic into one direction. Perpendicular to the direction of periodicity a free space (or open) boundary is realized. In beam physics, this approach allows to calculate the space charge field of a continualized charged particle distribution with periodic pattern. The method is based on a particle mesh approach with equidistant grid and fast convolution with a Green's function. The periodic approach uses only one period of the source distribution, but a periodic extension of the Green's function. The approach is numerically efficient and allows the investigation of periodic- and pseudo-periodic structures with period lengths that are small compared to the source dimensions, for instance of laser modulated beams or of the evolution of micro bunch structures. Applications for laser modulated beams are given.

  18. Compound Poisson Approximations for Sums of Random Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Serfozo, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    We show that a sum of dependent random variables is approximately compound Poisson when the variables are rarely nonzero and, given they are nonzero, their conditional distributions are nearly identical. We give several upper bounds on the total-variation distance between the distribution of such a sum and a compound Poisson distribution. Included is an example for Markovian occurrences of a rare event. Our bounds are consistent with those that are known for Poisson approximations for sums of...

  19. Poisson-Boltzmann versus Size-Modified Poisson-Boltzmann Electrostatics Applied to Lipid Bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nuo; Zhou, Shenggao; Kekenes-Huskey, Peter M; Li, Bo; McCammon, J Andrew

    2014-12-26

    Mean-field methods, such as the Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE), are often used to calculate the electrostatic properties of molecular systems. In the past two decades, an enhancement of the PBE, the size-modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation (SMPBE), has been reported. Here, the PBE and the SMPBE are reevaluated for realistic molecular systems, namely, lipid bilayers, under eight different sets of input parameters. The SMPBE appears to reproduce the molecular dynamics simulation results better than the PBE only under specific parameter sets, but in general, it performs no better than the Stern layer correction of the PBE. These results emphasize the need for careful discussions of the accuracy of mean-field calculations on realistic systems with respect to the choice of parameters and call for reconsideration of the cost-efficiency and the significance of the current SMPBE formulation.

  20. Perturbation-induced emergence of Poisson-like behavior in non-Poisson systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akin, Osman C; Grigolini, Paolo; Paradisi, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The response of a system with ON–OFF intermittency to an external harmonic perturbation is discussed. ON–OFF intermittency is described by means of a sequence of random events, i.e., the transitions from the ON to the OFF state and vice versa. The unperturbed waiting times (WTs) between two events are assumed to satisfy a renewal condition, i.e., the WTs are statistically independent random variables. The response of a renewal model with non-Poisson ON–OFF intermittency, associated with non-exponential WT distribution, is analyzed by looking at the changes induced in the WT statistical distribution by the harmonic perturbation. The scaling properties are also studied by means of diffusion entropy analysis. It is found that, in the range of fast and relatively strong perturbation, the non-Poisson system displays a Poisson-like behavior in both WT distribution and scaling. In particular, the histogram of perturbed WTs becomes a sequence of equally spaced peaks, with intensity decaying exponentially in time. Further, the diffusion entropy detects an ordinary scaling (related to normal diffusion) instead of the expected unperturbed anomalous scaling related to the inverse power-law decay. Thus, an analysis based on the WT histogram and/or on scaling methods has to be considered with some care when dealing with perturbed intermittent systems

  1. Poisson cohomology of scalar multidimensional Dubrovin-Novikov brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlet, Guido; Casati, Matteo; Shadrin, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    We compute the Poisson cohomology of a scalar Poisson bracket of Dubrovin-Novikov type with D independent variables. We find that the second and third cohomology groups are generically non-vanishing in D > 1. Hence, in contrast with the D = 1 case, the deformation theory in the multivariable case is non-trivial.

  2. Avoiding negative populations in explicit Poisson tau-leaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Gillespie, Daniel T; Petzold, Linda R

    2005-08-01

    The explicit tau-leaping procedure attempts to speed up the stochastic simulation of a chemically reacting system by approximating the number of firings of each reaction channel during a chosen time increment tau as a Poisson random variable. Since the Poisson random variable can have arbitrarily large sample values, there is always the possibility that this procedure will cause one or more reaction channels to fire so many times during tau that the population of some reactant species will be driven negative. Two recent papers have shown how that unacceptable occurrence can be avoided by replacing the Poisson random variables with binomial random variables, whose values are naturally bounded. This paper describes a modified Poisson tau-leaping procedure that also avoids negative populations, but is easier to implement than the binomial procedure. The new Poisson procedure also introduces a second control parameter, whose value essentially dials the procedure from the original Poisson tau-leaping at one extreme to the exact stochastic simulation algorithm at the other; therefore, the modified Poisson procedure will generally be more accurate than the original Poisson procedure.

  3. Estimation of a Non-homogeneous Poisson Model: An Empirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article aims at applying the Nonhomogeneous Poisson process to trends of economic development. For this purpose, a modified Nonhomogeneous Poisson process is derived when the intensity rate is considered as a solution of stochastic differential equation which satisfies the geometric Brownian motion. The mean ...

  4. Formulation of Hamiltonian mechanics with even and odd Poisson brackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudaverdyan, O.M.; Nersesyan, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    A possibility is studied as to constrict the odd Poisson bracket and odd Hamiltonian by the given dynamics in phase superspace - the even Poisson bracket and even Hamiltonian so the transition to the new structure does not change the equations of motion. 9 refs

  5. Cluster X-varieties, amalgamation, and Poisson-Lie groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fock, V. V.; Goncharov, A. B.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, starting from a split semisimple real Lie group G with trivial center, we define a family of varieties with additional structures. We describe them as cluster χ-varieties, as defined in [FG2]. In particular they are Poisson varieties. We define canonical Poisson maps of these varie...

  6. Derivation of relativistic wave equation from the Poisson process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A Poisson process is one of the fundamental descriptions for relativistic particles: both fermions and bosons. A generalized linear photon wave equation in dispersive and homogeneous medium with dissipation is derived using the formulation of the Poisson process. This formulation provides a possible ...

  7. Unimodularity criteria for Poisson structures on foliated manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza, Andrés; Velasco-Barreras, Eduardo; Vorobiev, Yury

    2018-03-01

    We study the behavior of the modular class of an orientable Poisson manifold and formulate some unimodularity criteria in the semilocal context, around a (singular) symplectic leaf. Our results generalize some known unimodularity criteria for regular Poisson manifolds related to the notion of the Reeb class. In particular, we show that the unimodularity of the transverse Poisson structure of the leaf is a necessary condition for the semilocal unimodular property. Our main tool is an explicit formula for a bigraded decomposition of modular vector fields of a coupling Poisson structure on a foliated manifold. Moreover, we also exploit the notion of the modular class of a Poisson foliation and its relationship with the Reeb class.

  8. METHOD OF FOREST FIRES PROBABILITY ASSESSMENT WITH POISSON LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Plotnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the method for the forest fire burn probability estimation on a base of Poisson distribution. The λ parameter is assumed to be a mean daily number of fires detected for each Forest Fire Danger Index class within specific period of time. Thus, λ was calculated for spring, summer and autumn seasons separately. Multi-annual daily Forest Fire Danger Index values together with EO-derived hot spot map were input data for the statistical analysis. The major result of the study is generation of the database on forest fire burn probability. Results were validated against EO daily data on forest fires detected over Irkutsk oblast in 2013. Daily weighted average probability was shown to be linked with the daily number of detected forest fires. Meanwhile, there was found a number of fires which were developed when estimated probability was low. The possible explanation of this phenomenon was provided.

  9. Poisson cluster analysis of cardiac arrest incidence in Columbus, Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Craig; Cudnik, Michael T; Sasson, Comilla; Schwartz, Greg; Semple, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Scarce resources in disease prevention and emergency medical services (EMS) need to be focused on high-risk areas of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Cluster analysis using geographic information systems (GISs) was used to find these high-risk areas and test potential predictive variables. This was a retrospective cohort analysis of EMS-treated adults with OHCAs occurring in Columbus, Ohio, from April 1, 2004, through March 31, 2009. The OHCAs were aggregated to census tracts and incidence rates were calculated based on their adult populations. Poisson cluster analysis determined significant clusters of high-risk census tracts. Both census tract-level and case-level characteristics were tested for association with high-risk areas by multivariate logistic regression. A total of 2,037 eligible OHCAs occurred within the city limits during the study period. The mean incidence rate was 0.85 OHCAs/1,000 population/year. There were five significant geographic clusters with 76 high-risk census tracts out of the total of 245 census tracts. In the case-level analysis, being in a high-risk cluster was associated with a slightly younger age (-3 years, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99-1.00), not being white, non-Hispanic (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.45-0.64), cardiac arrest occurring at home (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.23-1.71), and not receiving bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.96), but with higher survival to hospital discharge (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.30-2.46). In the census tract-level analysis, high-risk census tracts were also associated with a slightly lower average age (-0.1 years, OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.22) and a lower proportion of white, non-Hispanic patients (-0.298, OR 0.04, 95% CI 0.01-0.19), but also a lower proportion of high-school graduates (-0.184, OR 0.00, 95% CI 0.00-0.00). This analysis identified high-risk census tracts and associated census tract-level and case-level characteristics that can be used to

  10. Non-isothermal Smoluchowski-Poisson equation as a singular limit of the Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Poisson system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Laurençot, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 88, - (2007), s. 325-349 ISSN 0021-7824 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/0164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Navier-Stokes-Fourier- Poisson system * Smoluchowski- Poisson system * singular limit Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.118, year: 2007

  11. Study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality associated with industrial pollution in Spain, using Poisson models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lope Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs have been linked to proximity to industrial areas, but evidence regarding the health risk posed by residence near pollutant industries is very limited. The European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER is a public register that furnishes valuable information on industries that release pollutants to air and water, along with their geographical location. This study sought to explore the relationship between NHL mortality in small areas in Spain and environmental exposure to pollutant emissions from EPER-registered industries, using three Poisson-regression-based mathematical models. Methods Observed cases were drawn from mortality registries in Spain for the period 1994–2003. Industries were grouped into the following sectors: energy; metal; mineral; organic chemicals; waste; paper; food; and use of solvents. Populations having an industry within a radius of 1, 1.5, or 2 kilometres from the municipal centroid were deemed to be exposed. Municipalities outside those radii were considered as reference populations. The relative risks (RRs associated with proximity to pollutant industries were estimated using the following methods: Poisson Regression; mixed Poisson model with random provincial effect; and spatial autoregressive modelling (BYM model. Results Only proximity of paper industries to population centres (>2 km could be associated with a greater risk of NHL mortality (mixed model: RR:1.24, 95% CI:1.09–1.42; BYM model: RR:1.21, 95% CI:1.01–1.45; Poisson model: RR:1.16, 95% CI:1.06–1.27. Spatial models yielded higher estimates. Conclusion The reported association between exposure to air pollution from the paper, pulp and board industry and NHL mortality is independent of the model used. Inclusion of spatial random effects terms in the risk estimate improves the study of associations between environmental exposures and mortality. The EPER could be of great utility when studying the effects of

  12. Multi-scale analysis of the relationship between landscape patterns and a water quality index (WQI) based on a stepwise linear regression (SLR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) in the Ebinur Lake oasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Fei

    2018-03-01

    Water quality is highly dependent on landscape characteristics. This study explored the relationships between landscape patterns and water quality in the Ebinur Lake oasis in China. The water quality index (WQI) has been used to identify threats to water quality and contribute to better water resource management. This study established the WQI and analyzed the influence of landscapes on the WQI based on a stepwise linear regression (SLR) model and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models. The results showed that the WQI was between 56.61 and 2886.51. The map of the WQI showed poor water quality. Both positive and negative relationships between certain land use and land cover (LULC) types and the WQI were observed for different buffers. This relationship is most significant for the 400-m buffer. There is a significant relationship between the water quality index and landscape index (i.e., PLAND, DIVISION, aggregation index (AI), COHESION, landscape shape index (LSI), and largest patch index (LPI)), demonstrated by using stepwise multiple linear regressions under the 400-m scale, which resulted in an adjusted R 2 between 0.63 and 0.88. The local R 2 between the LPI and LSI for forest grasslands and the WQI are high in the Akeqisu River and the Kuitun rivers and low in the Bortala River, with an R 2 ranging from 0.57 to 1.86. The local R 2 between the LSI for croplands and the WQI is 0.44. The local R 2 values between the LPI for saline lands and the WQI are high in the Jing River and low in the Bo River, Akeqisu River, and Kuitun rivers, ranging from 0.57 to 1.86.

  13. Application of Poisson kriging to the mapping of cholera and dysentery incidence in an endemic area of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq M Zahirul

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease maps can serve to display incidence rates geographically, to inform on public health provision about the success or failure of interventions, and to make hypothesis or to provide evidences concerning disease etiology. Poisson kriging was recently introduced to filter the noise attached to rates recorded over sparsely populated administrative units. Its benefit over simple population-weighted averages and empirical Bayesian smoothers was demonstrated by simulation studies using county-level cancer mortality rates. This paper presents the first application of Poisson kriging to the spatial interpolation of local disease rates, resulting in continuous maps of disease rate estimates and the associated prediction variance. The methodology is illustrated using cholera and dysentery data collected in a cholera endemic area (Matlab of Bangladesh. Results The spatial analysis was confined to patrilineally-related clusters of households, known as baris, located within 9 kilometers from the Matlab hospital to avoid underestimating the risk of disease incidence, since patients far away from the medical facilities are less likely to travel. Semivariogram models reveal a range of autocorrelation of 1.1 km for dysentery and 0.37 km for cholera. This result translates into a cholera risk map that is patchier than the dysentery map that shows a large zone of high incidence in the south-central part of the study area, which is quasi-urban. On both maps, lower risk values are found in the Northern part of the study area, which is also the most distant from the Matlab hospital. The weaker spatial continuity of cholera versus dysentery incidence rates resulted in larger kriging variance across the study area. Conclusion The approach presented in this paper enables researchers to incorporate the pattern of spatial dependence of incidence rates into the mapping of risk values and the quantification of the associated uncertainty. Differences

  14. Poisson Mixture Regression Models for Heart Disease Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Hamza

    2016-01-01

    Early heart disease control can be achieved by high disease prediction and diagnosis efficiency. This paper focuses on the use of model based clustering techniques to predict and diagnose heart disease via Poisson mixture regression models. Analysis and application of Poisson mixture regression models is here addressed under two different classes: standard and concomitant variable mixture regression models. Results show that a two-component concomitant variable Poisson mixture regression model predicts heart disease better than both the standard Poisson mixture regression model and the ordinary general linear Poisson regression model due to its low Bayesian Information Criteria value. Furthermore, a Zero Inflated Poisson Mixture Regression model turned out to be the best model for heart prediction over all models as it both clusters individuals into high or low risk category and predicts rate to heart disease componentwise given clusters available. It is deduced that heart disease prediction can be effectively done by identifying the major risks componentwise using Poisson mixture regression model. PMID:27999611

  15. Boundary Lax pairs from non-ultra-local Poisson algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avan, Jean; Doikou, Anastasia

    2009-01-01

    We consider non-ultra-local linear Poisson algebras on a continuous line. Suitable combinations of representations of these algebras yield representations of novel generalized linear Poisson algebras or 'boundary' extensions. They are parametrized by a boundary scalar matrix and depend, in addition, on the choice of an antiautomorphism. The new algebras are the classical-linear counterparts of the known quadratic quantum boundary algebras. For any choice of parameters, the non-ultra-local contribution of the original Poisson algebra disappears. We also systematically construct the associated classical Lax pair. The classical boundary principal chiral model is examined as a physical example.

  16. Modified Regression Correlation Coefficient for Poisson Regression Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaengthong, Nattacha; Domthong, Uthumporn

    2017-09-01

    This study gives attention to indicators in predictive power of the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) which are widely used; however, often having some restrictions. We are interested in regression correlation coefficient for a Poisson regression model. This is a measure of predictive power, and defined by the relationship between the dependent variable (Y) and the expected value of the dependent variable given the independent variables [E(Y|X)] for the Poisson regression model. The dependent variable is distributed as Poisson. The purpose of this research was modifying regression correlation coefficient for Poisson regression model. We also compare the proposed modified regression correlation coefficient with the traditional regression correlation coefficient in the case of two or more independent variables, and having multicollinearity in independent variables. The result shows that the proposed regression correlation coefficient is better than the traditional regression correlation coefficient based on Bias and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).

  17. A high order solver for the unbounded Poisson equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    A high order converging Poisson solver is presented, based on the Greenʼs function solution to Poissonʼs equation subject to free-space boundary conditions. The high order convergence is achieved by formulating regularised integration kernels, analogous to a smoothing of the solution field....... The method is extended to directly solve the derivatives of the solution to Poissonʼs equation. In this way differential operators such as the divergence or curl of the solution field can be solved to the same high order convergence without additional computational effort. The method, is applied...... and validated, however not restricted, to the equations of fluid mechanics, and can be used in many applications to solve Poissonʼs equation on a rectangular unbounded domain....

  18. On the poisson's ratio of the nucleus pulposus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M D; Riches, P E

    2013-10-01

    Existing experimental data on the Poisson's ratio of nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue is limited. This study aims to determine whether the Poisson's ratio of NP tissue is strain-dependent, strain-rate-dependent, or varies with axial location in the disk. Thirty-two cylindrical plugs of bovine tail NP tissue were subjected to ramp-hold unconfined compression to 20% axial strain in 5% increments, at either 30 μm/s or 0.3 μm/s ramp speeds and the radial displacement determined using biaxial video extensometry. Following radial recoil, the true Poisson's ratio of the solid phase of NP tissue increased linearly with increasing strain and demonstrated strain-rate dependency. The latter finding suggests that the solid matrix undergoes stress relaxation during the test. For small strains, we suggest a Poisson's ratio of 0.125 to be used in biphasic models of the intervertebral disk.

  19. Weighted composition operators on weighted Bergman spaces of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    family of probability measures on . Also ... For the study of weighted composition operators one can refer to [4, 6, 13, 15] and ref- ..... (Providence). (1992). [10] Koecher M, An elementry approach to bounded symmetric domains (Rice Univ. Press). (1969). [11] Koranyi A, The Poisson integral for generalised half-planes and ...

  20. Organisation spatiale du peuplement de poissons dans le Bandama ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'évolution des peuplements de poissons sur le Bandama a été étudiée en considérant quatre zones d'échantillonnage : en amont du lac de Kossou, dans les lacs de Kossou et de Taabo, entre les lacs de Kossou et de Taabo, et en aval du lac de Taabo. Au total, 74 espèces de poisson réparties en 49 genres, 28 familles ...

  1. Formality theory from Poisson structures to deformation quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    This book is a survey of the theory of formal deformation quantization of Poisson manifolds, in the formalism developed by Kontsevich. It is intended as an educational introduction for mathematical physicists who are dealing with the subject for the first time. The main topics covered are the theory of Poisson manifolds, star products and their classification, deformations of associative algebras and the formality theorem. Readers will also be familiarized with the relevant physical motivations underlying the purely mathematical construction.

  2. Poisson structure of the equations of ideal multispecies fluid electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    The equations of the two- (or multi-) fluid model of plasma physics are recast in Hamiltonian form, following general methods of symplectic geometry. The dynamical variables are the fields of physical interest, but are noncanonical, so that the Poisson bracket in the theory is not the standard one. However, it is a skew-symmetric bilinear form which, from the method of derivation, automatically satisfies the Jacobi identity; therefore, this noncanonical structure has all the essential properties of a canonical Poisson bracket

  3. On the Fedosov deformation quantization beyond the regular Poisson manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgushev, V.A.; Isaev, A.P.; Lyakhovich, S.L.; Sharapov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    A simple iterative procedure is suggested for the deformation quantization of (irregular) Poisson brackets associated to the classical Yang-Baxter equation. The construction is shown to admit a pure algebraic reformulation giving the Universal Deformation Formula (UDF) for any triangular Lie bialgebra. A simple proof of classification theorem for inequivalent UDF's is given. As an example the explicit quantization formula is presented for the quasi-homogeneous Poisson brackets on two-plane

  4. A Note On the Estimation of the Poisson Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Chitgopekar

    1985-01-01

    distribution when there are errors in observing the zeros and ones and obtains both the maximum likelihood and moments estimates of the Poisson mean and the error probabilities. It is interesting to note that either method fails to give unique estimates of these parameters unless the error probabilities are functionally related. However, it is equally interesting to observe that the estimate of the Poisson mean does not depend on the functional relationship between the error probabilities.

  5. Background stratified Poisson regression analysis of cohort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Langholz, Bryan

    2012-03-01

    Background stratified Poisson regression is an approach that has been used in the analysis of data derived from a variety of epidemiologically important studies of radiation-exposed populations, including uranium miners, nuclear industry workers, and atomic bomb survivors. We describe a novel approach to fit Poisson regression models that adjust for a set of covariates through background stratification while directly estimating the radiation-disease association of primary interest. The approach makes use of an expression for the Poisson likelihood that treats the coefficients for stratum-specific indicator variables as 'nuisance' variables and avoids the need to explicitly estimate the coefficients for these stratum-specific parameters. Log-linear models, as well as other general relative rate models, are accommodated. This approach is illustrated using data from the Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors and data from a study of underground uranium miners. The point estimate and confidence interval obtained from this 'conditional' regression approach are identical to the values obtained using unconditional Poisson regression with model terms for each background stratum. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed approach allows estimation of background stratified Poisson regression models of non-standard form, such as models that parameterize latency effects, as well as regression models in which the number of strata is large, thereby overcoming the limitations of previously available statistical software for fitting background stratified Poisson regression models.

  6. Background stratified Poisson regression analysis of cohort data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, David B.; Langholz, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Background stratified Poisson regression is an approach that has been used in the analysis of data derived from a variety of epidemiologically important studies of radiation-exposed populations, including uranium miners, nuclear industry workers, and atomic bomb survivors. We describe a novel approach to fit Poisson regression models that adjust for a set of covariates through background stratification while directly estimating the radiation-disease association of primary interest. The approach makes use of an expression for the Poisson likelihood that treats the coefficients for stratum-specific indicator variables as 'nuisance' variables and avoids the need to explicitly estimate the coefficients for these stratum-specific parameters. Log-linear models, as well as other general relative rate models, are accommodated. This approach is illustrated using data from the Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors and data from a study of underground uranium miners. The point estimate and confidence interval obtained from this 'conditional' regression approach are identical to the values obtained using unconditional Poisson regression with model terms for each background stratum. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed approach allows estimation of background stratified Poisson regression models of non-standard form, such as models that parameterize latency effects, as well as regression models in which the number of strata is large, thereby overcoming the limitations of previously available statistical software for fitting background stratified Poisson regression models. (orig.)

  7. Background stratified Poisson regression analysis of cohort data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, David B. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Langholz, Bryan [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Division of Biostatistics, Department of Preventive Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Background stratified Poisson regression is an approach that has been used in the analysis of data derived from a variety of epidemiologically important studies of radiation-exposed populations, including uranium miners, nuclear industry workers, and atomic bomb survivors. We describe a novel approach to fit Poisson regression models that adjust for a set of covariates through background stratification while directly estimating the radiation-disease association of primary interest. The approach makes use of an expression for the Poisson likelihood that treats the coefficients for stratum-specific indicator variables as 'nuisance' variables and avoids the need to explicitly estimate the coefficients for these stratum-specific parameters. Log-linear models, as well as other general relative rate models, are accommodated. This approach is illustrated using data from the Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors and data from a study of underground uranium miners. The point estimate and confidence interval obtained from this 'conditional' regression approach are identical to the values obtained using unconditional Poisson regression with model terms for each background stratum. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed approach allows estimation of background stratified Poisson regression models of non-standard form, such as models that parameterize latency effects, as well as regression models in which the number of strata is large, thereby overcoming the limitations of previously available statistical software for fitting background stratified Poisson regression models. (orig.)

  8. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  9. Geographic Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  10. Geographic disparity in kidney transplantation under KAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng; Massie, Allan B; Luo, Xun; Ruck, Jessica M; Chow, Eric K H; Bowring, Mary G; Bae, Sunjae; Segev, Dorry L; Gentry, Sommer E

    2017-12-12

    The Kidney Allocation System fundamentally altered kidney allocation, causing a substantial increase in regional and national sharing that we hypothesized might impact geographic disparities. We measured geographic disparity in deceased donor kidney transplant (DDKT) rate under KAS (6/1/2015-12/1/2016), and compared that with pre-KAS (6/1/2013-12/3/2014). We modeled DSA-level DDKT rates with multilevel Poisson regression, adjusting for allocation factors under KAS. Using the model we calculated a novel, improved metric of geographic disparity: the median incidence rate ratio (MIRR) of transplant rate, a measure of DSA-level variation that accounts for patient casemix and is robust to outlier values. Under KAS, MIRR was 1.75 1.81 1.86 for adults, meaning that similar candidates across different DSAs have a median 1.81-fold difference in DDKT rate. The impact of geography was greater than the impact of factors emphasized by KAS: having an EPTS score ≤20% was associated with a 1.40-fold increase (IRR =  1.35 1.40 1.45 , P geographic disparities with KAS (P = .3). Despite extensive changes to kidney allocation under KAS, geography remains a primary determinant of access to DDKT. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  11. Poisson sigma model with branes and hyperelliptic Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrario, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    We derive the explicit form of the superpropagators in the presence of general boundary conditions (coisotropic branes) for the Poisson sigma model. This generalizes the results presented by Cattaneo and Felder [''A path integral approach to the Kontsevich quantization formula,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 212, 591 (2000)] and Cattaneo and Felder ['Coisotropic submanifolds in Poisson geometry and branes in the Poisson sigma model', Lett. Math. Phys. 69, 157 (2004)] for Kontsevich's angle function [Kontsevich, M., 'Deformation quantization of Poisson manifolds I', e-print arXiv:hep.th/0101170] used in the deformation quantization program of Poisson manifolds. The relevant superpropagators for n branes are defined as gauge fixed homotopy operators of a complex of differential forms on n sided polygons P n with particular ''alternating'' boundary conditions. In the presence of more than three branes we use first order Riemann theta functions with odd singular characteristics on the Jacobian variety of a hyperelliptic Riemann surface (canonical setting). In genus g the superpropagators present g zero mode contributions

  12. A spectral Poisson solver for kinetic plasma simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeremley, Daniel; Obberath, Jens; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2011-10-01

    Plasma resonance spectroscopy is a well established plasma diagnostic method, realized in several designs. One of these designs is the multipole resonance probe (MRP). In its idealized - geometrically simplified - version it consists of two dielectrically shielded, hemispherical electrodes to which an RF signal is applied. A numerical tool is under development which is capable of simulating the dynamics of the plasma surrounding the MRP in electrostatic approximation. In this contribution we concentrate on the specialized Poisson solver for that tool. The plasma is represented by an ensemble of point charges. By expanding both the charge density and the potential into spherical harmonics, a largely analytical solution of the Poisson problem can be employed. For a practical implementation, the expansion must be appropriately truncated. With this spectral solver we are able to efficiently solve the Poisson equation in a kinetic plasma simulation without the need of introducing a spatial discretization.

  13. A high order solver for the unbounded Poisson equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe

    In mesh-free particle methods a high order solution to the unbounded Poisson equation is usually achieved by constructing regularised integration kernels for the Biot-Savart law. Here the singular, point particles are regularised using smoothed particles to obtain an accurate solution with an order...... of convergence consistent with the moments conserved by the applied smoothing function. In the hybrid particle-mesh method of Hockney and Eastwood (HE) the particles are interpolated onto a regular mesh where the unbounded Poisson equation is solved by a discrete non-cyclic convolution of the mesh values...... and the integration kernel. In this work we show an implementation of high order regularised integration kernels in the HE algorithm for the unbounded Poisson equation to formally achieve an arbitrary high order convergence. We further present a quantitative study of the convergence rate to give further insight...

  14. Markov modulated Poisson process models incorporating covariates for rainfall intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayakaran, R; Ramesh, N I

    2013-01-01

    Time series of rainfall bucket tip times at the Beaufort Park station, Bracknell, in the UK are modelled by a class of Markov modulated Poisson processes (MMPP) which may be thought of as a generalization of the Poisson process. Our main focus in this paper is to investigate the effects of including covariate information into the MMPP model framework on statistical properties. In particular, we look at three types of time-varying covariates namely temperature, sea level pressure, and relative humidity that are thought to be affecting the rainfall arrival process. Maximum likelihood estimation is used to obtain the parameter estimates, and likelihood ratio tests are employed in model comparison. Simulated data from the fitted model are used to make statistical inferences about the accumulated rainfall in the discrete time interval. Variability of the daily Poisson arrival rates is studied.

  15. Poisson-Fermi Formulation of Nonlocal Electrostatics in Electrolyte Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinn-Liang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a nonlocal electrostatic formulation of nonuniform ions and water molecules with interstitial voids that uses a Fermi-like distribution to account for steric and correlation efects in electrolyte solutions. The formulation is based on the volume exclusion of hard spheres leading to a steric potential and Maxwell’s displacement field with Yukawa-type interactions resulting in a nonlocal electric potential. The classical Poisson-Boltzmann model fails to describe steric and correlation effects important in a variety of chemical and biological systems, especially in high field or large concentration conditions found in and near binding sites, ion channels, and electrodes. Steric effects and correlations are apparent when we compare nonlocal Poisson-Fermi results to Poisson-Boltzmann calculations in electric double layer and to experimental measurements on the selectivity of potassium channels for K+ over Na+.

  16. The coupling of Poisson sigma models to topological backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Dario [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-13

    We extend the coupling to the topological backgrounds, recently worked out for the 2-dimensional BF-model, to the most general Poisson sigma models. The coupling involves the choice of a Casimir function on the target manifold and modifies the BRST transformations. This in turn induces a change in the BRST cohomology of the resulting theory. The observables of the coupled theory are analyzed and their geometrical interpretation is given. We finally couple the theory to 2-dimensional topological gravity: this is the first step to study a topological string theory in propagation on a Poisson manifold. As an application, we show that the gauge-fixed vectorial supersymmetry of the Poisson sigma models has a natural explanation in terms of the theory coupled to topological gravity.

  17. Effect of Poisson noise on adiabatic quantum control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, A.; Muga, J. G.; Ruschhaupt, A.

    2017-01-01

    We present a detailed derivation of the master equation describing a general time-dependent quantum system with classical Poisson white noise and outline its various properties. We discuss the limiting cases of Poisson white noise and provide approximations for the different noise strength regimes. We show that using the eigenstates of the noise superoperator as a basis can be a useful way of expressing the master equation. Using this, we simulate various settings to illustrate different effects of Poisson noise. In particular, we show a dip in the fidelity as a function of noise strength where high fidelity can occur in the strong-noise regime for some cases. We also investigate recent claims [J. Jing et al., Phys. Rev. A 89, 032110 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.032110] that this type of noise may improve rather than destroy adiabaticity.

  18. Double generalized linear compound poisson models to insurance claims data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Daniel Arnfeldt; Bonat, Wagner Hugo

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the specification, estimation and comparison of double generalized linear compound Poisson models based on the likelihood paradigm. The models are motivated by insurance applications, where the distribution of the response variable is composed by a degenerate distribution...... in a finite sample framework. The simulation studies are also used to validate the fitting algorithms and check the computational implementation. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of an unsuitable choice for the response variable distribution on both mean and dispersion parameter estimates. We provide R...... implementation and illustrate the application of double generalized linear compound Poisson models using a data set about car insurances....

  19. Quadratic Hamiltonians on non-symmetric Poisson structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arribas, M.; Blesa, F.; Elipe, A.

    2007-01-01

    Many dynamical systems may be represented in a set of non-canonical coordinates that generate an su(2) algebraic structure. The topology of the phase space is the one of the S 2 sphere, the Poisson structure is the one of the rigid body, and the Hamiltonian is a parametric quadratic form in these 'spherical' coordinates. However, there are other problems in which the Poisson structure losses its symmetry. In this paper we analyze this case and, we show how the loss of the spherical symmetry affects the phase flow and parametric bifurcations for the bi-parametric cases

  20. Efficient triangulation of Poisson-disk sampled point sets

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2014-05-06

    In this paper, we present a simple yet efficient algorithm for triangulating a 2D input domain containing a Poisson-disk sampled point set. The proposed algorithm combines a regular grid and a discrete clustering approach to speedup the triangulation. Moreover, our triangulation algorithm is flexible and performs well on more general point sets such as adaptive, non-maximal Poisson-disk sets. The experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm is robust for a wide range of input domains and achieves significant performance improvement compared to the current state-of-the-art approaches. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  1. Gyrokinetic energy conservation and Poisson-bracket formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, A.

    1988-11-01

    An integral expression for the gyrokinetic total energy of a magnetized plasma with general magnetic field configuration perturbed by fully electromagnetic fields was recently derived through the use of a gyro-center Lie transformation. We show that the gyrokinetic energy is conserved by the gyrokinetic Hamiltonian flow to all orders in perturbed fields. This paper is concerned with the explicit demonstration that a gyrokinetic Hamiltonian containing quadratic nonlinearities preserves the gyrokinetic energy up to third order. The Poisson-bracket formulation greatly facilitates this demonstration with the help of the Jacobi identity and other properties of the Poisson brackets. 18 refs

  2. Adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii on surfaces. Based on the concepts of power diagram and regular triangulation, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets on surfaces, which is the key ingredient of the adaptive maximal Poisson-disk sampling framework. Moreover, we adapt the presented sampling framework for remeshing applications. Several novel and efficient operators are developed for improving the sampling/meshing quality over the state-of-theart. © 2012 ACM.

  3. Robust iterative observer for source localization for Poisson equation

    KAUST Repository

    Majeed, Muhammad Usman

    2017-01-05

    Source localization problem for Poisson equation with available noisy boundary data is well known to be highly sensitive to noise. The problem is ill posed and lacks to fulfill Hadamards stability criteria for well posedness. In this work, first a robust iterative observer is presented for boundary estimation problem for Laplace equation, and then this algorithm along with the available noisy boundary data from the Poisson problem is used to localize point sources inside a rectangular domain. The algorithm is inspired from Kalman filter design, however one of the space variables is used as time-like. Numerical implementation along with simulation results is detailed towards the end.

  4. Efficient maximal Poisson-disk sampling and remeshing on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2015-02-01

    Poisson-disk sampling is one of the fundamental research problems in computer graphics that has many applications. In this paper, we study the problem of maximal Poisson-disk sampling on mesh surfaces. We present a simple approach that generalizes the 2D maximal sampling framework to surfaces. The key observation is to use a subdivided mesh as the sampling domain for conflict checking and void detection. Our approach improves the state-of-the-art approach in efficiency, quality and the memory consumption.

  5. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  6. Temporal evolution of the risk factors associated with low birth weight rates in Brazilian capitals (1996-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Buriol, Viviane Costa; Hirakata, Vânia; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; da Silva, Clécio Homrich

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the trend of low birth weight (LBW) and its determinants in Brazilian state capitals between 1996 and 2011. We intended to determine which variables are associated with LBW during the period studied. This is a cross-sectional study that used data from the National Information System of Live Births from 26 state capitals and Brasilia (the federal capital), divided into five geographical regions. The Average Annual Percentage of Change (AAPC) was used to assess the possible time trend in the low birth weight rates for considering all regions together and each region separately, according to each variable, and the Poisson regression was calculated in order to demonstrate time trends in low birth weight and the impact of variables (age and educational maternal level, antenatal visits, type of delivery, and gestational age) during the period. All variables were analyzed together using the Poisson regression as well. From the total of 11,200,255 live births used in this study, there was a significant reduction in the number of live births, especially in the more developed regions. The low birth weight rate was 8 %, and it was stable during the period. Considering regional trends, the rate was higher in the Southeast and South regions, and significantly higher in the North, Northeast, and Central West regions. Improvements in maternal education and antenatal care coverage reduced the risk for low birth weight in all regions. Also, there was an increase in caesarean sections in all regions, with a small impact on low birth weight rates. Improvements in education and health care reduced the risk for low birth weight in all Brazilian regions during the period of study. Trends in low birth weight rates and the associated factors differ from region to region, showing different stages of demographic, epidemiological and developmental transition in Brazil. The present study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre

  7. Multi-parameter full waveform inversion using Poisson

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon

    2016-07-21

    In multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI), the success of recovering each parameter is dependent on characteristics of the partial derivative wavefields (or virtual sources), which differ according to parameterisation. Elastic FWIs based on the two conventional parameterisations (one uses Lame constants and density; the other employs P- and S-wave velocities and density) have low resolution of gradients for P-wave velocities (or ). Limitations occur because the virtual sources for P-wave velocity or (one of the Lame constants) are related only to P-P diffracted waves, and generate isotropic explosions, which reduce the spatial resolution of the FWI for these parameters. To increase the spatial resolution, we propose a new parameterisation using P-wave velocity, Poisson\\'s ratio, and density for frequency-domain multi-parameter FWI for isotropic elastic media. By introducing Poisson\\'s ratio instead of S-wave velocity, the virtual source for the P-wave velocity generates P-S and S-S diffracted waves as well as P-P diffracted waves in the partial derivative wavefields for the P-wave velocity. Numerical examples of the cross-triangle-square (CTS) model indicate that the new parameterisation provides highly resolved descent directions for the P-wave velocity. Numerical examples of noise-free and noisy data synthesised for the elastic Marmousi-II model support the fact that the new parameterisation is more robust for noise than the two conventional parameterisations.

  8. On covariant Poisson brackets in classical field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forger, Michael; Salles, Mário O.

    2015-01-01

    How to give a natural geometric definition of a covariant Poisson bracket in classical field theory has for a long time been an open problem—as testified by the extensive literature on “multisymplectic Poisson brackets,” together with the fact that all these proposals suffer from serious defects. On the other hand, the functional approach does provide a good candidate which has come to be known as the Peierls–De Witt bracket and whose construction in a geometrical setting is now well understood. Here, we show how the basic “multisymplectic Poisson bracket” already proposed in the 1970s can be derived from the Peierls–De Witt bracket, applied to a special class of functionals. This relation allows to trace back most (if not all) of the problems encountered in the past to ambiguities (the relation between differential forms on multiphase space and the functionals they define is not one-to-one) and also to the fact that this class of functionals does not form a Poisson subalgebra

  9. Poisson processes on groups and Feynman path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combe, P.; Rodriguez, R.; Sirugue-Collin, M.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille; Sirugue, M.

    1979-09-01

    An expression is given for the perturbed evolution of a free evolution by gentle, possibly velocity dependent, potential, in terms of the expectation with respect to a Poisson process on a group. Various applications are given in particular to usual quantum mechanics but also to Fermi and spin systems

  10. An application of the Autoregressive Conditional Poisson (ACP) model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holloway, Jennifer P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available When modelling count data that comes in the form of a time series, the static Poisson regression and standard time series models are often not appropriate. A current study therefore involves the evaluation of several observation-driven and parameter...

  11. The Quantum Poisson Bracket and Transformation Theory in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 8. The Quantum Poisson Bracket and Transformation Theory in Quantum Mechanics: Dirac's Early Work in Quantum Theory. Kamal Datta. General Article Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 75-85 ...

  12. A high order solver for the unbounded Poisson equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This work improves upon Hockney and Eastwood's Fourier-based algorithm for the unbounded Poisson equation to formally achieve arbitrary high order of convergence without any additional computational cost. We assess the methodology on the kinematic relations between the velocity and vorticity fields....

  13. Coefficient Inverse Problem for Poisson's Equation in a Cylinder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solov'ev, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    The inverse problem of determining the coefficient on the right-hand side of Poisson's equation in a cylindrical domain is considered. The Dirichlet boundary value problem is studied. Two types of additional information (overdetermination) can be specified: (i) the trace of the solution to the

  14. Modeling corporate defaults: Poisson autoregressions with exogenous covariates (PARX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agosto, Arianna; Cavaliere, Guiseppe; Kristensen, Dennis

    We develop a class of Poisson autoregressive models with additional covariates (PARX) that can be used to model and forecast time series of counts. We establish the time series properties of the models, including conditions for stationarity and existence of moments. These results are in turn used...

  15. Is it safe to use Poisson statistics in nuclear spectrometry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomme, S.; Robouch, P.; Arana, G.; Eguskiza, M.; Maguregui, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The boundary conditions in which Poisson statistics can be applied in nuclear spectrometry are investigated. Improved formulas for the uncertainty of nuclear counting with deadtime and pulse pileup are presented. A comparison is made between the expected statistical uncertainty for loss-free counting, fixed live-time and fixed real-time measurements. (author)

  16. Nambu-Poisson reformulation of the finite dimensional dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleanu, D.; Makhaldiani, N.

    1998-01-01

    A system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which in a particular case reduces to Volterra's system is introduced. We found in two simplest cases the complete sets of the integrals of motion using Nambu-Poisson reformulation of the Hamiltonian dynamics. In these cases we have solved the systems by quadratures

  17. A Poisson type formula for Hardy classes on Heisenberg's group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopushansky O.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hardy type class of complex functions with infinite many variables defined on the Schrodinger irreducible unitary orbit of reduced Heisenberg group, generated by the Gauss density, is investigated. A Poisson integral type formula for their analytic extensions on an open ball is established. Taylor coefficients for analytic extensions are described by the associatedsymmetric Fock space.

  18. Subsonic Flow for the Multidimensional Euler-Poisson System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Myoungjean; Duan, Ben; Xie, Chunjing

    2016-04-01

    We establish the existence and stability of subsonic potential flow for the steady Euler-Poisson system in a multidimensional nozzle of a finite length when prescribing the electric potential difference on a non-insulated boundary from a fixed point at the exit, and prescribing the pressure at the exit of the nozzle. The Euler-Poisson system for subsonic potential flow can be reduced to a nonlinear elliptic system of second order. In this paper, we develop a technique to achieve a priori {C^{1,α}} estimates of solutions to a quasi-linear second order elliptic system with mixed boundary conditions in a multidimensional domain enclosed by a Lipschitz continuous boundary. In particular, we discovered a special structure of the Euler-Poisson system which enables us to obtain {C^{1,α}} estimates of the velocity potential and the electric potential functions, and this leads us to establish structural stability of subsonic flows for the Euler-Poisson system under perturbations of various data.

  19. Poisson-generalized gamma empirical Bayes model for disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spatial disease mapping, the use of Bayesian models of estimation technique is becoming popular for smoothing relative risks estimates for disease mapping. The most common Bayesian conjugate model for disease mapping is the Poisson-Gamma Model (PG). To explore further the activity of smoothing of relative risk ...

  20. Inhibition in speed and concentration tests: The Poisson inhibition model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.C.; Ven, A.H.G.S. van der

    1995-01-01

    A new model is presented to account for the reaction time fluctuations in concentration tests. The model is a natural generalization of an earlier model, the so-called Poisson-Erlang model, published by Pieters & van der Ven (1982). First, a description is given of the type of tasks for which the

  1. Boundary singularity of Poisson and harmonic Bergman kernels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engliš, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 429, č. 1 (2015), s. 233-272 ISSN 0022-247X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190802 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : harmonic Bergman kernel * Poisson kernel * pseudodifferential boundary operators Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.014, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X15003170

  2. Characterization and global analysis of a family of Poisson structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Bermejo, Benito [Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia, Edificio Departamental II, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Calle Tulipan S/N, 28933 (Mostoles), Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: benito.hernandez@urjc.es

    2006-06-26

    A three-dimensional family of solutions of the Jacobi equations for Poisson systems is characterized. In spite of its general form it is possible the explicit and global determination of its main features, such as the symplectic structure and the construction of the Darboux canonical form. Examples are given.

  3. Wide-area traffic: The failure of Poisson modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxson, V.; Floyd, S.

    1994-08-01

    Network arrivals are often modeled as Poisson processes for analytic simplicity, even though a number of traffic studies have shown that packet interarrivals are not exponentially distributed. The authors evaluate 21 wide-area traces, investigating a number of wide-area TCP arrival processes (session and connection arrivals, FTPDATA connection arrivals within FTP sessions, and TELNET packet arrivals) to determine the error introduced by modeling them using Poisson processes. The authors find that user-initiated TCP session arrivals, such as remote-login and file-transfer, are well-modeled as Poisson processes with fixed hourly rates, but that other connection arrivals deviate considerably from Poisson; that modeling TELNET packet interarrivals as exponential grievously underestimates the burstiness of TELNET traffic, but using the empirical Tcplib[DJCME92] interarrivals preserves burstiness over many time scales; and that FTPDATA connection arrivals within FTP sessions come bunched into ``connection bursts``, the largest of which are so large that they completely dominate FTPDATA traffic. Finally, they offer some preliminary results regarding how the findings relate to the possible self-similarity of wide-area traffic.

  4. Comparison between two bivariate Poisson distributions through the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To remedy this problem, Berkhout and Plug proposed a bivariate Poisson distribution accepting the correlation as well negative, equal to zero, that positive. In this paper, we show that these models are nearly everywhere asymptotically equal. From this survey that the ø-divergence converges toward zero, both models are ...

  5. On covariant Poisson brackets in classical field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forger, Michael [Instituto de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 66281, BR–05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salles, Mário O. [Instituto de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 66281, BR–05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário – Lagoa Nova, BR–59078-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    How to give a natural geometric definition of a covariant Poisson bracket in classical field theory has for a long time been an open problem—as testified by the extensive literature on “multisymplectic Poisson brackets,” together with the fact that all these proposals suffer from serious defects. On the other hand, the functional approach does provide a good candidate which has come to be known as the Peierls–De Witt bracket and whose construction in a geometrical setting is now well understood. Here, we show how the basic “multisymplectic Poisson bracket” already proposed in the 1970s can be derived from the Peierls–De Witt bracket, applied to a special class of functionals. This relation allows to trace back most (if not all) of the problems encountered in the past to ambiguities (the relation between differential forms on multiphase space and the functionals they define is not one-to-one) and also to the fact that this class of functionals does not form a Poisson subalgebra.

  6. Poisson sampling - The adjusted and unadjusted estimator revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Williams; Hans T. Schreuder; Gerardo H. Terrazas

    1998-01-01

    The prevailing assumption, that for Poisson sampling the adjusted estimator "Y-hat a" is always substantially more efficient than the unadjusted estimator "Y-hat u" , is shown to be incorrect. Some well known theoretical results are applicable since "Y-hat a" is a ratio-of-means estimator and "Y-hat u" a simple unbiased estimator...

  7. Poisson Regression Analysis of Illness and Injury Surveillance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frome E.L., Watkins J.P., Ellis E.D.

    2012-12-12

    The Department of Energy (DOE) uses illness and injury surveillance to monitor morbidity and assess the overall health of the work force. Data collected from each participating site include health events and a roster file with demographic information. The source data files are maintained in a relational data base, and are used to obtain stratified tables of health event counts and person time at risk that serve as the starting point for Poisson regression analysis. The explanatory variables that define these tables are age, gender, occupational group, and time. Typical response variables of interest are the number of absences due to illness or injury, i.e., the response variable is a count. Poisson regression methods are used to describe the effect of the explanatory variables on the health event rates using a log-linear main effects model. Results of fitting the main effects model are summarized in a tabular and graphical form and interpretation of model parameters is provided. An analysis of deviance table is used to evaluate the importance of each of the explanatory variables on the event rate of interest and to determine if interaction terms should be considered in the analysis. Although Poisson regression methods are widely used in the analysis of count data, there are situations in which over-dispersion occurs. This could be due to lack-of-fit of the regression model, extra-Poisson variation, or both. A score test statistic and regression diagnostics are used to identify over-dispersion. A quasi-likelihood method of moments procedure is used to evaluate and adjust for extra-Poisson variation when necessary. Two examples are presented using respiratory disease absence rates at two DOE sites to illustrate the methods and interpretation of the results. In the first example the Poisson main effects model is adequate. In the second example the score test indicates considerable over-dispersion and a more detailed analysis attributes the over-dispersion to extra-Poisson

  8. Seasonally adjusted birth frequencies follow the Poisson distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Mathias; Lindstrøm, Jonas C; Adams, Samantha S; Augestad, Liv A

    2015-12-15

    Variations in birth frequencies have an impact on activity planning in maternity wards. Previous studies of this phenomenon have commonly included elective births. A Danish study of spontaneous births found that birth frequencies were well modelled by a Poisson process. Somewhat unexpectedly, there were also weekly variations in the frequency of spontaneous births. Another study claimed that birth frequencies follow the Benford distribution. Our objective was to test these results. We analysed 50,017 spontaneous births at Akershus University Hospital in the period 1999-2014. To investigate the Poisson distribution of these births, we plotted their variance over a sliding average. We specified various Poisson regression models, with the number of births on a given day as the outcome variable. The explanatory variables included various combinations of years, months, days of the week and the digit sum of the date. The relationship between the variance and the average fits well with an underlying Poisson process. A Benford distribution was disproved by a goodness-of-fit test (p variables is significantly improved (p variable. Altogether 7.5% more children are born on Tuesdays than on Sundays. The digit sum of the date is non-significant as an explanatory variable (p = 0.23), nor does it increase the explained variance. INERPRETATION: Spontaneous births are well modelled by a time-dependent Poisson process when monthly and day-of-the-week variation is included. The frequency is highest in summer towards June and July, Friday and Tuesday stand out as particularly busy days, and the activity level is at its lowest during weekends.

  9. Poisson traces, D-modules, and symplectic resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etingof, Pavel; Schedler, Travis

    2018-03-01

    We survey the theory of Poisson traces (or zeroth Poisson homology) developed by the authors in a series of recent papers. The goal is to understand this subtle invariant of (singular) Poisson varieties, conditions for it to be finite-dimensional, its relationship to the geometry and topology of symplectic resolutions, and its applications to quantizations. The main technique is the study of a canonical D-module on the variety. In the case the variety has finitely many symplectic leaves (such as for symplectic singularities and Hamiltonian reductions of symplectic vector spaces by reductive groups), the D-module is holonomic, and hence, the space of Poisson traces is finite-dimensional. As an application, there are finitely many irreducible finite-dimensional representations of every quantization of the variety. Conjecturally, the D-module is the pushforward of the canonical D-module under every symplectic resolution of singularities, which implies that the space of Poisson traces is dual to the top cohomology of the resolution. We explain many examples where the conjecture is proved, such as symmetric powers of du Val singularities and symplectic surfaces and Slodowy slices in the nilpotent cone of a semisimple Lie algebra. We compute the D-module in the case of surfaces with isolated singularities and show it is not always semisimple. We also explain generalizations to arbitrary Lie algebras of vector fields, connections to the Bernstein-Sato polynomial, relations to two-variable special polynomials such as Kostka polynomials and Tutte polynomials, and a conjectural relationship with deformations of symplectic resolutions. In the appendix we give a brief recollection of the theory of D-modules on singular varieties that we require.

  10. Poisson structure of dynamical systems with three degrees of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümral, Hasan; Nutku, Yavuz

    1993-12-01

    It is shown that the Poisson structure of dynamical systems with three degrees of freedom can be defined in terms of an integrable one-form in three dimensions. Advantage is taken of this fact and the theory of foliations is used in discussing the geometrical structure underlying complete and partial integrability. Techniques for finding Poisson structures are presented and applied to various examples such as the Halphen system which has been studied as the two-monopole problem by Atiyah and Hitchin. It is shown that the Halphen system can be formulated in terms of a flat SL(2,R)-valued connection and belongs to a nontrivial Godbillon-Vey class. On the other hand, for the Euler top and a special case of three-species Lotka-Volterra equations which are contained in the Halphen system as limiting cases, this structure degenerates into the form of globally integrable bi-Hamiltonian structures. The globally integrable bi-Hamiltonian case is a linear and the SL(2,R) structure is a quadratic unfolding of an integrable one-form in 3+1 dimensions. It is shown that the existence of a vector field compatible with the flow is a powerful tool in the investigation of Poisson structure and some new techniques for incorporating arbitrary constants into the Poisson one-form are presented herein. This leads to some extensions, analogous to q extensions, of Poisson structure. The Kermack-McKendrick model and some of its generalizations describing the spread of epidemics, as well as the integrable cases of the Lorenz, Lotka-Volterra, May-Leonard, and Maxwell-Bloch systems admit globally integrable bi-Hamiltonian structure.

  11. Shellfish Feeding Experiments, Filter Weight and Tissue Weight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Particulate matter removal by shellfish was quantified in several geographic locations, across several years. Data include filter and shellfish tissue weights.

  12. 2D sigma models and differential Poisson algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Cesar [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Boulanger, Nicolas [Service de Mécanique et Gravitation, Université de Mons - UMONS,20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique,Unité Mixte de Recherche 7350 du CNRS, Fédération de Recherche 2964 Denis Poisson,Université François Rabelais, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Sundell, Per [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Torres-Gomez, Alexander [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad Austral de Chile-UACh,Valdivia (Chile)

    2015-08-18

    We construct a two-dimensional topological sigma model whose target space is endowed with a Poisson algebra for differential forms. The model consists of an equal number of bosonic and fermionic fields of worldsheet form degrees zero and one. The action is built using exterior products and derivatives, without any reference to a worldsheet metric, and is of the covariant Hamiltonian form. The equations of motion define a universally Cartan integrable system. In addition to gauge symmetries, the model has one rigid nilpotent supersymmetry corresponding to the target space de Rham operator. The rigid and local symmetries of the action, respectively, are equivalent to the Poisson bracket being compatible with the de Rham operator and obeying graded Jacobi identities. We propose that perturbative quantization of the model yields a covariantized differential star product algebra of Kontsevich type. We comment on the resemblance to the topological A model.

  13. A dictionary learning approach for Poisson image deblurring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liyan; Moisan, Lionel; Yu, Jian; Zeng, Tieyong

    2013-07-01

    The restoration of images corrupted by blur and Poisson noise is a key issue in medical and biological image processing. While most existing methods are based on variational models, generally derived from a maximum a posteriori (MAP) formulation, recently sparse representations of images have shown to be efficient approaches for image recovery. Following this idea, we propose in this paper a model containing three terms: a patch-based sparse representation prior over a learned dictionary, the pixel-based total variation regularization term and a data-fidelity term capturing the statistics of Poisson noise. The resulting optimization problem can be solved by an alternating minimization technique combined with variable splitting. Extensive experimental results suggest that in terms of visual quality, peak signal-to-noise ratio value and the method noise, the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

  14. Invariants and labels for Lie-Poisson Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiffeault, J.L.; Morrison, P.J.

    1998-04-01

    Reduction is a process that uses symmetry to lower the order of a Hamiltonian system. The new variables in the reduced picture are often not canonical: there are no clear variables representing positions and momenta, and the Poisson bracket obtained is not of the canonical type. Specifically, we give two examples that give rise to brackets of the noncanonical Lie-Poisson form: the rigid body and the two-dimensional ideal fluid. From these simple cases, we then use the semidirect product extension of algebras to describe more complex physical systems. The Casimir invariants in these systems are examined, and some are shown to be linked to the recovery of information about the configuration of the system. We discuss a case in which the extension is not a semidirect product, namely compressible reduced MHD, and find for this case that the Casimir invariants lend partial information about the configuration of the system

  15. Reference manual for the POISSON/SUPERFISH Group of Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The POISSON/SUPERFISH Group codes were set up to solve two separate problems: the design of magnets and the design of rf cavities in a two-dimensional geometry. The first stage of either problem is to describe the layout of the magnet or cavity in a way that can be used as input to solve the generalized Poisson equation for magnets or the Helmholtz equations for cavities. The computer codes require that the problems be discretized by replacing the differentials (dx,dy) by finite differences ({delta}X,{delta}Y). Instead of defining the function everywhere in a plane, the function is defined only at a finite number of points on a mesh in the plane.

  16. Bering's proposal for boundary contribution to the Poisson bracket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.O.

    1998-11-01

    It is shown that the Poisson bracket with boundary terms recently proposed by Bering can be deduced from the Poisson bracket proposed by the present author if one omits terms free of Euler-Lagrange derivatives (''annihilation principle''). This corresponds to another definition of the formal product of distributions (or, saying it in other words, to another definition of the pairing between 1-forms and 1-vectors in the formal variational calculus). We extend the formula initially suggested by Bering only for the ultralocal case with constant coefficients onto the general non-ultralocal brackets with coefficients depending on fields and their spatial derivatives. The lack of invariance under changes of dependent variables (field redefinitions) seems a drawback of this proposal. (author)

  17. Exponential Stability of Stochastic Systems with Delay and Poisson Jumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the model of a class of nonlinear stochastic delay systems with Poisson jumps based on Lyapunov stability theory, stochastic analysis, and inequality technique. The existence and uniqueness of the adapted solution to such systems are proved by applying the fixed point theorem. By constructing a Lyapunov function and using Doob’s martingale inequality and Borel-Cantelli lemma, sufficient conditions are given to establish the exponential stability in the mean square of such systems, and we prove that the exponentially stable in the mean square of such systems implies the almost surely exponentially stable. The obtained results show that if stochastic systems is exponentially stable and the time delay is sufficiently small, then the corresponding stochastic delay systems with Poisson jumps will remain exponentially stable, and time delay upper limit is solved by using the obtained results when the system is exponentially stable, and they are more easily verified and applied in practice.

  18. Improved mesh generator for the POISSON Group Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the improved mesh generator of the POISSON Group Codes. These improvements enable one to have full control over the way the mesh is generated and in particular the way the mesh density is distributed throughout this model. A higher mesh density in certain regions coupled with a successively lower mesh density in others keeps the accuracy of the field computation high and the requirements on the computer time and computer memory low. The mesh is generated with the help of codes AUTOMESH and LATTICE; both have gone through a major upgrade. Modifications have also been made in the POISSON part of these codes. We shall present an example of a superconducting dipole magnet to explain how to use this code. The results of field computations are found to be reliable within a few parts in a hundred thousand even in such complex geometries

  19. An adaptive fast multipole accelerated Poisson solver for complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askham, T.; Cerfon, A. J.

    2017-09-01

    We present a fast, direct and adaptive Poisson solver for complex two-dimensional geometries based on potential theory and fast multipole acceleration. More precisely, the solver relies on the standard decomposition of the solution as the sum of a volume integral to account for the source distribution and a layer potential to enforce the desired boundary condition. The volume integral is computed by applying the FMM on a square box that encloses the domain of interest. For the sake of efficiency and convergence acceleration, we first extend the source distribution (the right-hand side in the Poisson equation) to the enclosing box as a C0 function using a fast, boundary integral-based method. We demonstrate on multiply connected domains with irregular boundaries that this continuous extension leads to high accuracy without excessive adaptive refinement near the boundary and, as a result, to an extremely efficient "black box" fast solver.

  20. Investigation of Random Switching Driven by a Poisson Point Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Maria; Schiøler, Henrik; Leth, John-Josef

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the switching mechanism of a two-dimensional switched system, when the switching events are generated by a Poisson point process. A model, in the shape of a stochastic process, for such a system is derived and the distribution of the trajectory's position is developed...... together with marginal density functions for the coordinate functions. Furthermore, the joint probability distribution is given explicitly....

  1. Estimating small signals by using maximum likelihood and Poisson statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hannam, M D

    1999-01-01

    Estimation of small signals from counting experiments with backgrounds larger than signals is solved using maximum likelihood estimation for situations in which both signal and background statistics are Poissonian. Confidence levels are discussed, and Poisson, Gauss and least-squares fitting methods are compared. Efficient algorithms that estimate signal strengths and confidence levels are devised for computer implementation. Examples from simulated data and a low count rate experiment in nuclear physics are given. (author)

  2. Events in time: Basic analysis of Poisson data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, M.E.

    1994-09-01

    The report presents basic statistical methods for analyzing Poisson data, such as the member of events in some period of time. It gives point estimates, confidence intervals, and Bayesian intervals for the rate of occurrence per unit of time. It shows how to compare subsets of the data, both graphically and by statistical tests, and how to look for trends in time. It presents a compound model when the rate of occurrence varies randomly. Examples and SAS programs are given.

  3. A hybrid sampler for Poisson-Kingman mixture models

    OpenAIRE

    Lomeli, M.; Favaro, S.; Teh, Y. W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns the introduction of a new Markov Chain Monte Carlo scheme for posterior sampling in Bayesian nonparametric mixture models with priors that belong to the general Poisson-Kingman class. We present a novel compact way of representing the infinite dimensional component of the model such that while explicitly representing this infinite component it has less memory and storage requirements than previous MCMC schemes. We describe comparative simulation results demonstrating the e...

  4. A generalized Poisson solver for first-principles device simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bani-Hashemian, Mohammad Hossein; VandeVondele, Joost, E-mail: joost.vandevondele@mat.ethz.ch [Nanoscale Simulations, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Brück, Sascha; Luisier, Mathieu [Integrated Systems Laboratory, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-01-28

    Electronic structure calculations of atomistic systems based on density functional theory involve solving the Poisson equation. In this paper, we present a plane-wave based algorithm for solving the generalized Poisson equation subject to periodic or homogeneous Neumann conditions on the boundaries of the simulation cell and Dirichlet type conditions imposed at arbitrary subdomains. In this way, source, drain, and gate voltages can be imposed across atomistic models of electronic devices. Dirichlet conditions are enforced as constraints in a variational framework giving rise to a saddle point problem. The resulting system of equations is then solved using a stationary iterative method in which the generalized Poisson operator is preconditioned with the standard Laplace operator. The solver can make use of any sufficiently smooth function modelling the dielectric constant, including density dependent dielectric continuum models. For all the boundary conditions, consistent derivatives are available and molecular dynamics simulations can be performed. The convergence behaviour of the scheme is investigated and its capabilities are demonstrated.

  5. Poisson-Like Spiking in Circuits with Probabilistic Synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Bote, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal activity in cortex is variable both spontaneously and during stimulation, and it has the remarkable property that it is Poisson-like over broad ranges of firing rates covering from virtually zero to hundreds of spikes per second. The mechanisms underlying cortical-like spiking variability over such a broad continuum of rates are currently unknown. We show that neuronal networks endowed with probabilistic synaptic transmission, a well-documented source of variability in cortex, robustly generate Poisson-like variability over several orders of magnitude in their firing rate without fine-tuning of the network parameters. Other sources of variability, such as random synaptic delays or spike generation jittering, do not lead to Poisson-like variability at high rates because they cannot be sufficiently amplified by recurrent neuronal networks. We also show that probabilistic synapses predict Fano factor constancy of synaptic conductances. Our results suggest that synaptic noise is a robust and sufficient mechanism for the type of variability found in cortex. PMID:25032705

  6. Brain, music, and non-Poisson renewal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Simone; Ignaccolo, Massimiliano; Rider, Mark S.; Ross, Mary J.; Winsor, Phil; Grigolini, Paolo

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we show that both music composition and brain function, as revealed by the electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis, are renewal non-Poisson processes living in the nonergodic dominion. To reach this important conclusion we process the data with the minimum spanning tree method, so as to detect significant events, thereby building a sequence of times, which is the time series to analyze. Then we show that in both cases, EEG and music composition, these significant events are the signature of a non-Poisson renewal process. This conclusion is reached using a technique of statistical analysis recently developed by our group, the aging experiment (AE). First, we find that in both cases the distances between two consecutive events are described by nonexponential histograms, thereby proving the non-Poisson nature of these processes. The corresponding survival probabilities Ψ(t) are well fitted by stretched exponentials [ Ψ(t)∝exp (-(γt)α) , with 0.5music composition yield μmusic on the human brain.

  7. Optimal smoothing of poisson degraded nuclear medicine image data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a method that removes Poisson noise from nuclear medicine studies will have significant impact on the quantitative analysis and clinical reliability of these data. The primary objective of the work described in this thesis was to develop a linear, non-stationary optimal filter to reduce Poisson noise. The derived filter is automatically calculated from a large group (library) of similar patient studies representing all similarly acquired studies (the ensemble). The filter design was evaluated under controlled conditions using two computer simulated ensembles, devised to represent selected properties of real patient gated blood pool studies. Fortran programs were developed to generate libraries of Poisson degraded simulated studies for each ensemble. These libraries then were used to estimate optimal filters specific to the ensemble. Libraries of previously acquired patient gated blood pool studies then were used to estimate the optimal filters for an ensemble of similarly acquired gated blood pool studies. These filters were applied to studies of 13 patients who received multiple repeat studies at one time. Comparisons of both the filtered and raw data to averages of the repeat studies demonstrated that the optimal filters, calculated from a library of 800 studies, reduce the mean square error in the patient data by 60%. It is expected that optimally filtered gated blood pool studies will improve quantitative analysis of the data

  8. Blind beam-hardening correction from Poisson measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Renliang; Dogandžić, Aleksandar

    2016-02-01

    We develop a sparse image reconstruction method for Poisson-distributed polychromatic X-ray computed tomography (CT) measurements under the blind scenario where the material of the inspected object and the incident energy spectrum are unknown. We employ our mass-attenuation spectrum parameterization of the noiseless measurements and express the mass- attenuation spectrum as a linear combination of B-spline basis functions of order one. A block coordinate-descent algorithm is developed for constrained minimization of a penalized Poisson negative log-likelihood (NLL) cost function, where constraints and penalty terms ensure nonnegativity of the spline coefficients and nonnegativity and sparsity of the density map image; the image sparsity is imposed using a convex total-variation (TV) norm penalty term. This algorithm alternates between a Nesterov's proximal-gradient (NPG) step for estimating the density map image and a limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno with box constraints (L-BFGS-B) step for estimating the incident-spectrum parameters. To accelerate convergence of the density- map NPG steps, we apply function restart and a step-size selection scheme that accounts for varying local Lipschitz constants of the Poisson NLL. Real X-ray CT reconstruction examples demonstrate the performance of the proposed scheme.

  9. Action-angle variables and a KAM theorem for b-Poisson manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Kiesenhofer, Anna; Miranda Galcerán, Eva; Scott, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    In this article we prove an action-angle theorem for b-integrable systems on b-Poisson manifolds improving the action-angle theorem contained in [14] for general Poisson manifolds in this setting. As an application, we prove a KAM-type theorem for b-Poisson manifolds. (C) 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. A Raikov-Type Theorem for Radial Poisson Distributions: A Proof of Kingman's Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Van Nguyen, Thu

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we prove the following conjecture in Kingman, J.F.C., Random walks with spherical symmetry, Acta Math.,109, (1963), 11-53. concerning a famous Raikov's theorem of decomposition of Poisson random variables: "If a radial sum of two independent random variables X and Y is radial Poisson, then each of them must be radial Poisson."

  11. A comparison of Poisson-one-inflated power series distributions for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A class of Poisson-one-inflated power series distributions (the binomial, the Poisson, the negative binomial, the geometric, the log-series and the misrecorded Poisson) are proposed for modeling rural out-migration at the household level. The probability mass functions of the mixture distributions are derived and fitted to the ...

  12. Local existence of solutions to the Euler-Poisson system, including densities without compact support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Uwe; Karp, Lavi

    2018-01-01

    Local existence and well posedness for a class of solutions for the Euler Poisson system is shown. These solutions have a density ρ which either falls off at infinity or has compact support. The solutions have finite mass, finite energy functional and include the static spherical solutions for γ = 6/5. The result is achieved by using weighted Sobolev spaces of fractional order and a new non-linear estimate which allows to estimate the physical density by the regularised non-linear matter variable. Gamblin also has studied this setting but using very different functional spaces. However we believe that the functional setting we use is more appropriate to describe a physical isolated body and more suitable to study the Newtonian limit.

  13. Iterative observer based method for source localization problem for Poisson equation in 3D

    KAUST Repository

    Majeed, Muhammad Usman

    2017-07-10

    A state-observer based method is developed to solve point source localization problem for Poisson equation in a 3D rectangular prism with available boundary data. The technique requires a weighted sum of solutions of multiple boundary data estimation problems for Laplace equation over the 3D domain. The solution of each of these boundary estimation problems involves writing down the mathematical problem in state-space-like representation using one of the space variables as time-like. First, system observability result for 3D boundary estimation problem is recalled in an infinite dimensional setting. Then, based on the observability result, the boundary estimation problem is decomposed into a set of independent 2D sub-problems. These 2D problems are then solved using an iterative observer to obtain the solution. Theoretical results are provided. The method is implemented numerically using finite difference discretization schemes. Numerical illustrations along with simulation results are provided.

  14. Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, William F; Delmerico, Alan M

    2009-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the development, capabilities, and utilization of geographic information systems (GIS). There are nearly an unlimited number of applications that are relevant to GIS because virtually all human interactions, natural and man-made features, resources, and populations have a geographic component. Everything happens somewhere and the location often has a role that affects what occurs. This role is often called spatial dependence or spatial autocorrelation, which exists when a phenomenon is not randomly geographically distributed. GIS has a number of key capabilities that are needed to conduct a spatial analysis to assess this spatial dependence. This chapter presents these capabilities (e.g., georeferencing, adjacency/distance measures, overlays) and provides a case study to illustrate how GIS can be used for both research and planning. Although GIS has developed into a relatively mature application for basic functions, development is needed to more seamlessly integrate spatial statistics and models.The issue of location, especially the geography of human activities, interactions between humanity and nature, and the distribution and location of natural resources and features, is one of the most basic elements of scientific inquiry. Conceptualizations and physical maps of geographic space have existed since the beginning of time because all human activity takes place in a geographic context. Representing objects in space, basically where things are located, is a critical aspect of the natural, social, and applied sciences. Throughout history there have been many methods of characterizing geographic space, especially maps created by artists, mariners, and others eventually leading to the development of the field of cartography. It is no surprise that the digital age has launched a major effort to utilize geographic data, but not just as maps. A geographic information system (GIS) facilitates the collection, analysis, and reporting of

  15. Collision prediction models using multivariate Poisson-lognormal regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Basyouny, Karim; Sayed, Tarek

    2009-07-01

    This paper advocates the use of multivariate Poisson-lognormal (MVPLN) regression to develop models for collision count data. The MVPLN approach presents an opportunity to incorporate the correlations across collision severity levels and their influence on safety analyses. The paper introduces a new multivariate hazardous location identification technique, which generalizes the univariate posterior probability of excess that has been commonly proposed and applied in the literature. In addition, the paper presents an alternative approach for quantifying the effect of the multivariate structure on the precision of expected collision frequency. The MVPLN approach is compared with the independent (separate) univariate Poisson-lognormal (PLN) models with respect to model inference, goodness-of-fit, identification of hot spots and precision of expected collision frequency. The MVPLN is modeled using the WinBUGS platform which facilitates computation of posterior distributions as well as providing a goodness-of-fit measure for model comparisons. The results indicate that the estimates of the extra Poisson variation parameters were considerably smaller under MVPLN leading to higher precision. The improvement in precision is due mainly to the fact that MVPLN accounts for the correlation between the latent variables representing property damage only (PDO) and injuries plus fatalities (I+F). This correlation was estimated at 0.758, which is highly significant, suggesting that higher PDO rates are associated with higher I+F rates, as the collision likelihood for both types is likely to rise due to similar deficiencies in roadway design and/or other unobserved factors. In terms of goodness-of-fit, the MVPLN model provided a superior fit than the independent univariate models. The multivariate hazardous location identification results demonstrated that some hazardous locations could be overlooked if the analysis was restricted to the univariate models.

  16. Bases chimiosensorielles du comportement alimentaire chez les poissons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAGLIO Ph.

    1981-07-01

    Full Text Available Le comportement alimentaire, indispensable à la survie de l'individu et donc de l'espèce, occupe à ce titre une position de première importance dans la hiérarchie des comportements fondamentaux qui tous en dépendent très étroitement. Chez les poissons, cette prééminence se trouve illustrée par l'extrême diversité des supports sensoriels impliqués et des expressions comportementales qui leur sont liées. A la suite d'un certain nombre de mises en évidence neurophysiologiques et éthologiques de l'importance du sens chimique (olfaction, gustation dans le comportement alimentaire des poissons, de très importants secteurs d'études électrophysiologiques et d'analyses physico-chimiques visant à en déterminer la nature exacte (en termes de substances actives se sont développés ces vingt dernières années. De tous ces travaux dont les plus avancés sont présentés ici, il ressort que les acides aminés de série L plus ou moins associés à d'autres composés de poids moléculaires < 1000 constituent des composés chimiques jouant un rôle déterminant dans le comportement alimentaire de nombreuses espèces de poissons carnivores.

  17. Comment on: 'A Poisson resampling method for simulating reduced counts in nuclear medicine images'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nijs, Robin

    2015-01-01

    by a direct numerical simulation in Matlab. Not only Poisson resampling, but also two direct redrawing methods were investigated. Redrawing methods were based on a Poisson and a Gaussian distribution. Mean, standard deviation, skewness and excess kurtosis half-count/full-count ratios were determined for all...... methods, and compared to the theoretical values for a Poisson distribution. Statistical parameters showed the same behavior as in the original note and showed the superiority of the Poisson resampling method. Rounding off before saving of the half count image had a severe impact on counting statistics...... for counts below 100. Only Poisson resampling was not affected by this, while Gaussian redrawing was less affected by it than Poisson redrawing. Poisson resampling is the method of choice, when simulating half-count (or less) images from full-count images. It simulates correctly the statistical properties...

  18. On population size estimators in the Poisson mixture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chang Xuan; Yang, Nan; Zhong, Jinhua

    2013-09-01

    Estimating population sizes via capture-recapture experiments has enormous applications. The Poisson mixture model can be adopted for those applications with a single list in which individuals appear one or more times. We compare several nonparametric estimators, including the Chao estimator, the Zelterman estimator, two jackknife estimators and the bootstrap estimator. The target parameter of the Chao estimator is a lower bound of the population size. Those of the other four estimators are not lower bounds, and they may produce lower confidence limits for the population size with poor coverage probabilities. A simulation study is reported and two examples are investigated. © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

  19. Team behaviour analysis in sports using the poisson equation

    OpenAIRE

    Direkoglu, Cem; O'Connor, Noel E.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel physics-based model for analysing team play- ers’ positions and movements on a sports playing field. The goal is to detect for each frame the region with the highest population of a given team’s players and the region towards which the team is moving as they press for territorial advancement, termed the region of intent. Given the positions of team players from a plan view of the playing field at any given time, we solve a particular Poisson equation to generate a smooth di...

  20. An approach to numerically solving the Poisson equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhichen; Sheng, Zheng-Mao

    2015-06-01

    We introduce an approach for numerically solving the Poisson equation by using a physical model, which is a way to solve a partial differential equation without the finite difference method. This method is especially useful for obtaining the solutions in very many free-charge neutral systems with open boundary conditions. It can be used for arbitrary geometry and mesh style and is more efficient comparing with the widely-used iterative algorithm with multigrid methods. It is especially suitable for parallel computing. This method can also be applied to numerically solving other partial differential equations whose Green functions exist in analytic expression.

  1. Large Time Behavior of the Vlasov-Poisson-Boltzmann System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The motion of dilute charged particles can be modeled by Vlasov-Poisson-Boltzmann system. We study the large time stability of the VPB system. To be precise, we prove that when time goes to infinity, the solution of VPB system tends to global Maxwellian state in a rate Ot−∞, by using a method developed for Boltzmann equation without force in the work of Desvillettes and Villani (2005. The improvement of the present paper is the removal of condition on parameter λ as in the work of Li (2008.

  2. Supersymmetric quantum corrections and Poisson-Lie T-duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaoui, F.; Lhallabi, T.; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste

    2000-07-01

    The quantum actions of the (4,4) supersymmetric non-linear sigma model and its dual in the Abelian case are constructed by using the background superfield method. The propagators of the quantum superfield and its dual and the gauge fixing actions of the original and dual (4,4) supersymmetric sigma models are determined. On the other hand, the BRST transformations are used to obtain the quantum dual action of the (4,4) supersymmetric nonlinear sigma model in the sense of Poisson-Lie T-duality. (author)

  3. Ruin probabilities for a regenerative Poisson gap generated risk process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Biard, Romain

    . Asymptotic expressions for the infinite horizon ruin probabilities are given both for the light- and the heavy-tailed case. A basic observation is that the process regenerates at each G-claim. Also an approach via Markov additive processes is outlined, and heuristics are given for the distribution of the time......A risk process with constant premium rate c and Poisson arrivals of claims is considered. A threshold r is defined for claim interarrival times, such that if k consecutive interarrival times are larger than r, then the next claim has distribution G. Otherwise, the claim size distribution is F...

  4. Standard Test Method for Determining Poisson's Ratio of Honeycomb Cores

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the honeycomb Poisson's ratio from the anticlastic curvature radii, see . 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given may be approximate. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. Maslov indices, Poisson brackets, and singular differential forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterlis, I.; Haggard, H. M.; Hedeman, A.; Littlejohn, R. G.

    2014-06-01

    Maslov indices are integers that appear in semiclassical wave functions and quantization conditions. They are often notoriously difficult to compute. We present methods of computing the Maslov index that rely only on typically elementary Poisson brackets and simple linear algebra. We also present a singular differential form, whose integral along a curve gives the Maslov index of that curve. The form is closed but not exact, and transforms by an exact differential under canonical transformations. We illustrate the method with the 6j-symbol, which is important in angular-momentum theory and in quantum gravity.

  6. Gap processing for adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2013-10-17

    In this article, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii. First, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets. This analysis is the basis for maximal and adaptive sampling in Euclidean space and on manifolds. Second, we propose efficient algorithms and data structures to detect gaps and update gaps when disks are inserted, deleted, moved, or when their radii are changed.We build on the concepts of regular triangulations and the power diagram. Third, we show how our analysis contributes to the state-of-the-art in surface remeshing. © 2013 ACM.

  7. Do the risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus vary by location? A spatial analysis of health insurance claims in Northeastern Germany using kernel density estimation and geographically weighted regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kauhl

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of general practitioners (GPs in Germany still relies mainly on the ratio of inhabitants to GPs at relatively large scales and barely accounts for an increased prevalence of chronic diseases among the elderly and socially underprivileged populations. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM is one of the major cost-intensive diseases with high rates of potentially preventable complications. Provision of healthcare and access to preventive measures is necessary to reduce the burden of T2DM. However, current studies on the spatial variation of T2DM in Germany are mostly based on survey data, which do not only underestimate the true prevalence of T2DM, but are also only available on large spatial scales. The aim of this study is therefore to analyse the spatial distribution of T2DM at fine geographic scales and to assess location-specific risk factors based on data of the AOK health insurance. Methods To display the spatial heterogeneity of T2DM, a bivariate, adaptive kernel density estimation (KDE was applied. The spatial scan statistic (SaTScan was used to detect areas of high risk. Global and local spatial regression models were then constructed to analyze socio-demographic risk factors of T2DM. Results T2DM is especially concentrated in rural areas surrounding Berlin. The risk factors for T2DM consist of proportions of 65–79 year olds, 80 + year olds, unemployment rate among the 55–65 year olds, proportion of employees covered by mandatory social security insurance, mean income tax, and proportion of non-married couples. However, the strength of the association between T2DM and the examined socio-demographic variables displayed strong regional variations. Conclusion The prevalence of T2DM varies at the very local level. Analyzing point data on T2DM of northeastern Germany’s largest health insurance provider thus allows very detailed, location-specific knowledge about increased medical needs. Risk factors

  8. Department of Geograph

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-11-18

    Nov 18, 2016 ... At the end of the study, maps of flood vulnerable areas in the river basin was generated with a view to assisting decision makers on the menace posed by the disaster. Key Words: Flood, Risk, Vulnerability, Geographical Information System (GIS), River Basin. Introduction. Floods have become a common.

  9. Inexact Bregman iteration with an application to Poisson data reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfenati, A.; Ruggiero, V.

    2013-06-01

    This work deals with the solution of image restoration problems by an iterative regularization method based on the Bregman iteration. Any iteration of this scheme requires the exact computation of the minimizer of a function. However, in some image reconstruction applications, it is either impossible or extremely expensive to obtain exact solutions of these subproblems. In this paper, we propose an inexact version of the iterative procedure, where the inexactness in the inner subproblem solution is controlled by a criterion that preserves the convergence of the Bregman iteration and its features in image restoration problems. In particular, the method allows us to obtain accurate reconstructions also when only an overestimation of the regularization parameter is known. The introduction of the inexactness in the iterative scheme allows us to address image reconstruction problems from data corrupted by Poisson noise, exploiting the recent advances about specialized algorithms for the numerical minimization of the generalized Kullback-Leibler divergence combined with a regularization term. The results of several numerical experiments enable us to evaluate the proposed scheme for image deblurring or denoising in the presence of Poisson noise.

  10. Sparsity-based Poisson denoising with dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giryes, Raja; Elad, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The problem of Poisson denoising appears in various imaging applications, such as low-light photography, medical imaging, and microscopy. In cases of high SNR, several transformations exist so as to convert the Poisson noise into an additive-independent identically distributed. Gaussian noise, for which many effective algorithms are available. However, in a low-SNR regime, these transformations are significantly less accurate, and a strategy that relies directly on the true noise statistics is required. Salmon et al took this route, proposing a patch-based exponential image representation model based on Gaussian mixture model, leading to state-of-the-art results. In this paper, we propose to harness sparse-representation modeling to the image patches, adopting the same exponential idea. Our scheme uses a greedy pursuit with boot-strapping-based stopping condition and dictionary learning within the denoising process. The reconstruction performance of the proposed scheme is competitive with leading methods in high SNR and achieving state-of-the-art results in cases of low SNR.

  11. A modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation applied to protein adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Marlon de Souza; Santos, Mirella Simões; Lima, Eduardo Rocha de Almeida; Tavares, Frederico Wanderley; Barreto, Amaro Gomes Barreto

    2018-01-05

    Ion-exchange chromatography has been widely used as a standard process in purification and analysis of protein, based on the electrostatic interaction between the protein and the stationary phase. Through the years, several approaches are used to improve the thermodynamic description of colloidal particle-surface interaction systems, however there are still a lot of gaps specifically when describing the behavior of protein adsorption. Here, we present an improved methodology for predicting the adsorption equilibrium constant by solving the modified Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation in bispherical coordinates. By including dispersion interactions between ions and protein, and between ions and surface, the modified PB equation used can describe the Hofmeister effects. We solve the modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation to calculate the protein-surface potential of mean force, treated as spherical colloid-plate system, as a function of process variables. From the potential of mean force, the Henry constants of adsorption, for different proteins and surfaces, are calculated as a function of pH, salt concentration, salt type, and temperature. The obtained Henry constants are compared with experimental data for several isotherms showing excellent agreement. We have also performed a sensitivity analysis to verify the behavior of different kind of salts and the Hofmeister effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules: Ion Distributions from a Poisson-Boltzmann Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiyun; Denton, Alan R.; Rozairo, Damith; Croll, Andrew B.

    2014-03-01

    Recent experiments have shown that polystyrene-polyacrylic-acid-polystyrene (PS-PAA-PS) triblock copolymers in a solvent mixture of water and toluene can self-assemble into spherical microcapsules. Suspended in water, the microcapsules have a toluene core surrounded by an elastomer triblock shell. The longer, hydrophilic PAA blocks remain near the outer surface of the shell, becoming charged through dissociation of OH functional groups in water, while the shorter, hydrophobic PS blocks form a networked (glass or gel) structure. Within a mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann theory, we model these polyelectrolyte microcapsules as spherical charged shells, assuming different dielectric constants inside and outside the capsule. By numerically solving the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation, we calculate the radial distribution of anions and cations and the osmotic pressure within the shell as a function of salt concentration. Our predictions, which can be tested by comparison with experiments, may guide the design of microcapsules for practical applications, such as drug delivery. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1106331.

  13. A Tubular Biomaterial Construct Exhibiting a Negative Poisson's Ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Woo Lee

    Full Text Available Developing functional small-diameter vascular grafts is an important objective in tissue engineering research. In this study, we address the problem of compliance mismatch by designing and developing a 3D tubular construct that has a negative Poisson's ratio νxy (NPR. NPR constructs have the unique ability to expand transversely when pulled axially, thereby resulting in a highly-compliant tubular construct. In this work, we used projection stereolithography to 3D-print a planar NPR sheet composed of photosensitive poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate biomaterial. We used a step-lithography exposure and a stitch process to scale up the projection printing process, and used the cut-missing rib unit design to develop a centimeter-scale NPR sheet, which was rolled up to form a tubular construct. The constructs had Poisson's ratios of -0.6 ≤ νxy ≤ -0.1. The NPR construct also supports higher cellular adhesion than does the construct that has positive νxy. Our NPR design offers a significant advance in the development of highly-compliant vascular grafts.

  14. Prescription-induced jump distributions in multiplicative Poisson processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suweis, Samir; Porporato, Amilcare; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos

    2011-06-01

    Generalized Langevin equations (GLE) with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual prescription dilemma leading to different evolution equations (master equations) for the probability distribution. Contrary to the case of multiplicative Gaussian white noise, the Stratonovich prescription does not correspond to the well-known midpoint (or any other intermediate) prescription. By introducing an inertial term in the GLE, we show that the Itô and Stratonovich prescriptions naturally arise depending on two time scales, one induced by the inertial term and the other determined by the jump event. We also show that, when the multiplicative noise is linear in the random variable, one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We apply these results to a recently proposed stochastic model describing the dynamics of primary soil salinization, in which the salt mass balance within the soil root zone requires the analysis of different prescriptions arising from the resulting stochastic differential equation forced by multiplicative white Poisson noise, the features of which are tailored to the characters of the daily precipitation. A method is finally suggested to infer the most appropriate prescription from the data.

  15. Relative risk estimation of Chikungunya disease in Malaysia: An analysis based on Poisson-gamma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2015-05-01

    Disease mapping is a method to display the geographical distribution of disease occurrence, which generally involves the usage and interpretation of a map to show the incidence of certain diseases. Relative risk (RR) estimation is one of the most important issues in disease mapping. This paper begins by providing a brief overview of Chikungunya disease. This is followed by a review of the classical model used in disease mapping, based on the standardized morbidity ratio (SMR), which we then apply to our Chikungunya data. We then fit an extension of the classical model, which we refer to as a Poisson-Gamma model, when prior distributions for the relative risks are assumed known. Both results are displayed and compared using maps and we reveal a smoother map with fewer extremes values of estimated relative risk. The extensions of this paper will consider other methods that are relevant to overcome the drawbacks of the existing methods, in order to inform and direct government strategy for monitoring and controlling Chikungunya disease.

  16. An alternating minimization method for blind deconvolution from Poisson data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prato, Marco; La Camera, Andrea; Bonettini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Blind deconvolution is a particularly challenging inverse problem since information on both the desired target and the acquisition system have to be inferred from the measured data. When the collected data are affected by Poisson noise, this problem is typically addressed by the minimization of the Kullback-Leibler divergence, in which the unknowns are sought in particular feasible sets depending on the a priori information provided by the specific application. If these sets are separated, then the resulting constrained minimization problem can be addressed with an inexact alternating strategy. In this paper we apply this optimization tool to the problem of reconstructing astronomical images from adaptive optics systems, and we show that the proposed approach succeeds in providing very good results in the blind deconvolution of nondense stellar clusters

  17. Beatification: Flattening Poisson brackets for plasma theory and computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, P. J.; Viscondi, T. F.; Caldas, I.

    2017-10-01

    A perturbative method called beatification is presented for producing nonlinear Hamiltonian fluid and plasma theories. Plasma Hamiltonian theories, fluid and kinetic, are naturally described in terms of noncanonical variables. The beatification procedure amounts to finding a transformation that removes the explicit variable dependence from a noncanonical Poisson bracket and replaces it with a fixed dependence on a chosen state in the phase space. As such, beatification is a major step toward casting the Hamiltonian system in its canonical form, thus enabling or facilitating the use of analytical and numerical techniques that require or favor a representation in terms of canonical, or beatified, Hamiltonian variables. Examples will be given. U.S. D.O.E No. #DE-FG02-04ER-54742.

  18. Random walk in dynamically disordered chains: Poisson white noise disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Garcia, E.; Pesquera, L.; Rodriguez, M.A.; San Miguel, M.

    1989-01-01

    Exact solutions are given for a variety of models of random walks in a chain with time-dependent disorder. Dynamic disorder is modeled by white Poisson noise. Models with site-independent (global) and site-dependent (local) disorder are considered. Results are described in terms of an affective random walk in a nondisordered medium. In the cases of global disorder the effective random walk contains multistep transitions, so that the continuous limit is not a diffusion process. In the cases of local disorder the effective process is equivalent to usual random walk in the absence of disorder but with slower diffusion. Difficulties associated with the continuous-limit representation of random walk in a disordered chain are discussed. In particular, the authors consider explicit cases in which taking the continuous limit and averaging over disorder sources do not commute

  19. Particular solutions of generalized Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhila B. Seilkhanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we consider the generalized Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation $$ {u}_{tt}+\\frac{2\\gamma }{t}{{u}_{t}}={u}_{xx}+{u}_{yy} +\\frac{2\\alpha }{x}{{u}_{x}}+\\frac{2\\beta }{y}{{u}_y},\\quad x>0,\\;y>0,\\;t>0. $$ We construct particular solutions in an explicit form expressed by the Lauricella hypergeometric function of three variables. Properties of each constructed solutions have been investigated in sections of surfaces of the characteristic cone. Precisely, we prove that found solutions have singularity $1/r$ at $r\\to 0$, where ${{r}^2}={{( x-{{x}_0}}^2}+{{( y-{{y}_0}}^2}-{{( t-{{t}_0}}^2}$.

  20. Numerical solution of dynamic equilibrium models under Poisson uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf; Trimborn, Timo

    2013-01-01

    We propose a simple and powerful numerical algorithm to compute the transition process in continuous-time dynamic equilibrium models with rare events. In this paper we transform the dynamic system of stochastic differential equations into a system of functional differential equations...... of the retarded type. We apply the Waveform Relaxation algorithm, i.e., we provide a guess of the policy function and solve the resulting system of (deterministic) ordinary differential equations by standard techniques. For parametric restrictions, analytical solutions to the stochastic growth model and a novel...... solution to Lucas' endogenous growth model under Poisson uncertainty are used to compute the exact numerical error. We show how (potential) catastrophic events such as rare natural disasters substantially affect the economic decisions of households....

  1. Modeling the number of car theft using Poisson regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Malina; Ling, Agnes Beh Yen; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ismail, Noriszura

    2016-10-01

    Regression analysis is the most popular statistical methods used to express the relationship between the variables of response with the covariates. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the factors that influence the number of car theft using Poisson regression model. This paper will focus on the number of car thefts that occurred in districts in Peninsular Malaysia. There are two groups of factor that have been considered, namely district descriptive factors and socio and demographic factors. The result of the study showed that Bumiputera composition, Chinese composition, Other ethnic composition, foreign migration, number of residence with the age between 25 to 64, number of employed person and number of unemployed person are the most influence factors that affect the car theft cases. These information are very useful for the law enforcement department, insurance company and car owners in order to reduce and limiting the car theft cases in Peninsular Malaysia.

  2. On the FACR( l) algorithm for the discrete Poisson equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperton, Clive

    1980-03-01

    Direct methods for the solution of the discrete Poisson equation over a rectangle are commonly based either on Fourier transforms or on block-cyclic reduction. The relationship between these two approaches is demonstrated explicitly, and used to derive the FACR( l) algorithm in which the Fourier transform approach is combined with l preliminary steps of cyclic reduction. It is shown that the optimum choice of l leads to an algorithm for which the operation count per mesh point is almost independent of the mesh size. Numerical results concerning timing and round-off error are presented for the N × N Dirichlet problem for various values of N and l. Extensions to more general problems, and to implementation on parallel or vector computers are briefly discussed.

  3. Recent advances in the Poisson/superfish codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryne, R.; Barts, T.; Chan, K.C.D.; Cooper, R.; Deaven, H.; Merson, J.; Rodenz, G.

    1992-01-01

    We report on advances in the POISSON/SUPERFISH family of codes used in the design and analysis of magnets and rf cavities. The codes include preprocessors for mesh generation and postprocessors for graphical display of output and calculation of auxiliary quantities. Release 3 became available in January 1992; it contains many code corrections and physics enhancements, and it also includes support for PostScript, DISSPLA, GKS and PLOT10 graphical output. Release 4 will be available in September 1992; it is free of all bit packing, making the codes more portable and able to treat very large numbers of mesh points. Release 4 includes the preprocessor FRONT and a new menu-driven graphical postprocessor that runs on workstations under X-Windows and that is capable of producing arrow plots. We will present examples that illustrate the new capabilities of the codes. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  4. On the Magnetic Shield for a Vlasov-Poisson Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprino, Silvia; Cavallaro, Guido; Marchioro, Carlo

    2017-12-01

    We study the screening of a bounded body Γ against the effect of a wind of charged particles, by means of a shield produced by a magnetic field which becomes infinite on the border of Γ . The charged wind is modeled by a Vlasov-Poisson plasma, the bounded body by a torus, and the external magnetic field is taken close to the border of Γ . We study two models: a plasma composed by different species with positive or negative charges, and finite total mass of each species, and another made of many species of the same sign, each having infinite mass. We investigate the time evolution of both systems, showing in particular that the plasma particles cannot reach the body. Finally we discuss possible extensions to more general initial data. We show also that when the magnetic lines are straight lines, (that imposes an unbounded body), the previous results can be improved.

  5. Statistical modelling of Poisson/log-normal data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.

    2007-01-01

    In statistical data fitting, self consistency is checked by examining the closeness of the quantity Χ 2 /NDF to 1, where Χ 2 is the sum of squares of data minus fit divided by standard deviation, and NDF is the number of data minus the number of fit parameters. In order to calculate Χ 2 one needs an expression for the standard deviation. In this note several alternative expressions for the standard deviation of data distributed according to a Poisson/log-normal distribution are proposed and evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation. Two preferred alternatives are identified. The use of replicate data to obtain uncertainty is problematic for a small number of replicates. A method to correct this problem is proposed. The log-normal approximation is good for sufficiently positive data. A modification of the log-normal approximation is proposed, which allows it to be used to test the hypothesis that the true value is zero. (authors)

  6. Tetrahedral meshing via maximal Poisson-disk sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective method to generate 3D-conforming tetrahedral meshes from closed 2-manifold surfaces. Our approach is inspired by recent work on maximal Poisson-disk sampling (MPS), which can generate well-distributed point sets in arbitrary domains. We first perform MPS on the boundary of the input domain, we then sample the interior of the domain, and we finally extract the tetrahedral mesh from the samples by using 3D Delaunay or regular triangulation for uniform or adaptive sampling, respectively. We also propose an efficient optimization strategy to protect the domain boundaries and to remove slivers to improve the meshing quality. We present various experimental results to illustrate the efficiency and the robustness of our proposed approach. We demonstrate that the performance and quality (e.g., minimal dihedral angle) of our approach are superior to current state-of-the-art optimization-based approaches.

  7. Cryoconservation du sperme et des embryons de poissons

    OpenAIRE

    Maisse, Gérard; Labbé, Catherine; Ogier de Baulny, Bénédicte; Leveroni Calvi, Sylvia; Haffray, Pierrick

    1998-01-01

    Le développement des programmes de sélection génétique en pisciculture et la protection de la biodiversité de l’ichtyofaune sauvage justifient la création de cryo-banques de sperme et d’embryons de poissons. Les travaux sur la formulation des dilueurs de congélation montrent que l’on doit tenir compte à la fois de l’espèce cible, du type cellulaire concerné et des interactions entre les différents composants du dilueur. L’aptitude à la cryoconservation du sperme est très variable suivant les ...

  8. Bases chimiosensorielles du comportement alimentaire chez les poissons

    OpenAIRE

    Saglio, P.

    1981-01-01

    Le comportement alimentaire, indispensable à la survie de l'individu et donc de l'espèce, occupe à ce titre une position de première importance dans la hiérarchie des comportements fondamentaux qui tous en dépendent très étroitement. Chez les poissons, cette prééminence se trouve illustrée par l'extrême diversité des supports sensoriels impliqués et des expressions comportementales qui leur sont liées. A la suite d'un certain nombre de mises en évidence neurophysiologiques et éthologiques de ...

  9. Radio pulsar glitches as a state-dependent Poisson process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgenzi, W.; Melatos, A.; Hughes, B. D.

    2017-10-01

    Gross-Pitaevskii simulations of vortex avalanches in a neutron star superfluid are limited computationally to ≲102 vortices and ≲102 avalanches, making it hard to study the long-term statistics of radio pulsar glitches in realistically sized systems. Here, an idealized, mean-field model of the observed Gross-Pitaevskii dynamics is presented, in which vortex unpinning is approximated as a state-dependent, compound Poisson process in a single random variable, the spatially averaged crust-superfluid lag. Both the lag-dependent Poisson rate and the conditional distribution of avalanche-driven lag decrements are inputs into the model, which is solved numerically (via Monte Carlo simulations) and analytically (via a master equation). The output statistics are controlled by two dimensionless free parameters: α, the glitch rate at a reference lag, multiplied by the critical lag for unpinning, divided by the spin-down rate; and β, the minimum fraction of the lag that can be restored by a glitch. The system evolves naturally to a self-regulated stationary state, whose properties are determined by α/αc(β), where αc(β) ≈ β-1/2 is a transition value. In the regime α ≳ αc(β), one recovers qualitatively the power-law size and exponential waiting-time distributions observed in many radio pulsars and Gross-Pitaevskii simulations. For α ≪ αc(β), the size and waiting-time distributions are both power-law-like, and a correlation emerges between size and waiting time until the next glitch, contrary to what is observed in most pulsars. Comparisons with astrophysical data are restricted by the small sample sizes available at present, with ≤35 events observed per pulsar.

  10. A geometric multigrid Poisson solver for domains containing solid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botto, Lorenzo

    2013-03-01

    A Cartesian grid method for the fast solution of the Poisson equation in three-dimensional domains with embedded solid inclusions is presented and its performance analyzed. The efficiency of the method, which assume Neumann conditions at the immersed boundaries, is comparable to that of a multigrid method for regular domains. The method is light in terms of memory usage, and easily adaptable to parallel architectures. Tests with random and ordered arrays of solid inclusions, including spheres and ellipsoids, demonstrate smooth convergence of the residual for small separation between the inclusion surfaces. This feature is important, for instance, in simulations of nearly-touching finite-size particles. The implementation of the method, “MG-Inc”, is available online. Catalogue identifier: AEOE_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOE_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 19068 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 215118 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ (fully tested with GNU GCC compiler). Computer: Any machine supporting standard C++ compiler. Operating system: Any OS supporting standard C++ compiler. RAM: About 150MB for 1283 resolution Classification: 4.3. Nature of problem: Poisson equation in domains containing inclusions; Neumann boundary conditions at immersed boundaries. Solution method: Geometric multigrid with finite-volume discretization. Restrictions: Stair-case representation of the immersed boundaries. Running time: Typically a fraction of a minute for 1283 resolution.

  11. On the Fractional Poisson Process and the Discretized Stable Subordinator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Gorenflo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the renewal counting number process N = N(t as a forward march over the non-negative integers with independent identically distributed waiting times. We embed the values of the counting numbers N in a “pseudo-spatial” non-negative half-line x ≥ 0 and observe that for physical time likewise we have t ≥ 0. Thus we apply the Laplace transform with respect to both variables x and t. Applying then a modification of the Montroll-Weiss-Cox formalism of continuous time random walk we obtain the essential characteristics of a renewal process in the transform domain and, if we are lucky, also in the physical domain. The process t = t(N of accumulation of waiting times is inverse to the counting number process, in honour of the Danish mathematician and telecommunication engineer A.K. Erlang we call it the Erlang process. It yields the probability of exactly n renewal events in the interval (0; t]. We apply our Laplace-Laplace formalism to the fractional Poisson process whose waiting times are of Mittag-Leffler type and to a renewal process whose waiting times are of Wright type. The process of Mittag-Leffler type includes as a limiting case the classical Poisson process, the process of Wright type represents the discretized stable subordinator and a re-scaled version of it was used in our method of parametric subordination of time-space fractional diffusion processes. Properly rescaling the counting number process N(t and the Erlang process t(N yields as diffusion limits the inverse stable and the stable subordinator, respectively.

  12. A multiresolution method for solving the Poisson equation using high order regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Walther, Jens Honore

    2016-01-01

    and regularized Green's functions corresponding to the difference in the spatial resolution between the patches. The full solution is obtained utilizing the linearity of the Poisson equation enabling super-position of solutions. We show that the multiresolution Poisson solver produces convergence rates......We present a novel high order multiresolution Poisson solver based on regularized Green's function solutions to obtain exact free-space boundary conditions while using fast Fourier transforms for computational efficiency. Multiresolution is a achieved through local refinement patches...

  13. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live......In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...

  14. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  15. Poisson Regresyon Uygulaması: Türkiye'deki Grevlerin Belirleyicileri 1964-1998 = An Application of Poisson Regression to the Strikes in Turkey: 1964-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan ŞAHİN

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applies a Poisson regression model to annual Turkish strikes data of the period of 1964-1998. The Poisson regression model is preferable when the dependent variable is count data. Economical and social variables are used as determinants of the number of strikes. Empirical results show that the unemployment rate and a dummy variable that takes 0 before 1980 1 otherwise are significantly affects the number of strikes.

  16. The Geographical Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Schweikart

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Geographical Information System, normally called GIS, is a tool for representing spatial relationships and real processes with the help of a model. A GIS is a system of hardware, software and staff for collecting, managing, analysing and representing geospatial information. For example, we can study the evolution of an infectious disease in a certain territory, perform market analysis, or locate the best ways to choose a new industrial site. In substance, it is data manipulation software for that allows us to have, both the graphic component, that is a territorial representation of the reality that you want to represent, and the data components in the form of a database or more commonly, calculation sheets. Geographical data are divided in spatial data and attribute data: Spatial data are recorded as points, lines and polygons (vectorial structure. In other words, the survey systems have been projected to acquire information in accordance to elementary cells corresponding to a territorial grid (raster structure. It also includes remote sensing data.

  17. Are normal-weight adolescents satisfied with their weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Contiero San Martini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The high prevalence of obesity has led to public policies for combating it. People with normal weight may gain greater awareness of this issue and change their perceptions of their weight. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of body weight dissatisfaction among normal-weight adolescents, according to demographic and socioeconomic variables, health-related behavior and morbidities. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based cross-sectional study that used data from a health survey conducted in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, in 2008-2009. METHODS: The prevalence and prevalence ratios of weight dissatisfaction were estimated according to independent variables, by means of simple and multiple Poisson regression. RESULTS: 573 normal-weight adolescents aged 10 to 19 years (mean age 14.7 years were analyzed. The prevalence of weight dissatisfaction was 43.7% (95% confidence interval, CI: 37.8-49.8. Higher prevalences of weight dissatisfaction were observed among females, individuals aged 15 to 19 years, those whose households had eight or more domestic appliances, former smokers, individuals who reported alcohol intake and those who had one or more chronic diseases. Lower prevalence of dissatisfaction was observed among adolescents living in substandard housing. Among the normal-weight adolescents, 26.1% wished to lose weight and 17.6% wished to gain weight. CONCLUSION: The results from this study indicate that even when weight is seen to be within the normal range, a high proportion of adolescents express dissatisfaction with their weight, especially females, older adolescents and those of higher socioeconomic level.

  18. Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Weight Management English English Español Weight Management Obesity is a chronic condition that affects more ... Liver (NASH) Heart Disease & Stroke Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe ...

  19. Infraestructura pública y precios de vivienda: una aplicación de regresión geográficamente ponderada en el contexto de precios hedónicos Public infrastructure and housing prices: An application of geographically weighted regression within the context of hedonic prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Agudelo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de las externalidades en el sector inmobiliario ha atraído desde hace varios años la atención de los investigadores suscitando una gran cantidad de estudios al respecto. En este artículo se utilizan modelos econométricos tradicionales, de la econometría espacial y de regresión ponderada geográficamente, para analizar y comparar a la luz de estos modelos la influencia que tiene en los precios de las viviendas la existencia de una estación del metro en San Javier ubicada en el centro occidente de la ciudad de Medellín. El principal hallazgo en este estudio es que la presencia de la estación del metro tiene una influencia positiva en los precios de las viviendas localizadas en un radio de 600 metros alrededor de la estación; sin embargo, las viviendas cercanas a las vías de acceso del metro a la estación presentan un importante decremento en sus precios. AbstractThe analysis of externalities in real state has been matter of study during the past few years. In this paper we use both conventional and spatial econometric model, as well as geographically weighted regression models, to measure the effect of the San Javier Metro Station (in Medellín, Colombia on the housing prices of the surrounding area. The main finding of this study is that the metro station has a positive impact on the prices of houses located within a radius of 600 meter from the station. However, the railroad track accessing the station has a negative impact on housing prices located nearby.The analysis of externalities in real state has been matter of study during the past few years. In this paper we use both conventional and spatial econometric model, as well as geographically weighted regression models, to measure the effect of the San Javier Metro Station (in Medellín, Colombia on the housing prices of the surrounding area.The main finding of this study is that the metro station has a positive impact on the prices of houses located within a radius

  20. The Rasch Poisson counts model for incomplete data : An application of the EM algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, G.G.H.

    Rasch's Poisson counts model is a latent trait model for the situation in which K tests are administered to N examinees and the test score is a count [e.g., the repeated occurrence of some event, such as the number of items completed or the number of items answered (in)correctly]. The Rasch Poisson

  1. Modeling Repeated Count Data : Some Extensions of the Rasch Poisson Counts Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijn, M.A.J.; Jansen, Margo

    1995-01-01

    We consider data that can be summarized as an N X K table of counts-for example, test data obtained by administering K tests to N subjects. The cell entries y(ij) are assumed to be conditionally independent Poisson-distributed random variables, given the NK Poisson intensity parameters mu(ij). The

  2. Extension of the application of conway-maxwell-poisson models: analyzing traffic crash data exhibiting underdispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Dominique; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy; Guikema, Seth D

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the performance of the COM-Poisson GLM for analyzing crash data exhibiting underdispersion (when conditional on the mean). The COM-Poisson distribution, originally developed in 1962, has recently been reintroduced by statisticians for analyzing count data subjected to either over- or underdispersion. Over the last year, the COM-Poisson GLM has been evaluated in the context of crash data analysis and it has been shown that the model performs as well as the Poisson-gamma model for crash data exhibiting overdispersion. To accomplish the objective of this study, several COM-Poisson models were estimated using crash data collected at 162 railway-highway crossings in South Korea between 1998 and 2002. This data set has been shown to exhibit underdispersion when models linking crash data to various explanatory variables are estimated. The modeling results were compared to those produced from the Poisson and gamma probability models documented in a previous published study. The results of this research show that the COM-Poisson GLM can handle crash data when the modeling output shows signs of underdispersion. Finally, they also show that the model proposed in this study provides better statistical performance than the gamma probability and the traditional Poisson models, at least for this data set.

  3. Dynamic Response of Non-Linear Inelsatic Systems to Poisson-Driven Stochastic Excitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Iwankiewicz, R.

    A single-degree-of-freedom inelastic system subject to a stochastic excitation in form of a Poisson-distributed train of impulses is considered. The state variables of the system form a non-diffusive, Poisson-driven Markov process. Two approximate analytical techniques are developed: modification...

  4. Characterizing the performance of the Conway-Maxwell Poisson generalized linear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Royce A; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy; Guikema, Seth D; Dhavala, Soma Sekhar; Lord, Dominique; LaRocca, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Count data are pervasive in many areas of risk analysis; deaths, adverse health outcomes, infrastructure system failures, and traffic accidents are all recorded as count events, for example. Risk analysts often wish to estimate the probability distribution for the number of discrete events as part of doing a risk assessment. Traditional count data regression models of the type often used in risk assessment for this problem suffer from limitations due to the assumed variance structure. A more flexible model based on the Conway-Maxwell Poisson (COM-Poisson) distribution was recently proposed, a model that has the potential to overcome the limitations of the traditional model. However, the statistical performance of this new model has not yet been fully characterized. This article assesses the performance of a maximum likelihood estimation method for fitting the COM-Poisson generalized linear model (GLM). The objectives of this article are to (1) characterize the parameter estimation accuracy of the MLE implementation of the COM-Poisson GLM, and (2) estimate the prediction accuracy of the COM-Poisson GLM using simulated data sets. The results of the study indicate that the COM-Poisson GLM is flexible enough to model under-, equi-, and overdispersed data sets with different sample mean values. The results also show that the COM-Poisson GLM yields accurate parameter estimates. The COM-Poisson GLM provides a promising and flexible approach for performing count data regression. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. A relation between Liapunov stability, non-wanderingness and Poisson stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, K.H.

    1985-07-01

    In this work, some of the relations among Liapunov stability, non-wanderingness and Poisson stability are considered. In particular it is shown that for a non-wandering point in a set, positive (resp. negative) Liapunov stability in that set implies positive (resp. negative) Poisson stability in the same set. (author)

  6. Approximation by some combinations of Poisson integrals for Hermite and Laguerre expansions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Krech

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the study of a rate of convergence of some combinations of Poisson integrals for Hermite and Laguerre expansions. We are able to achieve faster convergence for our modified operators over the Poisson integrals. We prove also the Voronovskaya type theorem for these new operators.

  7. Multiple mortality modeling in Poisson Lee-Carter framework

    OpenAIRE

    D'Amato, V.; Haberman, S.; Piscopo, G.; Russolillo, M.; Trapani, L.

    2016-01-01

    The academic literature in longevity field has recently focused on models for detecting multiple population trends (D'Amato et al., 2012b; Njenga and Sherris, 2011; Russolillo et al., 2011, etc.). In particular, increasing interest has been shown about "related" population dynamics or "parent" populations characterized by similar socioeconomic conditions and eventually also by geographical proximity. These studies suggest dependence across multiple populations and common long-run relationship...

  8. Using geographic information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winsor, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    A true Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer mapping system with spatial analysis ability and cartographic accuracy that will offer many different projections. GIS has evolved to become an everyday tool for a wide range of users including oil companies, worldwide. Other systems are designed to allow oil and gas companies to keep their upstream data in the same format. Among these are the Public Petroleum Data Model developed by Gulf Canada, Digitech and Applied Terravision Systems of Calgary, the system developed and marketed by the Petrotechnical Open Software Corporation in the United States, and the Mercury projects by IBM. These have been developed in an effort to define an industry standard. The advantages and disadvantages of open and closed systems were discussed. Factors to consider when choosing a GIS system such as overall performance, area of use and query complexity, were reviewed. 3 figs

  9. Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus of lipid bilayers in different phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh eJadidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A general computational method is introduced to estimate the Poisson's ratio for membranes with small thickness.In this method, the Poisson's ratio is calculated by utilizing a rescaling of inter-particle distancesin one lateral direction under periodic boundary conditions. As an example for the coarse grained lipid model introduced by Lenz and Schmid, we calculate the Poisson's ratio in the gel, fluid, and interdigitated phases. Having the Poisson's ratio, enable us to obtain the Young's modulus for the membranes in different phases. The approach may be applied to other membranes such as graphene and tethered membranes in orderto predict the temperature dependence of its Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus.

  10. The Lie-Poisson structure of integrable classical non-linear sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordemann, M.; Forger, M.; Schaeper, U.; Laartz, J.

    1993-01-01

    The canonical structure of classical non-linear sigma models on Riemannian symmetric spaces, which constitute the most general class of classical non-linear sigma models known to be integrable, is shown to be governed by a fundamental Poisson bracket relation that fits into the r-s-matrix formalism for non-ultralocal integrable models first discussed by Maillet. The matrices r and s are computed explicitly and, being field dependent, satisfy fundamental Poisson bracket relations of their own, which can be expressed in terms of a new numerical matrix c. It is proposed that all these Poisson brackets taken together are representation conditions for a new kind of algebra which, for this class of models, replaces the classical Yang-Baxter algebra governing the canonical structure of ultralocal models. The Poisson brackets for the transition matrices are also computed, and the notorious regularization problem associated with the definition of the Poisson brackets for the monodromy matrices is discussed. (orig.)

  11. Cooperative HARQ with Poisson Interference and Opportunistic Routing

    KAUST Repository

    Kaveh, Mostafa

    2014-01-06

    This presentation considers reliable transmission of data from a source to a destination, aided cooperatively by wireless relays selected opportunistically and utilizing hybrid forward error correction/detection, and automatic repeat request (Hybrid ARQ, or HARQ). Specifically, we present a performance analysis of the cooperative HARQ protocol in a wireless adhoc multihop network employing spatial ALOHA. We model the nodes in such a network by a homogeneous 2-D Poisson point process. We study the tradeoff between the per-hop rate, spatial density and range of transmissions inherent in the network by optimizing the transport capacity with respect to the network design parameters, HARQ coding rate and medium access probability. We obtain an approximate analytic expression for the expected progress of opportunistic routing and optimize the capacity approximation by convex optimization. By way of numerical results, we show that the network design parameters obtained by optimizing the analytic approximation of transport capacity closely follows that of Monte Carlo based exact transport capacity optimization. As a result of the analysis, we argue that the optimal HARQ coding rate and medium access probability are independent of the node density in the network.

  12. Confidence limits for parameters of Poisson and binomial distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, L.M.

    1976-04-01

    The confidence limits for the frequency in a Poisson process and for the proportion of successes in a binomial process were calculated and tabulated for the situations in which the observed values of the frequency or proportion and an a priori distribution of these parameters are available. Methods are used that produce limits with exactly the stated confidence levels. The confidence interval [a,b] is calculated so that Pr [a less than or equal to lambda less than or equal to b c,μ], where c is the observed value of the parameter, and μ is the a priori hypothesis of the distribution of this parameter. A Bayesian type analysis is used. The intervals calculated are narrower and appreciably different from results, known to be conservative, that are often used in problems of this type. Pearson and Hartley recognized the characteristics of their methods and contemplated that exact methods could someday be used. The calculation of the exact intervals requires involved numerical analyses readily implemented only on digital computers not available to Pearson and Hartley. A Monte Carlo experiment was conducted to verify a selected interval from those calculated. This numerical experiment confirmed the results of the analytical methods and the prediction of Pearson and Hartley that their published tables give conservative results

  13. Poisson process approximation for sequence repeats, and sequencing by hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arratia, R; Martin, D; Reinert, G; Waterman, M S

    1996-01-01

    Sequencing by hybridization is a tool to determine a DNA sequence from the unordered list of all l-tuples contained in this sequence; typical numbers for l are l = 8, 10, 12. For theoretical purposes we assume that the multiset of all l-tuples is known. This multiset determines the DNA sequence uniquely if none of the so-called Ukkonen transformations are possible. These transformations require repeats of (l-1)-tuples in the sequence, with these repeats occurring in certain spatial patterns. We model DNA as an i.i.d. sequence. We first prove Poisson process approximations for the process of indicators of all leftmost long repeats allowing self-overlap and for the process of indicators of all left-most long repeats without self-overlap. Using the Chen-Stein method, we get bounds on the error of these approximations. As a corollary, we approximate the distribution of longest repeats. In the second step we analyze the spatial patterns of the repeats. Finally we combine these two steps to prove an approximation for the probability that a random sequence is uniquely recoverable from its list of l-tuples. For all our results we give some numerical examples including error bounds.

  14. Downlink Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) in Poisson Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.

    2018-03-21

    A network model is considered where Poisson distributed base stations transmit to $N$ power-domain non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) users (UEs) each that employ successive interference cancellation (SIC) for decoding. We propose three models for the clustering of NOMA UEs and consider two different ordering techniques for the NOMA UEs: mean signal power-based and instantaneous signal-to-intercell-interference-and-noise-ratio-based. For each technique, we present a signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio analysis for the coverage of the typical UE. We plot the rate region for the two-user case and show that neither ordering technique is consistently superior to the other. We propose two efficient algorithms for finding a feasible resource allocation that maximize the cell sum rate $\\\\mathcal{R}_{\\ m tot}$, for general $N$, constrained to: 1) a minimum rate $\\\\mathcal{T}$ for each UE, 2) identical rates for all UEs. We show the existence of: 1) an optimum $N$ that maximizes the constrained $\\\\mathcal{R}_{\\ m tot}$ given a set of network parameters, 2) a critical SIC level necessary for NOMA to outperform orthogonal multiple access. The results highlight the importance in choosing the network parameters $N$, the constraints, and the ordering technique to balance the $\\\\mathcal{R}_{\\ m tot}$ and fairness requirements. We also show that interference-aware UE clustering can significantly improve performance.

  15. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, but not including roads and highways. The database also contains geographic names in Antarctica. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other feature attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature class, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories of features the geometric boundaries. The database assigns a unique feature identifier, a random number, that is a key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling GNIS data with other data sets. The GNIS is our Nation's official repository of domestic geographic feature names information.

  16. A comparison between Poisson and zero-inflated Poisson regression models with an application to number of black spots in Corriedale sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues-Motta Mariana

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dark spots in the fleece area are often associated with dark fibres in wool, which limits its competitiveness with other textile fibres. Field data from a sheep experiment in Uruguay revealed an excess number of zeros for dark spots. We compared the performance of four Poisson and zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP models under four simulation scenarios. All models performed reasonably well under the same scenario for which the data were simulated. The deviance information criterion favoured a Poisson model with residual, while the ZIP model with a residual gave estimates closer to their true values under all simulation scenarios. Both Poisson and ZIP models with an error term at the regression level performed better than their counterparts without such an error. Field data from Corriedale sheep were analysed with Poisson and ZIP models with residuals. Parameter estimates were similar for both models. Although the posterior distribution of the sire variance was skewed due to a small number of rams in the dataset, the median of this variance suggested a scope for genetic selection. The main environmental factor was the age of the sheep at shearing. In summary, age related processes seem to drive the number of dark spots in this breed of sheep.

  17. Electroneutral models for dynamic Poisson-Nernst-Planck systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zilong; Cao, Xiulei; Huang, Huaxiong

    2018-01-01

    The Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) system is a standard model for describing ion transport. In many applications, e.g., ions in biological tissues, the presence of thin boundary layers poses both modeling and computational challenges. In this paper, we derive simplified electroneutral (EN) models where the thin boundary layers are replaced by effective boundary conditions. There are two major advantages of EN models. First, it is much cheaper to solve them numerically. Second, EN models are easier to deal with compared to the original PNP system; therefore, it would also be easier to derive macroscopic models for cellular structures using EN models. Even though the approach used here is applicable to higher-dimensional cases, this paper mainly focuses on the one-dimensional system, including the general multi-ion case. Using systematic asymptotic analysis, we derive a variety of effective boundary conditions directly applicable to the EN system for the bulk region. This EN system can be solved directly and efficiently without computing the solution in the boundary layer. The derivation is based on matched asymptotics, and the key idea is to bring back higher-order contributions into the effective boundary conditions. For Dirichlet boundary conditions, the higher-order terms can be neglected and the classical results (continuity of electrochemical potential) are recovered. For flux boundary conditions, higher-order terms account for the accumulation of ions in boundary layer and neglecting them leads to physically incorrect solutions. To validate the EN model, numerical computations are carried out for several examples. Our results show that solving the EN model is much more efficient than the original PNP system. Implemented with the Hodgkin-Huxley model, the computational time for solving the EN model is significantly reduced without sacrificing the accuracy of the solution due to the fact that it allows for relatively large mesh and time-step sizes.

  18. Incompressible SPH (ISPH) with fast Poisson solver on a GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Alex D.; Rogers, Benedict D.; Lind, Steven J.; Stansby, Peter K.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a fast incompressible SPH (ISPH) solver implemented to run entirely on a graphics processing unit (GPU) capable of simulating several millions of particles in three dimensions on a single GPU. The ISPH algorithm is implemented by converting the highly optimised open-source weakly-compressible SPH (WCSPH) code DualSPHysics to run ISPH on the GPU, combining it with the open-source linear algebra library ViennaCL for fast solutions of the pressure Poisson equation (PPE). Several challenges are addressed with this research: constructing a PPE matrix every timestep on the GPU for moving particles, optimising the limited GPU memory, and exploiting fast matrix solvers. The ISPH pressure projection algorithm is implemented as 4 separate stages, each with a particle sweep, including an algorithm for the population of the PPE matrix suitable for the GPU, and mixed precision storage methods. An accurate and robust ISPH boundary condition ideal for parallel processing is also established by adapting an existing WCSPH boundary condition for ISPH. A variety of validation cases are presented: an impulsively started plate, incompressible flow around a moving square in a box, and dambreaks (2-D and 3-D) which demonstrate the accuracy, flexibility, and speed of the methodology. Fragmentation of the free surface is shown to influence the performance of matrix preconditioners and therefore the PPE matrix solution time. The Jacobi preconditioner demonstrates robustness and reliability in the presence of fragmented flows. For a dambreak simulation, GPU speed ups demonstrate up to 10-18 times and 1.1-4.5 times compared to single-threaded and 16-threaded CPU run times respectively.

  19. Soft network materials with isotropic negative Poisson's ratios over large strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianxing; Zhang, Yihui

    2018-01-31

    Auxetic materials with negative Poisson's ratios have important applications across a broad range of engineering areas, such as biomedical devices, aerospace engineering and automotive engineering. A variety of design strategies have been developed to achieve artificial auxetic materials with controllable responses in the Poisson's ratio. The development of designs that can offer isotropic negative Poisson's ratios over large strains can open up new opportunities in emerging biomedical applications, which, however, remains a challenge. Here, we introduce deterministic routes to soft architected materials that can be tailored precisely to yield the values of Poisson's ratio in the range from -1 to 1, in an isotropic manner, with a tunable strain range from 0% to ∼90%. The designs rely on a network construction in a periodic lattice topology, which incorporates zigzag microstructures as building blocks to connect lattice nodes. Combined experimental and theoretical studies on broad classes of network topologies illustrate the wide-ranging utility of these concepts. Quantitative mechanics modeling under both infinitesimal and finite deformations allows the development of a rigorous design algorithm that determines the necessary network geometries to yield target Poisson ratios over desired strain ranges. Demonstrative examples in artificial skin with both the negative Poisson's ratio and the nonlinear stress-strain curve precisely matching those of the cat's skin and in unusual cylindrical structures with engineered Poisson effect and shape memory effect suggest potential applications of these network materials.

  20. Poisson pre-processing of nonstationary photonic signals: Signals with equality between mean and variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplová, Michaela; Sovka, Pavel; Cifra, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Photonic signals are broadly exploited in communication and sensing and they typically exhibit Poisson-like statistics. In a common scenario where the intensity of the photonic signals is low and one needs to remove a nonstationary trend of the signals for any further analysis, one faces an obstacle: due to the dependence between the mean and variance typical for a Poisson-like process, information about the trend remains in the variance even after the trend has been subtracted, possibly yielding artifactual results in further analyses. Commonly available detrending or normalizing methods cannot cope with this issue. To alleviate this issue we developed a suitable pre-processing method for the signals that originate from a Poisson-like process. In this paper, a Poisson pre-processing method for nonstationary time series with Poisson distribution is developed and tested on computer-generated model data and experimental data of chemiluminescence from human neutrophils and mung seeds. The presented method transforms a nonstationary Poisson signal into a stationary signal with a Poisson distribution while preserving the type of photocount distribution and phase-space structure of the signal. The importance of the suggested pre-processing method is shown in Fano factor and Hurst exponent analysis of both computer-generated model signals and experimental photonic signals. It is demonstrated that our pre-processing method is superior to standard detrending-based methods whenever further signal analysis is sensitive to variance of the signal.

  1. Conditional Poisson models: a flexible alternative to conditional logistic case cross-over analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ben G; Gasparrini, Antonio; Tobias, Aurelio

    2014-11-24

    The time stratified case cross-over approach is a popular alternative to conventional time series regression for analysing associations between time series of environmental exposures (air pollution, weather) and counts of health outcomes. These are almost always analyzed using conditional logistic regression on data expanded to case-control (case crossover) format, but this has some limitations. In particular adjusting for overdispersion and auto-correlation in the counts is not possible. It has been established that a Poisson model for counts with stratum indicators gives identical estimates to those from conditional logistic regression and does not have these limitations, but it is little used, probably because of the overheads in estimating many stratum parameters. The conditional Poisson model avoids estimating stratum parameters by conditioning on the total event count in each stratum, thus simplifying the computing and increasing the number of strata for which fitting is feasible compared with the standard unconditional Poisson model. Unlike the conditional logistic model, the conditional Poisson model does not require expanding the data, and can adjust for overdispersion and auto-correlation. It is available in Stata, R, and other packages. By applying to some real data and using simulations, we demonstrate that conditional Poisson models were simpler to code and shorter to run than are conditional logistic analyses and can be fitted to larger data sets than possible with standard Poisson models. Allowing for overdispersion or autocorrelation was possible with the conditional Poisson model but when not required this model gave identical estimates to those from conditional logistic regression. Conditional Poisson regression models provide an alternative to case crossover analysis of stratified time series data with some advantages. The conditional Poisson model can also be used in other contexts in which primary control for confounding is by fine

  2. [Application of detecting and taking overdispersion into account in Poisson regression model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouche, G; Lepage, B; Migeot, V; Ingrand, P

    2009-08-01

    Researchers often use the Poisson regression model to analyze count data. Overdispersion can occur when a Poisson regression model is used, resulting in an underestimation of variance of the regression model parameters. Our objective was to take overdispersion into account and assess its impact with an illustration based on the data of a study investigating the relationship between use of the Internet to seek health information and number of primary care consultations. Three methods, overdispersed Poisson, a robust estimator, and negative binomial regression, were performed to take overdispersion into account in explaining variation in the number (Y) of primary care consultations. We tested overdispersion in the Poisson regression model using the ratio of the sum of Pearson residuals over the number of degrees of freedom (chi(2)/df). We then fitted the three models and compared parameter estimation to the estimations given by Poisson regression model. Variance of the number of primary care consultations (Var[Y]=21.03) was greater than the mean (E[Y]=5.93) and the chi(2)/df ratio was 3.26, which confirmed overdispersion. Standard errors of the parameters varied greatly between the Poisson regression model and the three other regression models. Interpretation of estimates from two variables (using the Internet to seek health information and single parent family) would have changed according to the model retained, with significant levels of 0.06 and 0.002 (Poisson), 0.29 and 0.09 (overdispersed Poisson), 0.29 and 0.13 (use of a robust estimator) and 0.45 and 0.13 (negative binomial) respectively. Different methods exist to solve the problem of underestimating variance in the Poisson regression model when overdispersion is present. The negative binomial regression model seems to be particularly accurate because of its theorical distribution ; in addition this regression is easy to perform with ordinary statistical software packages.

  3. Application of the Hyper-Poisson Generalized Linear Model for Analyzing Motor Vehicle Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazraee, S Hadi; Sáez-Castillo, Antonio Jose; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy; Lord, Dominique

    2015-05-01

    The hyper-Poisson distribution can handle both over- and underdispersion, and its generalized linear model formulation allows the dispersion of the distribution to be observation-specific and dependent on model covariates. This study's objective is to examine the potential applicability of a newly proposed generalized linear model framework for the hyper-Poisson distribution in analyzing motor vehicle crash count data. The hyper-Poisson generalized linear model was first fitted to intersection crash data from Toronto, characterized by overdispersion, and then to crash data from railway-highway crossings in Korea, characterized by underdispersion. The results of this study are promising. When fitted to the Toronto data set, the goodness-of-fit measures indicated that the hyper-Poisson model with a variable dispersion parameter provided a statistical fit as good as the traditional negative binomial model. The hyper-Poisson model was also successful in handling the underdispersed data from Korea; the model performed as well as the gamma probability model and the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson model previously developed for the same data set. The advantages of the hyper-Poisson model studied in this article are noteworthy. Unlike the negative binomial model, which has difficulties in handling underdispersed data, the hyper-Poisson model can handle both over- and underdispersed crash data. Although not a major issue for the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson model, the effect of each variable on the expected mean of crashes is easily interpretable in the case of this new model. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Control Multivariante Estadístico de Variables Discretas tipo Poisson

    OpenAIRE

    GARCIA BUSTOS, SANDRA LORENA

    2016-01-01

    En algunos casos, cuando el número de defectos de un proceso de producción tiene que ser controlada, la distribución de Poisson se emplea para modelar la frecuencia de estos defectos y para desarrollar un gráfico de control. En este trabajo se analiza el control de características de calidad p> 1 de Poisson . Cuando este control se necesita, hay dos enfoques principales: 1 - Un gráfico para cada variable de Poisson, el esquema múltiple.. 2 -. Sólo una gráfico para todas las variables, el sist...

  5. Hamiltonian field description of the one-dimensional Poisson-Vlasov equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P.J.

    1981-07-01

    The one-dimensional Poisson-Vlasov equations are cast into Hamiltonian form. A Poisson Bracket in terms of the phase space density, as sole dynamical variable, is presented. This Poisson bracket is not of the usual form, but possesses the commutator properties of antisymmetry, bilinearity, and nonassociativity by virtue of the Jacobi requirement. Clebsch potentials are seen to yield a conventional (canonical) formulation. This formulation is discretized by expansion in terms of an arbitrary complete set of basis functions. In particular, a wave field representation is obtained

  6. A regularization method for solving the Poisson equation for mixed unbounded-periodic domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spietz, Henrik Juul; Mølholm Hejlesen, Mads; Walther, Jens Honoré

    2018-01-01

    the regularized unbounded-periodic Green's functions can be implemented in an FFT-based Poisson solver to obtain a convergence rate corresponding to the regularization order of the Green's function. The high order is achieved without any additional computational cost from the conventional FFT-based Poisson solver...... and enables the calculation of the derivative of the solution to the same high order by direct spectral differentiation. We illustrate an application of the FFT-based Poisson solver by using it with a vortex particle mesh method for the approximation of incompressible flow for a problem with a single periodic...

  7. Numerical methods for realizing nonstationary Poisson processes with piecewise-constant instantaneous-rate functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven; Kelton, W. David

    2006-01-01

    with piecewise-constant instantaneous rate functions, a capability that has been implemented in commercial simulation software. They test these algorithms in C programs and make comparisons of accuracy, speed, and variability across disparate rate functions and microprocessor architectures. Choice of optimal......Nonstationary Poisson processes are appropriate in many applications, including disease studies, transportation, finance, and social policy. The authors review the risks of ignoring nonstationarity in Poisson processes and demonstrate three algorithms for generation of Poisson processes...... algorithm could not be predicted without knowledge of microprocessor architecture....

  8. Adaptive Cartography and Geographical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecny, Milan; Stanek, Karel

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on adaptive cartography and its potential for geographical education. After briefly describing the wider context of adaptive cartography, it is suggested that this new cartographic approach establishes new demands and benefits for geographical education, especially in offering the possibility for broader individual…

  9. Determinants of Dentists' Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazoglou, Tryfon J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A model for explaining the geographic distribution of dentists' practice locations is presented and applied to particular market areas in Connecticut. Results show geographic distribution is significantly related to a few key variables, including demography, disposable income, and housing prices. Implications for helping students make practice…

  10. Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Gain Losing Weight Getting Started Improving Your Eating Habits Keeping It Off Healthy Eating for a Healthy ... or "program". It's about lifestyle changes in daily eating and exercise habits. Success Stories They did it. So can you! ...

  11. Multilevel Methods for the Poisson-Boltzmann Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Michael Jay

    We consider the numerical solution of the Poisson -Boltzmann equation (PBE), a three-dimensional second order nonlinear elliptic partial differential equation arising in biophysics. This problem has several interesting features impacting numerical algorithms, including discontinuous coefficients representing material interfaces, rapid nonlinearities, and three spatial dimensions. Similar equations occur in various applications, including nuclear physics, semiconductor physics, population genetics, astrophysics, and combustion. In this thesis, we study the PBE, discretizations, and develop multilevel-based methods for approximating the solutions of these types of equations. We first outline the physical model and derive the PBE, which describes the electrostatic potential of a large complex biomolecule lying in a solvent. We next study the theoretical properties of the linearized and nonlinear PBE using standard function space methods; since this equation has not been previously studied theoretically, we provide existence and uniqueness proofs in both the linearized and nonlinear cases. We also analyze box-method discretizations of the PBE, establishing several properties of the discrete equations which are produced. In particular, we show that the discrete nonlinear problem is well-posed. We study and develop linear multilevel methods for interface problems, based on algebraic enforcement of Galerkin or variational conditions, and on coefficient averaging procedures. Using a stencil calculus, we show that in certain simplified cases the two approaches are equivalent, with different averaging procedures corresponding to different prolongation operators. We also develop methods for nonlinear problems based on a nonlinear multilevel method, and on linear multilevel methods combined with a globally convergent damped-inexact-Newton method. We derive a necessary and sufficient descent condition for the inexact-Newton direction, enabling the development of extremely

  12. Geographic information systems: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calistri, Paolo; Conte, Annamaria; Freier, Jerome E; Ward, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    The recent exponential growth of the science and technology of geographic information systems (GIS) has made a tremendous contribution to epidemiological analysis and has led to the development of new powerful tools for the surveillance of animal diseases. GIS, spatial analysis and remote sensing provide valuable methods to collect and manage information for epidemiological surveys. Spatial patterns and trends of disease can be correlated with climatic and environmental information, thus contributing to a better understanding of the links between disease processes and explanatory spatial variables. Until recently, these tools were underexploited in the field of veterinary public health, due to the prohibitive cost of hardware and the complexity of GIS software that required a high level of expertise. The revolutionary developments in computer performance of the last decade have not only reduced the costs of equipment but have made available easy-to-use Web-based software which in turn have meant that GIS are more widely accessible by veterinary services at all levels. At the same time, the increased awareness of the possibilities offered by these tools has created new opportunities for decision-makers to enhance their planning, analysis and monitoring capabilities. These technologies offer a new way of sharing and accessing spatial and non-spatial data across groups and institutions. The series of papers included in this compilation aim to: - define the state of the art in the use of GIS in veterinary activities - identify priority needs in the development of new GIS tools at the international level for the surveillance of animal diseases and zoonoses - define practical proposals for their implementation. The topics addressed are presented in the following order in this book: - importance of GIS for the monitoring of animal diseases and zoonoses - GIS application in surveillance activities - spatial analysis in veterinary epidemiology - data collection and remote

  13. Prenatal, transplacental uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and hexachlorobenzene in humans. Pt. 3.. Personal characteristics (gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, smoking habits of the parents) and geographic differences; Praenatale, transplazentare Uebertragung von polychlorierten Biphenylen und Hexachlorbenzol beim Menschen. T. 3. Personenbezogene Einflussfaktoren (Gestationsalter, Geburtsgewicht, muetterliches Alter, Tabakkonsum der Eltern) und geographische Unterschiede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackmann, G.M. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Kinderheilkunde

    2001-07-01

    It was the aim of the present study to investigate the influence of personal characteristics, like gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, smoking habits of the parents, and geographic origin, on the neonatal pollution with these harmful substances. Methods: Cord blood samples were taken from 200 full-term, healthy neonates born in Fulda or Duesseldorf, respectively, in 1998. The samples were immediately centrifuged, and serum was stored at-20 C up to analysis, which was performed in 1999. The parents must have lived life-long in each town and should never accidentally or at their working places have been exposed to high concentrations of PCBs or HCB. Six PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) and HCB were analysed with capillary gas-chromatography with electron capture detection. Results: We could demonstrate a statistically significant correlation between the prenatal uptake of PCBs and HCB and the gestational age of the newborns as well as the maternal age in the study group of 199 newborns (one child was excluded because of unusually high PCB values). Thereby, neonates born in the 42. week had 3.5-fold higher PCB values than children born in the 38. week, and newborns of a 50-year-old mother showed up to 500% higher values than children of a 20-year-old woman (p < 0.0001). A correlation with birth weight was not found. Furthermore, newborns of active smoking women exhibited significantly higher PCB and HCB values than children of passive smoking or non-smoking mothers. Prenatal uptake of PCBs was not different with regard to the geographic origin of the newborns, i.e. Fulda or Duesseldorf, whereas newborns from Duesseldorf showed about 62% higher HCB concentrations. (orig.) [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung war es, den Einfluss personenbezogener Charakteristika, wie des Gestationsalters, des Geburtsgewichts, des muetterlichen Alters und des Tabakkonsums der Eltern, sowie geographischer Unterschiede auf die neonatale Schadstoffbelastung zu

  14. A Hands-on Activity for Teaching the Poisson Distribution Using the Stock Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Mickey; Studstill, Sharyn

    2014-01-01

    The number of increases a particular stock makes over a fixed period follows a Poisson distribution. This article discusses using this easily-found data as an opportunity to let students become involved in the data collection and analysis process.

  15. Optimized thick-wall cylinders by virtue of Poisson's ratio selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty, J.P.M.; Henderson, B.; Francis, J.; Lloyd, N.

    2011-01-01

    The principal stress distributions in thick-wall cylinders due to variation in the Poisson's ratio are predicted using analytical and finite element methods. Analyses of appropriate brittle and ductile failure criteria show that under the isochoric pressure conditions investigated that auextic (i.e. those possessing a negative Poisson's ratio) materials act as stress concentrators; hence they are predicted to fail before their conventional (i.e. possessing a positive Poisson's ratio) material counterparts. The key finding of the work presented shows that for constrained thick-wall cylinders the maximum tensile principal stress can vanish at a particular Poisson's ratio and aspect ratio. This phenomenon is exploited in order to present an optimized design criterion for thick-wall cylinders. Moreover, via the use of a cogent finite element model, this criterion is also shown to be applicable for the design of micro-porous materials.

  16. On bounds in Poisson approximation for distributions of independent negative-binomial distributed random variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tran Loc; Giang, Le Truong

    2016-01-01

    Using the Stein-Chen method some upper bounds in Poisson approximation for distributions of row-wise triangular arrays of independent negative-binomial distributed random variables are established in this note.

  17. Equal-Time and Equal-Space Poisson Brackets of the N -Component Coupled NLS Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ru-Guang; Li Pei-Yao; Gao Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Two Poisson brackets for the N-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation are derived by using the variantional principle. The first one is called the equal-time Poisson bracket which does not depend on time but only on the space variable. Actually it is just the usual one describing the time evolution of system in the traditional theory of integrable Hamiltonian systems. The second one is equal-space and new. It is shown that the spatial part of Lax pair with respect to the equal-time Poisson bracket and temporal part of Lax pair with respect to the equal-space Poisson bracket share the same r-matrix formulation. These properties are similar to that of the NLS equation. (paper)

  18. Ship-Track Models Based on Poisson-Distributed Port-Departure Times

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heitmeyer, Richard

    2006-01-01

    ... of those ships, and their nominal speeds. The probability law assumes that the ship departure times are Poisson-distributed with a time-varying departure rate and that the ship speeds and ship routes are statistically independent...

  19. Remarks on 'Poisson ratio beyond the limits of the elasticity theory'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, K.W.

    2002-12-01

    The non-chiral, elastically isotropic model exhibits Poison ratios in the range -1 ≤ σ ≤ 1 without any molecular rotation. The centres of discs-atoms are replaced in the vertices of a perfect triangle of the side length equal to σ. The positive sign of the Lame constant λ is not necessary for the stability of an isotropic system at any dimensionality. As the upper limit for the Poisson ratio in 2D isotropic systems is 1, crystalline or polycrystalline 2D systems can be obtained having the Poisson ratio exceeding 1/2. Both the traditional theory of elasticity and the Cosserat one exclude Poisson ratios exceeding 1/2 in 3D isotropic systems. Neighter anisotropy nor rotation are necessary to obtain extreme values of the Poisson ratio (author)

  20. Developing an economical and reliable test for measuring the resilient modulus and Poisson's ratio of subgrade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The resilient modulus and Poissons ratio of base and sublayers in highway use are : important parameters in design and quality control process. The currently used techniques : include CBR (California Bearing Ratio) test, resilient modulus test,...

  1. Stability of the trivial solution for linear stochastic differential equations with Poisson white noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriu, Mircea; Samorodnitsky, Gennady

    2004-01-01

    Two methods are considered for assessing the asymptotic stability of the trivial solution of linear stochastic differential equations driven by Poisson white noise, interpreted as the formal derivative of a compound Poisson process. The first method attempts to extend a result for diffusion processes satisfying linear stochastic differential equations to the case of linear equations with Poisson white noise. The developments for the method are based on Ito's formula for semimartingales and Lyapunov exponents. The second method is based on a geometric ergodic theorem for Markov chains providing a criterion for the asymptotic stability of the solution of linear stochastic differential equations with Poisson white noise. Two examples are presented to illustrate the use and evaluate the potential of the two methods. The examples demonstrate limitations of the first method and the generality of the second method

  2. Solution of the Kolmogorov-Nikol'skii problem for the Poisson integrals of continuous functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanets, A I

    2001-01-01

    Asymptotic equalities are obtained for upper bounds of the deviations of Fourier sums in the classes of convolutions of Poisson kernels and continuous functions with moduli of continuity not exceeding fixed majorants

  3. Appearance of eigen modes for the linearized Vlasov-Poisson equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degond, P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine the asymptotic behaviour, when the time goes to infinity, of the solution of the linearized Vlasov-Poisson equation, we use eigen modes, associated to continuous linear functionals on a Banach space of analytic functions [fr

  4. An improved FMM Algorithm of the 3d-linearized Poisson-Boltzmann Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrez issa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new FMM algorithm for the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation in three dimensions. The performance of the proposed algorithm is assessed on a example in three dimensions and compared with the direct method. The numerical results show the power of the new method, that allow to achieve the best schemes to reduce the time of the particle interactions, which are based on diagonal form of translation operators for linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation.

  5. Semiclassical limit and well-posedness of nonlinear Schrodinger-Poisson systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailiang Li

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the well-posedness and semiclassical limit of nonlinear Schrodinger-Poisson systems. We show the local well-posedness and the existence of semiclassical limit of the two models for initial data with Sobolev regularity, before shocks appear in the limit system. We establish the existence of a global solution and show the time-asymptotic behavior of a classical solutions of Schrodinger-Poisson system for a fixed re-scaled Planck constant.

  6. Stability analysis for neutral stochastic differential equation of second order driven by Poisson jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Alka; Bora, Swaroop Nandan

    2017-11-01

    This paper studies the existence, uniqueness, and exponential stability in mean square for the mild solution of neutral second order stochastic partial differential equations with infinite delay and Poisson jumps. By utilizing the Banach fixed point theorem, first the existence and uniqueness of the mild solution of neutral second order stochastic differential equations is established. Then, the mean square exponential stability for the mild solution of the stochastic system with Poisson jumps is obtained with the help of an established integral inequality.

  7. Stochastic Averaging of Strongly Nonlinear Oscillators under Poisson White Noise Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Zhu, W. Q.

    A stochastic averaging method for single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) strongly nonlinear oscillators under Poisson white noise excitation is proposed by using the so-called generalized harmonic functions. The stationary averaged generalized Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (GFPK) equation is solved by using the classical perturbation method. Then the procedure is applied to estimate the stationary probability density of response of a Duffing-van der Pol oscillator under Poisson white noise excitation. Theoretical results agree well with Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. Characterization of stochastic resonance in a bistable system with Poisson white noise using statistical complexity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meijuan; Xu, Wei; Sun, Zhongkui; Du, Lin

    2015-11-01

    This paper mainly investigates the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) in a bistable system subjected to Poisson white noise. Statistical complexity measures, as new tools, are first employed to quantify SR phenomenon of given system with Poisson white noise. To begin with, the effect of Poisson white noise on SR phenomenon is studied. The results demonstrate that the curves of statistical complexity measures as a function of Poisson white noise intensity exhibit non-monotonous structure, revealing the existence of SR phenomenon. Besides, it should be noted that small mean arrival rate of Poisson white noise can promote the occurrence of SR. In order to verify the effectiveness of statistical complexity measures, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is also calculated. A good agreement among these results obtained by statistical complexity measures and SNR is achieved, which reveals that statistical complexity measures are suitable tools for characterizing SR phenomenon in the presence of Poisson white noise. Then, the effects of amplitude and frequency of different periodic signals, including cosine, rectangular and triangular signal, on SR behavior are investigated, respectively. One can observe that, in the case of same amplitude or frequency of signal, the influence of rectangular signal on SR phenomenon is the most significant among these three signals.

  9. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) in residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) in residential land capability index mapping of a developing country. A case study of Enugu ... The thematic layers were weighted on a scale of 0%-100% and 0-2 inclusive, using the criteria obtained from field work and laboratory investigation. The thematic layers were ...

  10. Comparison of Efficiency in Generalized Poisson Regression Model and the Standard Poisson Regression Model in analyzing Fertility Behavior among Women, Kashan, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Fallahzadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different statistical methods can be used to analyze fertility data. When the response variable is discrete, Poisson model is applied. If the condition does not hold for the Poisson model, its generalized model will be applied. The goal of this study was to compare the efficiency of generalized Poisson regression model with the standard Poisson regression model in estimating the coefficient of effective factors onthe current number of children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study carried out on a populationof married women within the age range of15-49 years in Kashan, Iran. The cluster sampling method was used for data collection. Clusters consisted ofthe urbanblocksdeterminedby the municipality.Atotal number of10clusters each containing30households was selected according to the health center's framework. The necessary data were then collected through a self-madequestionnaireanddirectinterviewswith women under study. Further, the data analysiswas performed by usingthe standard and generalizedPoisson regression models through theRsoftware. Results: The average number of children for each woman was 1.45 with a variance of 1.073.A significant relationship was observed between the husband's age, number of unwanted pregnancies, and the average durationof breastfeeding with the present number of children in the two standard and generalized Poisson regression models (p < 0.05.The mean ageof women  participating in thisstudy was33.1± 7.57 years (from 25.53 years to 40.67, themean age of marriage was 20.09 ± 3.82 (from16.27 years to23.91, and themean age of their husbands was 37.9 ± 8.4years (from 29.5 years to 46.3. In the current study, the majority of women werein the age range of 30-35years old with the medianof 32years, however, most ofmen were in the age range of 35-40yearswith the median of37years. While 236of women did not have unwanted pregnancies, most participants of the present study had one unwanted pregnancy

  11. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  12. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  13. [Geographic variations in freshwater molluscs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinarskiĭ, M V

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of geographic variation is known in practically all taxa of living beings. However, the reality of this phenomenon in freshwater molluscs (snails and bivalves) has many times been questioned in the past. It was accepted that these animals do not demonstrate spatially-oriented variation, where specific "local race" is arisen in each specific habitat. Till the beginning of 1970s, there was no statistical evidence that geographic clines in freshwater molluscs really exist. However, a few species of freshwater molluscs has been studied in this respect so far, therefore it is almost impossible to draw any general patterns of geographical variation in this group of animals. Most species of freshwater molluscs studied to the date exhibit statistically significant decrease of their body size in the south-north direction. Perhaps, it may be explained by decrease of the duration of the growth season in high latitudes. Some species of freshwater snails demonstrate clinal changes in shell proportions. This allows to reject subspecies separation within these species since diagnostic characters of such "subspecies" may blur when geographic variation is taken into consideration. The data on geographic variation in anatomical traits in freshwater molluscs is much more scarce. At least one species of pond snails (Lymnaea terebra) demonstrates clinal variation in proportions of the copulative apparatus in the south-north direction. Further studies of geographic variation in freshwater molluscs should reveal whether it is truly adaptive, i.e. whether geographical clines have underlying genetic basis. Otherwise, the clines may arise as a result of direct modifying effect of a habitat.

  14. Minimum Hellinger distance estimation for k-component poisson mixture with random effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Liming; Yau, Kelvin K W; Van Hui, Yer; Lee, Andy H

    2008-06-01

    The k-component Poisson regression mixture with random effects is an effective model in describing the heterogeneity for clustered count data arising from several latent subpopulations. However, the residual maximum likelihood estimation (REML) of regression coefficients and variance component parameters tend to be unstable and may result in misleading inferences in the presence of outliers or extreme contamination. In the literature, the minimum Hellinger distance (MHD) estimation has been investigated to obtain robust estimation for finite Poisson mixtures. This article aims to develop a robust MHD estimation approach for k-component Poisson mixtures with normally distributed random effects. By applying the Gaussian quadrature technique to approximate the integrals involved in the marginal distribution, the marginal probability function of the k-component Poisson mixture with random effects can be approximated by the summation of a set of finite Poisson mixtures. Simulation study shows that the MHD estimates perform satisfactorily for data without outlying observation(s), and outperform the REML estimates when data are contaminated. Application to a data set of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) with random institution effects demonstrates the practical use of the robust MHD estimation method.

  15. Analysis of Blood Transfusion Data Using Bivariate Zero-Inflated Poisson Model: A Bayesian Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Tayeb; Kheiri, Soleiman; Sedehi, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the factors affecting the number of blood donation and blood deferral has a major impact on blood transfusion. There is a positive correlation between the variables "number of blood donation" and "number of blood deferral": as the number of return for donation increases, so does the number of blood deferral. On the other hand, due to the fact that many donors never return to donate, there is an extra zero frequency for both of the above-mentioned variables. In this study, in order to apply the correlation and to explain the frequency of the excessive zero, the bivariate zero-inflated Poisson regression model was used for joint modeling of the number of blood donation and number of blood deferral. The data was analyzed using the Bayesian approach applying noninformative priors at the presence and absence of covariates. Estimating the parameters of the model, that is, correlation, zero-inflation parameter, and regression coefficients, was done through MCMC simulation. Eventually double-Poisson model, bivariate Poisson model, and bivariate zero-inflated Poisson model were fitted on the data and were compared using the deviance information criteria (DIC). The results showed that the bivariate zero-inflated Poisson regression model fitted the data better than the other models.

  16. A novel method for the accurate evaluation of Poisson's ratio of soft polymer materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Soo; Chang, Jun-Dong; Thompson, Mark S; Kang, Dong-Joong; Park, Sungchan; Park, Seonghun

    2013-01-01

    A new method with a simple algorithm was developed to accurately measure Poisson's ratio of soft materials such as polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA-H) with a custom experimental apparatus consisting of a tension device, a micro X-Y stage, an optical microscope, and a charge-coupled device camera. In the proposed method, the initial positions of the four vertices of an arbitrarily selected quadrilateral from the sample surface were first measured to generate a 2D 1st-order 4-node quadrilateral element for finite element numerical analysis. Next, minimum and maximum principal strains were calculated from differences between the initial and deformed shapes of the quadrilateral under tension. Finally, Poisson's ratio of PVA-H was determined by the ratio of minimum principal strain to maximum principal strain. This novel method has an advantage in the accurate evaluation of Poisson's ratio despite misalignment between specimens and experimental devices. In this study, Poisson's ratio of PVA-H was 0.44 ± 0.025 (n = 6) for 2.6-47.0% elongations with a tendency to decrease with increasing elongation. The current evaluation method of Poisson's ratio with a simple measurement system can be employed to a real-time automated vision-tracking system which is used to accurately evaluate the material properties of various soft materials.

  17. Analysing count data of Butterflies communities in Jasin, Melaka: A Poisson regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiqah Muhamad Jamil, Siti; Asrul Affendi Abdullah, M.; Kek, Sie Long; Nor, Maria Elena; Mohamed, Maryati; Ismail, Norradihah

    2017-09-01

    Counting outcomes normally have remaining values highly skewed toward the right as they are often characterized by large values of zeros. The data of butterfly communities, had been taken from Jasin, Melaka and consists of 131 number of subject visits in Jasin, Melaka. In this paper, considering the count data of butterfly communities, an analysis is considered Poisson regression analysis as it is assumed to be an alternative way on better suited to the counting process. This research paper is about analysing count data from zero observation ecological inference of butterfly communities in Jasin, Melaka by using Poisson regression analysis. The software for Poisson regression is readily available and it is becoming more widely used in many field of research and the data was analysed by using SAS software. The purpose of analysis comprised the framework of identifying the concerns. Besides, by using Poisson regression analysis, the study determines the fitness of data for accessing the reliability on using the count data. The finding indicates that the highest and lowest number of subject comes from the third family (Nymphalidae) family and fifth (Hesperidae) family and the Poisson distribution seems to fit the zero values.

  18. New Geographical Regionalization of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Gorbanyov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the October Revolution there was an urgent need for a new economic zoning of Russia. Under the leadership of the greatest scientists the Soviet Union was divided in to economic regions. After the collapse of the USSR and the emergence of a market economy, these regions have lost their meaning, and the new were not created. Therefore there was a need of a new zoning Russia, and not by economic regions, but by the complex geographical regions. This is a difficult task, but because of the author's opinion that geography should be a single, new geographical areas should reflect their historical, natural, economic, social, cultural view specifics. This approach will promote rational geographical division of labor in the country in a market economy. An attempt to new geographical zoning, with 10 allocated geographic regions: Capital, Central, European North, European South, North Caucasus, Volga-Urals, Western Siberia, Southern Siberia, Northern Siberia and the Far East. For each region area, population size and density, level of urbanization, natural, mechanical and overall population growth, GDP per capita, the structure of employment, Human Development Index were counted, and the appropriate analysis were made.

  19. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. High birth weight babies are often big because ...

  20. Poisson mixture distribution analysis for North Carolina SIDS counts using information criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Massaro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mixture distribution analysis provides us with a tool for identifying unlabeled clusters that naturally arise in a data set.  In this paper, we demonstrate how to use the information criteria AIC and BIC to choose the optimal number of clusters for a given set of univariate Poisson data.  We give an empirical comparison between minimum Hellinger distance (MHD estimation and EM estimation for finding parameters in a mixture of Poisson distributions with artificial data.  In addition, we discuss Bayes error in the context of classification problems with mixture of 2, 3, 4, and 5 Poisson models.  Finally, we provide an example with real data, taken from a study that looked at sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS count data from 100 North Carolina counties (Symons et al., 1983.  This gives us an opportunity to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed model framework in comparison with the original analysis.

  1. Poisson regression for modeling count and frequency outcomes in trauma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, David R; Doron-LaMarca, Susan; Bell, Margret; O'Farrell, Timothy J; Taft, Casey T

    2008-10-01

    The authors describe how the Poisson regression method for analyzing count or frequency outcome variables can be applied in trauma studies. The outcome of interest in trauma research may represent a count of the number of incidents of behavior occurring in a given time interval, such as acts of physical aggression or substance abuse. Traditional linear regression approaches assume a normally distributed outcome variable with equal variances over the range of predictor variables, and may not be optimal for modeling count outcomes. An application of Poisson regression is presented using data from a study of intimate partner aggression among male patients in an alcohol treatment program and their female partners. Results of Poisson regression and linear regression models are compared.

  2. A regularization method for solving the Poisson equation for mixed unbounded-periodic domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul Spietz, Henrik; Mølholm Hejlesen, Mads; Walther, Jens Honoré

    2018-03-01

    Regularized Green's functions for mixed unbounded-periodic domains are derived. The regularization of the Green's function removes its singularity by introducing a regularization radius which is related to the discretization length and hence imposes a minimum resolved scale. In this way the regularized unbounded-periodic Green's functions can be implemented in an FFT-based Poisson solver to obtain a convergence rate corresponding to the regularization order of the Green's function. The high order is achieved without any additional computational cost from the conventional FFT-based Poisson solver and enables the calculation of the derivative of the solution to the same high order by direct spectral differentiation. We illustrate an application of the FFT-based Poisson solver by using it with a vortex particle mesh method for the approximation of incompressible flow for a problem with a single periodic and two unbounded directions.

  3. A high order regularisation method for solving the Poisson equation and selected applications using vortex methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm

    A regularisation method for solving the Poisson equation using Green’s functions is presented.The method is shown to obtain a convergence rate which corresponds to the design of the regularised Green’s function and a spectral-like convergence rate is obtained using a spectrally ideal regularisation....... It is shown that the regularised Poisson solver can be extended to handle mixed periodic and free-space boundary conditions. This is done by solving the equation spectrally in the periodic directions which yields a modified Helmholtz equation for the free-space directions which in turn is solved by deriving...... the appropriate regularised Green’s functions. Using an analogy to the particle-particle particle-mesh method, a framework for calculating multi-resolution solutions using local refinement patches is presented. The regularised Poisson solver is shown to maintain a high order converging solution for different...

  4. Stationary response of multi-degree-of-freedom vibro-impact systems to Poisson white noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.; Zhu, W.Q.

    2008-01-01

    The stationary response of multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) vibro-impact (VI) systems to random pulse trains is studied. The system is formulated as a stochastically excited and dissipated Hamiltonian system. The constraints are modeled as non-linear springs according to the Hertz contact law. The random pulse trains are modeled as Poisson white noises. The approximate stationary probability density function (PDF) for the response of MDOF dissipated Hamiltonian systems to Poisson white noises is obtained by solving the fourth-order generalized Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation using perturbation approach. As examples, two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) VI systems under external and parametric Poisson white noise excitations, respectively, are investigated. The validity of the proposed approach is confirmed by using the results obtained from Monte Carlo simulation. It is shown that the non-Gaussian behaviour depends on the product of the mean arrival rate of the impulses and the relaxation time of the oscillator

  5. Modified Poisson solver for the simulation of the silicon-oxide interface in semiconductor detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castoldi, A. E-mail: andrea.castoldi@polimi.it; Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Guazzoni, C.; De Geronimo, G

    2000-01-11

    We present a modified Poisson solver for depleted semiconductor detectors that takes into account the effects of possible accumulation of mobile charge at the silicon-oxide interfaces. The solver is based on a physical model that closely approximates the correct boundary condition at the silicon-oxide interface. The model assumes that the silicon-oxide interface is divided into an equipotential region, where the electron layer is located, and a fully depleted region. The actual extension and potential of the electron layer region are approximated with the desired accuracy by an iterative procedure. This model has been implemented in 2- and 3-D Poisson solvers. The comparison with a 2-D drift-diffusion simulator has shown the accuracy of the proposed method. The modified Poisson solver has shown to be useful in giving accurate solutions to 3-D design problems at high CPU speed.

  6. Modified Poisson solver for the simulation of the silicon-oxide interface in semiconductor detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Castoldi, A; Gatti, E; Guazzoni, C; De Geronimo, G

    2000-01-01

    We present a modified Poisson solver for depleted semiconductor detectors that takes into account the effects of possible accumulation of mobile charge at the silicon-oxide interfaces. The solver is based on a physical model that closely approximates the correct boundary condition at the silicon-oxide interface. The model assumes that the silicon-oxide interface is divided into an equipotential region, where the electron layer is located, and a fully depleted region. The actual extension and potential of the electron layer region are approximated with the desired accuracy by an iterative procedure. This model has been implemented in 2- and 3-D Poisson solvers. The comparison with a 2-D drift-diffusion simulator has shown the accuracy of the proposed method. The modified Poisson solver has shown to be useful in giving accurate solutions to 3-D design problems at high CPU speed.

  7. PB-AM: An open-source, fully analytical linear poisson-boltzmann solver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felberg, Lisa E. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley California 94720; Brookes, David H. [Department of Chemistry, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley California 94720; Yap, Eng-Hui [Department of Systems and Computational Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx New York 10461; Jurrus, Elizabeth [Division of Computational and Statistical Analytics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352; Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City Utah 84112; Baker, Nathan A. [Advanced Computing, Mathematics, and Data Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352; Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence Rhode Island 02912; Head-Gordon, Teresa [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley California 94720; Department of Chemistry, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley California 94720; Department of Bioengineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley California 94720; Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Labs, Berkeley California 94720

    2016-11-02

    We present the open source distributed software package Poisson-Boltzmann Analytical Method (PB-AM), a fully analytical solution to the linearized Poisson Boltzmann equation. The PB-AM software package includes the generation of outputs files appropriate for visualization using VMD, a Brownian dynamics scheme that uses periodic boundary conditions to simulate dynamics, the ability to specify docking criteria, and offers two different kinetics schemes to evaluate biomolecular association rate constants. Given that PB-AM defines mutual polarization completely and accurately, it can be refactored as a many-body expansion to explore 2- and 3-body polarization. Additionally, the software has been integrated into the Adaptive Poisson-Boltzmann Solver (APBS) software package to make it more accessible to a larger group of scientists, educators and students that are more familiar with the APBS framework.

  8. Switching Induced by Poisson Radio-Frequency Pulses in Nonlinear Micromechanical Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jie; Buvaev, Sanal; Chan, H. B.

    2010-03-01

    We study switching induced by Poisson radio-frequency (RF) pulses in nonlinear micromechanical oscillators. Under sufficiently large periodic excitation, nonlinear micromechanical oscillators possess multiple oscillation states with different amplitudes. The presence of noise enables the system to switch between these states. We find that in the vicinity of the bifurcation point the activation barrier, which is given by the logarithm of the switching rate, has a logarithmic dependence on the mean rate of Poisson RF pulses. Moreover, the measured dependence of the activation barrier on the distance to the saddle-node bifurcation η is consistent with predicted universal scaling relationships. While for white Gaussian noise the activation barrier shows a clean 3/2 power-law dependence on η, for modulated Poisson pulses the power-law has a different power of 1/2 with an additional logarithmic factor. Our measured critical exponents are in accordance with theoretical predictions.

  9. Mean-square state and parameter estimation for stochastic linear systems with Gaussian and Poisson noises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basin, M.; Maldonado, J. J.; Zendejo, O.

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes new mean-square filter and parameter estimator design for linear stochastic systems with unknown parameters over linear observations, where unknown parameters are considered as combinations of Gaussian and Poisson white noises. The problem is treated by reducing the original problem to a filtering problem for an extended state vector that includes parameters as additional states, modelled as combinations of independent Gaussian and Poisson processes. The solution to this filtering problem is based on the mean-square filtering equations for incompletely polynomial states confused with Gaussian and Poisson noises over linear observations. The resulting mean-square filter serves as an identifier for the unknown parameters. Finally, a simulation example shows effectiveness of the proposed mean-square filter and parameter estimator.

  10. Fiber-wise linear Poisson structures related to W∗-algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odzijewicz, Anatol; Jakimowicz, Grzegorz; Sliżewska, Aneta

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of Banach differential geometry we investigate the fiber-wise linear Poisson structures as well as the Lie groupoid and Lie algebroid structures which are defined in the canonical way by the structure of a W∗-algebra (von Neumann algebra) M. The main role in this theory is played by the complex Banach-Lie groupoid G(M) ⇉ L(M) of partially invertible elements of M over the lattice L(M) of orthogonal projections of M. The Atiyah sequence and the predual Atiyah sequence corresponding to this groupoid are investigated from the point of view of Banach Poisson geometry. In particular we show that the predual Atiyah sequence fits in a short exact sequence of complex Banach sub-Poisson V B-groupoids with G(M) ⇉ L(M) as the side groupoid.

  11. Infinitesimal deformations of Poisson bi-vectors using the Kontsevich graph calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buring, Ricardo; Kiselev, Arthemy V.; Rutten, Nina

    2018-02-01

    Let \\mathscr{P} be a Poisson structure on a finite-dimensional affine real manifold. Can \\mathscr{P} be deformed in such a way that it stays Poisson? The language of Kontsevich graphs provides a universal approach - with respect to all affine Poisson manifolds - to finding a class of solutions to this deformation problem. For that reasoning, several types of graphs are needed. In this paper we outline the algorithms to generate those graphs. The graphs that encode deformations are classified by the number of internal vertices k; for k ≤ 4 we present all solutions of the deformation problem. For k ≥ 5, first reproducing the pentagon-wheel picture suggested at k = 6 by Kontsevich and Willwacher, we construct the heptagon-wheel cocycle that yields a new unique solution without 2-loops and tadpoles at k = 8.

  12. Pêche thonière et dispositifs de concentration de poissons

    OpenAIRE

    Le Gall, Jean-yves; Cayre, Patrice; Taquet, Marc

    2000-01-01

    Le colloque international « Pêche thonière et dispositifs de concentration de poissons» organisé en octobre 1999, en Martinique, permet de dresser un bilan, sous forme de synthèses régionales, de l'exploitation des grands poissons pélagiques à l'aide de DCP dans les trois océans et en Méditerranée. La technologie, les méthodes de pêche, l'impact sur les ressources, le comportement agrégatif des poissons et les aspects socio-économiques de l'utilisation des DCP sont les principaux thèmes dével...

  13. Dirichlet forms methods for Poisson point measures and Lévy processes with emphasis on the creation-annihilation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bouleau, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    A simplified approach to Malliavin calculus adapted to Poisson random measures is developed and applied in this book. Called the “lent particle method” it is based on perturbation of the position of particles. Poisson random measures describe phenomena involving random jumps (for instance in mathematical finance) or the random distribution of particles (as in statistical physics). Thanks to the theory of Dirichlet forms, the authors develop a mathematical tool for a quite general class of random Poisson measures and significantly simplify computations of Malliavin matrices of Poisson functionals. The method gives rise to a new explicit calculus that they illustrate on various examples: it consists in adding a particle and then removing it after computing the gradient. Using this method, one can establish absolute continuity of Poisson functionals such as Lévy areas, solutions of SDEs driven by Poisson measure and, by iteration, obtain regularity of laws. The authors also give applications to error calcul...

  14. A Poisson hierarchical modelling approach to detecting copy number variation in sequence coverage data

    KAUST Repository

    Sepúlveda, Nuno

    2013-02-26

    Background: The advent of next generation sequencing technology has accelerated efforts to map and catalogue copy number variation (CNV) in genomes of important micro-organisms for public health. A typical analysis of the sequence data involves mapping reads onto a reference genome, calculating the respective coverage, and detecting regions with too-low or too-high coverage (deletions and amplifications, respectively). Current CNV detection methods rely on statistical assumptions (e.g., a Poisson model) that may not hold in general, or require fine-tuning the underlying algorithms to detect known hits. We propose a new CNV detection methodology based on two Poisson hierarchical models, the Poisson-Gamma and Poisson-Lognormal, with the advantage of being sufficiently flexible to describe different data patterns, whilst robust against deviations from the often assumed Poisson model.Results: Using sequence coverage data of 7 Plasmodium falciparum malaria genomes (3D7 reference strain, HB3, DD2, 7G8, GB4, OX005, and OX006), we showed that empirical coverage distributions are intrinsically asymmetric and overdispersed in relation to the Poisson model. We also demonstrated a low baseline false positive rate for the proposed methodology using 3D7 resequencing data and simulation. When applied to the non-reference isolate data, our approach detected known CNV hits, including an amplification of the PfMDR1 locus in DD2 and a large deletion in the CLAG3.2 gene in GB4, and putative novel CNV regions. When compared to the recently available FREEC and cn.MOPS approaches, our findings were more concordant with putative hits from the highest quality array data for the 7G8 and GB4 isolates.Conclusions: In summary, the proposed methodology brings an increase in flexibility, robustness, accuracy and statistical rigour to CNV detection using sequence coverage data. 2013 Seplveda et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  15. Measurements of the Poisson ratio and fragility of glass-forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tage Emil; Olsen, Niels Boye

    Recently much attention has been given to models and phenomenology of glass-forming liquids that correlates fast and slow degrees of freedom . In particular the Poisson ratio has been correlated with fragility. We present data on shear - and bulk modulus obtained by the techniques of the piezoele...... of the piezoelectric transducers PBG and PSG on a number of glass-forming liquids. Hereby the Poisson ratio can be found. Furthermore the PSG also gives the temperature dependence of shear viscosity and thereby the fragility. The validity of the conjectured relation is discussed...

  16. Is neutron evaporation from highly excited nuclei a poisson random process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbel, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    It is suggested that neutron emission from highly excited nuclei follows a Poisson random process. The continuous variable of the process is the excitation energy excess over the binding energy of the emitted neutrons and the discrete variable is the number of emitted neutrons. Cross sections for (HI,xn) reactions are analyzed using a formula containing a Poisson distribution function. The post- and pre-equilibrium components of the cross section are treated separately. The agreement between the predictions of this formula and the experimental results is very good. (orig.)

  17. Statistical analysis of non-homogeneous Poisson processes. Statistical processing of a particle multidetector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacombe, J.P.

    1985-12-01

    Statistic study of Poisson non-homogeneous and spatial processes is the first part of this thesis. A Neyman-Pearson type test is defined concerning the intensity measurement of these processes. Conditions are given for which consistency of the test is assured, and others giving the asymptotic normality of the test statistics. Then some techniques of statistic processing of Poisson fields and their applications to a particle multidetector study are given. Quality tests of the device are proposed togetherwith signal extraction methods [fr

  18. A high order multi-resolution solver for the Poisson equation with application to vortex methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Spietz, Henrik Juul; Walther, Jens Honore

    A high order method is presented for solving the Poisson equation subject to mixed free-space and periodic boundary conditions by using fast Fourier transforms (FFT). The high order convergence is achieved by deriving mollified Green’s functions from a high order regularization function which...... provides a correspondingly smooth solution to the Poisson equation.The high order regularization function may be obtained analogous to the approximate deconvolution method used in turbulence models and strongly relates to deblurring algorithms used in image processing. At first we show that the regularized...

  19. Linear stability of stationary solutions of the Vlasov-Poisson system in three dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batt, J.; Rein, G. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Mathematisches Inst.; Morrison, P.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Rigorous results on the stability of stationary solutions of the Vlasov-Poisson system are obtained in both the plasma physics and stellar dynamics contexts. It is proven that stationary solutions in the plasma physics (stellar dynamics) case are linearly stable if they are decreasing (increasing) functions of the local, i.e. particle, energy. The main tool in the analysis is the free energy of the system, a conserved quantity. In addition, an appropriate global existence result is proven for the linearized Vlasov-Poisson system and the existence of stationary solutions that satisfy the above stability condition is established.

  20. Random vibrations of Rayleigh vibroimpact oscillator under Parametric Poisson white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guidong; Xu, Wei; Jia, Wantao; He, Meijuan

    2016-04-01

    Random vibration problems for a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) Rayleigh vibroimpact system with a rigid barrier under parametric Poisson white noise are considered. The averaged generalized Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equations with parametric Poisson white noise are derived after using the nonsmooth variable transformation and the approximate stationary solutions for the system's response are obtained by perturbation method. The results are validated numerically by using Monte Carlo simulations from original vibroimpact system. Effects on the response for different damping coefficients, restitution coefficients and noise intensities are discussed. Furthermore, stochastic bifurcations are also explored.

  1. The effects of filament magnetization in superconducting magnets as calculated by POISSON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspi, S.; Gilbert, W.S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1986-09-01

    Magnetization of superconducting material can be introduced into POISSON through a field dependent permeability table (in the same way that iron characteristics are introduced). This can be done by representing measured magnetization data of the increasing and decreasing field by two independent B-γ curves (γ = 1/μ). Magnetization curves of this type were incorporated into the current regions of the program POISSON and their effect on the field coefficients observed. We have used this technique to calculate the effect of magnetization on the multipole coefficients of a SSC superconducting dipole magnet and to compare these coefficients with measured values

  2. Fast immersed interface Poisson solver for 3D unbounded problems around arbitrary geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, T.; Winckelmans, G.; Chatelain, P.

    2018-02-01

    We present a fast and efficient Fourier-based solver for the Poisson problem around an arbitrary geometry in an unbounded 3D domain. This solver merges two rewarding approaches, the lattice Green's function method and the immersed interface method, using the Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury decomposition formula. The method is intended to be second order up to the boundary. This is verified on two potential flow benchmarks. We also further analyse the iterative process and the convergence behavior of the proposed algorithm. The method is applicable to a wide range of problems involving a Poisson equation around inner bodies, which goes well beyond the present validation on potential flows.

  3. Changes at the National Geographic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwille, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    For more than 125 years, National Geographic has explored the planet, unlocking its secrets and sharing them with the world. For almost thirty of those years, National Geographic has been committed to K-12 educators and geographic education through its Network of Alliances. As National Geographic begins a new chapter, they remain committed to the…

  4. Geographic Information Systems: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    821787 Symposium. American society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Falls Church, VA. pp. 396-409. Lillesand, T. M. and R. W. Kiefer . 1987. Remote...Geographic Information System Using Symbolic Models and Hierarchical Data Structures. PhD Dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara

  5. Impacts of Scale on Geographic Analysis of Health Data: An Example of Obesity Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent decades. It is an important public health issue as it causes many other chronic health conditions, such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and type II diabetics. Obesity affects life expectancy and even the quality of lives. Eventually, it increases social costs in many ways due to increasing costs of health care and workplace absenteeism. Using the spatial patterns of obesity prevalence as an example; we show how different geographic units can reveal different degrees of detail in results of analysis. We used both census tracts and census block groups as units of geographic analysis. In addition; to reveal how different geographic scales may impact on the analytic results; we applied geographically weighted regression to model the relationships between obesity rates (dependent variable and three independent variables; including education attainment; unemployment rates; and median family income. Though not including an exhaustive list of explanatory variables; this regression model provides an example for revealing the impacts of geographic scales on analysis of health data. With obesity data based on reported heights and weights on driver’s licenses in Summit County, Ohio, we demonstrated that geographically weighted regression reveals varying spatial trends between dependent and independent variables that conventional regression models such as ordinary least squares regression cannot. Most importantly, analyses carried out with different geographic scales do show very different results. With these findings, we suggest that, while possible, smaller geographic units be used to allow better understanding of the studies phenomena.

  6. On statistical methods for analysing the geographical distribution of cancer cases near nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bithell, J.F.; Stone, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper sets out to show that epidemiological methods most commonly used can be improved. When analysing geographical data it is necessary to consider location. The most obvious quantification of location is ranked distance, though other measures which may be more meaningful in relation to aetiology may be substituted. A test based on distance ranks, the ''Poisson maximum test'', depends on the maximum of observed relative risk in regions of increasing size, but with significance level adjusted for selection. Applying this test to data from Sellafield and Sizewell shows that the excess of leukaemia incidence observed at Seascale, near Sellafield, is not an artefact due to data selection by region, and that the excess probably results from a genuine, if as yet unidentified cause (there being little evidence of any other locational association once the Seascale cases have been removed). So far as Sizewell is concerned, geographical proximity to the nuclear power station does not seen particularly important. (author)

  7. Neonatal mortality in East Africa and West Africa: a geographic analysis of district-level demographic and health survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue C. Grady

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Under-five child mortality declined 47% since 2000 following the implementation of the United Nation’s (UN Millennium Development Goals. To further reduce under-five child mortality, the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs will focus on interventions to address neonatal mortality, a major contributor of under-five mortality. The African region has the highest neonatal mortality rate (28.0 per 1000 live births, followed by that of the Eastern Mediterranean (26.6 and South-East Asia (24.3. This study used the Demographic and Health Survey Birth Recode data (http://dhsprogram.com/data/File-Types-and-Names.cfm to identify high-risk districts and countries for neonatal mortality in two sub-regions of Africa – East Africa and West Africa. Geographically weighted Poisson regression models were estimated to capture the spatially varying relationships between neonatal mortality and dimensions of potential need i care around the time of delivery, ii maternal education, and iii women’s empowerment. In East Africa, neonatal mortality was significantly associated with home births, mothers without an education and mothers whose husbands decided on contraceptive practices, controlling for rural residency. In West Africa, neonatal mortality was also significantly associated with home births, mothers with a primary education and mothers who did not want or plan their last child. Importantly, neonatal mortality associated with home deliveries were explained by maternal exposure to unprotected water sources in East Africa and older maternal age and female sex of infants in West Africa. Future SDG-interventions may target these dimensions of need in priority high-risk districts and countries, to further reduce the burden of neonatal mortality in Africa.

  8. Weight Constraints in Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subha Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hebbian plasticity precisely describes how synapses increase their synaptic strengths according to the correlated activities between two neurons; however, it fails to explain how these activities dilute the strength of the same synapses. Recent literature has proposed spike-timing-dependent plasticity and short-term plasticity on multiple dynamic stochastic synapses that can control synaptic excitation and remove many user-defined constraints. Under this hypothesis, a network model was implemented giving more computational power to receptors, and the behavior at a synapse was defined by the collective dynamic activities of stochastic receptors. An experiment was conducted to analyze can spike-timing-dependent plasticity interplay with short-term plasticity to balance the excitation of the Hebbian neurons without weight constraints? If so what underline mechanisms help neurons to maintain such excitation in computational environment? According to our results both plasticity mechanisms work together to balance the excitation of the neural network as our neurons stabilized its weights for Poisson inputs with mean firing rates from 10 Hz to 40 Hz. The behavior generated by the two neurons was similar to the behavior discussed under synaptic redistribution, so that synaptic weights were stabilized while there was a continuous increase of presynaptic probability of release and higher turnover rate of postsynaptic receptors.

  9. Intégration d'insectes aux aliments pour la volaille et le poisson, au ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans de nombreux pays africains, les industries avicoles et piscicoles comptent parmi les agroentreprises qui affichent la croissance la plus rapide. Toutefois, les ingrédients coûteux, comme le poisson et les végétaux, qui entrent dans la composition des aliments pour animaux menacent la survie des exploitants. Ce projet ...

  10. C1-continuous Virtual Element Method for Poisson-Kirchhoff plate problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyrya, Vitaliy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mourad, Hashem Mohamed [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-20

    We present a family of C1-continuous high-order Virtual Element Methods for Poisson-Kirchho plate bending problem. The convergence of the methods is tested on a variety of meshes including rectangular, quadrilateral, and meshes obtained by edge removal (i.e. highly irregular meshes). The convergence rates are presented for all of these tests.

  11. Poisson Growth Mixture Modeling of Intensive Longitudinal Data: An Application to Smoking Cessation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyko, Mariya P.; Li, Yuelin; Rindskopf, David

    2012-01-01

    Intensive longitudinal data (ILD) have become increasingly common in the social and behavioral sciences; count variables, such as the number of daily smoked cigarettes, are frequently used outcomes in many ILD studies. We demonstrate a generalized extension of growth mixture modeling (GMM) to Poisson-distributed ILD for identifying qualitatively…

  12. The Fixed-Effects Zero-Inflated Poisson Model with an Application to Health Care Utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majo, M.C.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2011-01-01

    Response variables that are scored as counts and that present a large number of zeros often arise in quantitative health care analysis. We define a zero-in flated Poisson model with fixed-effects in both of its equations to identify respondent and health-related characteristics associated with

  13. A LATENT CLASS POISSON REGRESSION-MODEL FOR HETEROGENEOUS COUNT DATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEDEL, M; DESARBO, WS; BULT, [No Value; RAMASWAMY, [No Value

    1993-01-01

    In this paper an approach is developed that accommodates heterogeneity in Poisson regression models for count data. The model developed assumes that heterogeneity arises from a distribution of both the intercept and the coefficients of the explanatory variables. We assume that the mixing

  14. Upper limit for Poisson variable incorporating systematic uncertainties by Bayesian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yongsheng

    2007-01-01

    To calculate the upper limit for the Poisson observable at given confidence level with inclusion of systematic uncertainties in background expectation and signal efficiency, formulations have been established along the line of Bayesian approach. A FORTRAN program, BPULE, has been developed to implement the upper limit calculation

  15. Poisson regression approach for modeling fatal injury rates amongst Malaysian workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarulzaman Ibrahim; Heng Khai Theng

    2005-01-01

    Many safety studies are based on the analysis carried out on injury surveillance data. The injury surveillance data gathered for the analysis include information on number of employees at risk of injury in each of several strata where the strata are defined in terms of a series of important predictor variables. Further insight into the relationship between fatal injury rates and predictor variables may be obtained by the poisson regression approach. Poisson regression is widely used in analyzing count data. In this study, poisson regression is used to model the relationship between fatal injury rates and predictor variables which are year (1995-2002), gender, recording system and industry type. Data for the analysis were obtained from PERKESO and Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. It is found that the assumption that the data follow poisson distribution has been violated. After correction for the problem of over dispersion, the predictor variables that are found to be significant in the model are gender, system of recording, industry type, two interaction effects (interaction between recording system and industry type and between year and industry type). Introduction Regression analysis is one of the most popular

  16. The Rasch Poisson Counts Model for Incomplete Data: An Application of the EM Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Margo G. H.

    1995-01-01

    The Rasch Poisson counts model is a latent trait model for the situation in which "K" tests are administered to "N" examinees and the test score is a count (repeated number of some event). A mixed model is presented that applies the EM algorithm and that can allow for missing data. (SLD)

  17. A direct Poisson solver for Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, T.M.; Appert, K.; Sauter, O.

    1994-09-01

    A direct Poisson solver, based on the isoparametric finite element discretization and a domain decomposition technique, is described. A simple parallelization scheme is proposed and evaluated on a 128 processor Cray T3D. (author) 4 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs

  18. A note on the time decay of solutions for the linearized Wigner-Poisson system

    KAUST Repository

    Gamba, Irene

    2009-01-01

    We consider the one-dimensional Wigner-Poisson system of plasma physics, linearized around a (spatially homogeneous) Lorentzian distribution and prove that the solution of the corresponding linearized problem decays to zero in time. We also give an explicit algebraic decay rate.

  19. A non-parametric estimator for the doubly-periodic Poisson intensity function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Helmers (Roelof); I.W. Mangku (Wayan); R. Zitikis

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn a series of papers, J. Garrido and Y. Lu have proposed and investigated a doubly-periodic Poisson model, and then applied it to analyze hurricane data. The authors have suggested several parametric models for the underlying intensity function. In the present paper we construct and

  20. A modified SOR method for the Poisson equation in unsteady free-surface flow calculations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botta, E.F.F.; Ellenbroek, Marcellinus Hermannus Maria

    1985-01-01

    Convergence difficulties that sometimes occur if the successive overrelaxation (SOR) method is applied to the Poisson equation on a region with irregular free boundaries are analyzed. It is shown that these difficulties are related to the treatment of the free boundaries and caused by the appearance

  1. The Integral Equation Method and the Neumann Problem for the Poisson Equation on NTA Domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medková, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 21 (2009), s. 227-247 ISSN 0378-620X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Poisson equation * Neumann problem * integral equation method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.477, year: 2009

  2. Modeling of Electrokinetic Processes Using the Nernst-Plank-Poisson System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic processes are known as the mobilization of species within the pore solution of porous materials under the effect of an external electric field. A finite elements model was implemented and used for the integration of the coupled Nernst-Plank-Poisson system of equations in order...

  3. Which solutions of the third problem for the Poisson equation are bounded?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medková, Dagmar

    -, č. 6 (2004), s. 501-510 ISSN 1085-3375 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1515 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : Poisson equation * Robin problem * boundedness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  4. TCP (truncated compound poisson) process for multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.P.

    1989-01-01

    On using the Poisson distribution truncated at zero for intermediate cluster decay in a compound Poisson process we obtain TCP distribution which describes quite well the multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions. A detailed comparison is made between TCP and NB for UA5 data. The reduced moments up to the fifth agree very well with the observed ones. The TCP curves are narrower than NB at high multiplicity tail, look narrower at very high energy and develop shoulders and oscillations which become increasingly pronounced as the energy grows. At lower energies the curves are very close to the NB ones. We also compare the parameterizations by these two distributions of the data for fixed intervals of rapidity for UA5 data and for the data (at low energy) for e sup(+) e sup(-) annihilati8on and pion-proton, discussion of compound Poisson distribution expressions of reduced moments and Poisson transforms are also given. The TCP curves and curves of the reduced moments for different values of the parameters are also presented. (author)

  5. Poisson noise reduction from X-ray images by region classification ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thakur Kirti

    Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, College of Engineering, Pune 411005, India e-mail: kirti79@gmail.com. MS received 18 May 2015; revised 28 November 2016; accepted 7 January 2017. Abstract. Medical imaging is perturbed with inherent noise such as speckle noise in ultrasound, Poisson ...

  6. Brownian motion and parabolic Anderson model in a renormalized Poisson potential

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xia; Kulik, Alexey M.

    2012-01-01

    A method known as renormalization is proposed for constructing some more physically realistic random potentials in a Poisson cloud. The Brownian motion in the renormalized random potential and related parabolic Anderson models are modeled. With the renormalization, for example, the models consistent to Newton’s law of universal attraction can be rigorously constructed.

  7. Poisson noise reduction from X-ray images by region classification ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Medical imaging is perturbed with inherent noise such as speckle noise in ultrasound, Poisson noise in X-ray and Rician noise in MRI imaging. This paper focuses on X-ray image denoising problem. X-ray image quality could be improved by increasing dose value; however, this may result in cell death or similar kinds of ...

  8. General solution of Poisson equation in three dimensions for disk-like galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Y.; Zheng, X.; Peng, O.

    1982-01-01

    The general solution of the Poisson equation is solved by means of integral transformations for Vertical BarkVertical Barr>>1 provided that the perturbed density of disk-like galaxies distributes along the radial direction according to the Hankel function. This solution can more accurately represent the outer spiral arms of disk-like galaxies

  9. Use of the negative binomial-truncated Poisson distribution in thunderstorm prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A. C.

    1971-01-01

    A probability model is presented for the distribution of thunderstorms over a small area given that thunderstorm events (1 or more thunderstorms) are occurring over a larger area. The model incorporates the negative binomial and truncated Poisson distributions. Probability tables for Cape Kennedy for spring, summer, and fall months and seasons are presented. The computer program used to compute these probabilities is appended.

  10. Poisson analysis of streptococcal bond strengthening on stainless steel with and without a salivary conditioning film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, Li; van der Mei, Henny C.; Ren, Yijin; Norde, Willem; Busscher, Henk J.

    2009-01-01

    Poisson analysis of retract force-distance curves in atomic force microscopy (AFM) has yielded a new dimension to the decoupling of individual bond forces into a hydrogen bonding and nonspecific force component. Accordingly, bacterial adhesion forces have been decoupled into a hydrogen bonding and

  11. The Poisson algebra of the invariant charges of the Nambu-Goto theory: Casimir elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlmeyer, K.

    1988-01-01

    The reparametrization invariant ''non-local'' conserved charges of the Nambu-Goto theory form an algebra under Poisson bracket operation. The center of the formal closure of this algebra is determined. The relation of the central elements to the constraints of the Nambu-Goto theory is clarified. (orig.)

  12. The Analysis of Corporate Bond Valuation under an Infinite Dimensional Compound Poisson Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the firm bond valuation and credit spread with an endogenous model for the pure default and callable default corporate bond. Regarding the stochastic instantaneous forward rates and the firm value as an infinite dimensional Poisson process, we provide some analytical results for the embedded American options and firm bond valuations.

  13. The Poisson model limits in NBA basketball: Complexity in team sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, Juan Manuel; de Saá Guerra, Yves; García-Manso, Juan Manuel; Arriaza, Enrique; Valverde-Estévez, Teresa

    2016-12-01

    Team sports are frequently studied by researchers. There is presumption that scoring in basketball is a random process and that can be described using the Poisson Model. Basketball is a collaboration-opposition sport, where the non-linear local interactions among players are reflected in the evolution of the score that ultimately determines the winner. In the NBA, the outcomes of close games are often decided in the last minute, where fouls play a main role. We examined 6130 NBA games in order to analyze the time intervals between baskets and scoring dynamics. Most numbers of baskets (n) over a time interval (ΔT) follow a Poisson distribution, but some (e.g., ΔT = 10 s, n > 3) behave as a Power Law. The Poisson distribution includes most baskets in any game, in most game situations, but in close games in the last minute, the numbers of events are distributed following a Power Law. The number of events can be adjusted by a mixture of two distributions. In close games, both teams try to maintain their advantage solely in order to reach the last minute: a completely different game. For this reason, we propose to use the Poisson model as a reference. The complex dynamics will emerge from the limits of this model.

  14. On two-echelon inventory systems with Poisson demand and lost sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, Elisa; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a two-echelon, continuous review inventory system under Poisson demand and a one-for-one replenishment policy. Demand is lost if no items are available at the local warehouse, the central depot, or in the pipeline in between. We give a simple, fast and accurate approach to approximate

  15. A note on influence of stress anisotropy on the Poisson's ratio of dry sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan He

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, extender and bender element tests were conducted investigating the small-strain Poisson's ratio of variable sands, with a focus on the effect of stress anisotropy in order to quantify the sensitivity of Poisson's ratio to the applied deviatoric stress. Four different uniform sands were tested, including a biogenic sand, a crushed rock and two natural sands, covering a wide range of particle shapes. From these sands, eleven samples were prepared in the laboratory and were tested under variable stress paths, maintaining a constant mean effective pressure while increasing the deviatoric compressive load. Under the application of these given stress paths, the data analysis indicated that the sensitivity of Poisson's ratio to the stress ratio was more pronounced for sands with irregularly shaped particles in comparison to sands with fairly rounded and spherical grains. For sands with very irregularly shaped particles, the increase of Poisson's ratio from the isotropic to the anisotropic stress state reached 50%, while this increase for natural sands with fairly rounded particles was in the order of 20%.

  16. Dynamic inventory rationing strategies for inventory systems with two demand classes, Poisson demand and backordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, Ruud H.; Haneveld, Willem K. Klein

    2008-01-01

    We study inventory systems with two demand classes (critical and non-critical), Poisson demand and backordering. We analyze dynamic rationing strategies where the number of items reserved for critical demand depends on the remaining time until the next order arrives. Different from results in the

  17. Microscopic dynamics perspective on the relationship between Poisson's ratio and ductility of metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, K. L.; Wang, Li-Min; Liu, Riping; Wang, W. H.

    2014-01-01

    In metallic glasses a clear correlation had been established between plasticity or ductility with the Poisson's ratio νPoisson and alternatively the ratio of the elastic bulk modulus to the shear modulus, K/G. Such a correlation between these two macroscopic mechanical properties is intriguing and is challenging to explain from the dynamics on a microscopic level. A recent experimental study has found a connection of ductility to the secondary β-relaxation in metallic glasses. The strain rate and temperature dependencies of the ductile-brittle transition are similar to the reciprocal of the secondary β-relaxation time, τβ. Moreover, metallic glass is more ductile if the relaxation strength of the β-relaxation is larger and τβ is shorter. The findings indicate the β-relaxation is related to and instrumental for ductility. On the other hand, K/G or νPoisson is related to the effective Debye-Waller factor (i.e., the non-ergodicity parameter), f0, characterizing the dynamics of a structural unit inside a cage formed by other units, and manifested as the nearly constant loss shown in the frequency dependent susceptibility. We make the connection of f0 to the non-exponentiality parameter n in the Kohlrausch stretched exponential correlation function of the structural α-relaxation function, φ (t) = exp [ { - ( {t/{τ _α }})^{1 - n} }]. This connection follows from the fact that both f0 and n are determined by the inter-particle potential, and 1/f0 or (1 - f0) and n both increase with anharmonicity of the potential. A well tested result from the Coupling Model is used to show that τβ is completely determined by τα and n. From the string of relations, (i) K/G or νPoisson with 1/f0 or (1 - f0), (ii) 1/f0 or (1 - f0) with n, and (iii) τα and n with τβ, we arrive at the desired relation between K/G or νPoisson and τβ. On combining this relation with that between ductility and τβ, we have finally an explanation of the empirical correlation between

  18. Detecting overdispersion in count data: A zero-inflated Poisson regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiqah Muhamad Jamil, Siti; Asrul Affendi Abdullah, M.; Kek, Sie Long; Nor, Maria Elena; Mohamed, Maryati; Ismail, Norradihah

    2017-09-01

    This study focusing on analysing count data of butterflies communities in Jasin, Melaka. In analysing count dependent variable, the Poisson regression model has been known as a benchmark model for regression analysis. Continuing from the previous literature that used Poisson regression analysis, this study comprising the used of zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression analysis to gain acute precision on analysing the count data of butterfly communities in Jasin, Melaka. On the other hands, Poisson regression should be abandoned in the favour of count data models, which are capable of taking into account the extra zeros explicitly. By far, one of the most popular models include ZIP regression model. The data of butterfly communities which had been called as the number of subjects in this study had been taken in Jasin, Melaka and consisted of 131 number of subjects visits Jasin, Melaka. Since the researchers are considering the number of subjects, this data set consists of five families of butterfly and represent the five variables involve in the analysis which are the types of subjects. Besides, the analysis of ZIP used the SAS procedure of overdispersion in analysing zeros value and the main purpose of continuing the previous study is to compare which models would be better than when exists zero values for the observation of the count data. The analysis used AIC, BIC and Voung test of 5% level significance in order to achieve the objectives. The finding indicates that there is a presence of over-dispersion in analysing zero value. The ZIP regression model is better than Poisson regression model when zero values exist.

  19. Feminist Geographic Information Sciences (FGIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Parks, M.; Christie, Maria Elisa

    2014-01-01

    This presentation was developed as a teaching module to contribute to the gap of feminist geographic information systems (FGIS) in international development. It summaries recent literature on GIS theory and development and its intersection with critical and feminist theory. There are arguments that GIS lacks the tools to visualize social processes and lacks the representation of marginalized populations. It is labelled as being masculinist in nature by many scholars in social science fields. ...

  20. IL FENOMENO VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Lupia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution addresses the phenomenon of Voluntereed Geographic Informationexplaining these new and burgeoning sources of information offers multidisciplinary scientists an unprecedented opportunity to conduct research on a variety of topics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In particular the contribution refers to two COST Actions which have been recently activated on the subject which areparticularly relevant for the growing of the European scientific community.

  1. Solving (2 + 1)-dimensional sine-Poisson equation by a modified variable separated ordinary differential equation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ka-Lin, Su; Yuan-Xi, Xie

    2010-01-01

    By introducing a more general auxiliary ordinary differential equation (ODE), a modified variable separated ordinary differential equation method is presented for solving the (2 + 1)-dimensional sine-Poisson equation. As a result, many explicit and exact solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional sine-Poisson equation are derived in a simple manner by this technique. (general)

  2. Detecting Randomness: the Sensitivity of Statistical Tests to Deviations from a Constant Rate Poisson Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Detecting trends in the rate of sporadic events is a problem for earthquakes and other natural hazards such as storms, floods, or landslides. I use synthetic events to judge the tests used to address this problem in seismology and consider their application to other hazards. Recent papers have analyzed the record of magnitude ≥7 earthquakes since 1900 and concluded that the events are consistent with a constant rate Poisson process plus localized aftershocks (Michael, GRL, 2011; Shearer and Stark, PNAS, 2012; Daub et al., GRL, 2012; Parsons and Geist, BSSA, 2012). Each paper removed localized aftershocks and then used a different suite of statistical tests to test the null hypothesis that the remaining data could be drawn from a constant rate Poisson process. The methods include KS tests between event times or inter-event times and predictions from a Poisson process, the autocorrelation function on inter-event times, and two tests on the number of events in time bins: the Poisson dispersion test and the multinomial chi-square test. The range of statistical tests gives us confidence in the conclusions; which are robust with respect to the choice of tests and parameters. But which tests are optimal and how sensitive are they to deviations from the null hypothesis? The latter point was raised by Dimer (arXiv, 2012), who suggested that the lack of consideration of Type 2 errors prevents these papers from being able to place limits on the degree of clustering and rate changes that could be present in the global seismogenic process. I produce synthetic sets of events that deviate from a constant rate Poisson process using a variety of statistical simulation methods including Gamma distributed inter-event times and random walks. The sets of synthetic events are examined with the statistical tests described above. Preliminary results suggest that with 100 to 1000 events, a data set that does not reject the Poisson null hypothesis could have a variability that is 30% to

  3. AP-Cloud: Adaptive Particle-in-Cloud method for optimal solutions to Vlasov–Poisson equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xingyu; Samulyak, Roman; Jiao, Xiangmin; Yu, Kwangmin

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new adaptive Particle-in-Cloud (AP-Cloud) method for obtaining optimal numerical solutions to the Vlasov–Poisson equation. Unlike the traditional particle-in-cell (PIC) method, which is commonly used for solving this problem, the AP-Cloud adaptively selects computational nodes or particles to deliver higher accuracy and efficiency when the particle distribution is highly non-uniform. Unlike other adaptive techniques for PIC, our method balances the errors in PDE discretization and Monte Carlo integration, and discretizes the differential operators using a generalized finite difference (GFD) method based on a weighted least square formulation. As a result, AP-Cloud is independent of the geometric shapes of computational domains and is free of artificial parameters. Efficient and robust implementation is achieved through an octree data structure with 2:1 balance. We analyze the accuracy and convergence order of AP-Cloud theoretically, and verify the method using an electrostatic problem of a particle beam with halo. Simulation results show that the AP-Cloud method is substantially more accurate and faster than the traditional PIC, and it is free of artificial forces that are typical for some adaptive PIC techniques.

  4. A Kullback-Leibler approach for 3D reconstruction of spectral CT data corrupted by Poisson noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohweiller, Tom; Ducros, Nicolas; Peyrin, Françoise; Sixou, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    While standard computed tomography (CT) data do not depend on energy, spectral computed tomography (SPCT) acquire energy-resolved data, which allows material decomposition of the object of interest. Decompo- sitions in the projection domain allow creating projection mass density (PMD) per materials. From decomposed projections, a tomographic reconstruction creates 3D material density volume. The decomposition is made pos- sible by minimizing a cost function. The variational approach is preferred since this is an ill-posed non-linear inverse problem. Moreover, noise plays a critical role when decomposing data. That is why in this paper, a new data fidelity term is used to take into account of the photonic noise. In this work two data fidelity terms were investigated: a weighted least squares (WLS) term, adapted to Gaussian noise, and the Kullback-Leibler distance (KL), adapted to Poisson noise. A regularized Gauss-Newton algorithm minimizes the cost function iteratively. Both methods decompose materials from a numerical phantom of a mouse. Soft tissues and bones are decomposed in the projection domain; then a tomographic reconstruction creates a 3D material density volume for each material. Comparing relative errors, KL is shown to outperform WLS for low photon counts, in 2D and 3D. This new method could be of particular interest when low-dose acquisitions are performed.

  5. Large-Time Behavior of Solutions to Vlasov-Poisson-Fokker-Planck Equations: From Evanescent Collisions to Diffusive Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herda, Maxime; Rodrigues, L. Miguel

    2018-03-01

    The present contribution investigates the dynamics generated by the two-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson-Fokker-Planck equation for charged particles in a steady inhomogeneous background of opposite charges. We provide global in time estimates that are uniform with respect to initial data taken in a bounded set of a weighted L^2 space, and where dependencies on the mean-free path τ and the Debye length δ are made explicit. In our analysis the mean free path covers the full range of possible values: from the regime of evanescent collisions τ → ∞ to the strongly collisional regime τ → 0. As a counterpart, the largeness of the Debye length, that enforces a weakly nonlinear regime, is used to close our nonlinear estimates. Accordingly we pay a special attention to relax as much as possible the τ -dependent constraint on δ ensuring exponential decay with explicit τ -dependent rates towards the stationary solution. In the strongly collisional limit τ → 0, we also examine all possible asymptotic regimes selected by a choice of observation time scale. Here also, our emphasis is on strong convergence, uniformity with respect to time and to initial data in bounded sets of a L^2 space. Our proofs rely on a detailed study of the nonlinear elliptic equation defining stationary solutions and a careful tracking and optimization of parameter dependencies of hypocoercive/hypoelliptic estimates.

  6. A Fast Poisson Solver with Periodic Boundary Conditions for GPU Clusters in Various Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattermann, Dale Nicholas

    Fast Poisson solvers using the Fast Fourier Transform on uniform grids are especially suited for parallel implementation, making them appropriate for portability on graphical processing unit (GPU) devices. The goal of the following work was to implement, test, and evaluate a fast Poisson solver for periodic boundary conditions for use on a variety of GPU configurations. The solver used in this research was FLASH, an immersed-boundary-based method, which is well suited for complex, time-dependent geometries, has robust adaptive mesh refinement/de-refinement capabilities to capture evolving flow structures, and has been successfully implemented on conventional, parallel supercomputers. However, these solvers are still computationally costly to employ, and the total solver time is dominated by the solution of the pressure Poisson equation using state-of-the-art multigrid methods. FLASH improves the performance of its multigrid solvers by integrating a parallel FFT solver on a uniform grid during a coarse level. This hybrid solver could then be theoretically improved by replacing the highly-parallelizable FFT solver with one that utilizes GPUs, and, thus, was the motivation for my research. In the present work, the CPU-utilizing parallel FFT solver (PFFT) used in the base version of FLASH for solving the Poisson equation on uniform grids has been modified to enable parallel execution on CUDA-enabled GPU devices. New algorithms have been implemented to replace the Poisson solver that decompose the computational domain and send each new block to a GPU for parallel computation. One-dimensional (1-D) decomposition of the computational domain minimizes the amount of network traffic involved in this bandwidth-intensive computation by limiting the amount of all-to-all communication required between processes. Advanced techniques have been incorporated and implemented in a GPU-centric code design, while allowing end users the flexibility of parameter control at runtime in

  7. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Transportation Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  8. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Admin Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  9. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Cultural Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  10. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Historical Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  11. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Community Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  12. Prevalence of overweight misperception and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S. Talamayan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight perceptions and weight control behaviors have been documented with underweight and overweight adolescents, yet limited information is available on normal weight adolescents. This study investigates the prevalence of overweight misperceptions and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the U.S. by sociodemographic and geographic characteristics. We examined data from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. A total of 9,714 normal weight U.S. high school students were included in this study. Outcome measures included self-reported height and weight measurements, overweight misperceptions, and weight control behaviors. Weighted prevalence estimates and odds ratios were computed. There were 16.2% of normal weight students who perceived themselves as overweight. Females (25.3% were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight than males (6.7% (p < 0.05. Misperceptions of overweight were highest among white (18.3% and Hispanic students (15.2% and lowest among black students (5.8%. Females (16.8% outnumbered males (6.8% in practicing at least one unhealthy weight control behavior (use of diet pills, laxatives, and fasting in the past 30 days. The percentage of students who practiced at least one weight control behavior was similar by ethnicity. There were no significant differences in overweight misperception and weight control behaviors by grade level, geographic region, or metropolitan status. A significant portion of normal weight adolescents misperceive themselves as overweight and are engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These data suggest that obesity prevention programs should address weight misperceptions and the harmful effects of unhealthy weight control methods even among normal weight adolescents.

  13. Collaborative Geographic Information Systems for Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Ramírez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a number of sceneries where information (specifically, geographical-related information is lost because there is no method for storing or sharing it. This research has been done with the aim to solve those scenery problems in a general way, by means of a geographical information system that can store geographical-related information and publish it in order to avoid loss of information and enabling geographical information sharing

  14. Efficient Levenberg-Marquardt minimization of the maximum likelihood estimator for Poisson deviates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence, T; Chromy, B

    2009-11-10

    Histograms of counted events are Poisson distributed, but are typically fitted without justification using nonlinear least squares fitting. The more appropriate maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for Poisson distributed data is seldom used. We extend the use of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm commonly used for nonlinear least squares minimization for use with the MLE for Poisson distributed data. In so doing, we remove any excuse for not using this more appropriate MLE. We demonstrate the use of the algorithm and the superior performance of the MLE using simulations and experiments in the context of fluorescence lifetime imaging. Scientists commonly form histograms of counted events from their data, and extract parameters by fitting to a specified model. Assuming that the probability of occurrence for each bin is small, event counts in the histogram bins will be distributed according to the Poisson distribution. We develop here an efficient algorithm for fitting event counting histograms using the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for Poisson distributed data, rather than the non-linear least squares measure. This algorithm is a simple extension of the common Levenberg-Marquardt (L-M) algorithm, is simple to implement, quick and robust. Fitting using a least squares measure is most common, but it is the maximum likelihood estimator only for Gaussian-distributed data. Non-linear least squares methods may be applied to event counting histograms in cases where the number of events is very large, so that the Poisson distribution is well approximated by a Gaussian. However, it is not easy to satisfy this criterion in practice - which requires a large number of events. It has been well-known for years that least squares procedures lead to biased results when applied to Poisson-distributed data; a recent paper providing extensive characterization of these biases in exponential fitting is given. The more appropriate measure based on the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE

  15. The Economics of Geographical Indications

    OpenAIRE

    Benavente, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    This book seeks to contribute to an understanding of the role played by international trade law in shaping economic outcomes from a theoretical perspective. The focus is on geographical indications (GI), an intellectual property right defined in the TRIPs Agreement of the WTO. The premise is that a GI can be conceptualized as a ‘club asset’: firms that produce GI-labelled goods both add value and derive benefits from the GI. The book starts by presenting a dynamic model of GI reputation under...

  16. Human Geography and the Geographical Imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, William

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the development of human geography, pointing out linkages between human geography and sociology. Defines sociological imagination, summarizing the logic behind it. Provides arguments for a parallel geographical imagination, and assesses the extent to which geographers exhibit a geographical imagination. (LS)

  17. Simulation on Poisson and negative binomial models of count road accident modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapuan, M. S.; Razali, A. M.; Zamzuri, Z. H.; Ibrahim, K.

    2016-11-01

    Accident count data have often been shown to have overdispersion. On the other hand, the data might contain zero count (excess zeros). The simulation study was conducted to create a scenarios which an accident happen in T-junction with the assumption the dependent variables of generated data follows certain distribution namely Poisson and negative binomial distribution with different sample size of n=30 to n=500. The study objective was accomplished by fitting Poisson regression, negative binomial regression and Hurdle negative binomial model to the simulated data. The model validation was compared and the simulation result shows for each different sample size, not all model fit the data nicely even though the data generated from its own distribution especially when the sample size is larger. Furthermore, the larger sample size indicates that more zeros accident count in the dataset.

  18. Observations sur Saprolegnia australis Elliott, agent pathogène de la saprolegniose des poissons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAPATHEODOROU B. T.

    1981-10-01

    Full Text Available Saprolegnia australis n'a jamais été rapporté comme cause primaire de la Saprolegniose chez les poissons et son pouvoir pathogène n'a jamais été vérifié par inoculation expérimentale. Nous l'avons isolé sur des gardons (Rutilus rutilus L. atteints d'une mycose et nous l'avons inoculé avec succès à des poissons exotiques. Nous avons ainsi vérifié le potentiel pathogène de cette espèce de champignon et pu établir avec certitude une causalité entre la seule présence de S. australis et la Saprolegniose observée.

  19. A Poisson-Fault Model for Testing Power Transformers in Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfu Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for assessing the instant failure rate of a power transformer under different working conditions. The method can be applied to a dataset of a power transformer under periodic inspections and maintenance. We use a Poisson-fault model to describe failures of a power transformer. When investigating a Bayes estimate of the instant failure rate under the model, we find that complexities of a classical method and a Monte Carlo simulation are unacceptable. Through establishing a new filtered estimate of Poisson process observations, we propose a quick algorithm of the Bayes estimate of the instant failure rate. The proposed algorithm is tested by simulation datasets of a power transformer. For these datasets, the proposed estimators of parameters of the model have better performance than other estimators. The simulation results reveal the suggested algorithms are quickest among three candidates.

  20. A finite element Poisson solver for gyrokinetic particle simulations in a global field aligned mesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Y.; Lin, Z.; Lewandowski, J.L.V.; Ethier, S.

    2006-01-01

    A new finite element Poisson solver is developed and applied to a global gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) which employs the field aligned mesh and thus a logically non-rectangular grid in a general geometry. Employing test cases where the analytical solutions are known, the finite element solver has been verified. The CPU time scaling versus the matrix size employing portable, extensible toolkit for scientific computation (PETSc) to solve the sparse matrix is promising. Taking the ion temperature gradient modes (ITG) as an example, the solution from the new finite element solver has been compared to the solution from the original GTC's iterative solver which is only efficient for adiabatic electrons. Linear and nonlinear simulation results from the two different forms of the gyrokinetic Poisson equation (integral form and the differential form) coincide each other. The new finite element solver enables the implementation of advanced kinetic electron models for global electromagnetic simulations

  1. Beyond standard Poisson-Boltzmann theory: ion-specific interactions in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Yaakov, Dan; Andelman, David; Harries, Daniel; Podgornik, Rudi

    2009-01-01

    The Poisson-Boltzmann mean-field description of ionic solutions has been successfully used in predicting charge distributions and interactions between charged macromolecules. While the electrostatic model of charged fluids, on which the Poisson-Boltzmann description rests, and its statistical mechanical consequences have been scrutinized in great detail, much less is understood about its probable shortcomings when dealing with various aspects of real physical, chemical and biological systems. These shortcomings are not only a consequence of the limitations of the mean-field approximation per se, but perhaps are primarily due to the fact that the purely Coulombic model Hamiltonian does not take into account various additional interactions that are not electrostatic in their origin. We explore several possible non-electrostatic contributions to the free energy of ions in confined aqueous solutions and investigate their ramifications and consequences on ionic profiles and interactions between charged surfaces and macromolecules.

  2. Pareto genealogies arising from a Poisson branching evolution model with selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huillet, Thierry E

    2014-02-01

    We study a class of coalescents derived from a sampling procedure out of N i.i.d. Pareto(α) random variables, normalized by their sum, including β-size-biasing on total length effects (β Poisson-Dirichlet (α, -β) Ξ-coalescent (α ε[0, 1)), or to a family of continuous-time Beta (2 - α, α - β)Λ-coalescents (α ε[1, 2)), or to the Kingman coalescent (α ≥ 2). We indicate that this class of coalescent processes (and their scaling limits) may be viewed as the genealogical processes of some forward in time evolving branching population models including selection effects. In such constant-size population models, the reproduction step, which is based on a fitness-dependent Poisson Point Process with scaling power-law(α) intensity, is coupled to a selection step consisting of sorting out the N fittest individuals issued from the reproduction step.

  3. Hidden Markov models for zero-inflated Poisson counts with an application to substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Stacia M; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2011-06-30

    Paradigms for substance abuse cue-reactivity research involve pharmacological or stressful stimulation designed to elicit stress and craving responses in cocaine-dependent subjects. It is unclear as to whether stress induced from participation in such studies increases drug-seeking behavior. We propose a 2-state Hidden Markov model to model the number of cocaine abuses per week before and after participation in a stress-and cue-reactivity study. The hypothesized latent state corresponds to 'high' or 'low' use. To account for a preponderance of zeros, we assume a zero-inflated Poisson model for the count data. Transition probabilities depend on the prior week's state, fixed demographic variables, and time-varying covariates. We adopt a Bayesian approach to model fitting, and use the conditional predictive ordinate statistic to demonstrate that the zero-inflated Poisson hidden Markov model outperforms other models for longitudinal count data. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Poisson and negative binomial item count techniques for surveys with sensitive question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guo-Liang; Tang, Man-Lai; Wu, Qin; Liu, Yin

    2017-04-01

    Although the item count technique is useful in surveys with sensitive questions, privacy of those respondents who possess the sensitive characteristic of interest may not be well protected due to a defect in its original design. In this article, we propose two new survey designs (namely the Poisson item count technique and negative binomial item count technique) which replace several independent Bernoulli random variables required by the original item count technique with a single Poisson or negative binomial random variable, respectively. The proposed models not only provide closed form variance estimate and confidence interval within [0, 1] for the sensitive proportion, but also simplify the survey design of the original item count technique. Most importantly, the new designs do not leak respondents' privacy. Empirical results show that the proposed techniques perform satisfactorily in the sense that it yields accurate parameter estimate and confidence interval.

  5. Transmission tomography under Poisson noise using the Anscombe transformation and Wiener filtering of the projections

    CERN Document Server

    Mascarenhas, N D A; Cruvinel, P E

    1999-01-01

    A minitomograph scanner for soil science was developed by the National Center for Research and Development of Agricultural Instrumentation (EMBRAPA/CNPDIA). The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, a statistical characterization of the noise affecting the projection measurements of this scanner is presented. Second, having determined the Poisson nature of this noise, a new method of filtering the projection data prior to the reconstruction is proposed. It is based on transforming the Poisson noise into Gaussian additive noise, filtering the projections in blocks through the Wiener filter and performing the inverse tranformation. Results with real data indicate that this method gives superior results, as compared to conventional backprojection with the ramp filter, by taking into consideration both resolution and noise, through a mean square error criterion.

  6. Numerical solution of continuous-time DSGE models under Poisson uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf; Trimborn, Timo

    We propose a simple and powerful method for determining the transition process in continuous-time DSGE models under Poisson uncertainty numerically. The idea is to transform the system of stochastic differential equations into a system of functional differential equations of the retarded type. We...... then use the Waveform Relaxation algorithm to provide a guess of the policy function and solve the resulting system of ordinary differential equations by standard methods and fix-point iteration. Analytical solutions are provided as a benchmark from which our numerical method can be used to explore broader...... classes of models. We illustrate the algorithm simulating both the stochastic neoclassical growth model and the Lucas model under Poisson uncertainty which is motivated by the Barro-Rietz rare disaster hypothesis. We find that, even for non-linear policy functions, the maximum (absolute) error is very...

  7. A Criterium for the Strict Positivity of the Density of the Law of a Poisson Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léandre Rémi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We translate in semigroup theory our result (Léandre, 1990 giving a necessary condition so that the law of a Markov process with jumps could have a strictly positive density. This result express, that we have to jump in a finite number of jumps in a "submersive" way from the starting point to the end point if the density of the jump process is strictly positive in . We use the Malliavin Calculus of Bismut type of (Léandre, (2008;2010 translated in semi-group theory as a tool, and the interpretation in semi-group theory of some classical results of the stochastic analysis for Poisson process as, for instance, the formula giving the law of a compound Poisson process.

  8. Bayesian Estimation Of Shift Point In Poisson Model Under Asymmetric Loss Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    uma srivastava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with estimating  shift point which occurs in any sequence of independent observations  of Poisson model in statistical process control. This shift point occurs in the sequence when  i.e. m  life data are observed. The Bayes estimator on shift point 'm' and before and after shift process means are derived for symmetric and asymmetric loss functions under informative and non informative priors. The sensitivity analysis of Bayes estimators are carried out by simulation and numerical comparisons with  R-programming. The results shows the effectiveness of shift in sequence of Poisson disribution .

  9. Semiconductor device simulation by a new method of solving poisson, Laplace and Schrodinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifi, M. J.; Adibi, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we have extended and completed our previous work, that was introducing a new method for finite differentiation. We show the applicability of the method for solving a wide variety of equations such as poisson, Laplace and Schrodinger. These equations are fundamental to the most semiconductor device simulators. In a section, we solve the Shordinger equation by this method in several cases including the problem of finding electron concentration profile in the channel of a HEMT. In another section, we solve the Poisson equation by this method, choosing the problem of SBD as an example. Finally we solve the Laplace equation in two dimensions and as an example, we focus on the VED. In this paper, we have shown that, the method can get stable and precise results in solving all of these problems. Also the programs which have been written based on this method become considerably faster, more clear, and more abstract

  10. Stochastic Interest Model Based on Compound Poisson Process and Applications in Actuarial Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering stochastic behavior of interest rates in financial market, we construct a new class of interest models based on compound Poisson process. Different from the references, this paper describes the randomness of interest rates by modeling the force of interest with Poisson random jumps directly. To solve the problem in calculation of accumulated interest force function, one important integral technique is employed. And a conception called the critical value is introduced to investigate the validity condition of this new model. We also discuss actuarial present values of several life annuities under this new interest model. Simulations are done to illustrate the theoretical results and the effect of parameters in interest model on actuarial present values is also analyzed.

  11. Transmission tomography under Poisson noise using the Anscombe transformation and Wiener filtering of the projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Nelson D.A.; Santos, Cid A.N.; Cruvinel, Paulo E.

    1999-01-01

    A minitomograph scanner for soil science was developed by the National Center for Research and Development of Agricultural Instrumentation (EMBRAPA/CNPDIA). The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, a statistical characterization of the noise affecting the projection measurements of this scanner is presented. Second, having determined the Poisson nature of this noise, a new method of filtering the projection data prior to the reconstruction is proposed. It is based on transforming the Poisson noise into Gaussian additive noise, filtering the projections in blocks through the Wiener filter and performing the inverse tranformation. Results with real data indicate that this method gives superior results, as compared to conventional backprojection with the ramp filter, by taking into consideration both resolution and noise, through a mean square error criterion

  12. Dynamics of a prey-predator system under Poisson white noise excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Wei-Qiu

    2014-10-01

    The classical Lotka-Volterra (LV) model is a well-known mathematical model for prey-predator ecosystems. In the present paper, the pulse-type version of stochastic LV model, in which the effect of a random natural environment has been modeled as Poisson white noise, is investigated by using the stochastic averaging method. The averaged generalized Itô stochastic differential equation and Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation are derived for prey-predator ecosystem driven by Poisson white noise. Approximate stationary solution for the averaged generalized FPK equation is obtained by using the perturbation method. The effect of prey self-competition parameter ɛ2 s on ecosystem behavior is evaluated. The analytical result is confirmed by corresponding Monte Carlo (MC) simulation.

  13. Stability of Exponential Euler Method for Stochastic Systems under Poisson White Noise Excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longsuo; Zhang, Yu

    2014-12-01

    The stability of stochastic systems under Poisson white noise excitations which based on the quantum theory is investigated in this paper. In general, the exact solution of the most of the stochastic systems with jumps is not easy to get. So it is very necessary to investigate the numerical solution of equations. On the one hand, exponential Euler method is applied to study stochastic delay differential equations, we can find the sufficient conditions for keeping mean square stability by investigating numerical method of systems. Through the comparison, we get the step-size of this method which is longer than the Euler-Maruyama method. On the other hand, mean square exponential stability of exponential Euler method for semi-linear stochastic delay differential equations under Poisson white noise excitations is confirmed.

  14. Numerical solution of stochastic differential equations with Poisson and Lévy white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriu, M.

    2009-08-01

    A fixed time step method is developed for integrating stochastic differential equations (SDE’s) with Poisson white noise (PWN) and Lévy white noise (LWN). The method for integrating SDE’s with PWN has the same structure as that proposed by Kim [Phys. Rev. E 76, 011109 (2007)], but is established by using different arguments. The integration of SDE’s with LWN is based on a representation of Lévy processes by sums of scaled Brownian motions and compound Poisson processes. It is shown that the numerical solutions of SDE’s with PWN and LWN converge weakly to the exact solutions of these equations, so that they can be used to estimate not only marginal properties but also distributions of functionals of the exact solutions. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the applications and the accuracy of the proposed integration algorithms.

  15. Adiabatic elimination for systems with inertia driven by compound Poisson colored noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiejun; Min, Bin; Wang, Zhiming

    2014-02-01

    We consider the dynamics of systems driven by compound Poisson colored noise in the presence of inertia. We study the limit when the frictional relaxation time and the noise autocorrelation time both tend to zero. We show that the Itô and Marcus stochastic calculuses naturally arise depending on these two time scales, and an extra intermediate type occurs when the two time scales are comparable. This leads to three different limiting regimes which are supported by numerical simulations. Furthermore, we establish that when the resulting compound Poisson process tends to the Wiener process in the frequent jump limit the Itô and Marcus calculuses, respectively, tend to the classical Itô and Stratonovich calculuses for Gaussian white noise, and the crossover type calculus tends to a crossover between the Itô and Stratonovich calculuses. Our results would be very helpful for understanding relevant experiments when jump type noise is involved.

  16. Stationary and Nontationary Response Probability Density Function of a Beam under Poisson White Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, M.; Di Paola, M.

    In this paper an approximate explicit probability density function for the analysis of external oscillations of a linear and geometric nonlinear simply supported beam driven by random pulses is proposed. The adopted impulsive loading model is the Poisson White Noise , that is a process having Dirac's delta occurrences with random intensity distributed in time according to Poisson's law. The response probability density function can be obtained solving the related Kolmogorov-Feller (KF) integro-differential equation. An approximated solution, using path integral method, is derived transforming the KF equation to a first order partial differential equation. The method of characteristic is then applied to obtain an explicit solution. Different levels of approximation, depending on the physical assumption on the transition probability density function, are found and the solution for the response density is obtained as series expansion using convolution integrals.

  17. Numerical solution of stochastic differential equations with Poisson and Lévy white noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriu, M

    2009-08-01

    A fixed time step method is developed for integrating stochastic differential equations (SDE's) with Poisson white noise (PWN) and Lévy white noise (LWN). The method for integrating SDE's with PWN has the same structure as that proposed by Kim [Phys. Rev. E 76, 011109 (2007)], but is established by using different arguments. The integration of SDE's with LWN is based on a representation of Lévy processes by sums of scaled Brownian motions and compound Poisson processes. It is shown that the numerical solutions of SDE's with PWN and LWN converge weakly to the exact solutions of these equations, so that they can be used to estimate not only marginal properties but also distributions of functionals of the exact solutions. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the applications and the accuracy of the proposed integration algorithms.

  18. Poisson statistics of PageRank probabilities of Twitter and Wikipedia networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Klaus M.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2014-04-01

    We use the methods of quantum chaos and Random Matrix Theory for analysis of statistical fluctuations of PageRank probabilities in directed networks. In this approach the effective energy levels are given by a logarithm of PageRank probability at a given node. After the standard energy level unfolding procedure we establish that the nearest spacing distribution of PageRank probabilities is described by the Poisson law typical for integrable quantum systems. Our studies are done for the Twitter network and three networks of Wikipedia editions in English, French and German. We argue that due to absence of level repulsion the PageRank order of nearby nodes can be easily interchanged. The obtained Poisson law implies that the nearby PageRank probabilities fluctuate as random independent variables.

  19. Poisson structure and symmetry in the Chern-Simons formulation of (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meusburger, C; Schroers, B J

    2003-01-01

    In the formulation of (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity as a Chern-Simons gauge theory, the phase space is the moduli space of flat Poincare group connections. Using the combinatorial approach developed by Fock and Rosly, we give an explicit description of the phase space and its Poisson structure for the general case of a genus g oriented surface with punctures representing particles and a boundary playing the role of spatial infinity. We give a physical interpretation and explain how the degrees of freedom associated with each handle and each particle can be decoupled. The symmetry group of the theory combines an action of the mapping class group with asymptotic Poincare transformations in a nontrivial fashion. We derive the conserved quantities associated with the latter and show that the mapping class group of the surface acts on the phase space via Poisson isomorphisms

  20. Poisson equation for the three-loop ladder diagram in string theory at genus one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban

    2016-11-01

    The three-loop ladder diagram is a graph with six links and four cubic vertices that contributes to the D12ℛ4 amplitude at genus one in type II string theory. The vertices represent the insertion points of vertex operators on the toroidal worldsheet and the links represent scalar Green functions connecting them. By using the properties of the Green function and manipulating the various expressions, we obtain a modular invariant Poisson equation satisfied by this diagram, with source terms involving one-, two- and three-loop diagrams. Unlike the source terms in the Poisson equations for diagrams at lower orders in the momentum expansion or the Mercedes diagram, a particular source term involves a five-point function containing a holomorphic and a antiholomorphic worldsheet derivative acting on different Green functions. We also obtain simple equalities between topologically distinct diagrams, and consider some elementary examples.

  1. Multitasking domain decomposition fast Poisson solvers on the Cray Y-MP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tony F.; Fatoohi, Rod A.

    1990-01-01

    The results of multitasking implementation of a domain decomposition fast Poisson solver on eight processors of the Cray Y-MP are presented. The object of this research is to study the performance of domain decomposition methods on a Cray supercomputer and to analyze the performance of different multitasking techniques using highly parallel algorithms. Two implementations of multitasking are considered: macrotasking (parallelism at the subroutine level) and microtasking (parallelism at the do-loop level). A conventional FFT-based fast Poisson solver is also multitasked. The results of different implementations are compared and analyzed. A speedup of over 7.4 on the Cray Y-MP running in a dedicated environment is achieved for all cases.

  2. Comparison of density functional and modified Poisson-Boltzmann structural properties for a spherical double layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B.Bhuiyan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The density functional and modified Poisson-Boltzmann descriptions of a spherical (electric double layer are compared and contrasted vis-a-vis existing Monte Carlo simulation data (for small ion diameter 4.25·10-10 m from the literature for a range of physical parameters such as macroion surface charge, macroion radius, valencies of the small ions, and electrolyte concentration. Overall, the theoretical predictions are seen to be remarkably consistent between themselves, being also in very good agreement with the simulations. Some modified Poisson-Boltzmann results for the zeta potential at small ion diameters of 3 and 2·10-10 m are also reported.

  3. EL MODELO POISSON GENERALIZADO INFLADO DE CEROS: UNA APLICACIÓN EN EL ENTORNO EDUCATIVO UNIVERSITARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Artiles, María Dolores

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the zero-inflated generalised Poisson distribution, which is useful when there is a large presence of zeros in the sample. After presenting the model, we develop a specific program based on Mathematica, overcoming some limitations of alternative approaches such as STATA or EViews, which do not include the zero-inflated Poisson distribution among its routines. The advantages of the model used and the proposed program are illustrated with a real example that is very appropriate to its features, namely an analysis of the factors influencing university students’ attendance at tutoring sessions. This example is particularly suitable to show the usefulness of the methodology presented because it includes a large number of zeros, reflecting the many occasions on which the students do not attend these sessions. The students’ place of residence, their attendance at lectures and the application of continual assessment are variables that seem to account for attendance at tutoring sessions.

  4. Correction for Poisson's effect in an elastic analysis of low cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.; Moulin, D.

    1984-05-01

    Fatigue behaviour is essentially dependent on the real strain range, but the current practice is the use of elastic analysis. In low cycle fatigue conditions where inelastic strains predominate, elastic analysis never gives the real value of the strain range. In order to use these results some corrections are necessary. One of these corrections is due to the Poisson's effect (the Poisson ratio in inelastic behaviour is higher than in elastic behaviour). In this paper a method of correction of this effect is proposed. It consists in multiplying the results of the elastic analysis by a coefficient called Kν. A method to draw curves giving this coefficient Kν as a function of results of elastic analysis is developped. Only simple analytical computations using the unixial cyclic curve are needed to draw these curves. Examples are given. The proposed method is very convenient and low cost effective [fr

  5. Influence of Poisson's ratio variation on lateral spring constant of atomic force microscopy cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, M.-K.; Tai, N.-Ha; Chen, B.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used to measure the surface morphologies and the mechanical properties of nanostructures. The force acting on the AFM cantilever can be obtained by multiplying the spring constant of AFM cantilever and the corresponding deformation. To improve the accuracy of force experiments, the spring constant of AFM cantilever must be calibrated carefully. Many methods, such as theoretical equations, the finite element method, and the use of reference cantilever, were reported to obtain the spring constant of AFM cantilevers. For the cantilever made of single crystal, the Poisson's ratio varies with different cantilever-crystal angles. In this paper, the influences of Poisson's ratio variation on the lateral spring constant and axial spring constant of rectangular and V-shaped AFM cantilevers, with different tilt angles and normal forces, were investigated by the finite element analysis. When the cantilever's tilt angle is 20 deg. and the Poisson's ratio varies from 0.02 to 0.4, the finite element results show that the lateral spring constants decrease 11.75% for the rectangular cantilever with 1 μN landing force and decrease 18.60% for the V-shaped cantilever with 50 nN landing force, respectively. The influence of Poisson's ratio variation on axial spring constant is less than 3% for both rectangular and V-shaped cantilevers. As the tilt angle increases, the axial spring constants for rectangular and V-shaped cantilevers decrease substantially. The results obtained can be used to improve the accuracy of the lateral force measurement when using atomic force microscopy

  6. Harmonic Development of an Arbitrary Function of the Moon/Sun/Planets Coordinates to Poisson Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, S. M.

    2005-12-01

    A new algorithm for the spectral analysis of an arbitrary function of the Moon/Sun/planets coordinates tabulated over a long period of time is proposed. Expansion of the function to a Poisson series is directly made where the amplitudes and arguments of the series' terms are high-degree time polynomials (as opposed to the classical Fourier analysis where the terms' amplitudes are constants and the arguments are linear functions of time).

  7. Normal forms of dispersive scalar Poisson brackets with two independent variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlet, Guido; Casati, Matteo; Shadrin, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    We classify the dispersive Poisson brackets with one dependent variable and two independent variables, with leading order of hydrodynamic type, up to Miura transformations. We show that, in contrast to the case of a single independent variable for which a well-known triviality result exists, the Miura equivalence classes are parametrised by an infinite number of constants, which we call numerical invariants of the brackets. We obtain explicit formulas for the first few numerical invariants.

  8. Exploring factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in preschool children: a Poisson regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Ferreira, Simone Helena; Spiguel, Mônica Hermann; Marquezan, Marcela

    2010-04-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the factors associated with dental trauma in preschool children using Poisson regression analysis with robust variance. The study population comprised 888 children aged 3- to 5-year-old attending public nurseries in Canoas, southern Brazil. Questionnaires assessing information related to the independent variables (age, gender, race, mother's educational level and family income) were completed by the parents. Clinical examinations were carried out by five trained examiners in order to assess traumatic dental injuries (TDI) according to Andreasen's classification. One of the five examiners was calibrated to assess orthodontic characteristics (open bite and overjet). Multivariable Poisson regression analysis with robust variance was used to determine the factors associated with dental trauma as well as the strengths of association. Traditional logistic regression was also performed in order to compare the estimates obtained by both methods of statistical analysis. 36.4% (323/888) of the children suffered dental trauma and there was no difference in prevalence rates from 3 to 5 years of age. Poisson regression analysis showed that the probability of the outcome was almost 30% higher for children whose mothers had more than 8 years of education (Prevalence Ratio = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.03-1.60) and 63% higher for children with an overjet greater than 2 mm (Prevalence Ratio = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.31-2.03). Odds ratios clearly overestimated the size of the effect when compared with prevalence ratios. These findings indicate the need for preventive orientation regarding TDI, in order to educate parents and caregivers about supervising infants, particularly those with increased overjet and whose mothers have a higher level of education. Poisson regression with robust variance represents a better alternative than logistic regression to estimate the risk of dental trauma in preschool children.

  9. Implementation of upper limit calculation for a poisson variable by bayesian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yongsheng

    2008-01-01

    The calculation of Bayesian confidence upper limit for a Poisson variable including both signal and background with and without systematic uncertainties has been formulated. A Fortran 77 routine, BPULE, has been developed to implement the calculation. The routine can account for systematic uncertainties in the background expectation and signal efficiency. The systematic uncertainties may be separately parameterized by a Gaussian, Log-Gaussian or flat probability density function (pdf). Some technical details of BPULE have been discussed. (authors)

  10. Microergodicity effects on ebullition of methane modelled by Mixed Poisson process with Pareto mixing variable

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jordanova, P.; Dušek, Jiří; Stehlík, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 128, OCT 15 (2013), s. 124-134 ISSN 0169-7439 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1151; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : environmental chemistry * ebullition of methane * mixed poisson processes * renewal process * pareto distribution * moving average process * robust statistics * sedge–grass marsh Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.381, year: 2013

  11. Rayleigh-Sommerfield Diffraction vs Fresnel-Kirchhoff, Fourier Propagation and Poisson's Spot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lucke, Robert

    2004-01-01

    .... But when this approximation is not valid, FK can lead to unacceptable answers. Calculating the on-axis intensity of Poisson s spot provides a critical test, a test passed by RS and failed by FK. FK fails because (a) convergence of the integral depends on how it is evaluated and (b) when the convergence problem is xed, the predicted amplitude at points near the obscuring disk is not consistent with the assumed boundary conditions.

  12. An inverse source problem of the Poisson equation with Cauchy data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Chuan Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study an inverse source problem of the Poisson equation with Cauchy data. We want to find iterative algorithms to detect the hidden source within a body from measurements on the boundary. Our goal is to reconstruct the location, the size and the shape of the hidden source. This problem is ill-posed, regularization techniques should be employed to obtain the regularized solution. Numerical examples show that our proposed algorithms are valid and effective.

  13. Discrete maximum principle for Poisson equation with mixed boundary conditions solved by hp-FEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejchodský, Tomáš; Šolín, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2009), s. 201-214 ISSN 2070-0733 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100760702; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/0496; GA ČR GA102/05/0629 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : discrete maximum principle * hp-FEM * Poisson equation * mixed boundary conditions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  14. Studies on a Double Poisson-Geometric Insurance Risk Model with Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujuan Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly studies a generalized double Poisson-Geometric insurance risk model. By martingale and stopping time approach, we obtain adjustment coefficient equation, the Lundberg inequality, and the formula for the ruin probability. Also the Laplace transformation of the time when the surplus reaches a given level for the first time is discussed, and the expectation and its variance are obtained. Finally, we give the numerical examples.

  15. Analytic Approximation of the Solutions of Stochastic Differential Delay Equations with Poisson Jump and Markovian Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with the stochastic differential delay equations with Poisson jump and Markovian switching (SDDEsPJMSs. Most SDDEsPJMSs cannot be solved explicitly as stochastic differential equations. Therefore, numerical solutions have become an important issue in the study of SDDEsPJMSs. The key contribution of this paper is to investigate the strong convergence between the true solutions and the numerical solutions to SDDEsPJMSs when the drift and diffusion coefficients are Taylor approximations.

  16. Renormalized perturbation theory: Vlasov-Poisson System, weak turbulence limit and gyrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.Z.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1987-10-01

    The Self-consistency of the renormalized perturbation theory is demonstrated by applying it to the Vlasov-Poisson System and showing that the theory has the correct weak turbulence limit. Energy conservation is proved to arbitrary high order for the electrostatic drift waves. The theory is applied to derive renormalized equations for a low-β gyrokinetic system. Comparison of our theory with other current theories is presented. 22 refs

  17. Evaluating the performance of simultaneous stepwise confidence intervals for the difference between two Poisson rates

    OpenAIRE

    Bright, Brianna C.; Soulakova, Julia N.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of simultaneously estimating Poisson rate differences via applications of the Hsu and Berger stepwise confidence interval method (termed HBM), where comparisons to a common reference group are performed. We discuss continuity-corrected confidence intervals and investigate the HBM performance with a moment-based confidence interval, and uncorrected and corrected for continuity Wald and Pooled confidence intervals. Using simulations, we compare nine individual confidence...

  18. Oscillating solutions of the Vlasov-Poisson system-A numerical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramming, Tobias; Rein, Gerhard

    2018-02-01

    Numerical evidence is given that spherically symmetric perturbations of stable spherically symmetric steady states of the gravitational Vlasov-Poisson system lead to solutions which oscillate in time. The oscillations can be periodic in time or damped. Along one-parameter families of polytropic steady states we establish an Eddington-Ritter type relation which relates the period of the oscillation to the central density of the steady state. The numerically obtained periods are used to estimate possible periods for typical elliptical galaxies.

  19. A Generalized FDM for solving the Poisson's Equation on 3D Irregular Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Izadian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new method for solving the Poisson's equation with Dirichlet conditions on irregular domains is presented. For this purpose a generalized finite differences method is applied for numerical differentiation on irregular meshes. Three examples on cylindrical and spherical domains are considered. The numerical results are compared with analytical solution. These results show the performance and efficiency of the proposed method.

  20. Log-normal frailty models fitted as Poisson generalized linear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Katharina; Wienke, Andreas; Kuss, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    The equivalence of a survival model with a piecewise constant baseline hazard function and a Poisson regression model has been known since decades. As shown in recent studies, this equivalence carries over to clustered survival data: A frailty model with a log-normal frailty term can be interpreted and estimated as a generalized linear mixed model with a binary response, a Poisson likelihood, and a specific offset. Proceeding this way, statistical theory and software for generalized linear mixed models are readily available for fitting frailty models. This gain in flexibility comes at the small price of (1) having to fix the number of pieces for the baseline hazard in advance and (2) having to "explode" the data set by the number of pieces. In this paper we extend the simulations of former studies by using a more realistic baseline hazard (Gompertz) and by comparing the model under consideration with competing models. Furthermore, the SAS macro %PCFrailty is introduced to apply the Poisson generalized linear mixed approach to frailty models. The simulations show good results for the shared frailty model. Our new %PCFrailty macro provides proper estimates, especially in case of 4 events per piece. The suggested Poisson generalized linear mixed approach for log-normal frailty models based on the %PCFrailty macro provides several advantages in the analysis of clustered survival data with respect to more flexible modelling of fixed and random effects, exact (in the sense of non-approximate) maximum likelihood estimation, and standard errors and different types of confidence intervals for all variance parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Path integral quantization of the Symplectic Leaves of the SU(2)*Poisson-Lie Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morariu, B.

    1997-01-01

    The Feynman path integral is used to quantize the symplectic leaves of the Poisson-Lie group SU(2)*. In this way we obtain the unitary representations of Uq(su(2)). This is achieved by finding explicit Darboux coordinates and then using a phase space path integral. I discuss the *-structure of SU(2)* and give a detailed description of its leaves using various parameterizations and also compare the results with the path integral quantization of spin

  2. Statistical Assessement on Cancer Risks of Ionizing Radiation and Smoking Based on Poisson Models

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita, Makoto; Otake, Masanori

    2001-01-01

    In many epidemiological and medical studies, a number of cancer motralities in catagorical classification may be considered as having Poisson distribution with person-years at risk depending upon time. The cancer mortalities have been evaluated by additive or multiplicative models with regard to background and excess risks based on several covariances such as sex, age at the time of bombings, time at exposure, or ionizing radiation, cigarette smoking habits, duration of smoking habits, etc. A...

  3. Comparing categories among geographic ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavouras, Marinos; Kokla, Margarita; Tomai, Eleni

    2005-03-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to generate semantic "mappings" between different ontologies, or create aligned/integrated ones. An essential step towards their success is the ability to compare the categories involved. This paper introduces a systematic methodology for comparing categories met in geographic ontologies. The methodology explores/extracts semantic information provided by categories' definitions. The first step towards this goal is the recognition of syntactic and lexical patterns in definitions, which help to identify (a) semantic properties such as purpose, location, cover, and (b) semantic relations such as hypernym, part of, has-parts, etc. At the second step, a similarity measure among categories is applied, in order to explore how (the) extracted properties and relations interrelate. This framework enables us to (a) better understand the impact of context in cross-ontology "mappings", (b) evaluate the "quality" of definitions as to whether they respect mere ontological aspects (such as unambiguous taxonomies), and (c) deal more effectively with the problem of semantic translation among geographic ontologies.

  4. Geographic exchange standard and primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The ANSI Draft Proposal Specifications for an Information Interchange Data Descriptive File, X3L5.SEP, contains some Guidelines for Implementation (Appendix D). However, some additional guidelines should be provided specifically for the more commonly used systems of coding locational data, and referring thematic data to those codes. While there is no consensus that a single, preferred representation of geographical files can be specified as a standard for exchange, there is agreement on the generic form of record structures for commonly used, two-dimensional files. This report surveys by example common practice and illustrates the use of geocodes as thematic data pointers. It defines the elements of the structures as a subsystem within the interchange standard. An implementation within the Levels of Implementation of the basic IWGDE Standard is proposed and examples for some of the defined file types are presented in numerical form to aid in understanding. The problem of referring thematic data to a geographic file when these data reside in a physically distinct exchange file is discussed. 14 figures, 1 table. (RWR)

  5. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-04-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal.

  6. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  7. Addressing Semantic Geographic Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore F. Pileggi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The progressive consolidation of information technologies on a large scale has been facilitating and progressively increasing the production, collection, and diffusion of geographic data, as well as facilitating the integration of a large amount of external information into geographic information systems (GIS. Traditional GIS is transforming into a consolidated information infrastructure. This consolidated infrastructure is affecting more and more aspects of internet computing and services. Most popular systems (such as social networks, GPS, and decision support systems involve complex GIS and significant amounts of information. As a web service, GIS is affected by exactly the same problems that affect the web as a whole. Therefore, next generation GIS solutions have to address further methodological and data engineering challenges in order to accommodate new applications’ extended requirements (in terms of scale, interoperability, and complexity. The conceptual and semantic modeling of GIS, as well as the integration of semantics into current GIS, provide highly expressive environments that are capable of meeting the needs and requirements of a wide range of applications.

  8. Multidimensional Vlasov-Poisson Simulations with High-order Monotonicity- and Positivity-preserving Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Kohji; Minoshima, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki

    2017-11-01

    We develop new numerical schemes for Vlasov-Poisson equations with high-order accuracy. Our methods are based on a spatially monotonicity-preserving (MP) scheme and are modified suitably so that the positivity of the distribution function is also preserved. We adopt an efficient semi-Lagrangian time integration scheme that is more accurate and computationally less expensive than the three-stage TVD Runge-Kutta integration. We apply our spatially fifth- and seventh-order schemes to a suite of simulations of collisionless self-gravitating systems and electrostatic plasma simulations, including linear and nonlinear Landau damping in one dimension and Vlasov-Poisson simulations in a six-dimensional phase space. The high-order schemes achieve a significantly improved accuracy in comparison with the third-order positive-flux-conserved scheme adopted in our previous study. With the semi-Lagrangian time integration, the computational cost of our high-order schemes does not significantly increase, but remains roughly the same as that of the third-order scheme. Vlasov-Poisson simulations on {128}3× {128}3 mesh grids have been successfully performed on a massively parallel computer.

  9. Pricing Zero-Coupon Catastrophe Bonds Using EVT with Doubly Stochastic Poisson Arrivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonggang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and severity of climate abnormal change displays an irregular upward cycle as global warming intensifies. Therefore, this paper employs a doubly stochastic Poisson process with Black Derman Toy (BDT intensity to describe the catastrophic characteristics. By using the Property Claim Services (PCS loss index data from 2001 to 2010 provided by the US Insurance Services Office (ISO, the empirical result reveals that the BDT arrival rate process is superior to the nonhomogeneous Poisson and lognormal intensity process due to its smaller RMSE, MAE, MRPE, and U and larger E and d. Secondly, to depict extreme features of catastrophic risks, this paper adopts the Peak Over Threshold (POT in extreme value theory (EVT to characterize the tail characteristics of catastrophic loss distribution. And then the loss distribution is analyzed and assessed using a quantile-quantile (QQ plot to visually check whether the PCS index observations meet the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD assumption. Furthermore, this paper derives a pricing formula for zero-coupon catastrophe bonds with a stochastic interest rate environment and aggregate losses generated by a compound doubly stochastic Poisson process under the forward measure. Finally, simulation results verify pricing model predictions and show how catastrophic risks and interest rate risk affect the prices of zero-coupon catastrophe bonds.

  10. Reliability Analysis of a Cold Standby System with Imperfect Repair and under Poisson Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutian Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the reliability analysis of a two-component cold standby system with a repairman who may have vacation. The system may fail due to intrinsic factors like aging or deteriorating, or external factors such as Poisson shocks. The arrival time of the shocks follows a Poisson process with the intensity λ>0. Whenever the magnitude of a shock is larger than the prespecified threshold of the operating component, the operating component will fail. The paper assumes that the intrinsic lifetime and the repair time on the component are an extended Poisson process, the magnitude of the shock and the threshold of the operating component are nonnegative random variables, and the vacation time of the repairman obeys the general continuous probability distribution. By using the vector Markov process theory, the supplementary variable method, Laplace transform, and Tauberian theory, the paper derives a number of reliability indices: system availability, system reliability, the rate of occurrence of the system failure, and the mean time to the first failure of the system. Finally, a numerical example is given to validate the derived indices.

  11. Bayesian spatial modeling of HIV mortality via zero-inflated Poisson models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musal, Muzaffer; Aktekin, Tevfik

    2013-01-30

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of poverty and inequality on the number of HIV-related deaths in 62 New York counties via Bayesian zero-inflated Poisson models that exhibit spatial dependence. We quantify inequality via the Theil index and poverty via the ratios of two Census 2000 variables, the number of people under the poverty line and the number of people for whom poverty status is determined, in each Zip Code Tabulation Area. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of inequality and poverty in addition to spatial dependence between neighboring regions on HIV mortality rate, which can lead to improved health resource allocation decisions. In modeling county-specific HIV counts, we propose Bayesian zero-inflated Poisson models whose rates are functions of both covariate and spatial/random effects. To show how the proposed models work, we used three different publicly available data sets: TIGER Shapefiles, Census 2000, and mortality index files. In addition, we introduce parameter estimation issues of Bayesian zero-inflated Poisson models and discuss MCMC method implications. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. A Local Poisson Graphical Model for inferring networks from sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Genevera I; Liu, Zhandong

    2013-09-01

    Gaussian graphical models, a class of undirected graphs or Markov Networks, are often used to infer gene networks based on microarray expression data. Many scientists, however, have begun using high-throughput sequencing technologies such as RNA-sequencing or next generation sequencing to measure gene expression. As the resulting data consists of counts of sequencing reads for each gene, Gaussian graphical models are not optimal for this discrete data. In this paper, we propose a novel method for inferring gene networks from sequencing data: the Local Poisson Graphical Model. Our model assumes a Local Markov property where each variable conditional on all other variables is Poisson distributed. We develop a neighborhood selection algorithm to fit our model locally by performing a series of l1 penalized Poisson, or log-linear, regressions. This yields a fast parallel algorithm for estimating networks from next generation sequencing data. In simulations, we illustrate the effectiveness of our methods for recovering network structure from count data. A case study on breast cancer microRNAs (miRNAs), a novel application of graphical models, finds known regulators of breast cancer genes and discovers novel miRNA clusters and hubs that are targets for future research.

  13. Lyapunov stability and Poisson structure of the thermal TDHF and RPA equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneroni, M.; Balian, R.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal TDHF equation is analyzed in the Liouville representation of quantum mechanics, where the matrix elements of the single-particle (s.p.) density ρ behave as classical dynamical variables. By introducing the Lie-Poisson bracket associated with the unitary group of the s.p. Hilbert space, we show that TDHF has a hamiltonian, but non-canonical, classical form. Within this Poisson structure, either the s.p. energy or the s.p. grand potential Ω(ρ) act as a Hamilton function. The Lyapunov stability of both the TDHF and RPA equations around a HF state then follows, since the HF approximation for thermal equilibrium is determined by minimizing Ω(ρ). The RPA matrix in the Liouville space is expressed as the product of the Poisson tensor with the HF stability matrix, interpreted as a metric tensor generated by the entropy. This factorization displays the roles of the energy and entropy terms arising from Ω(ρ) in the RPA dynamics, and it helps to construct the RPA modes. Several extensions are considered

  14. Receiver design for SPAD-based VLC systems under Poisson-Gaussian mixed noise model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Tianqi; Wang, Zhaocheng; Wang, Qi

    2017-01-23

    Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) is a promising photosensor because of its high sensitivity to optical signals in weak illuminance environment. Recently, it has drawn much attention from researchers in visible light communications (VLC). However, existing literature only deals with the simplified channel model, which only considers the effects of Poisson noise introduced by SPAD, but neglects other noise sources. Specifically, when an analog SPAD detector is applied, there exists Gaussian thermal noise generated by the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) and the digital-to-analog converter (D/A). Therefore, in this paper, we propose an SPAD-based VLC system with pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM) under Poisson-Gaussian mixed noise model, where Gaussian-distributed thermal noise at the receiver is also investigated. The closed-form conditional likelihood of received signals is derived using the Laplace transform and the saddle-point approximation method, and the corresponding quasi-maximum-likelihood (quasi-ML) detector is proposed. Furthermore, the Poisson-Gaussian-distributed signals are converted to Gaussian variables with the aid of the generalized Anscombe transform (GAT), leading to an equivalent additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, and a hard-decision-based detector is invoked. Simulation results demonstrate that, the proposed GAT-based detector can reduce the computational complexity with marginal performance loss compared with the proposed quasi-ML detector, and both detectors are capable of accurately demodulating the SPAD-based PAM signals.

  15. Direct methods for Poisson problems in low-level computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Atul K.; Grogan, Timothy A.

    1990-09-01

    Several problems in low-level computer vision can be mathematically formulated as linear elliptic partial differential equations of the second order. A subset of these problems can be expressed in the form of a Poisson equation, Lu(x, y) = f(x, y). In this paper, fast direct methods for solving the Poisson equations of computer vision are developed. Until recently, iterative methods were used to solve these equations. Recently, direct Fourier techniques were suggested to speed up the computation. We present the Fourier Analysis and Cyclic Reduction (FACR) method which is faster than the Fourier method or the Cyclic Reduction method alone. For computation on an n x n grid, the operation count for the Fourier method is O(n2log2n), and that for the FACR method is O(n2log2log2n). The FACR method first reduces the system of equations into a smaller set using Cyclic Reduction. Next, the reduced system is solved by the Fourier method. The final solution is obtained by back-substituting the solution of the reduced system. With Neumann boundary conditions, a Poisson equation does not have a unique solution. We show how a physically meaningful solution can be obtained under such circumstances. Application of the FACR and other methods is discussed for two problems of low-level computer vision - lightness, or reflectance from brightness, and recovering height from surface gradient.

  16. Zero inflated Poisson and negative binomial regression models: application in education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Masoud; Roudbari, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    The number of failed courses and semesters in students are indicators of their performance. These amounts have zero inflated (ZI) distributions. Using ZI Poisson and negative binomial distributions we can model these count data to find the associated factors and estimate the parameters. This study aims at to investigate the important factors related to the educational performance of students. This cross-sectional study performed in 2008-2009 at Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) with a population of almost 6000 students, 670 students selected using stratified random sampling. The educational and demographical data were collected using the University records. The study design was approved at IUMS and the students' data kept confidential. The descriptive statistics and ZI Poisson and negative binomial regressions were used to analyze the data. The data were analyzed using STATA. In the number of failed semesters, Poisson and negative binomial distributions with ZI, students' total average and quota system had the most roles. For the number of failed courses, total average, and being in undergraduate or master levels had the most effect in both models. In all models the total average have the most effect on the number of failed courses or semesters. The next important factor is quota system in failed semester and undergraduate and master levels in failed courses. Therefore, average has an important inverse effect on the numbers of failed courses and semester.

  17. Extremal Properties of an Intermittent Poisson Process Generating 1/f Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüneis, Ferdinand

    2016-08-01

    It is well-known that the total power of a signal exhibiting a pure 1/f shape is divergent. This phenomenon is also called the infrared catastrophe. Mandelbrot claims that the infrared catastrophe can be overcome by stochastic processes which alternate between active and quiescent states. We investigate an intermittent Poisson process (IPP) which belongs to the family of stochastic processes suggested by Mandelbrot. During the intermission δ (quiescent period) the signal is zero. The active period is divided into random intervals of mean length τ0 consisting of a fluctuating number of events; this is giving rise to so-called clusters. The advantage of our treatment is that the spectral features of the IPP can be derived analytically. Our considerations are focused on the case that intermission is only a small disturbance of the Poisson process, i.e., to the case that δ ≤ τ0. This makes it difficult or even impossible to discriminate a spike train of such an IPP from that of a Poisson process. We investigate the conditions under which a 1/f spectrum can be observed. It is shown that 1/f noise generated by the IPP is accompanied with extreme variance. In agreement with the considerations of Mandelbrot, the IPP avoids the infrared catastrophe. Spectral analysis of the simulated IPP confirms our theoretical results. The IPP is a model for an almost random walk generating both white and 1/f noise and can be applied for an interpretation of 1/f noise in metallic resistors.

  18. Stochastic Dynamics of a Time-Delayed Ecosystem Driven by Poisson White Noise Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantao Jia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the stochastic dynamics of a prey-predator type ecosystem with time delay and the discrete random environmental fluctuations. In this model, the delay effect is represented by a time delay parameter and the effect of the environmental randomness is modeled as Poisson white noise. The stochastic averaging method and the perturbation method are applied to calculate the approximate stationary probability density functions for both predator and prey populations. The influences of system parameters and the Poisson white noises are investigated in detail based on the approximate stationary probability density functions. It is found that, increasing time delay parameter as well as the mean arrival rate and the variance of the amplitude of the Poisson white noise will enhance the fluctuations of the prey and predator population. While the larger value of self-competition parameter will reduce the fluctuation of the system. Furthermore, the results from Monte Carlo simulation are also obtained to show the effectiveness of the results from averaging method.

  19. Poisson simulation for high voltage terminal of test stand for 1MV electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub; Kim, Yu-Seok

    2014-01-01

    KOMAC provide ion beam to user which energy range need to expand to MeV range and develop 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. The specifications of the electrostatic accelerator are 1MV acceleration voltage, 10 mA peak current and variable gas ion. We are developing test stand before set up 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. The test stand voltage is 300 kV and operating time is 8 hours. The test stand is consist of 300 kV high voltage terminal, DC-AC-DC inverter, power supply device inside terminal, 200MHz RF power, 5 kV extraction power supply, 300 kV accelerating tube and vacuum system.. The beam measurement system and beam dump will be installed next to accelerating tube. Poisson code simulation results of the high voltage terminal are presented in this paper. Poisson code has been used to calculate the electric field for high voltage terminal. The results of simulation were verified with reasonable results. The poisson code structure could be apply to the high voltage terminal of the test stand

  20. Inverse Jacobi multiplier as a link between conservative systems and Poisson structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Isaac A; Hernández-Bermejo, Benito

    2017-01-01

    Some aspects of the relationship between conservativeness of a dynamical system (namely the preservation of a finite measure) and the existence of a Poisson structure for that system are analyzed. From the local point of view, due to the flow-box theorem we restrict ourselves to neighborhoods of singularities. In this sense, we characterize Poisson structures around the typical zero-Hopf singularity in dimension 3 under the assumption of having a local analytic first integral with non-vanishing first jet by connecting with the classical Poincaré center problem. From the global point of view, we connect the property of being strictly conservative (the invariant measure must be positive) with the existence of a Poisson structure depending on the phase space dimension. Finally, weak conservativeness in dimension two is introduced by the extension of inverse Jacobi multipliers as weak solutions of its defining partial differential equation and some of its applications are developed. Examples including Lotka–Volterra systems, quadratic isochronous centers, and non-smooth oscillators are provided. (paper)

  1. Maximum-likelihood fitting of data dominated by Poisson statistical uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoneking, M.R.; Den Hartog, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The fitting of data by χ 2 minimization is valid only when the uncertainties in the data are normally distributed. When analyzing spectroscopic or particle counting data at very low signal level (e.g., a Thomson scattering diagnostic), the uncertainties are distributed with a Poisson distribution. We have developed a maximum-likelihood method for fitting data that correctly treats the Poisson statistical character of the uncertainties. This method maximizes the total probability that the observed data are drawn from the assumed fit function using the Poisson probability function to determine the probability for each data point. The algorithm also returns uncertainty estimates for the fit parameters. We compare this method with a χ 2 -minimization routine applied to both simulated and real Thomson scattering data. Differences in the returned fits are greater at low signal level (less than ∼10 counts per measurement). The maximum-likelihood method is found to be more accurate and robust, returning a narrower distribution of values for the fit parameters with fewer outliers. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  2. Maximum-likelihood fitting of data dominated by Poisson statistical uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoneking, M.R.; Den Hartog, D.J.

    1996-06-01

    The fitting of data by χ 2 -minimization is valid only when the uncertainties in the data are normally distributed. When analyzing spectroscopic or particle counting data at very low signal level (e.g., a Thomson scattering diagnostic), the uncertainties are distributed with a Poisson distribution. The authors have developed a maximum-likelihood method for fitting data that correctly treats the Poisson statistical character of the uncertainties. This method maximizes the total probability that the observed data are drawn from the assumed fit function using the Poisson probability function to determine the probability for each data point. The algorithm also returns uncertainty estimates for the fit parameters. They compare this method with a χ 2 -minimization routine applied to both simulated and real data. Differences in the returned fits are greater at low signal level (less than ∼20 counts per measurement). the maximum-likelihood method is found to be more accurate and robust, returning a narrower distribution of values for the fit parameters with fewer outliers

  3. Casimir meets Poisson: improved quark/gluon discrimination with counting observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Christopher; Larkoski, Andrew J.; Thaler, Jesse; Zhou, Kevin

    2017-09-01

    Charged track multiplicity is among the most powerful observables for discriminating quark- from gluon-initiated jets. Despite its utility, it is not infrared and collinear (IRC) safe, so perturbative calculations are limited to studying the energy evolution of multiplicity moments. While IRC-safe observables, like jet mass, are perturbatively calculable, their distributions often exhibit Casimir scaling, such that their quark/gluon discrimination power is limited by the ratio of quark to gluon color factors. In this paper, we introduce new IRC-safe counting observables whose discrimination performance exceeds that of jet mass and approaches that of track multiplicity. The key observation is that track multiplicity is approximately Poisson distributed, with more suppressed tails than the Sudakov peak structure from jet mass. By using an iterated version of the soft drop jet grooming algorithm, we can define a "soft drop multiplicity" which is Poisson distributed at leading-logarithmic accuracy. In addition, we calculate the next-to-leading-logarithmic corrections to this Poisson structure. If we allow the soft drop groomer to proceed to the end of the jet branching history, we can define a collinear-unsafe (but still infrared-safe) counting observable. Exploiting the universality of the collinear limit, we define generalized fragmentation functions to study the perturbative energy evolution of collinear-unsafe multiplicity.

  4. Controllability of nonlocal second-order impulsive neutral stochastic functional integro-differential equations with delay and Poisson jumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diem Dang Huan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper is concerned with the controllability of nonlocal second-order impulsive neutral stochastic functional integro-differential equations with infinite delay and Poisson jumps in Hilbert spaces. Using the theory of a strongly continuous cosine family of bounded linear operators, stochastic analysis theory and with the help of the Banach fixed point theorem, we derive a new set of sufficient conditions for the controllability of nonlocal second-order impulsive neutral stochastic functional integro-differential equations with infinite delay and Poisson jumps. Finally, an application to the stochastic nonlinear wave equation with infinite delay and Poisson jumps is given.

  5. On the mixing time of geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the mixing time of random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). We specifically study the mixing times of random walks on 2-dimensional GTGs near the connectivity threshold. We provide a set of criteria on the distribution of vertex weights that guarantees that the mixing time is {Theta}(n log n).

  6. Success of a weight loss plan for overweight dogs: The results of an international weight loss study

    OpenAIRE

    Flanagan, John; Bissot, Thomas; Hours, Marie-Anne; Moreno, Bernabe; Feugier, Alexandre; German, Alexander J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a global concern in dogs with an increasing prevalence, and effective weight loss solutions are required that work in different geographical regions. The main objective was to conduct an international, multi-centre, weight loss trial to determine the efficacy of a dietary weight loss intervention in obese pet dogs. Methods A 3-month prospective observational cohort study of weight loss in 926 overweight dogs was conducted at 340 veterinary practices in 27 countries. Co...

  7. Weight-loss medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescription weight loss drugs; Diabetes - weight loss drugs; Obesity - weight loss drugs; Overweight - weight loss drugs ... Several weight-loss medicines are available. About 5 to 10 pounds (2 to 4.5 kilograms) can be lost by ...

  8. Poissons Characoïdes des Guyanes. I. Généralités. II. Famille des Serrasalmidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Géry, J.

    1972-01-01

    TABLE DES MATIÈ RES ENGLISH PREFACE AND SUMMARY......... 5 AVANT-PROPOS................. 8 RESUME ................... 9 PREMIERE PARTIE : GENERALITES SUR LES GUYANES ET LES POISSONS CHARACOÏDES................. 12 Chapitre 1. Introduction 1-1. Historique.................. 12 1- 2. Sources et

  9. On hamiltonian systems with even and odd Poisson brackets and on the duality of their conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, D.V.; Pashnev, A.I.; Soroka, V.A.; Tkach, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    Taking as example the Witten supersymmetric mechanics it is shown that the hamiltonian system with equal number of even and odd canonical variables admits simultaneously the introduction of even and odd Poisson brackets. When using bracket operations of different graduation the canonical variable equations are not varied whereas the motion integrals with opposite Grassman graduation become dual transforming into each other at the transition to Poisson bracket with opposite graduation

  10. Aspects structurels et fonctionnels de la biodiversité des peuplements de poissons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WINEMILLER K. O.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article passe brièvement en revue les relations existant entre la biodiversité des peuplements de poissons et leur fonctionnement écologique. La biodiversité et la structure des peuplements peuvent être décrites, à l'échelle locale, en termes (1 de diversité phylogénétique, (2 de structure des populations, (3 de stratégies démographiques, (4 de diversité morphologique, (5 et de diversité trophique. Un défi majeur est de déterminer les relations qui existent entre la structure des populations et des peuplements et le fonctionnement des peuplements et des écosystèmes. La structure phylogénétique d'un peuplement résulte de l'interaction entre colonisation, extinction et évolution. En dépit du fait que ces facteurs opèrent sur une vaste gamme d'échelles spatiales et temporelles, de grands progrès ont été réalisés dans la modélisation des processus qui sont à la base de la structure génétique et phylogénétique des populations et des peuplements. Les modes de reproduction des poissons sont très variés, et la définition de guildes de reproduction et de stratégies démographiques permet de poser le cadre dans lequel les aspects structurels et fonctionnels peuvent être étudiés. Des études théoriques et empiriques mettent en évidence de fortes relations entre les stratégies démographiques, les variations environnementales et la dynamique des populations. Les poissons présentent une grande diversité morphologique qui, à l'échelle du peuplement, tend à augmenter avec la richesse spécifique. Des relations reliant la morphologie et l'écologie, en termes de fonction et de performance dans l'utilisation du milieu, ont été établies, mais dans certains cas, les tendances prédites sont masquées par des biais d'échantillonnage et la flexibilité du comportement en réponse à la variabilité environnementale. Le spectre des stratégies trophiques manifesté par les poissons est large, au niveau inter

  11. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back to section menu Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ... section Home Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ...

  12. Solution of the Dirichlet Problem for the Poisson's Equation in a Multidimensional Infinite Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Algazin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the multidimensional Poisson equation in the domain bounded by two parallel hyperplanes (in the multidimensional infinite layer. For an n-dimensional half-space method of solving boundary value problems for linear partial differential equations with constant coefficients is a Fourier transform to the variables in the boundary hyperplane. The same method can be used for an infinite layer, as is done in this paper in the case of the Dirichlet problem for the Poisson equation. For strip and infinite layer in three-dimensional space the solutions of this problem are known. And in the three-dimensional case Green's function is written as an infinite series. In this paper, the solution is obtained in the integral form and kernels of integrals are expressed in a finite form in terms of elementary functions and Bessel functions. A recurrence relation between the kernels of integrals for n-dimensional and (n + 2 -dimensional layers was obtained. In particular, is built the Green's function of the Laplace operator for the Dirichlet problem, through which the solution of the problem is recorded. Even in three-dimensional case we obtained new formula compared to the known. It is shown that the kernel of the integral representation of the solution of the Dirichlet problem for a homogeneous Poisson equation (Laplace equation is an approximate identity (δ-shaped system of functions. Therefore, if the boundary values are generalized functions of slow growth, the solution of the Dirichlet problem for the homogeneous equation (Laplace is written as a convolution of kernels with these functions.

  13. The Poisson alignment reference system implementation at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feier, I.

    1998-01-01

    The Poisson spot was established using a collimated laser beam from a 3-mW diode laser. It was monitored on a quadrant detector and found to be very sensitive to vibration and air disturbances. Therefore, for future work we strongly recommend a sealed vacuum tube in which the Poisson line may be propagated. A digital single-axis feedback system was employed to generate an straight line reference (SLR) on the X axis. Pointing accuracy was better than 8 ± 2 microns at a distance of 5 m. The digital system was found to be quite slow with a maximum bandwidth of 47 ± 9 Hz. Slow drifts were easily corrected but any vibration over 5 Hz was not. We recommend an analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for high bandwidth and smooth operation of the kinematic mirror. Although the Poisson alignment system (PAS) at the Advanced Photon Source is still in its infancy, it already shows great promise as a possible alignment system for the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL). Since components such as wigglers and quadruples will initially be aligned with respect to each other using conventional means and mounted on some kind of rigid rail, the goal would be to align six to ten such rails over a distance of about 30 m. The PAS could be used to align these rails by mounting a sphere at the joint between two rails. These spheres would need to be in a vacuum pipe to eliminate the refractive effects of air. Each sphere would not be attached to either rail but instead to a flange connecting the vacuum pipes of each rail. Thus the whole line would be made up of straight, rigid segments that could be aligned by moving the joints. Each sphere would have its own detector, allowing the operators to actively monitor the position of each joint and therefore the overall alignment of the system

  14. CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wasileva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geography includes rich, diverse and comprehensive themes that give us an understanding of our changing environment and interconnected world. It includes the study of the physical environment and resources; cultures, economies and societies; people and places; and global development and civic participation. As a subject, geography is particularly valuable because it provides information for exploring contemporary issues from a different perspective. This geographical information affects us all at work and in our daily lives and helps us make informed decisions that shape our future. All these facts result in a wide discussion on many topical issues in contemporary geography didactics. Subjects of research are the new geography and economics curriculum as well as construction of modern learning process. The paper presents briefly some of the current trends and key issues of geodidactics. As central notions we consider and analyze the training/educational goals, geography curriculum, target groups and environment of geography training, training methods as well as the information sources used in geography education. We adhere that all the above-mentioned finds its reflection in planning, analysis and assessment of education and thus in its quality and effectiveness.

  15. Sensitivity study of poisson corruption in tomographic measurements for air-water flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munshi, P. (Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing, Saarbrucken (Germany)); Vaidya, M.S. (Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India))

    1993-01-01

    An application of computerized tomography (CT) for measuring void fraction profiles in two-phase air-water flows was reported earlier. Those attempts involved some special radial methods for tomographic reconstruction and the popular convolution backprojection (CBP) method. The CBP method is capable of reconstructing void profiles for nonsymmetric flows also. In this paper, we investigate the effect of corrupted CT data for gamma-ray sources and aCBP algorithm. The corruption in such a case is due to the statistical (Poisson) nature of the source.

  16. Domestication et comportement chez les poissons téléostéens

    OpenAIRE

    Bégout Anras, M.L.; Lagardère, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Un des principaux objectifs de la domestication est de sélectionner des lignées à haut potentiel de croissance et à faible agressivité. L’étude des caractéristiques des animaux domestiqués montre souvent de nombreux changements comportementaux dus aux conditions d’élevage, mais très peu de données sont disponibles chez les poissons. Cet article décrit d’abord comment la mise en élevage affecte certains comportements, notamment alimentaires et natatoires, puis présente les modifications, au co...

  17. Poisson versus threshold models for genetic analysis of clinical mastitis in US Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, A I; Weigel, K A; Gianola, D; Bates, D M; Perez-Cabal, M A; Rosa, G J M; Chang, Y M

    2009-10-01

    Typically, clinical mastitis is coded as the presence or absence of disease in a given lactation, and records are analyzed with either linear models or binary threshold models. Because the presence of mastitis may include cows with multiple episodes, there is a loss of information when counts are treated as binary responses. Poisson models are appropriated for random variables measured as the number of events, and although these models are used extensively in studying the epidemiology of mastitis, they have rarely been used for studying the genetic aspects of mastitis. Ordinal threshold models are pertinent for ordered categorical responses; although one can hypothesize that the number of clinical mastitis episodes per animal reflects a continuous underlying increase in mastitis susceptibility, these models have rarely been used in genetic analysis of mastitis. The objective of this study was to compare probit, Poisson, and ordinal threshold models for the genetic evaluation of US Holstein sires for clinical mastitis. Mastitis was measured as a binary trait or as the number of mastitis cases. Data from 44,908 first-parity cows recorded in on-farm herd management software were gathered, edited, and processed for the present study. The cows were daughters of 1,861 sires, distributed over 94 herds. Predictive ability was assessed via a 5-fold cross-validation using 2 loss functions: mean squared error of prediction (MSEP) as the end point and a cost difference function. The heritability estimates were 0.061 for mastitis measured as a binary trait in the probit model and 0.085 and 0.132 for the number of mastitis cases in the ordinal threshold and Poisson models, respectively; because of scale differences, only the probit and ordinal threshold models are directly comparable. Among healthy animals, MSEP was smallest for the probit model, and the cost function was smallest for the ordinal threshold model. Among diseased animals, MSEP and the cost function were smallest

  18. Kac limit and thermodynamic characterization of stochastic dynamics driven by Poisson-Kac fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giona, Massimiliano; Brasiello, Antonio; Crescitelli, Silvestro

    2017-07-01

    We analyze the thermodynamic properties of stochastic differential equations driven by smooth Poisson-Kac fluctuations, and their convergence, in the Kac limit, towards Wiener-driven Langevin equations. Using a Markovian embedding of the stochastic work variable, it is proved that the Kac-limit convergence implies a Stratonovich formulation of the limit Langevin equations, in accordance with the Wong-Zakai theorem. Exact moment analysis applied to the case of a purely frictional system shows the occurrence of different regimes and crossover phenomena in the parameter space.

  19. Poisson Stochastic Process and Basic Schauder and Sobolev Estimates in the Theory of Parabolic Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, N. V.; Priola, E.

    2017-09-01

    We show, among other things, how knowing Schauder or Sobolev-space estimates for the one-dimensional heat equation allows one to derive their multidimensional analogs for equations with coefficients depending only on the time variable with the same constants as in the case of the one-dimensional heat equation. The method is quite general and is based on using the Poisson stochastic process. It also applies to equations involving non-local operators. It looks like no other methods are available at this time and it is a very challenging problem to find a purely analytical approach to proving such results.

  20. Application of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations to the migration test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Krabbenhøft, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    The Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations are applied to model the migration test. A detailed analysis of the equations is presented and the effects of a number of common, simplifying assumptions are quantified. In addition, closed-form solutions for the effective chloride diffusivity based...... on the full PNP equations are derived, a number of experiments are analyzed in detail, and a new, truly accelerated migration test is proposed. Finally, we present a finite element procedure for numerical solution of the PNP equations....