WorldWideScience

Sample records for geographically parthenogenetic mayfly

  1. Population models of burrowing mayfly recolonization in Western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; Schloesser, D.W.; Krieger, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    Burrowing mayflies, Hexagenia spp. (H. limbata and H. rigida), began recolonizing western Lake Erie during the 1990s. Survey data for mayfly nymph densities indicated that the population experienced exponential growth between 1991 and 1997. To predict the time to full recovery of the mayfly population, we fitted logistic models, ranging in carrying capacity from 600 to 2000 nymphs/m2, to these survey data. Based on the fitted logistic curves, we forecast that the mayfly population in western Lake Erie would achieve full recovery between years 1998 and 2000, depending on the carrying capacity of the western basin. Additionally, we estimated the mortality rate of nymphs in western Lake Erie during 1994 and then applied an age-based matrix model to the mayfly population. The results of the matrix population modeling corroborated the exponential growth model application in that both methods yielded an estimate of the population growth rate, r, in excess of 0.8 yr-1. This was the first evidence that mayfly populations are capable of recolonizing large aquatic ecosystems at rates comparable with those observed in much smaller lentic ecosystems. Our model predictions should prove valuable to managers of power plant facilities along the western basin in planning for mayfly emergences and to managers of the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) fishery in western Lake Erie.

  2. Survival of mayfly larvae under mine acid conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, S. Jr.; Hummon, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    Mayfly larvae were abundant and diverse in riffle zones of three control streams in southeastern Ohio. But none were found in such zones of three streams having current or past histories of mine acid pollution, despite vegetative recovery of reclaimed land bordering two of the streams. Laboratory studies showed stepwise increases in non-predatory mortality of mayfly larvae with increased mine acidity. Dragonfly larvae predation on mayfly larvae was constant at pH 8.1 to 4.1, but decreased at pH 3.1 despite tolerance of dragonfly larvae to low pH conditions. Extensive acid mine pollution thus may threaten aquatic biota through removal of food sources or reduced feeding rates as well as through direct mortality.

  3. The neonicotinoid imidachloprid shows high chronic toxicity to mayfly nymphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessink, I.; Merga, L.B.; Zweers, A.J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid to a range of freshwater arthropods. Mayfly and caddisfly species were most sensitive to short-term imidacloprid exposures (10 tests), whereas the mayflies showed by far the most sensitive response to long-term exposure of

  4. Recruitment of Hexagenia mayfly nymphs in western Lake Erie linked to environmental variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Thomas B.; Schloesser, Don W.; Krause, Ann E.

    2006-01-01

    After a 40-year absence caused by pollution and eutrophication, burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia spp.) recolonized western Lake Erie in the mid 1990s as water quality improved. Mayflies are an important food resource for the economically valuable yellow perch fishery and are considered to be major indicator species of the ecological condition of the lake. Since their reappearance, however, mayfly populations have suffered occasional unexplained recruitment failures. In 2002, a failure of fall recruitment followed an unusually warm summer in which western Lake Erie became temporarily stratified, resulting in low dissolved oxygen levels near the lake floor. In the present study, we examined a possible link between Hexagenia recruitment and periods of intermittent stratification for the years 1997-2002. A simple model was developed using surface temperature, wind speed, and water column data from 2003 to predict stratification. The model was then used to detect episodes of stratification in past years for which water column data are unavailable. Low or undetectable mayfly recruitment occurred in 1997 and 2002, years in which there was frequent or extended stratification between June and September. Highest mayfly reproduction in 2000 corresponded to the fewest stratified periods. These results suggest that even relatively brief periods of stratification can result in loss of larval mayfly recruitment, probably through the effects of hypoxia. A trend toward increasing frequency of hot summers in the Great Lakes region could result in recurrent loss of mayfly larvae in western Lake Erie and other shallow areas in the Great Lakes.

  5. Phylogeography of competing sexual and parthenogenetic forms of a freshwater flatworm: patterns and explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranza Salvador

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Models of the maintenance of sex predict that one reproductive strategy, sexual or parthenogenetic, should outcompete the other. Distribution patterns may reflect the outcome of this competition as well as the effect of chance and historical events. We review the distribution data of sexual and parthenogenetic biotypes of the planarian Schmidtea polychroa. Results S. polychroa lives in allopatry or sympatry across Europe except for Central and North-Western Europe, where sexual individuals have never been reported. A phylogenetic relationship between 36 populations based on a 385 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene revealed that haplotypes were often similar over large geographic distances. In North Italian lakes, however, diversity was extreme, with sequence differences of up to 5% within the same lake in both sexuals and parthenogens. Mixed populations showed "endemic" parthenogenetic lineages that presumably originated from coexisting sexuals, and distantly related ones that probably result from colonization by parthenogens independent from sexuals. Conclusions Parthenogens originated repeatedly from sexuals, mainly in Italy, but the same may apply to other Mediterranean regions (Spain, Greece. The degree of divergence between populations suggests that S. polychroa survived the ice ages in separate ice-free areas in Central, Eastern and Southern Europe and re-colonised Europe after the retreat of the major glaciers. Combining these results with those based on nuclear markers, the data suggest that repeated hybridisation between sexuals and parthenogenetic lineages in mixed populations maintains high levels of genetic diversity in parthenogens. This can explain why parthenogens persist in populations that were originally sexual. Exclusive parthenogenesis in central and western populations suggests better colonisation capacity, possibly because of inbreeding costs as well as hybridisation of sexuals

  6. Sister chromosome pairing maintains heterozygosity in parthenogenetic lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutes, Aracely A; Neaves, William B; Baumann, Diana P; Wiegraebe, Winfried; Baumann, Peter

    2010-03-11

    Although bisexual reproduction has proven to be highly successful, parthenogenetic all-female populations occur frequently in certain taxa, including the whiptail lizards of the genus Aspidoscelis. Allozyme analysis revealed a high degree of fixed heterozygosity in these parthenogenetic species, supporting the view that they originated from hybridization events between related sexual species. It has remained unclear how the meiotic program is altered to produce diploid eggs while maintaining heterozygosity. Here we show that meiosis commences with twice the number of chromosomes in parthenogenetic versus sexual species, a mechanism that provides the basis for generating gametes with unreduced chromosome content without fundamental deviation from the classic meiotic program. Our observation of synaptonemal complexes and chiasmata demonstrate that a typical meiotic program occurs and that heterozygosity is not maintained by bypassing recombination. Instead, fluorescent in situ hybridization probes that distinguish between homologues reveal that bivalents form between sister chromosomes, the genetically identical products of the first of two premeiotic replication cycles. Sister chromosome pairing provides a mechanism for the maintenance of heterozygosity, which is critical for offsetting the reduced fitness associated with the lack of genetic diversity in parthenogenetic species.

  7. Cytogenetics of a parthenogenetic Arctic species of Micropsectra (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, David L.; Martin, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Micropsectra sedna (Oliver, 1976) is a parthenogenetic midge from the Canadian Arctic. The parthenogenetic mechanism is apomictic thelytoky, with a restitutional division during oogenesis, as found in other parthenogenetic Chironomidae. It is triploid, with two similar chromosome sets, and the third is relatively dissimilar, pairing little with the diploid set. Two karyotypes were observed: a single individual with eight polytene elements in the salivary glands (3n=12), considered standard, while the majority of larvae showed only seven polytene chromosomes (3n=11). Hybrid speciation is considered likely, although chromosomal recombination following the origin of thelytoky has played some part in karyotype evolution. A single morphologically distinct larva was also found, which might be the donor of the haploid chromosome set. The apomictic restitutional system is compared to that of the other, independently derived, parthenogenetic Chironomids to assess the extent of similarity between species. PMID:24260638

  8. Method to improve the survival of night-swarming mayflies near bridges in areas of distracting light pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egri, Ádám; Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Pereszlényi, Ádám; Horváth, Gábor; Kriska, György

    2017-11-01

    Numerous negative ecological effects of urban lighting have been identified during the last decades. In spite of the development of lighting technologies, the detrimental effect of this form of light pollution has not declined. Several insect species are affected including the night-swarming mayfly Ephoron virgo : when encountering bridges during their mass swarming, these mayflies often fall victim to artificial lighting. We show a simple method for the conservation of these mayflies exploiting their positive phototaxis. With downstream-facing light-emitting diode beacon lights above two tributaries of the river Danube, we managed to guide egg-laying females to the water and prevent them from perishing outside the river near urban lights. By means of measuring the mayfly outflow from the river as a function of time and the on/off state of the beacons, we showed that the number of mayflies exiting the river's area was practically zero when our beacons were operating. Tributaries could be the sources of mayfly recolonization in case of water quality degradation of large rivers. The protection of mayfly populations in small rivers and safeguarding their aggregation and oviposition sites is therefore important.

  9. A contribution to mayfly studies of Western Mongolia (Insecta, Ephemeroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolortsetseg Erdenee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Streams in the Mongolian Altai Mountains are mostly fed from glaciers and are extreme conditions for mayflies because of high elevation, low temperatures and low annual precipitation. Previous information about mayflies of Western Mongolia is scarce, but with this study a total of 38 species belonging to 26 genera and subgenera and 8 families of mayflies has been recorded in the Mongolian Altai region. Study material was entirely imagos and collected from 78 sites during expeditions led by the Mongolian Aquatic Insect Survey in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Raptobaetopus tenellus, Caenis luctuosa and C. rivulorum are recorded as new to the fauna of Mongolia, and there are new distribution records for Ameletus montanus, Baetis (Acentrella lapponica, Baetis sibiricus, Baetis (Labiobaetis attrebatinus, Centroptilum luteolum, Procloeon pennulatum, Ephemerella aurivillii, Serratella setigera, Ephemera sachalinensis, Ecdyonurus (Afronurus abracadabrus, Cinygmula kurenzovi, Ecdyonurus (Afghanurus vicinus and Epeorus (Belovius pellucidus from the Mongolian Altai region. Baetis vernus and Ephemerella aurivillii are the most frequently encountered species in this region.

  10. Increased capacity for sustained locomotion at low temperature in parthenogenetic geckos of hybrid origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Michael; Wahl, Rebecca; Autumn, Kellar

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of parthenogenesis is typically associated with hybridization and polyploidy. These correlates of parthenogenesis may have important physiological consequences that need be taken into account in understanding the relative merits of sexual and parthenogenetic reproduction. We compared the thermal sensitivity of aerobically sustained locomotion in hybrid/triploid parthenogenetic races of the gecko Heteronotia binoei and their diploid sexual progenitors. Endurance times at low temperature (10 degrees , 12.5 degrees , and 15 degrees C, 0.05 km h(-1)) were significantly greater in parthenogenetic females than in sexual females. Comparison of oxygen consumption rates during sustained locomotion at increasing speeds (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, and 0.30 km h(-1), 25 degrees C) indicated that parthenogenetic lizards have higher maximum oxygen consumption rates and maximum aerobic speeds than do female sexual geckos. In addition, parthenogenetic geckos showed greater levels of voluntary activity at 15 degrees C than did sexual geckos, although this pattern appears strongest in comparison to male sexual forms. Parthenogenetic lineages of Heteronotia thus have an advantage over sexual lineages in being capable of greater aerobic activity. This result is opposite of that found in prior studies of parthenogenetic teiid lizards (genus Cnemidophorus) and highlights the idiosyncratic nature of phenotypic evolution in parthenogens of hybrid origin.

  11. Using group-specific PCR to detect predation of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) by wolf spiders (Lycosidae) at a mercury-contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, Weston T; Allison, Lizabeth A; Cristol, Daniel A

    2012-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of contaminants can occur across ecosystem boundaries via transport by emergent aquatic insects. In the South River, Virginia, USA, aquatic mercury has contaminated songbirds nesting in adjacent riparian forests. Spiders contribute the majority of mercury to these songbirds' diets. We tested the hypothesis that massive annual mayfly emergences provide a vector for mercury from river sediments to the Lycosid spiders most frequently eaten by contaminated songbirds. We designed mayfly-specific PCR primers that amplified mtDNA from 76% of adult mayflies collected at this site. By combining this approach with an Agilent 2100 electrophoresis system, we created a highly sensitive test for mayfly predation by Lycosids, commonly known as wolf spiders. In laboratory spider feeding trials, mayfly DNA could be detected up to 192h post-ingestion; however, we detected no mayfly predation in a sample of 110 wolf spiders collected at the site during mayfly emergence. We suggest that mayfly predation is not an important mechanism for dietary transfer of mercury to wolf spiders and their avian predators at the South River. Instead, floodplain soil should be considered as a potential proximate source for mercury in the terrestrial food web. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of the mayfly order Ephemeroptera (Insecta in Brazil: a scienciometric review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulie Shimano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of the mayfly order Ephemeroptera (Insecta in Brazil: a scienciometric review. Despite an increase in the number of studies in recent years of the aquatic insect order Ephemeroptera (the mayflies much still remains to be learnt. In order to identify the current state of knowledge of this group in Brazil, we performed a scienciometric analysis with the purpose of identifying the strong and weak points of Brazilian research into the group. Our research used the "Institute for Scientific Information - ISI" database and was based on the abstracts, titles and keywords of manuscripts published between 1992 and 2011. We selected the papers with the combination of the words "Ephemeroptera" and "Brazil*" based on a search in February 2012. We analyzed 92 articles, and noted a lack of studies in some Brazilian states, no specific studies about some families, and an absence of phylogenetic studies. To improve ecological studies, it is necessary to fine-tune taxonomic resolution. Moreover, there is a lack of studies investigating the environmental variables which influence the distribution of mayflies. Despite these gaps, if the rate of publication with mayflies proceeds at the same pace, we anticipate that many of these knowledge gaps will be closed.

  13. International Advances in the Ecology, Zoogeography and Systematics of Mayflies and Stoneflies

    OpenAIRE

    Hauer, Frederick Richard; Stanford, Jack Arthur; Newell, Robert Lee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this volume is to encourage and facilitate focused research and provide a forum for scholarly exchange about the status of Mayfly and Stonefly science. Professor John Brittain, whose research is focused on freshwater entomology, especially egg development and life cycle strategies of Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera, presents a chapter reflecting on the quality of mayflies as good indicators of global warming and the quality of streams and lakes. Professor Emeritus Andrew Sheldon,...

  14. Cadmium exposure route affects antioxidant responses in the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Lingtian [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Buchwalter, David B., E-mail: david_buchwalter@ncsu.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer, antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase were suppressed by dietary cadmium (Cd) exposures, but not dissolved exposures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dietary Cd reduced concentrations of active glutathione in whole insect homogenates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These findings suggest that diet derived Cd is potentially more toxic than aqueous derived Cd in this mayfly, and may help explain the disconnection between laboratory and field data for aquatic insect responses to trace metal pollution. - Abstract: Aquatic organisms accumulate metals directly from water and from their diets. Exposure to metals is known to generate oxidative stress in living organisms and this stress may be ameliorated via activation of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants. To determine if antioxidant physiology is dependent on Cd exposure route in the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer, we exposed larvae to environmentally relevant concentrations of Cd from isolated dissolved or dietary exposure routes to achieve comparable tissue concentrations. Dissolved Cd had no effect on the antioxidant enzymes examined. However, dietary Cd significantly suppressed catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, and decreased concentrations of the reduced (active) form of glutathione in C. triangulifer larvae. These findings suggest that dietary Cd is potentially more toxic than aqueously derived Cd in this mayfly. We further examined the effect of dietary Cd tissue loading rates on antioxidant enzyme suppression and found that absolute tissue load appeared more important than loading rate. These results may help explain why insects are routinely unresponsive to dissolved metal exposures in the laboratory, yet highly responsive to metal pollution in nature.

  15. Cadmium exposure route affects antioxidant responses in the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Lingtian; Buchwalter, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► In the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer, antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase were suppressed by dietary cadmium (Cd) exposures, but not dissolved exposures. ► Dietary Cd reduced concentrations of active glutathione in whole insect homogenates. ► These findings suggest that diet derived Cd is potentially more toxic than aqueous derived Cd in this mayfly, and may help explain the disconnection between laboratory and field data for aquatic insect responses to trace metal pollution. - Abstract: Aquatic organisms accumulate metals directly from water and from their diets. Exposure to metals is known to generate oxidative stress in living organisms and this stress may be ameliorated via activation of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants. To determine if antioxidant physiology is dependent on Cd exposure route in the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer, we exposed larvae to environmentally relevant concentrations of Cd from isolated dissolved or dietary exposure routes to achieve comparable tissue concentrations. Dissolved Cd had no effect on the antioxidant enzymes examined. However, dietary Cd significantly suppressed catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, and decreased concentrations of the reduced (active) form of glutathione in C. triangulifer larvae. These findings suggest that dietary Cd is potentially more toxic than aqueously derived Cd in this mayfly. We further examined the effect of dietary Cd tissue loading rates on antioxidant enzyme suppression and found that absolute tissue load appeared more important than loading rate. These results may help explain why insects are routinely unresponsive to dissolved metal exposures in the laboratory, yet highly responsive to metal pollution in nature.

  16. External vortex pumping by oscillating plate arrays of mayfly nymphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Andrew; Kiger, Ken; Shultz, Jeffrey

    2009-11-01

    Mayfly nymphs are aquatic insects, many of which can generate ventilation currents by beating two linear arrays of external plate-like gills. The oscillation Reynolds number associated with the gill motion changes with animal size, varying from Re ˜ 2 to 50 depending on age and species. Thus mayflies provide a novel system model for studying ontogenetic changes in pumping mechanisms associated with transitions from a more viscous- to inertia-dominated flow. Observation of the 3-D kinematics of the gill motion of the species C. triangulifer reveal that the mayfly makes a transition in stroke motion when Re>5, with a corresponding shift in mean flow from the ventral to the dorsal direction. Time-resolved PIV measurements within the inter-gill space reveal the basic elements of the flow consist of vortex rings generated by the strokes of the individual gills. For the larger Re case, the phasing of the plate motion generates a complex array of small vortices that interact to produce an intermittent dorsally directed jet. For Restroke kinematics. Thus we argue the transition in the kinematics is a reflection of a single mechanism adapted over the traversed Re range, rather than a shift to a completely new mechanism. This work is supported by the NSF under grant CBET-0730907.

  17. Conservation of mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera in Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Criste Massariol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera in Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Ephemeroptera exhibits great diversity among bodies of freshwater in the Atlantic Forest, a biome that is suffering from massive human impact. Within this context, the creation of conservation units using biological information is more recommended than economic, cultural, or political criteria. The distribution pattern of 76 Ephemeroptera species was analyzed using the biogeographical methods Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and Network Analysis Method in order to infer relevant areas for conservation of the mayfly community in Espírito Santo. The results obtained from both analyses were largely congruent, and pointed out four relevant areas for conservation: two in the south of the state, where conservation units or priority areas for conservation are well established; and two in the north, a region in the state where little conservation efforts have been historically done. Therefore, based on our analyses on mayflies, we recommend the expansion of the existing APCs or the creation of new APCs on the north of Espírito Santo.

  18. Acute and chronic toxicity of neonicotinoids to nymphs of a mayfly species and some notes on seasonal differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Van den P.J.; Smeden, Van J.M.; Bekele, R.S.; Dierick, Wiebe; Gelder, De Daphne M.; Noteboom, Maarten; Roessink, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Mayfly nymphs are among the most sensitive taxa to neonicotinoids. The present study presents the acute and chronic toxicity of 3 neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to a mayfly species (Cloeon dipterum) and some notes on the seasonality of the toxicity of imidacloprid to

  19. Switch from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction in a zebra shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudgeon, Christine L; Coulton, Laura; Bone, Ren; Ovenden, Jennifer R; Thomas, Severine

    2017-01-16

    Parthenogenesis is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which embryos develop in the absence of fertilisation. Most commonly found in plants and invertebrate organisms, an increasing number of vertebrate species have recently been reported employing this reproductive strategy. Here we use DNA genotyping to report the first demonstration of an intra-individual switch from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction in a shark species, the zebra shark Stegostoma fasciatum. A co-housed, sexually produced daughter zebra shark also commenced parthenogenetic reproduction at the onset of maturity without any prior mating. The demonstration of parthenogenesis in these two conspecific individuals with different sexual histories provides further support that elasmobranch fishes may flexibly adapt their reproductive strategy to environmental circumstances.

  20. [Intra- and interspecific polymorphism of (AAT)n in microsatellite locus du47D in parthenogenetic species of the genus Darevskia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchagin, V I; Vergun, A A; Godakova, S A; Tokarskaia, O N

    2013-03-01

    The molecular structure of the allelic variants of (AAT)n of the Du47D microsatellite locus was determined in parthenogenetic lizards Darevskia dahli, D. armeniaca, and D. rostombekovi. Comparative analysis of these alleles showed that they were characterized by perfect structure of microsatellite cluster, and were different in the number of (AAT) monomeric units, as well as in the combinations of species-specific substitutions and deletions in the microsatellite flanking regions. Molecular structure of microsatellite cluster, species-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), and different representation of alleles Du47 in the samples of parthenogenetic species examined point to the origin of the alleles from different bisexual species, which is consistent with the hybrid nature of unisexual species of the genus Darevskia. In addition, these data reflect different combination patterns of interspecific hybridization events with the participation of the same bisexual species upon the formation of hybrid genomes of parthenogenetic species. Possible application of the allelic variants of microsatellite loci of parthenogenetic lizards as the genetic markers for the analysis of the genomes of parthenogenetic species in the light of evolution, ecology, and parthenogenetic type of reproduction in vertebrates is discussed.

  1. Lower fecundity in parthenogenetic geckos than sexual relatives in the Australian arid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, M; Shine, R

    2005-05-01

    Theoretical models of the advantage of sexual reproduction typically assume that reproductive output is equal in sexual and parthenogenetic females. We tested this assumption by comparing fecundity between parthenogenetic and sexual races of gekkonid lizards in the Heteronotia binoei complex, collected across a 1200 km latitudinal gradient through the Australian arid zone. Under laboratory conditions, parthenogenetic geckos had approximately 30% lower fecundity when compared with their sexual progenitors, irrespective of body size. Reflecting clutch-size constraints in gekkonids, this fecundity difference was mainly because of fewer clutches over a shorter period. When parthenogens were compared more broadly with all coexisting sexual races across the latitudinal gradient, parthenogens had lower fecundity than sexuals only when corrected for body size. Differences in fecundity between parthenogens and coexisting sexual races depended on which sexual race was considered. There was no significant relationship between fecundity and parasite (mite) load, despite significantly higher mite loads in parthenogens than in sexual races.

  2. Transitions in low Re pumping by oscillating plate arrays of mayfly nymphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiger, Ken; Sensenig, Andrew; Shultz, Jeffrey

    2008-11-01

    Mayfly nymphs are aquatic insects which alter behavior and metabolism to accommodate changes in ambient dissolved oxygen. Many species can generate a ventilation current to compensate for low oxygen levels by beating two linear arrays of plate-like gills that line the lateral edge of the abdomen. The oscillation Reynolds number associated with the gill motion changes with animal size, varying over a span of Re = 2 to 50 depending on age and species. Thus mayflies provide a novel system model for studying ontological changes in pumping mechanisms associated with transitions from a viscous- to inertia-dominated flow. Observation of the detailed 3-D kinematics of the gill motion of the species Centroptilum triangulifer reveal that the mayfly makes a marked transition in stroke motion when Re>5, with a corresponding shift in mean flow from the ventral to the dorsal direction. Results of the time-resolved flow within the inter-gill space shows that for Re>12 the plate motion generates a complex array of bound and shed vortices, which interact to produce an intermittent dorsally directed jet. For the Re<5, distinct bound vortices are still observed, but increased diffusive effects creates vortices which simultaneously envelope several gills, forcing a new flow pattern to emerge. Details of the flow mechanism and its implications will be discussed. This work is supported by NSF under grant CBET-0730907.

  3. “Sexual” behavior in parthenogenetic lizards (Cnemidophorus)

    OpenAIRE

    Crews, David; Fitzgerald, Kevin T.

    1980-01-01

    All-female, parthenogenetic species afford a unique test of hypotheses regarding the nature and evolution of sexuality. Basic data on the behavior of parthenogens are lacking, however. We have discovered, from observations of captive Cnemidophorus uniparens, C. velox, and C. tesselatus, behavior patterns remarkably similar to the courtship and copulatory behavior of closely related sexual species. Briefly, in separately housed pairs, one lizard was repeatedly seen to mount and ride its cagema...

  4. Mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies of streams and marshes of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalt, R. Edward; South, Eric J.; Robertson, Desiree R.; Marburger, Joy E.; Smith, Wendy W.; Brinson, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract United States National Parks have protected natural communities for one hundred years. Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (INDU) is a park unit along the southern boundary of Lake Michigan in Indiana, USA. An inventory of 19 sites, consisting of a seep, 12 streams, four marshes, a bog, and a fen were examined for mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera), and caddisflies (Trichoptera) (EPT taxa). Volunteers and authors collect 35 ultraviolet light traps during summer 2013 and supplementary benthic and adult sampling added species not attracted by lights or that were only present in colder months. Seventy-eight EPT species were recovered: 12 mayflies, two stoneflies, and 64 caddisflies. The EPT richness found at INDU was a low proportion of the number of species known from Indiana: caddisflies contributed only 32.7% of known state fauna, mayflies and stoneflies contributed 8.4% and 2.3%, respectively. Site EPT richness ranged from one for a seep to 34 for an 8 m-wide stream. Richness in streams generally increased with stream size. Seven new state records and rare species are reported. The number of EPT species at INDU is slightly larger than that found at Isle Royale National Park in 2013, and the community composition and evenness between orders were different. PMID:26877693

  5. Widespread failure to complete meiosis does not impair fecundity in parthenogenetic whiptail lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Aracely A; Schnittker, Robert R; Yu, Zulin; Munday, Sarah S; Baumann, Diana P; Neaves, William B; Baumann, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Parthenogenetic species of whiptail lizards in the genus Aspidoscelis constitute a striking example of speciation by hybridization, in which first-generation hybrids instantly attain reproductive isolation and procreate as clonal all-female lineages. Production of eggs containing a full complement of chromosomes in the absence of fertilization involves genome duplication prior to the meiotic divisions. In these pseudo-tetraploid oocytes, pairing and recombination occur exclusively between identical chromosomes instead of homologs; a deviation from the normal meiotic program that maintains heterozygosity. Whether pseudo-tetraploid cells arise early in germ cell development or just prior to meiosis has remained unclear. We now show that in the obligate parthenogenetic species A. neomexicana the vast majority of oocytes enter meiosis as diploid cells. Telomere bouquet formation is normal, but synapsis fails and oocytes accumulate in large numbers at the pairing stage. Pseudo-tetraploid cells are exceedingly rare in early meiotic prophase, but they are the only cells that progress into diplotene. Despite the widespread failure to increase ploidy prior to entering meiosis, the fecundity of parthenogenetic A. neomexicana is similar to that of A. inornata, one of its bisexual ancestors. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Optimal developmental stage for vitrification of parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rong; Li, Juan; Kragh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the optimal developmental stage to vitrify in-vitro cultured porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos. Embryos were vitrified by Cryotop on Day 4, 5 or 6 after oocyte activation (Day 0), and immediately after warming they were either time...

  7. Changes in Parthenogenetic Imprinting Patterns during Reprogramming by Cell Fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Sik Jang

    Full Text Available Differentiated somatic cells can be reprogrammed into the pluripotent state by cell-cell fusion. In the pluripotent state, reprogrammed cells may then self-renew and differentiate into all three germ layers. Fusion-induced reprogramming also epigenetically modifies the somatic cell genome through DNA demethylation, X chromosome reactivation, and histone modification. In this study, we investigated whether fusion with embryonic stem cells (ESCs also reprograms genomic imprinting patterns in somatic cells. In particular, we examined imprinting changes in parthenogenetic neural stem cells fused with biparental ESCs, as well as in biparental neural stem cells fused with parthenogenetic ESCs. The resulting hybrid cells expressed the pluripotency markers Oct4 and Nanog. In addition, methylation of several imprinted genes except Peg3 was comparable between hybrid cells and ESCs. This finding indicates that reprogramming by cell fusion does not necessarily reverse the status of all imprinted genes to the state of pluripotent fusion partner.

  8. Wolbachia endosymbiont is essential for egg hatching in a parthenogenetic arthropod.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, M.J.T.N.; Ellers, J.

    2009-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis can induce a range of sex ratio distortions including parthenogenesis. Recently Wolbachia has been detected in the diploid, parthenogenetic, collembolan species Folsomia candida. In this paper we address the effect of Wolbachia on reproduction in F. candida. Wolbachia infection

  9. MITOCHONDRIAL DNA ANALYSES AND THE ORIGIN AND RELATIVE AGE OF PARTHENOGENETIC CNEMIDOPHORUS: PHYLOGENETIC CONSTRAINTS ON HYBRID ORIGINS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, C; Wright, J W; Brown, W M

    1992-02-01

    Within the genus Cnemidophorus, parthenogenesis has arisen by hybridization several times. This provides the opportunity to investigate general features of hybridization events that result in the formation of parthenogenetic lineages. The relationships of mtDNA from all bisexual species of Cnemidophorus known to be parents of parthenogens were investigated to evaluate phylogenetic constraints on the hybrid-origin of parthenogenesis. No phylogenetic clustering of the parental species, either maternal or paternal, was apparent. However, the combination of bisexual species that have resulted in parthenogenetic lineages are generally distantly related or genetically divergent. This contrasts with the expectation if parthenogenesis in hybrids is due to the action of a single rare allele, but is consistent with the hypothesis that some minimal level of divergence is necessary to stimulate parthenogenetic reproduction in hybrids. © 1992 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Population genetic structure of the lettuce root aphid, Pemphigus bursarius (L.), in relation to geographic distance, gene flow and host plant usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, N J; Birley, A J; Overall, A D J; Tatchell, G M

    2003-09-01

    Microsatellite markers were used to examine the population structure of Pemphigus bursarius, a cyclically parthenogenetic aphid. Substantial allele frequency differences were observed between populations on the primary host plant (collected shortly after sexual reproduction) separated by distances as low as 14 km. This suggested that migratory movements occur over relatively short distances in this species. However, the degree of allele frequency divergence between populations was not correlated with their geographical separation, indicating that isolation by distance was not the sole cause of spatial genetic structuring. Significant excesses of homozygotes were observed in several populations. Substantial allele frequency differences were also found between aphids on the primary host and those sampled from a secondary host plant after several parthenogenetic generations at the same location in two successive years. This could have been due to the existence of obligately parthenogenetic lineages living on the secondary host or genetically divergent populations confined to different secondary host plant species but sharing a common primary host.

  11. Lagrangian approach to understanding the origin of the gill-kinematics switch in mayfly nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabreyrie, R; Balaras, E; Abdelaziz, K; Kiger, K

    2014-12-01

    The mayfly nymph breathes under water through an oscillating array of plate-shaped tracheal gills. As the nymph grows, the kinematics of these gills change abruptly from rowing to flapping. The classical fluid dynamics approach to consider the mayfly nymph as a pumping device fails in giving clear reasons for this switch. In order to shed some light on this switch between the two distinct kinematics, we analyze the problem under a Lagrangian viewpoint. We consider that a good Lagrangian transport that effectively distributes and stirs water and dissolved oxygen between and around the gills is the main goal of the gill motion. Using this Lagrangian approach, we are able to provide possible reasons behind the observed switch from rowing to flapping. More precisely, we conduct a series of in silico mayfly nymph experiments, where body shape, as well as gill shapes, structures, and kinematics are matched to those from in vivo. In this paper, we show both qualitatively and quantitatively how the change of kinematics enables better attraction, confinement, and stirring of water charged of dissolved oxygen inside the gills area. We reveal the attracting barriers to transport, i.e., attracting Lagrangian coherent structures, that form the transport skeleton between and around the gills. In addition, we quantify how well the fluid particles are stirred inside the gills area, which by extension leads us to conclude that it will increase the proneness of molecules of dissolved oxygen to be close enough to the gills for extraction.

  12. Multiple exposure routes of a pesticide exacerbate effects on a grazing mayfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pristed, Mathias Joachim Skov; Bundschuh, Mirco; Rasmussen, Jes Jessen

    2016-09-01

    Hydrophobic pesticides such as pyrethroid insecticides tend to occur in their soluble form mainly as transient pulses in streams. In addition, they are regularly detected in significant quantities adsorbed to stream sediments and other organic in-stream structures. Consequently, stream biota is likely subjected to pesticide exposure via multiple routes. In this study we aimed at investigating the influence of exposure routes for the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on the grazing mayfly Heptagenia sulphurea. Therefore, H. sulphurea was exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin via single- (water or biofilm) or biphasic exposure (water and biofilm) at environmentally realistic concentrations (0, 0.1, 1μgL(-1)) and exposure duration (2h) in a full factorial design (n=5). Mortality, moulting frequency, and biofilm accrual (proxy for feeding rate) were recorded subsequent to a 7 d post exposure period. Mortality significantly increased and moulting frequency significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin in the water phase whereas exposure via biofilm prompted no significant effects on these endpoints (α=0.05). Effect predictions systematically underestimated and overestimated effects for mortality and moulting frequency, respectively. Similarly, mayfly feeding rate was significantly reduced by water phase exposure whereas pre-exposed biofilm did not significantly affect this variable. However, we found a significant but non-systematic interaction between water phase and biofilm exposure on mayfly feeding rate. Our results show that exposure to the same pesticide via multiple exposure routes may increase the magnitude of effects beyond the level predicted from single phase exposures which has clear implications for the aquatic risk assessment of hydrophobic pesticides. However, our results additionally reveal that interactions between pesticide exposure routes may vary between selected dependent variables. We emphasize that unravelling the

  13. Nematode assemblages associated with the parthenogenetic lizard Ameivula nativo in six restinga areas along the eastern coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, V A; Mascarenhas, J C; Vrcibradic, D; Rocha, C F D

    2017-10-04

    We surveyed the nematode assemblages associated with populations of the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard Ameivula nativo from six coastal restinga areas in eastern Brazil: Setiba, Comboios and Guriri (State of Espirito Santo) and Guaratiba, Prado and Maraú (State of Bahia). A total of five nematode species (Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, Skrjabinelazia intermedia, Subulura lacertilia and Parapharyngodon sp.) were recorded from the six different populations of A. nativo. There was considerable variation in overall prevalence of infection (1-42%) among study sites, but geographical distance among areas did not influence similarity in the composition of nematode assemblages. Overall intensity of infection was not affected by lizard body size and did not seem to affect host body condition, based on pooled data of all populations. The studied populations of the unisexual A. nativo had relatively low prevalences and intensities of infection compared to some bisexual congeners and to sympatric lizards from other families for which such data are available. We believe that the low richness of the nematode fauna associated with A. nativo, both locally and regionally, may reflect its narrow geographic distribution and the low diversity of habitats it occupies.

  14. Parallel origins of duplications and the formation of pseudogenes in mitochondrial DNA from parthenogenetic lizards (Heteronotia binoei; Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevering, C E; Moritz, C; Heideman, A; Sturm, R A

    1991-11-01

    Analysis of mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from parthenogenetic lizards of the Heteronotia binoei complex with restriction enzymes revealed an approximately 5-kb addition present in all 77 individuals. Cleavage site mapping suggested the presence of a direct tandem duplication spanning the 16S and 12S rRNA genes, the control region and most, if not all, of the gene for the subunit 1 of NADH dehydrogenase (ND1). The location of the duplication was confirmed by Southern hybridization. A restriction enzyme survey provided evidence for modifications to each copy of the duplicated sequence, including four large deletions. Each gene affected by a deletion was complemented by an intact version in the other copy of the sequence, although for one gene the functional copy was heteroplasmic for another deletion. Sequencing of a fragment from one copy of the duplication which encompassed the tRNA(leu)(UUR) and parts of the 16S rRNA and ND1 genes, revealed mutations expected to disrupt function. Thus, evolution subsequent to the duplication event has resulted in mitochondrial pseudogenes. The presence of duplications in all of these parthenogens, but not among representatives of their maternal sexual ancestors, suggests that the duplications arose in the parthenogenetic form. This provides the second instance in H. binoei of mtDNA duplication associated with the transition from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction. The increased incidence of duplications in parthenogenetic lizards may be caused by errors in mtDNA replication due to either polyploidy or hybridity of their nuclear genomes.

  15. Coping with living in the soil: : the genome of the parthenogenetic springtail Folsomia candida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faddeeva-Vakhrusheva, Anna; Kraaijeveld, Ken; Derks, Martijn F L; Anvar, Seyed Yahya; Agamennone, Valeria; Suring, Wouter; Kampfraath, Andries A.; Ellers, Jacintha; Le Ngoc, Giang; van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.; Mariën, Janine; Smit, Sandra; van Straalen, Nico M.; Roelofs, Dick

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Folsomia candida is a model in soil biology, belonging to the family of Isotomidae, subclass Collembola. It reproduces parthenogenetically in the presence of Wolbachia, and exhibits remarkable physiological adaptations to stress. To better understand these features and adaptations to

  16. Mayfly diversity in the brazilian tropical headwaters of Serra do Cipó

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Goulart

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate spatial and seasonal distribution, assemblage structure and substrate associations of mayfly nymphs in five lotic ecosystems in the headwaters of the Doce River and São Francisco River watersheds, Brazil. Samples were taken in 24 sampling stations during rainy and dry seasons in 1998. In total, 7,066 organisms were collected, belonging to 27 genera and 6 families of Ephemeroptera. The dominant taxa were Americabaetis, Paracloeodes, Leptohyphes and Hagenulus. During the rainy period, the São Francisco River watershed showed higher taxonomic richness, diversity and evenness, while in the dry period, the taxonomic richness was higher in Doce River watershed. No significant differences were found in the taxonomic richness, diversity, evenness and density of mayfly assemblages between the two studied sampling periods. The results suggested that the diversity of the mayfly assemblages in tropical headwaters of Serra do Cipó would be probably due to ecosystem and watershed characteristics.Os objetivos foram avaliar a distribuição espaço-temporal, estrutura de assembléias e associações de ninfas de Ephemeroptera com substratos em 5 ecossistemas lóticos nas nascentes das bacias dos rios Doce e São Francisco, Brasil. As amostragens foram realizadas em 24 estações, nos períodos de chuvas e seca de 1998. No total, 7,066 organismos foram coletados, pertencentes a 27 gêneros e 6 famílias. Os taxa dominantes foram Americabaetis, Paracloeodes, Leptohyphes e Hagenulus. No período de chuvas foram observados maiores valores dos indices de riqueza taxonômica, diversidade e equitabilidade na bacia do rio São Francisco, enquanto que no período de seca, a riqueza taxonômica foi maior na bacia do rio Doce. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas dos valores dos indices de riqueza, equitabilidade, diversidade e densidade de ninfas de Ephemeroptera entre os dois períodos estudados. Os

  17. Hydrodynamic pumping by serial gill arrays in the mayfly nymph Centroptilum triangulifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Andrew T; Kiger, Ken T; Shultz, Jeffrey W

    2010-10-01

    Aquatic nymphs of the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer produce ventilatory flow using a serial array of seven abdominal gill pairs that operates across a Reynolds numbers (Re) range from 2 to 22 during ontogeny. Net flow in small animals is directed ventrally and essentially parallel to the stroke plane (i.e. rowing), but net flow in large animals is directed dorsally and essentially transverse to the stroke plane (i.e. flapping). Detailed flow measurements based on Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) ensemble-correlation analysis revealed that the phasing of the gills produces a time-dependent array of vortices associated with a net ventilatory current, a fluid kinematic pattern, here termed a 'phased vortex pump'. Absolute size of vortices does not change with increasing animal size or Re, and thus the vortex radius (R(v)) decreases relative to inter-gill distance (L(is)) during mayfly growth. Given that effective flapping in appendage-array animals requires organized flow between adjacent appendages, we hypothesize that rowing should be favored when L(is)/R(v)1. Significantly, the rowing-to-flapping transition in Centroptilum occurs at Re∼5, when the mean dynamic inter-gill distance equals the vortex radius. This result suggests that the Re-based rowing-flapping demarcation observed in appendage-array aquatic organisms may be determined by the relative size of the propulsive mechanism and its self-generated vortices.

  18. Developing acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios for lead, cadmium, and zinc using rainbow trout, a mayfly, and a midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, C.A.; Hennessy, D.P.; Dillon, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to estimate acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios (ACRs) relevant to a coldwater stream community, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in 96-h acute and 60+ day early-life stage (ELS) exposures. We also tested the acute and sublethal responses of a mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus) and a midge (Chironomus dilutus, formerly C. tentans) with Pb. We examine the statistical interpretation of test endpoints and the acute-to-chronic ratio concept. Increasing the number of control replicates by 2 to 3x decreased the minimum detectable differences by almost half. Pb ACR estimates mostly increased with increasing acute resistance of the organisms (rainbow trout ACRs mayfly < Chironomus). The choice of test endpoint and statistical analysis influenced ACR estimates by up to a factor of four. When calculated using the geometric means of the no- and lowest-observed effect concentrations, ACRs with rainbow trout and Cd were 0.6 and 0.95; Zn about 1.0; and for Pb 3.3 and 11. The comparable Pb ACRs for the mayfly and Chironomus were 5.2 and 51 respectively. Our rainbow trout ACRs with Pb were about 5-20x lower than earlier reports with salmonids. We suggest discounting previous ACR results that used larger and older fish in their acute tests. ?? 2007 GovernmentEmployee: U.S. Geological Survey.

  19. Evaluation and improvements of a mayfly, Neocloeon (Centroptilum) triangulifer (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) toxicity test method - SETAC Europe 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recently published test method for Neocloeon triangulifer assessed the survival and growth of larval mayflies exposed to several reference toxicants (NaCl, KCl, and CuSO4). Results were not able to be replicated in subsequent experiments. To identify potential sources of variab...

  20. Morphology and ultrastructure of the molar area of mandibles in mayfly (Ephemeroptera) larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sroka, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 31, suppl. 1 (2009), s. 471-484 ISSN 0165-0424. [International Perspectives in Mayfly and Stonefly Research. Proceedings of the International Conference on Ephemeroptera /12./ and International Symposium on Plecoptera /16./. Stuttgart, 08.06.2008-14.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/1389 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Ephemeroptera * morphology * mandible Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2009

  1. High hydrostatic pressure treatment of porcine oocytes induces parthenogenetic activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Lin; Pribenszky, Csaba; Molnár, Miklós

    2010-01-01

    An innovative technique called high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment has recently been reported to improve the cryosurvival of gametes and embryos in certain mammalian species, including the mouse, pig, and cattle. In the present study the parthenogenetic activation (PA) of pig oocytes caused...... by HHP treatment was investigated in different holding media with or without Ca(2+). The efficiency of activation was tested at different pressure levels and media including T2 (HEPES-buffered TCM-199 containing 2% cattle serum), and mannitol-PVA fusion medium with (MPVA + Ca(2+)) or without Ca(2...

  2. "Sexual" behavior in parthenogenetic lizards (Cnemidophorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, D; Fitzgerald, K T

    1980-01-01

    All-female, parthenogenetic species afford a unique test of hypotheses regarding the nature and evolution of sexuality. Basic data on the behavior of parthenogens are lacking, however. We have discovered, from observations of captive Cnemidophorus uniparens, C. velox, and C. tesselatus, behavior patterns remarkably similar to the courtship and copulatory behavior of closely related sexual species. Briefly, in separately housed pairs, one lizard was repeatedly seen to mount and ride its cagemate and appose the cloacal regions. Dissection or palpation revealed that, in each instance, the courted animal was reproductively active, having ovaries containing large, preovulatory follicles, while the courting animal was either reproductively inactive or postovulatory, having ovaries containing only small, undeveloped follicles. These observations are significant for the questions they raise. For example, is this behavior a nonfunctional vestige of the species' ancestry, or is this behavior necessary for successful reproduction in the species (e.g., by priming reproductive neuroendocrine mechanisms as has been demonstrated in sexual species)?

  3. Species delimitation in asexual insects of economic importance: The case of black scale (Parasaissetia nigra, a cosmopolitan parthenogenetic pest scale insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Po Lin

    Full Text Available Asexual lineages provide a challenge to species delimitation because species concepts either have little biological meaning for them or are arbitrary, since every individual is monophyletic and reproductively isolated from all other individuals. However, recognition and naming of asexual species is important to conservation and economic applications. Some scale insects are widespread and polyphagous pests of plants, and several species have been found to comprise cryptic species complexes. Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner, 1861 (Hemiptera: Coccidae is a parthenogenetic, cosmopolitan and polyphagous pest that feeds on plant species from more than 80 families. Here, we implement multiple approaches to assess the species status of P. nigra, including coalescence-based analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and ecological niche modelling. Our results indicate that the sampled specimens of P. nigra should be considered to comprise at least two ecotypes (or "species" that are ecologically differentiated, particularly in relation to temperature and moisture. The presence of more than one ecotype under the current concept of P. nigra has implications for biosecurity because the geographic extent of each type is not fully known: some countries may currently have only one of the biotypes. Introduction of additional lineages could expand the geographic extent of damage by the pest in some countries.

  4. Comparative Study of Biological and Technological Characters in Three Generations of Silkworm Bombyxmori L. Ameiotic, Parthenogenetically Cloned Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Greiss, H.; Vassilieva, J.; Petkov, N.; Petkov, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Detect any deviation in biologic and technologic characters of eight ameiotic-parthenogenetically cloned lines of Bombyx mori L. from different origins from a normal sexually reproduced control line in three generations.

  5. Comparative study of biological and technological characters in three generations of silkworm Bombyx mori L. ameiotic, parthenogenetically cloned lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiss, H; Vassilieva, J; Petkov, N; Petkov, Z

    2004-11-01

    Detect any deviation in biologic and technologic characters of eight ameiotic-parthenogenetically cloned lines of Bombyx mori L. from different origins from a normal sexually reproduced control line in three generations. Comparative study of the three generations was conducted in SES, Vratza, unit of the National Center for Agrarian Sciences of Bulgaria after fixing all environmental rearing conditions. The ameiotic-parthen-clones displayed good parthenogenetic development, although total hatchability was significantly less than the sexually reproducing control populations. Survival rates between clones and control were not significantly different. All clones displayed significantly longer larval periods. Slight decline in second generation, and a steeper one in the third generation were observed for all eight cloned lines in cocoon weight, shell weight, and shell ratio and these differences were statistically significant. Cocoon yield was significantly lower than the control throughout the three generations. Our parthen-cloning method has a high rate of success in comparison to other cloning methods, the cloned progeny populations although were weaker technologically (cocoon weight, shell weight, and shell ratio), the biological characters (parthenogenetic development and survival rate) were not compromised. Further study is needed to determine the thermal needs of the cloned embryos and metabolic rate of all stages.

  6. Expression pattern of pluripotent markers in different embryonic developmental stages of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos and putative embryonic stem cells generated by parthenogenetic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karn P; Kaushik, Ramakant; Garg, Veena; Sharma, Ruchi; George, Aman; Singh, Manoj K; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh K; Chauhan, Manmohan S

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we describe the production of buffalo parthenogenetic blastocysts and subsequent isolation of parthenogenetic embryonic stem cell (PGESC)-like cells. PGESC colonies exhibited dome-shaped morphology and were clearly distinguishable from the feeder layer cells. Different stages of development of parthenogenetic embryos and derived embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like cells expressed key ESC-specific markers, including OCT-4, NANOG, SOX-2, FOXD3, REX-1, STAT-3, TELOMERASE, NUCLEOSTEMIN, and cMYC. Immunofluorescence-based studies revealed that the PGESCs were positive for surface-based pluripotent markers, viz., SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA 1-80, TRA 1-60, CD-9, and CD-90 and exhibited high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. PGEC cell-like cells formed embryoid body (EB)-like structures in hanging drop cultures and when cultured for extended period of time spontaneously differentiated into derivatives of three embryonic germ layers as confirmed by RT-PCR for ectodermal (CYTOKERATIN8, NF-68), mesodermal (MSX1, BMP-4, ASA), and endodermal markers (AFP, HNF-4, GATA-4). Differentiation of PGESCs toward the neuronal lineage was successfully directed by supplementation of serum-containing media with retinoic acid. Our results indicate that the isolated ESC-like cells from parthenogenetic blastocyst hold properties of ESCs and express markers of pluripotency. The pluripotency markers were also expressed by early cleavage-stage of buffalo embryos.

  7. [Study of allelic polymorphism of (GATA)n-containing loci in parthenogenetic lizards Darevskia unisexualis (Lacertidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchagin, V I; Martirosian, I A; Omel'chenko, A V; Darevskiĭ, I S; Ryskov, A P; Tokarskaia, O N

    2004-10-01

    The genesis of mini- and microsatellite loci, which is under extensive study in humans and some other bisexual species, have been virtually overlooked in species with clonal mode of reproduction. Earlier, using multilocus DNA fingerprinting, we have examined variability of some mini- and microsatellite DNA markers in parthenogenetic lizards from the genus Darevskia. In particular, mutant (GATA)n-restrictive DNA fragments were found in Darevskia unisexualis. In the present study, we examined intraspecific polymorphism of three cloned loci of D. unisexualis--Du323, Du215, and Du281--containing (GATA)7GAT(GATA)2, GAT(GATA)9, and (GATA)10TA(GATA) microsatellite clusters, respectively. Different levels of intrapopulation and interpopulation variability of these loci were found. Locus Du281 showed the highest polymorphism--six allelic variants (in the sample of 68 DNA specimens). Three alleles were found for locus Du215. The Du325 locus was electrophoretically invariant. The primers chosen for loci Du323, Du215, and Du281 were also used for PCR analysis of homologous loci in two presumptive parental bisexual species, D. valentini and D. nairensis. The PCR products of the corresponding loci of the parental species had approximately the same size (approximately 200 bp) as their counterparts in D. unisexualis, but the polymorphism levels of the paternal, maternal, and hybrid species were shown to be somewhat different. These data on the structure of the D. unisexualis loci provide a possibility to study genetic diversity in the parthenogenetic species D. unisexualis and other related unisexual and bisexual species of this genus, which can provide new information on the origin of parthenogenetic species and on the phylogenetic relationships in the genus Darevskia. These data can also be used for resolving problems of marking the lizard genome, which is still poorly studied.

  8. A new fossil mayfly species if the genus Borinquena Traver, 1938 (Insecta: Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae) from Miocene Dominican amber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staniczek, A. H.; Godunko, Roman J.; Krzemiński, W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2017), s. 113-119 ISSN 0003-4541 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : mayflies * Hagenulini * neotropics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.699, year: 2016 http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.3161/00034541ANZ2017.67.1.013

  9. Distribution and biology of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of the Czech Republic: present status and perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahrádková, S.; Soldán, Tomáš; Bojková, J.; Helešic, J.; Janovská, H.; Sroka, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 31, suppl. 1 (2009), s. 629-652 ISSN 0165-0424. [International Perspectives in Mayfly and Stonefly Research. Proceedings of the International Conference on Ephemeroptera /12./ and International Symposium on Plecoptera /16./. Stuttgart, 08.06.2008-14.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1133; GA AV ČR 1QS500070505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Ephemeroptera * Czech Republic * occurrence Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2009

  10. “Sexual” behavior in parthenogenetic lizards (Cnemidophorus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, David; Fitzgerald, Kevin T.

    1980-01-01

    All-female, parthenogenetic species afford a unique test of hypotheses regarding the nature and evolution of sexuality. Basic data on the behavior of parthenogens are lacking, however. We have discovered, from observations of captive Cnemidophorus uniparens, C. velox, and C. tesselatus, behavior patterns remarkably similar to the courtship and copulatory behavior of closely related sexual species. Briefly, in separately housed pairs, one lizard was repeatedly seen to mount and ride its cagemate and appose the cloacal regions. Dissection or palpation revealed that, in each instance, the courted animal was reproductively active, having ovaries containing large, preovulatory follicles, while the courting animal was either reproductively inactive or postovulatory, having ovaries containing only small, undeveloped follicles. These observations are significant for the questions they raise. For example, is this behavior a nonfunctional vestige of the species' ancestry, or is this behavior necessary for successful reproduction in the species (e.g., by priming reproductive neuroendocrine mechanisms as has been demonstrated in sexual species)? Images PMID:16592761

  11. A DNA barcode library for Germany's mayflies, stoneflies and caddisflies (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinière, Jérôme; Hendrich, Lars; Balke, Michael; Beermann, Arne J; König, Tobias; Hess, Monika; Koch, Stefan; Müller, Reinhard; Leese, Florian; Hebert, Paul D N; Hausmann, Axel; Schubart, Christoph D; Haszprunar, Gerhard

    2017-11-01

    Mayflies, stoneflies and caddisflies (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera) are prominent representatives of aquatic macroinvertebrates, commonly used as indicator organisms for water quality and ecosystem assessments. However, unambiguous morphological identification of EPT species, especially their immature life stages, is a challenging, yet fundamental task. A comprehensive DNA barcode library based upon taxonomically well-curated specimens is needed to overcome the problematic identification. Once available, this library will support the implementation of fast, cost-efficient and reliable DNA-based identifications and assessments of ecological status. This study represents a major step towards a DNA barcode reference library as it covers for two-thirds of Germany's EPT species including 2,613 individuals belonging to 363 identified species. As such, it provides coverage for 38 of 44 families (86%) and practically all major bioindicator species. DNA barcode compliant sequences (≥500 bp) were recovered from 98.74% of the analysed specimens. Whereas most species (325, i.e., 89.53%) were unambiguously assigned to a single Barcode Index Number (BIN) by its COI sequence, 38 species (18 Ephemeroptera, nine Plecoptera and 11 Trichoptera) were assigned to a total of 89 BINs. Most of these additional BINs formed nearest neighbour clusters, reflecting the discrimination of geographical subclades of a currently recognized species. BIN sharing was uncommon, involving only two species pairs of Ephemeroptera. Interestingly, both maximum pairwise and nearest neighbour distances were substantially higher for Ephemeroptera compared to Plecoptera and Trichoptera, possibly indicating older speciation events, stronger positive selection or faster rate of molecular evolution. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Developmental success, stability, and plasticity in closely related parthenogenetic and sexual lizards (Heteronotia, Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Michael; Shine, Richard

    2004-07-01

    The developmental trajectory of an organism is influenced by the interaction between its genes and the environment in which it develops. For example, the phenotypic traits of a hatchling reptile can be influenced by the organism's genotype, by incubation temperature, and by genetically coded norms of reaction for thermally labile traits. The evolution of parthenogenesis provides a unique opportunity to explore such effects: a hybrid origin of this trait in vertebrates modifies important aspects of the genotype (e.g., heterozygosity, polyploidy) and may thus impact not only on the phenotype generally, but also on the ways in which incubation temperature affects expression of the phenotype. The scarcity of vertebrate parthenogenesis has been attributed to developmental disruptions, but previous work has rarely considered reaction norms of embryogenesis in this respect. We used closely related sexual and asexual races of the Australian gecko Heteronotia binoei, which include those with multiple origins of parthenogenesis, to explore the ways in which reproductive modes (sexual, asexual), incubation temperatures (24, 27, and 30 degrees C), and the interaction between these factors affected hatchling phenotypes. The hatchling traits we considered included incubation period, incidence of deformities, hatchling survivorship, body size and shape, scalation (including fluctuating asymmetry), locomotor performance, and growth rate. Developmental success was slightly reduced (higher proportion of abnormal offspring) in parthenogenetic lineages although there was no major difference in hatching success. Incubation temperature affected a suite of traits including incubation period, tail length, body mass relative to egg mass, labial scale counts, running speed, growth rate, and hatchling survival. Our data also reveal an interaction between reproductive modes and thermal regimes, with the phenotypic traits of parthenogenetic lizards less sensitive to incubation temperature than

  13. DNA damage and micronuclei in parthenogenetic and bisexual Darevskia rock lizards from the areas with different levels of soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Anna; Hovhannisyan, Galina; Sargsyan, Anzhela; Arakelyan, Marine; Minasyan, Seyran; Aroutiounian, Rouben

    2018-06-15

    Natural species are widely used as indicator organisms to estimate of the impact of environmental pollution. Here we present the results of first study of a reliability of parthenogenetic Darevskia аrmeniaca and bisexual Darevskia raddei rock lizards as sentinels for monitoring of environmental genotoxicity. The comet assay and micronucleus test were applied to the lizards sampled in six areas in Armenia and Artsakh with different levels of soil contamination. The results obtained showed a clear relationship between the pollution level of lizards' habitats and the frequency of DNA damage in the comet assay. Low baseline frequency of micronuclei in D. аrmeniaca and D. raddei, however, makes this parameter ineffective for environmental genotoxicity evaluation. The parthenogenetic lizards D. аrmeniaca showed higher sensitivity toward genotoxic pollutions compared with bisexual D. raddei living in the same environment. The correlations between soil content of heavy metals Cr, Cu, Zn, Mo, Pb and DNA damage in D. аrmeniaca and between Cu, As, Mo, Pb and DNA damage in D. raddei were revealed. Overall, the lizards D. raddei and D. аrmeniaca appeared to be sensitive species in detecting soil pollution in natural environment. The application of the comet assay in Darevskia lizard species can be considered as a more appropriate method than a micronucleus test. The use of parthenogenetic lizards D. аrmeniaca as bioindicator will permit to assess the environmental genotoxicity independent of the genetic polymorphism of bisexual species. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Thermal effects on growth and respiration rates of the mayfly, Dolania americana (ephemeroptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The mayfly Dolania Americana, common in the sand of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, was studied to determine the effects of seasonal changes in temperature on population growth rates and to determine the effects of slight elevations in water temperature on respiration rates of this benthic species. Growth of the population increased with stream temperature until peak emergence of adults in June and July. There was a strong inverse correlation between body weight and respiration rates of immature nymphs. Respiration rates at 2.5, 5, and 10 0 C above ambient creekwater temperatures were not significantly higher than those measured at ambient creekwater temperatures. (auth)

  15. Burrows of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) in fresh water ecosystems – general comments and examples from recent rivers of the Czech Republic and Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uchman, A.; Mikuláš, Radek; Stachacz, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 52, March 2018 (2018), s. 191-192 ISSN 0078-8554. [International Conference of Continental Ichnology /2./. 01.10.2017-08.10.2017, Nuy Walley, Western Cape] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : ichnofossils * mayflies * Eohemeroptera Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology http://wiredspace.wits.ac.za/handle/10539/24150

  16. Contaminated sediments and bioassay responses of three macroinvertebrates, the midge larva Chironomus riparius, the water louse Asellus aquaticus and the mayfly nymph Ephoron virgo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Haas, de E.M.; Maas, H.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Bioassays are widely used to estimate ecological risks of contaminated sediments. We compared the results of three whole sediment bioassays, using the midge larva Chironomus riparius, the water louse Asellus aquaticus, and the mayfly nymph Ephoron virgo. We used sediments from sixteen locations in

  17. Effect of zona pellucida on porcine parthenogenetically activated embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rong; Liu, Ying; Li, Juan

    2011-01-01

    μg mL–1 cytochalasin B and 10 μg mL–1 cycloheximide in PZM-3 medium for 4 h. ZP was removed by 3.3 mg mL–1 pronase. Both zona-intact (PAZI) and zona-free (PAZF) embryos were cultured individually for 6 days either in time-lapse incubator (Embryoscope D, Unisense A/S, Aarhus, Denmark) for 15-min......). The timing of morulae was recorded when they completed compaction. Good blastocysts were defined when they expanded to 1.5 times larger than oocytes and formed regular blastocoel cavity with uniform colour and distribution of cells. Timing data were analysed by Student's t-test, while development rates....... 22, 234). In the present study, we expanded this study to include also the timing of early development and the resulting quality and robustness (for vitrification) of porcine PA embryos. Parthenogenetic activation was made first by an electric pulse (1.26 kV cm–1, 80 μs) and then by incubation with 5...

  18. New fossil findings of the mayfly genera Balticobaetisca Staniczek & Bechly, 2002 (Ephemeroptera: Baetiscidae) and Borinquena Traver 1938 (Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Godunko, Roman J.; Krzemiński, W.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 31, suppl. 1 (2009), s. 125-136 ISSN 0165-0424. [International Perspectives in Mayfly and Stonefly Research. Proceedings of the International Conference on Ephemeroptera /12./ and International Symposium on Plecoptera /16./. Stuttgart, 08.06.2008-14.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500070505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Balticobaetisca * Baetiscidae * Borinquena Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2009

  19. Aseptic minimum volume vitrification technique for porcine parthenogenetically activated blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Yu, Yutao; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars; Callesen, Henrik; Vajta, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Minimum volume vitrification may provide extremely high cooling and warming rates if the sample and the surrounding medium contacts directly with the respective liquid nitrogen and warming medium. However, this direct contact may result in microbial contamination. In this work, an earlier aseptic technique was applied for minimum volume vitrification. After equilibration, samples were loaded on a plastic film, immersed rapidly into factory derived, filter-sterilized liquid nitrogen, and sealed into sterile, pre-cooled straws. At warming, the straw was cut, the filmstrip was immersed into a 39 degree C warming medium, and the sample was stepwise rehydrated. Cryosurvival rates of porcine blastocysts produced by parthenogenetical activation did not differ from control, vitrified blastocysts with Cryotop. This approach can be used for minimum volume vitrification methods and may be suitable to overcome the biological dangers and legal restrictions that hamper the application of open vitrification techniques.

  20. Reynolds number effects on gill pumping mechanics in mayfly nymphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Andrew; Shultz, Jeffrey; Kiger, Ken

    2006-11-01

    Mayfly nymphs have an entirely aquatic life stage in which they frequently inhabit stagnant water. Nymphs have the capability to generate a ventilation current to compensate for the low oxygen level of the water by beating two linear arrays of plate-like gills that typically line the lateral edge of the abdomen. The characteristic Reynolds number associated with the gill motion changes with animal size, varying over a span of Re = 5 to 100 depending on age and species. The assumption that the system maintains optimal energetic efficiency leads to the prediction that animals transition from rowing to flapping mechanisms with increasing Re, while possibly utilizing a squeeze mechanism to a greater extent at lower Re. To investigate this hypothesis, we capture the motion of the gills through 3D imaging to investigate the effect of Reynolds number on the stroke patterns. PIV is utilized to assess flow rates and viscous dissipation. The effectiveness of the ventilation mechanism at each size has important consequences for the range of oxygen levels, and hence the habitat range, that can be tolerated by that size.

  1. The optimal period of Ca-EDTA treatment for parthenogenetic activation of porcine oocytes during maturation culture

    OpenAIRE

    MORITA, Yasuhiro; TANIGUCHI, Masayasu; TANIHARA, Fuminori; ITO, Aya; NAMULA, Zhao; DO, Lanh Thi Kim; TAKAGI, Mitsuhiro; TAKEMOTO, Tatsuya; OTOI, Takeshige

    2016-01-01

    The changes triggered by sperm-induced activation of oocytes, which are required for normal oocyte development, can be mediated by other agents, thereby inducing the parthenogenesis. In this study, we exposed porcine oocytes to 1 mM Ca-EDTA, a metal-ion chelator, at various intervals during 48 hr of in vitro maturation to determine the optimum period of Ca-EDTA treatment for parthenogenetic activation. When the oocytes were cultured with or without Ca-EDTA from 36 hr (post-12), 24 hr (post-24...

  2. Degrees of polarization of reflected light eliciting polarotaxis in dragonflies (Odonata), mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and tabanid flies (Tabanidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriska, György; Bernáth, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Horváth, Gábor

    2009-12-01

    With few exceptions insects whose larvae develop in freshwater possess positive polarotaxis, i.e., are attracted to sources of horizontally polarized light, because they detect water by means of the horizontal polarization of light reflected from the water surface. These insects can be deceived by artificial surfaces (e.g. oil lakes, asphalt roads, black plastic sheets, dark-coloured cars, black gravestones, dark glass surfaces, solar panels) reflecting highly and horizontally polarized light. Apart from the surface characteristics, the extent of such a 'polarized light pollution' depends on the illumination conditions, direction of view, and the threshold p* of polarization sensitivity of a given aquatic insect species. p* means the minimum degree of linear polarization p of reflected light that can elicit positive polarotaxis from a given insect species. Earlier there were no quantitative data on p* in aquatic insects. The aim of this work is to provide such data. Using imaging polarimetry in the red, green and blue parts of the spectrum, in multiple-choice field experiments we measured the threshold p* of ventral polarization sensitivity in mayflies, dragonflies and tabanid flies, the positive polarotaxis of which has been shown earlier. In the blue (450nm) spectral range, for example, we obtained the following thresholds: dragonflies: Enallagma cyathigerum (0%Mayflies: Baetis rhodani (32%< or =p*< or =55%), Ephemera danica, Epeorus silvicola, Rhithrogena semicolorata (55%< or =p*< or =92%). Tabanids: Tabanus bovinus, Tabanus tergestinus (32%< or =p*< or =55%), Tabanus maculicornis (55%< or =p*< or =92%).

  3. Metamorphosis Affects Metal Concentrations and Isotopic Signatures in a Mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus): Implications for the Aquatic-Terrestrial Transfer of Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesner, Jeff S; Walters, David M; Schmidt, Travis S; Kraus, Johanna M; Stricker, Craig A; Clements, William H; Wolf, Ruth E

    2017-02-21

    Insect metamorphosis often results in substantial chemical changes that can alter contaminant concentrations and fractionate isotopes. We exposed larval mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus) and their food (periphyton) to an aqueous zinc gradient (3-340 μg Zn/l) and measured zinc concentrations at different stages of metamorphosis: larval, subimago, and imago. We also measured changes in stable isotopes (δ 15 N and δ 13 C) in unexposed mayflies. Larval zinc concentrations were positively related to aqueous zinc, increasing 9-fold across the exposure gradient. Adult zinc concentrations were also positively related to aqueous zinc, but were 7-fold lower than larvae. This relationship varied according to adult substage and sex. Tissue concentrations in female imagoes were not related to exposure concentrations, but the converse was true for all other stage-by-sex combinations. Metamorphosis also increased δ 15 N by ∼0.8‰, but not δ 13 C. Thus, the main effects of metamorphosis on insect chemistry were large declines in zinc concentrations coupled with increased δ 15 N signatures. For zinc, this change was largely consistent across the aqueous exposure gradient. However, differences among sexes and stages suggest that caution is warranted when using nitrogen isotopes or metal concentrations measured in one insect stage (e.g., larvae) to assess risk to wildlife that feed on subsequent life stages (e.g., adults).

  4. Discovery of an alien species of mayfly in South America (Ephemeroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Frederico F; Gattolliat, Jean-Luc; Angeli, Kamila B; De-Souza, Márcia R; Gonçalves, Inês C; Nessimian, Jorge L; Sartori, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Despite its wide, almost worldwide distribution, the mayfly genus Cloeon Leach, 1815 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) is restricted in the Western hemisphere to North America, where a single species is reported. In the Neotropics, except for some species wrongly attributed to the genus in the past, there are no records of Cloeon. Recently, however, specimens of true Cloeon were collected along the coast of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. In order to verify the hypothesis that this species was recently introduced to Brazil, our aim was to identify the species based on morphological and molecular characters and to confirm the presence of true representatives of the genus in the Neotropics. Our results revealed that the specimens found in Brazil belong to the Afrotropical species C. smaeleni Lestage, 1924. The identity of the species, its distribution, along with its previous absence in regularly sampled sites, is a clear sign that the specimens of C. smaeleni found in Espírito Santo are introduced, well established, and that the colonization took place very recently.

  5. Thiacloprid affects trophic interaction between gammarids and mayflies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, D.; Bundschuh, M.; Schulz, R.

    2012-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides like thiacloprid enter agricultural surface waters, where they may affect predator–prey-interactions, which are of central importance for ecosystems as well as the functions these systems provide. The effects of field relevant thiacloprid concentrations on the leaf consumption of Gammarus fossarum (Amphipoda) were assessed over 96 h (n = 13–17) in conjunction with its predation on Baetis rhodani (Ephemeroptera) nymphs. The predation by Gammarus increased significantly at 0.50–1.00 μg/L. Simultaneously, its leaf consumption decreased with increasing thiacloprid concentration. As a consequence of the increased predation at 1.00 μg/L, gammarids' dry weight rose significantly by 15% compared to the control. At 4.00 μg/L, the reduced leaf consumption was not compensated by an increase in predation causing a significantly reduced dry weight of Gammarus (∼20%). These results may finally suggest that thiacloprid adversely affects trophic interactions, potentially translating into alterations in ecosystem functions, like leaf litter breakdown and aquatic-terrestrial subsidies. - Highlights: ► Field relevant thiacloprid concentrations affected gammarid and mayfly interaction. ► Gammarus leaf consumption and predation success is adversely affected. ► Gammarus growth increased due to higher predation at 1.0 μg thiacloprid/L. ► The study's results are discussed in the context of ecosystem functions. - Field relevant thiacloprid concentrations affect species interactions, which may translate to alterations in ecosystem functions.

  6. Development capacity of pre- and postpubertal pig oocytes evaluated by somatic cell nuclear transfer and parthenogenetic activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Hanne; Li, Rong; Liu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Most of the porcine oocytes used for in vitro studies are collected from gilts. Our aims were to study development capacity of gilt v. sow oocytes (pre- and postpubertal respectively) using 2 techniques illustrating development competence [parthenogenetic activation (PA) and somatic cell nuclear...... transfer (SCNT)], and to describe a simple method to select the most competent oocytes. Inside-ZP diameter of in vitro-matured gilt oocytes was measured (µm; small ≤110; medium >110; large ≥120). Gilt and sow oocytes were morphologically grouped as good (even cytoplasm, smooth cell membrane, visible...

  7. Recolonization and possible recovery of burrowing mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae: Hexagenia spp.) in Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Don W.; Krieger, Kenneth A.; Ciborowski, Jan J.H.; Corkum, Lynda D.

    2000-01-01

    Burrowing mayflies of the genus Hexagenia spp. were widely distributed (ca. 80% of sites) and abundant (ca. 160 nymphs/m2) in the western basin of Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes in 1929–1930, prior to a period of anoxia in the mid 1950s. Nymphs were absent or rare in the basin between 1961 and 1973–1975. In 1979–1991, nymphs were infrequently found (13–46% of sites) in low abundance (3–40 nymphs/m2) near shore (recolonized sediments of western Lake Erie and that their abundance may be similar to levels observed before their disappearance in the mid 1950s. However, prior to the mid 1950s, densities were greater in offshore than nearshore waters, but between 1979 and 1998 greater densities occurred near shore than offshore. In addition, there were two areas in the 1990s where low densities consistently occurred. Therefore, recovery of nymphs in western Lake Erie may not have been complete in 1998. At present we do not know the cause for the sudden recolonization of nymphs in large portions of western Lake Erie. Undoubtedly, pollution-abatement programs contributed to improved conditions that would have ultimately led to mayfly recovery in the future. However, the explosive growth of the exotic zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, undoubtedly diverted plankton foods to bottom substrates which could have increased the speed at which Hexagenia spp. nymphs recolonized sediments in western Lake Erie in the 1990s.

  8. Genome analysis of Diploscapter coronatus: insights into molecular peculiarities of a nematode with parthenogenetic reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Hideaki; Kagoshima, Hiroshi; Kraus, Christopher; Schiffer, Philipp H; Ueta, Yumiko; Kroiher, Michael; Schierenberg, Einhard; Kohara, Yuji

    2017-06-24

    Sexual reproduction involving the fusion of egg and sperm is prevailing among eukaryotes. In contrast, the nematode Diploscapter coronatus, a close relative of the model Caenorhabditis elegans, reproduces parthenogenetically. Neither males nor sperm have been observed and some steps of meiosis are apparently skipped in this species. To uncover the genomic changes associated with the evolution of parthenogenesis in this nematode, we carried out a genome analysis. We obtained a 170 Mbp draft genome in only 511 scaffolds with a N 50 length of 1 Mbp. Nearly 90% of these scaffolds constitute homologous pairs with a 5.7% heterozygosity on average and inversions and translocations, meaning that the 170 Mbp sequences correspond to the diploid genome. Fluorescent staining shows that the D. coronatus genome consists of two chromosomes (2n = 2). In our genome annotation, we found orthologs of 59% of the C. elegans genes. However, a number of genes were missing or very divergent. These include genes involved in sex determination (e.g. xol-1, tra-2) and meiosis (e.g. the kleisins rec-8 and coh-3/4) giving a possible explanation for the absence of males and the second meiotic division. The high degree of heterozygosity allowed us to analyze the expression level of individual alleles. Most of the homologous pairs show very similar expression levels but others exhibit a 2-5-fold difference. Our high-quality draft genome of D. coronatus reveals the peculiarities of the genome of parthenogenesis and provides some clues to the genetic basis for parthenogenetic reproduction. This draft genome should be the basis to elucidate fundamental questions related to parthenogenesis such as its origin and mechanisms through comparative analyses with other nematodes. Furthermore, being the closest outgroup to the genus Caenorhabditis, the draft genome will help to disclose many idiosyncrasies of the model C. elegans and its congeners in future studies.

  9. The relationship between reproductive state and "sexually" dimorphic brain areas in sexually reproducing and parthenogenetic whiptail lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, J; Crews, D

    1991-07-22

    The anterior hypothalamus-preoptic area and ventromedial hypothalamus are sexually dimorphic in the reproductively active whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus inornatus. The anterior hypothalamus-preoptic area, which is involved in the control of male-typical copulatory behaviors, is larger in males, whereas the ventromedial hypothalamus, which is involved in the control of female-typical receptivity, is larger in females. In the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard C. uniparens, which is a direct descendant of C. inornatus and exhibits both male-like and female-like pseudosexual behaviors, both brain areas are comparable in size to those of female C. inornatus. This study was conducted to determine whether these brain areas change in size in either species or sex during a time of year when these animals are reproductively inactive, or after removal of the gonads. In male C. inornatus both brain areas changed during reproductive inactivity (either seasonally or surgically induced) and became equivalent to the size characteristic of reproductively active female C. inornatus. When corrected for brain size, the anterior hypothalamus-preoptic area was significantly smaller in intact hibernating and castrated males than in intact males from the summer breeding season. Conversely, the ventromedial hypothalamus was significantly larger in intact hibernating and castrated males than in intact males from the summer breeding season. The two brain areas were not significantly different among the groups of female C. inornatus or parthenogenetic C. uniparens. These results suggest that 1) the brain of whiptail lizards may differentiate seasonally and 2) the female state may be a neutral one to which the male brain reverts during reproductive inactivity.

  10. Physiological responses to short-term thermal stress in mayfly (Neocloeon triangulifer) larvae in relation to upper thermal limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Sun; Chou, Hsuan; Funk, David H; Jackson, John K; Sweeney, Bernard W; Buchwalter, David B

    2017-07-15

    Understanding species' thermal limits and their physiological determinants is critical in light of climate change and other human activities that warm freshwater ecosystems. Here, we ask whether oxygen limitation determines the chronic upper thermal limits in larvae of the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer , an emerging model for ecological and physiological studies. Our experiments are based on a robust understanding of the upper acute (∼40°C) and chronic thermal limits of this species (>28°C, ≤30°C) derived from full life cycle rearing experiments across temperatures. We tested two related predictions derived from the hypothesis that oxygen limitation sets the chronic upper thermal limits: (1) aerobic scope declines in mayfly larvae as they approach and exceed temperatures that are chronically lethal to larvae; and (2) genes indicative of hypoxia challenge are also responsive in larvae exposed to ecologically relevant thermal limits. Neither prediction held true. We estimated aerobic scope by subtracting measurements of standard oxygen consumption rates from measurements of maximum oxygen consumption rates, the latter of which was obtained by treating with the metabolic uncoupling agent carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy) pheylhydrazone (FCCP). Aerobic scope was similar in larvae held below and above chronic thermal limits. Genes indicative of oxygen limitation (LDH, EGL-9) were only upregulated under hypoxia or during exposure to temperatures beyond the chronic (and more ecologically relevant) thermal limits of this species (LDH). Our results suggest that the chronic thermal limits of this species are likely not driven by oxygen limitation, but rather are determined by other factors, e.g. bioenergetics costs. We caution against the use of short-term thermal ramping approaches to estimate critical thermal limits (CT max ) in aquatic insects because those temperatures are typically higher than those that occur in nature. © 2017. Published by The Company of

  11. DNA methylation in porcine preimplantation embryos developed in vivo and produced by in vitro fertilization, parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Østrup, Esben

    2011-01-01

    DNA demethylation and remethylation are crucial for reprogramming of the differentiated parental/somatic genome in the recipient ooplasm upon somatic cell nuclear transfer. Here, we analyzed the DNA methylation dynamics during porcine preimplantation development. Porcine in vivo developed (IV......), in vitro fertilized (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos were evaluated for DNA methylation quantification at different developmental stages. Fertilized (IV and IVF) one-cell stages lacked a substantial active demethylation of the paternal genome...

  12. DNA methylation in porcine preimplantation embryos developed in-vivo or produced by in-vitro fertilization, parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Østrup, Esben

    2011-01-01

    DNA demethylation and remethylation are crucial for reprogramming of the differentiated parental/somatic genome in the recipient ooplasm upon somatic cell nuclear transfer. Here, we analyzed the DNA methylation dynamics during porcine preimplantation development. Porcine in vivo developed (IV......), in vitro fertilized (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos were evaluated for DNA methylation quantification at different developmental stages. Fertilized (IV and IVF) one-cell stages lacked a substantial active demethylation of the paternal genome...

  13. Lamp-lit bridges as dual light-traps for the night-swarming mayfly, Ephoron virgo: interaction of polarized and unpolarized light pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denes Szaz

    Full Text Available Ecological photopollution created by artificial night lighting can alter animal behavior and lead to population declines and biodiversity loss. Polarized light pollution is a second type of photopollution that triggers water-seeking insects to ovisposit on smooth and dark man-made objects, because they simulate the polarization signatures of natural water bodies. We document a case study of the interaction of these two forms of photopollution by conducting observations and experiments near a lamp-lit bridge over the river Danube that attracts mass swarms of the mayfly Ephoron virgo away from the river to oviposit on the asphalt road of the bridge. Millions of mayflies swarmed near bridge-lights for two weeks. We found these swarms to be composed of 99% adult females performing their upstream compensatory flight and were attracted upward toward unpolarized bridge-lamp light, and away from the horizontally polarized light trail of the river. Imaging polarimetry confirmed that the asphalt surface of the bridge was strongly and horizontally polarized, providing a supernormal ovipositional cue to Ephoron virgo, while other parts of the bridge were poor polarizers of lamplight. Collectively, we confirm that Ephoron virgo is independently attracted to both unpolarized and polarized light sources, that both types of photopollution are being produced at the bridge, and that spatial patterns of swarming and oviposition are consistent with evolved behaviors being triggered maladaptively by these two types of light pollution. We suggest solutions to bridge and lighting design that should prevent or mitigate the impacts of such scenarios in the future. The detrimental impacts of such scenarios may extend beyond Ephoron virgo.

  14. Lamp-lit bridges as dual light-traps for the night-swarming mayfly, Ephoron virgo: interaction of polarized and unpolarized light pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaz, Denes; Horvath, Gabor; Barta, Andras; Robertson, Bruce A; Farkas, Alexandra; Egri, Adam; Tarjanyi, Nikolett; Racz, Gergely; Kriska, Gyorgy

    2015-01-01

    Ecological photopollution created by artificial night lighting can alter animal behavior and lead to population declines and biodiversity loss. Polarized light pollution is a second type of photopollution that triggers water-seeking insects to ovisposit on smooth and dark man-made objects, because they simulate the polarization signatures of natural water bodies. We document a case study of the interaction of these two forms of photopollution by conducting observations and experiments near a lamp-lit bridge over the river Danube that attracts mass swarms of the mayfly Ephoron virgo away from the river to oviposit on the asphalt road of the bridge. Millions of mayflies swarmed near bridge-lights for two weeks. We found these swarms to be composed of 99% adult females performing their upstream compensatory flight and were attracted upward toward unpolarized bridge-lamp light, and away from the horizontally polarized light trail of the river. Imaging polarimetry confirmed that the asphalt surface of the bridge was strongly and horizontally polarized, providing a supernormal ovipositional cue to Ephoron virgo, while other parts of the bridge were poor polarizers of lamplight. Collectively, we confirm that Ephoron virgo is independently attracted to both unpolarized and polarized light sources, that both types of photopollution are being produced at the bridge, and that spatial patterns of swarming and oviposition are consistent with evolved behaviors being triggered maladaptively by these two types of light pollution. We suggest solutions to bridge and lighting design that should prevent or mitigate the impacts of such scenarios in the future. The detrimental impacts of such scenarios may extend beyond Ephoron virgo.

  15. Metamorphosis enhances the effects of metal exposure on the mayfly, Centroptilum triangulifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesner, Jeff S.; Kraus, Johanna M.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Walters, David M.; Clements, William H.

    2014-01-01

    The response of larval aquatic insects to stressors such as metals is used to assess the ecological condition of streams worldwide. However, nearly all larval insects metamorphose from aquatic larvae to winged adults, and recent surveys indicate that adults may be a more sensitive indicator of stream metal toxicity than larvae. One hypothesis to explain this pattern is that insects exposed to elevated metal in their larval stages have a reduced ability to successfully complete metamorphosis. To test this hypothesis we exposed late-instar larvae of the mayfly, Centroptilum triangulifer, to an aqueous Zn gradient (32–476 μg/L) in the laboratory. After 6 days of exposure, when metamorphosis began, larval survival was unaffected by zinc. However, Zn reduced wingpad development at concentrations above 139 μg/L. In contrast, emergence of subimagos and imagos tended to decline with any increase in Zn. At Zn concentrations below 105 μg/L (hardness-adjusted aquatic life criterion), survival between the wingpad and subimago stages declined 5-fold across the Zn gradient. These results support the hypothesis that metamorphosis may be a survival bottleneck, particularly in contaminated streams. Thus, death during metamorphosis may be a key mechanism explaining how stream metal contamination can impact terrestrial communities by reducing aquatic insect emergence.

  16. SEM study of diversity in the cyst surface topography of nine parthenogenetic Artemia (Crustacea: Anostraca) populations from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asem, Alireza; Sun, Shi-Chun

    2014-12-01

    The cysts of nine Chinese populations of parthenogenetic Artemia were studied by scanning electron microscope. In the 270 cysts examined, 15 different morphological patterns were recognized with most of them not recorded in previous studies and the "tubercled shell surface" being the most common pattern. Results also displayed high intrapopulation variability, with the maximum of 11 patterns (in 30 cysts) recorded from the Barkol population. No positive correlation between the diversity of cyst shell patterns and ploidy compositions was found. Principal components analysis suggests higher similarity among coastal populations than among inland populations, which may be attributed to the identity of physicochemical conditions among coastal salterns and dissimilarity among inland saline lakes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Population structure of an invasive parthenogenetic gastropod in coastal lakes and estuaries of northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A F Miranda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Estuaries and coastal lakes receive little attention despite being heavily invaded by non-indigenous invasive species (NIS. In these situations, studies of population dynamics in invaded habitats can provide valuable insights into how NIS interact with new environments. Tarebia granifera is a prosobranch gastropod from south-east Asia which has invaded other sub-tropical parts of the world. This study addresses whether a small number of key environmental factors influences gastropod communities, and specifically how the population density and size structure of T. granifera were influenced by environmental change in estuaries and coastal lakes in southern Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: T. granifera's density, number of brooded juveniles and size structure were measured at the St. Lucia Estuary, Mgobozeleni Estuary, Lake Sibaya and Lake Nhlange. Size structure was classified according to shell height (SH. All dissected individuals were found to be female and free from trematode infection. Salinity, water depth, temperature, and pH were the main factors correlated with population density of gastropod communities. T. granifera often reached densities well over 1000 ind. m(-2, displacing indigenous gastropods and becoming a dominant component of the benthic community. T. granifera successfully invaded estuaries despite frequent exposure to high salinity and desiccation, which could together eliminate >97% of the population. The persistence of T. granifera was ensured due to its high fecundity and the environmental tolerance of large adults (20-30 mm SH which carried an average of 158±12.8 SD brooded juveniles. Repeat introductions were not essential for the success of this parthenogenetic NIS. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a need for a broader study on the reproductive biology of T. granifera (including the previously overlooked "brood pouch ecology", which affects population dynamics and may be relevant to other

  18. Improved parthenogenetic development of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes activated with 9% ethanol plus 6-DMAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Y -p; Liu, Ying; Dai, Y -p

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to compare various activation protocols on developmental potential of vitrified bovine oocytes. Bovine oocytes matured in vitro for 23 h were vitrified with EDFSF30 in open pulled straws. After warming, they were cultured in vitro for 1 h, followed by parthenogenetic activation....... Vitrified-warmed oocytes had a morphologically normal rate similar to that of controls (nonvitrified oocytes cultured in vitro for 24 h; 98.6% vs. 100%, P > 0.05). When vitrified-warmed oocytes were first activated with 7% ethanol for 5 min and then incubated in 6-dimethylaminopurin (6-DMAP) for 4 h...... (for 5 min) or in combination with 6-DMAP (4 h) was used to activate vitrified-warmed oocytes, cleavage rates ranged from 22.3% to 61.1% and blastocyst rates ranged from 1.1% to 30.6%. These rates were optimized when oocytes were treated with 9% ethanol plus 6-DMAP; this was verified in experiments...

  19. Effect of ambient light exposure of media and embryos on development and quality of porcine parthenogenetically activated embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rong; Liu, Ying; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Light exposure is a common stress factor during in vitro handling of oocytes and embryos that originates from both microscope and ambient light. In the current study, the effect of two types of ambient light (daylight and laboratory light) on porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos...... was tested in two experiments: (1) ambient light on medium subsequently used for embryo in vitro development; and (2) ambient light exposure on activated oocytes before in vitro development. The results from Experiment 1 showed that exposure of culture medium to both types of ambient light decreased...... the percentage of blastocysts that showed good morphology, only after 24 h exposure. The results from Experiment 2 revealed a reduction in both blastocyst formation and quality when activated oocytes were exposed to both types of ambient light. This effect was seen after only 1 h exposure and increased with time...

  20. Differences in the genetic control of early egg development and reproduction between C. elegans and its parthenogenetic relative D. coronatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Christopher; Schiffer, Philipp H; Kagoshima, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Hideaki; Vogt, Theresa; Kroiher, Michael; Kohara, Yuji; Schierenberg, Einhard

    2017-01-01

    The free-living nematode Diploscapter coronatus is the closest known relative of Caenorhabditis elegans with parthenogenetic reproduction. It shows several developmental idiosyncracies, for example concerning the mode of reproduction, embryonic axis formation and early cleavage pattern (Lahl et al. in Int J Dev Biol 50:393-397, 2006). Our recent genome analysis (Hiraki et al. in BMC Genomics 18:478, 2017) provides a solid foundation to better understand the molecular basis of developmental idiosyncrasies in this species in an evolutionary context by comparison with selected other nematodes. Our genomic data also yielded indications for the view that D. coronatus is a product of interspecies hybridization. In a genomic comparison between D. coronatus , C. elegans , other representatives of the genus Caenorhabditis and the more distantly related Pristionchus pacificus and Panagrellus redivivus , certain genes required for central developmental processes in C. elegans like control of meiosis and establishment of embryonic polarity were found to be restricted to the genus Caenorhabditis . The mRNA content of early D. coronatus embryos was sequenced and compared with similar stages in C. elegans and Ascaris suum . We identified 350 gene families transcribed in the early embryo of D. coronatus but not in the other two nematodes. Looking at individual genes transcribed early in D. coronatus but not in C. elegans and A. suum , we found that orthologs of most of these are present in the genomes of the latter species as well, suggesting heterochronic shifts with respect to expression behavior. Considerable genomic heterozygosity and allelic divergence lend further support to the view that D. coronatus may be the result of an interspecies hybridization. Expression analysis of early acting single-copy genes yields no indication for silencing of one parental genome. Our comparative cellular and molecular studies support the view that the genus Caenorhabditis differs

  1. Differences in the genetic control of early egg development and reproduction between C. elegans and its parthenogenetic relative D. coronatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kraus

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The free-living nematode Diploscapter coronatus is the closest known relative of Caenorhabditis elegans with parthenogenetic reproduction. It shows several developmental idiosyncracies, for example concerning the mode of reproduction, embryonic axis formation and early cleavage pattern (Lahl et al. in Int J Dev Biol 50:393–397, 2006. Our recent genome analysis (Hiraki et al. in BMC Genomics 18:478, 2017 provides a solid foundation to better understand the molecular basis of developmental idiosyncrasies in this species in an evolutionary context by comparison with selected other nematodes. Our genomic data also yielded indications for the view that D. coronatus is a product of interspecies hybridization. Results In a genomic comparison between D. coronatus, C. elegans, other representatives of the genus Caenorhabditis and the more distantly related Pristionchus pacificus and Panagrellus redivivus, certain genes required for central developmental processes in C. elegans like control of meiosis and establishment of embryonic polarity were found to be restricted to the genus Caenorhabditis. The mRNA content of early D. coronatus embryos was sequenced and compared with similar stages in C. elegans and Ascaris suum. We identified 350 gene families transcribed in the early embryo of D. coronatus but not in the other two nematodes. Looking at individual genes transcribed early in D. coronatus but not in C. elegans and A. suum, we found that orthologs of most of these are present in the genomes of the latter species as well, suggesting heterochronic shifts with respect to expression behavior. Considerable genomic heterozygosity and allelic divergence lend further support to the view that D. coronatus may be the result of an interspecies hybridization. Expression analysis of early acting single-copy genes yields no indication for silencing of one parental genome. Conclusions Our comparative cellular and molecular studies support the

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation of pollen on parthenogenetic haploid production in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuny, F.; Grotte, M.; Dumas de Vaulx, R.; Rieu, A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of increasing gamma ray exposures on muskmelon pollen of the Védrantais genotype were evaluated after autofertilization and hybridization with the F1.G1 genotype. Regardless of doses of between 0.15 and 1.6 kGy, fruit set and number of seeds per fruit were comparable to those of the control. The pollen tube from pollen irradiated with up to 2.5 kGy grew in styles and reached the ovules. When pollen was cultivated in vitro, relatively high doses of irradiation (1.6 kGy) were needed to reduce the level of germination. Radiation-induced changes in the generative nucleus led to the formation of two chromosomally unbalanced sperm cells (as indicated by the appearance of morphological dimorphism) which induced parthenogenetic development of the egg to form a haploid embryo. Haploid embryo production by gamma-irradiated pollen was genotype dependent. For exposures of between 0.15 and 2.5 kGy, the production of embryos was the same, about 3.4%; a maximum of 70% of these embryos placed in a specific culture medium produced haploid plants. The ploidy of the plantlets in vitro was determined by flow cytometry. No aneuploidy was detected. All resulting plants exhibited normal phenotypes. (author) [fr

  3. Clonal diversity and clone formation in the parthenogenetic Caucasian rock Lizard Darevskia dahli [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergun, Andrey A; Martirosyan, Irena A; Semyenova, Seraphima K; Omelchenko, Andrey V; Petrosyan, Varos G; Lazebny, Oleg E; Tokarskaya, Olga N; Korchagin, Vitaly I; Ryskov, Alexey P

    2014-01-01

    The all-female Caucasian rock lizard species Darevskia dahli and other parthenogenetic species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Previously, the genetic diversity of this species was analyzed using allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and DNA fingerprint markers. In the present study, variation at three microsatellite loci was studied in 111 specimens of D. dahli from five populations from Armenia, and new information regarding clonal diversity and clone formation in D. dahli was obtained that suggests a multiple hybridization origin. All individuals but one were heterozygous at the loci studied. Based on specific allele combinations, 11 genotypes were identified among the individuals studied. Individuals with the same genotypes formed distinct clonal lineages: one major clone was represented by 72 individuals, an intermediate clone was represented by 21 individuals, and nine other clones were rare and represented by one or several individuals. A new approach based on the detection and comparison of genotype-specific markers formed by combinations of parental-specific markers was developed and used to identify at least three hybridization founder events that resulted in the initial formation of one major and two rare clones. All other clones, including the intermediate and seven rare clones, probably arose through postformation microsatellite mutations of the major clone. This approach can be used to identify hybridization founder events and to study clone formation in other unisexual taxa.

  4. An estimate of the potential number of mayfly species (Ephemeroptera, Insecta still to be described in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylena Neves Cardoso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed the data on the Brazilian Ephemeroptera, based on the studies published before July, 2013, estimated the number of species still to be described, and identified which regions of the country have been the subject of least research. More than half the species are known from the description of only one developmental stage, with imagoes being described more frequently than nymphs. The Brazilian Northeast is the region with the weakest database. Body size affected description rates, with a strong tendency for the larger species to be described first. The estimated number of unknown Brazilian species was accentuated by the fact that so few species have been described so far. The steep slope of the asymptote and the considerable confidence interval of the estimate reinforce the conclusion that a large number of species are still to be described. This emphasizes the need for investments in the training of specialists in systematics and ecology for all regions of Brazil to correct these deficiencies, given the role of published papers as a primary source of information, and the fundamental importance of taxonomic knowledge for the development of effective measures for the conservation of ephemeropteran and the aquatic ecosystems they depend on. Keywords: Biodiversity, Prediction of species diversity, Mayflies

  5. Effect of a High Dose of Three Antibiotics on the Reproduction of a Parthenogenetic Strain of Folsomia candida (Isotomidae: Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, R.; Weber, E; Waite, J

    2010-01-01

    Folsomia candida Willem (Isotomidae: Collembola) is an edaphic parthenogenetic species commonly used in ecotoxicity studies. We exposed F. candida to a high dose of three antibiotics, tylosin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline, that target different bacterial groups. Possible toxic effects were...... assessed through egg production, hatching, and body size. All three antibiotics caused toxic effects. Treatment with oxytetracycline proved the most toxic. This group showed the smallest body size and lowest number of eggs laid, likely the result of a combination of antibiotic toxicity and avoidance...... of the antibiotic spiked food. Active toxin avoidance by F. candida in toxicological assays may play a role in minimizing their exposure to toxic compounds. Despite the administration of high doses of oxytetracycline, F. candida individuals remained infected with the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia indicating...

  6. Inertia may limit efficiency of slow flapping flight, but mayflies show a strategy for reducing the power requirements of loiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usherwood, James R

    2009-01-01

    Predictions from aerodynamic theory often match biological observations very poorly. Many insects and several bird species habitually hover, frequently flying at low advance ratios. Taking helicopter-based aerodynamic theory, wings functioning predominantly for hovering, even for quite small insects, should operate at low angles of attack. However, insect wings operate at very high angles of attack during hovering; reduction in angle of attack should result in considerable energetic savings. Here, I consider the possibility that selection of kinematics is constrained from being aerodynamically optimal due to the inertial power requirements of flapping. Potential increases in aerodynamic efficiency with lower angles of attack during hovering may be outweighed by increases in inertial power due to the associated increases in flapping frequency. For simple hovering, traditional rotary-winged helicopter-like micro air vehicles would be more efficient than their flapping biomimetic counterparts. However, flapping may confer advantages in terms of top speed and manoeuvrability. If flapping-winged micro air vehicles are required to hover or loiter more efficiently, dragonflies and mayflies suggest biomimetic solutions

  7. Ways Out of the Patenting Prohibition? Human Parthenogenetic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickl, Hannah; Braun, Matthias; Dabrock, Peter

    2017-06-01

    According to the judgement of the European Court of Justice in 2014, human parthenogenetic stem cells are excluded from the patenting prohibition of procedures based on hESC by the European Biopatent Directive, because human parthenotes are not human embryos. This article is based on the thesis that in light of the technological advances in the field of stem cell research, the attribution of the term 'human embryo' to certain entities on a descriptive level as well as the attribution of a normative protection status to certain entities based on the criterion of totipotency, are becoming increasingly unclear. The example of human parthenotes in particular demonstrates that totipotency is not at all a necessary condition for the attribution of the term 'human embryo'. Furthermore, the example of hiPSC and somatic cells particularly shows that totipotency is also not a sufficient condition for the attribution of a normative protection status to certain entities. Therefore, it is not a suitable criterion for distinguishing between human embryos worthy of protection and human non-embryos not worthy of protection. Consequently, this conclusion has repercussions for the patenting question. The strict delineation between an ethically problematic commercial use of human embryos and the concomitant patenting prohibition of hESC-based procedures and an ethically unproblematic commercial use of human non-embryos and the therefore either unrestrictedly permitted (cf. human parthenotes) or even unregulated (cf. hiPSC) patenting of procedures based on these alleged alternatives becomes increasingly blurred. © 2017 The Authors. Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Sensitivity of the mayfly Adenophlebia auriculata (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) to MgSO4 and Na2SO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellemu, E. C.; Mensah, P. K.; Griffin, N. J.; Odume, O. N.

    2017-08-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) continues to deteriorate water quality in freshwater ecosystems. Sulphates, a major salt component in AMD, can exacerbate AMD effects in freshwater because salts are toxic to aquatic life in high concentrations. Sulphates are predominant in South African AMD impacted freshwater ecosystems. In this study, the sensitivity of nymphs of the mayfly Adenophlebia auriculata (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) was investigated by exposing the organisms to magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) and sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) as models of mining salinisation in short-term (96 h) and long-term (240 h) in static system tests. Short-term and long-term lethal concentrations of each salt were estimated using regression analyses. The results indicated that A. auriculata was more sensitive to MgSO4 (LC50 = 3.81 g/L) than Na2SO4 (LC50 = 8.78 g/L) after short-term exposures. However, this species became sensitive to Na2SO4 (LC10 = 0.19 g/L) but tolerant to MgSO4 (LC10 = 0.35 g/L) after long-term exposures. These results suggest that the 0.25 g/L sulphate compliance limit for South Africa is inadequate to protect A. auriculata from Na2SO4 toxicity in the long-term, yet it overprotects this species from MgSO4 exposures in the short-term. The findings of this study are an important major step in understanding the ecological effects of AMD to aquatic life.

  9. Combined effect of UV-irradiation and TiO2-nanoparticles on the predator–prey interaction of gammarids and mayfly nymphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalčíková, Gabriela; Englert, Dominic; Rosenfeldt, Ricki R.; Seitz, Frank; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    Although nanoparticle production and application increases continuously, their implications in species interactions, especially in combination with other environmental stressors, are rarely assessed. Therefore, the present study investigated the influence of 2 mg/L titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO 2 ; 2 ) as an additional environmental factor (n = 16). At the same time, gammarid's consumption of an alternative food source, i.e. leaf discs, was assessed. All endpoints covered were not affected by nTiO 2 alone, while the combination of nTiO 2 and UV caused a reduction in gammarid's predation (68%), leaf consumption (60%) and body weight (22%). These effects were most likely triggered by the UV-induced formation of reactive oxygen species by nTiO 2 . The present study, hence, highlights the importance to cover UV-irradiation during the risk assessment of nanoparticles. -- Highlights: • nTiO 2 alone did not affect gammarids leaf consumption and predation on mayfly. • Ambient UV intensities affected significantly only gammarids leaf consumption. • Irradiation of nTiO 2 by UV resulted in strong impact on both organisms. • Environmental factors alter nTiO 2 toxicity. -- UV-irradiation influences nanoparticles' ecotoxicity rising concerns about adverse effects in trophic interactions and ecosystem functions

  10. Effect of ambient light exposure of media and embryos on development and quality of porcine parthenogenetically activated embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Liu, Ying; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-06-01

    Light exposure is a common stress factor during in vitro handling of oocytes and embryos that originates from both microscope and ambient light. In the current study, the effect of two types of ambient light (daylight and laboratory light) on porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos was tested in two experiments: (1) ambient light on medium subsequently used for embryo in vitro development; and (2) ambient light exposure on activated oocytes before in vitro development. The results from Experiment 1 showed that exposure of culture medium to both types of ambient light decreased the percentage of blastocysts that showed good morphology, only after 24 h exposure. The results from Experiment 2 revealed a reduction in both blastocyst formation and quality when activated oocytes were exposed to both types of ambient light. This effect was seen after only 1 h exposure and increased with time. In conclusion, exposure to ambient light can be harmful to embryo development, both when medium is exposed for a long period of time and, to a greater extent, when the embryo itself is exposed for >1 h. In practice, it is therefore recommended to protect both culture medium and porcine embryos against ambient light during in vitro handling in the laboratory.

  11. Equivalency of Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) Embryonic Stem Cells Derived From Fertilized, Parthenogenetic, and Hand-Made Cloned Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Musharifa; Selokar, Naresh L.; Singh, Karn P.; Zandi, Mohammad; Singh, Manoj K.; Shah, Riaz A.; Chauhan, Manmohan S.; Singla, Suresh K.; Palta, Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study was aimed at establishing buffalo embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from in vitro fertilized (IVF), parthenogenetic, and hand-made cloned (HMC) embryos and to check their equivalency in terms of stem cell marker expression, longevity, proliferation, and differentiation pattern. ESCs derived from all three sources were found by immunofluorescence to express the pluripotency markers SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, OCT4, and SOX2 and were able to form embryoid bodies containing cells expressing genes specific to endoderm (AFP, HNF4, and GATA4), mesoderm (MSX1, BMP4, and ASA), and ectoderm (cytokeratin 8 and NF68). Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) showed cells from all sources to be positive for pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, STAT3, REX1, FOXD3, NUCLEOSTEMIN, and TELOMERASE. Pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and c-MYC were also analyzed by real-time PCR. No significant differences were observed among ESCs from all three sources for all these genes except NANOG, whose expression was higher (pcells (1.603±0.315 and 1±0, respectively). Pluripotent, stable buffalo ESC lines derived from IVF, parthenogenesis, and HMC embryos may be genetically manipulated to provide a powerful tool for studies involving embryonic development, genomic imprinting, gene targeting, cloning, chimera formation, and transgenic animal production. PMID:22582863

  12. Comparison of Teratoma Formation between Embryonic Stem Cells and Parthenogenetic Embryonic Stem Cells by Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Tao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With their properties of self-renewal and differentiation, embryonic stem (ES cells hold great promises for regenerative therapy. However, teratoma formation and ethical concerns of ES cells may restrict their potential clinical applications. Currently, parthenogenetic embryonic stem (pES cells have attracted the interest of researchers for its self-renewing and pluripotent differentiation while eliciting less ethic concerns. In this study, we established a model with ES and pES cells both stably transfected with a double-fusion reporter gene containing renilla luciferase (Rluc and red fluorescent protein (RFP to analyze the mechanisms of teratoma formation. Transgenic Vegfr2-luc mouse, which expresses firefly luciferase (Fluc under the promoter of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (Vegfr2-luc, was used to trace the growth of new blood vessel recruited by transplanted cells. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI of Rluc/Fluc provides an effective tool in estimating the growth and angiogenesis of teratoma in vivo. We found that the tumorigenesis and angiogenesis capacity of ES cells were higher than those of pES cells, in which VEGF/VEGFR2 signal pathway plays an important role. In conclusion, pES cells have the decreased potential of teratoma formation but meanwhile have similar differentiating capacity compared with ES cells. These data demonstrate that pES cells provide an alternative source for ES cells with the risk reduction of teratoma formation and without ethical controversy.

  13. Caddisflies as biomonitors identifying thresholds of toxic metal bioavailability that affect the stream benthos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbow, Philip S.; Hildrew, Alan G.; Smith, Brian D.; Geatches, Tim; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that bioaccumulated concentrations of toxic metals in tolerant biomonitors be used as indicators of metal bioavailability that could be calibrated against the ecological response to metals of sensitive biotic assemblages. Our hypothesis was that metal concentrations in caddisfly larvae Hydropsyche siltalai and Plectrocnemia conspersa, as tolerant biomonitors, indicate metal bioavailability in contaminated streams, and can be calibrated against metal-specific ecological responses of mayflies. Bioaccumulated concentrations of Cu, As, Zn and Pb in H. siltalai from SW English streams were related to the mayfly assemblage. Mayflies were always sparse where bioavailabilities were high and were abundant and diverse where bioavailabilities of all metals were low, a pattern particularly evident when the combined abundance of heptageniid and ephemerellid mayflies was the response variable. The results offer promise that bioaccumulated concentrations of metals in tolerant biomonitors can be used to diagnose ecological impacts on stream benthos from metal stressors. - Highlights: ► Metal concentrations in caddisfly larvae can be calibrated against mayfly ecological responses. ► Cu, As, Zn and Pb concentrations in Hydropsyche siltalai were related to stream mayfly assemblages. ► Mayflies were sparse in high metal bioavailabilities, and abundant in low bioavailabilities. ► Joint heptageniid and ephemerellid mayfly abundance was the most sensitive response variable. ► Copper, arsenic and, in one catchment, lead were the primary stressors limiting mayfly abundance. - Accumulated metal concentrations in tolerant biomonitors can be used to detect and diagnose ecological impacts on freshwater stream benthos from metal stressors.

  14. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  15. Geographic Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  16. Genetic homogeneity between two populations of the parthenogenetic lizard Aspidoscelis cozumela Homogeneidad genética entre dos poblaciones de la lagartija partenogenética Aspidoscelis cozumela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma L. Manríquez-Morán

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We used skin-grafting to assess the genetic variability between 2 populations of the parthenogenetic lizard Aspidoscelis cozumela. We transplanted 238 skin fragments among individuals of 2 coastal populations at Cozumel Island. Grafts belonging to individuals that survive more than 60 days suggested genetic homogeneity between both populations, consistent with the existence of only 1 clone within this unisexual species.Se utilizó el método de transplantes de piel para evaluar la variabilidad genética entre 2 poblaciones de la lagartija partenogenética Aspidoscelis cozumela. Se transplantaron 238 fragmentos de piel entre individuos de 2 poblaciones costeras de Isla Cozumel. Los transplantes pertenecientes a individuos que vivieron más de 60 días, mostraron homogeneidad genética entre ambas poblaciones, lo cual sugiere la existencia de 1 sólo clon dentro de esta especie unisexual.

  17. Selenium and other trace elements in aquatic insects in coal mine-affected streams in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayland, M.; Crosley, R. [Environmental Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2006-05-15

    We determined levels of Se, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn in aquatic insects at coal mine-impacted and reference sites in streams in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west central Alberta from 2001-2003. Selenium levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies but not in mayflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies and stoneflies but not in mayflies. Zn levels were higher at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in all three groups of insects. At coal mine-impacted sites, Se levels in mayflies and caddisflies were greater than those in stoneflies while at reference sites mayflies contained greater concentrations of Se than either caddisflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels in mayflies were greater than those in caddisflies at reference and coal mine-impacted sites and were greater than those in stoneflies at reference sites. At both types of sites Cd differed amongst insect taxa in the order of mayflies < caddisflies < stoneflies. The same was true of Zn at coal mine-affected sites. At reference sites, stoneflies had greater concentrations of Zn than both mayflies and caddisflies. At both types of sites, Pb levels were greater in mayflies and caddisflies than they were in stoneflies. Of the five trace elements considered in this study, only Se was sufficiently elevated in aquatic invertebrates to be of potential concern for consumers such as fish and aquatic birds. Such was the case at both coal mine-impacted and reference sites.

  18. The Effect of Geographic Units of Analysis on Measuring Geographic Variation in Medical Services Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnus M. Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effect of geographic units of analysis on measuring geographic variation in medical services utilization. For this purpose, we compared geographic variations in the rates of eight major procedures in administrative units (districts and new areal units organized based on the actual health care use of the population in Korea. Methods: To compare geographic variation in geographic units of analysis, we calculated the age–sex standardized rates of eight major procedures (coronary artery bypass graft surgery, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, surgery after hip fracture, knee-replacement surgery, caesarean section, hysterectomy, computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging scan from the National Health Insurance database in Korea for the 2013 period. Using the coefficient of variation, the extremal quotient, and the systematic component of variation, we measured geographic variation for these eight procedures in districts and new areal units. Results: Compared with districts, new areal units showed a reduction in geographic variation. Extremal quotients and inter-decile ratios for the eight procedures were lower in new areal units. While the coefficient of variation was lower for most procedures in new areal units, the pattern of change of the systematic component of variation between districts and new areal units differed among procedures. Conclusions: Geographic variation in medical service utilization could vary according to the geographic unit of analysis. To determine how geographic characteristics such as population size and number of geographic units affect geographic variation, further studies are needed.

  19. Involvement of Mos-MEK-MAPK pathway in cytostatic factor (CSF) arrest in eggs of the parthenogenetic insect, Athalia rosae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Tachibana, Kazunori; Sumitani, Megumi; Lee, Jae Min; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu

    2008-01-01

    Extensive survey of meiotic metaphase II arrest during oocyte maturation in vertebrates revealed that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway regulated by the c-mos proto-oncogene product, Mos, has an essential role in cytostatic activity, termed cytostatic factor (CSF). In contrast, little is known in invertebrates in which meiotic arrest occurs in most cases at metaphase I (MI arrest). A parthenogenetic insect, the sawfly Athalia rosae, in which artificial egg activation is practicable, has advantages to investigate the mechanisms of MI arrest. Both the MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and MAPK were phosphorylated and maintained active in MI-arrested sawfly eggs, whereas they were dephosphorylated soon after egg activation. Treatment of MI-arrested eggs with U0126, an inhibitor of MEK, resulted in dephosphorylation of MAPK and MI arrest was resumed. The sawfly c-mos gene orthologue encoding a serine/threonine kinase was cloned and analyzed. It was expressed in nurse cells in the ovaries. To examine CSF activity of the sawfly Mos, synthesized glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion sawfly Mos protein was injected into MI-resumed eggs in which MEK and MAPK were dephosphorylated. Both MEK and MAPK were phosphorylated again upon injection. In these GST-fusion sawfly Mos-injected eggs subsequent mitotic (syncytial) divisions were blocked and embryonic development was ceased. These results demonstrated that the MEK-MAPK pathway was involved in maintaining CSF arrest in sawfly eggs and Mos functioned as its upstream regulatory molecule.

  20. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  1. Preclinical study of mouse pluripotent parthenogenetic embryonic stem cell derivatives for the construction of tissue-engineered skin equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yang; Cui, Jihong; Yin, Lu; Liu, Wei; Liu, Wenguang; Sun, Mei; Yan, Xingrong; Wang, Ling; Chen, Fulin

    2016-10-22

    Embryonic stem cell (ESC) derivatives hold great promise for the construction of tissue-engineered skin equivalents (TESE). However, harvesting of ESCs destroys viable embryos and may lead to political and ethical concerns over their application. In the current study, we directed mouse parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (pESCs) to differentiate into fibroblasts, constructed TESE, and evaluated its function in vivo. The stemness marker expression and the pluripotent differentiation ability of pESCs were tested. After embryoid body (EB) formation and adherence culture, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were enriched and directed to differentiate into fibroblastic lineage. Characteristics of derived fibroblasts were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA. Functional ability of the constructed TESE was tested by a mouse skin defects repair model. Mouse pESCs expressed stemness marker and could form teratoma containing three germ layers. MSCs could be enriched from outgrowths of EBs and directed to differentiate into fibroblastic lineage. These cells express a high level of growth factors including FGF, EGF, VEGF, TGF, PDGF, and IGF1, similar to those of ESC-derived fibroblasts and mouse fibroblasts. Seeded into collagen gels, the fibroblasts derived from pESCs could form TESE. Mouse skin defects could be successfully repaired 15 days after transplantation of TESE constructed by fibroblasts derived from pESCs. pESCs could be induced to differentiate into fibroblastic lineage, which could be applied to the construction of TESE and skin defect repair. Particularly, pESC derivatives avoid the limitations of political and ethical concerns, and provide a promising source for regenerative medicine.

  2. Geographic Ontologies, Gazetteers and Multilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Laurini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different languages imply different visions of space, so that terminologies are different in geographic ontologies. In addition to their geometric shapes, geographic features have names, sometimes different in diverse languages. In addition, the role of gazetteers, as dictionaries of place names (toponyms, is to maintain relations between place names and location. The scope of geographic information retrieval is to search for geographic information not against a database, but against the whole Internet: but the Internet stores information in different languages, and it is of paramount importance not to remain stuck to a unique language. In this paper, our first step is to clarify the links between geographic objects as computer representations of geographic features, ontologies and gazetteers designed in various languages. Then, we propose some inference rules for matching not only types, but also relations in geographic ontologies with the assistance of gazetteers.

  3. Sexual characteristics and spermatogenesis in males of the parthenogenetic gecko Lepidodactylus lugubris (Reptilia, Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röll, Beate; von Düring, Monika U G

    2008-01-01

    Obligately parthenogenetic lizards usually are all-female populations of hybrids producing diploid oocytes by premeiotic endomitosis and quasi-normal meiosis. In an all-female strain of the gekkonid lizard Lepidodactylus lugubris several phenotypic males arose spontaneously. The sexual characteristics of these males were studied using light and electron microscopy and compared with normal males of the bisexual genus Lygodactylus. Emphasis was layed on morphology of seminiferous tubules, occurrence of spermatogenic stages and ultrastructure of spermatozoa. The phenotypic males possessed preanal pores filled with secretions and a sexual nephric segment which were exactly the same as in normal, reproductively active males. In the testes, density and morphology of non-spermatogenic cell types, the Leydig and Sertoli cells, indicate a normal production of testicular testosterone and a normal function of the blood-testis barrier, respectively. Both in the normal and the phenotypic males, all meiotic cell types of spermatogenesis can be recognised in the seminiferous tubules and are apparently identical, indicating a normal meiosis without impairment in the phenotypic males. In contrast, the differentiation process of spermatids is markedly disturbed in the phenotypic males of L. lugubris. In the normal male, spermiogenesis results in mature spermatids and spermatozoa with small elongated nuclei, an acrosomal complex, and a flagellar tail possessing one axoneme. Spermatozoa fill both the lumen of most seminiferous tubules and the lumina of ductus epididymidis and ductus deferens. In the phenotypic male, spermiogenesis results in seemingly normal spermatids and in spermatozoa with large, non-elongated, deformed nuclei and/or irregular tails possessing more than one axoneme. Both the lumen of most seminiferous tubules and the lumina of the ductus epididymidis and the ductus deferens contain relatively few spermatozoa. We suggest that the phenotypic males inherited the

  4. Mayfly and fish species identification and sex determination in bleak (Alburnus alburnus) by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasz, G; Takács, P; Boda, P; Varbiro, G; Pirger, Z

    2017-12-01

    Besides food quality control of fish or cephalopods, the novel mass spectrometry (MS) approaches could be effective and beneficial methods for the investigation of biodiversity in ecological research. Our aims were to verify the applicability of MALDI-TOF MS in the rapid identification of closely related species, and to further develop it for sex determination in phenotypically similar fish focusing on the low mass range. For MALDI-TOF MS spectra analysis, ClinProTools software was applied, but our observed classification was also confirmed by Self Organizing Map. For verifying the wide applicability of the method, brains from invertebrate and vertebrate species were used in order to detect the species related markers from two mayflies and eight fish as well as sex-related markers within bleak. Seven Ephemera larvae and sixty-one fish species related markers were observed and nineteen sex-related markers were identified in bleak. Similar patterns were observed between the individuals within one species. In contrast, there were markedly diverse patterns between the different species and sexes visualized by SOMs. Two different Ephemera species and male or female fish were identified with 100% accuracy. The various fish species were classified into 8 species with a high level of accuracy (96.2%). Based on MS data, dendrogram was generated from different fish species by using ClinProTools software. This MS-based dendrogram shows relatively high correspondence with the phylogenetic relationships of both the studied species and orders. In summary, MALDI-TOF MS provides a cheap, reliable, sensitive and fast identification tool for researchers in the case of closely related species using mass spectra acquired in a low mass range to define specific molecular profiles. Moreover, we presented evidence for the first time for determination of sex within one fish species by using this method. We conclude that it is a powerful tool that can revolutionize ecological and

  5. Goat oocyte quality and competence to undergo IVM and embryo development after parthenogenetic activation from goats fed with different levels of cashew nut bran as source of dietary lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, C C L; Feltrin, C; Martins, L T; Gaudêncio Neto, S; Aguiar, L H; Silva, A M; Oliveira, C H A; Silva, L M; Silva, C M G; Bertolini, M; Rondina, D

    2014-07-15

    Lipid-rich and energy-dense diets can have significant effects on the reproductive physiology, including the ovarian function and fertility. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cashew nut bran supplementation as a lipid source on follicle development, plasma and intrafollicular concentrations of cholesterol, and developmental competence of in vitro-matured goat oocytes. The inclusion of cashew nut bran as 24% of the goats' diet for 28 days increased the percentage and number of degenerated oocytes compared with the control (P diet. In conclusion, the inclusion of cashew nut bran as 24% of the diet of adult goats for 28 days changed plasma cholesterol levels and reduced the proportion of viable immature oocytes; however, the 12% and 24% diet supplementations with cashew nut bran did not interfere with competence of resulting viable oocytes to reach the metaphase II stage after IVM, and to develop after parthenogenetic activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigating the genetic and epigenetic basis of big biological questions with the parthenogenetic marbled crayfish: A review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Gunter

    2018-03-01

    In the last 15 years, considerable attempts have been undertaken to develop the obligately parthenogenetic marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis as a new model in biology. Its main advantage is the production of large numbers of offspring that are genetically identical to the mother, making this crustacean particularly suitable for research in epigenetics. Now, a draft genome, transcriptome and genome-wide methylome are available opening new windows for research. In this article, I summarize the biological advantages and genomic and epigenetic features of marbled crayfish and, based on first promising data, discuss what this new model could contribute to answering of ''big'' biological questions. Genome mining is expected to reveal new insights into the genetic specificities of decapod crustaceans, the genetic basis of arthropod reproduction, moulting and immunity, and more general topics such as the genetic underpinning of adaptation to fresh water, omnivory, biomineralization, sexual system change, behavioural variation, clonal genome evolution, and resistance to cancer. Epigenetic investigations with the marbled crayfish can help clarifying the role of epigenetic mechanisms in gene regulation, tissue specification, adult stem cell regulation, cell ageing, organ regeneration and disease susceptibility. Marbled crayfish is further suitable to elucidate the relationship between genetic and epigenetic variation, the transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic signatures and the contribution of epigenetic phenotype variation to the establishment of social hierarchies, environmental adaptation and speciation. These issues can be tackled by experiments with highly standardized laboratory lineages, comparison of differently adapted wild populations and the generation of genetically and epigenetically edited strains.

  7. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, but not including roads and highways. The database also contains geographic names in Antarctica. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other feature attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature class, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories of features the geometric boundaries. The database assigns a unique feature identifier, a random number, that is a key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling GNIS data with other data sets. The GNIS is our Nation's official repository of domestic geographic feature names information.

  8. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  9. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) for Lousiana, Geographic NAD83, USGS (2007) [GNIS_LA_USGS_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  10. Changes at the National Geographic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwille, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    For more than 125 years, National Geographic has explored the planet, unlocking its secrets and sharing them with the world. For almost thirty of those years, National Geographic has been committed to K-12 educators and geographic education through its Network of Alliances. As National Geographic begins a new chapter, they remain committed to the…

  11. Conceptual Model of Dynamic Geographic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Rosales Miguel Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In geographic environments, there are many and different types of geographic entities such as automobiles, trees, persons, buildings, storms, hurricanes, etc. These entities can be classified into two groups: geographic objects and geographic phenomena. By its nature, a geographic environment is dynamic, thus, it’s static modeling is not sufficient. Considering the dynamics of geographic environment, a new type of geographic entity called event is introduced. The primary target is a modeling of geographic environment as an event sequence, because in this case the semantic relations are much richer than in the case of static modeling. In this work, the conceptualization of this model is proposed. It is based on the idea to process each entity apart instead of processing the environment as a whole. After that, the so called history of each entity and its spatial relations to other entities are defined to describe the whole environment. The main goal is to model systems at a conceptual level that make use of spatial and temporal information, so that later it can serve as the semantic engine for such systems.

  12. Occurrence of Parthenogenesis in Potato Tuber Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Hu, Chun-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ya; Xiong, Yan; Li, Zong-Kai; Xiao, Chun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Parthenogenesis, a natural form of asexual reproduction produced from unfertilized eggs, occurs in many insects in Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, but very rarely in Lepidoptera. The current study aimed to test the larval density dependent occurrence of parthenogenesis in potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under laboratory conditions. More than 10% of females out of 25 tested females that developed from the high larval density treatment at 45 larvae per tuber were capable to reproduce asexually. Both male and female offspring were produced parthenogenetically. The sexually reproductive offspring of a laboratory parthenogenetic population had a lower egg hatch rate, shorter larval stage, and shorter male life span when compared with the non-parthenogenetic population. This suggests that the sexually reproductive offspring of parthenogenetic population have a decreased overall fitness compared to the sexually reproductive offspring of non-parthenogenetic population.

  13. Parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells with H19 siRNA-mediated knockdown as a potential resource for cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Minhye; Hong, Su; Yu, Seong-Lan; Sim, Bo-Woong; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Kang, Jaeku

    2012-02-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are used in cell therapy and tissue engineering due to their ability to produce different cells types. However, studies of ES cells that are derived from fertilized embryos have raised concerns about the limitations imposed by ethical and political considerations. Therefore, many studies of stem cells use the stem cells that are derived from unfertilized oocytes and adult tissue. Although parthenogenetic embryonic stem (ESP) cells also avoid ethical and political dilemmas and can be used in cell-based therapy, the ESP cells exhibit growth retardation problems. Therefore, to investigate the potential for muscle growth from genetically modified ESP cells, we established four ES cell types, including normal embryonic stem (ESN) cells, ESP cells, ESP cells that overexpress the insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) gene (ESI) and ESP cells with down-regulated H19 gene expression (ESH). Using these cells, we examined the expression profiles of genes that were related to imprinting and muscle using microarrays. The gene expression patterns of ESI and ESH cells were similar and were more closely related to the ESN pattern than that of the ESP cells. Differentiated ESH cells exhibited increased expression of bone morphologic protein 4 (BMP4), which is a mesoderm marker, compared with the differentiated ESI cells. We showed that Igf2 expression was induced by H19 silencing in the ESP cells via hypermethylation of the H19 imprinting control region 1 (ICR1). Moreover, the proportion of ESH-derived chimera was slightly higher than those produced from the ESP cells. In addition, we detected increased cell proliferation in the MEF cells following H19 knock-down. These results indicate that the ESH cells may be a source of cell-based therapy for conditions such as muscular atrophy.

  14. Geographical National Condition and Complex System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jiayao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of studying the complex system of geographical national conditions lies in rationally expressing the complex relationships of the “resources-environment-ecology-economy-society” system. Aiming to the problems faced by the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions, including the disunity of research contents, the inconsistency of range, the uncertainty of goals, etc.the present paper conducted a range of discussions from the perspectives of concept, theory and method, and designed some solutions based on the complex system theory and coordination degree analysis methods.By analyzing the concepts of geographical national conditions, geographical national conditions survey and geographical national conditions statistical analysis, as well as investigating the relationships between theirs, the statistical contents and the analytical range of geographical national conditions are clarified and defined. This investigation also clarifies the goals of the statistical analysis by analyzing the basic characteristics of the geographical national conditions and the complex system, and the consistency between the analysis of the degree of coordination and statistical analyses. It outlines their goals, proposes a concept for the complex system of geographical national conditions, and it describes the concept. The complex system theory provides new theoretical guidance for the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions. The degree of coordination offers new approaches on how to undertake the analysis based on the measurement method and decision-making analysis scheme upon which the complex system of geographical national conditions is based. It analyzes the overall trend via the degree of coordination of the complex system on a macro level, and it determines the direction of remediation on a micro level based on the degree of coordination among various subsystems and of single systems. These results establish

  15. Students Are As Mayflies: Strategies For Building Institutional Relationships To Enhance Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Students are like mayflies, they graduate. While undergraduate research programs, especially summer programs, may motivate individuals to take up science as a career, their impact is fleeting on the institutions that they come from. I will describe programs I created to meet this challenge. The NASA/Goddard Faculty and Student Team (FaST) grew out of the NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program. The Center selected a faculty based on a short research proposal, CV, and letters of recommendation. Those applying tended to come from primarily undergraduate or smaller universities where research opportunities were limited. The faculty member selected a student, who was also supported by FaST. Among the pleasant surprises was how this motivated the faculty to find funding for additional students. Another surprise was that the faculty member acted as a mentor to summer research students from other programs working in the same laboratory. This occurred because the visiting faculty were in the lab full time without administrative duties and they were used to working with and advising undergraduates. To build the relationship the program funded travel for the NASA colleague to the team's university in the Fall. The NSF sponsored Partnership for Research and Education in Materials is run by the Division of Materials Research. It links together research universities and minority serving institutions. Our PREM at Howard incorporated both Johns Hopkins and Prince Georges Community College. In the last two years, Gallaudet University, a university for the deaf, has become a partner. As part of the five years award renewal, our research university partner has changed and is now Cornell. The PREM runs a summer research program that supports undergraduates from Howard, PGCC and Gallaudet. Howard and PGCC students have spent summers at Hopkins or Cornell. PGCC students first spend a summer at Howard. The PGCC and Gallaudet faculty select their students who will participate in the

  16. 5 CFR 536.303 - Geographic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... after geographic conversion is the employee's existing payable rate of basic pay in effect immediately before the action. (b) Geographic conversion when a retained rate employee's official worksite is changed... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic conversion. 536.303 Section...

  17. The effects of melatonin on bovine uniparental embryos development in vitro and the hormone secretion of COCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is a unique multifunctional molecule that mediates reproductive functions in animals. In this study, we investigated the effects of melatonin on bovine parthenogenetic and androgenetic embryonic development, oocyte maturation, the reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in parthenogenetic and androgenetic embryos and cumulus—oocyte complexes (COCs hormone secretion with melatonin supplementation at four concentrations (0, 10, 20, and 30 pmol/mL, respectively. The results showed that melatonin significantly promoted the rates of bovine parthenogenetic and androgenetic embryonic cleavage and morula and blastocysts development (P < 0.05. The rate of cleavage was higher in the androgenetic embryo than that in the parthenogenetic embryo. Compared with the parthenogenetic embryos, the androgenetic embryos had a poor developmental competence from morula to blastocyst stage. Moreover, the levels of ROS were significantly lower in the parthenogenetic and androgenetic embryoes with melatonin-treated group than that of the control group (P < 0.05. Melatonin supplemented significantly increased the maturation rate of oocyte in vitro (P < 0.05. More importantly, melatonin significantly promoted the secretion of progesterone and estradiol by COCs (P < 0.05. To reveal the regulatory mechanism of melatonin on steroids synthesis, we found that steroidogenic genes (CYP11A1, CYP19A1 and StAR were upregulated, suggesting that melatonin regulated estradiol and progesterone secretion through mediating the expression of steroidogenic genes (CYP11A1, CYP19A1 and StAR. In addition, MT1 and MT2 were identified in bovine early parthenogenetic and androgenetic embryos using western blot. It could be concluded that melatonin had beneficial effects on bovine oocyte in vitro maturation, COC hormone secretion, early development of subsequent parthenogenetic and androgenetic embryos. It is inferred that melatonin could be used to enhance the efficiency of in

  18. The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System (OGIRS) is a highly interactive data entry, storage, manipulation, and display software system for use with geographically referenced data. Although originally developed for a project concerned with coal strip mine reclamation, OGIRS is capable of handling any geographically referenced data for a variety of natural resource management applications. A special effort has been made to integrate remotely sensed data into the information system. The timeliness and synoptic coverage of satellite data are particularly useful attributes for inclusion into the geographic information system.

  19. Composing Models of Geographic Physical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Barbara; Frank, Andrew U.

    Processes are central for geographic information science; yet geographic information systems (GIS) lack capabilities to represent process related information. A prerequisite to including processes in GIS software is a general method to describe geographic processes independently of application disciplines. This paper presents such a method, namely a process description language. The vocabulary of the process description language is derived formally from mathematical models. Physical processes in geography can be described in two equivalent languages: partial differential equations or partial difference equations, where the latter can be shown graphically and used as a method for application specialists to enter their process models. The vocabulary of the process description language comprises components for describing the general behavior of prototypical geographic physical processes. These process components can be composed by basic models of geographic physical processes, which is shown by means of an example.

  20. Louisiana State Soil Geographic, General Soil Map, Geographic NAD83, NWRC (1998) [statsgo_soils_NWRC_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains vector line map information. The vector data contain selected base categories of geographic features, and characteristics of these features,...

  1. Aquatic to terrestrial transfer of sediment associated persistent organic pollutants is enhanced by bioamplification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Jennifer M; Corkum, Lynda D; Drouillard, Ken G

    2011-09-01

    Ephemeral emergent insects, such as mayflies (Hexagenia spp.), are commonly used as biomonitors of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and provide a vector for aquatic-terrestrial contaminant transfer. Mayflies bioaccumulate sediment-associated contaminants by bioconcentration and biomagnification during the aquatic stage and concentrate POP residues postemergence due to bioamplification, which occurs as a result of weight and lipid loss without contaminant loss. The present study quantified polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioamplification in male and female emergent mayflies at three sites. Male mayflies used 36 to 68% of their lipids during emergence, with the exception of caged males that were prevented from flight. Females did not lose lipid content between pre-emergent nymph and emerged life stages. Mass balance indicated no PCB elimination between life stages. The mean PCB bioamplification factor, expressed as the ratio of lipid-equivalent PCB concentrations across life stages, was 2.05 ± 0.38 for male imagos/nymphs and 1.91 ± 0.18 for male imago/subimago life stages. For females, bioamplification factors were close to unity. Wildlife consumers of imago stages of emergent mayflies can potentially increase their total daily intake of PCBs by 36% depending on the sex-ratio composition of their diet relative to animals that feed predominantly on nymph or subimago stages during mass emergence events. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  2. Determinants of Dentists' Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazoglou, Tryfon J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A model for explaining the geographic distribution of dentists' practice locations is presented and applied to particular market areas in Connecticut. Results show geographic distribution is significantly related to a few key variables, including demography, disposable income, and housing prices. Implications for helping students make practice…

  3. Female parthenogenetic apomixis and androsporogenetic parthenogenesis in embryonal cells of Araucaria angustifolia: interpolation of progenesis and asexual heterospory in an artificial sporangium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durzan, Don J

    2012-09-01

    Cell fate, development timing and occurrence of reproductive versus apomictic development in gymnosperms are shown to be influenced by culture conditions in vitro. In this study, female parthenogenetic apomixis (fPA), androsporogenetic parthenogenesis (mAP) and progenesis were demonstrated using embryonal initials of Araucaria angustifolia in scaled-up cell suspensions passing through a single-cell bottleneck in darkness and in an artificial sporangium (AS). Expression was based on defined nutrition, hormones and feedforward-adaptive feedback process controls at 23-25 °C and in darkness. In fPA, the nucleus of an embryonal initial undergoes endomitosis and amitosis, forming a diploid egg-equivalent and an apoptotic ventral canal nucleus in a transdifferentiated archegonial tube. Discharge of egg-equivalent cells as parthenospores and their dispersal into the aqueous culture medium were followed by free-nuclear conifer-type proembryogenesis. This replaced the plesiomorphic and central features of proembryogenesis in Araucariaceae. Protoplasmic fusions of embryonal initials were used to reconstruct heterokaryotic expressions of fPA in multiwell plates. In mAP, restitutional meiosis (automixis) was responsible for androsporogenesis and the discharge of monads, dyads, tetrads and polyads. In a display of progenesis, reproductive development was brought to an earlier ontogenetic stage and expressed by embryonal initials. Colchicine increased polyploidy, but androspore formation became aberrant and fragmented. Aberrant automixis led to the formation of chromosomal bouquets, which contributed to genomic silencing in embryonal initials, cytomixis and the formation of pycnotic micronucleated cells. Dispersal of female and male parthenospores displayed heteromorphic asexual heterospory in an aqueous environment.

  4. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  5. The evolution of cooperation on geographical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixiao; Wang, Yi; Sheng, Jichuan

    2017-11-01

    We study evolutionary public goods game on geographical networks, i.e., complex networks which are located on a geographical plane. The geographical feature effects in two ways: In one way, the geographically-induced network structure influences the overall evolutionary dynamics, and, in the other way, the geographical length of an edge influences the cost when the two players at the two ends interact. For the latter effect, we design a new cost function of cooperators, which simply assumes that the longer the distance between two players, the higher cost the cooperator(s) of them have to pay. In this study, network substrates are generated by a previous spatial network model with a cost-benefit parameter controlling the network topology. Our simulations show that the greatest promotion of cooperation is achieved in the intermediate regime of the parameter, in which empirical estimates of various railway networks fall. Further, we investigate how the distribution of edges' geographical costs influences the evolutionary dynamics and consider three patterns of the distribution: an approximately-equal distribution, a diverse distribution, and a polarized distribution. For normal geographical networks which are generated using intermediate values of the cost-benefit parameter, a diverse distribution hinders the evolution of cooperation, whereas a polarized distribution lowers the threshold value of the amplification factor for cooperation in public goods game. These results are helpful for understanding the evolution of cooperation on real-world geographical networks.

  6. Geographical differences in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartra, Joan; García-Moral, Alba; Enrique, Ernesto

    2016-06-01

    Food allergy represents a health problem worldwide and leads to life-threatening reactions and even impairs quality of life. Epidemiological data during the past decades is very heterogeneous because of the use of different diagnostic procedures, and most studies have only been performed in specific geographical areas. The aim of this article is to review the available data on the geographical distribution of food allergies at the food source and molecular level and to link food allergy patterns to the aeroallergen influence in each area. Systematic reviews, meta-analysis, studies performed within the EuroPrevall Project and EAACI position papers regarding food allergy were analysed. The prevalence of food allergy sensitization differs between geographical areas, probably as a consequence of differences among populations, their habits and the influence of the cross-reactivity of aeroallergens and other sources of allergens. Geographical differences in food allergy are clearly evident at the allergenic molecular level, which seems to be directly influenced by the aeroallergens of each region and associated with specific clinical patterns.

  7. Representations built from a true geographic database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars

    2005-01-01

    the whole world in 3d and with a spatial reference given by geographic coordinates. Built on top of this is a customised viewer, based on the Xith(Java) scenegraph. The viewer reads the objects directly from the database and solves the question about Level-Of-Detail on buildings, orientation in relation...... a representation based on geographic and geospatial principles. The system GRIFINOR, developed at 3DGI, Aalborg University, DK, is capable of creating this object-orientation and furthermore does this on top of a true Geographic database. A true Geographic database can be characterized as a database that can cover...

  8. 25 CFR 571.10 - Geographical location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Geographical location. 571.10 Section 571.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Subpoenas and Depositions § 571.10 Geographical location. The attendance of...

  9. Socioeconomic Development Inequalities among Geographic Units ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic development inequality among geographic units is a phenomenon common in both the developed and developing countries. Regional inequality may result in dissension among geographic units of the same state due to the imbalance in socio-economic development. This study examines the inequality ...

  10. Development Trends of Cartography and Geographic Information Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jiayao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the problems of cartography and geographic information engineering and increasing demands of national and military infomationization construction, the paper proposes six hotspots on the research of cartography and geographic information engineering for the future on the foundation of analyzing the development track of cartology, which are heterogeneous geospatial data assimilation, transferring from emphasizing geography infor-mation gaining to user-oriented geographic information deep processing, web or grid geographic information service. intelligent spatial data generalization. integration of GIS and VGE. cartography and geographic information engineering theory system with multi-mode(Map,.GlS..VGE spatial-temporal integrated cognition as the core. And discusses the necessity ,existing groundwork and research contents on studying these hotspots.

  11. Using Metadata to Build Geographic Information Sharing Environment on Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-hong Sun

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet provides a convenient environment to share geographic information. Web GIS (Geographic Information System even provides users a direct access environment to geographic databases through Internet. However, the complexity of geographic data makes it difficult for users to understand the real content and the limitation of geographic information. In some cases, users may misuse the geographic data and make wrong decisions. Meanwhile, geographic data are distributed across various government agencies, academic institutes, and private organizations, which make it even more difficult for users to fully understand the content of these complex data. To overcome these difficulties, this research uses metadata as a guiding mechanism for users to fully understand the content and the limitation of geographic data. We introduce three metadata standards commonly used for geographic data and metadata authoring tools available in the US. We also review the current development of geographic metadata standard in Taiwan. Two metadata authoring tools are developed in this research, which will enable users to build their own geographic metadata easily.[Article content in Chinese

  12. Geographical Simulation and Optimization System (GeoSOS and Its Application in the Analysis of Geographic National Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the Chinese first survey on geographic national conditions has completed, an urgent need is to analyze these geographical data, such as mining of spatial distribution patterns, land use transition rules, development trends. The analysis is crucial for extracting the knowledge from these big data about geographic national conditions. The remote sensing interpretation data and land use/cover data generated by these geographic national conditions monitoring projects are the basic data sources for a variety of research and applications in terms of land use change detection, urban dynamic analysis, and urban/land use planning. The information can be used for assisting in the coordination of land resource use and decision making for urban and rural development, ecological environment protection and other issues that depends on spatial intelligent decisions. We proposed the theoretical framework of geographical simulation and optimization system (GeoSOS, which coupled geographic process simulation/prediction and spatial optimization, provides powerful theoretical support and practical tools for above researches. This paper develops the extension of GeoSOS software-GeoSOS for ArcGIS, which is an ArcGIS Add-In runs on ArcGIS platform for facilitating the above analyses. We take the urban expansion and ecological protection research in rapid urbanization area as an example, use the software to tackle a series of urbanization issues in the study area. The simulation results show that the predicted land development intensity of Guangdong Province will exceed the constraint index in 2020 according to the national development plan. However, the urbanization expansion based on the constraints of land development intensity and ecological protection can satisfy these constraints, and obtain a more compact landscape pattern. The analysis has shown that GeoSOS can be a useful tool for assisting in the analysis of geographic national conditions information

  13. Geographic Literacy and Moral Formation among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascom, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This study extends analysis of geographic literacy further by examining the relationship of geographic knowledge with the primary goal of geographic educators--cultivation of cultural understanding and moral sensitivity for global citizenry. The main aim is to examine contributors to moral formation during the university years based on a survey…

  14. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Transportation Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  15. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Historical Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  16. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Admin Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  17. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  18. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Cultural Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  19. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Landform Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  20. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  1. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Community Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  2. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Antarctica Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  3. Remote sensing research in geographic education: An alternative view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, H.; Cary, T. K.; Goward, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that within many geography departments remote sensing is viewed as a mere technique a student should learn in order to carry out true geographic research. This view inhibits both students and faculty from investigation of remotely sensed data as a new source of geographic knowledge that may alter our understanding of the Earth. The tendency is for geographers to accept these new data and analysis techniques from engineers and mathematicians without questioning the accompanying premises. This black-box approach hinders geographic applications of the new remotely sensed data and limits the geographer's contribution to further development of remote sensing observation systems. It is suggested that geographers contribute to the development of remote sensing through pursuit of basic research. This research can be encouraged, particularly among students, by demonstrating the links between geographic theory and remotely sensed observations, encouraging a healthy skepticism concerning the current understanding of these data.

  4. Personality Homophily and Geographic Distance in Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noë, Nyala; Whitaker, Roger M; Allen, Stuart M

    2018-05-24

    Personality homophily remains an understudied aspect of social networks, with the traditional focus concerning sociodemographic variables as the basis for assortativity, rather than psychological dispositions. We consider the effect of personality homophily on one of the biggest constraints to human social networks: geographic distance. We use the Big five model of personality to make predictions for each of the five facets: Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. Using a network of 313,669 Facebook users, we investigate the difference in geographic distance between homophilous pairs, in which both users scored similarly on a particular facet, and mixed pairs. In accordance with our hypotheses, we find that pairs of open and conscientious users are geographically further apart than mixed pairs. Pairs of extraverts, on the other hand, tend to be geographically closer together. We find mixed results for the Neuroticism facet, and no significant effects for the Agreeableness facet. The results are discussed in the context of personality homophily and the impact of geographic distance on social connections.

  5. Surveying and Mapping Geographical Information from the Perspective of Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÜ Guonian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It briefly reviewed the history of geographic information content development since the existence of geographic information system. It pointed out that the current definition of geographic information is always the extension from the "spatial+ attributes" basic mapping framework of geographic information. It is increasingly difficult to adapt to the analysis and application of spatial-temporal big data. From the perspective of geography research subject and content, it summarized systematically that the content and extension of the "geographic information" that geography needs. It put forward that a six-element expression model of geographic information, including spatial location, semantic description, attribute characteristics, geometric form, evolution process, and objects relationship.Under the guidance of the laws of geography, for geographical phenomenon of spatial distribution, temporal pattern and evolution process, the interaction mechanism of the integrated expression, system analysis and efficient management, it designed that a unified GIS data model which is expressed by six basic elements, a new GIS data structure driven by geographical rules and interaction, and key technologies of unstructured spatio-temporal data organization and storage. It provided that a theoretical basis and technical support for the shift from the surveying and mapping geographic information to the scientific geographic information, and it can help improving the organization, management, analysis and expression ability of the GIS of the geographical laws such as geographical pattern, evolution process, and interaction between elements.

  6. Consequences of outbreeding on phenotypic plasticity in Drosophila mercatorum wings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Kristian; Thomsen, Hans Paarup; Faurby, Søren

    2009-01-01

    A multivariate morphometric investigation was conducted on wings of two parthenogenetic Drosophila mercatorum strains and offspring (F1) of crosses between these parthenogenetic strains with highly inbred sexual individuals of the same species. The parental flies and F1 offspring were reared at t...

  7. The presence of centrioles and centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells suggests human parthenotes developed in vitro can differentiate into mature cells without a sperm centriole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bo Yon, E-mail: boyonlee@gmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Sang Woo; Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Seung Bo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sperm centriole is the progenitor of centrosomes in all somatic cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Centrioles and centrosomes exist in parthenogenetic ovarian teratoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Without a sperm centriole, parthenogenetic oocytes produce centrioles and centrosomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parthenogenetic human oocytes can develop and differentiate into mature cells. -- Abstract: In most animals, somatic cell centrosomes are inherited from the centriole of the fertilizing spermatozoa. The oocyte centriole degenerates during oogenesis, and completely disappears in metaphase II. Therefore, the embryos generated by in vitro parthenogenesis are supposed to develop without any centrioles. Exceptional acentriolar and/or acentrosomal developments are possible in mice and in some experimental cells; however, in most animals, the full developmental potential of parthenogenetic cells in vitro and the fate of their centrioles/centrosomes are not clearly understood. To predict the future of in vitro human parthenogenesis, we explored the centrioles/centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells by immunofluorescent staining and transmission electron microscopy. We confirmed the presence of centrioles and centrosomes in these well-known parthenogenetic ovarian tumor cells. Our findings clearly demonstrate that, even without a sperm centriole, parthenotes that develop from activated oocytes can produce their own centrioles/centrosomes, and can even develop into the well-differentiated mature tissue.

  8. The presence of centrioles and centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells suggests human parthenotes developed in vitro can differentiate into mature cells without a sperm centriole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bo Yon; Shim, Sang Woo; Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Seung Bo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The sperm centriole is the progenitor of centrosomes in all somatic cells. ► Centrioles and centrosomes exist in parthenogenetic ovarian teratoma cells. ► Without a sperm centriole, parthenogenetic oocytes produce centrioles and centrosomes. ► Parthenogenetic human oocytes can develop and differentiate into mature cells. -- Abstract: In most animals, somatic cell centrosomes are inherited from the centriole of the fertilizing spermatozoa. The oocyte centriole degenerates during oogenesis, and completely disappears in metaphase II. Therefore, the embryos generated by in vitro parthenogenesis are supposed to develop without any centrioles. Exceptional acentriolar and/or acentrosomal developments are possible in mice and in some experimental cells; however, in most animals, the full developmental potential of parthenogenetic cells in vitro and the fate of their centrioles/centrosomes are not clearly understood. To predict the future of in vitro human parthenogenesis, we explored the centrioles/centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells by immunofluorescent staining and transmission electron microscopy. We confirmed the presence of centrioles and centrosomes in these well-known parthenogenetic ovarian tumor cells. Our findings clearly demonstrate that, even without a sperm centriole, parthenotes that develop from activated oocytes can produce their own centrioles/centrosomes, and can even develop into the well-differentiated mature tissue.

  9. Thematic cartography as a geographical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Perko

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A thematic map may be a geographical application (tool in itself or the basis for some other geographical work. The development of Slovene thematic cartography accelerated considerably following the independence of the country in 1991. From the viewpoint of content and technology, its greatest achievements are the Geographical Atlas of Slovenia and the National Atlas of Slovenia, which are outstanding achievements at the international level and of great significance for the promotion of Slovenia and Slovene geography and cartography. However, this rapid development has been accompanied by numerous problems, for example, the ignoring of various Slovene and international conventions for the preparation of maps including United Nations resolutions, Slovene and international (SIST ISO, and copyright laws.

  10. National Geographic Education. An Interview with Gilbert M. Grosvenor, President and Chairman of the Board, National Geographic Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, Sidney R.

    1991-01-01

    Presents an interview with Gilbert Grosvenor, president and chairman of the board of the National Geographic Society. Examines student and public ignorance about geography. Describes the Society's Geography Education Project, Geographic Alliance Project, and Education Foundation. Includes Grosvenor's call for greater emphasis on geography in…

  11. Cartography and Geographic Information Science in Current Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cartography and Geographic Information Science (CaGIS journal was published as The American Cartographer from 1974 to 1989, after that as Cartography and Geographic Information System, and since then has been published with its current name. It is published by the Cartography and Geographic Information Society, a member of the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping.

  12. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  13. Hierarchical spatial organization of geographical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travencolo, Bruno A N; Costa, Luciano da F

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we propose a hierarchical extension of the polygonality index as the means to characterize geographical planar networks. By considering successive neighborhoods around each node, it is possible to obtain more complete information about the spatial order of the network at progressive spatial scales. The potential of the methodology is illustrated with respect to synthetic and real geographical networks

  14. Multiple sclerosis: a geographical hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle, I P

    1997-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis remains a rare neurological disease of unknown aetiology, with a unique distribution, both geographically and historically. Rare in equatorial regions, it becomes increasingly common in higher latitudes; historically, it was first clinically recognized in the early nineteenth century. A hypothesis, based on geographical reasoning, is here proposed: that the disease is the result of a specific vitamin deficiency. Different individuals suffer the deficiency in separate and often unique ways. Evidence to support the hypothesis exists in cultural considerations, in the global distribution of the disease, and in its historical prevalence.

  15. Dynamic management of geographic data in a virtual environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jense, G.J.; Donkers, K.

    1996-01-01

    In order to achieve true 3D user interaction with geographic information, an interface between a virtual environment system and a geographic information system has been designed and implemented. This VE/GIS interface is based on a loose coupling of the underlying geographic database and the virtual

  16. Kornati Islands on Old Geographic Maps and Charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Faričić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of cartographic sources, the paper analyses the historical and geographical development of the Kornati islands, the largest group of Croatian islands. The old maps were used first of all as the means of geographic research that, being necessarily correlated to the simultaneous historical written sources and modern topographic and maritime maps, make the basis for creating a research platform for relevant scientific results to be achieved. On the basis of the old maps it is possible, among other things to anticipate that the Kornati islands used to have great geotraffic significance on the eastern Adriatic sailing route. According to the development of geographic concepts and cartographic methods, the geographic vision of the Kornati islands has been gradually clarified ever since the 16th century. The chart from the Carta di cabotaggio del Mare Adriatico edition published by the Military and Geographic Institute from Milan (1822-1824 presents the turning point with the first complete and mostly precise presentation of the Kornati islands group on the basis of hydrographic and topographic field measurements.

  17. Comparison of immunization strategies in geographical networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Bing; Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)] [ERATO Aihara Complexity Modelling Project, JST, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8505 (Japan); Kim, Beom Jun, E-mail: beomjun@skku.ed [BK21 Physics Research Division and Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Computational Biology, School of Computer Science and Communication, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-12

    The epidemic spread and immunizations in geographically embedded scale-free (SF) and Watts-Strogatz (WS) networks are numerically investigated. We make a realistic assumption that it takes time which we call the detection time, for a vertex to be identified as infected, and implement two different immunization strategies: one is based on connection neighbors (CN) of the infected vertex with the exact information of the network structure utilized and the other is based on spatial neighbors (SN) with only geographical distances taken into account. We find that the decrease of the detection time is crucial for a successful immunization in general. Simulation results show that for both SF networks and WS networks, the SN strategy always performs better than the CN strategy, especially for more heterogeneous SF networks at long detection time. The observation is verified by checking the number of the infected nodes being immunized. We found that in geographical space, the distance preferences in the network construction process and the geographically decaying infection rate are key factors that make the SN immunization strategy outperforms the CN strategy. It indicates that even in the absence of the full knowledge of network connectivity we can still stop the epidemic spread efficiently only by using geographical information as in the SN strategy, which may have potential applications for preventing the real epidemic spread.

  18. Comparison of immunization strategies in geographical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bing; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Kim, Beom Jun

    2009-01-01

    The epidemic spread and immunizations in geographically embedded scale-free (SF) and Watts-Strogatz (WS) networks are numerically investigated. We make a realistic assumption that it takes time which we call the detection time, for a vertex to be identified as infected, and implement two different immunization strategies: one is based on connection neighbors (CN) of the infected vertex with the exact information of the network structure utilized and the other is based on spatial neighbors (SN) with only geographical distances taken into account. We find that the decrease of the detection time is crucial for a successful immunization in general. Simulation results show that for both SF networks and WS networks, the SN strategy always performs better than the CN strategy, especially for more heterogeneous SF networks at long detection time. The observation is verified by checking the number of the infected nodes being immunized. We found that in geographical space, the distance preferences in the network construction process and the geographically decaying infection rate are key factors that make the SN immunization strategy outperforms the CN strategy. It indicates that even in the absence of the full knowledge of network connectivity we can still stop the epidemic spread efficiently only by using geographical information as in the SN strategy, which may have potential applications for preventing the real epidemic spread.

  19. a Conceptual Framework for Virtual Geographic Environments Knowledge Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Lan; Lin, Hui

    2016-06-01

    VGE geographic knowledge refers to the abstract and repeatable geo-information which is related to the geo-science problem, geographical phenomena and geographical laws supported by VGE. That includes expert experiences, evolution rule, simulation processes and prediction results in VGE. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for VGE knowledge engineering in order to effectively manage and use geographic knowledge in VGE. Our approach relies on previous well established theories on knowledge engineering and VGE. The main contribution of this report is following: (1) The concepts of VGE knowledge and VGE knowledge engineering which are defined clearly; (2) features about VGE knowledge different with common knowledge; (3) geographic knowledge evolution process that help users rapidly acquire knowledge in VGE; and (4) a conceptual framework for VGE knowledge engineering providing the supporting methodologies system for building an intelligent VGE. This conceptual framework systematically describes the related VGE knowledge theories and key technologies. That will promote the rapid transformation from geodata to geographic knowledge, and furtherly reduce the gap between the data explosion and knowledge absence.

  20. Future Prospects for Geographical Education in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnic Planinc, Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with future prospects for geographical education in Slovenia, with special emphasis on the development and aims of the didactics of geography. The author discusses the past development of geographical curricula and of competencies of geography teachers, and the education of future teachers of the subject in Slovenia. Her ideas are…

  1. Generalisation of geographic information cartographic modelling and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mackaness, William A; Sarjakoski, L Tiina

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and Applied Solutions in Multi Scale MappingUsers have come to expect instant access to up-to-date geographical information, with global coverage--presented at widely varying levels of detail, as digital and paper products; customisable data that can readily combined with other geographic information. These requirements present an immense challenge to those supporting the delivery of such services (National Mapping Agencies (NMA), Government Departments, and private business. Generalisation of Geographic Information: Cartographic Modelling and Applications provides detailed review

  2. Geographical point cloud modelling with the 3D medial axis transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.Y.

    2018-01-01

    A geographical point cloud is a detailed three-dimensional representation of the geometry of our geographic environment.
    Using geographical point cloud modelling, we are able to extract valuable information from geographical point clouds that can be used for applications in asset management,

  3. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  4. Training for Internationalization through Domestic Geographical Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santangelo, Grazia D.; Stucchi, Tamara

    Traditionally created to deal with the unfriendly domestic environment, business groups (BGs) are increasingly internationalizing. However, how BGs can reconcile their strictly domestic orientation with an international dimension still remains an open question. Drawing on arguments from...... organizational learning, we seek to solve this puzzle in relation to the internationalization of Indian BGs. In particular, we argue that in heterogeneous domestic emerging markets BG’s geographical dispersion across sub-national states provides training for internationalization. To internationalize successfully......, BGs need to develop the capability of managing geographically dispersed units in institutional heterogeneous contexts. Domestic geographical dispersion would indeed help the BG dealing with different regulations, customers and infrastructures. However, there is less scope for such training as BGs...

  5. USGS Geographic Names (GNIS) Overlay Map Service from The National Map - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Geographic Names Information System (GNIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS developed The National Map (TNM) Gazetteer as the Federal and national standard (ANSI INCITS 446-2008) for geographic nomenclature based on the Geographic Names...

  6. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.

  7. Representation of geographic terrain surface using global indexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolar, Jan

    2004-01-01

    . Unlike cartographic maps, 3D models can capture the geometry of geographic features without flattening the environment, without cartographic projection?can avoid geometric distortion. More interestingly, however, 3D models can be composed into a single model spanning the whole world; it can be navigated...... visually in order to access information and data in the same geometric space as we navigate ourselves in our real environment.   This article attempts to narrow down the overhead of problems in visualization of 3D geographic information and intends to identify fundamental issues common to other systems......A global 3D geographic model a feasible solution for its visualization and management remains a challenging vision. The existence of a reusable platform would provide an unprecedented potential for development of applications related to geography and facilitate comprehension of geographic data...

  8. Geographical data structures supporting regional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.G.; Durfee, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the computer has become a valuable aid in solving regional environmental problems. Over a hundred different geographic information systems have been developed to digitize, store, analyze, and display spatially distributed data. One important aspect of these systems is the data structure (e.g. grids, polygons, segments) used to model the environment being studied. This paper presents eight common geographic data structures and their use in studies of coal resources, power plant siting, population distributions, LANDSAT imagery analysis, and landuse analysis

  9. Evolution of research in health geographics through the International Journal of Health Geographics (2002-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Sandra; Laperrière, Vincent; Borderon, Marion; Padilla, Cindy; Maignant, Gilles; Oliveau, Sébastien

    2016-01-20

    Health geographics is a fast-developing research area. Subjects broached in scientific literature are most varied, ranging from vectorial diseases to access to healthcare, with a recent revival of themes such as the implication of health in the Smart City, or a predominantly individual-centered approach. Far beyond standard meta-analyses, the present study deliberately adopts the standpoint of questioning space in its foundations, through various authors of the International Journal of Health Geographics, a highly influential journal in that field. The idea is to find space as the common denominator in this specialized literature, as well as its relation to spatial analysis, without for all that trying to tend towards exhaustive approaches. 660 articles have being published in the journal since launch, but 359 articles were selected based on the presence of the word "Space" in either the title, or the abstract or the text over 13 years of the journal's existence. From that database, a lexical analysis (tag cloud) reveals the perception of space in literature, and shows how approaches are evolving, thus underlining that the scope of health geographics is far from narrowing.

  10. Geographical Clusters of Rape in the United States: 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Raid; Nabors, Nicole S.; Nelson, Arlene M.; Saqlain, Murshid; Kulldorff, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background While rape is a very serious crime and public health problem, no spatial mapping has been attempted for rape on the national scale. This paper addresses the three research questions: (1) Are reported rape cases randomly distributed across the USA, after being adjusted for population density and age, or are there geographical clusters of reported rape cases? (2) Are the geographical clusters of reported rapes still present after adjusting for differences in poverty levels? (3) Are there geographical clusters where the proportion of reported rape cases that lead to an arrest is exceptionally low or exceptionally high? Methods We studied the geographical variation of reported rape events (2003-2012) and rape arrests (2000-2012) in the 48 contiguous states of the USA. The disease Surveillance software SaTScan™ with its spatial scan statistic is used to evaluate the spatial variation in rapes. The spatial scan statistic has been widely used as a geographical surveillance tool for diseases, and we used it to identify geographical areas with clusters of reported rape and clusters of arrest rates for rape. Results The spatial scan statistic was used to identify geographical areas with exceptionally high rates of reported rape. The analyses were adjusted for age, and in secondary analyses, for both age and poverty level. We also identified geographical areas with either a low or a high proportion of reported rapes leading to an arrest. Conclusions We have identified geographical areas with exceptionally high (low) rates of reported rape. The geographical problem areas identified are prime candidates for more intensive preventive counseling and criminal prosecution efforts by public health, social service, and law enforcement agencies Geographical clusters of high rates of reported rape are prime areas in need of expanded implementation of preventive measures, such as changing attitudes in our society toward rape crimes, in addition to having the criminal

  11. Perkembangan Praimplantasi Embrio Mencit dengan Materi Genetik yang Berasal dari Parental, Maternal, dan Inti Sel Somatik (PRE-IMPLANTATION DEVELOPMENT OF MOUSE EMBRYO WITH GENETIC MATERIAL DERIVED FROM PARENTAL, MATERNAL AND SOMATIC CELL NUCLEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Murti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloned embryo and parthenogenetic embryo are a potential source of stem cells for regenerativemedicine. Stem cells derived from those embryos are expected to overcome the ethical issues to the use offertilization embryos for therapeutic purposes. The pre-implantation development is a critical step fordeveloping embryos reach the blastocyst stage. The objectives in vivo of this research are to produce mousecloned embryo, parthenogenetic embryo, and fertilized embryo and to study stages of  in vitro pre-implantation development culture. In vivo fertilized embryos, mouse oocytes, and cumulus cells were usedin this study. Treatment was performed on female mice superovulated with PMSG and hCG injections.Two-cell stage of in vivo fertilized embryos were collected on the second day post hCG injection. Clonedembryos were produced through Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT, which included enucleation, nucleartransfer and artificial activation. Parthenogenetic embryos were produced with artificial activationtechnique. The result of the research indicated that SCNT application was able to produce cloned embryos which could develop to blastocyst stage (3,2%. In addition, artificial activation of oocytes could produceparthenogenetic embryos which were able to develop up to the blastocyst stage (8,6%. In conclusion,efficiency level of parthenogenetic embryos that is able to reach the blastocyst stage was higher than in thecloned embryos. Fertilized embryos shows a better development and more efficient compared to in vitrocloned embryos and parthenogenetic embryos cultures.

  12. Geographic Video 3d Data Model And Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Z.; Cui, C.; Kong, Y.; Wu, H.

    2014-04-01

    Geographic video includes both spatial and temporal geographic features acquired through ground-based or non-ground-based cameras. With the popularity of video capture devices such as smartphones, the volume of user-generated geographic video clips has grown significantly and the trend of this growth is quickly accelerating. Such a massive and increasing volume poses a major challenge to efficient video management and query. Most of the today's video management and query techniques are based on signal level content extraction. They are not able to fully utilize the geographic information of the videos. This paper aimed to introduce a geographic video 3D data model based on spatial information. The main idea of the model is to utilize the location, trajectory and azimuth information acquired by sensors such as GPS receivers and 3D electronic compasses in conjunction with video contents. The raw spatial information is synthesized to point, line, polygon and solid according to the camcorder parameters such as focal length and angle of view. With the video segment and video frame, we defined the three categories geometry object using the geometry model of OGC Simple Features Specification for SQL. We can query video through computing the spatial relation between query objects and three categories geometry object such as VFLocation, VSTrajectory, VSFOView and VFFovCone etc. We designed the query methods using the structured query language (SQL) in detail. The experiment indicate that the model is a multiple objective, integration, loosely coupled, flexible and extensible data model for the management of geographic stereo video.

  13. Can’t take the heat: Temperature-enhanced toxicity in the mayfly Isonychia bicolor exposed to the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, A.A.; Buchwalter, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Temperature has a strong modulating influence on toxicity in aquatic insects. • Increasing temperature decreased the time to onset of imidacloprid toxicity. • Increasing temperature increased the uptake rates of imidacloprid in different taxa. • Sublethal behavioral effects of contaminants are important to assess in toxicology. - Abstract: Neonicotinoid insecticide usage has increased globally in recent decades. Neonicotinoids, such as imidacloprid, are potent insect neurotoxicants that may pose a threat to non-target aquatic organisms, such as aquatic insects. In nature, insects typically live in thermally fluctuating conditions, which may significantly alter both contaminant exposures and affects. Here we investigate the relationship between temperature and time-to-effect for imidacloprid toxicity with the aquatic insect Isonychia bicolor, a lotic mayfly. Additionally, we examined the mechanisms driving temperature-enhanced toxicity including metabolic rate, imidacloprid uptake rate, and tissue bioconcentration. Experiments included acute toxicity tests utilizing sublethal endpoints and mortality, as well as respirometry and radiotracer assays with ["1"4C] imidacloprid. Further, we conducted additional uptake experiments with a suite of aquatic invertebrates (including I. bicolor, Neocloeon triangulifer, Macaffertium modestum, Pteronarcys proteus, Acroneuria carolinensis, and Pleuroceridae sp) to confirm and contextualize our findings from initial experiments. The 96 h EC_5_0 (immobility) for I. bicolor at 15 °C was 5.81 μg/L which was approximately 3.2 fold lower than concentrations associated with 50% mortality. Assays examining the impact of temperature were conducted at 15, 18, 21, and 24 °C and demonstrated that time-to-effect for sublethal impairment and immobility was significantly decreased with increasing temperature. Uptake experiments with ["1"4C] imidacloprid revealed that initial uptake rates were significantly increased with

  14. Can’t take the heat: Temperature-enhanced toxicity in the mayfly Isonychia bicolor exposed to the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, A.A., E-mail: aacamp@ncsu.edu; Buchwalter, D.B., E-mail: dbbuchwa@ncsu.edu

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Temperature has a strong modulating influence on toxicity in aquatic insects. • Increasing temperature decreased the time to onset of imidacloprid toxicity. • Increasing temperature increased the uptake rates of imidacloprid in different taxa. • Sublethal behavioral effects of contaminants are important to assess in toxicology. - Abstract: Neonicotinoid insecticide usage has increased globally in recent decades. Neonicotinoids, such as imidacloprid, are potent insect neurotoxicants that may pose a threat to non-target aquatic organisms, such as aquatic insects. In nature, insects typically live in thermally fluctuating conditions, which may significantly alter both contaminant exposures and affects. Here we investigate the relationship between temperature and time-to-effect for imidacloprid toxicity with the aquatic insect Isonychia bicolor, a lotic mayfly. Additionally, we examined the mechanisms driving temperature-enhanced toxicity including metabolic rate, imidacloprid uptake rate, and tissue bioconcentration. Experiments included acute toxicity tests utilizing sublethal endpoints and mortality, as well as respirometry and radiotracer assays with [{sup 14}C] imidacloprid. Further, we conducted additional uptake experiments with a suite of aquatic invertebrates (including I. bicolor, Neocloeon triangulifer, Macaffertium modestum, Pteronarcys proteus, Acroneuria carolinensis, and Pleuroceridae sp) to confirm and contextualize our findings from initial experiments. The 96 h EC{sub 50} (immobility) for I. bicolor at 15 °C was 5.81 μg/L which was approximately 3.2 fold lower than concentrations associated with 50% mortality. Assays examining the impact of temperature were conducted at 15, 18, 21, and 24 °C and demonstrated that time-to-effect for sublethal impairment and immobility was significantly decreased with increasing temperature. Uptake experiments with [{sup 14}C] imidacloprid revealed that initial uptake rates were significantly

  15. Geographic profiling survey : a preliminary examination of geographic profilers' views and experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emeno, Karla; Bennell, Craig; Snook, Brent; Taylor, Paul Jonathon

    Geographic profiling (GP) is an investigative technique that involves predicting a serial offender?s home location (or some other anchor point) based on where he or she committed a crime. Although the use of GP in police investigations appears to be on the rise, little is known about the procedure

  16. Geographical Tatoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cazetta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with maps tattooed on bodies. My interest in studying the corporeality is inserted in a broader project entitled Geographies and (in Bodies. There is several published research on tattoos, but none in particular about tattooed maps. However some of these works interested me because they present important discussions in contemporary about body modification that helped me locate the body modifications most within the culture than on the nature. At this time, I looked at pictures of geographical tattoos available in several sites of the internet.

  17. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in aquatic food chains from the Upper Sacramento River (California) and selected tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M.K.; Castleberry, D. T.; May, T. W.; Martin, B.A.; Bullard, F. N.

    1995-01-01

    Metals enter the Upper Sacramento River above Redding, California, primarily through Spring Creek, a tributary that receives acid-mine drainage from a US EPA Superfund site known locally as Iron Mountain Mine. Waterweed (Elodea canadensis) and aquatic insects (midge larvae, Chironomidae; and mayfly nymphs, Ephemeroptera) from the Sacramento River downstream from Spring Creek contained much higher concentrations of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) than did similar taxa from nearby reference tributaries not exposed to acid-mine drainage. Aquatic insects from the Sacramento River contained especially high maximum concentrations of Cu (200 mg/kg dry weight in midge larvae), Cd (23 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs), and Zn (1,700 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs). Although not always statistically significant, whole-body concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn in fishes (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis; Sacramento squawfish, Ptychocheilus grandis; and chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytasch) from the Sacramento River were generally higher than in fishes from the reference tributaries.

  18. EnviroDIY ModularSensors: A Library to give Environmental Sensors a Common Interface of Functions for use with Arduino-Compatible Dataloggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Damiano, S. G.; Hicks, S.; Horsburgh, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    EnviroDIY is a community for do-it-yourself environmental science and monitoring (https://envirodiy.org), largely focused on sharing ideas for developing Arduino-compatible open-source sensor stations, similar to the EnviroDIY Mayfly datalogger (http://envirodiy.org/mayfly/). Here we present the ModularSensors Arduino code library (https://github.com/EnviroDIY/ModularSensors), deisigned to give all sensors and variables a common interface of functions and returns and to make it very easy to iterate through and log data from many sensors and variables. This library was written primarily for the EnviroDIY Mayfly, but we have begun to test it on other Arduino based boards. We will show the large number of developed sensor interfaces, and examples of using this library code to stream near real time data to the new EnviroDIY Water Quality Data Portal (http://data.envirodiy.org/), a data and software system based on the Observations Data Model v2 (http://www.odm2.org).

  19. Geographic variation in gorilla limb bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Rebecca S; Pearman, Tessa L

    2016-06-01

    Gorilla systematics has received increased attention over recent decades from primatologists, conservationists, and paleontologists. Studies of geographic variation in DNA, skulls, and teeth have led to new taxonomic proposals, such as recognition of two gorilla species, Gorilla gorilla (western gorilla) and Gorilla beringei (eastern gorilla). Postcranial differences between mountain gorillas (G. beringei beringei) and western lowland gorillas (G. g. gorilla) have a long history of study, but differences between the limb bones of the eastern and western species have not yet been examined with an emphasis on geographic variation within each species. In addition, proposals for recognition of the Cross River gorilla as Gorilla gorilla diehli and gorillas from Tshiaberimu and Kahuzi as G. b. rex-pymaeorum have not been evaluated in the context of geographic variation in the forelimb and hindlimb skeletons. Forty-three linear measurements were collected from limb bones of 266 adult gorillas representing populations of G. b. beringei, Gorilla beringei graueri, G. g. gorilla, and G. g. diehli in order to investigate geographic diversity. Skeletal elements included the humerus, radius, third metacarpal, third proximal hand phalanx, femur, tibia, calcaneus, first metatarsal, third metatarsal, and third proximal foot phalanx. Comparisons of means and principal components analyses clearly differentiate eastern and western gorillas, indicating that eastern gorillas have absolutely and relatively smaller hands and feet, among other differences. Gorilla subspecies and populations cluster consistently by species, although G. g. diehli may be similar to the eastern gorillas in having small hands and feet. The subspecies of G. beringei are distinguished less strongly and by different variables than the two gorilla species. Populations of G. b. graueri are variable, and Kahuzi and Tshiaberimu specimens do not cluster together. Results support the possible influence of

  20. LEGAL INSTRUMENT FOR PROTECTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION PRODUCT IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almusawir Nansa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As an archipelago country, Indonesia comprises of a large territory where every region is capable of producing distinctive and characterized products due to its geographical, social, and cultural factors, in addition to its higher quality compared to imported products. In the market, goods with distinct characterization as a result of various geographical locations of production regions is known as Geographical Indication Products. Geographical Indication defines as a characterization that indicates the origin of a product, which includes several influencing factors such as geographical factor, natural factor, human factor or the combination of both factors which eventually contribute to establish a certain distinction and quality upon a product. Several geographical indicated products in Indonesia are widely known to have excellent reputation on the market, namely Delinese tobacco, Temanggung tobacco, Ciancur rice, Muntok white pepper, Lampung black pepper, Kerinci cinnamon, Cilembu cassava, Bandanese nutmeg, Proboliggo sweet mango, Balinese Kintamani coffee, Kalosi coffee, Papuan matoa, etc. Those are several richness of goods from certain regions in Indonesia widely known for their characterization. Characterization of goods are resulted by variation of geographic locations of producing regions in Indonesia. These goods possess high quality and high economic value. Consequently, certain instruments are required to provide protection upon the regions producing those goods against the act of counterfeiting.

  1. The National Geographic Names Data Base: Phase II instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Donald J.; Payne, Roger L.

    1987-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System is a computer-based information system developed to meet major national needs by providing information for named entities in the United States, its territories, and outlying areas. The National Geographic Names Data Base, a component of the Geographic Names Information System, currently contains most names and associated information recorded on the 1:24,000-scale (or largest scale available) topographic maps of the U.S. Geological Survey. The work involved in this initial compilation of names shown on the topographic-map series, and the development and editing of the National Geographic Names Data Base, is referred to as Phase I. Optimal use and effectiveness of an automated names system require that the names of features

  2. Interoperability of Geographic Information: A Communication Process –Based Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Brodeur

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 1990, municipal, state/provincial, and federal governments have developed numerous geographic databases over the years to fulfill organizations' specific needs. As such, same real world topographic phenomena have been abstracted differently, for instance vegetation (surface, trees (surface, wooded area (line, wooded area (point and line, milieu boisé (surface, zone boisée (unknown geometry. Today, information about these geographic phenomena is accessible on the Internet from Web infrastructures specially developed to simplify their access. Early in the nineties, the development of interoperability of geographic information has been undertaken to solve syntactic, structural, and semantic heterogeneities as well as spatial and temporal heterogeneities to facilitate sharing and integration of such data. Recently, we have proposed a new conceptual framework for interoperability of geographic information based on the human communication process, cognitive science, and ontology, and introduced geosemantic proximity, a reasoning methodology to qualify dynamically the semantic similarity between geographic abstractions. This framework could be of interest to other disciplines. This paper presents the details of our framework for interoperability of geographic information as well as a prototype.

  3. The significant surface-water connectivity of "geographically isolated wetlands"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Mushet, David M.; Alexander, Laurie C.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Richter, Stephen; Walls, Susan

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the current literature, coupled with our collective research expertise, on surface-water connectivity of wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” (sensu Tiner Wetlands 23:494–516, 2003a) to critically assess the scientific foundation of grouping wetlands based on the singular condition of being surrounded by uplands. The most recent research on wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” shows the difficulties in grouping an ecological resource that does not reliably indicate lack of surface water connectivity in order to meet legal, regulatory, or scientific needs. Additionally, the practice of identifying “geographically isolated wetlands” based on distance from a stream can result in gross overestimates of the number of wetlands lacking ecologically important surface-water connections. Our findings do not support use of the overly simplistic label of “geographically isolated wetlands”. Wetlands surrounded by uplands vary in function and surface-water connections based on wetland landscape setting, context, climate, and geographic region and should be evaluated as such. We found that the “geographically isolated” grouping does not reflect our understanding of the hydrologic variability of these wetlands and hence does not benefit conservation of the Nation’s diverse wetland resources. Therefore, we strongly discourage use of categorizations that provide overly simplistic views of surface-water connectivity of wetlands fully embedded in upland landscapes.

  4. Geographic Differences in the Earnings of Economics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, John V.; Xu, Weineng

    2014-01-01

    Economics has been shown to be a relatively high-earning college major, but geographic differences in earnings have been largely overlooked. The authors of this article use the American Community Survey to examine geographic differences in both absolute earnings and relative earnings for economics majors. They find that there are substantial…

  5. Geographic disparity in kidney transplantation under KAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng; Massie, Allan B; Luo, Xun; Ruck, Jessica M; Chow, Eric K H; Bowring, Mary G; Bae, Sunjae; Segev, Dorry L; Gentry, Sommer E

    2017-12-12

    The Kidney Allocation System fundamentally altered kidney allocation, causing a substantial increase in regional and national sharing that we hypothesized might impact geographic disparities. We measured geographic disparity in deceased donor kidney transplant (DDKT) rate under KAS (6/1/2015-12/1/2016), and compared that with pre-KAS (6/1/2013-12/3/2014). We modeled DSA-level DDKT rates with multilevel Poisson regression, adjusting for allocation factors under KAS. Using the model we calculated a novel, improved metric of geographic disparity: the median incidence rate ratio (MIRR) of transplant rate, a measure of DSA-level variation that accounts for patient casemix and is robust to outlier values. Under KAS, MIRR was 1.75 1.81 1.86 for adults, meaning that similar candidates across different DSAs have a median 1.81-fold difference in DDKT rate. The impact of geography was greater than the impact of factors emphasized by KAS: having an EPTS score ≤20% was associated with a 1.40-fold increase (IRR =  1.35 1.40 1.45 , P geographic disparities with KAS (P = .3). Despite extensive changes to kidney allocation under KAS, geography remains a primary determinant of access to DDKT. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Formal Ontologies and Uncertainty. In Geographical Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Caglioni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Formal ontologies have proved to be a very useful tool to manage interoperability among data, systems and knowledge. In this paper we will show how formal ontologies can evolve from a crisp, deterministic framework (ontologies of hard knowledge to new probabilistic, fuzzy or possibilistic frameworks (ontologies of soft knowledge. This can considerably enlarge the application potential of formal ontologies in geographic analysis and planning, where soft knowledge is intrinsically linked to the complexity of the phenomena under study.  The paper briefly presents these new uncertainty-based formal ontologies. It then highlights how ontologies are formal tools to define both concepts and relations among concepts. An example from the domain of urban geography finally shows how the cause-to-effect relation between household preferences and urban sprawl can be encoded within a crisp, a probabilistic and a possibilistic ontology, respectively. The ontology formalism will also determine the kind of reasoning that can be developed from available knowledge. Uncertain ontologies can be seen as the preliminary phase of more complex uncertainty-based models. The advantages of moving to uncertainty-based models is evident: whether it is in the analysis of geographic space or in decision support for planning, reasoning on geographic space is almost always reasoning with uncertain knowledge of geographic phenomena.

  7. Geographical Gradients in Argentinean Terrestrial Mammal Species Richness and Their Environmental Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Ana L.; Real, Raimundo; Kin, Marta S.; Guerrero, José Carlos; Galván, Betina; Barbosa, A. Márcia; Olivero, Jesús; Palomo, L. Javier; Vargas, J. Mario; Justo, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    We analysed the main geographical trends of terrestrial mammal species richness (SR) in Argentina, assessing how broad-scale environmental variation (defined by climatic and topographic variables) and the spatial form of the country (defined by spatial filters based on spatial eigenvector mapping (SEVM)) influence the kinds and the numbers of mammal species along these geographical trends. We also evaluated if there are pure geographical trends not accounted for by the environmental or spatial factors. The environmental variables and spatial filters that simultaneously correlated with the geographical variables and SR were considered potential causes of the geographic trends. We performed partial correlations between SR and the geographical variables, maintaining the selected explanatory variables statistically constant, to determine if SR was fully explained by them or if a significant residual geographic pattern remained. All groups and subgroups presented a latitudinal gradient not attributable to the spatial form of the country. Most of these trends were not explained by climate. We used a variation partitioning procedure to quantify the pure geographic trend (PGT) that remained unaccounted for. The PGT was larger for latitudinal than for longitudinal gradients. This suggests that historical or purely geographical causes may also be relevant drivers of these geographical gradients in mammal diversity. PMID:23028254

  8. Geographical Gradients in Argentinean Terrestrial Mammal Species Richness and Their Environmental Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Márquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the main geographical trends of terrestrial mammal species richness (SR in Argentina, assessing how broad-scale environmental variation (defined by climatic and topographic variables and the spatial form of the country (defined by spatial filters based on spatial eigenvector mapping (SEVM influence the kinds and the numbers of mammal species along these geographical trends. We also evaluated if there are pure geographical trends not accounted for by the environmental or spatial factors. The environmental variables and spatial filters that simultaneously correlated with the geographical variables and SR were considered potential causes of the geographic trends. We performed partial correlations between SR and the geographical variables, maintaining the selected explanatory variables statistically constant, to determine if SR was fully explained by them or if a significant residual geographic pattern remained. All groups and subgroups presented a latitudinal gradient not attributable to the spatial form of the country. Most of these trends were not explained by climate. We used a variation partitioning procedure to quantify the pure geographic trend (PGT that remained unaccounted for. The PGT was larger for latitudinal than for longitudinal gradients. This suggests that historical or purely geographical causes may also be relevant drivers of these geographical gradients in mammal diversity.

  9. SCHOOL LINGUISTIC CREATIVITY BASED ON SCIENTIFIC GEOGRAPHICAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA BLÎNDĂ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and observation of the natural environment and of the social and economic one, observing phenomena, objects, beings, and geographical events are at the basis of producing geographical scientific texts. The symbols of iconotexts and cartotexts are another source of inspiration for linguistic interpretation. The linguistic creations that we selected for our study are the scientific analysis, the commentary, the characterization, the parallel, the synthesis, epitomizing and abstracting, the scientific communication, the essay, and the scientific description. The representations on maps, photos, graphics and profiles are translated into verbal or written expression in order to render geographical scientific information from diagrams and images through diverse discursive procedures. Through school linguistic creations, teachers develop their students’ observation spirit, in a written and oral form, their geographical thinking through metaphors, they develop and stimulate their students’ imagination and fantasy, their cognitive, reflexive and affective sensitivity, their abilities to express themselves, to present and argument in a scientific way according to different criteria (sufficiency, demonstrative reasoning, lineal reasoning, pros and cons, giving examples, inferential deduction through using truth tables, etc.. Trough description, students give names and define geographical objects and beings (plants, animals, and people according to their form and aspect, they explain toponyms and appellatives, they classify and make hierarchies, they define their identity through processes of differentiation, emblematizing, personification, location in time and space.

  10. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  11. CYBERNETICS AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION: CYBERNETICS OF LEARNING AND LEARNING OF CYBERNETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Arpentieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern geographical education implies a broad implementation of innovative technologies, allowing students to fully and deeply understand the subject and methods of professional activity, and effectively and productively act upon this understanding. Therefore, in the work of modern geographer computer and media technologies occupy a significant place, and geographic education occupies an important place in learning cybernetic disciplines: computer technologies act as an important condition for obtaining high quality professional education, as well as an important tool of professional activity of modern specialist-geographer. The article is devoted to comparing three modern approaches to the study and optimization of training Cybernetics and programming in the framework of geographical education: an approach devoted to the study of “learning styles”; the metacognitive approach to learning computer science and programming; and intersubjective, evergetic or actually cybernetic, approach. It describes their advantages and limitations in the context of geographical education, as well as the internal unity as different forms of study of productivity and conditions of the dialogical interaction between teacher and student in the context of obtaining high-quality geographical education.

  12. Behavioral facilitation of reproduction in sexual and unisexual whiptail lizards.

    OpenAIRE

    Crews, D; Grassman, M; Lindzey, J

    1986-01-01

    All-female, parthenogenetic species afford a unique test of hypotheses regarding the nature and evolution of sexuality. Mating behavior accomplishes the transfer of gametes and stimulates the coordination of reproductive activity of the male and female. Cnemidophorus uniparens, a parthenogenetic species, is believed to have resulted from the hybridization of two extant gonochoristic species, Cnemidophorus inornatus and Cnemidophorus gularis. C. uniparens regularly and reliably perform behavio...

  13. 47 CFR 22.911 - Cellular geographic service area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cellular Geographic Service Area (CGSA) of a cellular system is the geographic area considered by the FCC... application for modification of the CGSA using FCC Form 601, a depiction of what the carrier believes the CGSA... location and the locus of points where the predicted or measured median field strength finally drops to 32...

  14. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  15. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  16. Storytelling in Interactive 3D Geographic Visualization Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Thöny

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of interactive geographic maps is to provide geographic information to a large audience in a captivating and intuitive way. Storytelling helps to create exciting experiences and to explain complex or otherwise hidden relationships of geospatial data. Furthermore, interactive 3D applications offer a wide range of attractive elements for advanced visual story creation and offer the possibility to convey the same story in many different ways. In this paper, we discuss and analyze storytelling techniques in 3D geographic visualizations so that authors and developers working with geospatial data can use these techniques to conceptualize their visualization and interaction design. Finally, we outline two examples which apply the given concepts.

  17. Research and implementation of geographic information service mode in digital home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, B.; Liu, K.; Gan, Y.; Zhong, M.

    2014-04-01

    Accompanying infrastructure improvements and networking technology innovation, the development of digital home service industry has gotten more and more attention. However, the digital home service levels have not sufficiently met rising demand from users. Therefore, it is urgent to propose and develop new service modes for the digital home. Geographic information services can provide various spatial information services such as map search, spatial information query. It has become an inevitable trend to implement geographic information services in the digital home. This paper proposes three new geographic information services modes for the digital home after sufficient requirement analysis: pushed information service mode, interactive information service mode, personalized information service mode. The key technologies to implement geographic information services on digital televisions are studied, involving digital television middleware technology, network transmission technology and visualization technology. According to the service modes' characteristics mentioned above, a service system in the digital home is established to implement geographic information services on the basis of digital television. The implementation of geographic information services in the digital home not only enriches the digital home services content, but also promotes geographic information from specialization to public popularity.

  18. Random-growth urban model with geographical fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kii, Masanobu; Akimoto, Keigo; Doi, Kenji

    2012-12-01

    This paper formulates a random-growth urban model with a notion of geographical fitness. Using techniques of complex-network theory, we study our system as a type of preferential-attachment model with fitness, and we analyze its macro behavior to clarify the properties of the city-size distributions it predicts. First, restricting the geographical fitness to take positive values and using a continuum approach, we show that the city-size distributions predicted by our model asymptotically approach Pareto distributions with coefficients greater than unity. Then, allowing the geographical fitness to take negative values, we perform local coefficient analysis to show that the predicted city-size distributions can deviate from Pareto distributions, as is often observed in actual city-size distributions. As a result, the model we propose can generate a generic class of city-size distributions, including but not limited to Pareto distributions. For applications to city-population projections, our simple model requires randomness only when new cities are created, not during their subsequent growth. This property leads to smooth trajectories of city population growth, in contrast to other models using Gibrat’s law. In addition, a discrete form of our dynamical equations can be used to estimate past city populations based on present-day data; this fact allows quantitative assessment of the performance of our model. Further study is needed to determine appropriate formulas for the geographical fitness.

  19. GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION MEDIATIZATION AND MEDIASECURITY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Arpentieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the interaction of legal and moral development of media technologies in the context of geographical education. The article summarizes the experience of the theoretical analysis of mediatization in geographic education, the legal and moral aspects of the disorders and ways of their prevention and correction in the process of educational interaction between teacher and student, between student and teacher, mediated mediatechnologies. It is noted that geographical education in the modern world is education, which is closely associated with the use of media technologies. In other types of education the role of media technologies in improving the quality of education is less obvious, in the field of teaching and learning geography, it speaks very clearly. Therefore, the problems associated with its mediatization, are very important and their solution is particularly compelling. These issues are primarily associated with actively flowing social, economic, political and ideological crisis in many communities and countries of the Earth. Many of them as in the “mirror” are reflected in the sphere of high technologies, including media technologies. The article provides guidance and direction to the correction of violations at the individual and social levels.

  20. Ontology for cell-based geographic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Huang, Lina; Lu, Xinhai

    2009-10-01

    Inter-operability is a key notion in geographic information science (GIS) for the sharing of geographic information (GI). That requires a seamless translation among different information sources. Ontology is enrolled in GI discovery to settle the semantic conflicts for its natural language appearance and logical hierarchy structure, which are considered to be able to provide better context for both human understanding and machine cognition in describing the location and relationships in the geographic world. However, for the current, most studies on field ontology are deduced from philosophical theme and not applicable for the raster expression in GIS-which is a kind of field-like phenomenon but does not physically coincide to the general concept of philosophical field (mostly comes from the physics concepts). That's why we specifically discuss the cell-based GI ontology in this paper. The discussion starts at the investigation of the physical characteristics of cell-based raster GI. Then, a unified cell-based GI ontology framework for the recognition of the raster objects is introduced, from which a conceptual interface for the connection of the human epistemology and the computer world so called "endurant-occurrant window" is developed for the better raster GI discovery and sharing.

  1. SCHOOL LINGUISTIC CREATIVITY BASED ON SCIENTIFIC GEOGRAPHICAL TEXTS

    OpenAIRE

    VIORICA BLÎNDĂ

    2012-01-01

    The analysis and observation of the natural environment and of the social and economic one, observing phenomena, objects, beings, and geographical events are at the basis of producing geographical scientific texts. The symbols of iconotexts and cartotexts are another source of inspiration for linguistic interpretation. The linguistic creations that we selected for our study are the scientific analysis, the commentary, the characteriz...

  2. Louisiana Parishes, Geographic NAD83, USGS (1998) [parishes_USGS_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains vector line map information. The vector data contain selected base categories of geographic features, and characteristics of these features,...

  3. Louisiana Geology, Geographic NAD83, NWRC (1998) [geology_NWRC_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains vector line map information. The vector data contain selected base categories of geographic features, and characteristics of these features,...

  4. Geographic Knowledge Extraction and Semantic Similarity in OpenStreetMap

    OpenAIRE

    Ballatore, Andrea; Bertolotto, Michela; Wilson, David C.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, a web phenomenon known as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) has produced large crowdsourced geographic data sets. OpenStreetMap (OSM), the leading VGI project, aims at building an open-content world map through user contributions. OSM semantics consists of a set of properties (called 'tags') describing geographic classes, whose usage is defined by project contributors on a dedicated Wiki website. Because of its simple and open semantic structure, the OSM approach often...

  5. Geographic variation in health insurance benefit in Qianjiang District, China

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Ting; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Health insurance coverage is of great importance; yet, it is unclear whether there is some geographic variation in health insurance benefit for urban and rural patients covered by a same basic health insurance, especially in China.Objective: To identify the potential geographic variation in health insurance benefit and its possible socioeconomic and geographical factors at the town level.Methods: All the beneficiaries underthe health insurance who had the in-hospital experience in...

  6. Development of the OCRWM transportation geographic information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, M. III; McGuinn, E.J.; Osborne, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for disposing of the nation's high-level radioactive waste. Current plans call for OCRWM to ship commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 77 individual reactor sites to a central facility for disposal. The Transportation Geographic Information System (TGIS) is a valuable tool in planning for the SNF shipments and communicating with the public regarding the shipments. The TGIS consists of a geographic information system (GIS) combined with a set of databases that provide data on specific geographic areas, transportation networks, and point locations. Planning activities may include analyzing possible routing options or criteria, highlighting route-specific attributes such as the location of culturally sensitive areas, providing route-specific data such as accident statistics, determining the affected population density along a route to support risk assessment activities, or providing emergency response information such as responder locations and hospitals along the proposed routes. The TGIS is a useful communication tool in helping to address the public's concern over how the shipments will be managed, particularly in the area of route selection by providing graphic portrayals of potential routes in their true geographic contexts

  7. Geographic mobility of Danish dual-erner couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between geographical residence and job mobility for Danish dual-earner couples. We estimate the probability of moving residence and changing job, taking the interdependence between the events into account. The results point to the importance of addressing the interrela......We analyze the relationship between geographical residence and job mobility for Danish dual-earner couples. We estimate the probability of moving residence and changing job, taking the interdependence between the events into account. The results point to the importance of addressing...

  8. Estimating the accuracy of geographical imputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscoe Francis P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the number of non-geocoded cases researchers and organizations sometimes include cases geocoded to postal code centroids along with cases geocoded with the greater precision of a full street address. Some analysts then use the postal code to assign information to the cases from finer-level geographies such as a census tract. Assignment is commonly completed using either a postal centroid or by a geographical imputation method which assigns a location by using both the demographic characteristics of the case and the population characteristics of the postal delivery area. To date no systematic evaluation of geographical imputation methods ("geo-imputation" has been completed. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of census tract assignment using geo-imputation. Methods Using a large dataset of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer cases reported to the New Jersey Cancer Registry, we determined how often cases were assigned to the correct census tract using alternate strategies of demographic based geo-imputation, and using assignments obtained from postal code centroids. Assignment accuracy was measured by comparing the tract assigned with the tract originally identified from the full street address. Results Assigning cases to census tracts using the race/ethnicity population distribution within a postal code resulted in more correctly assigned cases than when using postal code centroids. The addition of age characteristics increased the match rates even further. Match rates were highly dependent on both the geographic distribution of race/ethnicity groups and population density. Conclusion Geo-imputation appears to offer some advantages and no serious drawbacks as compared with the alternative of assigning cases to census tracts based on postal code centroids. For a specific analysis, researchers will still need to consider the potential impact of geocoding quality on their results and evaluate

  9. Developing Trainee Teacher Practice with Geographical Information Systems (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    There is general agreement that geographical information systems (GIS) have a place within the geography classroom; they offer the potential to support geographical learning, exploring real-world problems through student-centred learning, and developing spatial thinking. Despite this, teachers often avoid engaging with GIS and research suggests…

  10. ROMANIA: GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOPOLITICAL POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Beniamin Benea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to bring to the reader’s attention the importance of understanding the role education plays in creating a good geopolitical position for a state which has a good geographical position, and which is well endowed in natural resources. The case of Romania is the main focus of the paper. There is presented a peculiar strange situation of a country (Romania which is very well located from geographical point of view but which is incapable to exploit its natural endowments and special location. One reason for this situation is the fact that most people living in present Romania belong to a category named in this paper ‘individuals’. Individuals are not aware of their country’s geography and history, let alone its possible future development possibilities. They do not know the role their country could play, and living in an atomized society, they choose emigration as the easiest way to escape harsh social and economic environment. Contrary to this attitude is that of a citizen, a man conscious about his country’s potential, and which is dedicated to work hardly together with his fellows in order to promote national interests in a peaceful manner. Even there was found remnants of an ancient city close to present day Romanian territory – proves of well endowed environment – moral and psychological factors have contributed after 1990 in an crucial manner to push Romania from its civilization path back to the archaic spirit, from active urban spirit to rural mentality. In such a situation it is not uncommon for a nation to lose its means for projecting power, which could promote the value and the importance of a geographical position – transportation; rural mentality has nothing to do with modern transportation as they are technical tools with geopolitical essence for controlling space. It is a well known fact that transportation and geopolitics are closely interrelated. Furthermore, social dissolution in post communist

  11. The Influence of Technology on Geographic Cognition and Tourism Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tussyadiah, Iis; Zach, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Tourists today have access to retrieve voluminous geographic information about destinations while travelling as various context-aware geographic technologies have become increasingly ubiquitous. These technologies are suggested to aid tourists in the process of destination consumption to gain...... meaningful tourism experiences. This study found that people using different types of technologies for everyday routine perceive that these technologies help them with spatial inference to acquire geographic information; making sense of direction and orientation, and interacting with and within places....... Further, within the travel context, geographic technology was found to influence the dimensions of sensory, affective and social experience, as well as the cognitive and bodily experience. The type of technology used for travel was also found to be a significant predictor of the sensory, affective...

  12. Geographical Mobility of Danish Dual-Earner Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Filges, Trine

    In this paper, we analyse the empirical relationship between geographical residence mobility and geographical job mobility for Danish dual-earner couples. Based on register data from Statistics Denmark from 1999 and 2000, we estimate three probabilities, taking the interdependence between...... the work region matters for the determination of the residence region. Furthermore, although the model stresses the importance of looking at both spouses, we do not find marked differences between the men and the women. Thus, our results do not indicate that one spouse is more important than the other...

  13. Geographically isolated wetlands: Rethinking a misnomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Cohen, Matthew J.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie G.; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Walls, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the category “geographically isolated wetlands” (GIWs; i.e., wetlands completely surrounded by uplands at the local scale) as used in the wetland sciences. As currently used, the GIW category (1) hampers scientific efforts by obscuring important hydrological and ecological differences among multiple wetland functional types, (2) aggregates wetlands in a manner not reflective of regulatory and management information needs, (3) implies wetlands so described are in some way “isolated,” an often incorrect implication, (4) is inconsistent with more broadly used and accepted concepts of “geographic isolation,” and (5) has injected unnecessary confusion into scientific investigations and discussions. Instead, we suggest other wetland classification systems offer more informative alternatives. For example, hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classes based on well-established scientific definitions account for wetland functional diversity thereby facilitating explorations into questions of connectivity without an a priori designation of “isolation.” Additionally, an HGM-type approach could be used in combination with terms reflective of current regulatory or policymaking needs. For those rare cases in which the condition of being surrounded by uplands is the relevant distinguishing characteristic, use of terminology that does not unnecessarily imply isolation (e.g., “upland embedded wetlands”) would help alleviate much confusion caused by the “geographically isolated wetlands” misnomer.

  14. The geographical distribution of tremellaceous fungi in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Wojewoda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution of the Polish tremellaceous fungi is discussed in this paper. The list of localities and the maps of the distribution of 60 Polish species (45 of Tremellales, 13 of Auriculariales and 2 of Septobasidiales are given. The author distinguishes several geographical elements, and describes the vertical distribution of these fungi. This paper is a supplement to "Fungi (Mycota", vol. 8, Polish Flora (Wojewoda 1977.

  15. The geographic accessibility of pharmacies in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Michael R; Heard, Deborah; Fisher, Judith; Douillard, Jay; Muzika, Greg; Sketris, Ingrid S

    2013-01-01

    Geographic proximity is an important component of access to primary care and the pharmaceutical services of community pharmacies. Variations in access to primary care have been found between rural and urban areas in Canadian and international jurisdictions. We studied access to community pharmacies in the province of Nova Scotia. We used information on the locations of 297 community pharmacies operating in Nova Scotia in June 2011. Population estimates at the census block level and network analysis were used to study the number of Nova Scotia residents living within 800 m (walking) and 2 km and 5 km (driving) distances of a pharmacy. We then simulated the impact of pharmacy closures on geographic access in urban and rural areas. We found that 40.3% of Nova Scotia residents lived within walking distance of a pharmacy; 62.6% and 78.8% lived within 2 km and 5 km, respectively. Differences between urban and rural areas were pronounced: 99.2% of urban residents lived within 5 km of a pharmacy compared with 53.3% of rural residents. Simulated pharmacy closures had a greater impact on geographic access to community pharmacies in rural areas than urban areas. The majority of Nova Scotia residents lived within walking or short driving distance of at least 1 community pharmacy. While overall geographic access appears to be lower than in the province of Ontario, the difference appears to be largely driven by the higher proportion of rural dwellers in Nova Scotia. Further studies should examine how geographic proximity to pharmacies influences patients' access to traditional and specialized pharmacy services, as well as health outcomes and adherence to therapy. Can Pharm J 2013;146:39-46.

  16. application of geographic information system (gis) in industrial land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPHILIHS

    Land capability index mapping using Geographic Information System (GIS) principles was used for this study. The study was undertaken using Arc View ... Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is one of the best approaches for this type of ..... western segments and to a small extent the east. Some of the available lands are ...

  17. Fast, Inclusive Searches for Geographic Names Using Digraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, David I.

    2008-01-01

    An algorithm specifies how to quickly identify names that approximately match any specified name when searching a list or database of geographic names. Based on comparisons of the digraphs (ordered letter pairs) contained in geographic names, this algorithmic technique identifies approximately matching names by applying an artificial but useful measure of name similarity. A digraph index enables computer name searches that are carried out using this technique to be fast enough for deployment in a Web application. This technique, which is a member of the class of n-gram algorithms, is related to, but distinct from, the soundex, PHONIX, and metaphone phonetic algorithms. Despite this technique's tendency to return some counterintuitive approximate matches, it is an effective aid for fast, inclusive searches for geographic names when the exact name sought, or its correct spelling, is unknown.

  18. Medicare Geographic Variation - Public Use File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Geographic Variation Public Use File provides the ability to view demographic, utilization and quality indicators at the state level (including...

  19. Geographic Analysis of Neurosurgery Workforce in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Ran; Park, Sukh Que; Kim, Jae Hyun; Hwang, Jae Chan; Lee, Gwang Soo; Chang, Jae-Chil

    2018-01-01

    Objective In respect of the health and safety of the public, universal access to health care is an issue of the greatest importance. The geographic distribution of doctors is one of the important factors contributing to access to health care. The aim of this study is to assess the imbalances in the geographic distribution of neurosurgeons across Korea. Methods Population data was obtained from the National Statistical Office. We classified geographic groups into 7 metropolitan cities, 78 non-metropolitan cities, and 77 rural areas. The number of doctors and neurosurgeons per 100000 populations in each county unit was calculated using the total number of doctors and neurosurgeons at the country level from 2009 to 2015. The density levels of neurosurgeon and doctor were calculated and depicted in maps. Results Between 2009 and 2015, the number of neurosurgeons increased from 2002 to 2557, and the ratio of neurosurgeons per 100000 populations increased from 4.02 to 4.96. The number of neurosurgeons per 100000 populations was highest in metropolitan cities and lowest in rural areas from 2009 to 2015. A comparison of the geographic distribution of neurosurgeons in 2009 and 2015 showed an increase in the regional gap. The neurosurgeon density was affected by country unit characteristics (p=0.000). Conclusion Distribution of neurosurgeons throughout Korea is uneven. Neurosurgeons are being increasingly concentrated in a limited number of metropolitan cities. This phenomenon will need to be accounted when planning for a supply of neurosurgeons, allocation of resources and manpower, and the provision of regional neurosurgical services. PMID:29354242

  20. Geographic Analysis of Neurosurgery Workforce in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Ran; Park, Sukh Que; Kim, Jae Hyun; Hwang, Jae Chan; Lee, Gwang Soo; Chang, Jae-Chil

    2018-01-01

    In respect of the health and safety of the public, universal access to health care is an issue of the greatest importance. The geographic distribution of doctors is one of the important factors contributing to access to health care. The aim of this study is to assess the imbalances in the geographic distribution of neurosurgeons across Korea. Population data was obtained from the National Statistical Office. We classified geographic groups into 7 metropolitan cities, 78 non-metropolitan cities, and 77 rural areas. The number of doctors and neurosurgeons per 100000 populations in each county unit was calculated using the total number of doctors and neurosurgeons at the country level from 2009 to 2015. The density levels of neurosurgeon and doctor were calculated and depicted in maps. Between 2009 and 2015, the number of neurosurgeons increased from 2002 to 2557, and the ratio of neurosurgeons per 100000 populations increased from 4.02 to 4.96. The number of neurosurgeons per 100000 populations was highest in metropolitan cities and lowest in rural areas from 2009 to 2015. A comparison of the geographic distribution of neurosurgeons in 2009 and 2015 showed an increase in the regional gap. The neurosurgeon density was affected by country unit characteristics ( p =0.000). Distribution of neurosurgeons throughout Korea is uneven. Neurosurgeons are being increasingly concentrated in a limited number of metropolitan cities. This phenomenon will need to be accounted when planning for a supply of neurosurgeons, allocation of resources and manpower, and the provision of regional neurosurgical services.

  1. Educational Geographers and Applied Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, John W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the development of applied geography programs and restructuring of curricula with an emphasis on new technique and methodology courses, though retaining the liberal arts role. Educational geographers can help the programs to succeed through curriculum analysis, auditing, advising students, and liaison with other geography sources. (CK)

  2. Scrotal tongue and geographic tongue: polygenic and associated traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman, E; Chosack, A; Cohen, T

    1976-11-01

    The familial nature of scrotal and geographic tongue was investigated in parents and siblings of 156 probands having these conditions. The prevalence in parents and siblings was significantly higher than that in the control populations. The prevalence in sibilings from families in which at least one parent was also affected was significantly higher than that in siblings from families in which neither parent was affected. The prevalence of scrotal tongue alone in siblins was similar irrespective of the condition in the proband. The prevalence of geographic tongue alone was highest in siblins of probands having only geographic tongue. A polygenic mode of inheritance with some genes common to both conditions is suggested.

  3. Marc Antrop - a revolutionary transdisciplinary scientist or a traditional geographer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    practicians. Tree main problems have faced IALE since the very beginning: to ensure landscape science collaboration (1) between east and west, (2) between disciplines across the boundaries of nature science, social science and humanities, and (3) between academic disciplines and professionals...... for the enthusiastic radical way Marc is working in international networks and activities. He might have done it, just simply because he is a traditional geographer. With his heart beating for the regional geographic synthesis, despite all trends and fashions of many ‘geographers' trying to move this discipline...

  4. Geographic Mobility and Social Inequality among Peruvian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ryan; Cuenca, Ricardo; Blanco Ramirez, Gerardo; Aragón, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore geographic mobility among university students in Peru and to understand how mobility patterns differ by region and by demographic indicators of inequality. The ways that students may be able to move geographically in order to access quality higher education within the educational system can be a driver of…

  5. 47 CFR 64.1801 - Geographic rate averaging and rate integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. 64.1801 Section 64.1801 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Geographic Rate Averaging and...

  6. Geographic Variation in Medicare Spending Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Geographic Variation Dashboards present Medicare fee-for-service per-capita spending at the state and county level in an interactive format. We calculated the...

  7. Replication of somatic micronuclei in bovine enucleated oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canel Natalia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT was developed to introduce a low number of chromosomes into a host cell. We have designed a novel technique combining part of MMCT with somatic cell nuclear transfer, which consists of injecting a somatic micronucleus into an enucleated oocyte, and inducing its cellular machinery to replicate such micronucleus. It would allow the isolation and manipulation of a single or a low number of somatic chromosomes. Methods Micronuclei from adult bovine fibroblasts were produced by incubation in 0.05 μg/ml demecolcine for 46 h followed by 2 mg/ml mitomycin for 2 h. Cells were finally treated with 10 μg/ml cytochalasin B for 1 h. In vitro matured bovine oocytes were mechanically enucleated and intracytoplasmatically injected with one somatic micronucleus, which had been previously exposed [Micronucleus- injected (+] or not [Micronucleus- injected (−] to a transgene (50 ng/μl pCX-EGFP during 5 min. Enucleated oocytes [Enucleated (+] and parthenogenetic [Parthenogenetic (+] controls were injected into the cytoplasm with less than 10 pl of PVP containing 50 ng/μl pCX-EGFP. A non-injected parthenogenetic control [Parthenogenetic (−] was also included. Two hours after injection, oocytes and reconstituted embryos were activated by incubation in 5 μM ionomycin for 4 min + 1.9 mM 6-DMAP for 3 h. Cleavage stage and egfp expression were evaluated. DNA replication was confirmed by DAPI staining. On day 2, Micronucleus- injected (−, Parthenogenetic (− and in vitro fertilized (IVF embryos were karyotyped. Differences among treatments were determined by Fisher′s exact test (p≤0.05. Results All the experimental groups underwent the first cell divisions. Interestingly, a low number of Micronucleus-injected embryos showed egfp expression. DAPI staining confirmed replication of micronuclei in most of the evaluated embryos. Karyotype analysis revealed that all Micronucleus-injected embryos had

  8. Geographic Skills: A Case Study of Students in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhosani, Naeema Mohamed Dawood; Yagoub, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide technology boom has created an information revolution. Consequently, a large number of people who previously had limited access to geographic data can now use Internet-based geographic information for a number of diverse purposes. The average person has access to geographic information for tourism, shopping, business, and even route…

  9. U Plant Geographic Zone Cleanup Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, L.D.; Leary, K.D.; Lackey, M.B.; Robertson, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as 'cleanup items') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) [1] was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  10. Integrative real-time geographic visualization of energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokine, A.; Shankar, M.; Stovall, J.; Bhaduri, B.; King, T.; Fernandez, S.; Datar, N.; Omitaomu, O.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' Several models forecast that climatic changes will increase the frequency of disastrous events like droughts, hurricanes, and snow storms. Responding to these events and also to power outages caused by system errors such as the 2003 North American blackout require an interconnect-wide real-time monitoring system for various energy resources. Such a system should be capable of providing situational awareness to its users in the government and energy utilities by dynamically visualizing the status of the elements of the energy grid infrastructure and supply chain in geographic contexts. We demonstrate an approach that relies on Google Earth and similar standard-based platforms as client-side geographic viewers with a data-dependent server component. The users of the system can view status information in spatial and temporal contexts. These data can be integrated with a wide range of geographic sources including all standard Google Earth layers and a large number of energy and environmental data feeds. In addition, we show a real-time spatio-temporal data sharing capability across the users of the system, novel methods for visualizing dynamic network data, and a fine-grain access to very large multi-resolution geographic datasets for faster delivery of the data. The system can be extended to integrate contingency analysis results and other grid models to assess recovery and repair scenarios in the case of major disruption. (author)

  11. Protection of Geographical Indication and Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Chinese Food Product Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhi-guo; WANG Shu-ting; XIONG Wan-zhen; HUANG Li-min

    2012-01-01

    The geographical Indications intellectual property and intangible cultural heritage are the general focus of attention of the world today. In the Chinese food product resources, there are 44 kinds of national geographical indication products, 41 national geographical indication trademarks, 9 kinds of national and 212 kinds of provincial-level intangible cultural heritage. This article introduces the geographical indication protection and geographical indication trademark registration of the Chinese food products, the protection of intangible cultural heritage of traditional craftsmanship; discusses the countermeasures for the protection of geographical indication intellectual property and intangible cultural heritage; finally puts forth several recommendations.

  12. Increased stress tolerance of matured pig oocytes after high hydrostatic presure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pribenszky, Cs; Du, Y; Molnár, M

    2008-01-01

    The present paper describes a method which uses high hydrostatic pressure as a pre-treatment to in vitro matured porcine oocytes to improve their survival rates in the subsequent processes including cryopreservation, parthenogenetic activation and embryo culture. In Experiment I oocytes were...... treated with different pressure impulses in the range of 20-80 MPa (200-800 times greater than atmospheric pressure) for 30-120 min at 24 °C. For parthenogenetic activation a single dc of 12.5 kV/cm was used, to test shock tolerance of the treated vs. control oocytes and also compare their developmental...... competence evaluated with continued in vitro development. The upper limit of pressure tolerance was found in the 40 MPa range. In Experiment II oocytes pre-treated with pressures in the 20-40 MPa range were vitrified with the Cryotop method, and parthenogenetically activated subsequently with combined...

  13. Geographic Analysis of the Radiation Oncology Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneja, Sanjay [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States); Department of General Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Roberts, Kenneth [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate trends in the geographic distribution of the radiation oncology (RO) workforce. Methods and Materials: We used the 1995 and 2007 versions of the Area Resource File to map the ratio of RO to the population aged 65 years or older (ROR) within different health service areas (HSA) within the United States. We used regression analysis to find associations between population variables and 2007 ROR. We calculated Gini coefficients for ROR to assess the evenness of RO distribution and compared that with primary care physicians and total physicians. Results: There was a 24% increase in the RO workforce from 1995 to 2007. The overall growth in the RO workforce was less than that of primary care or the overall physician workforce. The mean ROR among HSAs increased by more than one radiation oncologist per 100,000 people aged 65 years or older, from 5.08 per 100,000 to 6.16 per 100,000. However, there remained consistent geographic variability concerning RO distribution, specifically affecting the non-metropolitan HSAs. Regression analysis found higher ROR in HSAs that possessed higher education (p = 0.001), higher income (p < 0.001), lower unemployment rates (p < 0.001), and higher minority population (p = 0.022). Gini coefficients showed RO distribution less even than for both primary care physicians and total physicians (0.326 compared with 0.196 and 0.292, respectively). Conclusions: Despite a modest growth in the RO workforce, there exists persistent geographic maldistribution of radiation oncologists allocated along socioeconomic and racial lines. To solve problems surrounding the RO workforce, issues concerning both gross numbers and geographic distribution must be addressed.

  14. Geographic Analysis of the Radiation Oncology Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneja, Sanjay; Smith, Benjamin D.; Gross, Cary P.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Roberts, Kenneth; Yu, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate trends in the geographic distribution of the radiation oncology (RO) workforce. Methods and Materials: We used the 1995 and 2007 versions of the Area Resource File to map the ratio of RO to the population aged 65 years or older (ROR) within different health service areas (HSA) within the United States. We used regression analysis to find associations between population variables and 2007 ROR. We calculated Gini coefficients for ROR to assess the evenness of RO distribution and compared that with primary care physicians and total physicians. Results: There was a 24% increase in the RO workforce from 1995 to 2007. The overall growth in the RO workforce was less than that of primary care or the overall physician workforce. The mean ROR among HSAs increased by more than one radiation oncologist per 100,000 people aged 65 years or older, from 5.08 per 100,000 to 6.16 per 100,000. However, there remained consistent geographic variability concerning RO distribution, specifically affecting the non-metropolitan HSAs. Regression analysis found higher ROR in HSAs that possessed higher education (p = 0.001), higher income (p < 0.001), lower unemployment rates (p < 0.001), and higher minority population (p = 0.022). Gini coefficients showed RO distribution less even than for both primary care physicians and total physicians (0.326 compared with 0.196 and 0.292, respectively). Conclusions: Despite a modest growth in the RO workforce, there exists persistent geographic maldistribution of radiation oncologists allocated along socioeconomic and racial lines. To solve problems surrounding the RO workforce, issues concerning both gross numbers and geographic distribution must be addressed.

  15. Different Factors of Llap as a Geographic Region

    OpenAIRE

    , F. Isufi; , S. Halimi; , F. Humolli

    2011-01-01

    In this work attempts were made to express in the best possible manner the factors which differentiate the Llap as geographic region. The Llap Region is located in the north-east of Kosovo. Within the ethnic geography, the Llap area is having peripheric position, but within the Balkan Penninsula it is having a central position, while along Llap goes the Highway which connects Kosovo and Serbia. The Llap region has important natural conditions; such as very good geographic position, running an...

  16. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY09 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  17. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  18. Teaching Introductory GIS Programming to Geographers Using an Open Source Python Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherington, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Computer programming is not commonly taught to geographers as a part of geographic information system (GIS) courses, but the advent of NeoGeography, big data and open GIS means that programming skills are becoming more important. To encourage the teaching of programming to geographers, this paper outlines a course based around a series of…

  19. αA crystallin may protect against geographic atrophy-meta-analysis of cataract vs. cataract surgery for geographic atrophy and experimental studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cataract and geographic atrophy (GA, also called advanced "dry" age-related macular degeneration are the two major causes of visual impairment in the developed world. The association between cataract surgery and the development of GA was controversial in previous studies. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a meta-analysis by pooling the current evidence in literature and found that cataract is associated with an increased risk of geographic atrophy with a summary odds ratio (OR of 3.75 (95% CI: 95% CI: 1.84-7.62. However, cataract surgery is not associated with the risk of geographic atrophy (polled OR=3.23, 95% CI: 0.63-16.47. Further experiments were performed to analyze how the αA-crystallin, the major component of the lens, influences the development of GA in a mouse model. We found that theαA-crystallin mRNA and protein expression increased after oxidative stress induced by NaIO(3 in immunohistochemistry of retinal section and western blot of posterior eyecups. Both functional and histopathological evidence confirmed that GA is more severe in αA-crystallin knockout mice compared to wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, αA-crystallin may protect against geographic atrophy. This study provides a better understanding of the relationship between cataract, cataract surgery, and GA.

  20. Tanzanian food origins and protected geographical indications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John, Innocensia Festo; Egelyng, Henrik; Lokina, Azack

    2016-01-01

    As the world's population is constantly growing, food security will remain on the policy Agenda, particularly in Africa. At the same time, global food systems experience a new wave focusing on local foods and food sovereignty featuring high quality food products of verifiable geographical origin...... of food origin products in Tanzania that have potential for GI certification. The hypothesis was that there are origin products in Tanzania whose unique characteristics are linked to the area of production. Geographical indications can be useful policy instruments contributing to food security...... the diversity of supply of natural and unique quality products and so contribute to enhanced food security....

  1. Place Branding – Geographical Approach. Case Study: Waterloo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Cristian Neacşu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study represents an exploratory analysis of the evolution of the place branding concept, with an important focus on the geographical perspective. How has this notion, a newcomer into the geographers' analysis, changed over time and what role does it have in the decision making process of intervening into the way a certain place is organised or as an instrument of economic revival and territorial development? At least from the perspective of Romanian geographical literature, the originality and novelty of this study is obvious. An element of the originality of this research is the attempt of redefining the concept of place branding so that it is more meaningful from the perspective of spatial analyses. The reason for which Waterloo was chosen as a case study is multi-dimensional: the case studies so far have mainly focused on large cities (urban branding instead of place branding and this site has all the theoretical elements to create a stand-alone brand.

  2. Principles of logic and the use of digital geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinove, Charles Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Digital geographic information systems allow many different types of data to be spatially and statistically analyzed. Logical operations can be performed on individual or multiple data planes by algorithms that can be implemented in computer systems. Users and creators of the systems should fully understand these operations. This paper describes the relationships of layers and features in geographic data bases and the principles of logic that can be applied by geographic information systems and suggests that a thorough knowledge of the data that are entered into a geographic data base and of the logical operations will produce results that are most satisfactory to the user. Methods of spatial analysis are reduced to their primitive logical operations and explained to further such understanding.

  3. Design and Establishment of Quality Model of Fundamental Geographic Information Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Y.; Zhang, P.; Dang, Y.; Zhao, T.

    2018-04-01

    In order to make the quality evaluation for the Fundamental Geographic Information Databases(FGIDB) more comprehensive, objective and accurate, this paper studies and establishes a quality model of FGIDB, which formed by the standardization of database construction and quality control, the conformity of data set quality and the functionality of database management system, and also designs the overall principles, contents and methods of the quality evaluation for FGIDB, providing the basis and reference for carry out quality control and quality evaluation for FGIDB. This paper designs the quality elements, evaluation items and properties of the Fundamental Geographic Information Database gradually based on the quality model framework. Connected organically, these quality elements and evaluation items constitute the quality model of the Fundamental Geographic Information Database. This model is the foundation for the quality demand stipulation and quality evaluation of the Fundamental Geographic Information Database, and is of great significance on the quality assurance in the design and development stage, the demand formulation in the testing evaluation stage, and the standard system construction for quality evaluation technology of the Fundamental Geographic Information Database.

  4. China's Mission in Surveying, Mapping and Geographic Information during Global Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, D.; Xue, C.; Chen, X.

    2018-04-01

    In the new era, it is proposed that China should be transformed from a participant and a cooperator into a designer, an impeller and a leader, continue taking an effect of responsible great power, increase public product supply, perfect a global governance system and contribute to China's wisdom and China's schemes during global governance, thus surveying and mapping geographic information takes on great mission. On the one hand, we have to timely grasp global geographic information data resources to provide an important scientific data support for China's wisdom and China's schemes. On the other hand, we have to provide surveying and mapping geographic information infrastructure construction and public products for developing countries, support location services within a global territorial scope, and realize the smoothness of talent flow, material flow and information flow between China and countries in the world. Meanwhile, external assistance and international communication and cooperation of surveying and mapping geographic information are also enhanced, and popularization and application of a geographic information technology in underdeveloped countries and regions are promoted.

  5. [Current progress in food geographical origin traceability by near infrared spectroscopy technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dong-Hong; Wang, Xi-Chang; Liu, Li-Ping; Liu, Yuan

    2011-04-01

    The geographical origin traceability of food, an important part of traceability system, is effective in protecting the quality and safety of foodstuffs. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), which is a powerful technique for geographical origin traceability, has attracted extensive attention by scientists due to its speediness, non-pollution and simple operation. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of techniques that have been used for food geographical origin traceability. The basic principles of NIR and its applications in different food geographical origin traceability are presented too. Furthermore, problems in applications are analyzed and the future development trends are discussed.

  6. A review of geographic variation and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications in prescription drug use research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangia, Victoria; Shireman, Theresa I

    2013-01-01

    While understanding geography's role in healthcare has been an area of research for over 40 years, the application of geography-based analyses to prescription medication use is limited. The body of literature was reviewed to assess the current state of such studies to demonstrate the scale and scope of projects in order to highlight potential research opportunities. To review systematically how researchers have applied geography-based analyses to medication use data. Empiric, English language research articles were identified through PubMed and bibliographies. Original research articles were independently reviewed as to the medications or classes studied, data sources, measures of medication exposure, geographic units of analysis, geospatial measures, and statistical approaches. From 145 publications matching key search terms, forty publications met the inclusion criteria. Cardiovascular and psychotropic classes accounted for the largest proportion of studies. Prescription drug claims were the primary source, and medication exposure was frequently captured as period prevalence. Medication exposure was documented across a variety of geopolitical units such as countries, provinces, regions, states, and postal codes. Most results were descriptive and formal statistical modeling capitalizing on geospatial techniques was rare. Despite the extensive research on small area variation analysis in healthcare, there are a limited number of studies that have examined geographic variation in medication use. Clearly, there is opportunity to collaborate with geographers and GIS professionals to harness the power of GIS technologies and to strengthen future medication studies by applying more robust geospatial statistical methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Issues Surrounding the Use of Virtual Reality in Geographic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisichenko, Richard

    2015-01-01

    As with all classroom innovations intended to improve geographic education, the adoption of virtual reality (VR) poses issues for consideration prior to endorsing its use. Of these, effectiveness, implementation, and safe use need to be addressed. Traditionally, sense of place, geographic knowledge, and firsthand experiences provided by field…

  8. Geographic Education--Where Have We Failed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritzner, Charles F.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses geography's rather low status and relatively poor public image in the United States and some of the consequences. Among the world's educated industrial nations, the United States ranks among the least literate in a geographical sense. (RM)

  9. Geographic profiling and animal foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Comber, Steven C; Nicholls, Barry; Rossmo, D Kim; Racey, Paul A

    2006-05-21

    Geographic profiling was originally developed as a statistical tool for use in criminal cases, particularly those involving serial killers and rapists. It is designed to help police forces prioritize lists of suspects by using the location of crime scenes to identify the areas in which the criminal is most likely to live. Two important concepts are the buffer zone (criminals are less likely to commit crimes in the immediate vicinity of their home) and distance decay (criminals commit fewer crimes as the distance from their home increases). In this study, we show how the techniques of geographic profiling may be applied to animal data, using as an example foraging patterns in two sympatric colonies of pipistrelle bats, Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus, in the northeast of Scotland. We show that if model variables are fitted to known roost locations, these variables may be used as numerical descriptors of foraging patterns. We go on to show that these variables can be used to differentiate patterns of foraging in these two species.

  10. Geographical information systems and computer cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Chris B

    2014-01-01

    A concise text presenting the fundamental concepts in Geographical Information Systems (GIS), emphasising an understanding of techniques in management, analysis and graphic display of spatial information. Divided into five parts - the first part reviews the development and application of GIS, followed by a summary of the characteristics and representation of geographical information. It concludes with an overview of the functions provided by typical GIS systems. Part Two introduces co-ordinate systems and map projections, describes methods for digitising map data and gives an overview of remote sensing. Part Three deals with data storage and database management, as well as specialised techniques for accessing spatial data. Spatial modelling and analytical techniques for decision making form the subject of Part Four, while the final part is concerned with graphical representation, emphasising issues of graphics technology, cartographic design and map generalisation.

  11. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) - USGS National Map Downloadable Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  12. Non-professional user`s understanding of Geographic Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arleth, Mette

    2003-01-01

    of digital media, including online access to a variety of GI-based services; maps, online Geographic information systems, interactive 3D models etc. However, can we expect that a citizen, who has no relevant professional basis for understanding the concept geographic information, be able to use GI......-based online services and comprehend the information contents? Using the Gi-based online services qualitatively in the participatory process obviously requires knowledge of the non-professional user`s understanding and use of GI. This paper discusses the needs for research into this field as well as relevant...

  13. Combining Land Capability Evaluation, Geographic Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combining Land Capability Evaluation, Geographic Information Systems, AnD Indigenous Technologies for Soil Conservation in Northern Ethiopia. ... Land capability and land use status were established following the procedures of a modified treatment-oriented capability classification using GIS. The case study ...

  14. Some factors effecting algal consumption in subarctic Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Simuliidae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the factors influencing algal consumption in the mayflies Leptophlebia nebulosa, Cinygmula tarda, Baetis foemina and B. cf. bicaudatus, the plecopterans Arcynopteryx signata, Nemoura cinctipes and N. oregonensis and in the dipterans Simulium arcticum, S. venustum and S. decorum were investigated between June 1975 and June 1976 in several streams in the Canadian subarctic. Algae represented up to 65% of the gut contents of L. nebulosa but only 0--8% in the other mayflies. They were important in the plecopterans (85--90%) but less so (2--13%) in the simuliids. Most of the interspecies variability in algal consumption could be explained in terms of food availability. This factor was in turn dependent on the density and attachment characteristics of the flora and the strength of their cell wall. Feeding intensity in most species was low between October and April, reaching it peak in July and August. From 51 to 83% of intraspecies feeding variability was due to changing temperature, followed in importance by water velocity in the dipterans and food availability in the mayflies. All species in this latter group ceased feeding in the final instar stages.

  15. Identification of geographical origin of sesame seeds by near infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y.K.; Cho, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    Geographical origin of the Korean, Chinese and Japanese sesame seeds were identified very high accuracy by NIR spectroscopy. The NIR instrument of filter type showed the same accuracy of the monochromator scanning type to identify the geographical origin of the sesame seeds. in case of adulteration between the Korean and Chinese sesame seeds, the ratio of addition could be determined about 10% error level. The reason of identification of geographical origin by NIR spectroscopy, it was supposed to the difference of oil cake substance

  16. Geographical assemblages of European raptors and owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Pascual; Benavent-Corai, José; García-Ripollés, Clara

    2008-09-01

    In this work we look for geographical structure patterns in European raptors (Order: Falconiformes) and owls (Order: Strigiformes). For this purpose we have conducted our research using freely available tools such as statistical software and databases. To perform the study, presence-absence data for the European raptors and owl species (Class Aves) were downloaded from the BirdLife International website. Using the freely available "pvclust" R-package, we applied similarity Jaccard index and cluster analysis in order to delineate biogeographical relationships for European countries. According to the cluster of similarity, we found that Europe is structured into two main geographical assemblages. The larger length branch separated two main groups: one containing Iceland, Greenland and the countries of central, northern and northwestern Europe, and the other group including the countries of eastern, southern and southwestern Europe. Both groups are divided into two main subgroups. According to our results, the European raptors and owls could be considered structured into four meta-communities well delimited by suture zones defined by Remington (1968) [Remington, C.L., 1968. Suture-zones of hybrid interaction between recently joined biotas. Evol. Biol. 2, 321-428]. Climatic oscillations during the Quaternary Ice Ages could explain at least in part the modern geographical distribution of the group.

  17. International Voluntary Health Networks (IVHNs). A social-geographical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Benet; Laurie, Nina; Smith, Matt Baillie

    2018-03-01

    Trans-national medicine, historically associated with colonial politics, is now central to discourses of global health and development, thrust into mainstream media by catastrophic events (earthquakes, disease epidemics), and enshrined in the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals. Volunteer human-resource is an important contributor to international health-development work. International Voluntary Health Networks (IVHNs, that connect richer and poorer countries through healthcare) are situated at a meeting-point between geographies and sociologies of health. More fully developed social-geographic understandings will illuminate this area, currently dominated by instrumental health-professional perspectives. The challenge we address is to produce a geographically and sociologically-robust conceptual framework that appropriately recognises IVHNs' potentials for valuable impacts, while also unlocking spaces of constructive critique. We examine the importance of the social in health geography, and geographical potentials in health sociology (focusing on professional knowledge construction, inequality and capital, and power), to highlight the mutual interests of these two fields in relation to IVHNs. We propose some socio-geographical theories of IVHNs that do not naturalise inequality, that understand health as a form of capital, prioritise explorations of power and ethical practice, and acknowledge the more-than-human properties of place. This sets an agenda for theoretically-supported empirical work on IVHNs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Parthenogenesis through the ice ages: A biogeographic analysis of Caucasian rock lizards (genus Darevskia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Susana; Rocha, Sara; Campos, João; Ahmadzadeh, Faraham; Corti, Claudia; Sillero, Neftali; Ilgaz, Çetin; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Arakelyan, Marine; Harris, D James; Carretero, Miguel A

    2016-09-01

    Darevskia rock lizards include both sexual and parthenogenetic species, mostly distributed in the heterogeneous and ecologically diverse Caucasus. The parthenogenetic species originated via directional hybridogenesis, with only some of the sexual species known to serve as parentals. However, it remains unclear when and where these events happened and how many parental lineages were involved. A multilocus phylogeographic analysis was performed on the parthenogens D. unisexualis, D. bendimahiensis and D. uzzeli, and their putative maternal species D. raddei. Results show the parthenogenetic species all have relatively recent origins, approximately 200-70kyr ago, and at least three hybridization events were involved in their formation. Ecological niche models identify the region where hybridization events leading to the formation of D. unisexualis took place, namely in the northeast of the current distribution. Models also suggest that the sexual D. raddei might have undergone a habitat shift between the Last Interglacial and the Last Glacial Maximum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Geographic Method for High Resolution Spatial Heat Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    more detailed modelling that takes the geographic placement of buildings and the differences among DH systems into account. In the present article, a method for assessing the costs of DH expansions has been developed. The method was applied in a geographic information system (GIS) model that consists...... are considering distribution costs based on the geographic properties of each area and assessing transmission costs based on an iterative process that examines expansion potentials gradually. The GIS model is only applicable to a Danish context, but the method itself can be applied to other countries....... of three parts and assesses the costs of heat production, distribution, and transmission. The model was also applied to an actual case in order to show how it can be used. The model shows many improvements in the method for the assessment of distribution costs and transmission costs. Most notable...

  20. Relationship between Air Pollution and Weather Conditions under Complicated Geographical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q.; Jiang, P.; Li, M.

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution is one of the most serious issues all over the world, especially in megacities with constrained geographical conditions for air pollution diffusion. However, the dynamic mechanism of air pollution diffusion under complicated geographical conditions is still be confused. Researches to explore relationship between air pollution and weather conditions from the perspective of local atmospheric circulations can contribute more to solve such problem. We selected three megacities (Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou) under different geographical condition (mountain-plain transition region, coastal alluvial plain and coastal hilly terrain) to explore the relationship between air pollution and weather conditions. RDA (Redundancy analysis) model was used to analyze how the local atmospheric circulation acts on the air pollutant diffusion. The results show that there was a positive correlation between the concentration of air pollutants and air pressure, while temperature, precipitation and wind speed have negative correlations with the concentration of air pollutants. Furthermore, geographical conditions, such as topographic relief, have significant effects on the direction, path and intensity of local atmospheric circulation. As a consequence, air pollutants diffusion modes in different cities under various geographical conditions are diverse from each other.

  1. Geographic pathology of Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yi; Ponsioen, Cyriel I. J.; Xiao, Shu-Dong; Tytgat, Guido N. J.; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.

    2005-01-01

    Background and aim. Helicobacter pylori is etiologically associated with gastritis and gastric cancer. There are significant geographical differences between the clinical manifestation of H. pylori infections. The aim of this study was to compare gastric mucosal histology in relation to age among H.

  2. Geographic resolution issues in RAM transportation risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills G, Scott; Neuhauser, Sieglinde

    2000-01-01

    Over the years that radioactive material (RAM) transportation risk estimates have been calculated using the RADTRAN code, demand for improved geographic resolution of route characteristics, especially density of population neighboring route segments, has led to code improvements that provide more specific route definition. With the advent of geographic information systems (GISs), the achievable resolution of route characteristics is theoretically very high. The authors have compiled population-density data in 1-kilometer increments for routes extending over hundreds of kilometers without impractical expenditures of time. Achievable resolution of analysis is limited, however, by the resolution of available data. U.S. Census data typically have 1-km or better resolution within densely-populated portions of metropolitan areas but census blocks are much larger in rural areas. Geographic resolution of accident-rate data, especially for heavy/combination trucks, are typically tabulated on a statewide basis. These practical realities cause one to ask what level(s) of resolution may be necessary for meaningful risk analysis of transportation actions on a state or interstate scale

  3. 08471 Report -- Geographic Privacy-Aware Knowledge Discovery and Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijpers, Bart; Pedreschi, Dino; Saygin, Yucel; Spaccapietra, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The Dagstuhl-Seminar on Geographic Privacy-Aware Knowledge Discovery and Delivery was held during 16 - 21 November, 2008, with 37 participants registered from various countries from Europe, as well as other parts of the world such as United States, Canada, Argentina, and Brazil. Issues in the newly emerging area of geographic knowledge discovery with a privacy perspective were discussed in a week to consolidate some of the research questions. The Dagstuhl program included...

  4. Crime Mapping and Geographical Information Systems in Crime Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dağlar, Murat; Argun, Uğur

    2016-01-01

    As essential apparatus in crime analysis, crime mapping and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are being progressively more accepted by police agencies. Development in technology and the accessibility of geographic data sources make it feasible for police departments to use GIS and crime mapping. GIS and crime mapping can be utilized as devices to discover reasons contributing to crime, and hence let law enforcement agencies proactively take action against the crime problems before they b...

  5. Geographical constraints to range-based attacks on links in complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Baihua; Liu Jun; Huang Liang; Yang Kongqing; Yang Lei

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we studied range-based attacks on links in geographically constrained scale-free networks and found that there is a continuous switching of roles of short- and long-range attacks on links when tuning the geographical constraint strength. Our results demonstrate that the geography has a significant impact on the network efficiency and security; thus one can adjust the geographical structure to optimize the robustness and the efficiency of the networks. We introduce a measurement of the impact of links on the efficiency of the network, and an effective attacking strategy is suggested

  6. Research on a Method of Geographical Information Service Load Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heyuan; Li, Yongxing; Xue, Zhiyong; Feng, Tao

    2018-05-01

    With the development of geographical information service technologies, how to achieve the intelligent scheduling and high concurrent access of geographical information service resources based on load balancing is a focal point of current study. This paper presents an algorithm of dynamic load balancing. In the algorithm, types of geographical information service are matched with the corresponding server group, then the RED algorithm is combined with the method of double threshold effectively to judge the load state of serve node, finally the service is scheduled based on weighted probabilistic in a certain period. At the last, an experiment system is built based on cluster server, which proves the effectiveness of the method presented in this paper.

  7. Fungi identify the geographic origin of dust samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal S Grantham

    Full Text Available There is a long history of archaeologists and forensic scientists using pollen found in a dust sample to identify its geographic origin or history. Such palynological approaches have important limitations as they require time-consuming identification of pollen grains, a priori knowledge of plant species distributions, and a sufficient diversity of pollen types to permit spatial or temporal identification. We demonstrate an alternative approach based on DNA sequencing analyses of the fungal diversity found in dust samples. Using nearly 1,000 dust samples collected from across the continental U.S., our analyses identify up to 40,000 fungal taxa from these samples, many of which exhibit a high degree of geographic endemism. We develop a statistical learning algorithm via discriminant analysis that exploits this geographic endemicity in the fungal diversity to correctly identify samples to within a few hundred kilometers of their geographic origin with high probability. In addition, our statistical approach provides a measure of certainty for each prediction, in contrast with current palynology methods that are almost always based on expert opinion and devoid of statistical inference. Fungal taxa found in dust samples can therefore be used to identify the origin of that dust and, more importantly, we can quantify our degree of certainty that a sample originated in a particular place. This work opens up a new approach to forensic biology that could be used by scientists to identify the origin of dust or soil samples found on objects, clothing, or archaeological artifacts.

  8. Geographic distribution of wild potato species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, R.J.; Spooner, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The geographic distribution of wild potatoes (Solanaceae sect. Petota) was analyzed using a database of 6073 georeferenced observations. Wild potatoes occur in 16 countries, but 88% of the observations are from Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, and Peru. Most species are rare and narrowly endemic: for 77

  9. Ontology-based geographic data set integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitermark, H.T.J.A.; Uitermark, Harry T.; Oosterom, Peter J.M.; Mars, Nicolaas; Molenaar, Martien; Molenaar, M.

    1999-01-01

    In order to develop a system to propagate updates we investigate the semantic and spatial relationships between independently produced geographic data sets of the same region (data set integration). The goal of this system is to reduce operator intervention in update operations between corresponding

  10. The Data Reliability of Volunteered Geographic Information with Using Traffic Accident Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinç, H. K.; Karaş, I. R.

    2017-11-01

    The development of mobile technologies is important in the lives of humans. Mobile devices constitute a great part of the daily lives of people. It has come to such a point that when people first wake up, they check their smart phones for the first thing. Users may share their positions with the GNSS sensors in mobile devices or they can add information about their positions in mobile applications. Users contribute to Geographical Information System with this sharing. These users consist of native (citizens) living in that geographical position not of the CBS specialists. Creating, collecting, sharing and disseminating the geographical data provided by voluntary individuals constitute the Volunteered Geographic Information System. The data in the Volunteered Geographic Information System are received from amateur users. "How reliable will the data received from amateur users instead of specialists of the field be in scientific terms?" In this study, the reliability between the data received from the voluntary users through Volunteered Geographic Information System and real data is investigated. The real data consist of the traffic accident coordinates. The data that will be received from users will be received through the speed values in the relevant coordinates and the marking of the users for possible accident points on the map.

  11. Modeling the geographical studies with GeoGebra-software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Soare

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of mathematical modeling in geography is one of the most important strategies in order to establish the evolution and the prevision of geographical phenomena. Models must have a simplified structure, to reflect essential components and must be selective, structured, and suggestive and approximate the reality. Models could be static or dynamic, developed in a theoretical, symbolic, conceptual or mental way, mathematically modeled. The present paper is focused on the virtual model which uses GeoGebra software, free and available at www.geogebra.org, in order to establish new methods of geographical analysis in a dynamic, didactic way.

  12. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  13. Geographical variation in dementia: systematic review with meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Tom C; Batty, G David; Hearnshaw, Gena F; Fenton, Candida; Starr, John M

    2012-01-01

    Background Geographical variation in dementia prevalence and incidence may indicate important socio-environmental contributions to dementia aetiology. However, previous comparisons have been hampered by combining studies with different methodologies. This review systematically collates and synthesizes studies examining geographical variation in the prevalence and incidence of dementia based on comparisons of studies using identical methodologies. Methods Papers were identified by a comprehensive electronic search of relevant databases, scrutinising the reference sections of identified publications, contacting experts in the field and re-examining papers already known to us. Identified articles were independently reviewed against inclusion/exclusion criteria and considered according to geographical scale. Rural/urban comparisons were meta-analysed. Results Twelve thousand five hundred and eighty records were reviewed and 51 articles were included. Dementia prevalence and incidence varies at a number of scales from the national down to small areas, including some evidence of an effect of rural living [prevalence odds ratio (OR) = 1.11, 90% confidence interval (CI) 0.79–1.57; incidence OR = 1.20, 90% CI 0.84–1.71]. However, this association of rurality was stronger for Alzheimer disease, particularly when early life rural living was captured (prevalence OR = 2.22, 90% CI 1.19–4.16; incidence OR = 1.64, 90% CI 1.08–2.50). Conclusions There is evidence of geographical variation in rates of dementia in affluent countries at a variety of geographical scales. Rural living is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer disease, and there is a suggestion that early life rural living further increases this risk. However, the fact that few studies have been conducted in resource-poor countries limits conclusions. PMID:22798662

  14. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-04-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal.

  15. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY07 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  16. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  17. Exploring the potentials of volunteered geographic Information as a source for spatial data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariffin, Izyana; Solemon, Badariah; Anwar, Rina Md; Din, Marina Md; Azmi, Nor Nashrah

    2014-01-01

    The advancement of technologies nowadays enables participation by nonprofessionals, known as volunteers to participate in producing, sharing and consuming geographic information. Such information, termed as volunteered geographic Information (VGI) has created a new approach of gathering geographic information. This paper discusses the traditional way of acquiring geographic information and potentials of VGI as an information source in GIS applications. We also review four commonly cited applications which rely on volunteers for their geographic information based on five criteria; the geometry type available in the applications, availability of user profile, average number of attributes used in the applications, data type of the information (raster or vector) and the domain the application belongs to. This review serves as a preliminarv study in designing a GIS application used for asset management which aims at exploiting volunteers to produce geographic information related to assets

  18. Teaching Geographic Field Methods Using Paleoecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    Field-based undergraduate geography courses provide numerous pedagogical benefits including an opportunity for students to acquire employable skills in an applied context. This article presents one unique approach to teaching geographic field methods using paleoecological research. The goals of this course are to teach students key geographic…

  19. Effects of geographical extent on the determinants of woody plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhiheng; Rahbek, Carsten; Fang, Jingyun

    2012-01-01

    the quantitative effects of geographical extent are rarely tested. Here, using distribution maps of 11,405 woody species found in China and associated environmental data to the domain, we investigated the influence of geographical extent on the determinants of species richness patterns. Our results revealed...

  20. Influence of the geographical curriculum on competences of geography teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Resnik Planinc

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the influence of geographical curriculum on competences of geography teacher. It is focused on complex and symbiotic relation between curriculum and achieved and recommended competences of geography teacher and their importance for geographical education. The competences should therefore be derived from the theories, concerning values, knowledge, curriculum and whole educational process, which underpin good pedagogical practice.

  1. Geographical conceptualization of quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murgaš František

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization of quality of life in terms of geography is based on two assumptions. The first assumption is that the quality of life consists of two dimensions: subjective and objective. The subjective is known as ‘well-being’, while the objective is the proposed term ‘quality of place’. The second assumption is based on the recognition that quality of life is always a spatial dimension. The concept of quality of life is closely linked with the concept of a good life; geographers enriched this concept by using the term ‘good place’ as a place in which the conditions are created for a good life. The quality of life for individuals in terms of a good place overlaps with the quality of life in society, namely the societal quality of life. The geographical conceptualisation of quality of life is applied to settlements within the city of Liberec.

  2. Geographical imbalances and divides in the scientific production of climate change knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya; Dalsgaard, Bo; Maruyama, Pietro K.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on scientific production of climate change knowledge show a geographical bias against the developing and more vulnerable regions of the world. If there is limited knowledge exchange between regions, this may deepen global knowledge divides and, thus, potentially hamper adaptive capacities....... Consequently, there is a need to further understand this bias, and, particularly, link it with the exchange of knowledge across borders. We use a world-wide geographical distribution of author affiliations in > 15,000 scientific climate change publications to show that (1) research production mainly takes...... are determined mainly by geographical proximity, common climates, and similar political and economic characteristics. This indicates that political-economic, social and educational-scientific initiatives targeted to enhance local research production and collaborations across geographical-climate module borders...

  3. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation). PMID:27669254

  4. Geographical cost-supply analysis forest biomass for distributed generation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a study which uses geographical information system (GIS) to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The article presents a study which uses geographical information system (GIS) to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  5. 48 CFR 1852.244-70 - Geographic participation in the aerospace program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the aerospace program. 1852.244-70 Section 1852.244-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Provisions and Clauses 1852.244-70 Geographic participation in the aerospace program. As prescribed in 1844.204-70, insert the following clause: Geographic Participation in the Aerospace Program (APR 1985) (a...

  6. Using a 'value-added' approach for contextual design of geographic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Andrew J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate how a 'value-added' approach can be used for user-centred design of geographic information. An information science perspective was used, with value being the difference in outcomes arising from alternative information sets. Sixteen drivers navigated a complex, unfamiliar urban route, using visual and verbal instructions representing the distance-to-turn and junction layout information presented by typical satellite navigation systems. Data measuring driving errors, navigation errors and driver confidence were collected throughout the trial. The results show how driver performance varied considerably according to the geographic context at specific locations, and that there are specific opportunities to add value with enhanced geographical information. The conclusions are that a value-added approach facilitates a more explicit focus on 'desired' (and feasible) levels of end user performance with different information sets, and is a potentially effective approach to user-centred design of geographic information. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Geometric algorithms for delineating geographic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinbacher, I.

    2006-01-01

    Everyone of us is used to geographical regions like the south of Utrecht, the dutch Randstad, or the mountainous areas of Austria. Some of these regions have crisp, fixed boundaries like Utrecht or Austria. Others, like the dutch Randstad and the Austrian mountains, have no such boundaries and are

  8. PEDIATRIC FITNESS: SECULAR TRENDS AND GEOGRAPHIC VARIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant R. Tomkinson

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book describes and discusses children's physical capacity in terms of aerobic and anaerobic power generation according to secular trends and geographic variability. PURPOSE To discuss the controversial issue of whether present day's children and adolescents are fitter than their equals of the past and whether they are fitter if they live in the more prosperous countries. AUDIENCE Pediatricians, medical practitioners, physical educators, exercise and/or sport scientists, exercise physiologists, personal trainers and graduate students in relevant fields will find this book helpful when dealing with contemporary trends and geographic variability in pediatric fitness. FEATURES The volume starts by examining the general picture on children fitness by the editors. The individual chapter's authors discuses the data gathered since the late 1950s on secular trends and geographic changeability in aerobic and anaerobic pediatric fitness performances of children and adolescents from 23 countries in Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East and North America. There are chapters proposing that there is proof that there has been a world-wide decline in pediatric aerobic performance in recent decades, relative stability in anaerobic performance, and that the best performing children come from northern and central Europe. In final chapters possible causes to that end are considered, including whether weakening in aerobic performance are the result of distributional or widespread declines, and whether increases in obesity alone can explain the failure in aerobic performance. ASSESSMENT The editors have assembled a volume of Medicine and Sports Science that is necessary and essential reading for all who are interested in understanding and improving the fitness of children. The readers will find useful information in this book on secular trends and geographic variability in pediatric fitness. I believe, the book will serve as a first

  9. The Importance of Geographical Indications in Regional Tourism Development: The Case of Çanakkale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şefik Okan Mercan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many products unique to Turkey, the origins of which are recognized with the name of region. Turkey, its geographical location and climatic zone having three different soil structure and cultural heritage and human capital due to a rich variety of geographical product has the potential. Features of geographical environment revealed  this product wealth, this product also requires the protection of geographical indications through. In this study, in Çanakkale who have registered geographical indication products, to examine the importance of the development of regional tourism and how these products can be assessed on a tourism product relevant institutions/organizations are intended to be of the opinion. According to the findings, the general opinion of Canakkale geographical indication products are properly and effectively with the regional tourism promotion and marketing work done in the development of a tool is that it will undertake the task. 

  10. The GeoGraph 3D Computational Laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dibble, Catherine; Feldman, Philip G

    2003-01-01

    .... Even recent progress in social network modeling has not yet offered us any capability to model dynamic processes among mobile agents who interact at all scales on small-world and scale-free geographic networks...

  11. Urethroplasty: a geographic disparity in care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Frank N; Salmon, Scott A; Smith, Aaron C; Santucci, Richard A

    2012-06-01

    Urethroplasty is the gold standard for urethral strictures but its geographic prevalence throughout the United States is unknown. We analyzed where and how often urethroplasty was being performed in the United States compared to other treatment modalities for urethral stricture. De-identified case logs from the American Board of Urology were collected from certifying/recertifying urologists from 2004 to 2009. Results were categorized by ZIP codes to determine the geographic distribution. Case logs from 3,877 urologists (2,533 recertifying and 1,344 certifying) were reviewed including 1,836 urethroplasties, 13,080 urethrotomies and 19,564 urethral dilations. The proportion of urethroplasty varied widely among states (range 0% to 17%). The ratio of urethroplasty-to-urethrotomy/dilation also varied widely from state to state, but overall 1 urethroplasty was performed for every 17 urethrotomies or dilations performed. Certifying urologists were 3 times as likely to perform urethroplasty as recertifying urologists (12% vs 4%, respectively, pUrethroplasties were performed more commonly in states with residency programs (mean 5% vs 3%). Some states reported no urethroplasties during the observation period (Vermont, North Dakota, South Dakota, Maine and West Virginia). To our knowledge this is the first report on the geographic distribution of urethroplasty for urethral stricture disease. There are large variations in the rates of urethroplasty performed throughout the United States, indicating a disparity of care, especially for those regions in which few or no urethroplasties were reported. This disparity may decrease with time as younger certifying urologists are performing 3 times as many urethroplasties as older recertifying urologists. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Socially just publishing: implications for geographers and their journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Batterbury

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been a range of protests against the high journal subscription costs, and author processing charges (APCs levied for publishing in the more prestigious and commercially run journals that are favoured by geographers. But open protests across the sector like the ‘Academic Spring’ of 2012, and challenges to commercial copyright agreements, have been fragmented and less than successful. I renew the argument for ‘socially just’ publishing in geography. For geographers this is not limited to choosing alternative publication venues. It also involves a considerable effort by senior faculty members that are assessing hiring and promotion cases, to read and assess scholarship independently of its place of publication, and to reward the efforts of colleagues that offer their work as a public good. Criteria other than the citation index and prestige of a journal need to be foregrounded. Geographers can also be publishers, and I offer my experience editing the free online Journal of Political Ecology.

  13. Dinosaurs reveal the geographical signature of an evolutionary radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Ciara; Meade, Andrew; Venditti, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Dinosaurs dominated terrestrial ecosystems across the globe for over 100 million years and provide a classic example of an evolutionary radiation. However, little is known about how these animals radiated geographically to become globally distributed. Here, we use a biogeographical model to reconstruct the dinosaurs' ancestral locations, revealing the spatial mechanisms that underpinned this 170-million-year-long radiation. We find that dinosaurs spread rapidly initially, followed by a significant continuous and gradual reduction in their speed of movement towards the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary (66 million years ago). This suggests that the predominant mode of dinosaur speciation changed through time with speciation originally largely driven by geographical isolation-when dinosaurs speciated more, they moved further. This was gradually replaced by increasing levels of sympatric speciation (species taking advantage of ecological opportunities within their existing environment) as terrestrial space became a limiting factor. Our results uncover the geographical signature of an evolutionary radiation.

  14. Geographic analysis of road accident severity index in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyanda, Ayodeji E

    2018-05-28

    Before 2030, deaths from road traffic accidents (RTAs) will surpass cerebrovascular disease, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. Yet, there is little knowledge on the geographic distribution of RTA severity in Nigeria. Accident Severity Index is the proportion of deaths that result from a road accident. This study analysed the geographic pattern of RTA severity based on the data retrieved from Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC). The study predicted a two-year data from a historic road accident data using exponential smoothing technique. To determine spatial autocorrelation, global and local indicators of spatial association were implemented in a geographic information system. Results show significant clusters of high RTA severity among states in the northeast and the northwest of Nigeria. Hence, the findings are discussed from two perspectives: Road traffic law compliance and poor emergency response. Conclusion, the severity of RTA is high in the northern states of Nigeria, hence, RTA remains a public health concern.

  15. Improving Geography Learning in the Schools: Efforts by the National Geographic Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulli, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the National Geographic Society's Geography Education Program continues to work on improving geography instruction and learning. Outlines future activities of the National Geographic Society including urban outreach and technology training. (CFR)

  16. Similarity of trajectories taking into account geographic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Buchin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The movements of animals, people, and vehicles are embedded in a geographic context. This context influences the movement and may cause the formation of certain behavioral responses. Thus, it is essential to include context parameters in the study of movement and the development of movement pattern analytics. Advances in sensor technologies and positioning devices provide valuable data not only of moving agents but also of the circumstances embedding the movement in space and time. Developing knowledge discovery methods to investigate the relation between movement and its surrounding context is a major challenge in movement analysis today. In this paper we show how to integrate geographic context into the similarity analysis of movement data. For this, we discuss models for geographic context of movement data. Based on this we develop simple but efficient context-aware similarity measures for movement trajectories, which combine a spatial and a contextual distance. These are based on well-known similarity measures for trajectories, such as the Hausdorff, Fréchet, or equal time distance. We validate our approach by applying these measures to movement data of hurricanes and albatross.

  17. Sirenomelia in Argentina: Prevalence, geographic clusters and temporal trends analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Boris; Liascovich, Rosa; Gili, Juan Antonio; Barbero, Pablo; Bidondo, María Paz

    2016-07-01

    Sirenomelia is a severe malformation of the lower body characterized by a single medial lower limb and a variable combination of visceral abnormalities. Given that Sirenomelia is a very rare birth defect, epidemiological studies are scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate prevalence, geographic clusters and time trends of sirenomelia in Argentina, using data from the National Network of Congenital Anomalies of Argentina (RENAC) from November 2009 until December 2014. This is a descriptive study using data from the RENAC, a hospital-based surveillance system for newborns affected with major morphological congenital anomalies. We calculated sirenomelia prevalence throughout the period, searched for geographical clusters, and evaluated time trends. The prevalence of confirmed cases of sirenomelia throughout the period was 2.35 per 100,000 births. Cluster analysis showed no statistically significant geographical aggregates. Time-trends analysis showed that the prevalence was higher in years 2009 to 2010. The observed prevalence was higher than the observed in previous epidemiological studies in other geographic regions. We observed a likely real increase in the initial period of our study. We used strict diagnostic criteria, excluding cases that only had clinical diagnosis of sirenomelia. Therefore, real prevalence could be even higher. This study did not show any geographic clusters. Because etiology of sirenomelia has not yet been established, studies of epidemiological features of this defect may contribute to define its causes. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:604-611, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Korol

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Properties of geographical space that are of key importance for international tourism, as length and discreteness, are analyzed in the article. Length makes tourists cover distances, whereas discreteness manifests itself in spatial heterogeneity. Tourism in conditions of homogeneous space is vain. That is, heterogeneity brings sense to travels as well as determines their direction. So, the effect of geographical space’s length and spatial heterogeneity on formation and distribution of tourism flows is assessed, international tourism’s geographical essence is disclosed also. Apperception of geographical space in usual environment and its effect on tourist’s original motives are described. Following the bases of behaviorism, the tourism original motives, in particular those for migration, comfort, contrast and aesthetics are substantiated. The motive for migration is a kind of “pushing” tourists outside their usual environment. To stop all fears that may cause anxiety in destination, the latter should guarantee satisfaction of those human needs which A. Maslow refers to as basic needs. The necessity to satisfy these needs forms in tourists the motive for comfort. Closely located destinations in neighboring countries can be of little difference form usual environment. Driven by the motive for contrast, tourists aspire to visit places that totally differ from their usual environment, and contrast (are exotic to it. Thus, the motive for contrast seemingly “pulls” the tourists up to certain (exotic destinations. Finally, following the considered spatial specificities of land surface and tourist-driving original motives, a conceptual model of formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space is developed.

  19. SOLID WASTE: PRESENCE AND THREATIN GEOGRAPHICAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clesley Maria Tavares do Nascimento

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the trajectory of the solid waste in different historical periods, configuring them as a constructive element of geographical space. The intention to bring the theme from the timeline perspective, is marked out in the conviction of the inseparability of the categories of space and time and its importance in understanding a geographical phenomenon. The methodological support of this research relied on the documentary type of research involving literature, consultation of secondary sources such as books, academic journals, dissertations and theses on the subject. The results presented and discussed in this paper indicated that the production of waste is adjacent to historical time, reflects societies and techniques that generated them, and is a permanent part of the dialectical process of spatial formation.

  20. U.S.-Mexico Border Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.

    2008-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the development of extensive geodatabases have become invaluable tools for addressing a variety of contemporary societal issues and for making predictions about the future. The United States-Mexico Geographic Information System (USMX-GIS) is based on fundamental datasets that are produced and/or approved by the national geography agencies of each country, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Y Geografia (INEGI) of Mexico, and the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC). The data are available at various scales to allow both regional and local analysis. The USGS and the INEGI have an extensive history of collaboration for transboundary mapping including exchanging digital technology and developing methods for harmonizing seamless national level geospatial datasets for binational environmental monitoring, urban growth analysis, and other scientific applications.

  1. Mithra and the Arrangement of Geographical Lists in the Achaemenid and Sasanid Inscriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nazanin tamari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The division of the world is one of the issues that began with the social life of human in all over the world and still continues. The oldest division has mythical and legendary aspects that shows the geographical knowledge or religious and ethnic beliefs of their predecessors. Various geographical divisions can be seen in the ancient Iranians tradition. Each of these divisions follow the specific arrangement of listing the geographical areas, which discussed in this paper. The arrangement of geographical areas in Achaemenid and Sasanin inscriptions and in the Mihr Ya&scaront, the oldest of Avesta, are the same. Because of this similarity can’t be accidental, in this paper the cause of the similarities has been investigated. The arrangement of geographical areas in two lists ( inscriptions and Mihr Ya&scaront shows clockwise (sunwise fashion, that investigated in religious view in this study. Due to the Mithra’s influence on cultural and religious context of the ancient Iranians, for the first time in present paper investigated the role of this god and his influence on the writing the geographical lists in the Achaemenid and Sasanin inscriptions.

  2. A primer of GIS fundamental geographic and cartographic concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Francis

    2015-01-01

    This accessible text prepares students to understand and work with geographic information systems (GIS), offering a detailed introduction to essential theories, concepts, and skills. The book is organized in four modular parts that can be used in any sequence in entry-level and more specialized courses. Basic cartographic principles are integrated with up-to-date discussions of GIS technologies and applications. Coverage includes everything from what geographic information is to its many uses and societal implications. Practical examples and exercises invite readers to explore the choices invo

  3. Geographic segmentation of users and its use in advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Blaž

    2015-01-01

    In modern web advertising the goal is not only deliver an ad to a broad number of customers, but to target particular customers who are more likely to be interested in content. If the user location is known, we can estimate click on ad based on previous visitors. The company Zemanta recognized the need for geographic audience segmentation, and they have invited students to solve their challenge. The goal was geographic segmentation of web pages visitors based on the ZIP code they come from a...

  4. The Geographic Information Grid System Based on Mobile Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the deficiencies of current application systems, and discuss the key requirements of distributed Geographic Information service (GIS). We construct the distributed GIS on grid platform. Considering the flexibility and efficiency, we integrate the mobile agent technology into the system. We propose a new prototype system, the Geographic Information Grid System (GIGS) based on mobile agent. This system has flexible services and high performance, and improves the sharing of distributed resources. The service strategy of the system and the examples are also presented.

  5. Cultural and economic determinants of geographical mortality patterns in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackenbach, J. P.; Kunst, A. E.; Looman, C. W.

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The geographical pattern of mortality in The Netherlands is dominated by an area of relatively high mortality in the southern part of the country. The aim was to analyse the background of this geographical mortality pattern in the early 1980s, and its evolution over time since the

  6. The research on data organization technology in the highway geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhihui; Wu, Fang; Zeng, Yuhuai

    2008-10-01

    Data are the basis of GIS. It has direct impact on the efficiency and function of a Highway Geographic Information System (HGIS), because of the characteristics of data model and data organization of the traffic geographic information system such as spatial property, multi-path network, linearity. This paper discussed the data property of HGIS, studied and presented the HGIS spatial data on multi-source and model. Also, it described and verified highway geographical feature of special subject data's linearity, dynamic and multiple-path network property in HGIS.

  7. Using Educational Tourism in Geographical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakapiene, Dalia; Olberkyte, Loreta

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses and defines the concept of educational tourism, presents the structure of the concept and looks into the opportunities for using educational tourism in geographical education. In order to reveal such opportunities a research was carried out in the Lithuanian national and regional parks using the qualitative method of content…

  8. Geographic Variations in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Asian American Subgroups, 2003-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jia; Hastings, Katherine G; Boothroyd, Derek; Jose, Powell O; Chung, Sukyung; Shah, Janki B; Cullen, Mark R; Palaniappan, Latha P; Rehkopf, David H

    2017-07-12

    There are well-documented geographical differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality for non-Hispanic whites. However, it remains unknown whether similar geographical variation in CVD mortality exists for Asian American subgroups. This study aims to examine geographical differences in CVD mortality among Asian American subgroups living in the United States and whether they are consistent with geographical differences observed among non-Hispanic whites. Using US death records from 2003 to 2011 (n=3 897 040 CVD deaths), age-adjusted CVD mortality rates per 100 000 population and age-adjusted mortality rate ratios were calculated for the 6 largest Asian American subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese) and compared with non-Hispanic whites. There were consistently lower mortality rates for all Asian American subgroups compared with non-Hispanic whites across divisions for CVD mortality and ischemic heart disease mortality. However, cerebrovascular disease mortality demonstrated substantial geographical differences by Asian American subgroup. There were a number of regional divisions where certain Asian American subgroups (Filipino and Japanese men, Korean and Vietnamese men and women) possessed no mortality advantage compared with non-Hispanic whites. The most striking geographical variation was with Filipino men (age-adjusted mortality rate ratio=1.18; 95% CI, 1.14-1.24) and Japanese men (age-adjusted mortality rate ratio=1.05; 95% CI: 1.00-1.11) in the Pacific division who had significantly higher cerebrovascular mortality than non-Hispanic whites. There was substantial geographical variation in Asian American subgroup mortality for cerebrovascular disease when compared with non-Hispanic whites. It deserves increased attention to prioritize prevention and treatment in the Pacific division where approximately 80% of Filipinos CVD deaths and 90% of Japanese CVD deaths occur in the United States. © 2017 The Authors

  9. A coregionalization model can assist specification of Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression: Application to an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Manuel Castro; Sousa, António Jorge; Pereira, Maria João

    2016-05-01

    The geographical distribution of health outcomes is influenced by socio-economic and environmental factors operating on different spatial scales. Geographical variations in relationships can be revealed with semi-parametric Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (sGWPR), a model that can combine both geographically varying and geographically constant parameters. To decide whether a parameter should vary geographically, two models are compared: one in which all parameters are allowed to vary geographically and one in which all except the parameter being evaluated are allowed to vary geographically. The model with the lower corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) is selected. Delivering model selection exclusively according to the AICc might hide important details in spatial variations of associations. We propose assisting the decision by using a Linear Model of Coregionalization (LMC). Here we show how LMC can refine sGWPR on ecological associations between socio-economic and environmental variables and low birth weight outcomes in the west-north-central region of Portugal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  11. IMPROVEMENT OF THE F-PERCEPTORY APPROACH THROUGH MANAGEMENT OF FUZZY COMPLEX GEOGRAPHIC OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Khalfi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the real world, data is imperfect and in various ways such as imprecision, vagueness, uncertainty, ambiguity and inconsistency. For geographic data, the fuzzy aspect is mainly manifested in time, space and the function of objects and is due to a lack of precision. Therefore, the researchers in the domain emphasize the importance of modeling data structures in GIS but also their lack of adaptation to fuzzy data. The F-Perceptory approachh manages the modeling of imperfect geographic information with UML. This management is essential to maintain faithfulness to reality and to better guide the user in his decision-making. However, this approach does not manage fuzzy complex geographic objects. The latter presents a multiple object with similar or different geographic shapes. So, in this paper, we propose to improve the F-Perceptory approach by proposing to handle fuzzy complex geographic objects modeling. In a second step, we propose its transformation to the UML modeling.

  12. Rule-guided human classification of Volunteered Geographic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmed Loai; Falomir, Zoe; Schmid, Falko; Freksa, Christian

    2017-05-01

    During the last decade, web technologies and location sensing devices have evolved generating a form of crowdsourcing known as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI). VGI acted as a platform of spatial data collection, in particular, when a group of public participants are involved in collaborative mapping activities: they work together to collect, share, and use information about geographic features. VGI exploits participants' local knowledge to produce rich data sources. However, the resulting data inherits problematic data classification. In VGI projects, the challenges of data classification are due to the following: (i) data is likely prone to subjective classification, (ii) remote contributions and flexible contribution mechanisms in most projects, and (iii) the uncertainty of spatial data and non-strict definitions of geographic features. These factors lead to various forms of problematic classification: inconsistent, incomplete, and imprecise data classification. This research addresses classification appropriateness. Whether the classification of an entity is appropriate or inappropriate is related to quantitative and/or qualitative observations. Small differences between observations may be not recognizable particularly for non-expert participants. Hence, in this paper, the problem is tackled by developing a rule-guided classification approach. This approach exploits data mining techniques of Association Classification (AC) to extract descriptive (qualitative) rules of specific geographic features. The rules are extracted based on the investigation of qualitative topological relations between target features and their context. Afterwards, the extracted rules are used to develop a recommendation system able to guide participants to the most appropriate classification. The approach proposes two scenarios to guide participants towards enhancing the quality of data classification. An empirical study is conducted to investigate the classification of grass

  13. Trophic basis of production for a mayfly in a North Island, New Zealand, forest stream : contributions of benthic versus hyporheic habitats and implications for restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, K.J.; Wright-Stow, A.E.; Smith, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    The leptophlebiid mayfly Acanthophlebia cruentata (Hudson) is restricted to the North Island and some associated offshore islands of northern New Zealand where it commonly occurs in benthic and hyporheic habitats of forested streams. We investigated: (1) life history; (2) secondary production in benthic and hyporheic habitats; and (3) major energy sources contributing to nutrition and production of this species in a pristine forest stream. Most nymphal size classes were present throughout the year, and emergence extended over several months, peaking from February to April. Despite apparently having extended emergence and recruitment periods, Acanthophlebia exhibited a predominantly univoltine life history. Annual benthic production (calculated by the size-frequency method) was 0.318 g dry mass (DM) m -2 year -1 , compared to 4.601 g DM m -2 year -1 in high-density benthic habitats at the tails of pools, and 34.476 g m -3 year -1 for colonisation baskets set at 15-45 cm deep in the substratum. On a habitat weighted basis averaged out over the entire sampling reach, it was estimated that 76% of annual production occurred in hyporheic habitats >10 cm below the streambed surface. Gut contents were dominated by fine particulate matter (FPM) ≤75 μm and larger inorganic material on all dates in individuals from both benthic and hyporheic habitats. Fungi were relatively abundant in guts of benthic animals collected on some dates, whereas spores and pollen were relatively common food items in both habitats on occasions. Analysis of the trophic basis of production, based on gut contents and assumed assimilation and net production efficiencies, indicated that benthic secondary production was supported largely by fungi (48% of production) and FPM (37%), whereas FPM supported a higher level of hyporheic production (52%) than fungi (27%). Although stable carbon isotope values suggested dependence on epilithon, the enriched δ 15 N values for this food source implicated the

  14. The measure of success: geographic isolation promotes diversification in Pachydactylus geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Matthew P; Jackman, Todd R; Bauer, Aaron M

    2017-01-11

    Geckos of the genus Pachydactylus and their close relatives comprise the most species-rich clade of lizards in sub-Saharan Africa. Many explanations have been offered to explain species richness patterns of clades. In the Pachydactylus group, one possible explanation is a history of diversification via geographic isolation. If geographic isolation has played a key role in facilitating diversification, then we expect species in more species-rich subclades to have smaller ranges than species in less diverse subclades. We also expect traits promoting geographic isolation to be correlated with small geographic ranges. In order to test these expectations, we performed phylogenetic analyses and tested for correlations among body size, habitat choice, range sizes, and diversification rates in the Pachydactylus group. Both body size and habitat use are inferred to have shifted multiple times across the phylogeny of the Pachydactylus group, with large size and generalist habitat use being ancestral for the group. Geographic range size is correlated with both of these traits. Small-bodied species have more restricted ranges than large-bodied species, and rock-dwelling species have more restricted ranges than either terrestrial or generalist species. Rock-dwelling and small body size are also associated with higher rates of diversification, and subclades retaining ancestral conditions for these traits are less species rich than subclades in which shifts to small body size and rocky habitat use have occurred. The phylogeny also illustrates inadequacies of the current taxonomy of the group. The results are consistent with a model in which lineages more likely to become geographically isolated diversify to a greater extent, although some patterns also resemble those expected of an adaptive radiation in which ecological divergence acts as a driver of speciation. Therefore, the Pachydactylus group may represent an intermediate between clades in which radiation is adaptive versus

  15. Identification Of Geographical Origin Of Coffee Before And After Roasting By Electronic Noses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sberveglieri, V.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.; Ongo, E.; Pulvirenti, A.; Fava, P.

    2011-09-01

    Geographical origin traceability of food is a relevant issue for both producers' business protection and customers' rights safeguard. Differentiation of coffees on the basis of geographical origin is still a challenging issue, though possible by means of chemical techniques [1]. Between the most widely consumed beverage, coffee is a valuable one, with an aroma constituted by hundreds of volatiles [2]. Since the final global volatile composition is also determined by the cultivation climatic conditions, Electronic Noses (ENs) could be interesting candidates for distinguishing the geographical provenience by exploiting differences in chemical volatile profile. The present investigation is directed toward the characterization of green and roasted coffees samples according to their geographical origin.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A GEOGRAPHIC VISUALIZATION AND COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS (GVCS) FOR MONITORING REMOTE VEHICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COLEMAN, P.; DUNCAN, M.; DURFEE, R.C.; GOELTZ, R; HARRISON, G.; HODGSON, M.E.; KOOK, M.; MCCLAIN, S.

    1998-03-30

    The purpose of this project is to integrate a variety of geographic information systems capabilities and telecommunication technologies for potential use in geographic network and visualization applications. The specific technical goals of the project were to design, develop, and simulate the components of an audio/visual geographic communications system to aid future real-time monitoring, mapping and managing of transport vehicles. The system components of this feasibility study are collectively referred to as a Geographic Visualization and Communications System (GVCS). State-of-the-art techniques will be used and developed to allow both the vehicle operator and network manager to monitor the location and surrounding environment of a transport vehicle during shipment.

  17. How Well Do Americans Know Geography? "National Geographic" Editor Discusses Meaning for Schools (Interview).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Gilbert Grosvenor, editor of "National Geographic," is interviewed about the importance of geography for Americans. He claims our lack of geographic knowledge impedes our ability to act and compete in the world market as a world power and points out that geographic ignorance extends to people employed at high levels of government. (MD)

  18. The geosystems of complex geographical atlases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex geographical atlases represent geosystems of different hierarchical rank, complexity and diversity, scale and connection. They represent a set of large number of different pieces of information about geospace. Also, they contain systematized, correlative and in the apparent form represented pieces of information about space. The degree of information revealed in the atlas is precisely explained by its content structure and the form of presentation. The quality of atlas depends on the method of visualization of data and the quality of geodata. Cartographic visualization represents cognitive process. The analysis converts geospatial data into knowledge. A complex geographical atlas represents information complex of spatial - temporal coordinated database on geosystems of different complexity and territorial scope. Each geographical atlas defines a concrete geosystem. Systemic organization (structural and contextual determines its complexity and concreteness. In complex atlases, the attributes of geosystems are modeled and pieces of information are given in systematized, graphically unique form. The atlas can be considered as a database. In composing a database, semantic analysis of data is important. The result of semantic modeling is expressed in structuring of data information, in emphasizing logic connections between phenomena and processes and in defining their classes according to the degree of similarity. Accordingly, the efficiency of research of needed pieces of information in the process of the database use is enabled. An atlas map has a special power to integrate sets of geodata and present information contents in user - friendly and understandable visual and tactile way using its visual ability. Composing an atlas by systemic cartography requires the pieces of information on concrete - defined geosystems of different hierarchical level, the application of scientific methods and making of adequate number of analytical, synthetic

  19. Geographic thougth in Latin America: A retrospective and general balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Sergio Urquijo Torres

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report results of a thorough contemporary historiographic revision of published geographic research and geography research departments and centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG Geography. First we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we explain the nature of LA social processes that, in the 90s, triggered geographic change and subsequent theoretical reflection on this change in LAG and in other related social sciences. To this end, we describe how the major traditions in geographic research have influenced LAG thinking. To conclude, we suggest the major achievements that we think characterize the current situation of LAG.

  20. AN ENCODING METHOD FOR COMPRESSING GEOGRAPHICAL COORDINATES IN 3D SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Qian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed an encoding method for compressing geographical coordinates in 3D space. By the way of reducing the length of geographical coordinates, it helps to lessen the storage size of geometry information. In addition, the encoding algorithm subdivides the whole space according to octree rules, which enables progressive transmission and loading. Three main steps are included in this method: (1 subdividing the whole 3D geographic space based on octree structure, (2 resampling all the vertices in 3D models, (3 encoding the coordinates of vertices with a combination of Cube Index Code (CIC and Geometry Code. A series of geographical 3D models were applied to evaluate the encoding method. The results showed that this method reduced the storage size of most test data by 90 % or even more under the condition of a speed of encoding and decoding. In conclusion, this method achieved a remarkable compression rate in vertex bit size with a steerable precision loss. It shall be of positive meaning to the web 3d map storing and transmission.

  1. Geographic information system planning and monitoring best ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor urbanization policies, inefficient planning and monitoring technologies are evident. The consequences include some of the worst types of environmental hazards. Best urbanization practices require integrated planning approaches that result in environmental conservation. Geographic Information systems (GIS) provide ...

  2. IL FENOMENO VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Lupia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution addresses the phenomenon of Voluntereed Geographic Informationexplaining these new and burgeoning sources of information offers multidisciplinary scientists an unprecedented opportunity to conduct research on a variety of topics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In particular the contribution refers to two COST Actions which have been recently activated on the subject which areparticularly relevant for the growing of the European scientific community.

  3. Usability of geographic information -- factors identified from qualitative analysis of task-focused user interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jenny

    2013-11-01

    Understanding user needs for geographic information and the factors which influence the usability of such information in diverse user contexts is an essential part of user centred development of information products. There is relatively little existing research focused on the design and usability of information products in general. This paper presents a research approach based on semi structured interviews with people working with geographic information on a day to day basis, to establish a reference base of qualitative data on user needs for geographic information with respect to context of use. From this reference data nine key categories of geographic information usability are identified and discussed in the context of limited existing research concerned with geographic information usability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  4. WebGeoOlap: Multidimensional geographic data visualization for web environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA, R. O. L.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As the web is continuously maturing platform, a growing number of technology is leading Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Analytical (OLAP closer to being developed for the web environment. The great challenge of this work is to integrate these technologies, OLAP and GIS, in a single application, using Ajax, so that the user can perform the analysis of analytical data and view data geographic in the map, using Google Maps.

  5. Historical Shoreline for Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, NOAA (2001) [shoreline_la_NOAA_1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These data were automated to provide a suitable geographic information system (GIS) data layer depicting the historical shoreline for Louisiana. These data are...

  6. Execution Management Solutions for Geographically Distributed Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Jansen, H.G.M.; Jansen, R.E.J.; Prins, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Managing the initialization, execution control and monitoring of HLA federates is not always straightforward, especially for a geographically distributed time managed federation. Issues include pre and post run-time data distribution and run-time data collection; starting, stopping and monitoring

  7. Geographical information modelling for land resource survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de S.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing popularity of geographical information systems (GIS) has at least three major implications for land resources survey. Firstly, GIS allows alternative and richer representation of spatial phenomena than is possible with the traditional paper map. Secondly, digital technology has

  8. The influence of the Bible geographic objects peculiarities on the concept of the spatiotemporal geoinformation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsebarth, A.; Moscicka, A.

    2010-01-01

    The article describes the infl uence of the Bible geographic object peculiarities on the spatiotemporal geoinformation system of the Bible events. In the proposed concept of this system the special attention was concentrated to the Bible geographic objects and interrelations between the names of these objects and their location in the geospace. In the Bible, both in the Old and New Testament, there are hundreds of geographical names, but the selection of these names from the Bible text is not so easy. The same names are applied for the persons and geographic objects. The next problem which arises is the classification of the geographical object, because in several cases the same name is used for the towns, mountains, hills, valleys etc. Also very serious problem is related to the time-changes of the names. The interrelation between the object name and its location is also complicated. The geographic object of this same name is located in various places which should be properly correlated with the Bible text. Above mentioned peculiarities of Bible geographic objects infl uenced the concept of the proposed system which consists of three databases: reference, geographic object, and subject/thematic. The crucial component of this system is proper architecture of the geographic object database. In the paper very detailed description of this database is presented. The interrelation between the databases allows to the Bible readers to connect the Bible text with the geography of the terrain on which the Bible events occurred and additionally to have access to the other geographical and historical information related to the geographic objects.

  9. Geographic variation in the relationship between body mass index and the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Lee, Chanam; Lee, Chunkuen; Carlos, Heather A; Saelens, Brian E; Berke, Ethan M; Doescher, Mark P

    2017-07-01

    Studies examining associations between weight status and neighborhood built environment (BE) have shown inconsistent results and have generally focused on urban settings. However, many Americans do not live in metropolitan areas and BE impacts may be different outside of metropolitan areas. We sought to examine whether the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and neighborhood BE exists and varies by geographic region across small towns in the United States. We conducted telephone surveys with 2156 adults and geographic information systems data in nine towns located within three geographic regions (Northeast, Texas, Washington) in 2011 and 2012. Multiple regression models examined the relationship between individual BMI and BE measures. Most physical activity variables were significantly associated with lower BMI in all geographic regions. We saw variation across geographic region in the relationship between characteristics of the BE variables and BMI. Some perceived and objectively-measured characteristics of the BE were significantly associated with adult BMI, but significant relationships varied by geographic region. For example, in the Northeast, perceived attractiveness of the neighborhood as a reason for why they chose to live there was associated with lower BMI; in Texas, the perceived presence of a fast food restaurant was negatively associated with BMI; in Washington, perceived presence of trees along the streets was associated with lower BMI. Our findings suggest that regional variation plays a role in the relationship between adult BMI and BE characteristics in small towns. Regardless of geographic location, interventions should encourage utilitarian walking and other forms of physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Geographical variation in the prevalence of sensitization to common aeroallergens in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newson, R B; van Ree, R; Forsberg, B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Geographical variation in the prevalence of sensitization to aeroallergens may reflect differences in exposure to risk factors such as having older siblings, being raised on a farm or other unidentified exposures. OBJECTIVE: We wanted to measure geographical variation in skin prick te...

  11. Temporal Analyses of Select Macroinvertebrates in the Upper Mississippi River System, 1992-1995

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sauer, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    The annual variability in mayflies (Ephemeroptera), fingernail clams (Sphaeriidae), and midges (chironomidae) in six study areas of the Upper Mississippi River System from 1992 to 1995 was examined...

  12. Geographically Modified PageRank Algorithms: Identifying the Spatial Concentration of Human Movement in a Geospatial Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Wei-Chien-Benny; Wen, Tzai-Hung

    2015-01-01

    A network approach, which simplifies geographic settings as a form of nodes and links, emphasizes the connectivity and relationships of spatial features. Topological networks of spatial features are used to explore geographical connectivity and structures. The PageRank algorithm, a network metric, is often used to help identify important locations where people or automobiles concentrate in the geographical literature. However, geographic considerations, including proximity and location attractiveness, are ignored in most network metrics. The objective of the present study is to propose two geographically modified PageRank algorithms-Distance-Decay PageRank (DDPR) and Geographical PageRank (GPR)-that incorporate geographic considerations into PageRank algorithms to identify the spatial concentration of human movement in a geospatial network. Our findings indicate that in both intercity and within-city settings the proposed algorithms more effectively capture the spatial locations where people reside than traditional commonly-used network metrics. In comparing location attractiveness and distance decay, we conclude that the concentration of human movement is largely determined by the distance decay. This implies that geographic proximity remains a key factor in human mobility.

  13. The Geographic Extent of Global Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machikita, Tomohiro; Ueki, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    We study the extent to which inter-firm relationships are locally concentrated and what determines firm differences in geographic proximity to domestic or foreign suppliers and customers. From micro-data on selfreported customer and supplier data of firms in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, ...

  14. Public Use Airports, Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [public_use_airports_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Public Use Airports database is a geographic point database of aircraft landing facilities in the United States and U.S. Territories. Attribute data is provided...

  15. Authorities and organizations involved with geographic names - 1989: United States, Canada, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    There is a need for accurate and standard geographic names usage in all levels of government, industry, commerce, communications, education, and research. There is also a growing number of organizations in North America that are, fully or partly, involved in the scholarly study of geographic names. This report is a list of official national, State/Provincial, and regional provincial authorities concerned with name standardization, and of organizations involved with the study of geographic names, in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The appendixes are copies of documents that provide additional information about the organization, policies, procedures, and publications of some of these organizations.

  16. OGC Geographic Information Service Deductive Semantic Reasoning Based on Description Vocabularies Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIAO Lizhi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As geographic information interoperability and sharing developing, more and more interoperable OGC (open geospatial consortium Web services (OWS are generated and published through the internet. These services can facilitate the integration of different scientific applications by searching, finding, and utilizing the large number of scientific data and Web services. However, these services are widely dispersed and hard to be found and utilized with executive semantic retrieval. This is especially true when considering the weak semantic description of geographic information service data. Focusing on semantic retrieval and reasoning of the distributed OWS resources, a deductive and semantic reasoning method is proposed to describe and search relevant OWS resources. Specifically, ①description words are extracted from OWS metadata file to generate GISe ontology-database and instance-database based on geographic ontology according to basic geographic elements category, ②a description words reduction model is put forward to implement knowledge reduction on GISe instance-database based on rough set theory and generate optimized instances database, ③utilizing GISe ontology-database and optimized instance-database to implement semantic inference and reasoning of geographic searching objects is used as an example to demonstrate the efficiency, feasibility and recall ration of the proposed description-word-based reduction model.

  17. Extending the Intermediate Data Structure (IDS for longitudinal historical databases to include geographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Hedefalk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Intermediate Data Structure (IDS is a standardised database structure for longitudinal historical databases. Such a common structure facilitates data sharing and comparative research. In this study, we propose an extended version of IDS, named IDS-Geo, that also includes geographic data. The geographic data that will be stored in IDS-Geo are primarily buildings and/or property units, and the purpose of these geographic data is mainly to link individuals to places in space. When we want to assign such detailed spatial locations to individuals (in times before there were any detailed house addresses available, we often have to create tailored geographic datasets. In those cases, there are benefits of storing geographic data in the same structure as the demographic data. Moreover, we propose the export of data from IDS-Geo using an eXtensible Markup Language (XML Schema. IDS-Geo is implemented in a case study using historical property units, for the period 1804 to 1913, stored in a geographically extended version of the Scanian Economic Demographic Database (SEDD. To fit into the IDS-Geo data structure, we included an object lifeline representation of all of the property units (based on the snapshot time representation of single historical maps and poll-tax registers. The case study verifies that the IDS-Geo model is capable of handling geographic data that can be linked to demographic data.

  18. A Systems Perspective on Volunteered Geographic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Fast

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Volunteered geographic information (VGI is geographic information collected by way of crowdsourcing. However, the distinction between VGI as an information product and the processes that create VGI is blurred. Clearly, the environment that influences the creation of VGI is different than the information product itself, yet most literature treats them as one and the same. Thus, this research is motivated by the need to formalize and standardize the systems that support the creation of VGI. To this end, we propose a conceptual framework for VGI systems, the main components of which—project, participants, and technical infrastructure—form an environment conducive to the creation of VGI. Drawing on examples from OpenStreetMap, Ushahidi, and RinkWatch, we illustrate the pragmatic relevance of these components. Applying a system perspective to VGI allows us to better understand the components and functionality needed to effectively create VGI.

  19. A geographical analysis of the Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Anders; Bohlin, Folke; Hektor, Bo; Hillring, Bengt; Parikka, Matti

    2000-01-01

    The geographical variation in Swedish wood fuel market characteristics for the district heating sector has been studied using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and cross-sectional Tobit analysis. The results indicate that local availability and competition for wood fuels influence the wood fuel consumption at inland heating plants. The factors affecting the decision to use wood fuel at heating plants close to seaports, however, were not captured by the model, suggesting that coastal location reduces dependency on the local wood fuel market. The effects of changes in local wood fuel availability on wood fuel use by an inland heating plant are presented and discussed

  20. Key Techniques for Dynamic Updating of National Fundamental Geographic Information Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Donghua

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important missions of fundamental surveying and mapping work is to keep the fundamental geographic information fresh. In this respect, National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation has launched the project of dynamic updating of national fundamental geographic information database since 2012, which aims to update 1:50 000, 1:250 000 and 1:1 000 000 national fundamental geographic information database continuously and quickly, by updating and publishing once a year. This paper introduces the general technical thinking of dynamic updating, states main technical methods, such as dynamic updating of fundamental database, linkage updating of derived databases, and multi-tense database management and service and so on, and finally introduces main technical characteristics and engineering applications.

  1. Epidemiology of hip fracture: Worldwide geographic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K Dhanwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a major health problem, especially in elderly populations, and is associated with fragility fractures at the hip, spine, and wrist. Hip fracture contributes to both morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The demographics of world populations are set to change, with more elderly living in developing countries, and it has been estimated that by 2050 half of hip fractures will occur in Asia. This review conducted using the PubMed database describes the incidence of hip fracture in different regions of the world and discusses the possible causes of this wide geographic variation. The analysis of data from different studies show a wide geographic variation across the world, with higher hip fracture incidence reported from industrialized countries as compared to developing countries. The highest hip fracture rates are seen in North Europe and the US and lowest in Latin America and Africa. Asian countries such as Kuwait, Iran, China, and Hong Kong show intermediate hip fracture rates. There is also a north-south gradient seen in European studies, and more fractures are seen in the north of the US than in the south. The factors responsible of this variation are population demographics (with more elderly living in countries with higher incidence rates and the influence of ethnicity, latitude, and environmental factors. The understanding of this changing geographic variation will help policy makers to develop strategies to reduce the burden of hip fractures in developing countries such as India, which will face the brunt of this problem over the coming decades.

  2. 40 CFR 51.25 - What geographic area must my state's inventory cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions Reporting Requirements Specific Reporting Requirements § 51.25 What geographic area must my state... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What geographic area must my state's inventory cover? 51.25 Section 51.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  3. Correlation between genetic and geographic structure in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lao, Oscar; Lu, Timothy T; Nothnagel, Michael

    2008-01-01

    geographic but narrow genomic coverage [1, 2], or vice versa [3-6]. We therefore investigated Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from 2,514 individuals belonging to 23 different subpopulations, widely spread over Europe. Although we found only a low level of genetic differentiation between subpopulations......, the existing differences were characterized by a strong continent-wide correlation between geographic and genetic distance. Furthermore, mean heterozygosity was larger, and mean linkage disequilibrium smaller, in southern as compared to northern Europe. Both parameters clearly showed a clinal distribution...... Europe. By including the widely used CEPH from Utah (CEU) samples into our analysis, we could show that these individuals represent northern and western Europeans reasonably well, thereby confirming their assumed regional ancestry....

  4. Mountain names in the geographical dictionary of Camagüey Province, environmental studies, and environmental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso, L. F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research contributes to the project intended to provide the province of Camagüey with a geographical dictionary, a reference book for economic entities and academic institutions. The article is aimed at standardizing the use of geographical names in education and scientific research in Camagüey. Several methods of geographical research were used, cartographic methods, observing geographic objects in place and field research included. The findings were assessed by means of consulting experts on the topic and computer data processing. The methodology employed follows the guidelines of the national group of advisors for geographical names and the group of advisor of Camagüey province. The most widely used geographical names in the regions were listed in the dictionary.

  5. Density-Based Clustering with Geographical Background Constraints Using a Semantic Expression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyun Du

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A semantics-based method for density-based clustering with constraints imposed by geographical background knowledge is proposed. In this paper, we apply an ontological approach to the DBSCAN (Density-Based Geospatial Clustering of Applications with Noise algorithm in the form of knowledge representation for constraint clustering. When used in the process of clustering geographic information, semantic reasoning based on a defined ontology and its relationships is primarily intended to overcome the lack of knowledge of the relevant geospatial data. Better constraints on the geographical knowledge yield more reasonable clustering results. This article uses an ontology to describe the four types of semantic constraints for geographical backgrounds: “No Constraints”, “Constraints”, “Cannot-Link Constraints”, and “Must-Link Constraints”. This paper also reports the implementation of a prototype clustering program. Based on the proposed approach, DBSCAN can be applied with both obstacle and non-obstacle constraints as a semi-supervised clustering algorithm and the clustering results are displayed on a digital map.

  6. PlanetLab Europe as Geographically-Distributed Testbed for Software Development and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Komosny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse the use of PlanetLab Europe for development and evaluation of geographically-oriented Internet services. PlanetLab is a global research network with the main purpose to support development of new Internet services and protocols. PlanetLab is divided into several branches; one of them is PlanetLab Europe. PlanetLab Europe consists of about 350 nodes at 150 geographically different sites. The nodes are accessible by remote login, and the users can run their software on the nodes. In the paper, we study the PlanetLab's properties that are significant for its use as a geographically distributed testbed. This includes node position accuracy, services availability and stability. We find a considerable number of location inaccuracies and a number of services that cannot be considered as reliable. Based on the results we propose a simple approach to nodes selection in testbeds for geographically-oriented Internet services development and evaluation.

  7. Universally Primed-PCR indicates geographical variation of Peronospora farinosa ex. Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Lübeck, Mette

    2010-02-01

    In the Andean region of South America downy mildew, caused by Peronospora farinosa, is the most important disease of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). Peronospora farinosa, a highly polyphyletic species, occurs on quinoa and wild relatives on all continents. However, very little is known about the geographic diversity of the pathogen. As the interest in quinoa as a novel crop is increasing worldwide, geographical differences in the population structure of the downy mildew pathogen must be taken into consideration in order to design appropriate control strategies under a variety of circumstances. As a step towards understanding the geographic diversity of P. farinosa from quinoa, 40 downy mildew isolates from the Andean highlands and Denmark were characterized using universally primed PCR (UP-PCR). Eight UP-PCR primers were tested. A combined analysis of markers separated the Danish and Andean isolates in two distinct clusters. This study raises new questions about the origin and spread of P. farinosa on quinoa, its geographic diversity and host specificity.

  8. Geographic variation in health insurance benefits in Qianjiang District, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Xuejiao; Ye, Ting; Wang, Yongfei

    2018-02-05

    Health insurance contributes to reducing the economic burden of disease and improving access to healthcare. In 2016, the Chinese government announced the integration of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) and Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) to reduce system segmentation. Nevertheless, it was unclear whether there would be any geographic variation in health insurance benefits if the two types of insurance were integrated. The aim of this study was to identify the potential geographic variation in health insurance benefits and the related contributing factors. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Qianjiang District, where the NCMS and URBMI were integrated into Urban and Rural Resident Basic Medical Insurance Scheme (URRBMI) in 2010. All beneficiaries under the URRBMI were hospitalized at least once in 2013, totaling 445,254 persons and 65,877 person-times, were included in this study. Town-level data on health insurance benefits, healthcare utilization, and socioeconomic and geographical characteristics were collected through health insurance system, self-report questionnaires, and the 2014 Statistical Yearbook of Qianjiang District. A simplified Theil index at town level was calculated to measure geographic variation in health insurance benefits. Colored maps were created to visualize the variation in geographic distribution of benefits. The effects of healthcare utilization and socioeconomic and geographical characteristics on geographic variation in health insurance benefits were estimated with a multiple linear regression analysis. Different Theil index values were calculated for different towns, and the Theil index values for compensation by person-times and amount were 2.5028 and 1.8394 in primary healthcare institutions and 1.1466 and 0.9204 in secondary healthcare institutions. Healthcare-seeking behavior and economic factors were positively associated with health insurance benefits in compensation by person-times significantly

  9. Europeans among themselves: Geographical and linguistic stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamadouh, V.D.; Dąbrowska, A.; Pisarek, W.; Stickel, G.

    2017-01-01

    Stereotypes can be studied from the perspective of political geography and critical geopolitics as part of geographical imaginations, in other words those geopolitical representations that help us make sense of the world around us. They necessarily frame our perception of ongoing events, and inform

  10. Geography and Geographical Information Science: Interdisciplinary Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Geography and Geographical Information Science (GIS) can contribute to Interdisciplinary Research (IDR), it is relevant to articulate the differences between the different types of such research. "Multidisciplinary" researchers work in a "parallel play" mode, completing work in their disciplinary work streams…

  11. Geographical Determinants of Kaprije and Kakan Islands and Adjacent Islets, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Magaš

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The islands of Kaprije (6.97 km2 and Kakan (3.12 km2 are part of Šibenik islands, situated in the South Croatian (Dalmatian archipelago. The paper deals with their natural-geographical basis in function of past development and potential one, within the framework of the project on small Croatian islands. Besides analysing their size and extent, the authors emphasize the importance of their geographical position, geologic composition and structure, geomorphologic, climatic, pedological, hydrogeographical and biogeographical characteristics. The importance of their carbonate structure, mediterranean climatic conditions, lack of water and importance of their autochthonous vegetation are analysed in the same function. Population, building of settlements and weekend houses, as well as land use on the islands mostly depend on their natural-geographic resources. The recent possibilities of development are also based on them. Depopulation and deagrarisation impact the landscape of the island, especially the settled island of Kaprije, which is being radically changed. Strong connection between the town of Šibenik and Kaprije Island, which essentially influenced historical-geographical development of the island, also effects the contemporary development, especially through a strong gravitational influence of Šibenik.

  12. Geographic variation in chin shape challenges the universal facial attractiveness hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaneta M Thayer

    Full Text Available The universal facial attractiveness (UFA hypothesis proposes that some facial features are universally preferred because they are reliable signals of mate quality. The primary evidence for this hypothesis comes from cross-cultural studies of perceived attractiveness. However, these studies do not directly address patterns of morphological variation at the population level. An unanswered question is therefore: Are universally preferred facial phenotypes geographically invariant, as the UFA hypothesis implies? The purpose of our study is to evaluate this often overlooked aspect of the UFA hypothesis by examining patterns of geographic variation in chin shape. We collected symphyseal outlines from 180 recent human mandibles (90 male, 90 female representing nine geographic regions. Elliptical Fourier functions analysis was used to quantify chin shape, and principle components analysis was used to compute shape descriptors. In contrast to the expectations of the UFA hypothesis, we found significant geographic differences in male and female chin shape. These findings are consistent with region-specific sexual selection and/or random genetic drift, but not universal sexual selection. We recommend that future studies of facial attractiveness take into consideration patterns of morphological variation within and between diverse human populations.

  13. Geographically Modified PageRank Algorithms: Identifying the Spatial Concentration of Human Movement in a Geospatial Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chien-Benny Chin

    Full Text Available A network approach, which simplifies geographic settings as a form of nodes and links, emphasizes the connectivity and relationships of spatial features. Topological networks of spatial features are used to explore geographical connectivity and structures. The PageRank algorithm, a network metric, is often used to help identify important locations where people or automobiles concentrate in the geographical literature. However, geographic considerations, including proximity and location attractiveness, are ignored in most network metrics. The objective of the present study is to propose two geographically modified PageRank algorithms-Distance-Decay PageRank (DDPR and Geographical PageRank (GPR-that incorporate geographic considerations into PageRank algorithms to identify the spatial concentration of human movement in a geospatial network. Our findings indicate that in both intercity and within-city settings the proposed algorithms more effectively capture the spatial locations where people reside than traditional commonly-used network metrics. In comparing location attractiveness and distance decay, we conclude that the concentration of human movement is largely determined by the distance decay. This implies that geographic proximity remains a key factor in human mobility.

  14. Structured prediction for urban scene semantic segmentation with geographic contex

    OpenAIRE

    Volpi Michele; Ferrari Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    In this work we address the problem of semantic segmentation of urban remote sensing images into land cover maps. We propose to tackle this task by learning the geographic context of classes and use it to favor or discourage certain spatial configuration of label assignments. For this reason, we learn from training data two spatial priors enforcing different key aspects of the geographical space: local co-occurrence and relative location of land cover classes. We propose to embed these geogra...

  15. The New Trends for Librarians in Management of Geographic Information

    OpenAIRE

    Vardakosta, Ifigenia; Kapidakis, Sarantos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the tools (e.g. CSDGM – FGDC, Gazetteers) used for the subject description and organization, of materials (maps, aerial photos, geospatial data, remote sense images etc) related to the geographic information in today's hybrid library environment. Furthermore we aim to identify changes (e.g. RDA) and determine the new forms (e.g. Linked Data) that have arisen in the management and use of geographic information in order to further enrich access to digital...

  16. Social-geographical essence and content of the competitiveness of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gryniuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The current stage of market transformations in Ukraine requires the changing of existing stereotypes and management. Expecting for administrative reform and economic regionalization of the state requires detailed attention to the scientific concept of "competitiveness of the region." Being economical in nature this concept requires social and geographical understanding. The paper traced the content and nature of the economic competitiveness of the region in social and geographical interpretation. Author presents the fragments of research model components of regional competitiveness. The effective influence of socio-geographical laws, patterns, factors and competitive advantages that determine the strategic potential of the region is figured on. The importance of individual studies of functional subsystems, industrial, social, recreation and tourism, natural resources, administrative and management, investment and innovation under the influence of social transformation is noted. Based on scientific generalizations, the author's definition of region competitiveness was suggested. It is defined by the author as an integrated concept that reveals the state, the process and the outcome of the territory as a socio-economic system. The basis of regional competitiveness is the potential of the territory able to function effectively on the basis of competition (social and geographical advantages. The main goal here should be improvement of the region population quality of life. The work reveals the contribution of individual schools and social geographers’ studies to the development of regional competitiveness. The importance of further development of the theory and methodology of social and geographical research competitiveness of the region is stressed.

  17. Effect of two activation treatments and age of blastomere karyoplasts on in vitro development of bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Paul J; Holm, Peter; Vajta, Gabor

    2001-01-01

    The yield and quality of (a) parthenogenetic blastocysts produced by two activation treatments (cycloheximide [CHX] or 6-dimethylaminopurine [DMAP]) and (b) nuclear transfer blastocysts generated using these two activation treatments and three different ages of karyoplast derived from day 3, 4......, or 5 in vitro produced donor embryos, were examined in order to define an optimal nuclear transfer protocol. The two activation protocols comprised calcium ionophore followed by either CHX or DMAP. Parthenogenetic blastocyst yields were greater (P ....7 +/- 5.1 vs. 31.4 +/- 4.5 [mean +/- SEM]). In contrast, nuclear transfer blastocyst rates per fused embryo were lower (P

  18. Energy gradients and the geographic distribution of local ant diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspari, Michael; Ward, Philip S; Yuan, May

    2004-08-01

    Geographical diversity gradients, even among local communities, can ultimately arise from geographical differences in speciation and extinction rates. We evaluated three models--energy-speciation, energy-abundance, and area--that predict how geographic trends in net diversification rates generate trends in diversity. We sampled 96 litter ant communities from four provinces: Australia, Madagascar, North America, and South America. The energy-speciation hypothesis best predicted ant species richness by accurately predicting the slope of the temperature diversity curve, and accounting for most of the variation in diversity. The communities showed a strong latitudinal gradient in species richness as well as inter-province differences in diversity. The former vanished in the temperature-diversity residuals, suggesting that the latitudinal gradient arises primarily from higher diversification rates in the tropics. However, inter-province differences in diversity persisted in those residuals--South American communities remained more diverse than those in North America and Australia even after the effects of temperature were removed.

  19. The United States Board on Geographic Names: Standardization or regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    The United States Board on Geographic Names was created in 1890 to standardize the use of geographic names on federal maps and documents, and was established in its present form in 1947 by public law. The Board is responsible for geographic name usage and application throughout the federal government and its members must approve a name change or new name before it can be applied to federal maps and publications. To accomplish its mission, the Board has developed principles, policies, and procedures for use in the standardization process. The Board is also responsible legally for the promulgation of standardized names, whether or not these names have ever been controversial, and today this is accomplished by the universal availability of electronic databases for domestic and foreign names. This paper examines the development of Board policies and the implementation of these policies to achieve standardization with a view to relating these policies and activities to questions of standardization or regulation. ?? 2000 by The American Name Society.

  20. Appellations of geographical origin as a generator of national competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovićević-Simin Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The protection of appellations of geographical origin worldwide, through the Lisbon Agreement mainly refers to agricultural and food products and the leading countries in the number of registrations of appellations of origin are: France, Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Italy etc. By the product structure 85% of registrations of appellations of origin in the world refer to the four major categories of food products such as: wine (61.5%, spirits (9.5%, agricultural products (8.4% and cheese (8.5%. Considering that the protection of appellations of geographical origin in Serbia is mainly related to agricultural and food products, and the fact that we have 52 domestic and only 3 internationally protected appellations of origin, these could be used as a powerful tool to support the growth of competitiveness in agriculture of certain regions as well as of the entire country. Appellations of geographical origin have a collective ownership and represent a kind of national resource.

  1. Physical-geographical landscape of the tourist circuit Chilpancingo-Azul, Guerrero State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Carbajal Monroy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the delimitation of physical-geographical landscapes of the territory of the Tourist Circuit Chilpancingo Azul, at Guerrero's State central region, from geo-ecological conception for the physical-geographical synthetic classification of territorial units. This approach obtained territorial units and its hierarchical classification using a taxonomic system of localities, neighborhoods and boroughs (smallest categories. Taking into account the 1:100 000 scale different geographical units were determined: 3 localities, 31 neighborhoods and 177 boroughs. The characterization of these territorial units include lithologic constitution, geomorphological conditions (morphogenesis and morphometrics and spatial distribution of major types of soils and vegetation and land uses in the territory.

  2. Modelling the geographic distribution of wind power and the impact on transmission needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2003-01-01

    Through energy systems modelling, transmission systems modelling and geographical modelling, the article examines the sensitivity of the response of the transmission system to the geographic distributions of wind power and in particular the sensitivity of the results to the accuracy...... of the distributed modelled. The results show that accuracy of the geographic modelling while important for the analysis of specific single transmission lines is not important for the analysis of the general response of the transmission system. The analyses thus corroborate previous analyses that demonstrated...

  3. Geographic Access to Cancer Care and Mortality Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Eric; Hallisey, Elaine; Peipins, Lucy A; Flanagan, Barry; Lunsford, Natasha Buchanan; Wilt, Grete; Graham, Shannon

    2018-02-01

    Adolescents with cancer have had less improvement in survival than other populations in the United States. This may be due, in part, to adolescents not receiving treatment at Children's Oncology Group (COG) institutions, which have been shown to increase survival for some cancers. The objective of this ecologic study was to examine geographic distance to COG institutions and adolescent cancer mortality. We calculated cancer mortality among adolescents and sociodemographic and healthcare access factors in four geographic zones at selected distances surrounding COG facilities: Zone A (area within 10 miles of any COG institution), Zones B and C (concentric rings with distances from a COG institution of >10-25 miles and >25-50 miles, respectively), and Zone D (area outside of 50 miles). The adolescent cancer death rate was highest in Zone A at 3.21 deaths/100,000, followed by Zone B at 3.05 deaths/100,000, Zone C at 2.94 deaths/100,000, and Zone D at 2.88 deaths/100,000. The United States-wide death rate for whites without Hispanic ethnicity, blacks without Hispanic ethnicity, and persons with Hispanic ethnicity was 2.96 deaths/100,000, 3.10 deaths/100,000, and 3.26 deaths/100,000, respectively. Zone A had high levels of poverty (15%), no health insurance coverage (16%), and no vehicle access (16%). Geographic access to COG institutions, as measured by distance alone, played no evident role in death rate differences across zones. Among adolescents, socioeconomic factors, such as poverty and health insurance coverage, may have a greater impact on cancer mortality than geographic distance to COG institution.

  4. Differentiation of chocolates according to the cocoa's geographical origin using chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambrai, Amandine; Marcic, Christophe; Morville, Stéphane; Sae Houer, Pierre; Bindler, Françoise; Marchioni, Eric

    2010-02-10

    The determination of the geographical origin of cocoa used to produce chocolate has been assessed through the analysis of the volatile compounds of chocolate samples. The analysis of the volatile content and their statistical processing by multivariate analyses tended to form independent groups for both Africa and Madagascar, even if some of the chocolate samples analyzed appeared in a mixed zone together with those from America. This analysis also allowed a clear separation between Caribbean chocolates and those from other origins. Height compounds (such as linalool or (E,E)-2,4-decadienal) characteristic of chocolate's different geographical origins were also identified. The method described in this work (hydrodistillation, GC analysis, and statistic treatment) may improve the control of the geographical origin of chocolate during its long production process.

  5. Geographic Clusters of Basal Cell Carcinoma in a Northern California Health Plan Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, G Thomas; Kulldorff, Martin; Asgari, Maryam M

    2016-11-01

    Rates of skin cancer, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common cancer, have been increasing over the past 3 decades. A better understanding of geographic clustering of BCCs can help target screening and prevention efforts. Present a methodology to identify spatial clusters of BCC and identify such clusters in a northern California population. This retrospective study used a BCC registry to determine rates of BCC by census block group, and used spatial scan statistics to identify statistically significant geographic clusters of BCCs, adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. The study population consisted of white, non-Hispanic members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California during years 2011 and 2012. Statistically significant geographic clusters of BCC as determined by spatial scan statistics. Spatial analysis of 28 408 individuals who received a diagnosis of at least 1 BCC in 2011 or 2012 revealed distinct geographic areas with elevated BCC rates. Among the 14 counties studied, BCC incidence ranged from 661 to 1598 per 100 000 person-years. After adjustment for age, sex, and neighborhood socioeconomic status, a pattern of 5 discrete geographic clusters emerged, with a relative risk ranging from 1.12 (95% CI, 1.03-1.21; P = .006) for a cluster in eastern Sonoma and northern Napa Counties to 1.40 (95% CI, 1.15-1.71; P Costa and west San Joaquin Counties, compared with persons residing outside that cluster. In this study of a northern California population, we identified several geographic clusters with modestly elevated incidence of BCC. Knowledge of geographic clusters can help inform future research on the underlying etiology of the clustering including factors related to the environment, health care access, or other characteristics of the resident population, and can help target screening efforts to areas of highest yield.

  6. [Differentiation of geographic biovariants of smallpox virus by PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babkin, I V; Babkina, I N

    2010-01-01

    Comparative analysis of amino acid and nucleotides sequences of ORFs located in extended segments of the terminal variable regions in variola virus genome detected a promising locus for viral genotyping according to the geographic origin. This is ORF O1L of VARV. The primers were calculated for synthesis of this ORF fragment by PCR, which makes it possible to distinguish South America-Western Africa genotype from other VARV strains. Subsequent RFLP analysis reliably differentiated Asian strains from African strains (except Western Africa isolates). This method has been tested using 16 VARV strains from various geographic regions. The developed approach is simple, fast and reliable.

  7. Characteristics of the socio-geographical factors in the Drina-Velika Morava strategic direction zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Radivoj Inđić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the assessment of the operational – geographic features of the Drina–Velikamorava strategic direction. Due to the scope of the article, a variant of the assessment of the strategic direction is presented through its socio–geographic factors, while the mathematical–geographical and physical–geographic factors, as well as the operating lines of action are not discussed. Within the socio–geographic factors, the characteristics of the population, economy and communication networks are considered. The geographic area of the direction is nationally compact and provides war mobilization of units with no particular strain. The transportation network is not fully developed which makes combat operations difficult to attackers and facilitates them for the deffenders.. There are significant technical and technological potentials in the direction of the zone, but they are not evenly distributed. After the consideration of the complex socio – geographical factors, it is  concluded that the shown strategic direction enables, without any special restrictions, a successful execution of combat operations in the long run.   Introduction The Drina–Velikamorava strategic direction of action consists of two operational lines: Semberija–Šumadija and Glasinac–Zapadnamorava. This paper presents a variant of a complex evaluation of the socio–geographic factors in the area of strategic direction. Within the socio–geographic factors in the strategic direction, the characteristics of the population, economy and communication networks are discussed.   Characteristics of the population and settlements In the geographic strategic direction, there is about 30% of the population of the Republic of Serbia. The highest population density is in major cities (Belgrade, Novi Sad, Šabac, Čačak, etc.. The space is nationally compact, and over 95% of the population are Serbs. In terms of building methods,there are the following types of

  8. Natural enemies drive geographic variation in plant defenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuest, Tobias; Heichinger, Christian; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2012-01-01

    Plants defend themselves against attack by natural enemies, and these defenses vary widely across populations. However, whether communities of natural enemies are a sufficiently potent force to maintain polymorphisms in defensive traits is largely unknown. Here, we exploit the genetic resources...... of Arabidopsis thaliana, coupled with 39 years of field data on aphid abundance, to (i) demonstrate that geographic patterns in a polymorphic defense locus (GS-ELONG) are strongly correlated with changes in the relative abundance of two specialist aphids; and (ii) demonstrate differential selection by the two...... aphids on GS-ELONG, using a multigeneration selection experiment. We thereby show a causal link between variation in abundance of the two specialist aphids and the geographic pattern at GS-ELONG, which highlights the potency of natural enemies as selective forces....

  9. Geographic Information Systems and Web Page Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The Facilities Engineering and Architectural Branch is responsible for the design and maintenance of buildings, laboratories, and civil structures. In order to improve efficiency and quality, the FEAB has dedicated itself to establishing a data infrastructure based on Geographic Information Systems, GIS. The value of GIS was explained in an article dating back to 1980 entitled "Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre" which stated, "There is a critical need for a better land-information system in the United States to improve land-conveyance procedures, furnish a basis for equitable taxation, and provide much-needed information for resource management and environmental planning." Scientists and engineers both point to GIS as the solution. What is GIS? According to most text books, Geographic Information Systems is a class of software that stores, manages, and analyzes mapable features on, above, or below the surface of the earth. GIS software is basically database management software to the management of spatial data and information. Simply put, Geographic Information Systems manage, analyze, chart, graph, and map spatial information. GIS can be broken down into two main categories, urban GIS and natural resource GIS. Further still, natural resource GIS can be broken down into six sub-categories, agriculture, forestry, wildlife, catchment management, archaeology, and geology/mining. Agriculture GIS has several applications, such as agricultural capability analysis, land conservation, market analysis, or whole farming planning. Forestry GIs can be used for timber assessment and management, harvest scheduling and planning, environmental impact assessment, and pest management. GIS when used in wildlife applications enables the user to assess and manage habitats, identify and track endangered and rare species, and monitor impact assessment.

  10. Ensuring Confidentiality of Geocoded Health Data: Assessing Geographic Masking Strategies for Individual-Level Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandbergen, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Public health datasets increasingly use geographic identifiers such as an individual's address. Geocoding these addresses often provides new insights since it becomes possible to examine spatial patterns and associations. Address information is typically considered confidential and is therefore not released or shared with others. Publishing maps with the locations of individuals, however, may also breach confidentiality since addresses and associated identities can be discovered through reverse geocoding. One commonly used technique to protect confidentiality when releasing individual-level geocoded data is geographic masking. This typically consists of applying a certain amount of random perturbation in a systematic manner to reduce the risk of reidentification. A number of geographic masking techniques have been developed as well as methods to quantity the risk of reidentification associated with a particular masking method. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art in geographic masking, summarizing the various methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Despite recent progress, no universally accepted or endorsed geographic masking technique has emerged. Researchers on the other hand are publishing maps using geographic masking of confidential locations. Any researcher publishing such maps is advised to become familiar with the different masking techniques available and their associated reidentification risks.

  11. Ensuring Confidentiality of Geocoded Health Data: Assessing Geographic Masking Strategies for Individual-Level Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Zandbergen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health datasets increasingly use geographic identifiers such as an individual’s address. Geocoding these addresses often provides new insights since it becomes possible to examine spatial patterns and associations. Address information is typically considered confidential and is therefore not released or shared with others. Publishing maps with the locations of individuals, however, may also breach confidentiality since addresses and associated identities can be discovered through reverse geocoding. One commonly used technique to protect confidentiality when releasing individual-level geocoded data is geographic masking. This typically consists of applying a certain amount of random perturbation in a systematic manner to reduce the risk of reidentification. A number of geographic masking techniques have been developed as well as methods to quantity the risk of reidentification associated with a particular masking method. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art in geographic masking, summarizing the various methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Despite recent progress, no universally accepted or endorsed geographic masking technique has emerged. Researchers on the other hand are publishing maps using geographic masking of confidential locations. Any researcher publishing such maps is advised to become familiar with the different masking techniques available and their associated reidentification risks.

  12. Phylogenetic patterns of geographical and ecological diversification in the subgenus Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Morales-Hojas

    Full Text Available Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. Members of the subgenus Drosophila are distributed across the globe and show a large diversity of ecological niches. Furthermore, taxonomic classification of Drosophila includes the rank radiation, which refers to closely related species groups. Nevertheless, it has never been tested if these taxonomic radiations correspond to evolutionary radiations. Here we present a study of the patterns of diversification of Drosophila to test for increased diversification rates in relation to the geographic and ecological diversification processes. For this, we have estimated and dated a phylogeny of 218 species belonging to the major species groups of the subgenus. The obtained phylogenies are largely consistent with previous studies and indicate that the major groups appeared during the Oligocene/Miocene transition or early Miocene, characterized by a trend of climate warming with brief periods of glaciation. Ancestral reconstruction of geographic ranges and ecological resource use suggest at least two dispersals to the Neotropics from the ancestral Asiatic tropical disribution, and several transitions to specialized ecological resource use (mycophagous and cactophilic. Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. However, diversification analyses show no significant support for adaptive radiations as a result of geographic dispersal or ecological resource shift. Also, cactophily has not resulted in an increase in the diversification rate of the repleta and related groups. It is thus concluded that the taxonomic radiations do not correspond to adaptive radiations.

  13. Phylogenetic patterns of geographical and ecological diversification in the subgenus Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Hojas, Ramiro; Vieira, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. Members of the subgenus Drosophila are distributed across the globe and show a large diversity of ecological niches. Furthermore, taxonomic classification of Drosophila includes the rank radiation, which refers to closely related species groups. Nevertheless, it has never been tested if these taxonomic radiations correspond to evolutionary radiations. Here we present a study of the patterns of diversification of Drosophila to test for increased diversification rates in relation to the geographic and ecological diversification processes. For this, we have estimated and dated a phylogeny of 218 species belonging to the major species groups of the subgenus. The obtained phylogenies are largely consistent with previous studies and indicate that the major groups appeared during the Oligocene/Miocene transition or early Miocene, characterized by a trend of climate warming with brief periods of glaciation. Ancestral reconstruction of geographic ranges and ecological resource use suggest at least two dispersals to the Neotropics from the ancestral Asiatic tropical disribution, and several transitions to specialized ecological resource use (mycophagous and cactophilic). Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. However, diversification analyses show no significant support for adaptive radiations as a result of geographic dispersal or ecological resource shift. Also, cactophily has not resulted in an increase in the diversification rate of the repleta and related groups. It is thus concluded that the taxonomic radiations do not correspond to adaptive radiations.

  14. Quality Inspection and Analysis of Three-Dimensional Geographic Information Model Based on Oblique Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S.; Yan, Q.; Xu, Y.; Bai, J.

    2018-04-01

    In order to promote the construction of digital geo-spatial framework in China and accelerate the construction of informatization mapping system, three-dimensional geographic information model emerged. The three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology has higher accuracy, shorter period and lower cost than traditional methods, and can more directly reflect the elevation, position and appearance of the features. At this stage, the technology of producing three-dimensional geographic information models based on oblique photogrammetry technology is rapidly developing. The market demand and model results have been emerged in a large amount, and the related quality inspection needs are also getting larger and larger. Through the study of relevant literature, it is found that there are a lot of researches on the basic principles and technical characteristics of this technology, and relatively few studies on quality inspection and analysis. On the basis of summarizing the basic principle and technical characteristics of oblique photogrammetry technology, this paper introduces the inspection contents and inspection methods of three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology. Combined with the actual inspection work, this paper summarizes the quality problems of three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology, analyzes the causes of the problems and puts forward the quality control measures. It provides technical guidance for the quality inspection of three-dimensional geographic information model data products based on oblique photogrammetry technology in China and provides technical support for the vigorous development of three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology.

  15. QUALITY INSPECTION AND ANALYSIS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION MODEL BASED ON OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote the construction of digital geo-spatial framework in China and accelerate the construction of informatization mapping system, three-dimensional geographic information model emerged. The three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology has higher accuracy, shorter period and lower cost than traditional methods, and can more directly reflect the elevation, position and appearance of the features. At this stage, the technology of producing three-dimensional geographic information models based on oblique photogrammetry technology is rapidly developing. The market demand and model results have been emerged in a large amount, and the related quality inspection needs are also getting larger and larger. Through the study of relevant literature, it is found that there are a lot of researches on the basic principles and technical characteristics of this technology, and relatively few studies on quality inspection and analysis. On the basis of summarizing the basic principle and technical characteristics of oblique photogrammetry technology, this paper introduces the inspection contents and inspection methods of three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology. Combined with the actual inspection work, this paper summarizes the quality problems of three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology, analyzes the causes of the problems and puts forward the quality control measures. It provides technical guidance for the quality inspection of three-dimensional geographic information model data products based on oblique photogrammetry technology in China and provides technical support for the vigorous development of three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology.

  16. Impacts of Scale on Geographic Analysis of Health Data: An Example of Obesity Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent decades. It is an important public health issue as it causes many other chronic health conditions, such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and type II diabetics. Obesity affects life expectancy and even the quality of lives. Eventually, it increases social costs in many ways due to increasing costs of health care and workplace absenteeism. Using the spatial patterns of obesity prevalence as an example; we show how different geographic units can reveal different degrees of detail in results of analysis. We used both census tracts and census block groups as units of geographic analysis. In addition; to reveal how different geographic scales may impact on the analytic results; we applied geographically weighted regression to model the relationships between obesity rates (dependent variable and three independent variables; including education attainment; unemployment rates; and median family income. Though not including an exhaustive list of explanatory variables; this regression model provides an example for revealing the impacts of geographic scales on analysis of health data. With obesity data based on reported heights and weights on driver’s licenses in Summit County, Ohio, we demonstrated that geographically weighted regression reveals varying spatial trends between dependent and independent variables that conventional regression models such as ordinary least squares regression cannot. Most importantly, analyses carried out with different geographic scales do show very different results. With these findings, we suggest that, while possible, smaller geographic units be used to allow better understanding of the studies phenomena.

  17. Modelling grid losses and the geographic distribution of electricity generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    In Denmark more than 40% of the electricity consumption is covered by geographically scattered electricity sources namely wind power and local CHP (cogeneration of heat and power) plants. This causes problems in regard to load balancing and possible grid overloads. The potential grid problems...... and methods for solving these are analysed in this article on the basis of energy systems analyses, geographic distribution of consumption and production and grid load-flow analyses. It is concluded that by introducing scattered load balancing using local CHP plants actively and using interruptible loads...

  18. Plio-Pleistocene climate change and geographic heterogeneity in plant diversity-environment relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Normand, Signe; Skov, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Plio-Pleistocene climate change may have induced geographic heterogeneity in plant species richness-environment relationships in Europe due to greater in situ species survival and speciation rates in southern Europe. We formulate distinct hypotheses on how Plio-Pleistocene climate change may have...... affected richness-topographic heterogeneity and richness-water-energy availability relationships, causing steeper relationships in southern Europe. We investigated these hypotheses using data from Atlas Florae Europaeae on the distribution of 3069 species and geographically weighted regression (GWR). Our...... analyses showed that plant species richness generally increased with topographic heterogeneity (ln-transformed altitudinal range) and actual evapotranspiration (AET). We also found evidence for strong geographic heterogeneity in the species richness-environment relationship, with a greater increase...

  19. The National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockenhauer, Mark H.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project is an inservice teacher education success story. Describes the origins, objectives, and development of the project. Summarizes the impact of the project and contends that its success is the result of the workshop format and guided practice in instructional strategies. (CFR)

  20. Groundwater quality mapping using geographic information system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the corporation area of Gulbarga City located in the northern part of Karnataka State, India, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) technique. GIS, a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground ...

  1. 77 FR 69899 - Public Conference on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Transportation Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Public Conference on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in... Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in transportation safety on December 4-5, 2012. GIS is a rapidly... visualization of data. The meeting will bring researchers and practitioners in transportation safety and GIS...

  2. The adoption of Thinking Through Geography strategies and their impact on teaching geographical reasoning in Dutch secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghuis, F.; van der Schee, J.; van der Velde, M.; Imants, J.; Volman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The development of geographical reasoning is essential in geographical education. Strategies developed by the English Thinking Through Geography group (TTG) offer a promising approach to promote geographical reasoning. In the last decade, the TTG approach has become a regular element in geographical

  3. The adoption of Thinking Through Geography Strategies and their impact on teaching geographical reasoning in Dutch secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghuis, F.; van der Schee, J.A.; van der Velde, M.; Imants, J.; Volman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The development of geographical reasoning is essential in geographical education. Strategies developed by the English Thinking Through Geography group (TTG) offer a promising approach to promote geographical reasoning. In the last decade, the TTG approach has become a regular element in geographical

  4. The adoption of Thinking Through Geography Strategies and their impact on teaching geographical reasoning in Dutch secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghuis, Fer; van der Schee, Joop; van der Velde, Martin; Imants, Jeroen; Volman, Monique

    The development of geographical reasoning is essential in geographical education. Strategies developed by the English Thinking Through Geography group (TTG) offer a promising approach to promote geographical reasoning. In the last decade, the TTG approach has become a regular element in geographical

  5. Determinants of caesarean section in Lebanon: geographical differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayol, Marion; Zein, Ali; Ghosn, Nada; Du Mazaubrun, Christiane; Breart, Gérard

    2008-03-01

    This study, based on the Lebanese National Perinatal Survey which included 5231 women, examined the relations between the caesarean section (CS) rate and the characteristics of mothers, children, antenatal care and maternity units in two geographical zones of Lebanon (Beirut-Mount Lebanon and the rest of the country) and then looked at geographical variations. This analysis concerned 3846 women with singleton pregnancies and livebirths at low risk of CS, after exclusion of women with a previous CS, non-cephalic fetal presentations, or delivery before 37 weeks' gestation. The principal end point was caesarean delivery. The relations between the factors studied and CS were estimated by odds ratios (OR), both crude and adjusted, using logistic regression. The rate of CS was higher in the Beirut-Mount Lebanon zone than elsewhere (13.4% vs. 7.6%). After adjustment, several factors remained associated with caesarean delivery in each zone. Common factors were primiparity, gestational age > or = 41 weeks and antenatal hospitalisation. Factors identified only in the Beirut-Mount Lebanon zone were obstetric history and insurance coverage, whereas for the other zones we only found major risk factors for obstetric disease: maternal age > or = 35 years, number of antenatal consultations > or = 4 and birthweight Lebanon (OR = 1.80 [95% CI 1.09, 2.95]). In conclusion, the CS rates in Lebanon were high, with geographical differences that were associated with access to care and with obstetric practices.

  6. Satellite and gauge rainfall merging using geographically weighted regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Hu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A residual-based rainfall merging scheme using geographically weighted regression (GWR has been proposed. This method is capable of simultaneously blending various satellite rainfall data with gauge measurements and could describe the non-stationary influences of geographical and terrain factors on rainfall spatial distribution. Using this new method, an experimental study on merging daily rainfall from the Climate Prediction Center Morphing dataset (CMOROH and gauge measurements was conducted for the Ganjiang River basin, in Southeast China. We investigated the capability of the merging scheme for daily rainfall estimation under different gauge density. Results showed that under the condition of sparse gauge density the merging rainfall scheme is remarkably superior to the interpolation using just gauge data.

  7. PC-based visualization of geographically referenced environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galagan, C.; Howlett, E. Brown, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Geographical information system (GIS) technology provides sophisticated data handling tools for use in oil spill response and contingency planning. ASAMAP is a software that employs a state-of-the-art graphical user interface to collect and display geographically referenced data on a personal computer. The program is easy to learn and simple to operate, facilitating data collection and visualization in an inexpensive decision support system suitable for oil spill response or any application requiring special data handling. The software can operate on a laptop computer for convenient use in the field and is mouse-driven, using buttons and screen icons to manipulate data interactively on color maps on the screen. During response to an oil spill, ASAMAP provides enhanced data capture and visualization, facilitating faster assimilation of information and a more efficient decision making process. 8 refs., 1 fig

  8. The geographical mobility of recently graduated medical doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Ina; Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Petersen, Karin Dam

    specialize to become general practitioners (GPs). Access to medical services is included among the services important for ensuring the basics in a welfare society. The analysis is limited to general practitioners (GPs), although access to other types of medical professionals is also an important aspect......University graduates are not evenly distributed geographically, and attraction and retention of university graduates is high on the agenda in many regional development strategies. In this paper we study the geographical mobility of a particular type of university graduates: medical doctors who...... of local access to medical services. We have chosen GPs because they – except in cases of emergency – are the main entrance to medical services in Denmark. We study how different factors may influence where GPs choose to set up medical practice. We pay particular attention to the importance of local...

  9. Education Demographic and Geographic Estimates Program (EDGE): Locale Boundaries User's Manual. NCES 2016-012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geverdt, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Education Demographic and Geographic Estimates (EDGE) program develops geographic data to help policymakers, program administrators, and the public understand relationships between educational institutions and the communities they serve. One of the commonly used geographic data items is the NCES…

  10. The Adoption of "Thinking through Geography" Strategies and Their Impact on Teaching Geographical Reasoning in Dutch Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghuis, Fer; van der Schee, Joop; van der Velde, Martin; Imants, Jeroen; Volman, Monique

    2014-01-01

    The development of geographical reasoning is essential in geographical education. Strategies developed by the English "Thinking Through Geography" group (TTG) offer a promising approach to promote geographical reasoning. In the last decade, the TTG approach has become a regular element in geographical education in several countries.…

  11. Better access to microcredits: does geographical proximity matter?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alimukhamedova, Nargiza

    -, 2013/2014 Winter (2014), s. 24-25 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : microcredits * geographical proximity Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.e-mfp.eu/sites/ default /files/resources/2014/02/e-MFP_Winter2013-2014_Newsletter%20.pdf

  12. 76 FR 28121 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “National Geographic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Determinations: ``National Geographic Treasures of the Earth'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following... objects to be included in the exhibition ``National Geographic Treasures of the Earth'' imported from... exceed six years from June 11, 2011), is in the national interest. The Museum understands that...

  13. Geographic differences in allele frequencies of susceptibility SNPs for cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kullo Iftikhar J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We hypothesized that the frequencies of risk alleles of SNPs mediating susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases differ among populations of varying geographic origin and that population-specific selection has operated on some of these variants. Methods From the database of genome-wide association studies (GWAS, we selected 36 cardiovascular phenotypes including coronary heart disease, hypertension, and stroke, as well as related quantitative traits (eg, body mass index and plasma lipid levels. We identified 292 SNPs in 270 genes associated with a disease or trait at P -8. As part of the Human Genome-Diversity Project (HGDP, 158 (54.1% of these SNPs have been genotyped in 938 individuals belonging to 52 populations from seven geographic areas. A measure of population differentiation, FST, was calculated to quantify differences in risk allele frequencies (RAFs among populations and geographic areas. Results Large differences in RAFs were noted in populations of Africa, East Asia, America and Oceania, when compared with other geographic regions. The mean global FST (0.1042 for 158 SNPs among the populations was not significantly higher than the mean global FST of 158 autosomal SNPs randomly sampled from the HGDP database. Significantly higher global FST (P FST of 2036 putatively neutral SNPs. For four of these SNPs, additional evidence of selection was noted based on the integrated Haplotype Score. Conclusion Large differences in RAFs for a set of common SNPs that influence risk of cardiovascular disease were noted between the major world populations. Pairwise comparisons revealed RAF differences for at least eight SNPs that might be due to population-specific selection or demographic factors. These findings are relevant to a better understanding of geographic variation in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease.

  14. Measuring Geographic Distribution of Economic Activity in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring Geographic Distribution of Economic Activity in Nigeria Using Gross Domestic Product. ... and environmental factors in planning. There is need for adequate understanding of spatial pattern and centrographic analysis of economic activity to support evidence based economic and regional development policies.

  15. 2010 Census Blocks with Geographic Codes Southwestern PA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This file can be used as a tool to append geographic codes to geocoded point data. The file was developed by Pitt's Center for Social and Urban Research and...

  16. Using geographic information system (GIS) to determine waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lyndon

    could be used as waste transfer stations in relation to location of landfill sites using Geographic. Information ... Coast, bounded to the east by the Ga East Municipal Assembly, to the west by the .... Solid Waste and the Hierarchy in Solid Waste.

  17. Behavioral facilitation of reproduction in sexual and unisexual whiptail lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, D; Grassman, M; Lindzey, J

    1986-12-01

    All-female, parthenogenetic species afford a unique test of hypotheses regarding the nature and evolution of sexuality. Mating behavior accomplishes the transfer of gametes and stimulates the coordination of reproductive activity of the male and female. Cnemidophorus uniparens, a parthenogenetic species, is believed to have resulted from the hybridization of two extant gonochoristic species, Cnemidophorus inornatus and Cnemidophorus gularis. C. uniparens regularly and reliably perform behaviors identical in form to those performed during mating by male C. inornatus. We have determined experimentally that individuals of the parthenogenetic species demonstrating male-like pseudosexual behavior also share a similarity in function with males of the sexually reproducing species. The number of female C. inornatus ovulating increases, and the latency to ovulation decreases, if a sexually active conspecific male is present. A similar facilitatory effect on ovarian recrudescence occurs in the all-female C. uniparens in the presence of a male-like individual. These results show that behavioral facilitation of ovarian recrudescence is important in sexual and unisexual species. This may represent a potent selection pressure favoring the maintenance of male-typical behaviors, thus accounting for the display of behavioral traits usually associated with males in unisexual species of hybrid origin.

  18. Review of Current Geographic Information Systems Technology for TxDOT Pavement Management Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) is a tool for effectively managing and analyzing tremendous amounts of geographic information. It employs the essential principle of geography to organize in formation and express relationships between real-world...

  19. uCollaborator: Framework for STEM Project Collaboration among Geographically-Dispersed Student/Faculty Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Stephen M.; Rodriguez, Walter E.; Carstens, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for facilitating communication among STEM project teams that are geographically dispersed in synchronous or asynchronous online courses. The framework has been developed to: (a) improve how engineering and technology students and faculty work with collocated and geographically-dispersed teams; and (b) to connect the…

  20. Using Educational Tourism in Geographical Education

    OpenAIRE

    PRAKAPIENĖ, Dalia; OLBERKYTĖ, Loreta

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses and defines the concept of educational tourism, presents the structure of the concept and looks into the opportunities for using educational tourism in geographical education. In order to reveal such opportunities a research was carried out in the Lithuanian national and regional parks using the qualitative method of content analysis and the quantitative method of questionnaire survey. The authors of the research identified the educational excursion activities conducted i...

  1. Geographical variation in egg mass and egg content in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Ruuskanen

    Full Text Available Reproductive, phenotypic and life-history traits in many animal and plant taxa show geographic variation, indicating spatial variation in selection regimes. Maternal deposition to avian eggs, such as hormones, antibodies and antioxidants, critically affect development of the offspring, with long-lasting effects on the phenotype and fitness. Little is however known about large-scale geographical patterns of variation in maternal deposition to eggs. We studied geographical variation in egg components of a passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca, by collecting samples from 16 populations and measuring egg and yolk mass, albumen lysozyme activity, yolk immunoglobulins, yolk androgens and yolk total carotenoids. We found significant variation among populations in most egg components, but ca. 90% of the variation was among individuals within populations. Population however explained 40% of the variation in carotenoid levels. In contrast to our hypothesis, we found geographical trends only in carotenoids, but not in any of the other egg components. Our results thus suggest high within-population variation and leave little scope for local adaptation and genetic differentiation in deposition of different egg components. The role of these maternally-derived resources in evolutionary change should be further investigated.

  2. Geographic Expansion of Lyme Disease in the Southeastern United States, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, Paul M; Nigrovic, Lise E; Auwaerter, Paul G; Fowler, Vance G; Ruffin, Felicia; Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Reber, Jodi; Williams, Carl; Broyhill, James; Pan, William K; Gaines, David N

    2015-12-01

    Background.  The majority of Lyme disease cases in the United States are acquired on the east coast between northern Virginia and New England. In recent years the geographic extent of Lyme disease has been expanding, raising the prospect of Lyme disease becoming endemic in the southeast. Methods.  We collected confirmed and probable cases of Lyme disease from 2000 through 2014 from the Virginia Department of Health and North Carolina Department of Public Health and entered them in a geographic information system. We performed spatial and spatiotemporal cluster analyses to characterize Lyme disease expansion. Results.  There was a marked increase in Lyme disease cases in Virginia, particularly from 2007 onwards. Northern Virginia experienced intensification and geographic expansion of Lyme disease cases. The most notable area of expansion was to the southwest along the Appalachian Mountains with development of a new disease cluster in the southern Virginia mountain region. Conclusions.  The geographic distribution of Lyme disease cases significantly expanded in Virginia between 2000 and 2014, particularly southward in the Virginia mountain ranges. If these trends continue, North Carolina can expect autochthonous Lyme disease transmission in its mountain region in the coming years.

  3. National Geographic en España (1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Domínguez, Aída María de

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En español: La investigación tiene como objeto de estudio aportar la historia de la edición en español de la revista National Geographic en su primera década de existencia (1997-2007, y analizar su evolución en este periodo cronológico. La metodología ha consistido en una revisión bibliográfica en repertorios, catálogos, metabuscadores, y diversas bases de datos (Teseo, TDR, Dialnet, Compludoc, Rebiun, CSIC, junto a una entrevista personal y exclusiva al director de la revista en España, Josep Cabello. Tras recopilar los datos históricos, para analizar su evolución (contenidos, publicidad, difusión y suscriptores, se han tomado como base de estudio los datos aportados por la Oficina de Justificación de la Difusión y otros elaborados por la analista. Los resultados aportan la historia de la revista, y desvelan que la edición española de National Geographic se convierte en su primera década de existencia en una de las revistas de referencia en el campo de la divulgación científica en España.In english: The investigation aims study provide the history of the Spanish edition of National Geographic magazine in its first decade of existence (1997-2007, and to analyze its evolution in this chronological period. The methodology has consisted in a bibliographic review on directories, catalogs, metasearch, and various databases (Teseo, TDR, Dialnet, Compludoc, Rebiun, CSIC along with a personal interview and exclusive to the director of the magazine in Spain, Joseph Cabello. After collecting historical data, to analyze its evolution (content, adversiting, diffusion and subscribers has been taken as a basis for study data provides by the Office of Justification for Dissemination and others prepared by the analyst. The results provide the history of the magazine, and reveal that the Spanish edition of National Geographic becomes its first decade of existence in one of the reference magazine in the field of popular science in Spain.

  4. GEOGRAPHERS AND ECOSYSTEMS: A POINT OF VIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are fearful of tackling it, mainly because they have never studied ecology or any of the pure sciences. Most of these geographers are trained in the arts disciplines and thus feel at a disadvantage even when confronted only by a 'jargon' which is un- familiar. They perceive themselves as being inade- quate and are unhappy ...

  5. Using Visual Basic to Teach Programming for Geographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Terry A.; Yoder, Stephen C.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines reasons why computer programming should be taught to geographers. These include experience using macro (scripting) languages and sophisticated visualization software, and developing a deeper understanding of general hardware and software capabilities. Discusses the distinct advantages and few disadvantages of the programming language…

  6. On Optimal Geographical Caching in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serbetci, Berksan; Goseling, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    In this work we investigate optimal geographical caching in heterogeneous cellular networks where different types of base stations (BSs) have different cache capacities. Users request files from a content library according to a known probability distribution. The performance metric is the total hit

  7. Geographic variability of Escherichia coli ribotypes from animals in Idaho and Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Peter G; Summer, Jacob D; Hill, Jennifer L; Collins, J Victoria; Entry, James A; Segars, William I

    2002-01-01

    Several genotypic methods have been developed for determining the host origin of fecal bacteria in contaminated waters. Some of these methods rely on a host origin database to identify environmental isolates. It is not well understood to what degree these host origin isolates are geographically variable (i.e., cosmopolitan or endemic). This is important because a geographically limited host origin database may or may not be universally applicable. The objective of our study was to use one genotypic method, ribotyping, to determine the geographic variability of the fecal bacterium, Escherichia coli, from one location in Idaho and three locations in Georgia for cattle (Bos taurus), horse (Equus caballus), swine (Sus scrofa), and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 568 fecal E. coli isolates from Kimberly, ID (125 isolates), Athens, GA (210 isolates), Brunswick, GA (102 isolates), and Tifton, GA (131 isolates), yielded 213 ribotypes. The percentage of ribotype sharing within an animal species increased with decreased distance between geographic locations for cattle and horses, but not for swine and chicken. When the E. coli ribotypes among the four host species were compared at one location, the percent of unshared ribotypes was 86, 89, 81, and 79% for Kimberly, Athens, Brunswick, and Tifton, respectively. These data suggest that there is good ribotype separation among host animal species at each location. The ability to match environmental isolates to a host origin database may depend on a large number of environmental and host origin isolates that ideally are not geographically separated.

  8. Geographic Variation in Advertisement Calls in a Tree Frog Species: Gene Flow and Selection Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yikweon; Hahm, Eun Hye; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Park, Soyeon; Won, Yong-Jin; Choe, Jae C.

    2011-01-01

    Background In a species with a large distribution relative to its dispersal capacity, geographic variation in traits may be explained by gene flow, selection, or the combined effects of both. Studies of genetic diversity using neutral molecular markers show that patterns of isolation by distance (IBD) or barrier effect may be evident for geographic variation at the molecular level in amphibian species. However, selective factors such as habitat, predator, or interspecific interactions may be critical for geographic variation in sexual traits. We studied geographic variation in advertisement calls in the tree frog Hyla japonica to understand patterns of variation in these traits across Korea and provide clues about the underlying forces for variation. Methodology We recorded calls of H. japonica in three breeding seasons from 17 localities including localities in remote Jeju Island. Call characters analyzed were note repetition rate (NRR), note duration (ND), and dominant frequency (DF), along with snout-to-vent length. Results The findings of a barrier effect on DF and a longitudinal variation in NRR seemed to suggest that an open sea between the mainland and Jeju Island and mountain ranges dominated by the north-south Taebaek Mountains were related to geographic variation in call characters. Furthermore, there was a pattern of IBD in mitochondrial DNA sequences. However, no comparable pattern of IBD was found between geographic distance and call characters. We also failed to detect any effects of habitat or interspecific interaction on call characters. Conclusions Geographic variations in call characters as well as mitochondrial DNA sequences were largely stratified by geographic factors such as distance and barriers in Korean populations of H. japoinca. Although we did not detect effects of habitat or interspecific interaction, some other selective factors such as sexual selection might still be operating on call characters in conjunction with restricted gene

  9. A novel method to rapidly distinguish the geographical origin of traditional fermented-salted vegetables by mass fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, So-Ra; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lee, Hae-Won; Ha, Ji-Hyoung

    2017-01-01

    The geographical origin of kimchi is of interest to consumers and producers because the prices of commercial kimchi products can vary significantly according to the geographical origin. Hence, social issues related to the geographical origin of kimchi in Korea have emerged as a major problem. In this study, the geographical origin of kimchi was determined by comparing the mass fingerprints obtained for Korean and Chinese kimchi samples by MALDI-TOF MS with multivariate analysis. The results obtained herein provide an accurate, powerful tool to clearly discriminate kimchi samples based on their geographical origin within a short time and to ensure food authenticity, which is of significance in the kimchi industry. Furthermore, our MALDI-TOF MS method could be applied to determining the geographical origin of other fermented-salted vegetables at a reduced cost in shorter times.

  10. Research Data Management Training for Geographers: First Impressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Helbig

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sharing and secondary analysis of data have become increasingly important for research. Especially in geography, the collection of digital data has grown due to technological changes. Responsible handling and proper documentation of research data have therefore become essential for funders, publishers and higher education institutions. To achieve this goal, universities offer support and training in research data management. This article presents the experiences of a pilot workshop in research data management, especially for geographers. A discipline-specific approach to research data management training is recommended. The focus of this approach increases researchers’ interest and allows for more specific guidance. The instructors identified problems and challenges of research data management for geographers. In regards to training, the communication of benefits and reaching the target groups seem to be the biggest challenges. Consequently, better incentive structures as well as communication channels have to be established.

  11. Fuzzy modeling with spatial information for geographic problems

    CERN Document Server

    Petry, Frederick E; Cobb, Maria A

    2005-01-01

    The capabilities of modern technology are rapidly increasing, spurred on to a large extent by the tremendous advances in communications and computing. Automated vehicles and global wireless connections are some examples of these advances. In order to take advantage of such enhanced capabilities, our need to model and manipulate our knowledge of the geophysical world, using compatible representations, is also rapidly increasing. In response to this one fundamental issue of great concern in modern geographical research is how to most effectively capture the physical world around us in systems like geographical information systems (GIS). Making this task even more challenging is the fact that uncertainty plays a pervasive role in the representation, analysis and use of geospatial information. The types of uncertainty that appear in geospatial information systems are not the just simple randomness of observation, as in weather data, but are manifested in many other forms including imprecision, incompleteness and ...

  12. Geographical influences of an emerging network of gang rivalries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegemann, Rachel A.; Smith, Laura M.; Barbaro, Alethea B. T.; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Reid, Shannon E.; Tita, George E.

    2011-10-01

    We propose an agent-based model to simulate the creation of street gang rivalries. The movement dynamics of agents are coupled to an evolving network of gang rivalries, which is determined by previous interactions among agents in the system. Basic gang data, geographic information, and behavioral dynamics suggested by the criminology literature are integrated into the model. The major highways, rivers, and the locations of gangs’ centers of activity influence the agents’ motion. We use a policing division of the Los Angeles Police Department as a case study to test our model. We apply common metrics from graph theory to analyze our model, comparing networks produced by our simulations and an instance of a Geographical Threshold Graph to the existing network from the criminology literature.

  13. Assessing Completeness and Spatial Error of Features in Volunteered Geographic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Stefanidis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the quality and accuracy of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI contributions, and by extension the ultimate utility of VGI data has fostered much debate within the geographic community. The limited research to date has been focused on VGI data of linear features and has shown that the error in the data is heterogeneously distributed. Some have argued that data produced by numerous contributors will produce a more accurate product than an individual and some research on crowd-sourced initiatives has shown that to be true, although research on VGI is more infrequent. This paper proposes a method for quantifying the completeness and accuracy of a select subset of infrastructure-associated point datasets of volunteered geographic data within a major metropolitan area using a national geospatial dataset as the reference benchmark with two datasets from volunteers used as test datasets. The results of this study illustrate the benefits of including quality control in the collection process for volunteered data.

  14. The geographical vector in distribution of genetic diversity for Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodovnik, Daria A; Tatonova, Yulia V; Burkovskaya, Polina V

    2018-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis, the causative agent of clonorchiasis, is one of the most important parasites that inhabit countries of East and Southeast Asia. In this study, we validated the existence of a geographical vector for C. sinensis using the partial cox1 mtDNA gene, which includes a conserved region. The samples of parasite were divided into groups corresponding to three river basins, and the size of the conserved region had a strong tendency to increase from the northernmost to the southernmost samples. This indicates the availability of the geographical vector in distribution of genetic diversity. A vector is a quantity that is characterized by magnitude and direction. Geographical vector obtained in cox1 gene of C. sinensis has both these features. The reasons for the occurrence of this feature, including the influence of intermediate and definitive hosts on vector formation, and the possibility of its use for clonorchiasis monitoring are discussed. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  15. Medical specialists' choice of location: the role of geographical attachment in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, I S; Førde, O H

    1992-01-01

    The relation between current place of work (area of the country) and factors that might possibly represent doctors geographical attachments was studied in a sample of 322 Norwegian medical specialists. Location of hospital residency, age and geographical origin of spouse were associated with current location. Geographical attachment seems to influence doctors' locational choices from start of medical school until the end of their residency. The probability that a doctor shall locate in peripheral areas may increase from less than 10% to more than 50% if the doctor has the residency training in the periphery. Hence, favoring entrance to medical schools of students from the underserved areas, and location of graduate and postgraduate medical training in the underserved areas, as far as it is feasible while still maintaining medical standards, is suggested by the study.

  16. Build Trust Index for Volunteered Geographic Information: A Case Study of Safecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Y.; Cervone, G.

    2017-12-01

    Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), defined as geographic information contributed voluntarily by amateurs, have grown exponentially nowadays with the aid of ubiquitous GPS-enabled telecommunication technologies. VGI projects, like Wikimapia, OpenStreetMap, Flickr and Safecast have shown remarkable success on leveraging citizen science to increase our knowledge about the geographic world. However, in spite of its growing popularity, VGI is still facing the most challenging problem of ensuring data quality. In this study, we proposed a methodology to filter outliers in Safecast measurements through cross-reference among volunteers. Based on the outliers filtered, a trust index is generated for each volunteer. The results are validated using official radiation measurements surveyed by Department of Energy. The validation shows that removing the outliers filtered by our methodology, Safecast measurements yield a better correlation with official measurements.

  17. An efficient and reliable multi-hop geographical broadcast protocol in vehicular ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajendran, R.; Jongh, J. de

    2013-01-01

    In Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), disseminating warning messages in a timely and efficient way through wireless short-range communications can save many lives and reduce traffic congestion. A geographical broadcast protocol provides data delivery to specified geographical areas, using

  18. How Geographic Maps Increase Recall of Instructional Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhavy, Raymond W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research on how geographic maps influence the recall of associated text and describes a theoretical model of map-text learning based on dual-coding theory and working memory operations. Instructional implications are explained, and recommendations for instructional applications are given. (Contains 84 references.) (LRW)

  19. Characterization of Sunn hemp begomovirus and its geographical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, it is concluded that the recombinant CP genes related to begomoviruses are evolved from the Indian isolates, causing broad host specificity and molecular diversity among the related begomoviruses across the geographical limits of Southeast Asia. Keywords: Begomovirus, sunn hemp, coat protein, recombination, ...

  20. Exploring the potential for geographical knowledge systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Residents of informal settlements are often faced with lack of essential services. These include services such as water, sanitation and electricity. Authorities responsible for providing these services often use Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for analysis prior to proposing developments in these settlements. However ...

  1. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Kinds and Distribution of Soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  2. Geographic assistance of decontamination strategy elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydchuk, V.; Arapis, G.

    1996-01-01

    Those who elaborates the strategy of decontamination of vast territories is to take into consideration the heterogeneity of such elements of landscape as relief, lithology, humidity and types of soils and, vegetation, both on local and regional level. Geographic assistance includes evaluation of efficacy of decontamination technologies in different natural conditions, identification of areas of their effective application and definition of ecological damage, estimation of balances of the radionuclides in the landscapes to create background of the decontamination strategy

  3. Globalization in history : a geographical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Crafts, N. F. R.; Venables, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    This paper argues that a geographical perspectie is fundamental to understanding comparative economic development in the context of globalization. Central to this view is the role of agglomeration in productivity performance; size and location matter. The tools of the new economic geography are used to illuminate important epidsodes when the relative position of major eeconmies radically changed; the rise of the United States at the beginning and of East Asia at the end of the twentieth centu...

  4. Geographical variation and the determinants of domestic endotoxin levels in mattress dust in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.M.; Thiering, E.; Doekes, G.; Zock, J.P.; Bakolis, I.; Norbäck, D.; Sunyer, J.; Villani, S.; Verlato, G.; Täubel, M.; Jarvis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Endotoxin exposures have manifold effects on human health. The geographical variation and determinants of domestic endotoxin levels in Europe have not yet been extensively described. To investigate the geographical variation and determinants of domestic endotoxin concentrations in mattress dust in

  5. Framework for Virtual Cognitive Experiment in Virtual Geographic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Geographic Environment Cognition is the attempt to understand the human cognition of surface features, geographic processes, and human behaviour, as well as their relationships in the real world. From the perspective of human cognition behaviour analysis and simulation, previous work in Virtual Geographic Environments (VGEs has focused mostly on representing and simulating the real world to create an ‘interpretive’ virtual world and improve an individual’s active cognition. In terms of reactive cognition, building a user ‘evaluative’ environment in a complex virtual experiment is a necessary yet challenging task. This paper discusses the outlook of VGEs and proposes a framework for virtual cognitive experiments. The framework not only employs immersive virtual environment technology to create a realistic virtual world but also involves a responsive mechanism to record the user’s cognitive activities during the experiment. Based on the framework, this paper presents two potential implementation methods: first, training a deep learning model with several hundred thousand street view images scored by online volunteers, with further analysis of which visual factors produce a sense of safety for the individual, and second, creating an immersive virtual environment and Electroencephalogram (EEG-based experimental paradigm to both record and analyse the brain activity of a user and explore what type of virtual environment is more suitable and comfortable. Finally, we present some preliminary findings based on the first method.

  6. Public Use Airport Runways, Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [public_use_airport_runway_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Public Use Airport Runways database is a geographic dataset of runways in the United States and US territories containing information on the physical...

  7. Widening Geographical Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in the United States, 1969-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examined trends in geographical disparities in cardiovascular-disease (CVD mortality in the United States between 1969 and 2011. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate regional, state, and county-level disparities in CVD mortality over time. Log-linear, weighted least squares, and Cox regression were used to analyze mortality trends and differentials. Results: During 1969-2011, CVD mortality rates declined fastest in New England and Mid-Atlantic regions and slowest in the Southeast and Southwestern regions. In 1969, the mortality rate was 9% higher in the Southeast than in New England, but the differential increased to 48% in 2011. In 2011, Southeastern states, Mississippi and Alabama, had the highest CVD mortality rates, nearly twice the rates for Minnesota and Hawaii. Controlling for individual-level covariates reduced state differentials. State- and county-level differentials in CVD mortality rates widened over time as geographical disparity in CVD mortality increased by 50% between 1969 and 2011. Area deprivation, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes prevalence, urbanization, lack of health insurance, and lower access to primary medical care were all significant predictors of county-level CVD mortality rates and accounted for 52.7% of the county variance. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Although CVD mortality has declined for all geographical areas in the United States, geographical disparity has widened over time as certain regions and states, particularly those in the South, have lagged behind in mortality reduction. Geographical disparities in CVD mortality reflect inequalities in socioeconomic conditions and behavioral risk factors. With the global CVD burden on the rise, monitoring geographical disparities, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, could indicate the extent to which reductions in CVD mortality are

  8. Reflecting on Role Play in Geographic Education: The Case of the Banana War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Hilda E.

    2004-01-01

    Debates over the nature and extent of globalization raise many issues to be addressed in a geographic education. In this paper, I briefly review case method instruction and role-play as teaching strategies suitable for material on globalization and other geographic subject matter, and then sketch an overview of an undergraduate geography role-play…

  9. Case studies in geographic information systems for environmental streamlining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    This 2012 summary report addresses the current use of geographic information systems (GIS) and related technologies by State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) for environmental streamlining and stewardship, particularly in relation to the National...

  10. Reptiles of Chubut province, Argentina: richness, diversity, conservation status and geographic distribution maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoli, Ignacio; Morando, Mariana; Avila, Luciano Javier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An accurate estimation of species and population geographic ranges is essential for species-focused studies and conservation and management plans. Knowledge of the geographic distributions of reptiles from Patagonian Argentina is in general limited and dispersed over manuscripts from a wide variety of topics. We completed an extensive review of reptile species of central Patagonia (Argentina) based on information from a wide variety of sources. We compiled and checked geographic distribution records from published literature and museum records, including extensive new data from the LJAMM-CNP (CENPAT-CONICET) herpetological collection. Our results show that there are 52 taxa recorded for this region and the highest species richness was seen in the families Liolaemidae and Dipsadidae with 31 and 10 species, respectively. The Patagónica was the phytogeographic province most diverse in species and Phymaturus was the genus of conservation concern most strongly associated with it. We present a detailed species list with geographical information, richness species, diversity analyses with comparisons across phytogeographical provinces, conservation status, taxonomic comments and distribution maps for all of these taxa. PMID:25931966

  11. 47 CFR 25.225 - Geographic Service Requirements for 17/24 GHz Broadcasting Satellite Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographic Service Requirements for 17/24 GHz Broadcasting Satellite Service. 25.225 Section 25.225 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.225 Geographic Service...

  12. Influences on the American Geographer Samuel Griswold Goodrich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben A.; Vining, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the influences of religion, upbringing, and other scholars on Samuel Griswold Goodrich, an early nineteenth-century U.S. geographer. Discusses Goodrich's contribution to improving early geography textbooks and his pioneering role in book publishing. Notes Goodrich's realism and moral undertones in geography books for children, written…

  13. The economic-geographical and environmental polarization as a factor of new functional relations between areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milinčić Miroljub A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographical clustering, in the way of economic-geographical polarization represents regular and positive process of development of human society. These processes are characterized by stressed intensity, together with relatively short time dimension at the territory of Serbia. Extreme recent ecological polarization is the main consequence of this type of recomposition of economic-geographical elements in the territory of Serbia. At the one hand, anthropogenic or socio-economic areas (locations, axis and crossroads of development are formed, together with the numerous ecological problems as developing barriers, while at the other hand are territories of economic-geographical stagnation also with satisfying quality of basic natural resources and environmental condition. These differences generates and permanently increases their spatial, resource and ecological interdependence.

  14. Ancestry and dental development: A geographic and genetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamo, Brunilda; Kragt, Lea; Grgic, Olja; Vucic, Strahinja; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Wolvius, Eppo B; Ongkosuwito, Edwin M

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of ancestry on dental development in the Generation R Study. Information on geographic ancestry was available in 3,600 children (1,810 boys and 1,790 girls, mean age 9.81 ± 0.35 years) and information about genetic ancestry was available in 2,786 children (1,387 boys and 1,399 girls, mean age 9.82 ± 0.34 years). Dental development was assessed in all children using the Demirjian method. The associations of geographic ancestry (Cape Verdean, Moroccan, Turkish, Dutch Antillean, Surinamese Creole and Surinamese Hindustani vs Dutch as the reference group) and genetic content of ancestry (European, African or Asian) with dental development was analyzed using linear regression models. In a geographic perspective of ancestry, Moroccan (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.28), Turkish (β = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.32), Dutch Antillean (β = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.41), and Surinamese Creole (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.30) preceded Dutch children in dental development. Moreover, in a genetic perspective of ancestry, a higher proportion of European ancestry was associated with decelerated dental development (β = -0.32; 95% CI: -.44, -.20). In contrast, a higher proportion of African ancestry (β = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.43) and a higher proportion of Asian ancestry (β = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.48) were associated with accelerated dental development. When investigating only European children, these effect estimates increased to twice as large in absolute value. Based on a geographic and genetic perspective, differences in dental development exist in a population of heterogeneous ancestry and should be considered when describing the physiological growth in children. © 2017 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Study of geographical trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using pine needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo, José Manuel; Ratola, Nuno; Alves, Arminda

    2011-10-01

    In this work, pine needles were used as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) markers to study the PAHs distribution over several geographical locations in Portugal and over time. Four pine needle sampling campaigns (winter, spring, summer and autumn 2007) were carried out in 29 sites, covering the major urban centres, some industrial points, smaller cities, rural areas and remote locations. Needles from Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L. trees were collected from 2005 and 2006 shoots, corresponding to one up to three years of exposure. Spatial trends of the incidence of PAHs indicate an increase from the remote to the urban and industrial sites. The mean values for the sum of 16 PAHs ranged from 96 ± 30 ng g -1 (dry weight) for remote sites to 866 ± 304 ng g -1 (dw) for industrial sites for P. pinaster needles and from 188 ± 117 ng g -1 (dw) for rural sites to 337 ± 153 ng g -1 (dw) for urban sites for P. pinea. Geographic information system tools and principal component analysis revealed that the contamination patterns of PAHs are somehow related to several socio-geographic parameters of the sampling sites. The geographical trend for the PAHs is similar between seasons in terms of PAH levels, but some diverse behaviour is found on the separation of lighter and heavier PAHs. Differences between P. pinaster and P. pinea needles are stronger in terms of PAH uptake loads than in the site type fingerprints.

  16. The Potential of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI in Future Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Attard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As transport systems are pushed to the limits in many cities, governments have tried to resolve problems of traffic and congestion by increasing capacity. Miller (2013 contends the need to identify new capabilities (instead of capacity of the transport infrastructure in order to increase efficiency without extending the physical infrastructure. Kenyon and Lyons (2003 identified integrated traveller information as a facilitator for better transport decisions. Today, with further developments in the use of geographic information systems (GIS and a greater disposition by the public to provide volunteered geographic information (VGI, the potential of information is not only integrated across modes but also user-generated, real-time and available on smartphones anywhere. This geographic information plays today an important role in sectors such as politics, businesses and entertainment, and presumably this would extend to transport in revealing people’s preferences for mobility and therefore be useful for decision-making. The widespread availability of networks and smartphones offer new opportunities supported by apps and crowdsourcing through social media such as the successful traffic and navigation app Waze, car sharing programmes such as Zipcar, and ride sharing systems such as Uber. This study aims to develop insights into the potential of governments to use voluntary (crowdsourced geographic information effectively to achieve sustainable mobility. A review of the literature and existing technology informs this article. Further research into this area is identified and presented at the end of the paper.

  17. TEMPORALLY VARIABLE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTANCE EFFECTS CONTRIBUTE TO THE ASSEMBLY OF ROOT-ASSOCIATED FUNGAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James Barnes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Root-associated fungi are key contributors to ecosystem functioning, however the factors which determine community assembly are still relatively poorly understood. This study simultaneously quantified the roles of geographical distance, environmental heterogeneity and time in determining root-associated fungal community composition at the local scale within a short rotation coppice (SRC willow plantation. Culture independent molecular analyses of the root-associated fungal community suggested a strong but temporally variable effect of geographical distance between fungal communities on composition at the local geographical level. Whilst these distance effects were most prevalent on October communities, soil pH had an effect on structuring of the communities throughout the sampling period. Given the temporal variation in the effects of geographical distance and the environment for shaping root-associated fungal communities, there is clearly need for a temporal component to sampling strategies in future investigations of fungal biogeography.

  18. Plants and geographical names in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargonja, Hrvoje; Daković, Branko; Alegro, Antun

    2008-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present some general observations, regularities and insights into a complex relationship between plants and people through symbolic systems like geographical names on the territory of Croatia. The basic sources of data for this research were maps from atlas of Croatia of the scale 1:100000. Five groups of maps or areas were selected in order to represent main Croatian phytogeographic regions. A selection of toponyms from each of the map was made in which the name for a plant in Croatian language was recognized (phytotoponyms). Results showed that of all plant names recognized in geographical names the most represented are trees, and among them birch and oak the most. Furthermore, an attempt was made to explain the presence of the most represented plant species in the phytotoponyms in the light of general phytogeographical and sociocultural differences and similarities of comparing areas. The findings confirm an expectation that the genera of climazonal vegetation of particular area are the most represented among the phytotoponyms. Nevertheless, there are ample examples where representation of a plant name in the names of human environment can only be ascribed to ethno-linguistic and socio-cultural motives. Despite the reductionist character of applied methodology, this research also points out some advantages of this approach for ethnobotanic and ethnolinguistic studies of greater areas of human environment.

  19. Advancing Geographic Information Science—Proposal to NSF, with Addendum

    OpenAIRE

    National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis

    1995-01-01

    This document from 1995 and the addendum from 1996 represent NCGIA's proposal for Varenius—a program of research initiatives to advance geographic information science in the context of digitial worlds and the information society.

  20. Onondaga Lake Watershed – A Geographic Information System Project Phase I – Needs assessment and spatial data framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freehafer, Douglas A.; Pierson, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2002, the Onondaga Lake Partnership (OLP) formed a Geographic Information System (GIS) Planning Committee to begin the process of developing a comprehensive watershed geographic information system for Onondaga Lake. The goal of the Onondaga Lake Partnership geographic information system is to integrate the various types of spatial data used for scientific investigations, resource management, and planning and design of improvement projects in the Onondaga Lake Watershed. A needs-assessment survey was conducted and a spatial data framework developed to support the Onondaga Lake Partnership use of geographic information system technology. The design focused on the collection, management, and distribution of spatial data, maps, and internet mapping applications. A geographic information system library of over 100 spatial datasets and metadata links was assembled on the basis of the results of the needs assessment survey. Implementation options were presented, and the Geographic Information System Planning Committee offered recommendations for the management and distribution of spatial data belonging to Onondaga Lake Partnership members. The Onondaga Lake Partnership now has a strong foundation for building a comprehensive geographic information system for the Onondaga Lake watershed. The successful implementation of a geographic information system depends on the Onondaga Lake Partnership’s determination of: (1) the design and plan for a geographic information system, including the applications and spatial data that will be provided and to whom, (2) the level of geographic information system technology to be utilized and funded, and (3) the institutional issues of operation and maintenance of the system.

  1. Embedding Local Places in Global Spaces: Geographical Indications as a Territorial Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Geographical indications (GIs) are place-based names that convey the geographical origin, as well as the cultural and historical identity, of agricultural products. GIs are unique, in that they provide a means of ensuring that control over production and sales of a product stays within a local area, but at the same time they make use of extralocal…

  2. Exploitation of geographic information system at mapping and modelling of selected soil parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palka, B.; Makovnikova, J.; Siran, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation authors describe using of computers and geographic information systems (GIS) at effective use of soil fund, rational exploitation and organization of agricultural soil fund on the territory of the Slovak Republic, its monitoring and modelling. Using and creating of some geographically oriented information systems and databases about soils as well as present trends are discussed

  3. The Value of Open Geographical Data - The Danish Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colding, T. S.; Folner, M.; Krarup, S.; Kongsbak, J.

    2013-12-01

    Good basic data for everyone is part of the common public-sector digitization strategy for 2011 to 2015. The vision is that basic data is to be the high-quality common foundation for public sector administration; efficiently updated at one place, and used by everyone - including the private sector. Open basic data will benefit public-sector efficiency as well as innovation and value creation by Danish society in general. With basic data as a new digital raw material, commercial products can be developed and public information and services can be improved, providing for greater insight and stronger democracy. On the first of January 2013 Denmark released this digital raw material. As a general rule, all basic data is to be made freely available to all public authorities, private businesses and individuals. This makes basic data a common digital resource, which can be exploited freely for commercial as well as non-commercial purposes. A positive business case contributed in convincing Danish politicians to approve the basic data program. Once the initiatives have been fully implemented, the revenues for society are expected to be approx. DKK 800 million annually. Private-sector revenues will be up to DKK half a billion annually, and it is expected that e.g. the real estate, insurance, financial, and telecom sectors, as well as GPS (sat-nav) manufacturers, public companies and entrepreneurs will be among those to benefit hugely from the initiatives. The financial gain for the private sector of open geographical data alone is expected to be approx. 100 million DKK annually. As part of the Basic data program The Danish Geodata Agency (Ministry of the Environment) gave free access to all topographic data, cadastral maps and Digital Elevation Model on Jan. 1st, 2013. The Danish Geodata Agency has decided to measure the effect of the open geographic data in the public sector (efficiency) and in the private sector (growth). The effect will be measured by using reference

  4. Dispersal Kernel Determines Symmetry of Spread and Geographical Range for an Insect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    The distance from a source patch that dispersing insects reach depends on the number of dispersers, or random draws from a probability density function called a dispersal kernel, and the shape of that kernel. This can cause asymmetrical dispersal between habitat patches that produce different numbers of dispersers. Spatial distributions based on these dynamics can explain several ecological patterns including mega populations and geographic range boundaries. I hypothesized that a locally extirpated long horned beetle, the sugar maple borer, has a new geographical range shaped primarily by probabilistic dispersal distances. I used data on occurrence from Ontario, Canada to construct a model of geographical range in Indiana, USA based on maximum dispersal distance scaled by habitat area. This model predicted the new range boundary within 500 m very accurately. This beetle may be an ideal organism for exploring spatial dynamics driven by dispersal.

  5. History Shaped the Geographic Distribution of Genomic Admixture on the Island of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Marc; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Fejerman, Laura; Galanter, Joshua; Choudhry, Shweta; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Viera-Vera, Jorge; Oleksyk, Taras K.; Beckman, Kenneth; Ziv, Elad; Risch, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary genetic variation among Latin Americans human groups reflects population migrations shaped by complex historical, social and economic factors. Consequently, admixture patterns may vary by geographic regions ranging from countries to neighborhoods. We examined the geographic variation of admixture across the island of Puerto Rico and the degree to which it could be explained by historic and social events. We analyzed a census-based sample of 642 Puerto Rican individuals that were genotyped for 93 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate African, European and Native American ancestry. Socioeconomic status (SES) data and geographic location were obtained for each individual. There was significant geographic variation of ancestry across the island. In particular, African ancestry demonstrated a decreasing East to West gradient that was partially explained by historical factors linked to the colonial sugar plantation system. SES also demonstrated a parallel decreasing cline from East to West. However, at a local level, SES and African ancestry were negatively correlated. European ancestry was strongly negatively correlated with African ancestry and therefore showed patterns complementary to African ancestry. By contrast, Native American ancestry showed little variation across the island and across individuals and appears to have played little social role historically. The observed geographic distributions of SES and genetic variation relate to historical social events and mating patterns, and have substantial implications for the design of studies in the recently admixed Puerto Rican population. More generally, our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating social and geographic data with genetics when studying contemporary admixed populations. PMID:21304981

  6. Forensic genetic analysis of bio-geographical ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Chris

    2015-09-01

    With the great strides made in the last ten years in the understanding of human population variation and the detailed characterization of the genome, it is now possible to identify sets of ancestry informative markers suitable for relatively small-scale PCR-based assays and use them to analyze the ancestry of an individual from forensic DNA. This review outlines some of the current understanding of past human population structure and how it may have influenced the complex distribution of contemporary human diversity. A simplified description of human diversity can provide a suitable basis for choosing the best ancestry-informative markers, which is important given the constraints of multiplex sizes in forensic DNA tests. It is also important to decide the level of geographic resolution that is realistic to ensure the balance between informativeness and an over-simplification of complex human diversity patterns. A detailed comparison is made of the most informative ancestry markers suitable for forensic use and assessments are made of the data analysis regimes that can provide statistical inferences of a DNA donor's bio-geographical ancestry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Geographically weighted regression model on poverty indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, I.; Nugroho, N. F. T. A.; Muslich

    2017-12-01

    In this research, we applied geographically weighted regression (GWR) for analyzing the poverty in Central Java. We consider Gaussian Kernel as weighted function. The GWR uses the diagonal matrix resulted from calculating kernel Gaussian function as a weighted function in the regression model. The kernel weights is used to handle spatial effects on the data so that a model can be obtained for each location. The purpose of this paper is to model of poverty percentage data in Central Java province using GWR with Gaussian kernel weighted function and to determine the influencing factors in each regency/city in Central Java province. Based on the research, we obtained geographically weighted regression model with Gaussian kernel weighted function on poverty percentage data in Central Java province. We found that percentage of population working as farmers, population growth rate, percentage of households with regular sanitation, and BPJS beneficiaries are the variables that affect the percentage of poverty in Central Java province. In this research, we found the determination coefficient R2 are 68.64%. There are two categories of district which are influenced by different of significance factors.

  8. Geographic Gossip: Efficient Averaging for Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakis, Alexandros D. G.; Sarwate, Anand D.; Wainwright, Martin J.

    Gossip algorithms for distributed computation are attractive due to their simplicity, distributed nature, and robustness in noisy and uncertain environments. However, using standard gossip algorithms can lead to a significant waste in energy by repeatedly recirculating redundant information. For realistic sensor network model topologies like grids and random geometric graphs, the inefficiency of gossip schemes is related to the slow mixing times of random walks on the communication graph. We propose and analyze an alternative gossiping scheme that exploits geographic information. By utilizing geographic routing combined with a simple resampling method, we demonstrate substantial gains over previously proposed gossip protocols. For regular graphs such as the ring or grid, our algorithm improves standard gossip by factors of $n$ and $\\sqrt{n}$ respectively. For the more challenging case of random geometric graphs, our algorithm computes the true average to accuracy $\\epsilon$ using $O(\\frac{n^{1.5}}{\\sqrt{\\log n}} \\log \\epsilon^{-1})$ radio transmissions, which yields a $\\sqrt{\\frac{n}{\\log n}}$ factor improvement over standard gossip algorithms. We illustrate these theoretical results with experimental comparisons between our algorithm and standard methods as applied to various classes of random fields.

  9. Geographic inequalities in all-cause mortality in Japan: compositional or contextual?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuji Suzuki

    Full Text Available A recent study from Japan suggested that geographic inequalities in all-cause premature adult mortality have increased since 1995 in both sexes even after adjusting for individual age and occupation in 47 prefectures. Such variations can arise from compositional effects as well as contextual effects. In this study, we sought to further examine the emerging geographic inequalities in all-cause mortality, by exploring the relative contribution of composition and context in each prefecture.We used the 2005 vital statistics and census data among those aged 25 or older. The total number of decedents was 524,785 men and 455,863 women. We estimated gender-specific two-level logistic regression to model mortality risk as a function of age, occupation, and residence in 47 prefectures. Prefecture-level variance was used as an estimate of geographic inequalities in mortality, and prefectures were ranked by odds ratios (ORs, with the reference being the grand mean of all prefectures (value = 1.Overall, the degree of geographic inequalities was more pronounced when we did not account for the composition (i.e., age and occupation in each prefecture. Even after adjusting for the composition, however, substantial differences remained in mortality risk across prefectures with ORs ranging from 0.870 (Okinawa to 1.190 (Aomori for men and from 0.864 (Shimane to 1.132 (Aichi for women. In some prefectures (e.g., Aomori, adjustment for composition showed little change in ORs, while we observed substantial attenuation in ORs in other prefectures (e.g., Akita. We also observed qualitative changes in some prefectures (e.g., Tokyo. No clear associations were observed between prefecture-level socioeconomic status variables and the risk of mortality in either sex.Geographic disparities in mortality across prefectures are quite substantial and cannot be fully explained by differences in population composition. The relative contribution of composition and context to health

  10. Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing for Bahir Dar Town, North Western Ethiopia. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  11. Crowdsourcing sensor tasks to a socio-geographic network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lasnia, Damian; Broering, Arne; Jirka, Simon; Remke, Albert; Pianho, M.; Santos, M.Y.; Pundt, H.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes an approach of a socio-geographic network for crowdsourcing sensor tasks to a human sensor web. Users can register as human sensors at the system by defining their skills and impact area. Based on that information, submitted sensor tasks are forwarded to the most suitable human

  12. Identifying areas of need relative to liver disease: geographic clustering within a health service district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Atem, Nathan; Irvine, Katharine M; Valery, Patricia C; Wojcik, Kyle; Horsfall, Leigh; Johnson, Tracey; Janda, Monika; McPhail, Steven M; Powell, Elizabeth E

    2017-08-01

    Background Many people with chronic liver disease (CLD) are not detected until they present to hospital with advanced disease, when opportunities for intervention are reduced and morbidity is high. In order to build capacity and liver expertise in the community, it is important to focus liver healthcare resources in high-prevalence disease areas and specific populations with an identified need. The aim of the present study was to examine the geographic location of people seen in a tertiary hospital hepatology clinic, as well as ethnic and sociodemographic characteristics of these geographic areas. Methods The geographic locations of hepatology out-patients were identified via the out-patient scheduling database and grouped into statistical area (SA) regions for demographic analysis using data compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Results During the 3-month study period, 943 individuals from 71 SA Level 3 regions attended clinic. Nine SA Level 3 regions accounted for 55% of the entire patient cohort. Geographic clustering was seen especially for people living with chronic hepatitis B virus. There was a wide spectrum of socioeconomic advantage and disadvantage in areas with high liver disease prevalence. Conclusions The geographic area from which people living with CLD travel to access liver health care is extensive. However, the greatest demand for tertiary liver disease speciality care is clustered within specific geographic areas. Outreach programs targeted to these areas may enhance liver disease-specific health service resourcing. What is known about the topic? The demand for tertiary hospital clinical services in CLD is rising. However, there is limited knowledge about the geographic areas from which people living with CLD travel to access liver services, or the ethnic, socioeconomic and education characteristics of these areas. What does this paper add? The present study demonstrates that a substantial proportion of people living with CLD and

  13. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Matthew J.; Creed, Irena F.; Alexander, Laurie; Basu, Nandita B.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Craft, Christopher; D’Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bo...

  14. Geographic variation in resource use by specialist versus generalist butterflyfishes

    KAUST Repository

    Lawton, Rebecca J.; Cole, Andrew J.; Berumen, Michael L.; Pratchett, Morgan S.

    2011-01-01

    Localised patterns of resource use can be constrained by multiple factors. Comparison of resource use at multiple locations with differing resource availability can allow fundamental specialists to be distinguished from species that simply feed predominantly on prey types that are locally abundant. This study investigates geographic variation in the feeding ecology of coral-feeding butterflyfishes to examine whether patterns of resource use and levels of dietary specialisation vary among distinct locations, corresponding with changes in resource availability. Our specific aims were to investigate whether the dietary niche breadth of four butterflyfishes varies among five geographically separated locations and assess whether each species utilises similar resources in each location. Resource availability and dietary composition of four butterflyfishes were quantified at three sites across each of five geographic locations throughout the Pacific. Niche breadth, niche overlap, and resource selection functions were calculated for each species at each site and compared among locations. Availability of dietary resources varied significantly among locations and sites. Chaetodon vagabundus, C. citrinellus and C. lunulatus had low levels of dietary specialisation and used different resources in each location. Chaetodon trifascialis had high levels of dietary specialisation and used the same few resources in each location. Our results indicate that relative levels of dietary specialisation among different butterflyfishes do hold at larger spatial scales, however, geographical variation in the dietary composition of all butterflyfishes indicates that prey availability has a fundamental influence on dietary composition. Highly specialised species such as C. trifascialis will be highly vulnerable to coral loss as they appear to be largely inflexible in their dietary composition. However, the increased feeding plasticity observed here for C. trifascialis suggests this species may

  15. Geographic variation in resource use by specialist versus generalist butterflyfishes

    KAUST Repository

    Lawton, Rebecca J.

    2011-11-14

    Localised patterns of resource use can be constrained by multiple factors. Comparison of resource use at multiple locations with differing resource availability can allow fundamental specialists to be distinguished from species that simply feed predominantly on prey types that are locally abundant. This study investigates geographic variation in the feeding ecology of coral-feeding butterflyfishes to examine whether patterns of resource use and levels of dietary specialisation vary among distinct locations, corresponding with changes in resource availability. Our specific aims were to investigate whether the dietary niche breadth of four butterflyfishes varies among five geographically separated locations and assess whether each species utilises similar resources in each location. Resource availability and dietary composition of four butterflyfishes were quantified at three sites across each of five geographic locations throughout the Pacific. Niche breadth, niche overlap, and resource selection functions were calculated for each species at each site and compared among locations. Availability of dietary resources varied significantly among locations and sites. Chaetodon vagabundus, C. citrinellus and C. lunulatus had low levels of dietary specialisation and used different resources in each location. Chaetodon trifascialis had high levels of dietary specialisation and used the same few resources in each location. Our results indicate that relative levels of dietary specialisation among different butterflyfishes do hold at larger spatial scales, however, geographical variation in the dietary composition of all butterflyfishes indicates that prey availability has a fundamental influence on dietary composition. Highly specialised species such as C. trifascialis will be highly vulnerable to coral loss as they appear to be largely inflexible in their dietary composition. However, the increased feeding plasticity observed here for C. trifascialis suggests this species may

  16. Using geographical and taxonomic metadata to set priorities in specimen digitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter G. Berendsohn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Digitizing the information carried by specimens in natural history collections is a key endeavor providing falsifiable information about past and present biodiversity on a global scale, for application in a variety of research fields far beyond the current application in biosystematics. Existing digitization efforts are driven by individual institutional necessities and are not coordinated on a global scale. This led to an over-all information resource that is patchy in taxonomic and geographic coverage as well as in quality. Digitizing all specimens is not an achievable aim at present, so that priorities need to be set. Most biodiversity studies are both taxonomically and geographically restricted, but access to non-digitized collection information is almost exclusively by taxon name. Creating a “Geotaxonomic Index” providing metadata on the number of specimens from a specific geographic region belonging to a specific higher taxonomic category may provide a means to attract the attention of researchers and governments towards relevant non-digitized holdings of the collections and set priorities for their digitization according to the needs of information users outside the taxonomic community.

  17. Transport link scanner: simulating geographic transport network expansion through individual investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs-Crisioni, C.; Koopmans, C. C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper introduces a GIS-based model that simulates the geographic expansion of transport networks by several decision-makers with varying objectives. The model progressively adds extensions to a growing network by choosing the most attractive investments from a limited choice set. Attractiveness is defined as a function of variables in which revenue and broader societal benefits may play a role and can be based on empirically underpinned parameters that may differ according to private or public interests. The choice set is selected from an exhaustive set of links and presumably contains those investment options that best meet private operator's objectives by balancing the revenues of additional fare against construction costs. The investment options consist of geographically plausible routes with potential detours. These routes are generated using a fine-meshed regularly latticed network and shortest path finding methods. Additionally, two indicators of the geographic accuracy of the simulated networks are introduced. A historical case study is presented to demonstrate the model's first results. These results show that the modelled networks reproduce relevant results of the historically built network with reasonable accuracy.

  18. Teaching a Geographical Component in World History Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachina, Olga A.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to the topic of teaching a geographical component in World History curriculum in American public high schools. Despite the fact that the federal legislation entitled "No Child Left Behind" (2001) declared geography as a "core" academic subject, geography was the only subject dropped from federal funding.…

  19. Geographical baselines of sustainable planning of the regional development of Zasavje region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Plut

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Geographical baselines of planning the regional development and interventions into the geographical environment derive from the premises of the concept of permanent adjusting the anthropogenic changes in the landscape to specific capacities and limitations of landscape-forming components. In the landscape-degraded region of Zasavje the improvement of environmental quality (curative measures and regional economic progress within the scope of carrying capacities and space (preventative measures are the primary, developmentaly-environmentally devised goal of developmental strategy.

  20. Towns conquer: a gamified application to collect geographical names (vernacular names/toponyms)

    OpenAIRE

    Castellote, Jesus; Huerta, Joaquin; Pescador, Javier; Brown, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ponència presentada a 16th AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science, Geographic Information Science at the Heart of Europe, 14-17 May 2013, Leuven, Belgium The traditional model for geospatial crowd sourcing asks the public to use their free time collecting geospatial data for no obvious reward. This model has shown to work very well on projects such as Open Street Map, but comes with some clear disadvantages such as reliance on small communities ...

  1. Geographic distribution of hospital beds throughout China: a county-level econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jay; Shallcross, David

    2016-11-08

    Geographical distribution of healthcare resources is an important dimension of healthcare access. Little work has been published on healthcare resource allocation patterns in China, despite public equity concerns. Using national data from 2043 counties, this paper investigates the geographic distribution of hospital beds at the county level in China. We performed Gini coefficient analysis to measure inequalities and ordinary least squares regression with fixed provincial effects and additional spatial specifications to assess key determinants. We found that provinces in west China have the least equitable resource distribution. We also found that the distribution of hospital beds is highly spatially clustered. Finally, we found that both county-level savings and government revenue show a strong positive relationship with county level hospital bed density. We argue for more widespread use of disaggregated, geographical data in health policy-making in China to support the rational allocation of healthcare resources, thus promoting efficiency and equity.

  2. Geography, Images and Technology. Innovations in Education and Publishing at the National Geographic Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, George

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of the National Geographic Society (NGS) in providing educational materials on geography, from the National Geographic magazine to future innovative educational technologies. The changing nature of technology, communications, and the role of the creative mind are described in remarks quoted from the Society's…

  3. The shape and temporal dynamics of phylogenetic trees arising from geographic speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigot, Alex L; Phillimore, Albert B; Owens, Ian P F; Orme, C David L

    2010-12-01

    Phylogenetic trees often depart from the expectations of stochastic models, exhibiting imbalance in diversification among lineages and slowdowns in the rate of lineage accumulation through time. Such departures have led to a widespread perception that ecological differences among species or adaptation and subsequent niche filling are required to explain patterns of diversification. However, a key element missing from models of diversification is the geographical context of speciation and extinction. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit model of geographic range evolution and cladogenesis, where speciation arises via vicariance or peripatry, and explore the effects of these processes on patterns of diversification. We compare the results with those observed in 41 reconstructed avian trees. Our model shows that nonconstant rates of speciation and extinction are emergent properties of the apportioning of geographic ranges that accompanies speciation. The dynamics of diversification exhibit wide variation, depending on the mode of speciation, tendency for range expansion, and rate of range evolution. By varying these parameters, the model is able to capture many, but not all, of the features exhibited by birth-death trees and extant bird clades. Under scenarios with relatively stable geographic ranges, strong slowdowns in diversification rates are produced, with faster rates of range dynamics leading to constant or accelerating rates of apparent diversification. A peripatric model of speciation with stable ranges also generates highly unbalanced trees typical of bird phylogenies but fails to produce realistic range size distributions among the extant species. Results most similar to those of a birth-death process are reached under a peripatric speciation scenario with highly volatile range dynamics. Taken together, our results demonstrate that considering the geographical context of speciation and extinction provides a more conservative null model of

  4. Eco–geographical characterization of aquatic microhabitats used by amphibians in the Mediterranean Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benítez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Small freshwater ecosystems, whether natural or artificial origin, are aquatic microhabitats for many species and are particularly important in the Mediterranean region. This study characterizes the aquatic microhabitats suitable for amphibian reproduction in the Andalusian Mediterranean Basin and identifies the environmental and geographical features that determine the presence of different amphibian species in these water bodies. Geographical and environmental favourability models were performed to determine the relationship between characteristics of the microhabitats and species presence. The characteristics analysed were geographical location, external environment (climate and topography, surrounding conditions (connectivity and conservation, type of water body, water conditions, and water dimensions. Microhabitats located in the western and central part of the study area were geographically favourable for most species. In descending order, the most common environmental factors characterizing the microhabitats were typology, surrounding conditions, water condition, external environment and size of the water body. The most common variables in the models were the connectivity between water bodies and old wells, a frequent type of microhabitat in areas of traditional cultures. Management plans should take these results into account in efforts to preserve these habitats for wildlife and especially amphibians.

  5. Maternal-child overweight/obesity and undernutrition in Kenya: a geographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, Lisa R; Curtin, Kevin M; Gewa, Constance; Attaway, David

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine geographic relationships of nutritional status (BMI), including underweight, overweight and obesity, among Kenyan mothers and children. Spatial relationships were examined concerning BMI of the mothers and BMI-for-age percentiles of their children. These included spatial statistical measures of the clustering of segments of the population, in addition to inspection of co-location of significant clusters. Rural and urban areas of Kenya, including the cities of Nairobi and Mombasa, and the Kisumu region. Mother-child pairs from Demographic and Health Survey data including 1541 observations in 2003 and 1592 observations in 2009. These mother-child pairs were organized into 399 locational clusters. There is extremely strong evidence that high BMI values exhibit strong spatial clustering. There were co-locations of overweight mothers and overweight children only in the Nairobi region, while both underweight mothers and children tended to cluster in rural areas. In Mombasa clusters of overweight mothers were associated with normal-weight children, while in the Kisumu region clusters of overweight children were associated with normal-weight mothers. These findings show there is geographic variability as well as some defined patterns concerning the distribution of malnutrition among mothers and children in Kenya, and suggest the need for further geographic analyses concerning the potential factors which influence nutritional status in this population. In addition, the methods used in this research may be easily applied to other Demographic and Health Survey data in order to begin to understand the geographic determinants of health in low-income countries.

  6. Specifying Geographic Information - Ontology, Knowledge Representation, and Formal Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Vinther

    2007-01-01

    as in the private sector. The theoretical background is the establishment of a representational system, which ontologically comprises a representation of notions in the "real world" and notions which include the representation of these. Thus, the thesis leans towards a traditional division between modeling...... of domains and conceptualization of these. The thesis contributes a formalization of what is understood by domain models and conceptual models, when the focus is on geographic information. Moreover, it is shown how specifications for geographic information are related to this representational system...... of requirements and rules, building on terms from the domain and concept ontologies. In combination with the theoretical basis the analysis is used for developing an underlying model of notions, which defines the individual elements in a specification and the relations between them. In the chapters of the thesis...

  7. A cost-effective Geographic Information Systems for Transportation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cost-effective Geographic Information Systems for Transportation (GIS-T) application for traffic congestion analyses in the Developing World. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like ...

  8. Geoplotlib: a Python Toolbox for Visualizing Geographical Data

    OpenAIRE

    Cuttone, Andrea; Lehmann, Sune; Larsen, Jakob Eg

    2016-01-01

    We introduce geoplotlib, an open-source python toolbox for visualizing geographical data. geoplotlib supports the development of hardware-accelerated interactive visualizations in pure python, and provides implementations of dot maps, kernel density estimation, spatial graphs, Voronoi tesselation, shapefiles and many more common spatial visualizations. We describe geoplotlib design, functionalities and use cases.

  9. 47 CFR 76.984 - Geographically uniform rate structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... throughout each franchise area in which cable service is provided. (b) This section does not prohibit the... and conditions of service, within a franchise area. (c) This section does not apply to: (1) A cable operator with respect to the provision of cable service over its cable system in any geographic area in...

  10. PHYLOGEOrec: A QGIS plugin for spatial phylogeographic reconstruction from phylogenetic tree and geographical information data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashrulloh, Maulana Malik; Kurniawan, Nia; Rahardi, Brian

    2017-11-01

    The increasing availability of genetic sequence data associated with explicit geographic and environment (including biotic and abiotic components) information offers new opportunities to study the processes that shape biodiversity and its patterns. Developing phylogeography reconstruction, by integrating phylogenetic and biogeographic knowledge, provides richer and deeper visualization and information on diversification events than ever before. Geographical information systems such as QGIS provide an environment for spatial modeling, analysis, and dissemination by which phylogenetic models can be explicitly linked with their associated spatial data, and subsequently, they will be integrated with other related georeferenced datasets describing the biotic and abiotic environment. We are introducing PHYLOGEOrec, a QGIS plugin for building spatial phylogeographic reconstructions constructed from phylogenetic tree and geographical information data based on QGIS2threejs. By using PHYLOGEOrec, researchers can integrate existing phylogeny and geographical information data, resulting in three-dimensional geographic visualizations of phylogenetic trees in the Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Such formats can be overlaid on a map using QGIS and finally, spatially viewed in QGIS by means of a QGIS2threejs engine for further analysis. KML can also be viewed in reputable geobrowsers with KML-support (i.e., Google Earth).

  11. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Nicholas H; Arsenault, Julie; Hatchette, Todd F; Mechai, Samir; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]). Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographic variations in serological responses were also explored. Metrics of relative sensitivity, specificity and the kappa statistic measure of concordance were used to assess the capacity of responses to individual proteins to predict the overall IgG WB result of 2524 EIA (C6)-positive samples from across Canada. Geographic and interannual variations in proportions of samples testing positive were explored by logistic regression. No one protein was highly concordant with the IgG WB result. Significant variations were found amongst years and geographic regions in the prevalence of samples testing positive using the overall IgG WB algorithm, and for individual proteins of the algorithm. In most cases the prevalence of samples testing positive were highest in Nova Scotia, and lower in samples from Manitoba westwards. These findings suggest that the current two tier test may not be simplified and continued use of the current two-tier test method and interpretation is recommended. Geographic and interannual variations in the prevalence of samples testing positive may be consistent with B. burgdorferi strain variation in Canada, and further studies are needed to explore this.

  12. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas H Ogden

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]. Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographic variations in serological responses were also explored. Metrics of relative sensitivity, specificity and the kappa statistic measure of concordance were used to assess the capacity of responses to individual proteins to predict the overall IgG WB result of 2524 EIA (C6-positive samples from across Canada. Geographic and interannual variations in proportions of samples testing positive were explored by logistic regression. No one protein was highly concordant with the IgG WB result. Significant variations were found amongst years and geographic regions in the prevalence of samples testing positive using the overall IgG WB algorithm, and for individual proteins of the algorithm. In most cases the prevalence of samples testing positive were highest in Nova Scotia, and lower in samples from Manitoba westwards. These findings suggest that the current two tier test may not be simplified and continued use of the current two-tier test method and interpretation is recommended. Geographic and interannual variations in the prevalence of samples testing positive may be consistent with B. burgdorferi strain variation in Canada, and further studies are needed to explore this.

  13. The neighbourhood effects of geographical access to tobacco retailers on individual smoking behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Jamie; Hiscock, Rosemary; Moon, Graham; Barnett, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether neighbourhood measures of geographical accessibility to outlets selling tobacco (supermarkets, convenience stores and petrol stations) are associated with individual smoking behaviour in New Zealand.Methods: Using geographical information systems, travel times from the population-weighted centroid of each neighbourhood to the closest outlet selling tobacco were calculated for all 38 350 neighbourhoods across New Zealand. These measures were appended to the 20...

  14. Arte, conhecimento geográfico e leitura de imagens: O geógrafo, de Vermeer Art, geographical knowledge and image reading: Vermeer's "Geographer"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Seemann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O quadro O geógrafo, do pintor holandês Johannes Vermeer, é uma imagem freqüentemente escolhida para capas de livros em geografia. Desenhada na segunda metade do século XVII, a pintura não apenas pode ser considerada um retrato de como pensar e fazer geografia naquela época, mas também representa uma obra de arte com forte carga simbólica para estimular uma discussão metodológica sobre a leitura geográfica de imagens. Neste texto, objetiva-se refletir sobre as linguagens deste quadro dentro do seu contexto sociocultural, econômico e político e em relação aos diversos processos de construir conhecimento geográfico.The painting The Geographer by the Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer is an image that is frequently selected as a cover for geography books. Drawn in the second half of the 17th century, the picture must not only be considered as a portrait of how to think and do geography at that time; it can also be seen as a piece of art with a heavy symbolic load to stimulate a methodological debate on geographic readings of images. The present text aims to reflect about the languages of this painting, considering its sociocultural, economic and political contexts and its relation to the different processes of constructing geographic knowledge.

  15. The geographic epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease in Baltimore, 1971-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasanjo, Olugbenga Olufemi

    Given the reemergence of Tuberculosis (TB) in the United States (U.S.) in the 1980s and 1990s, several strategies have emerged to combat the disease. A successful tool has been Directly Observed Therapy (DOT). Chaulk, et al. showed that DOT was responsible for the maintaining the decline in TB rates in Baltimore through the corresponding period of an upswing in rates nationally. In this study, we measure the impact of DOT on the geographic pattern of TB in Baltimore. We used Geographical Information System (GIS) methods to compare the geographic patterns of TB in Baltimore before and after the introduction of DOT in the city. We identified both predictors of TB, and differences in geographic units in Baltimore over time. We measured the impact of the introduction of DOT and Rifampin on various treatment outcomes for TB at about the same time. Despite the drop in numbers of TB cases, the spatial distribution of cases generally remained unchanged until 1995. This was confirmed by the fact that similar predictors were identified in all of the years that were analyzed. However, higher proportions of TB cases were found among blacks and females in more recent years. Death rates have increased significantly while corresponding relapse rates and the mean length of therapy have declined significantly. Rifampin was associated with a longer length of therapy before DOT, but with a shorter duration of therapy following the introduction of DOT. In all of the years analyzed, losses to follow-up (LTFU) do not differ from those completing therapy and are not spatially clustered relative to those completing therapy. DOT has been effective in reducing the numbers of TB cases in Baltimore city-wide without an emphasis on so-called "high-risk" patients for LTFU. Thus, any declines in TB case rates are not due to a decline in a particular group or geographic sector of the city. Universal DOT is effective and does not cause a geographic clustering of difficult-to-reach patients. This

  16. Understanding the use of geographical information systems (GIS) in health informatics research: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Nicola; McGuire, Suzanne

    2017-06-23

    The purpose of this literature review is to understand geographical information systems (GIS) and how they can be applied to public health informatics, medical informatics, and epidemiology. Relevant papers that reflected the use of geographical information systems (GIS) in health research were identified from four academic databases: Academic Search Complete, BioMed Central, PubMed Central, and Scholars Portal, as well as Google Scholar. The search strategy used was to identify articles with "geographic information systems", "GIS", "public health", "medical informatics", "epidemiology", and "health geography" as main subject headings or text words in titles and abstracts. Papers published between 1997 and 2014 were considered and a total of 39 articles were included to inform the authors on the use of GIS technologies in health informatics research. The main applications of GIS in health informatics and epidemiology include disease surveillance, health risk analysis, health access and planning, and community health profiling. GIS technologies can significantly improve quality and efficiency in health research as substantial connections can be made between a population's health and their geographical location. Gains in health informatics can be made when GIS are applied through research, however, improvements need to occur in the quantity and quality of data input for these systems to ensure better geographical health maps are used so that proper conclusions between public health and environmental factors may be made.

  17. Design Research of TIANDITU (Map Worl)-Based Geographic Information System for Travelling Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Zhang, H.; Wang, C.

    2014-04-01

    TIANDITU (Map World) is the public version of the National Platform for Common Geospatial Information Service, and the travelling channel is TIANDITU-based geographic information platform for travelling service. With the development of tourism, traditional ways for providing travelling information cannot meet the needs of travelers. As such, the travelling channel of TIANDITU focuses on providing travel information abundantly and precisely, which integrated the geographic information data of TIANDITU Version 2.0 and the authoritative information resources from China National Tourism Administration. Furthermore, spatial positioning, category and information query of various travelling information were offered for the public in the travelling channel. This research mainly involves three important parts: the system design, key technologies of the system design and application examples. Firstly, this paper introduced the design of TIANDITU-based geographic information system for travelling service, and the general and database design were described in detail. The designs for general, database and travelling service above should consider lots of factors which illustrated in the paper in order to guarantee the efficient service. The process of system construction, the content of geographic information for travelling and system functions of geographic information for travelling are also proposed via diagram in this part. Then several key technologies were discussed, including the travelling information integration for main node and among nodes, general architecture design and management system for travelling channel, web portals and system interface. From the perspective of main technologies, this part describes how TIANDITU travelling channel can realize various functions and reach the requirements from different users. Finally, three application examples about travelling information query were listed shortly. The functions and search results are shown clearly in this

  18. The Role of Geographical Indication in Supporting Food Safety: A not Taken for Granted Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on the role of geographical indication in supporting strategies of food safety. Starting from the distinction between generic and specific quality, the article analyses the main factors influencing food safety in cases of geographical indication products, by stressing the importance of traceability systems and biodiversity in securing generic and specific quality. In the second part, the paper investigates the coordination problems behind a designation of origin and conditions to foster an effective collective action, a prerequisite to grant food safety through geographical indications. PMID:27800417

  19. Community structure informs species geographic distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Montesinos-Navarro, Alicia

    2018-05-23

    Understanding what determines species\\' geographic distributions is crucial for assessing global change threats to biodiversity. Measuring limits on distributions is usually, and necessarily, done with data at large geographic extents and coarse spatial resolution. However, survival of individuals is determined by processes that happen at small spatial scales. The relative abundance of coexisting species (i.e. \\'community structure\\') reflects assembly processes occurring at small scales, and are often available for relatively extensive areas, so could be useful for explaining species distributions. We demonstrate that Bayesian Network Inference (BNI) can overcome several challenges to including community structure into studies of species distributions, despite having been little used to date. We hypothesized that the relative abundance of coexisting species can improve predictions of species distributions. In 1570 assemblages of 68 Mediterranean woody plant species we used BNI to incorporate community structure into Species Distribution Models (SDMs), alongside environmental information. Information on species associations improved SDM predictions of community structure and species distributions moderately, though for some habitat specialists the deviance explained increased by up to 15%. We demonstrate that most species associations (95%) were positive and occurred between species with ecologically similar traits. This suggests that SDM improvement could be because species co-occurrences are a proxy for local ecological processes. Our study shows that Bayesian Networks, when interpreted carefully, can be used to include local conditions into measurements of species\\' large-scale distributions, and this information can improve the predictions of species distributions.

  20. Cinema and Geography: Geographic Space, Landscape and Territory in the Film Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gámir Orueta, Agustín; Manuel Valdés, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    This document is a direct translation of the original article in Spanish, published in the 'Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles', 2007, nº 45 pp. 157 - 190. This work presents a theoretical and analytical approach to the relationship between cinema and geographic space. First, special cinematographic qualities are differentiated from those of other means of geographic representation, at the same time identifying the differences between real space and film space. Subsequently, t...

  1. Developing geographic information infrastructure : The role of information policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loenen, B.

    2006-01-01

    Within information societies, information availability is a key issue affecting societyâs well being. The infrastructure underlying the foundation of the information society may be referred to as the information infrastructure. A geographic information infrastructure (GII) supports the information

  2. Airline loyalty (programs) across borders : A geographic discontinuity approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Gerben; Behrens, Christiaan; van Ommeren, Jos

    2018-01-01

    We analyze brand loyalty advantages of national airlines in their domestic countries using geocoded data from a major international frequent flier program. We employ a geographic discontinuity design that estimates discontinuities in program activity at the national borders of the program's

  3. Why Care About Aquatic Insects: Uses, Benefits, and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayflies and other aquatic insects are common subjects of ecological research, and environmental monitoring and assessment. However, their important role in protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems is often challenged, because their benefits and services to humans are not obv...

  4. Time and Practice: Learning to Become a Geographer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Roger M.

    2014-01-01

    A goal of geography education is fostering geographic literacy for all and building significant expertise for some. How much time and practice do students need to become literate or expert in geography? There is not an answer to this question. Using two concepts from cognitive psychology--the ideas of ten thousand hours and deliberate…

  5. House Prices, Geographical Mobility, and Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingholt, Marcus Mølbak

    2017-01-01

    Geographical mobility correlates positively with house prices and negatively with unemployment over the U.S. business cycle. I present a DSGE model in which declining house prices and tight credit conditions impede the mobility of indebted workers. This reduces the workers’ cross-area competition...... for jobs, causing wages and unemployment to rise. A Bayesian estimation shows that this channel more than quadruples the response of unemployment to adverse housing market shocks. The estimation also shows that adverse housing market shocks caused the decline in mobility during the Great Recession. Absent...

  6. Louisiana Airports, Geographic NAD83, FEMA (1997)[airports_FEMA_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of 20 Louisiana airports. The attributes include name, address, city, county (sic), state, phone,...

  7. Species turnover and geographic distance in an urban river network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouquette, James R.; Dallimer, Martin; Armsworth, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    AimUnderstanding the relationships between species turnover, environmental features and the geographic distance between sites can provide important insights into the processes driving species diversity. This is particularly relevant where the effective distance between sites may be a function...... patterns of species turnover and to determine whether these patterns differ between different taxonomic groups. LocationSheffield area, UK. MethodsAquatic (macroinvertebrates, diatoms) and terrestrial (birds, plants, butterflies) organisms were surveyed at 41 sites across an urban river network. We...... of the geographic distance measures, although network distance remained significant for birds and some plant groups after removing the effect of environmental distance. Water-dispersed and neophyte plant groups were significantly related to network and flow distance. Main conclusionsThe results suggest that aquatic...

  8. Experimental effects of climate messages vary geographically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baobao; van der Linden, Sander; Mildenberger, Matto; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Howe, Peter D.; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2018-05-01

    Social science scholars routinely evaluate the efficacy of diverse climate frames using local convenience or nationally representative samples1-5. For example, previous research has focused on communicating the scientific consensus on climate change, which has been identified as a `gateway' cognition to other key beliefs about the issue6-9. Importantly, although these efforts reveal average public responsiveness to particular climate frames, they do not describe variation in message effectiveness at the spatial and political scales relevant for climate policymaking. Here we use a small-area estimation method to map geographical variation in public responsiveness to information about the scientific consensus as part of a large-scale randomized national experiment (n = 6,301). Our survey experiment finds that, on average, public perception of the consensus increases by 16 percentage points after message exposure. However, substantial spatial variation exists across the United States at state and local scales. Crucially, responsiveness is highest in more conservative parts of the country, leading to national convergence in perceptions of the climate science consensus across diverse political geographies. These findings not only advance a geographical understanding of how the public engages with information about scientific agreement, but will also prove useful for policymakers, practitioners and scientists engaged in climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  9. Geographical scoping and willingness-to-pay for nature protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botzen, W. J.Wouter; van Beukering, Pieter J.H.

    2018-01-01

    This study offers a Choice Experiment (CE) analysis of geographical scope effects. About 500 stated preference surveys were conducted to estimate willingness-to-pay (WTP) for nature protection in the Netherlands and the Caribbean Netherlands which became part of the Netherlands’ constitution just

  10. Geographically Isolated Wetlands: Why We Should Keep the Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of the term "isolated wetlands" in the U.S. Supreme Court’s SWANCC decision created confusion, since it could imply functional isolation. In response, the term "geographically isolated wetlands" (GIWs) - wetlands surrounded by uplands - was introduced in 2003. A recent arti...

  11. Mental Maps and Ethnocentrism: Geographic Characterizations in the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Harold M.

    1979-01-01

    Reexamines geographic thought regarding ethnocentrism as expressed in the writings including Ellen Churchill Semple, Hendrick Willem Van Loon, Ellsworth Huntington, Roswell C. Smith, J. Olney, Henry Thomas Buckle, Georg Friedrich Hegel, Johann Gottfried Von Herder, Charles de Montesquieu, Ibn Khaldun, and Hippocrates. (DB)

  12. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis: Towards a new paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaschke, T.; Hay, G.J.; Kelly, M.; Lang, S.; Hofmann, P.; Addink, E.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/224281216; Queiroz Feitosa, R.; van der Meer, F.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/138940908; van der Werff, H.M.A.; van Coillie, F.; Tiede, A.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of scientific literature on (Geographic) Object-based Image Analysis – GEOBIA has been and still is sharply increasing. These approaches to analysing imagery have antecedents in earlier research on image segmentation and use GIS-like spatial analysis within classification and feature

  13. The Geographical Distribution of Leadership in Globalized Clinical Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, J.; Frenken, K.; de Zeeuw, D.; Lambers-Heerspink, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceutical trials are mainly initiated by sponsors and investigators in the United States, Western Europe and Japan. However, more and more patients are enrolled in Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America and Asia. The involvement of patients in new geographical settings raises

  14. Towards mapping land use patterns from volunteered geographic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokar Arsanjani, J.; Helbich, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370530349; Bakillah, M.; Hagenauer, J.; Zipf, A.

    2013-01-01

    A large number of applications have been launched to gather geo-located information from the public. This article introduces an approach toward generating land-use patterns from volunteered geographic information (VGI) without applying remote-sensing techniques and/or engaging official data. Hence,

  15. Geographic range size and determinants of avian species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jetz, Walter; Rahbek, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    Geographic patterns in species richness are mainly based on wide-ranging species because their larger number of distribution records has a disproportionate contribution to the species richness counts. Here we demonstrate how this effect strongly influences our understanding of what determines spe...

  16. Louisiana Heliports, Geographic NAD83, FEMA (1997) [heliports_FEMA_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of 154 Louisiana heliports. The attributes include name, city, state, county (sic), county code (unknown...

  17. A geographical basis for long-range dose assessment calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, H.; Hage, G.

    1989-01-01

    Releases of radioactive material into the atmosphere have effects that are distributed over the earth's surface. As a result, geographical information can play an important role in understanding the impact of an emergency. The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is an emergency response organization that utilizes complex computer models to provide real-time assessments of the consequences of such releases. These models are one component of a sophisticated system that also includes data-gathering systems, data analysis techniques, and highly trained operational personnel. The products of this service are isopleths of the material concentration plotted over a base map of geographic features. The components mentioned in this paper are being added to the operation ARAC system. This will provide a means of producing fast, high-quality assessments of the consequences of major releases of radioactive material with effects extending to continental and global regions

  18. Franz Boas, geographer, and the problem of disciplinary identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, William A

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines Franz Boas as an aspiring professional geographer during the 1880s: his Baffin Land research, his publications, his participation in geography organizations, and his struggle to attain a university appointment in geography. Frustrated by a seeming lack of opportunity for advancement in Germany, Boas explored career opportunities as a geographer in America and launched a series of unsuccessful but meaningful attempts to dominate the intellectual direction of American geography. Finally, the article reviews the circumstances surrounding Boas's appointment as an anthropologist at Clark University in 1889. Through examining Boas's own words and actions, the paper demonstrates that his professional identification with geography was lengthier and stronger than earlier accounts have suggested. It also critiques the myth of a Baffin Land "conversion" to anthropology, and delineates the circumstances of his shift from German human geography to his Americanist recasting of anthropology after 1889. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A Framework for Conceptual Modeling of Geographic Data Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Anders; Christensen, J.V.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    Sustained advances in wireless communications, geo-positioning, and consumer electronics pave the way to a kind of location-based service that relies on the tracking of the continuously changing positions of an entire population of service users. This type of service is characterized by large...... an object is moving. Empirical performance studies based on a real road network and GPS logs from cars areThe notion of data quality is of particular importance to geographic data. One reason is that such data is often inherently imprecise. Another is that the usability of the data is in large part...... determined by how "good" the data is, as different applications of geographic data require different qualities of the data are met. Such qualities concern the object level as well as the attribute level of the data. This paper presents a systematic and integrated approach to the conceptual modeling...

  20. Predicting geographically distributed adult dental decay in the greater Auckland region of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C M; Kruger, E; Whyman, R; Tennant, M

    2014-06-01

    To model the geographic distribution of current (and treated) dental decay on a high-resolution geographic basis for the Auckland region of New Zealand. The application of matrix-based mathematics to modelling adult dental disease-based on known population risk profiles to provide a detailed map of the dental caries distribution for the greater Auckland region. Of the 29 million teeth in adults in the region some 1.2 million (4%) are suffering decay whilst 7.2 million (25%) have previously suffered decay and are now restored. The model provides a high-resolution picture of where the disease burden lies geographically and presents to health planners a method for developing future service plans.