WorldWideScience

Sample records for geographically distributed resources

  1. Geographic distribution of hospital beds throughout China: a county-level econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jay; Shallcross, David

    2016-11-08

    Geographical distribution of healthcare resources is an important dimension of healthcare access. Little work has been published on healthcare resource allocation patterns in China, despite public equity concerns. Using national data from 2043 counties, this paper investigates the geographic distribution of hospital beds at the county level in China. We performed Gini coefficient analysis to measure inequalities and ordinary least squares regression with fixed provincial effects and additional spatial specifications to assess key determinants. We found that provinces in west China have the least equitable resource distribution. We also found that the distribution of hospital beds is highly spatially clustered. Finally, we found that both county-level savings and government revenue show a strong positive relationship with county level hospital bed density. We argue for more widespread use of disaggregated, geographical data in health policy-making in China to support the rational allocation of healthcare resources, thus promoting efficiency and equity.

  2. Determinants of Spatial Distribution in a Bee Community: Nesting Resources, Flower Resources, and Body Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torné-Noguera, Anna; Rodrigo, Anselm; Arnan, Xavier; Osorio, Sergio; Barril-Graells, Helena; da Rocha-Filho, Léo Correia; Bosch, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Understanding biodiversity distribution is a primary goal of community ecology. At a landscape scale, bee communities are affected by habitat composition, anthropogenic land use, and fragmentation. However, little information is available on local-scale spatial distribution of bee communities within habitats that are uniform at the landscape scale. We studied a bee community along with floral and nesting resources over a 32 km2 area of uninterrupted Mediterranean scrubland. Our objectives were (i) to analyze floral and nesting resource composition at the habitat scale. We ask whether these resources follow a geographical pattern across the scrubland at bee-foraging relevant distances; (ii) to analyze the distribution of bee composition across the scrubland. Bees being highly mobile organisms, we ask whether bee composition shows a homogeneous distribution or else varies spatially. If so, we ask whether this variation is irregular or follows a geographical pattern and whether bees respond primarily to flower or to nesting resources; and (iii) to establish whether body size influences the response to local resource availability and ultimately spatial distribution. We obtained 6580 specimens belonging to 98 species. Despite bee mobility and the absence of environmental barriers, our bee community shows a clear geographical pattern. This pattern is mostly attributable to heterogeneous distribution of small (nesting substrates. Even then, a large proportion (54.8%) of spatial variability remains unexplained by flower or nesting resources. We conclude that bee communities are strongly conditioned by local effects and may exhibit spatial heterogeneity patterns at a scale as low as 500–1000 m in patches of homogeneous habitat. These results have important implications for local pollination dynamics and spatial variation of plant-pollinator networks. PMID:24824445

  3. Determinants of spatial distribution in a bee community: nesting resources, flower resources, and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torné-Noguera, Anna; Rodrigo, Anselm; Arnan, Xavier; Osorio, Sergio; Barril-Graells, Helena; da Rocha-Filho, Léo Correia; Bosch, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Understanding biodiversity distribution is a primary goal of community ecology. At a landscape scale, bee communities are affected by habitat composition, anthropogenic land use, and fragmentation. However, little information is available on local-scale spatial distribution of bee communities within habitats that are uniform at the landscape scale. We studied a bee community along with floral and nesting resources over a 32 km2 area of uninterrupted Mediterranean scrubland. Our objectives were (i) to analyze floral and nesting resource composition at the habitat scale. We ask whether these resources follow a geographical pattern across the scrubland at bee-foraging relevant distances; (ii) to analyze the distribution of bee composition across the scrubland. Bees being highly mobile organisms, we ask whether bee composition shows a homogeneous distribution or else varies spatially. If so, we ask whether this variation is irregular or follows a geographical pattern and whether bees respond primarily to flower or to nesting resources; and (iii) to establish whether body size influences the response to local resource availability and ultimately spatial distribution. We obtained 6580 specimens belonging to 98 species. Despite bee mobility and the absence of environmental barriers, our bee community shows a clear geographical pattern. This pattern is mostly attributable to heterogeneous distribution of small (<55 mg) species (with presumed smaller foraging ranges), and is mostly explained by flower resources rather than nesting substrates. Even then, a large proportion (54.8%) of spatial variability remains unexplained by flower or nesting resources. We conclude that bee communities are strongly conditioned by local effects and may exhibit spatial heterogeneity patterns at a scale as low as 500-1000 m in patches of homogeneous habitat. These results have important implications for local pollination dynamics and spatial variation of plant-pollinator networks.

  4. Determinants of spatial distribution in a bee community: nesting resources, flower resources, and body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Torné-Noguera

    Full Text Available Understanding biodiversity distribution is a primary goal of community ecology. At a landscape scale, bee communities are affected by habitat composition, anthropogenic land use, and fragmentation. However, little information is available on local-scale spatial distribution of bee communities within habitats that are uniform at the landscape scale. We studied a bee community along with floral and nesting resources over a 32 km2 area of uninterrupted Mediterranean scrubland. Our objectives were (i to analyze floral and nesting resource composition at the habitat scale. We ask whether these resources follow a geographical pattern across the scrubland at bee-foraging relevant distances; (ii to analyze the distribution of bee composition across the scrubland. Bees being highly mobile organisms, we ask whether bee composition shows a homogeneous distribution or else varies spatially. If so, we ask whether this variation is irregular or follows a geographical pattern and whether bees respond primarily to flower or to nesting resources; and (iii to establish whether body size influences the response to local resource availability and ultimately spatial distribution. We obtained 6580 specimens belonging to 98 species. Despite bee mobility and the absence of environmental barriers, our bee community shows a clear geographical pattern. This pattern is mostly attributable to heterogeneous distribution of small (<55 mg species (with presumed smaller foraging ranges, and is mostly explained by flower resources rather than nesting substrates. Even then, a large proportion (54.8% of spatial variability remains unexplained by flower or nesting resources. We conclude that bee communities are strongly conditioned by local effects and may exhibit spatial heterogeneity patterns at a scale as low as 500-1000 m in patches of homogeneous habitat. These results have important implications for local pollination dynamics and spatial variation of plant-pollinator networks.

  5. Determinants of Dentists' Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazoglou, Tryfon J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A model for explaining the geographic distribution of dentists' practice locations is presented and applied to particular market areas in Connecticut. Results show geographic distribution is significantly related to a few key variables, including demography, disposable income, and housing prices. Implications for helping students make practice…

  6. [Geographic distribution of avoidable mortality in the community of Valencia (1975-1990)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, X A; Bayo Vila, A; Alfonso Sánchez, J L; Cortina Greus, P; Chana González, P; Sáiz Sánchez, C

    1996-04-20

    Avoidable mortality (AM) has been proposed as the indicator of the quality and the efficacy of health care services and a parameter useful to distribute health care resources. The aim of this study was to analyze the size and geographic variability of AM in the Community of Valencia, Spain (1975-1990). The causes of AM were analyzed by the classification of Holland divided into indicators of medical care (IMC) and indicators on national health care policy (INHCP) in addition to the causes of the Charlton classification. Standard rates for Spain and the European Community, the rate of masculinity and contribution to total mortality were calculated. Geographic distribution by areas and provinces was analyzed by the rate of standardized mortality. According to the Holland classification AM was 30% of the deaths from 5 to 64 years of age. Out of these cases, 18.5% corresponded to INHCP and 11.1% to IMC. According to the Charlton classification, this percentage was 3.6%. A considerable variation was observed among the 20 areas analyzed due to many causes. The geographic distribution by groups (IMC, INHCP and the Charlton classification) is quite homogeneous. The worse results corresponded to the city of Valencia and to the area 21 (area of the city of Alicante). A great variation was found in the results regarding geographic distribution for individual causes of death while the distribution was quite homogeneous for all of the groups of mortality with the worst results being observed in large urban centers.

  7. Geographic variation in resource use by specialist versus generalist butterflyfishes

    KAUST Repository

    Lawton, Rebecca J.; Cole, Andrew J.; Berumen, Michael L.; Pratchett, Morgan S.

    2011-01-01

    Localised patterns of resource use can be constrained by multiple factors. Comparison of resource use at multiple locations with differing resource availability can allow fundamental specialists to be distinguished from species that simply feed predominantly on prey types that are locally abundant. This study investigates geographic variation in the feeding ecology of coral-feeding butterflyfishes to examine whether patterns of resource use and levels of dietary specialisation vary among distinct locations, corresponding with changes in resource availability. Our specific aims were to investigate whether the dietary niche breadth of four butterflyfishes varies among five geographically separated locations and assess whether each species utilises similar resources in each location. Resource availability and dietary composition of four butterflyfishes were quantified at three sites across each of five geographic locations throughout the Pacific. Niche breadth, niche overlap, and resource selection functions were calculated for each species at each site and compared among locations. Availability of dietary resources varied significantly among locations and sites. Chaetodon vagabundus, C. citrinellus and C. lunulatus had low levels of dietary specialisation and used different resources in each location. Chaetodon trifascialis had high levels of dietary specialisation and used the same few resources in each location. Our results indicate that relative levels of dietary specialisation among different butterflyfishes do hold at larger spatial scales, however, geographical variation in the dietary composition of all butterflyfishes indicates that prey availability has a fundamental influence on dietary composition. Highly specialised species such as C. trifascialis will be highly vulnerable to coral loss as they appear to be largely inflexible in their dietary composition. However, the increased feeding plasticity observed here for C. trifascialis suggests this species may

  8. Geographic variation in resource use by specialist versus generalist butterflyfishes

    KAUST Repository

    Lawton, Rebecca J.

    2011-11-14

    Localised patterns of resource use can be constrained by multiple factors. Comparison of resource use at multiple locations with differing resource availability can allow fundamental specialists to be distinguished from species that simply feed predominantly on prey types that are locally abundant. This study investigates geographic variation in the feeding ecology of coral-feeding butterflyfishes to examine whether patterns of resource use and levels of dietary specialisation vary among distinct locations, corresponding with changes in resource availability. Our specific aims were to investigate whether the dietary niche breadth of four butterflyfishes varies among five geographically separated locations and assess whether each species utilises similar resources in each location. Resource availability and dietary composition of four butterflyfishes were quantified at three sites across each of five geographic locations throughout the Pacific. Niche breadth, niche overlap, and resource selection functions were calculated for each species at each site and compared among locations. Availability of dietary resources varied significantly among locations and sites. Chaetodon vagabundus, C. citrinellus and C. lunulatus had low levels of dietary specialisation and used different resources in each location. Chaetodon trifascialis had high levels of dietary specialisation and used the same few resources in each location. Our results indicate that relative levels of dietary specialisation among different butterflyfishes do hold at larger spatial scales, however, geographical variation in the dietary composition of all butterflyfishes indicates that prey availability has a fundamental influence on dietary composition. Highly specialised species such as C. trifascialis will be highly vulnerable to coral loss as they appear to be largely inflexible in their dietary composition. However, the increased feeding plasticity observed here for C. trifascialis suggests this species may

  9. The geographical distribution of tremellaceous fungi in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Wojewoda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution of the Polish tremellaceous fungi is discussed in this paper. The list of localities and the maps of the distribution of 60 Polish species (45 of Tremellales, 13 of Auriculariales and 2 of Septobasidiales are given. The author distinguishes several geographical elements, and describes the vertical distribution of these fungi. This paper is a supplement to "Fungi (Mycota", vol. 8, Polish Flora (Wojewoda 1977.

  10. Factors Influence on Geographic Distribution of Physicians in Selected Countries: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ashkan Nasiripour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most important inequalities of providing health services is misdistribution of human resources, especially physicians. Many factors contribute to the distribution of physicians in different regions. The present study was aimed to explore the effective factors in distributing physicians in different countries. Methods: This study is a systematic review, in which the data were gathered through literature review, online searches in multiple databases and relevant organizations’ websites. Later, the collected data were classified using content analysis method, and consequently, they were illustrated in comparative matrix. Results: The factors that influence the dispersion of the physicians are divided into 4 main groups. Firstly, Geographic and Demographic factors of the region such as, population, age, gender and climate. Secondly, Health factors of the region and the country such as, the number of hospitals, health centers and health indicators. Thirdly, Economic, Social and Political factors of the region such as, economic growth, culture and believes. And finally, the factors related to physicians' characteristics and motivation such as, age, gender and the compensation system. Conclusion: There are different reasons why physicians spread in different countries’ geographical regions. Regarding the unequal distribution of physicians in Iran, identifying these influential reasons and also the factors affecting the distribution of physicians, and the impact of each one of these, can lead to a fair and equal distribution of resources of the health sector.

  11. Geographical information modelling for land resource survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de S.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing popularity of geographical information systems (GIS) has at least three major implications for land resources survey. Firstly, GIS allows alternative and richer representation of spatial phenomena than is possible with the traditional paper map. Secondly, digital technology has

  12. Geographical cost-supply analysis forest biomass for distributed generation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a study which uses geographical information system (GIS) to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The article presents a study which uses geographical information system (GIS) to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  13. [Analysis of the geographical distribution of cases of leprosy. Rio de Janeiro, 2001-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracie, Renata; Peixoto, Julia Novaes de Barros; Soares, Fabiane Bertoni Dos Reis; Hacker, Mariana de Andrea Vilas-Boas

    2017-05-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the geographical distribution of leprosy is related to different socioeconomic factors. This article aims to study the geographical distribution of leprosy in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The cases of leprosy reported in the 2001-2012 period were mapped according to municipality. Epidemiological and socioeconomic indicators were calculated. The ArcMap program was used for the construction of maps and Earth View to calculate the Bayesian rate. It was observed that leprosy is presented in hyper-endemic levels especially in the metropolitan area. However, there is also a reduction of the detection rate in the most recent study period. In municipalities in the metropolitan region and the north western region detection in children under 15 is high, indicating an active transmission situation. In municipalities in the south-central region and especially in the coastal region, there was a high proportion of cases diagnosed with level II disability, reflecting late diagnosis. There was no linear correlation between socioeconomic indicators and leprosy rate. These results contribute to the analysis of the geographical distribution of leprosy, important for the identification of areas for resource allocation, aiming to control and eliminate the disease.

  14. Community structure informs species geographic distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Montesinos-Navarro, Alicia

    2018-05-23

    Understanding what determines species\\' geographic distributions is crucial for assessing global change threats to biodiversity. Measuring limits on distributions is usually, and necessarily, done with data at large geographic extents and coarse spatial resolution. However, survival of individuals is determined by processes that happen at small spatial scales. The relative abundance of coexisting species (i.e. \\'community structure\\') reflects assembly processes occurring at small scales, and are often available for relatively extensive areas, so could be useful for explaining species distributions. We demonstrate that Bayesian Network Inference (BNI) can overcome several challenges to including community structure into studies of species distributions, despite having been little used to date. We hypothesized that the relative abundance of coexisting species can improve predictions of species distributions. In 1570 assemblages of 68 Mediterranean woody plant species we used BNI to incorporate community structure into Species Distribution Models (SDMs), alongside environmental information. Information on species associations improved SDM predictions of community structure and species distributions moderately, though for some habitat specialists the deviance explained increased by up to 15%. We demonstrate that most species associations (95%) were positive and occurred between species with ecologically similar traits. This suggests that SDM improvement could be because species co-occurrences are a proxy for local ecological processes. Our study shows that Bayesian Networks, when interpreted carefully, can be used to include local conditions into measurements of species\\' large-scale distributions, and this information can improve the predictions of species distributions.

  15. Execution Management Solutions for Geographically Distributed Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Jansen, H.G.M.; Jansen, R.E.J.; Prins, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Managing the initialization, execution control and monitoring of HLA federates is not always straightforward, especially for a geographically distributed time managed federation. Issues include pre and post run-time data distribution and run-time data collection; starting, stopping and monitoring

  16. State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources: Distributed Resources and Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowart, R.; Harrington, C.; Moskovitz, D.; Shirley, W.; Weston, F.; Sedano, R.

    2002-10-01

    Designing and implementing credit-based pilot programs for distributed resources distribution is a low-cost, low-risk opportunity to find out how these resources can help defer or avoid costly electric power system (utility grid) distribution upgrades. This report describes implementation options for deaveraged distribution credits and distributed resource development zones. Developing workable programs implementing these policies can dramatically increase the deployment of distributed resources in ways that benefit distributed resource vendors, users, and distribution utilities. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets, NREL/SR-560-32497; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Re liability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501.

  17. Optimum aggregation of geographically distributed flexible resources in strategic smart-grid/microgrid locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu P.; Myers, Kurt S.; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    This study determines optimum aggregation areas for a given distribution network considering spatial distribution of loads and costs of aggregation. An elitist genetic algorithm combined with a hierarchical clustering and a Thevenin network reduction is implemented to compute strategic locations...... operational decisions by understanding during which time of the day will be in need of flexibility, from which specific area, and in which amount, but also enables the flexibilities stemming from small distributed resources to be traded in various power/energy markets. A combination of central and local...... aggregation scheme where a central aggregator enables market participation, while local aggregators materialize the accepted bids, is implemented to realize this concept. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing network performances with and without aggregation. For a given network...

  18. Geographic distribution of wild potato species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, R.J.; Spooner, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The geographic distribution of wild potatoes (Solanaceae sect. Petota) was analyzed using a database of 6073 georeferenced observations. Wild potatoes occur in 16 countries, but 88% of the observations are from Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, and Peru. Most species are rare and narrowly endemic: for 77

  19. Measuring Geographic Inequalities: Dealing with Multiple Health Resources by Data Envelopment Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlouhý, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The existence of geographic differences in health resources, health expenditures, the utilization of health services, and health outcomes have been documented by a lot of studies from various countries of the world. In a publicly financed health system, equal access is one of the main objectives of the national health policy. That is why inequalities in the geographic allocation of health resources are an important health policy issue. Measures of inequality express the complexity of variation in the observed variable by a single number, and there is a variety of inequality measures available. The objective of this study is to develop a measure of the geographic inequality in the case of multiple health resources. The measure uses data envelopment analysis (DEA), which is a non-parametric method of production function estimation, to transform multiple resources into a single virtual health resource. The study shows that the DEA originally developed for measuring efficiency can be used successfully to measure inequality. For the illustrative purpose, the inequality measure is calculated for the Czech Republic. The values of separate Robin Hood Indexes (RHIs) are 6.64% for physicians and 3.96% for nurses. In the next step, we use combined RHI for both health resources. Its value 5.06% takes into account that the combinations of two health resources serve regional populations.

  20. Measuring Geographic Inequalities: Dealing with Multiple Health Resources by Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlouhý, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The existence of geographic differences in health resources, health expenditures, the utilization of health services, and health outcomes have been documented by a lot of studies from various countries of the world. In a publicly financed health system, equal access is one of the main objectives of the national health policy. That is why inequalities in the geographic allocation of health resources are an important health policy issue. Measures of inequality express the complexity of variation in the observed variable by a single number, and there is a variety of inequality measures available. The objective of this study is to develop a measure of the geographic inequality in the case of multiple health resources. The measure uses data envelopment analysis (DEA), which is a non-parametric method of production function estimation, to transform multiple resources into a single virtual health resource. The study shows that the DEA originally developed for measuring efficiency can be used successfully to measure inequality. For the illustrative purpose, the inequality measure is calculated for the Czech Republic. The values of separate Robin Hood Indexes (RHIs) are 6.64% for physicians and 3.96% for nurses. In the next step, we use combined RHI for both health resources. Its value 5.06% takes into account that the combinations of two health resources serve regional populations. PMID:29541631

  1. State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources: Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, F.; Harrington, C.; Moskovitz, D.; Shirley, W.; Cowart, R.; Sedano, R.

    2002-10-01

    Distributed resources can provide cost-effective reliability and energy services - in many cases, obviating the need for more expensive investments in wires and central station electricity generating facilities. Given the unique features of distributed resources, the challenge facing policymakers today is how to restructure wholesale markets for electricity and related services so as to reveal the full value that distributed resources can provide to the electric power system (utility grid). This report looks at the functions that distributed resources can perform and examines the barriers to them. It then identifies a series of policy and operational approaches to promoting DR in wholesale markets. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Distributed Resource Distribution Credit Pilot Programs - Revealing the Value to Consumers and Vendors, NREL/SR-560-32499; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Reliability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501

  2. State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources: Distributed Resource Distribution Credit Pilot Programs--Revealing the Value to Consumers and Vendors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskovitz, D.; Harrington, C.; Shirley, W.; Cowart, R.; Sedano, R.; Weston, F.

    2002-10-01

    Designing and implementing credit-based pilot programs for distributed resources distribution is a low-cost, low-risk opportunity to find out how these resources can help defer or avoid costly electric power system (utility grid) distribution upgrades. This report describes implementation options for deaveraged distribution credits and distributed resource development zones. Developing workable programs implementing these policies can dramatically increase the deployment of distributed resources in ways that benefit distributed resource vendors, users, and distribution utilities. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets, NREL/SR-560-32497; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Re liability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501.

  3. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Kinds and Distribution of Soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  4. Distribution of selected healthcare resources for influenza pandemic response in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanke Khilji, Sara U; Rudge, James W; Drake, Tom; Chavez, Irwin; Borin, Khieu; Touch, Sok; Coker, Richard

    2013-10-04

    Human influenza infection poses a serious public health threat in Cambodia, a country at risk for the emergence and spread of novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Prior pandemics demonstrated the adverse impact of influenza on poor communities in developing countries. Investigation of healthcare resource distribution can inform decisions regarding resource mobilization and investment for pandemic mitigation. A health facility survey performed across Cambodia obtained data on availability of healthcare resources important for pandemic influenza response. Focusing on five key resources considered most necessary for treating severe influenza (inpatient beds, doctors, nurses, oseltamivir, and ventilators), resource distributions were analyzed at the Operational District (OD) and Province levels, refining data analysis from earlier studies. Resources were stratified by respondent type (hospital vs. District Health Office [DHO]). A summary index of distribution inequality was calculated using the Gini coefficient. Indices for local spatial autocorrelation were measured at the OD level using geographical information system (GIS) analysis. Finally, a potential link between socioeconomic status and resource distribution was explored by mapping resource densities against poverty rates. Gini coefficient calculation revealed variable inequality in distribution of the five key resources at the Province and OD levels. A greater percentage of the population resides in areas of relative under-supply (28.5%) than over-supply (21.3%). Areas with more resources per capita showed significant clustering in central Cambodia while areas with fewer resources clustered in the northern and western provinces. Hospital-based inpatient beds, doctors, and nurses were most heavily concentrated in areas of the country with the lowest poverty rates; however, beds and nurses in Non-Hospital Medical Facilities (NHMF) showed increasing concentrations at higher levels of poverty. There is

  5. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY09 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  6. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  7. Geographical data structures supporting regional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.G.; Durfee, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the computer has become a valuable aid in solving regional environmental problems. Over a hundred different geographic information systems have been developed to digitize, store, analyze, and display spatially distributed data. One important aspect of these systems is the data structure (e.g. grids, polygons, segments) used to model the environment being studied. This paper presents eight common geographic data structures and their use in studies of coal resources, power plant siting, population distributions, LANDSAT imagery analysis, and landuse analysis

  8. Integrative real-time geographic visualization of energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokine, A.; Shankar, M.; Stovall, J.; Bhaduri, B.; King, T.; Fernandez, S.; Datar, N.; Omitaomu, O.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' Several models forecast that climatic changes will increase the frequency of disastrous events like droughts, hurricanes, and snow storms. Responding to these events and also to power outages caused by system errors such as the 2003 North American blackout require an interconnect-wide real-time monitoring system for various energy resources. Such a system should be capable of providing situational awareness to its users in the government and energy utilities by dynamically visualizing the status of the elements of the energy grid infrastructure and supply chain in geographic contexts. We demonstrate an approach that relies on Google Earth and similar standard-based platforms as client-side geographic viewers with a data-dependent server component. The users of the system can view status information in spatial and temporal contexts. These data can be integrated with a wide range of geographic sources including all standard Google Earth layers and a large number of energy and environmental data feeds. In addition, we show a real-time spatio-temporal data sharing capability across the users of the system, novel methods for visualizing dynamic network data, and a fine-grain access to very large multi-resolution geographic datasets for faster delivery of the data. The system can be extended to integrate contingency analysis results and other grid models to assess recovery and repair scenarios in the case of major disruption. (author)

  9. A multipurpose computing center with distributed resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudoba, J.; Adam, M.; Adamová, D.; Kouba, T.; Mikula, A.; Říkal, V.; Švec, J.; Uhlířová, J.; Vokáč, P.; Svatoš, M.

    2017-10-01

    The Computing Center of the Institute of Physics (CC IoP) of the Czech Academy of Sciences serves a broad spectrum of users with various computing needs. It runs WLCG Tier-2 center for the ALICE and the ATLAS experiments; the same group of services is used by astroparticle physics projects the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) and the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). OSG stack is installed for the NOvA experiment. Other groups of users use directly local batch system. Storage capacity is distributed to several locations. DPM servers used by the ATLAS and the PAO are all in the same server room, but several xrootd servers for the ALICE experiment are operated in the Nuclear Physics Institute in Řež, about 10 km away. The storage capacity for the ATLAS and the PAO is extended by resources of the CESNET - the Czech National Grid Initiative representative. Those resources are in Plzen and Jihlava, more than 100 km away from the CC IoP. Both distant sites use a hierarchical storage solution based on disks and tapes. They installed one common dCache instance, which is published in the CC IoP BDII. ATLAS users can use these resources using the standard ATLAS tools in the same way as the local storage without noticing this geographical distribution. Computing clusters LUNA and EXMAG dedicated to users mostly from the Solid State Physics departments offer resources for parallel computing. They are part of the Czech NGI infrastructure MetaCentrum with distributed batch system based on torque with a custom scheduler. Clusters are installed remotely by the MetaCentrum team and a local contact helps only when needed. Users from IoP have exclusive access only to a part of these two clusters and take advantage of higher priorities on the rest (1500 cores in total), which can also be used by any user of the MetaCentrum. IoP researchers can also use distant resources located in several towns of the Czech Republic with a capacity of more than 12000 cores in total.

  10. Protection of Geographical Indication and Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Chinese Food Product Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhi-guo; WANG Shu-ting; XIONG Wan-zhen; HUANG Li-min

    2012-01-01

    The geographical Indications intellectual property and intangible cultural heritage are the general focus of attention of the world today. In the Chinese food product resources, there are 44 kinds of national geographical indication products, 41 national geographical indication trademarks, 9 kinds of national and 212 kinds of provincial-level intangible cultural heritage. This article introduces the geographical indication protection and geographical indication trademark registration of the Chinese food products, the protection of intangible cultural heritage of traditional craftsmanship; discusses the countermeasures for the protection of geographical indication intellectual property and intangible cultural heritage; finally puts forth several recommendations.

  11. Sharing Resources in Educational Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoush Margarayn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the implications of mobility within educational communities for sharing and reuse of educational resources. The study begins by exploring individuals’ existing strategies for sharing and reusing educational resources within localised and distributed communities, with particular emphasis on the impact of geographic location on these strategies. The results indicate that the geographic distribution of communities has little impact on individuals’ strategies for resource management, since many individuals are communicating via technology tools with colleagues within a localised setting. The study points to few major differences in the ways in which individuals within the localised and distributed communities store, share and collaborate around educational resources. Moving beyond the view of individuals being statically involved in one or two communities, mobility across communities, roles and geographic location are formulated and illustrated through eight scenarios. The effects of mobility across these scenarios are outlined and a framework for future research into mobility and resource sharing within communities discussed.

  12. Measuring Geographic Distribution of Economic Activity in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring Geographic Distribution of Economic Activity in Nigeria Using Gross Domestic Product. ... and environmental factors in planning. There is need for adequate understanding of spatial pattern and centrographic analysis of economic activity to support evidence based economic and regional development policies.

  13. Geographically distributed hybrid testing & collaboration between geotechnical centrifuge and structures laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaghi, Mobin; Martínez, Ignacio Lamata; Dietz, Matt S.; Williams, Martin S.; Blakeborough, Anthony; Crewe, Adam J.; Taylor, Colin A.; Madabhushi, S. P. Gopal; Haigh, Stuart K.

    2018-01-01

    Distributed Hybrid Testing (DHT) is an experimental technique designed to capitalise on advances in modern networking infrastructure to overcome traditional laboratory capacity limitations. By coupling the heterogeneous test apparatus and computational resources of geographically distributed laboratories, DHT provides the means to take on complex, multi-disciplinary challenges with new forms of communication and collaboration. To introduce the opportunity and practicability afforded by DHT, here an exemplar multi-site test is addressed in which a dedicated fibre network and suite of custom software is used to connect the geotechnical centrifuge at the University of Cambridge with a variety of structural dynamics loading apparatus at the University of Oxford and the University of Bristol. While centrifuge time-scaling prevents real-time rates of loading in this test, such experiments may be used to gain valuable insights into physical phenomena, test procedure and accuracy. These and other related experiments have led to the development of the real-time DHT technique and the creation of a flexible framework that aims to facilitate future distributed tests within the UK and beyond. As a further example, a real-time DHT experiment between structural labs using this framework for testing across the Internet is also presented.

  14. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY07 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  15. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  16. Supporting the Construction of Workflows for Biodiversity Problem-Solving Accessing Secure, Distributed Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Pahwa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Biodiversity World (BDW project we have created a flexible and extensible Web Services-based Grid environment for biodiversity researchers to solve problems in biodiversity and analyse biodiversity patterns. In this environment, heterogeneous and globally distributed biodiversity-related resources such as data sets and analytical tools are made available to be accessed and assembled by users into workflows to perform complex scientific experiments. One such experiment is bioclimatic modelling of the geographical distribution of individual species using climate variables in order to explain past and future climate-related changes in species distribution. Data sources and analytical tools required for such analysis of species distribution are widely dispersed, available on heterogeneous platforms, present data in different formats and lack inherent interoperability. The present BDW system brings all these disparate units together so that the user can combine tools with little thought as to their original availability, data formats and interoperability. The new prototype BDW system architecture not only brings together heterogeneous resources but also enables utilisation of computational resources and provides a secure access to BDW resources via a federated security model. We describe features of the new BDW system and its security model which enable user authentication from a workflow application as part of workflow execution.

  17. Geographic distribution of trauma centers and injury-related mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua B; Rosengart, Matthew R; Billiar, Timothy R; Peitzman, Andrew B; Sperry, Jason L

    2016-01-01

    Regionalized trauma care improves outcomes; however, access to care is not uniform across the United States. The objective was to evaluate whether geographic distribution of trauma centers correlates with injury mortality across state trauma systems. Level I or II trauma centers in the contiguous United States were mapped. State-level age-adjusted injury fatality rates per 100,000 people were obtained and evaluated for spatial autocorrelation. Nearest neighbor ratios (NNRs) were generated for each state. A NNR less than 1 indicates clustering, while a NNR greater than 1 indicates dispersion. NNRs were tested for difference from random geographic distribution. Fatality rates and NNRs were examined for correlation. Fatality rates were compared between states with trauma center clustering versus dispersion. Trauma center distribution and population density were evaluated. Spatial-lag regression determined the association between fatality rate and NNR, controlling for state-level demographics, population density, injury severity, trauma system resources, and socioeconomic factors. Fatality rates were spatially autocorrelated (Moran's I = 0.35, p center distribution. Fatality rate and NNR were correlated (ρ = 0.34, p = 0.03). Clustered states had a lower median injury fatality rate compared with dispersed states (56.9 [IQR, 46.5-58.9] vs. 64.9 [IQR, 52.5-77.1]; p = 0.04). Dispersed compared with clustered states had more counties without a trauma center that had higher population density than counties with a trauma center (5.7% vs. 1.2%, p distribution of trauma centers correlates with injury mortality, with more clustered state trauma centers associated with lower fatality rates. This may be a result of access relative to population density. These results may have implications for trauma system planning and require further study to investigate underlying mechanisms. Therapeutic/care management study, level IV.

  18. Geographic Distribution of Trauma Centers and Injury Related Mortality in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua B.; Rosengart, Matthew R.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Peitzman, Andrew B.; Sperry, Jason L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Regionalized trauma care improves outcomes; however access to care is not uniform across the US. The objective was to evaluate whether geographic distribution of trauma centers correlates with injury mortality across state trauma systems. Methods Level I/II trauma centers in the contiguous US were mapped. State-level age-adjusted injury fatality rates/100,000people were obtained and evaluated for spatial autocorrelation. Nearest neighbor ratios (NNR) were generated for each state. A NNR1 indicates dispersion. NNR were tested for difference from random geographic distribution. Fatality rates and NNR were examined for correlation. Fatality rates were compared between states with trauma center clustering versus dispersion. Trauma center distribution and population density were evaluated. Spatial-lag regression determined the association between fatality rate and NNR, controlling for state-level demographics, population density, injury severity, trauma system resources, and socioeconomic factors. Results Fatality rates were spatially autocorrelated (Moran's I=0.35, pcenter distribution. Fatality rate and NNR were correlated (ρ=0.34, p=0.03). Clustered states had a lower median injury fatality rate compared to dispersed states (56.9 [IQR 46.5–58.9] versus 64.9 [IQR 52.5–77.1], p=0.04). Dispersed compared to clustered states had more counties without a trauma center that had higher population density than counties with a trauma center (5.7% versus 1.2%, pdistribution of trauma centers correlates with injury mortality, with more clustered state trauma centers associated with lower fatality rates. This may be a result of access relative to population density. These results may have implications for trauma system planning and requires further study to investigate underlying mechanisms PMID:26517780

  19. Modelling the geographic distribution of wind power and the impact on transmission needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2003-01-01

    Through energy systems modelling, transmission systems modelling and geographical modelling, the article examines the sensitivity of the response of the transmission system to the geographic distributions of wind power and in particular the sensitivity of the results to the accuracy...... of the distributed modelled. The results show that accuracy of the geographic modelling while important for the analysis of specific single transmission lines is not important for the analysis of the general response of the transmission system. The analyses thus corroborate previous analyses that demonstrated...

  20. The Geographic Information Grid System Based on Mobile Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the deficiencies of current application systems, and discuss the key requirements of distributed Geographic Information service (GIS). We construct the distributed GIS on grid platform. Considering the flexibility and efficiency, we integrate the mobile agent technology into the system. We propose a new prototype system, the Geographic Information Grid System (GIGS) based on mobile agent. This system has flexible services and high performance, and improves the sharing of distributed resources. The service strategy of the system and the examples are also presented.

  1. Limited geographic distribution of the novel cyclovirus CyCV-VN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Van Tan; de Jong, Menno D; Nguyen, Van Kinh; Nguyen, Vu Trung; Taylor, Walter; Wertheim, Heiman F L; van der Ende, Arie; van der Hoek, Lia; Canuti, Marta; Crusat, Martin; Sona, Soeng; Nguyen, Hanh Uyen; Giri, Abhishek; Nguyen, Thi Thuy Chinh Bkrong; Ho, Dang Trung Nghia; Farrar, Jeremy; Bryant, Juliet E; Tran, Tinh Hien; Nguyen, Van Vinh Chau; van Doorn, H Rogier

    2014-02-05

    A novel cyclovirus, CyCV-VN, was recently identified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with central nervous system (CNS) infections in central and southern Vietnam. To explore the geographic distribution of this novel virus, more than 600 CSF specimens from patients with suspected CNS infections in northern Vietnam, Cambodia, Nepal and The Netherlands were screened for the presence of CyCV-VN but all were negative. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis between CyCV-VN and another novel cyclovirus recently identified in CSF from Malawian patients indicated that these represent distinct cycloviral species, albeit phylogenetically closely related. The data suggest that CyCV-VN has a limited geographic distribution within southern and central Vietnam. Further research is needed to determine the global distribution and diversity of cycloviruses and importantly their possible association with human disease.

  2. Spatially-explicit estimation of geographical representation in large-scale species distribution datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalwij, Jesse M; Robertson, Mark P; Ronk, Argo; Zobel, Martin; Pärtel, Meelis

    2014-01-01

    Much ecological research relies on existing multispecies distribution datasets. Such datasets, however, can vary considerably in quality, extent, resolution or taxonomic coverage. We provide a framework for a spatially-explicit evaluation of geographical representation within large-scale species distribution datasets, using the comparison of an occurrence atlas with a range atlas dataset as a working example. Specifically, we compared occurrence maps for 3773 taxa from the widely-used Atlas Florae Europaeae (AFE) with digitised range maps for 2049 taxa of the lesser-known Atlas of North European Vascular Plants. We calculated the level of agreement at a 50-km spatial resolution using average latitudinal and longitudinal species range, and area of occupancy. Agreement in species distribution was calculated and mapped using Jaccard similarity index and a reduced major axis (RMA) regression analysis of species richness between the entire atlases (5221 taxa in total) and between co-occurring species (601 taxa). We found no difference in distribution ranges or in the area of occupancy frequency distribution, indicating that atlases were sufficiently overlapping for a valid comparison. The similarity index map showed high levels of agreement for central, western, and northern Europe. The RMA regression confirmed that geographical representation of AFE was low in areas with a sparse data recording history (e.g., Russia, Belarus and the Ukraine). For co-occurring species in south-eastern Europe, however, the Atlas of North European Vascular Plants showed remarkably higher richness estimations. Geographical representation of atlas data can be much more heterogeneous than often assumed. Level of agreement between datasets can be used to evaluate geographical representation within datasets. Merging atlases into a single dataset is worthwhile in spite of methodological differences, and helps to fill gaps in our knowledge of species distribution ranges. Species distribution

  3. Geographical distribution and eco-adaptability of calligonum l. in tarim basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N.; Guan, K.; Feng, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Global climate fluctuations have profoundly affected the current distribution patterns and created opportunities and challenges for the survival and development of species. Studies on geographical distribution and eco-adaptability are necessary for both biodiversity conservation and sustainable biological resource utilization. In this study, we focus on five species of Calligonum in Tarim Basin, i.e. Calligonum roborovskii, C. kurlaense, C. yengisaricum, C. juochiangense and C. taklimakanense to confirm the distribution range by carrying out field population survey, along with the studies of herbarium specimen and relevant literature and also to find out the associations between the five species, distribution correlated with climate and soil characteristics through the mean variance analysis and principal component analysis. The results of the study were as follows: (1) C. roborovskii was widely distributed in Tarim Basin, but C. kurlaense, C. yengisaricum, C. juochiangense and C. taklimakanense have narrow distribution. The distribution areas of four latter species were overlapping with that of C. roborovskii showing sympatric distribution. (2) All the five species belonged to the warm and arid zone. The adaptability of C. roborovskii to moisture was higher, that of C. juochiangense and C. taklimakanense which grew in more arid areas than that of C. kurlaense and C. yengisaricum, had stronger drought tolerance. The soil type of the five species main was brown desert soil with high salinity, alkaline, and low content of organic matter in the top soil. (3) Low temperature, moisture factor, salinity and alkalinity were the main reasons leading to the different distribution of the four narrow distributed species. (4) The main factors limiting the distribution range of the five species were high temperature and moisture factor, followed by soil properties. For C. juochiangense and C. taklimakanense, moisture factor was much stronger than temperature. The results of the

  4. Application of a random walk model to geographic distributions of animal mitochondrial DNA variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neigel, J E; Avise, J C

    1993-12-01

    In rapidly evolving molecules, such as animal mitochondrial DNA, mutations that delineate specific lineages may not be dispersed at sufficient rates to attain an equilibrium between genetic drift and gene flow. Here we predict conditions that lead to nonequilibrium geographic distributions of mtDNA lineages, test the robustness of these predictions and examine mtDNA data sets for consistency with our model. Under a simple isolation by distance model, the variance of an mtDNA lineage's geographic distribution is expected be proportional to its age. Simulation results indicated that this relationship is fairly robust. Analysis of mtDNA data from natural populations revealed three qualitative distributional patterns: (1) significant departure of lineage structure from equilibrium geographic distributions, a pattern exhibited in three rodent species with limited dispersal; (2) nonsignificant departure from equilibrium expectations, exhibited by two avian and two marine fish species with potentials for relatively long-distance dispersal; and (3) a progression from nonequilibrium distributions for younger lineages to equilibrium distributions for older lineages, a condition displayed by one surveyed avian species. These results demonstrate the advantages of considering mutation and genealogy in the interpretation of mtDNA geographic variation.

  5. The geographic distribution patterns of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users in a national methadone maintenance treatment program in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Biao; Liang, Song; Wang, Qi-Xing; Gong, Yu-Han; Nie, Shi-Jiao; Nan, Lei; Yang, Ai-Hui; Liao, Qiang; Song, Xiu-Xia; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2014-03-10

    HIV-, HCV- and HIV/HCV co-infections among drug users have become a rapidly emerging global public health problem. In order to constrain the dual epidemics of HIV/AIDS and drug use, China has adopted a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) since 2004. Studies of the geographic heterogeneity of HIV and HCV infections at a local scale are sparse, which has critical implications for future MMTP implementation and health policies covering both HIV and HCV prevention among drug users in China. This study aimed to characterize geographic patterns of HIV and HCV prevalence at the township level among drug users in a Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Southwest of China. Data on demographic and clinical characteristics of all clients in the 11 MMTP clinics of the Yi Autonomous Prefecture from March 2004 to December 2012 were collected. A GIS-based geographic analysis involving geographic autocorrelation analysis and geographic scan statistics were employed to identify the geographic distribution pattern of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users. A total of 6690 MMTP clients was analyzed. The prevalence of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections were 25.2%, 30.8%, and 10.9% respectively. There were significant global and local geographic autocorrelations for HIV-, HCV-, and co-infection. The Moran's I was 0.3015, 0.3449, and 0.3155, respectively (P geographic autocorrelation analysis and the geographic scan statistical analysis showed that HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections in the prefecture exhibited significant geographic clustering at the township level. The geographic distribution pattern of each infection group was different. HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections among drug users in the Yi Autonomous Prefecture all exhibited substantial geographic heterogeneity at the township level. The geographic distribution patterns of the three groups were different. These findings imply that it may be necessary to inform or invent site-specific intervention strategies to better devote currently

  6. A Review on Applications of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS in Water Resources and Flood Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwei Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the most critical natural resources that maintain the ecosystem and support people’s daily life. Pressures on water resources and disaster management are rising primarily due to the unequal spatial and temporal distribution of water resources and pollution, and also partially due to our poor knowledge about the distribution of water resources and poor management of their usage. Remote sensing provides critical data for mapping water resources, measuring hydrological fluxes, monitoring drought and flooding inundation, while geographic information systems (GIS provide the best tools for water resources, drought and flood risk management. This special issue presents the best practices, cutting-edge technologies and applications of remote sensing, GIS and hydrological models for water resource mapping, satellite rainfall measurements, runoff simulation, water body and flood inundation mapping, and risk management. The latest technologies applied include 3D surface model analysis and visualization of glaciers, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV video image classification for turfgrass mapping and irrigation planning, ground penetration radar for soil moisture estimation, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM satellite rainfall measurements, storm hyetography analysis, rainfall runoff and urban flooding simulation, and satellite radar and optical image classification for urban water bodies and flooding inundation. The application of those technologies is expected to greatly relieve the pressures on water resources and allow better mitigation of and adaptation to the disastrous impact of droughts and flooding.

  7. Formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Korol

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Properties of geographical space that are of key importance for international tourism, as length and discreteness, are analyzed in the article. Length makes tourists cover distances, whereas discreteness manifests itself in spatial heterogeneity. Tourism in conditions of homogeneous space is vain. That is, heterogeneity brings sense to travels as well as determines their direction. So, the effect of geographical space’s length and spatial heterogeneity on formation and distribution of tourism flows is assessed, international tourism’s geographical essence is disclosed also. Apperception of geographical space in usual environment and its effect on tourist’s original motives are described. Following the bases of behaviorism, the tourism original motives, in particular those for migration, comfort, contrast and aesthetics are substantiated. The motive for migration is a kind of “pushing” tourists outside their usual environment. To stop all fears that may cause anxiety in destination, the latter should guarantee satisfaction of those human needs which A. Maslow refers to as basic needs. The necessity to satisfy these needs forms in tourists the motive for comfort. Closely located destinations in neighboring countries can be of little difference form usual environment. Driven by the motive for contrast, tourists aspire to visit places that totally differ from their usual environment, and contrast (are exotic to it. Thus, the motive for contrast seemingly “pulls” the tourists up to certain (exotic destinations. Finally, following the considered spatial specificities of land surface and tourist-driving original motives, a conceptual model of formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space is developed.

  8. Reptiles of Chubut province, Argentina: richness, diversity, conservation status and geographic distribution maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoli, Ignacio; Morando, Mariana; Avila, Luciano Javier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An accurate estimation of species and population geographic ranges is essential for species-focused studies and conservation and management plans. Knowledge of the geographic distributions of reptiles from Patagonian Argentina is in general limited and dispersed over manuscripts from a wide variety of topics. We completed an extensive review of reptile species of central Patagonia (Argentina) based on information from a wide variety of sources. We compiled and checked geographic distribution records from published literature and museum records, including extensive new data from the LJAMM-CNP (CENPAT-CONICET) herpetological collection. Our results show that there are 52 taxa recorded for this region and the highest species richness was seen in the families Liolaemidae and Dipsadidae with 31 and 10 species, respectively. The Patagónica was the phytogeographic province most diverse in species and Phymaturus was the genus of conservation concern most strongly associated with it. We present a detailed species list with geographical information, richness species, diversity analyses with comparisons across phytogeographical provinces, conservation status, taxonomic comments and distribution maps for all of these taxa. PMID:25931966

  9. Epidemiology and geographical distribution of enteric protozoan infections in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Fletcher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Enteric protozoa are associated with diarrhoeal illnesses in humans; however there are no recent studies on their epidemiology and geographical distribution in Australia. This study describes the epidemiology of enteric protozoa in the state of New South Wales and incorporates spatial analysis to describe their distribution. Design and methods. Laboratory and clinical records from four public hospitals in Sydney for 910 patients, who tested positive for enteric protozoa over the period January 2007-December 2010, were identified, examined and analysed. We selected 580 cases which had residence post code data available, enabling us to examine the geographic distribution of patients, and reviewed the clinical data of 252 patients to examine possible links between protozoa, demographic and clinical features. Results. Frequently detected protozoa were Blastocystis spp. (57%, Giardia intestinalis (27% and Dientamoeba fragilis (12%. The age distribution showed that the prevalence of protozoa decreased with age up to 24 years but increasing with age from 25 years onwards. The geographic provenance of the patients indicates that the majority of cases of Blastocystis (53.1% are clustered in and around the Sydney City Business District, while pockets of giardiasis were identified in regional/rural areas. The distribution of cases suggests higher risk of protozoan infection may exist for some communities. Conclusions. These findings provide useful information for policy makers to design and tailor interventions to target high risk communities. Follow-up investigation into the risk factors for giardiasis in regional/rural area is needed.

  10. GIDEON: a comprehensive Web-based resource for geographic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Stephen A

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract GIDEON (Global Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Network is a web-based computer program designed for decision support and informatics in the field of Geographic Medicine. The first of four interactive modules generates a ranked differential diagnosis based on patient signs, symptoms, exposure history and country of disease acquisition. Additional options include syndromic disease surveillance capability and simulation of bioterrorism scenarios. The second module accesses detailed and current information regarding the status of 338 individual diseases in each of 220 countries. Over 50,000 disease images, maps and user-designed graphs may be downloaded for use in teaching and preparation of written materials. The third module is a comprehensive source on the use of 328 anti-infective drugs and vaccines, including a listing of over 9,500 international trade names. The fourth module can be used to characterize or identify any bacterium or yeast, based on laboratory phenotype. GIDEON is an up-to-date and comprehensive resource for Geographic Medicine.

  11. [Geographic distribution of supportive care for disabled young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgarel, Sophie; Piteau-Delord, Monique

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the logic for the distribution of home care services for disabled children (SESSAD) in a context of under-equipment. Questionnaire-based survey of 75 units (82% of the region's SESSAD units) concerning patient transport. Equipment and transport mapping. Support units for disabled children are often set up in the housing facilities that contributed to their creation. These sites are sometimes situated a long way from densely populated regions, thereby generating unnecessary travel times and expenses. Chronic under-equipment makes these sites viable, as the various units are always full, despite their distance from the children for whom they provide support. Mapping illustrates the extensive recruitment zones overlapping several units managing similar patients. The major revision of accreditation of these units, planned for 2017, could lead to redefinition of geographical zones of accreditations. New unit opening procedures based on ARS calls for tenders may help to improve the geographical distribution of this supportive care.

  12. Reallocating risks and returns to scale up adoption of distributed electricity resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulatilaka, Nalin; Santiago, Leonardo; Vakili, Pirooz

    2014-01-01

    Deployment of distributed electricity resources requires bringing together assets that belong to diverse and geographically diffuse owners. Using the example of distributed solar PV, we analyze the schemes used to encourage/induce owners of distributed assets to make them available for electricity generation. The dominant model in the U.S. is long term power purchase agreements (PPA) offered to owners/consumers by solar developers. We show that these agreements (mis)allocate the electricity price risk to owners/consumers and impose limitations on the scale up of distributed solar. By proper use of financial markets it is possible to shift the electricity price risk from owners/consumers to parties that are better positioned to manage it. The proposed contracts simplify the adoption decision for owners/consumers and can lead to a wider adoption. Removing barriers to scale up requires (i) eliminating the tight coupling between consumers and owners and (ii) rewarding the owners unambiguously for the assets they provide. These necessitate the transformation of the current intermediary firms into full-fledged distributed generators. We discuss the implications of such a transformation and argue that the broad outline of our analysis can be used to assess scale up schemes in other domains of distributed electricity resources as well. - Highlights: • We analyze schemes used to induce owners of distributed assets to make them available for electricity generation. • We show that power purchase agreements used in solar PV “misallocate” electricity price risk to owners/consumers. • We propose new contracts forms that shift price risk from consumers to parties that are better able to manage it. • Full-fledged distributed generators are created by unambiguously rewarding owners and de-coupling consumption/ownership. • We argue that our analysis can be used to assess scale up schemes in other domains of distributed electricity resources

  13. Geographic information system in marine biology: Way for sustainable utilization of living resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Sreepada, R.A.

    Sustainable utilization of aquatic living resources needs accurate assessment. This stress the need for use of Geographic Information System (GIS). In the recent past interest has been generated for use of GIS in various areas of biological...

  14. FEATURES OF THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF TERRESTRIAL MOLLUSCS IN THE CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Magomedova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. High population, high proliferation rates, a large species diversity, low mobility and small ability to overcome geographic barriers, ease of collecting material and sensitive response to changes in the external environment makes this group a convenient object of biogeographic and ecological research. Methods. The inventory of Caucasian ground malacofauna made it possible to make a complete list of species; their characteristics were determined by the geographical distribution of major natural regions of the Caucasus. Results. The comparative analysis of the geographical distribution of terrestrial molluscs on key areas of the Caucasus showed that among the 352 species belonging to 140 genera of 36 families, most richly represented Western Caucasus, which accounts for 51% or 181 species from 80 genera of 20 families, while the share of Armenian, Eastern and Central Caucasus accounts for 35-37%. Talysh, in turn, is characterized by the presence of only 11% of the species composition of the Caucasian land mollusc. Caucasus limited in distribution among the analyzed species is 72% or 255 species belonging to 104 genera of 24 families. Conclusion. The results prove the species diversity of the different regions of theCaucasus and could serve as the basis to reconsider the possible ways of formation of fauna of the region discussed. 

  15. Modelling grid losses and the geographic distribution of electricity generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    In Denmark more than 40% of the electricity consumption is covered by geographically scattered electricity sources namely wind power and local CHP (cogeneration of heat and power) plants. This causes problems in regard to load balancing and possible grid overloads. The potential grid problems...... and methods for solving these are analysed in this article on the basis of energy systems analyses, geographic distribution of consumption and production and grid load-flow analyses. It is concluded that by introducing scattered load balancing using local CHP plants actively and using interruptible loads...

  16. Distributed energy resources scheduling considering real-time resources forecast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, M.; Sousa, T.; Ramos, S.

    2014-01-01

    grids and considering day-ahead, hour-ahead and realtime time horizons. This method considers that energy resources are managed by a VPP which establishes contracts with their owners. The full AC power flow calculation included in the model takes into account network constraints. In this paper......, distribution function errors are used to simulate variations between time horizons, and to measure the performance of the proposed methodology. A 33-bus distribution network with large number of distributed resources is used....

  17. [Projection of potential geographic distribution of Apocynum venetum under climate change in northern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Feng; Zheng, Jiang-Hua; Jia, Xiao-Guang; Li, Xiao-Jin

    2017-03-01

    Apocynum venetum belongs to apocynaceae and is a perennial medicinal plant, its stem is an important textile raw materials. The projection of potential geographic distribution of A. venetum has an important significance for the protection and sustainable utilization of the plant. This study was conducted to determine the potential geographic distribution of A. venetum and to project how climate change would affect its geographic distribution. The projection geographic distribution of A. venetum under current bioclimatic conditions in northern China was simulated using MaxEnt software based on species presence data at 44 locations and 19 bioclimatic parameters. The future distributions of A. venetum were also projected in 2050 and 2070 under the climate change scenarios of RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 described in 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The result showed that min air temperature of the coldest month, annual mean air temperature, precipitation of the coldest quarter and mean air temperature of the wettest quarter dominated the geographic distribution of A. venetum. Under current climate, the suitable habitats of A. venetum is 11.94% in China, the suitable habitats are mainly located in the middle of Xinjiang, in the northern part of Gansu, in the southern part of Neimeng, in the northern part of Ningxia, in the middle and northern part of Shaanxi, in the southern part of Shanxi, in the middle and northern part of Henan, in the middle and southern part of Hebei, Shandong, Tianjin, in the southern part of Liaoning and part of Beijing. From 2050 to 2070, the model outputs indicated that the suitable habitats of A. venetum would decrease under the climate change scenarios of RCP2.6 and RCP8.5. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Analysis Of Educational Services Distribution-Based Geographic Information System GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Lagrab

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzes the spatial distribution of kindergarten facilities in the study area based on the Geographic Information Systems GIS in order to test an efficiency of GIS technology to redistribute the existing kindergarten and choose the best location in the future and applying the standard criteria for selecting the suitable locations for kindergarten. To achieve this goal the data and information are collected via interviews and comprehensive statistics on the education facilities in Mukalla districts in YEMEN which contributed to building a geographic database for the study area. After that the Kindergarten spatial patterns are analyzed in terms of proximity to each other and used near some other land in the surrounding area such as streets highways factories etc. Also measures the concentration dispersion clustering and distribution direction for the kindergarten this study showed the effectiveness of the GIS for spatial data analysis. One of the most important finding that most of the Kindergarten was established in Mukalla city did not take into account the criteria that set by the authorities. Furthermore almost district suffers from a shortage in the number of kindergarten and pattern of distribution of those kindergartens dominated by spatial dispersed.

  19. Advanced Distribution Network Modelling with Distributed Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Alison

    The addition of new distributed energy resources, such as electric vehicles, photovoltaics, and storage, to low voltage distribution networks means that these networks will undergo major changes in the future. Traditionally, distribution systems would have been a passive part of the wider power system, delivering electricity to the customer and not needing much control or management. However, the introduction of these new technologies may cause unforeseen issues for distribution networks, due to the fact that they were not considered when the networks were originally designed. This thesis examines different types of technologies that may begin to emerge on distribution systems, as well as the resulting challenges that they may impose. Three-phase models of distribution networks are developed and subsequently utilised as test cases. Various management strategies are devised for the purposes of controlling distributed resources from a distribution network perspective. The aim of the management strategies is to mitigate those issues that distributed resources may cause, while also keeping customers' preferences in mind. A rolling optimisation formulation is proposed as an operational tool which can manage distributed resources, while also accounting for the uncertainties that these resources may present. Network sensitivities for a particular feeder are extracted from a three-phase load flow methodology and incorporated into an optimisation. Electric vehicles are the focus of the work, although the method could be applied to other types of resources. The aim is to minimise the cost of electric vehicle charging over a 24-hour time horizon by controlling the charge rates and timings of the vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage that controlled EV charging can have over an uncontrolled case, as well as the benefits provided by the rolling formulation and updated inputs in terms of cost and energy delivered to customers. Building upon the rolling optimisation, a

  20. Limited geographic distribution of the novel cyclovirus CyCV-VN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Van Tan; de Jong, Menno D.; Nguyen, Van Kinh; Nguyen, Vu Trung; Taylor, Walter; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.; van der Ende, Arie; van der Hoek, Lia; Canuti, Marta; Crusat, Martin; Sona, Soeng; Nguyen, Hanh Uyen; Giri, Abhishek; Nguyen, Thi Thuy Chinh Bkrong; Ho, Dang Trung Nghia; Farrar, Jeremy; Bryant, Juliet E.; Tran, Tinh Hien; Nguyen, Van Vinh Chau; van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2014-01-01

    A novel cyclovirus, CyCV-VN, was recently identified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with central nervous system (CNS) infections in central and southern Vietnam. To explore the geographic distribution of this novel virus, more than 600 CSF specimens from patients with suspected CNS

  1. Predicting geographically distributed adult dental decay in the greater Auckland region of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C M; Kruger, E; Whyman, R; Tennant, M

    2014-06-01

    To model the geographic distribution of current (and treated) dental decay on a high-resolution geographic basis for the Auckland region of New Zealand. The application of matrix-based mathematics to modelling adult dental disease-based on known population risk profiles to provide a detailed map of the dental caries distribution for the greater Auckland region. Of the 29 million teeth in adults in the region some 1.2 million (4%) are suffering decay whilst 7.2 million (25%) have previously suffered decay and are now restored. The model provides a high-resolution picture of where the disease burden lies geographically and presents to health planners a method for developing future service plans.

  2. Discovery of resources using MADM approaches for parallel and distributed computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Kaur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Grid, a form of parallel and distributed computing, allows the sharing of data and computational resources among its users from various geographical locations. The grid resources are diverse in terms of their underlying attributes. The majority of the state-of-the-art resource discovery techniques rely on the static resource attributes during resource selection. However, the matching resources based on the static resource attributes may not be the most appropriate resources for the execution of user applications because they may have heavy job loads, less storage space or less working memory (RAM. Hence, there is a need to consider the current state of the resources in order to find the most suitable resources. In this paper, we have proposed a two-phased multi-attribute decision making (MADM approach for discovery of grid resources by using P2P formalism. The proposed approach considers multiple resource attributes for decision making of resource selection and provides the best suitable resource(s to grid users. The first phase describes a mechanism to discover all matching resources and applies SAW method to shortlist the top ranked resources, which are communicated to the requesting super-peer. The second phase of our proposed methodology applies integrated MADM approach (AHP enriched PROMETHEE-II on the list of selected resources received from different super-peers. The pairwise comparison of the resources with respect to their attributes is made and the rank of each resource is determined. The top ranked resource is then communicated to the grid user by the grid scheduler. Our proposed methodology enables the grid scheduler to allocate the most suitable resource to the user application and also reduces the search complexity by filtering out the less suitable resources during resource discovery.

  3. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  4. Summer Steelhead Distribution [ds341

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Summer Steelhead Distribution October 2009 Version This dataset depicts observation-based stream-level geographic distribution of anadromous summer-run steelhead...

  5. Inorganic chemical quality of European tap-water: 2. Geographical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flem, B.; Reimann, C.; Birke, M.; Banks, D.; Filzmoser, P.; Frengstad, B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • European scale comparison of tap water. • 579 tap water samples have been analyses for more than 60 parameters. • Chemical geographical distribution. • Water treatment processes. • Importance of geology on tap water quality. - Abstract: 579 tap water samples were collected at the European scale and analysed at a single laboratory for more than 60 parameters. This dataset is analysed here in terms of the spatial and national distribution of the analysed inorganic chemical parameters. The distribution of most parameters is controlled by various artificial and natural factors (land use, distribution network, water source and treatment, geographical location and geology). The distribution of nitrate can be interpreted in terms of land use and climate. Water treatment affects the distribution of phosphorus in tap water; especially the policy of adding phosphate to potable water in the UK to suppress plumbosolvency. The distribution of alkalinity, Ca, Mg, Sr and Li appears to reflect both water source (low in surface waters) and the geological contrast between base-poor crystalline rock terrains and carbonate rich sedimentary rock. The Scandinavian nations’ tap water shows the highest concentrations of most of the rare earth elements, probably reflecting their geological availability and mobility in low pH raw water sources. The distribution of fluoride, uranium and arsenic also appear to exhibit geological and source (groundwater versus surface water) controls. Hungary returns several high As results, which may reflect As-rich reducing groundwaters of the Pannonian basin. Much Estonian tap water reflects a very specific hydrochemical environment, namely Palaeozoic near-coastal aquifers, which yield deep, reducing or saline groundwater (possibly influenced by marine intrusion), enriched in Ba, B, Br − , Cl − , Eu, F − , I, Li, K, Mn and Na

  6. The pollutants from livestock and poultry farming in China-geographic distribution and drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ling; Hu, Xisheng

    2016-05-01

    Livestock and poultry farming is a major source of agricultural pollution. However, our knowledge of the constraining factors of the geographic distribution of pollutants from livestock and poultry farming is still limited. In this study, using the optimized pollutant generation coefficients, we estimated the annual pollutant productions of eight livestock and poultry species at the provincial level in 2005 and 2013 and their growth rates during the study period in China; using canonical correlation analysis, we also explored the association between the eight pollutant measurements as dependent variables and 14 factors (including resource endowment, developmental level, and economic structure factors) as independent variables. Results indicate that there exist spatial disparity in the distribution of pollutants from livestock and poultry farming across regions, with provinces in the Huang-Huai-Hai region and the southwestern region accounting for approximately 50 % of the total productions in the nation. Cattle, pig, and poultry constitute the primary pollution sources in terms of livestock and poultry farming not only at the national level but also at the province level. While the species constitute and their respective growth rates of the pollutants can be also characterized by spatial disparity across regions, canonical correlation analysis shows that the observed regional patterns of the pollutants can be largely explained by the resource endowment factors (positive effects) and the developmental level factors (negative effects). In addition, we found that the development of livestock and poultry farming is negatively associated with the growing rate of both the resource endowment and the socioeconomic factors. This indicates that there exist different driving patterns in the gross and increment of the pollutant productions. Our research has significant implications for the appropriate environmental protection policy formulation and implementation in livestock

  7. Utilitarianism and the disabled: distribution of resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mark S

    2002-02-01

    Utilitarianism is more convincing than resource egalitarianism or welfare egalitarianism as a theory of how resources should be distributed between disabled people and nondisabled people. Unlike resource egalitarianism, utilitarianism can redistribute resources to the disabled when they would benefit more from those resources than nondisabled people. Unlike welfare egalitarianism, utilitarianism can halt redistribution when the disabled would no longer benefit more than the nondisabled from additional resources. The author considers one objection to this view: it has been argued, by Sen and others, that there are circumstances under which utilitarianism would unfairly distribute fewer resources to the physically disabled than to nondisabled people, on the ground that the disabled would derive less benefit from those resources. In response, the author claims that critics of utilitarianism have fallaciously exaggerated the circumstances under which the disabled would benefit less than the nondisabled from additional resources. In those limited circumstances in which the disabled really would benefit less from resources, the author argues, it does not seem unfair to distribute fewer resources to them.

  8. Spatial Integration Analysis of Provincial Historical and Cultural Heritage Resources Based on Geographic Information System (gis) — a Case Study of Spatial Integration Analysis of Historical and Cultural Heritage Resources in Zhejiang Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, W.; Zhang, J.; Wu, Q.; Chen, J.; Huo, X.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, T.

    2017-08-01

    In China historical and cultural heritage resources include historically and culturally famous cities, towns, villages, blocks, immovable cultural relics and the scenic spots with cultural connotation. The spatial distribution laws of these resources are always directly connected to the regional physical geography, historical development and historical traffic geography and have high research values. Meanwhile, the exhibition and use of these resources are greatly influenced by traffic and tourism and other plans at the provincial level, and it is of great realistic significance to offer proposals on traffic and so on that are beneficial to the exhibition of heritage resources based on the research of province distribution laws. This paper takes the spatial analysis of Geographic Information System (GIS) as the basic technological means and all historical and cultural resources in China's Zhejiang Province as research objects, and finds out in the space the accumulation areas and accumulation belts of Zhejiang Province's historic cities and cultural resources through overlay analysis and density analysis, etc. It then discusses the reasons of the formation of these accumulation areas and accumulation belts by combining with the analysis of physical geography and historical geography and so on, and in the end, linking the tourism planning and traffic planning at the provincial level, it provides suggestions on the exhibition and use of accumulation areas and accumulation belts of historic cities and cultural resources.

  9. Interaction of landscape varibles on the potential geographical distribution of parrots in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plasencia–Vázquez, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The loss, degradation, and fragmentation of forested areas are endangering parrot populations. In this study, we determined the influence of fragmentation in relation to vegetation cover, land use, and spatial configuration of fragments on the potential geographical distribution patterns of parrots in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We used the potential geographical distribution for eight parrot species, considering the recently published maps obtained with the maximum entropy algorithm, and we incorporated the probability distribution for each species. We calculated 71 metrics/variables that evaluate forest fragmentation, spatial configuration of fragments, the ratio occupied by vegetation, and the land use in 100 plots of approximately 29 km², randomly distributed within the presence and absence areas predicted for each species. We also considered the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution probability of species. We used a partial least squares regression to explore patterns between the variables used and the potential distribution models. None of the environmental variables analyzed alone determined the presence/absence or the probability distribution of parrots in the Peninsula. We found that for the eight species, either due to the presence/absence or the probability distribution, the most important explanatory variables were the interaction among three variables, particularly the interactions among the total forest area, the total edge, and the tropical semi–evergreen medium– height forest. Habitat fragmentation influenced the potential geographical distribution of these species in terms of the characteristics of other environmental factors that are expressed together with the geographical division, such as the different vegetation cover ratio and land uses in deforested areas.

  10. Geographical Distribution of Taenia asiatica and Related Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-01-01

    Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Korean foundations for parasite control activities (1995-2009) in developing countries. PMID:19885327

  11. The Geographical Aspect of Flexibility in Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2015-01-01

    , the reason for this is that flexibility is a multidimensional commodity. It can be associated with a unit or a system, a time-frame and a time-horizon of measuring it, its power magnitude and ramp rate, its energy shifting capability, its location and several other features. In this paper, the locational...... aggregation taking into account the distribution grid's radial structure. By aggregating the flexibility in this manner, different geographical points for offering it are defined. Through an illustrative market scenario, it is demonstrated how utilities might profit from their local flexibility by assisting...

  12. Geographic distributions and ecology of ornamental Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) in Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumkratok, Sutthira; Boongtiang, Kriangsuk; Chutichudet, Prasit; Pramaul, Pairot

    2012-10-01

    The genus Curcuma is a very important economic plant. Members of this genus were used as food, medicine and ornament plants. The objectives of this study were to examine the geographic distributions and ecological conditions in the natural habitats of Curcuma in Northeastern Thailand. Species diversity was examined using the line transect method. Ecological conditions of the species were examined using a sampling plot of 20 x 20 m. A total of five species were found including Curcuma angustifolia Roxb., C. alismatifolia Gagnep., C. gracillima Gagnep., C. parviflora Wall. and C. rhabdota. These species were in an altitudinal range between 290 m and 831 m above sea level. Four species (C. angustifolia, C. alismatifolia, C. gracillima and C. rhabdota) were distributed in open gaps in dry dipterocarp forest. One species, C. parviflora was found in the contact zone between dry dipterocarp and bamboo (Gigantochloa sp.) forest. C. rhabdota was found only in a habitat with high humidity and shading along the Thailand-Lao PDR border. Significant ecological conditions of the natural habitats of these Curcuma species were identified. Altitude is the most important factor when determining the geographic distributions of these Curcuma species in Northeastern Thailand.

  13. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveda-Rodríguez, Adrián; Vargas, Félix Hernán; Kohn, Sebastián; Zapata-Ríos, Galo

    2016-01-01

    The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA) for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation.

  14. The geographical distribution and burden of trachoma in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Smith

    Full Text Available There remains a lack of epidemiological data on the geographical distribution of trachoma to support global mapping and scale up of interventions for the elimination of trachoma. The Global Atlas of Trachoma (GAT was launched in 2011 to address these needs and provide standardised, updated and accessible maps. This paper uses data included in the GAT to describe the geographical distribution and burden of trachoma in Africa.Data assembly used structured searches of published and unpublished literature to identify cross-sectional epidemiological data on the burden of trachoma since 1980. Survey data were abstracted into a standardised database and mapped using geographical information systems (GIS software. The characteristics of all surveys were summarized by country according to data source, time period, and survey methodology. Estimates of the current population at risk were calculated for each country and stratified by endemicity class.At the time of writing, 1342 records are included in the database representing surveys conducted between 1985 and 2012. These data were provided by direct contact with national control programmes and academic researchers (67%, peer-reviewed publications (17% and unpublished reports or theses (16%. Prevalence data on active trachoma are available in 29 of the 33 countries in Africa classified as endemic for trachoma, and 1095 (20.6% districts have representative data collected through population-based prevalence surveys. The highest prevalence of active trachoma and trichiasis remains in the Sahel area of West Africa and Savannah areas of East and Central Africa and an estimated 129.4 million people live in areas of Africa confirmed to be trachoma endemic.The Global Atlas of Trachoma provides the most contemporary and comprehensive summary of the burden of trachoma within Africa. The GAT highlights where future mapping is required and provides an important planning tool for scale-up and surveillance of trachoma

  15. Optimal resource allocation for distributed video communication

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yifeng

    2013-01-01

    While most books on the subject focus on resource allocation in just one type of network, this book is the first to examine the common characteristics of multiple distributed video communication systems. Comprehensive and systematic, Optimal Resource Allocation for Distributed Video Communication presents a unified optimization framework for resource allocation across these systems. The book examines the techniques required for optimal resource allocation over Internet, wireless cellular networks, wireless ad hoc networks, and wireless sensor networks. It provides you with the required foundat

  16. [Potential distribution and geographic characteristics of wild populations of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae) Oaxaca, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Ruiz, Jesús; Herrera-Cabrera, B Edgar; Delgado-Alvarado, Adriana; Salazar-Rojas, Víctor M; Bustamante-Gonzalez, Ángel; Campos-Contreras, Jorge E; Ramírez-Juarez, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Wild specimens of Vanilla planifolia represent a vital part of this resource primary gene pool, and some plants have only been reported in Oaxaca, Mexico. For this reason, we studied its geographical distribution within the state, to locate and describe the ecological characteristics of the areas where they have been found, in order to identify potential areas of establishment. The method comprised four stages: 1) the creation of a database with herbarium records, 2) the construction of the potential distribution based on historical herbarium records for the species, using the model of maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and 22 bioclimatic variables as predictors; 3) an in situ systematic search of individuals, based on herbarium records and areas of potential distribution in 24 municipalities, to determine the habitat current situation and distribution; 4) the description of the environmental factors of potential ecological niches generated by MaxEnt. A review of herbarium collections revealed a total of 18 records of V. planifolia between 1939 and 1998. The systematic search located 28 plants distributed in 12 sites in 95 364 Km(2). The most important variables that determined the model of vanilla potential distribution were: precipitation in the rainy season (61.9 %), soil moisture regime (23.4 %) and precipitation during the four months of highest rainfall (8.1 %). The species potential habitat was found to be distributed in four zones: wet tropics of the Gulf of Mexico, humid temperate, humid tropical, and humid temperate in the Pacific. Precipitation oscillated within the annual ranges of 2 500 to 4 000 mm, with summer rains, and winter precipitation as 5 to 10 % of the total. The moisture regime and predominating climate were udic type I (330 to 365 days of moisture) and hot humid (Am/A(C) m). The plants were located at altitudes of 200 to 1 190 masl, on rough hillsides that generally make up the foothills of mountain systems, with altitudes of 1 300 to 2 500 masl. In

  17. PlanetLab Europe as Geographically-Distributed Testbed for Software Development and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Komosny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse the use of PlanetLab Europe for development and evaluation of geographically-oriented Internet services. PlanetLab is a global research network with the main purpose to support development of new Internet services and protocols. PlanetLab is divided into several branches; one of them is PlanetLab Europe. PlanetLab Europe consists of about 350 nodes at 150 geographically different sites. The nodes are accessible by remote login, and the users can run their software on the nodes. In the paper, we study the PlanetLab's properties that are significant for its use as a geographically distributed testbed. This includes node position accuracy, services availability and stability. We find a considerable number of location inaccuracies and a number of services that cannot be considered as reliable. Based on the results we propose a simple approach to nodes selection in testbeds for geographically-oriented Internet services development and evaluation.

  18. Efficient workload management in geographically distributed data centers leveraging autoregressive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, Albino; Cesario, Eugenio; Mastroianni, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The opportunity of using Cloud resources on a pay-as-you-go basis and the availability of powerful data centers and high bandwidth connections are speeding up the success and popularity of Cloud systems, which is making on-demand computing a common practice for enterprises and scientific communities. The reasons for this success include natural business distribution, the need for high availability and disaster tolerance, the sheer size of their computational infrastructure, and/or the desire to provide uniform access times to the infrastructure from widely distributed client sites. Nevertheless, the expansion of large data centers is resulting in a huge rise of electrical power consumed by hardware facilities and cooling systems. The geographical distribution of data centers is becoming an opportunity: the variability of electricity prices, environmental conditions and client requests, both from site to site and with time, makes it possible to intelligently and dynamically (re)distribute the computational workload and achieve as diverse business goals as: the reduction of costs, energy consumption and carbon emissions, the satisfaction of performance constraints, the adherence to Service Level Agreement established with users, etc. This paper proposes an approach that helps to achieve the business goals established by the data center administrators. The workload distribution is driven by a fitness function, evaluated for each data center, which weighs some key parameters related to business objectives, among which, the price of electricity, the carbon emission rate, the balance of load among the data centers etc. For example, the energy costs can be reduced by using a "follow the moon" approach, e.g. by migrating the workload to data centers where the price of electricity is lower at that time. Our approach uses data about historical usage of the data centers and data about environmental conditions to predict, with the help of regressive models, the values of the

  19. How to spend it: Resource wealth and the distribution of resource rents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Natural resource revenues differ from other government revenues both in their time profile, and in their political and legal status: they are volatile and exhaustible, and belong to all citizens of the country in which they are located. This paper discusses the theory of natural resource revenues and examines expenditure practices in a range of resource-rich countries. It considers both the distributional impact and the efficiency of expenditure policies, focusing on the extent to which they succeed in providing all citizens with their share of the benefits due to natural resources. - Highlights: ► We examine the relationship between resource rents and government resource revenues. ► We discuss the intertemporal management of resource revenues in theory and in practice. ► We critically examine existing policies for distributing resource revenues to populations.

  20. [New findings on the geographic distribution of the verrucarum group (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Eduar Elías; Sierra, Diana; Vélez, Iván Darío

    2003-09-01

    The incrimination of sand flies belonging to verrucarum species group in the leishmaniasis transmission underscores the need for a detailed information on the geographical distribution of these species. The current listing adds 34 new records that extend significantly the knowledge of the geographical distribution of the verrucarum group in Colombia. The most important new records pertain to Lutzomyia spinicrassa in the tropical dry forest of the Atlantic coast, Lutzomyia ovallesi in the Orinoco and Amazon River watersheds regions of Colombia, and the sympatric occurrence of Lutzomyia spinicrassa and Lutzomyia quasitownsendi in the eastern chain of the Andes mountains. Additionally, the municipal and altitudinal distributions are compiled for 19 new species recorded for Colombia. The series townsendi of the verrucarum group generally restricted to premontane and lower montane zones based on distribution data on Lutzomyia longiflocosa, L. quasitownsendi, Lutzomyia sauroida, L. spinicrassa, Lutzomyia torvida, Lutzomyia townsendi and Lutzomyia youngi. The series verrucarum is distributed from the tropical lowland to the montane zones, and includes species with wide geographical range (Lutzomyia evansi, Lutzomyia columbiana, L. ovallesi, Lutzomyia nuneztovari, Lutzomyia nevesi), and species of highly endemic distribution (Lutzomyia andina, Lutzomyia disiuncta, Lutzomyia moralesi, Lutzomyia antioquiensis). Members of the series pia (Lutzomyia pia, Lutzomyia limafalcaoae) and the series serrana (Lutzomyia serrana) occur from the tropical lowlands to the lower montane zones. The altitudinal divergences may be intrinsically tied to speciation process, especially as it relates to the climatic and geologic events that have affected the flora and fauna of the Andean region.

  1. The geographical vector in distribution of genetic diversity for Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodovnik, Daria A; Tatonova, Yulia V; Burkovskaya, Polina V

    2018-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis, the causative agent of clonorchiasis, is one of the most important parasites that inhabit countries of East and Southeast Asia. In this study, we validated the existence of a geographical vector for C. sinensis using the partial cox1 mtDNA gene, which includes a conserved region. The samples of parasite were divided into groups corresponding to three river basins, and the size of the conserved region had a strong tendency to increase from the northernmost to the southernmost samples. This indicates the availability of the geographical vector in distribution of genetic diversity. A vector is a quantity that is characterized by magnitude and direction. Geographical vector obtained in cox1 gene of C. sinensis has both these features. The reasons for the occurrence of this feature, including the influence of intermediate and definitive hosts on vector formation, and the possibility of its use for clonorchiasis monitoring are discussed. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  2. Geographic Analysis of the Radiation Oncology Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneja, Sanjay [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States); Department of General Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Roberts, Kenneth [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate trends in the geographic distribution of the radiation oncology (RO) workforce. Methods and Materials: We used the 1995 and 2007 versions of the Area Resource File to map the ratio of RO to the population aged 65 years or older (ROR) within different health service areas (HSA) within the United States. We used regression analysis to find associations between population variables and 2007 ROR. We calculated Gini coefficients for ROR to assess the evenness of RO distribution and compared that with primary care physicians and total physicians. Results: There was a 24% increase in the RO workforce from 1995 to 2007. The overall growth in the RO workforce was less than that of primary care or the overall physician workforce. The mean ROR among HSAs increased by more than one radiation oncologist per 100,000 people aged 65 years or older, from 5.08 per 100,000 to 6.16 per 100,000. However, there remained consistent geographic variability concerning RO distribution, specifically affecting the non-metropolitan HSAs. Regression analysis found higher ROR in HSAs that possessed higher education (p = 0.001), higher income (p < 0.001), lower unemployment rates (p < 0.001), and higher minority population (p = 0.022). Gini coefficients showed RO distribution less even than for both primary care physicians and total physicians (0.326 compared with 0.196 and 0.292, respectively). Conclusions: Despite a modest growth in the RO workforce, there exists persistent geographic maldistribution of radiation oncologists allocated along socioeconomic and racial lines. To solve problems surrounding the RO workforce, issues concerning both gross numbers and geographic distribution must be addressed.

  3. Geographic Analysis of the Radiation Oncology Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneja, Sanjay; Smith, Benjamin D.; Gross, Cary P.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Roberts, Kenneth; Yu, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate trends in the geographic distribution of the radiation oncology (RO) workforce. Methods and Materials: We used the 1995 and 2007 versions of the Area Resource File to map the ratio of RO to the population aged 65 years or older (ROR) within different health service areas (HSA) within the United States. We used regression analysis to find associations between population variables and 2007 ROR. We calculated Gini coefficients for ROR to assess the evenness of RO distribution and compared that with primary care physicians and total physicians. Results: There was a 24% increase in the RO workforce from 1995 to 2007. The overall growth in the RO workforce was less than that of primary care or the overall physician workforce. The mean ROR among HSAs increased by more than one radiation oncologist per 100,000 people aged 65 years or older, from 5.08 per 100,000 to 6.16 per 100,000. However, there remained consistent geographic variability concerning RO distribution, specifically affecting the non-metropolitan HSAs. Regression analysis found higher ROR in HSAs that possessed higher education (p = 0.001), higher income (p < 0.001), lower unemployment rates (p < 0.001), and higher minority population (p = 0.022). Gini coefficients showed RO distribution less even than for both primary care physicians and total physicians (0.326 compared with 0.196 and 0.292, respectively). Conclusions: Despite a modest growth in the RO workforce, there exists persistent geographic maldistribution of radiation oncologists allocated along socioeconomic and racial lines. To solve problems surrounding the RO workforce, issues concerning both gross numbers and geographic distribution must be addressed.

  4. Geographic Analysis of Neurosurgery Workforce in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Ran; Park, Sukh Que; Kim, Jae Hyun; Hwang, Jae Chan; Lee, Gwang Soo; Chang, Jae-Chil

    2018-01-01

    Objective In respect of the health and safety of the public, universal access to health care is an issue of the greatest importance. The geographic distribution of doctors is one of the important factors contributing to access to health care. The aim of this study is to assess the imbalances in the geographic distribution of neurosurgeons across Korea. Methods Population data was obtained from the National Statistical Office. We classified geographic groups into 7 metropolitan cities, 78 non-metropolitan cities, and 77 rural areas. The number of doctors and neurosurgeons per 100000 populations in each county unit was calculated using the total number of doctors and neurosurgeons at the country level from 2009 to 2015. The density levels of neurosurgeon and doctor were calculated and depicted in maps. Results Between 2009 and 2015, the number of neurosurgeons increased from 2002 to 2557, and the ratio of neurosurgeons per 100000 populations increased from 4.02 to 4.96. The number of neurosurgeons per 100000 populations was highest in metropolitan cities and lowest in rural areas from 2009 to 2015. A comparison of the geographic distribution of neurosurgeons in 2009 and 2015 showed an increase in the regional gap. The neurosurgeon density was affected by country unit characteristics (p=0.000). Conclusion Distribution of neurosurgeons throughout Korea is uneven. Neurosurgeons are being increasingly concentrated in a limited number of metropolitan cities. This phenomenon will need to be accounted when planning for a supply of neurosurgeons, allocation of resources and manpower, and the provision of regional neurosurgical services. PMID:29354242

  5. Geographic Analysis of Neurosurgery Workforce in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Ran; Park, Sukh Que; Kim, Jae Hyun; Hwang, Jae Chan; Lee, Gwang Soo; Chang, Jae-Chil

    2018-01-01

    In respect of the health and safety of the public, universal access to health care is an issue of the greatest importance. The geographic distribution of doctors is one of the important factors contributing to access to health care. The aim of this study is to assess the imbalances in the geographic distribution of neurosurgeons across Korea. Population data was obtained from the National Statistical Office. We classified geographic groups into 7 metropolitan cities, 78 non-metropolitan cities, and 77 rural areas. The number of doctors and neurosurgeons per 100000 populations in each county unit was calculated using the total number of doctors and neurosurgeons at the country level from 2009 to 2015. The density levels of neurosurgeon and doctor were calculated and depicted in maps. Between 2009 and 2015, the number of neurosurgeons increased from 2002 to 2557, and the ratio of neurosurgeons per 100000 populations increased from 4.02 to 4.96. The number of neurosurgeons per 100000 populations was highest in metropolitan cities and lowest in rural areas from 2009 to 2015. A comparison of the geographic distribution of neurosurgeons in 2009 and 2015 showed an increase in the regional gap. The neurosurgeon density was affected by country unit characteristics ( p =0.000). Distribution of neurosurgeons throughout Korea is uneven. Neurosurgeons are being increasingly concentrated in a limited number of metropolitan cities. This phenomenon will need to be accounted when planning for a supply of neurosurgeons, allocation of resources and manpower, and the provision of regional neurosurgical services.

  6. Renewable resource policy when distributional impacts matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, R.D.; Shortle, J.S.; Bulte, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    The standard assumption in bioeconomic resource models is that optimal policies maximize the present value of economic surplus to society. This assumption implies that regulatory agencies should not be concerned with the distributional consequences of management strategies. Both contemporary welfare-theoretic and rent-seeking approaches suggests distributional issues are important in designing resource management policies. This paper explores resource management when the managing agency has preferences defined over the economic welfare of various groups with a direct economic interest in the use of resources. Policy schemes consistent with this approach are derived and compared with standard results. 42 refs

  7. Reptilia, Gymnophthalmidae, Micrablepharus maximiliani (Reinhardt and Lutken, 1861: Distribution extension, new state record and geographic distribution map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura, M. R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide records for Micrablepharus maximiliani from state of Minas Gerais and present a map representingits distribution. The record of M. maximiliani from municipality of Resplendor, Minas Gerais, represents a distributionextension of 1,050 km southern from the type locality at the municipality of Maruim, Sergipe. Others 57 new recordsare presented based on specimens housed in several Brazilian and Paraguayan herpetological collections, improving theknowledge on geographic distribution of M. maximiliani in South America.

  8. Supply-cost curves for geographically distributed renewable-energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, Salvador; Dopazo, Cesar; Fueyo, Norberto

    2010-01-01

    The supply-cost curves of renewable-energy sources are an essential tool to synthesize and analyze large-scale energy-policy scenarios, both in the short and long terms. Here, we suggest and test a parametrization of such curves that allows their representation for modeling purposes with a minimal set of information. In essence, an economic potential is defined based on the mode of the marginal supply-cost curves; and, using this definition, a normalized log-normal distribution function is used to model these curves. The feasibility of this proposal is assessed with data from a GIS-based analysis of solar, wind and biomass technologies in Spain. The best agreement is achieved for solar energy.

  9. [Spatial distribution of occupational disease prevalence in Guangzhou and Foshan city by geographic information system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Q; Tu, H W; Gu, C H; Li, X D; Li, R Z; Wang, M; Chen, S G; Cheng, Y J; Liu, Y M

    2017-11-20

    Objective: To explore the occupational disease spatial distribution characteristics in Guangzhou and Foshan city in 2006-2013 with Geographic Information System and to provide evidence for making control strategy. Methods: The data on occupational disease diagnosis in Guangzhou and Foshan city from 2006 through 2013 were collected and linked to the digital map at administrative county level with Arc GIS12.0 software for spatial analysis. Results: The maps of occupational disease and Moran's spatial autocor-relation analysis showed that the spatial aggregation existed in Shunde and Nanhai region with Moran's index 1.727, -0.003. Local Moran's I spatial autocorrelation analysis pointed out the "positive high incidence re-gion" and the "negative high incidence region" during 2006~2013. Trend analysis showed that the diagnosis case increased slightly then declined from west to east, increase obviously from north to south, declined from? southwest to northeast, high in the middle and low on both sides in northwest-southeast direction. Conclusions: The occupational disease is obviously geographical distribution in Guangzhou and Foshan city. The corresponding prevention measures should be made according to the geographical distribution.

  10. Mapping the geographical distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwase, Enala T; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Nsakashalo-Senkwe, Mutale

    2014-01-01

    to be an important determinant of medium-high prevalence levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: LF was found to be surprisingly widespread in Zambia, although in most places with low prevalence. The produced maps and the identified environmental correlates of LF infection will provide useful guidance for planning...... volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA) with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1......% and 54%. Most positive survey sites had low prevalence, but six foci with more than 15% prevalence were identified. The observed geographical variation in prevalence pattern was examined in more detail using a species distribution modeling approach to explore environmental requirements for parasite...

  11. Two-stage stochastic day-ahead optimal resource scheduling in a distribution network with intensive use of distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Tiago; Ghazvini, Mohammad Ali Fotouhi; Morais, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The integration of renewable sources and electric vehicles will introduce new uncertainties to the optimal resource scheduling, namely at the distribution level. These uncertainties are mainly originated by the power generated by renewables sources and by the electric vehicles charge requirements....... This paper proposes a two-state stochastic programming approach to solve the day-ahead optimal resource scheduling problem. The case study considers a 33-bus distribution network with 66 distributed generation units and 1000 electric vehicles....

  12. Analysis Of Educational Services Distribution-Based Geographic Information System GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed Lagrab; Noura AKNIN

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study analyzes the spatial distribution of kindergarten facilities in the study area based on the Geographic Information Systems GIS in order to test an efficiency of GIS technology to redistribute the existing kindergarten and choose the best location in the future and applying the standard criteria for selecting the suitable locations for kindergarten. To achieve this goal the data and information are collected via interviews and comprehensive statistics on the education facil...

  13. Application of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems to ecosystem-based urban natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaohui Zhang; George Ball; Eve Halper

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated system to support urban natural resource management. With the application of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS), the paper emphasizes the methodology of integrating information technology and a scientific basis to support ecosystem-based management. First, a systematic integration framework is developed and...

  14. Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NREL's Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility (DERTF) is a working laboratory for interconnection and systems integration testing. This state-of-the-art facility...

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lineage 4 comprises globally distributed and geographically restricted sublineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscolla, Mireia; Liu, Qingyun; Trauner, Andrej; Fenner, Lukas; Rutaihwa, Liliana; Borrell, Sonia; Luo, Tao; Gao, Qian; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Ballif, Marie; Egger, Matthias; Macedo, Rita; Mardassi, Helmi; Moreno, Milagros; Tudo Vilanova, Griselda; Fyfe, Janet; Globan, Maria; Thomas, Jackson; Jamieson, Frances; Guthrie, Jennifer L.; Asante-Poku, Adwoa; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Wampande, Eddie; Ssengooba, Willy; Joloba, Moses; Henry Boom, W.; Basu, Indira; Bower, James; Saraiva, Margarida; Vaconcellos, Sidra E. G.; Suffys, Philip; Koch, Anastasia; Wilkinson, Robert; Gail-Bekker, Linda; Malla, Bijaya; Ley, Serej D.; Beck, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Bouke C.; Toit, Kadri; Sanchez-Padilla, Elisabeth; Bonnet, Maryline; Gil-Brusola, Ana; Frank, Matthias; Penlap Beng, Veronique N.; Eisenach, Kathleen; Alani, Issam; Wangui Ndung’u, Perpetual; Revathi, Gunturu; Gehre, Florian; Akter, Suriya; Ntoumi, Francine; Stewart-Isherwood, Lynsey; Ntinginya, Nyanda E.; Rachow, Andrea; Hoelscher, Michael; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Skenders, Girts; Hoffner, Sven; Bakonyte, Daiva; Stakenas, Petras; Diel, Roland; Crudu, Valeriu; Moldovan, Olga; Al-Hajoj, Sahal; Otero, Larissa; Barletta, Francesca; Jane Carter, E.; Diero, Lameck; Supply, Philip; Comas, Iñaki; Niemann, Stefan; Gagneux, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Generalist and specialist species differ in the breadth of their ecological niche. Little is known about the niche width of obligate human pathogens. Here we analyzed a global collection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lineage 4 clinical isolates, the most geographically widespread cause of human tuberculosis. We show that Lineage 4 comprises globally distributed and geographically restricted sublineages, suggesting a distinction between generalists and specialists. Population genomic analyses showed that while the majority of human T cell epitopes were conserved in all sublineages, the proportion of variable epitopes was higher in generalists. Our data further support a European origin for the most common generalist sublineage. Hence, the global success of Lineage 4 reflects distinct strategies adopted by different sublineages and the influence of human migration. PMID:27798628

  16. Phylogenetic patterns of geographical and ecological diversification in the subgenus Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Morales-Hojas

    Full Text Available Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. Members of the subgenus Drosophila are distributed across the globe and show a large diversity of ecological niches. Furthermore, taxonomic classification of Drosophila includes the rank radiation, which refers to closely related species groups. Nevertheless, it has never been tested if these taxonomic radiations correspond to evolutionary radiations. Here we present a study of the patterns of diversification of Drosophila to test for increased diversification rates in relation to the geographic and ecological diversification processes. For this, we have estimated and dated a phylogeny of 218 species belonging to the major species groups of the subgenus. The obtained phylogenies are largely consistent with previous studies and indicate that the major groups appeared during the Oligocene/Miocene transition or early Miocene, characterized by a trend of climate warming with brief periods of glaciation. Ancestral reconstruction of geographic ranges and ecological resource use suggest at least two dispersals to the Neotropics from the ancestral Asiatic tropical disribution, and several transitions to specialized ecological resource use (mycophagous and cactophilic. Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. However, diversification analyses show no significant support for adaptive radiations as a result of geographic dispersal or ecological resource shift. Also, cactophily has not resulted in an increase in the diversification rate of the repleta and related groups. It is thus concluded that the taxonomic radiations do not correspond to adaptive radiations.

  17. Phylogenetic patterns of geographical and ecological diversification in the subgenus Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Hojas, Ramiro; Vieira, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. Members of the subgenus Drosophila are distributed across the globe and show a large diversity of ecological niches. Furthermore, taxonomic classification of Drosophila includes the rank radiation, which refers to closely related species groups. Nevertheless, it has never been tested if these taxonomic radiations correspond to evolutionary radiations. Here we present a study of the patterns of diversification of Drosophila to test for increased diversification rates in relation to the geographic and ecological diversification processes. For this, we have estimated and dated a phylogeny of 218 species belonging to the major species groups of the subgenus. The obtained phylogenies are largely consistent with previous studies and indicate that the major groups appeared during the Oligocene/Miocene transition or early Miocene, characterized by a trend of climate warming with brief periods of glaciation. Ancestral reconstruction of geographic ranges and ecological resource use suggest at least two dispersals to the Neotropics from the ancestral Asiatic tropical disribution, and several transitions to specialized ecological resource use (mycophagous and cactophilic). Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. However, diversification analyses show no significant support for adaptive radiations as a result of geographic dispersal or ecological resource shift. Also, cactophily has not resulted in an increase in the diversification rate of the repleta and related groups. It is thus concluded that the taxonomic radiations do not correspond to adaptive radiations.

  18. Coincidence between geographical distribution of Leptotrombidium scutellare and scrub typhus incidence in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yul Roh

    Full Text Available To clarify the geographical distribution of scrub typhus vectors in Korea, a survey of larval trombiculid mites was conducted from 2005 to 2007 by collecting wild small mammals twice a year (spring and autumn at 24 sites nationwide. A total of 67,325 mites representing 4 genera and 14 species were collected from 783 trapped rodents, corresponding to a chigger index (number of chigger mites per rodent of 86.0. The predominant mite species were Leptotrombidium pallidum (52.6%, Leptotrombiduim scutellare (27.1%, Leptotrombidium palpale (8.2%, Leptotrombidium orientale (5.6%, and Neotrombicula tamiyai (1.7%. However, the proportions of L. scutellare in southern areas, including endemic provinces such as Jeollabuk-Do (34.3%, Jeollanam-Do (49.0%, and Gyeongsangnam-Do (88%, were relatively higher than in central Korean regions where L. pallidum was predominant. In autumn, the ratio of L. scutellare increased to 42% while the ratio of L. pallidum decreased. The geographical distribution map of the L. scutellare chigger index was identical to the incidence pattern of scrub typhus, whereas those of overall mites and L. pallidum showed no relationship with case incidence patterns. Distribution mapping analysis shows an identical geographical distribution of L. scutellare and epidemic incidence of scrub typhus in South Korea. L. pallidum could be another vector at all other parts of the Korean peninsula, including the eastern and northern regions that have a low level of scrub typhus incidence.

  19. Geographical distribution of centenarians in Colombia: an analysis of three databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rosselli

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Although the results are consistent with the number and geographical distribution of centenarians, some errors may be found in the date of birth stated in the records, which is the basis for estimating age in the three sources. Other factors potentially involved in the results may be physical activity, family and community support, low stress and healthy diet in these regions.

  20. The Current Landscape of US Pediatric Anesthesiologists: Demographic Characteristics and Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Muffly, Tyler M; Weterings, Robbie; Singleton, Mark; Honkanen, Anita

    2016-07-01

    There is no comprehensive database of pediatric anesthesiologists, their demographic characteristics, or geographic location in the United States. We endeavored to create a comprehensive database of pediatric anesthesiologists by merging individuals identified as US pediatric anesthesiologists by the American Board of Anesthesiology, National Provider Identifier registry, Healthgrades.com database, and the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia membership list as of November 5, 2015. Professorial rank was accessed via the Association of American Medical Colleges and other online sources. Descriptive statistics characterized pediatric anesthesiologists' demographics. Pediatric anesthesiologists' locations at the city and state level were geocoded and mapped with the use of ArcGIS Desktop 10.1 mapping software (Redlands, CA). We identified 4048 pediatric anesthesiologists in the United States, which is approximately 8.8% of the physician anesthesiology workforce (n = 46,000). The median age of pediatric anesthesiologists was 49 years (interquartile range, 40-57 years), and the majority (56.4%) were men. Approximately two-thirds of identified pediatric anesthesiologists were subspecialty board certified in pediatric anesthesiology, and 33% of pediatric anesthesiologists had an identified academic affiliation. There is substantial heterogeneity in the geographic distribution of pediatric anesthesiologists by state and US Census Division with urban clustering. This description of pediatric anesthesiologists' demographic characteristics and geographic distribution fills an important gap in our understanding of pediatric anesthesia systems of care.

  1. Geographic distribution of hepatitis C virus genotype 6 subtypes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkarathamrongsin, Srunthron; Praianantathavorn, Kesmanee; Hacharoen, Nisachol; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Tangkijvanich, Pisit; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Mizokami, Masashi; Poovorawan, Yong

    2010-02-01

    The nucleotide sequence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 6 found mostly in south China and south-east Asia, displays profound genetic diversity. The aim of this study to determine the genetic variability of HCV genotype 6 (HCV-6) in Thailand and locate the subtype distribution of genotype 6 in various geographic areas. Four hundred nineteen anti-HCV positive serum samples were collected from patients residing in - the central part of the country. HCV RNA positive samples based on reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the 5'UTR were amplified with primers specific for the core and NS5B regions. Nucleotide sequences of both regions were analyzed for the genotype by phylogenetic analysis. To determine geographic distribution of HCV-6 subtypes, a search of the international database on subtype distribution in the respective countries was conducted. Among 375 HCV RNA positive samples, 71 had HCV-6 based on phylogenetic analysis of partial core and NS5B regions. The subtype distribution in order of predominance was 6f (56%), 6n (22%), 6i (11%), 6j (10%), and 6e (1%). Among the 13 countries with different subtypes of HCV-6, most sequences have been reported from Vietnam. Subtype 6f was found exclusively in Thailand where five distinct HCV-6 subtypes are circulating. HCV-6, which is endemic in south China and south-east Asia, displays profound genetic diversity and may have evolved over a considerable period of time. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Indicator 1.07. Number and geographic distribution of forest-associated species at risk of losing genetic variation and locally adapted genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. H. Flather; M. S Knowles; C. H. Sieg

    2011-01-01

    This indicator provides information on the number and distribution of forest-associated species at risk of losing genetic variation across their geographic range. Comparing a species' current geographic distribution with its historic distribution is the basis for identifying those species whose range has contracted significantly. Human activities are accelerating...

  3. Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon B; Peterson, Andrew T; Gulinck, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern...... of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970-2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We...... predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests...

  4. Species composition and geographical distribution of Saharan scorpion fauna, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oulaid Touloun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the species composition of scorpions and to study its geographical distribution in Laayoune-Sakia El Hamra and Dakhla-Oued Ed Dahab regions in July 2014. Methods: To locate scorpions, the ground was examined through searching the places under the stones, rocks and in burrows. The nocturnal missions were also conducted using portable ultraviolet lamps. The scorpions were subsequently identified in the laboratory. Results: The results of the investigations in these regions showed the presence of five scorpion species, two of which Androctonus gonneti and Buthus bonito were endemic in Morocco. Conclusions: This work is allowed to complete the inventory of the studied scorpion fauna and provides some considerations on the distribution patterns in the study area.

  5. Local knowledge, use pattern and geographical distribution of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Jacob O; Obembe, Olawole O

    2013-11-25

    All parts of Moringa oleifera are medicinally valuable with overlapping uses in treating myriads of ailments and diseases including body pains and weakness, fever, asthma, cough, blood pressure, arthritis, diabetes, epilepsy, wound, and skin infection. Moringa also has robust ability to challenge terminal diseases such as HIV/AIDs infections, chronic anemia, cancer, malaria and hemorrhage. The present study was to obtain ethnobotanical information on the use and local knowledge variation, geographical distribution, and to collect different landraces of Moringa oleifera from the different agro-ecological regions in Nigeria, for further studies. Ethnobotanical data were collected through face to face interviews, semi structured questionnaires and discussions with selected people who had knowledge about the plant. The fidelity level (FL %) and use value for different use categories of Moringa oleifera and its parts were estimated. The variation in ethnobotanical knowledge was evaluated by comparing the mean use value among ethnic, gender and age groups using sample T test. Garmi GPS was used to determine the locations (latitude and longitude) and height in different areas to assess the geographical spread of the species. Seven (7) categories of use (Food, medicine, fodder, fencing, firewood, gum and coagulant) were recorded for Moringa oleifera. Food and medicinal uses showed highest fidelity level while the leaves and the seeds were the plant parts most utilized for the same purposes. There were significant differences among the ethnic, gender and age groups regarding the ethno-botanical use value. The geographical distribution pattern shows that the Moringa oleifera is well distributed in all ecological zones of Nigeria, well adapted to the varied climatic conditions and gaining unprecedented awareness among the people. Though considered an introduced species, Moringa oleifera has found wide acceptance, recognition and usefulness among the various ethnicities in the

  6. Spatial heterogeneity in resource distribution promotes facultative sociality in two trans-Saharan migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainara Cortés-Avizanda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migrant populations must cope not only with environmental changes in different biomes, but also with the continuous constraints imposed by human-induced changes through landscape transformation and resource patchiness. Theoretical studies suggest that changes in food distribution can promote changes in the social arrangement of individuals without apparent adaptive value. Empirical research on this subject has only been performed at reduced geographical scales and/or for single species. However, the relative contribution of food patchiness and predictability, both in space and time, to abundance and sociality can vary among species, depending on their degree of flexibility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By means of constrained zero-inflated Generalized Additive Models we analysed the spatial distribution of two trans-Saharan avian scavengers that breed (Europe and winter (Africa sympatrically, in relation to food availability. In the summering grounds, the probability of finding large numbers of both species increases close to predictable feeding sources, whereas in the wintering grounds, where food resources are widespread, we did not find such aggregation patterns, except for the black kite, which aggregated at desert locust outbreaks. The comparison of diets in both species through stable isotopes revealed that their diets overlapped during summering, but not during wintering. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that bird sociality at feeding grounds is closely linked to the pattern of spatial distribution and predictability of trophic resources, which are ultimately induced by human activities. Migrant species can show adaptive foraging strategies to face changing distribution of food availability in both wintering and summering quarters. Understanding these effects is a key aspect for predicting the fitness costs and population consequences of habitat transformations on the viability of endangered migratory species.

  7. Dynamic models for distributed generation resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morched, A.S. [BPR Energie, Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Distributed resources can impact the performance of host power systems during both normal and abnormal system conditions. This PowerPoint presentation discussed the use of dynamic models for identifying potential interaction problems between interconnected systems. The models were designed to simulate steady state behaviour as well as transient responses to system disturbances. The distributed generators included directly coupled and electronically coupled generators. The directly coupled generator was driven by wind turbines. Simplified models of grid-side inverters, electronically coupled wind generators and doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) were presented. The responses of DFIGs to wind variations were evaluated. Synchronous machine and electronically coupled generator responses were compared. The system model components included load models, generators, protection systems, and system equivalents. Frequency responses to islanding events were reviewed. The study demonstrated that accurate simulations are needed to predict the impact of distributed generation resources on the performance of host systems. Advances in distributed generation technology have outpaced the development of models needed for integration studies. tabs., figs.

  8. Hospital distribution in a metropolitan city: assessment by a geographical information system grid modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Soo Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Grid models were used to assess urban hospital distribution in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. A geographical information system (GIS based analytical model was developed and applied to assess the situation in a metropolitan area with a population exceeding 10 million. Secondary data for this analysis were obtained from multiple sources: the Korean Statistical Information Service, the Korean Hospital Association and the Statistical Geographical Information System. A grid of cells measuring 1 × 1 km was superimposed on the city map and a set of variables related to population, economy, mobility and housing were identified and measured for each cell. Socio-demographic variables were included to reflect the characteristics of each area. Analytical models were then developed using GIS software with the number of hospitals as the dependent variable. Applying multiple linear regression and geographically weighted regression models, three factors (highway and major arterial road areas; number of subway entrances; and row house areas were statistically significant in explaining the variance of hospital distribution for each cell. The overall results show that GIS is a useful tool for analysing and understanding location strategies. This approach appears a useful source of information for decision-makers concerned with the distribution of hospitals and other health care centres in a city.

  9. [Species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhong, Jin-Xin

    2013-05-01

    Based on the related published papers, and by using Geographic Information System (ArcGIS 9.3), this paper analyzed the species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China. There were 83 threatened species living in the Province, belonging to 5 orders, 13 families, and 47 genera. Cypriniformes was absolutely dominant, with 64 species, followed by Siluriformes, with 16 species. Cyprinidae fishes had 51 species, accounting for 79.7% of Cypriniformes. The most species of Cyprinid fishes were of Barbinae (14 species), Cyprininae (10 species), and Cultrinae (10 species). The threatened fishes could be divided into two zoogeographical regions, i. e., Tibetan Plateau region and Oriental region, and their species composition and geographical distribution were resulted from the historical evolution adapted to the related environments. Whatever in rivers and in lakes, the Cyprinid fishes were both absolutely dominant, occupying 36.1% and 31.3% of the total, respectively. The Cyprinid fishes in rivers were mostly of endangered species, while those in lakes were mostly of vulnerable species. The factors affecting the threatened fishes in the Province were discussed from the two aspects of geodynamic evolution and present situation.

  10. A revised geographical range for Liolaemus elongates Koslowsky, 1896 (Squamata: Liolaemini in Argentina: review of reported and new-data based distribution with new localities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Minoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the effective geographical ranges of species is central to species-oriented conservation and management. In this paper, we review the geographical distribution of Liolaemus elongatus Koslowsky, 1896 with three new records for northern Chubut and southern Río Negro provinces, Argentina. Based on detailed locality records pooled from multiple data sources, including new records obtained for this study, we revise the range of L. elongatus sensu stricto and provide geographical distribution maps comparing the previously recognized range to that proposed herein. Our results show that L. elongatus possesses a much more limited geographic distribution than previously thought, being restricted to areas south of 38°S latitude; the newly proposed range is merely half the species formerly recognized geographical distribution.

  11. Distributed optimal coordination for distributed energy resources in power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Di; Yang, Tao; Stoorvogel, A.

    2017-01-01

    Driven by smart grid technologies, distributed energy resources (DERs) have been rapidly developing in recent years for improving reliability and efficiency of distribution systems. Emerging DERs require effective and efficient coordination in order to reap their potential benefits. In this paper......, we consider an optimal DER coordination problem over multiple time periods subject to constraints at both system and device levels. Fully distributed algorithms are proposed to dynamically and automatically coordinate distributed generators with multiple/single storages. With the proposed algorithms...

  12. Geographic Distribution of Teaching Talent in California. Consultant's Report Prepared for the State Committee on Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James; And Others

    The central purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between distribution of teaching talent and geographic location of local school districts of California. School districts were assigned to one of four geographic categories (urban, suburban, rural, or small urban centers). Each category's teaching talent was assessed on six measures…

  13. Capacity of Distribution Feeders for Hosting Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papathanassiou, S.; Hatziargyriou, N.; Anagnostopoulos, P.

    The last two decades have seen an unprecedented development of distributed energy resources (DER) all over the world. Several countries have adopted a variety of support schemes (feed-in tariffs, green certificates, direct subsidies, tax exemptions etc.) so as to promote distributed generation (DG...... standards of the networks. To address this need in a timely and effective manner, simplified methodologies and practical rules of thumbs are often applied to assess the DER hosting capacity of existing distribution networks, avoiding thus detailed and time consuming analytical studies. The scope...

  14. Potential impacts of climatic change upon geographical distributions of birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huntley, Brian; Collingham, Yvonne C.; Green, Rhys E.

    2006-01-01

    likely to decrease. Species with restricted distributions and specialized species of particular biomes are likely to suffer the greatest impacts. Migrant species are likely to suffer especially large impacts as climatic change alters both their breeding and wintering areas, as well as critical stopover......Potential climatic changes of the near future have important characteristics that differentiate them from the largest magnitude and most rapid of climatic changes of the Quaternary. These potential climatic changes are thus a cause for considerable concern in terms of their possible impacts upon...... biodiversity. Birds, in common with other terrestrial organisms, are expected to exhibit one of two general responses to climatic change: they may adapt to the changed conditions without shifting location, or they may show a spatial response, adjusting their geographical distribution in response...

  15. Interconnection of Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Emerson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-19

    This is a presentation on interconnection of distributed energy resources, including the relationships between different aspects of interconnection, best practices and lessons learned from different areas of the U.S., and an update on technical advances and standards for interconnection.

  16. Ecophysiological Traits of Leaves of Three Marsilea Species Distributed in Different Geographical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Chung Wu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Marsilea, an amphibian fern genus (containing ca. 80 species characterized by their unusual leaves and reproductive structures, is distributed over the five continents. To investigate the adaptation traits of three Marsilea species (M. crenata, M. quadrifolia, and M. schelpiana, distributed in different geographic regions, to terrestrial conditions, we compared morphological features, optical properties and photosynthetic performance of leaflets of the three species grown in terrestrial environment. The results showed that leaflets of the three species had significant differences in some of the ecophysiogical traits. Among the three species, M. quadrifolia (distributed in temperate region where receiving low precipitation had the highest trichome density on its leaflet surface and the highest water use efficiency, M. schelpiana (mainly in southern Africa where accepting high level of solar irradiance had the tallest petiole and the highest leaf dissection index, total stomatal pore area index, PSII electron transport rate and photosaturated photosynthetic rate, M. crenata (mainly in southeastern Asia region where receiving high precipitation and with high humidity had the lowest leaf dissection index and water use efficiency. Accordingly, leaf characteristics of the three Marsilea species reflect the climate pattern of their habitats. The results also suggest that water availability and light intensity are two of the important factors contributing to the geographic distribution of the three species.

  17. Oscillator clustering in a resource distribution chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D.; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    separate the inherent dynamics of the individual oscillator from the properties of the coupling network. Illustrated by examples from microbiological population dynamics, renal physiology, and electronic oscillator theory, we show how competition for primary resources in a resource distribution chain leads...

  18. Comparison of the geographical distribution of feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infections in the United States of America (2000-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Bimal K; Berke, Olaf; Pearl, David L; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2013-01-05

    Although feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) have similar risk factors and control measures, infection rates have been speculated to vary in geographic distribution over North America. Since both infections are endemic in North America, it was assumed as a working hypothesis that their geographic distributions were similar. Hence, the purpose of this exploratory analysis was to investigate the comparative geographical distribution of both viral infections. Counts of FIV (n=17,108) and FeLV (n=30,017) positive serology results (FIV antibody and FeLV ELISA) were obtained for 48 contiguous states and District of Columbia of the United States of America (US) from the IDEXX Laboratories website. The proportional morbidity ratio of FIV to FeLV infection was estimated for each administrative region and its geographic distribution pattern was visualized by a choropleth map. Statistical evidence of an excess in the proportional morbidity ratio from unity was assessed using the spatial scan test under the normal probability model. This study revealed distinct spatial distribution patterns in the proportional morbidity ratio suggesting the presence of one or more relevant and geographically varying risk factors. The disease map indicates that there is a higher prevalence of FIV infections in the southern and eastern US compared to FeLV. In contrast, FeLV infections were observed to be more frequent in the western US compared to FIV. The respective excess in proportional morbidity ratio was significant with respect to the spatial scan test (p < 0.05). The observed variability in the geographical distribution of the proportional morbidity ratio of FIV to FeLV may be related to the presence of an additional or unique, but yet unknown, spatial risk factor. Putative factors may be geographic variations in specific virus strains and rate of vaccination. Knowledge of these factors and the geographical distributions of these infections can inform

  19. Differentiation between diploid and tetraploid Centaurea phrygia: mating barriers, morphology and geographic distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koutecký, P.; Štěpánek, Jan; Baďurová, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-32 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1126 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : geographic distribution * polyploidy * reproductive isolation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2012

  20. Geographic distribution and conservation status of Caiman latirostris (Crocodylia, Alligatoridae in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Borteiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Caiman latirostris are known to occur in Uruguay but their geographic distribution remains uncertain. This work presents anupdate of the species distribution and conservation status in Uruguay. Surveys conducted by the authors confirmed the presence of this species in the previously known distribution range of northwestern Uruguay, where it seems to be widespread and relatively abundant in contrast to earlier reports. We report new localities for C. latirostris, most relevant being those of the Cebollatí and Tacuarí Rivers, and the Pelotas, India Muerta and San Miguel stream basins, which significantly expand its distribution through important wetlands in the eastern part of the country. The overall distribution is coincident with different landscape types, where lagoons, artificial impoundments, livestock waterholes, rivers, streams, creeks and marshes are inhabited by caiman. Illegal non-commercial hunting was detected all over the country.

  1. Geographic Distribution of CT, MRI and PET Devices in Japan: A Longitudinal Analysis Based on National Census Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Koike, Soichi; Kashima, Saori; Awai, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Japan has the most CT and MRI scanners per unit population in the world; however, the geographic distribution of these technologies is currently unknown. Moreover, nothing is known of the cause-effect relationship between the number of diagnostic imaging devices and their geographic distribution. Data on the number of CT, MRI and PET devices and that of their utilizations in all 1829 municipalities of Japan was generated, based on the Static Survey of Medical Institutions conducted by the government. The inter-municipality equity of the number of devices or utilizations was evaluated with Gini coefficient. Between 2005 and 2011, the number of CT, MRI and PET devices in Japan increased by 47% (8789 to 12945), 19% (5034 to 5990) and 70% (274 to 466), respectively. Gini coefficient of the number of devices was largest for PET and smallest for CT (p for PET-MRI difference geographic distribution of the diagnostic imaging technology in Japan appears to be affected by spatial competition derived from a market force.

  2. Geographic distribution of Staphylococcus aureus causing invasive infections in Europe : A molecular-epidemiological analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundmann, Hajo; Aanensen, David M; van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Spratt, Brian G; Harmsen, Dag; Friedrich, Alexander W; Tami, Adriana

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important human pathogens and methicillin-resistant variants (MRSAs) are a major cause of hospital and community-acquired infection. We aimed to map the geographic distribution of the dominant clones that cause invasive infections in Europe.

  3. Integration of Geographical Information Systems and Geophysical Applications with Distributed Computing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, M. E.; Aktas, M. S.; Aydin, G.; Fox, G. C.; Gadgil, H.; Sayar, A.

    2005-12-01

    We examine the application of Web Service Architectures and Grid-based distributed computing technologies to geophysics and geo-informatics. We are particularly interested in the integration of Geographical Information System (GIS) services with distributed data mining applications. GIS services provide the general purpose framework for building archival data services, real time streaming data services, and map-based visualization services that may be integrated with data mining and other applications through the use of distributed messaging systems and Web Service orchestration tools. Building upon on our previous work in these areas, we present our current research efforts. These include fundamental investigations into increasing XML-based Web service performance, supporting real time data streams, and integrating GIS mapping tools with audio/video collaboration systems for shared display and annotation.

  4. Effective environmental factors on geographical distribution of traffic accidents on pedestrians, downtown Tehran city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ali; Soori, Hamid; Kavousi, Amir; Eshghabadi, Farshid; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Zeini, Salahdien

    2017-01-01

    In most countries, occurrence of traffic causalities is high in pedestrians. The aim of this study is to geographically analyze the traffic casualties in pedestrians in downtown Tehran city. The study population consisted of traffic injury accidents in pedestrians occurred during 2015 in Tehran city. Data were extracted from offices of traffic police and municipality. For analysis of environmental factors and site of accidents, ordinary least square regression models and geographically weighted regression were used. Fitness and performance of models were checked using the Akaike information criteria, Bayesian information criteria, deviance, and adjusted R 2 . Totally, 514 accidents were included in this study. Of them, site of accidents was arterial streets in 370 (71.9%) cases, collector streets in 133 cases (25.2%), and highways in 11 cases (2.1%). Geographical units of traffic accidents in pedestrians had statistically significant relationship with a number of bus stations, number of crossroads, and recreational areas. Distribution of injury traffic accidents in pedestrians is different in downtown Tehran city. Neighborhoods close to markets are considered as most dangerous neighborhoods for injury traffic accidents. Different environmental factors are involved in determining the distribution of these accidents. The health of pedestrians in Tehran city can be improved by proper traffic management, control of environmental factors, and educational programs.

  5. A three-dimensional natural resource damage assessment and coupled geographical information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, M.; French, D.; Feng, S.S.; Knauss, W.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a numerical model for natural resource damage assessments is discussed. The model addresses a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The transport equations for both pollutant and biota are solved with a three-dimensional Lagrangian particle methodology. The model can simulate continuous releases of a contaminant, with representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, multiple shoreline types, and spatially variable ecosystem habitats. A graphic interface gives the user complete and facile control of the dynamic transport and biological submodels, as ell as the ability to display elements of the underlying geographical information system (GIS) data base. The model is being implemented on a 386 PC

  6. Towards a theoretical determination of the geographical probability distribution of meteoroid impacts on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Sucerquia, Mario

    2018-06-01

    Tunguska and Chelyabinsk impact events occurred inside a geographical area of only 3.4 per cent of the Earth's surface. Although two events hardly constitute a statistically significant demonstration of a geographical pattern of impacts, their spatial coincidence is at least tantalizing. To understand if this concurrence reflects an underlying geographical and/or temporal pattern, we must aim at predicting the spatio-temporal distribution of meteoroid impacts on Earth. For this purpose we designed, implemented, and tested a novel numerical technique, the `Gravitational Ray Tracing' (GRT) designed to compute the relative impact probability (RIP) on the surface of any planet. GRT is inspired by the so-called ray-casting techniques used to render realistic images of complex 3D scenes. In this paper we describe the method and the results of testing it at the time of large impact events. Our findings suggest a non-trivial pattern of impact probabilities at any given time on the Earth. Locations at 60-90° from the apex are more prone to impacts, especially at midnight. Counterintuitively, sites close to apex direction have the lowest RIP, while in the antapex RIP are slightly larger than average. We present here preliminary maps of RIP at the time of Tunguska and Chelyabinsk events and found no evidence of a spatial or temporal pattern, suggesting that their coincidence was fortuitous. We apply the GRT method to compute theoretical RIP at the location and time of 394 large fireballs. Although the predicted spatio-temporal impact distribution matches marginally the observed events, we successfully predict their impact speed distribution.

  7. Taxonomy for Evaluation of Distributed Control Strategies for Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Heussen, Kai; Gehrke, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Distributed control strategies applied to power distribution control problems are meant to offer robust and scalable integration of distributed energy resources (DER). However, the term “distributed control” is often loosely applied to a variety of very different control strategies. In particular....... For such comparison, a classification is required that is consistent across the different aspects mentioned above. This paper develops systematic categories of control strategies that accounts for communication, control and physical distribution aspects of the problem, and provides a set of criteria that can...

  8. A resource management architecture for metacomputing systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czajkowski, K.; Foster, I.; Karonis, N.; Kesselman, C.; Martin, S.; Smith, W.; Tuecke, S.

    1999-08-24

    Metacomputing systems are intended to support remote and/or concurrent use of geographically distributed computational resources. Resource management in such systems is complicated by five concerns that do not typically arise in other situations: site autonomy and heterogeneous substrates at the resources, and application requirements for policy extensibility, co-allocation, and online control. We describe a resource management architecture that addresses these concerns. This architecture distributes the resource management problem among distinct local manager, resource broker, and resource co-allocator components and defines an extensible resource specification language to exchange information about requirements. We describe how these techniques have been implemented in the context of the Globus metacomputing toolkit and used to implement a variety of different resource management strategies. We report on our experiences applying our techniques in a large testbed, GUSTO, incorporating 15 sites, 330 computers, and 3600 processors.

  9. OGC Geographic Information Service Deductive Semantic Reasoning Based on Description Vocabularies Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIAO Lizhi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As geographic information interoperability and sharing developing, more and more interoperable OGC (open geospatial consortium Web services (OWS are generated and published through the internet. These services can facilitate the integration of different scientific applications by searching, finding, and utilizing the large number of scientific data and Web services. However, these services are widely dispersed and hard to be found and utilized with executive semantic retrieval. This is especially true when considering the weak semantic description of geographic information service data. Focusing on semantic retrieval and reasoning of the distributed OWS resources, a deductive and semantic reasoning method is proposed to describe and search relevant OWS resources. Specifically, ①description words are extracted from OWS metadata file to generate GISe ontology-database and instance-database based on geographic ontology according to basic geographic elements category, ②a description words reduction model is put forward to implement knowledge reduction on GISe instance-database based on rough set theory and generate optimized instances database, ③utilizing GISe ontology-database and optimized instance-database to implement semantic inference and reasoning of geographic searching objects is used as an example to demonstrate the efficiency, feasibility and recall ration of the proposed description-word-based reduction model.

  10. Distribution System Pricing with Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hledik, Ryan [The Brattle Group, Cambridge, MA (United States); Lazar, Jim [The Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-16

    Technological changes in the electric utility industry bring tremendous opportunities and significant challenges. Customers are installing clean sources of on-site generation such as rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. At the same time, smart appliances and control systems that can communicate with the grid are entering the retail market. Among the opportunities these changes create are a cleaner and more diverse power system, the ability to improve system reliability and system resilience, and the potential for lower total costs. Challenges include integrating these new resources in a way that maintains system reliability, provides an equitable sharing of system costs, and avoids unbalanced impacts on different groups of customers, including those who install distributed energy resources (DERs) and low-income households who may be the least able to afford the transition.

  11. Cost allocation model for distribution networks considering high penetration of distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Pereira, Fábio; Morais, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The high penetration of distributed energy resources (DER) in distribution networks and the competitive environment of electricity markets impose the use of new approaches in several domains. The network cost allocation, traditionally used in transmission networks, should be adapted and used...... in the distribution networks considering the specifications of the connected resources. The main goal is to develop a fairer methodology trying to distribute the distribution network use costs to all players which are using the network in each period. In this paper, a model considering different type of costs (fixed......, losses, and congestion costs) is proposed comprising the use of a large set of DER, namely distributed generation (DG), demand response (DR) of direct load control type, energy storage systems (ESS), and electric vehicles with capability of discharging energy to the network, which is known as vehicle...

  12. Comparison of the geographical distribution of feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infections in the United States of America (2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhetri Bimal K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and feline leukemia virus (FeLV have similar risk factors and control measures, infection rates have been speculated to vary in geographic distribution over North America. Since both infections are endemic in North America, it was assumed as a working hypothesis that their geographic distributions were similar. Hence, the purpose of this exploratory analysis was to investigate the comparative geographical distribution of both viral infections. Counts of FIV (n=17,108 and FeLV (n=30,017 positive serology results (FIV antibody and FeLV ELISA were obtained for 48 contiguous states and District of Columbia of the United States of America (US from the IDEXX Laboratories website. The proportional morbidity ratio of FIV to FeLV infection was estimated for each administrative region and its geographic distribution pattern was visualized by a choropleth map. Statistical evidence of an excess in the proportional morbidity ratio from unity was assessed using the spatial scan test under the normal probability model. Results This study revealed distinct spatial distribution patterns in the proportional morbidity ratio suggesting the presence of one or more relevant and geographically varying risk factors. The disease map indicates that there is a higher prevalence of FIV infections in the southern and eastern US compared to FeLV. In contrast, FeLV infections were observed to be more frequent in the western US compared to FIV. The respective excess in proportional morbidity ratio was significant with respect to the spatial scan test (p Conclusions The observed variability in the geographical distribution of the proportional morbidity ratio of FIV to FeLV may be related to the presence of an additional or unique, but yet unknown, spatial risk factor. Putative factors may be geographic variations in specific virus strains and rate of vaccination. Knowledge of these factors and the geographical

  13. The renewable energy resources in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.; Lingova, S.; Trifonova, L.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the results from the joint study between the National Laboratory of Renewable Energy Resources of USA and the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Sofia (BG). The geographical distribution of solar and wind energy potential in Bulgaria as well as inventory of biomass is studied. Calculation of total, available and reserve solar and wind resources is performed. Comparative data on all kind of renewable energy resources in Bulgaria are presented. The evaluation of economically accessible resources and feasibility of implementation of specific technologies is given. 7 refs., 1 tab

  14. Global checklist of species of Grania (Clitellata: Enchytraeidae with remarks on their geographic distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Prantoni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of all currently accepted species of Grania Southern, 1913 (Annelida, Clitellata, Enchytraeidae is presented. The genus is widespread over the world and comprises 81 species described to date. Remarks on their geographical distribution, habitat, synonymies and museum catalogue numbers are provided.

  15. Geographic and Perceived Healthcare Access Equity among Patients with Acute Cardiovascular Event in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Tang, Wenxi; Gan, Da; Lin, Jie; Zhang, Lichao; Guo, Huilan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In acute cardiovascular event (ACE) such as stroke and myocardial infarction, access to comprehensive, timely, and quality healthcare services was critical for receiving appropriate treatment and improving prognosis. However, due to significant disparities on distribution of healthcare resources, allocating the limited resources to regions and population in needs was a key challenge for China. This study aimed to evaluate both geographic and perceived healthcare access of ACE pa...

  16. Resource depletion promotes automatic processing: implications for distribution of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Matthew H

    2010-12-01

    Recent models of cognition include two processing systems: an automatic system that relies on associative learning, intuition, and heuristics, and a controlled system that relies on deliberate consideration. Automatic processing requires fewer resources and is more likely when resources are depleted. This study showed that prolonged practice on a resource-depleting mental arithmetic task promoted automatic processing on a subsequent problem-solving task, as evidenced by faster responding and more errors. Distribution of practice effects (0, 60, 120, or 180 sec. between problems) on rigidity also disappeared when groups had equal time on resource-depleting tasks. These results suggest that distribution of practice effects is reducible to resource availability. The discussion includes implications for interpreting discrepancies in the traditional distribution of practice effect.

  17. Coordinated Collaboration between Heterogeneous Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Abdollahy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A power distribution feeder, where a heterogeneous set of distributed energy resources is deployed, is examined by simulation. The energy resources include PV, battery storage, natural gas GenSet, fuel cells, and active thermal storage for commercial buildings. The resource scenario considered is one that may exist in a not too distant future. Two cases of interaction between different resources are examined. One interaction involves a GenSet used to partially offset the duty cycle of a smoothing battery connected to a large PV system. The other example involves the coordination of twenty thermal storage devices, each associated with a commercial building. Storage devices are intended to provide maximum benefit to the building, but it is shown that this can have a deleterious effect on the overall system, unless the action of the individual storage devices is coordinated. A network based approach is also introduced to calculate some type of effectiveness metric to all available resources which take part in coordinated operation. The main finding is that it is possible to achieve synergy between DERs on a system; however this required a unified strategy to coordinate the action of all devices in a decentralized way.

  18. [Prediction and spatial distribution of recruitment trees of natural secondary forest based on geographically weighted Poisson model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling Yu; Liu, Zhao Gang

    2017-12-01

    Based on the data collected from 108 permanent plots of the forest resources survey in Maoershan Experimental Forest Farm during 2004-2016, this study investigated the spatial distribution of recruitment trees in natural secondary forest by global Poisson regression and geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR) with four bandwidths of 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 km. The simulation effects of the 5 regressions and the factors influencing the recruitment trees in stands were analyzed, a description was given to the spatial autocorrelation of the regression residuals on global and local levels using Moran's I. The results showed that the spatial distribution of the number of natural secondary forest recruitment was significantly influenced by stands and topographic factors, especially average DBH. The GWPR model with small scale (2.5 km) had high accuracy of model fitting, a large range of model parameter estimates was generated, and the localized spatial distribution effect of the model parameters was obtained. The GWPR model at small scale (2.5 and 5 km) had produced a small range of model residuals, and the stability of the model was improved. The global spatial auto-correlation of the GWPR model residual at the small scale (2.5 km) was the lowe-st, and the local spatial auto-correlation was significantly reduced, in which an ideal spatial distribution pattern of small clusters with different observations was formed. The local model at small scale (2.5 km) was much better than the global model in the simulation effect on the spatial distribution of recruitment tree number.

  19. The evolution of cooperation on geographical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixiao; Wang, Yi; Sheng, Jichuan

    2017-11-01

    We study evolutionary public goods game on geographical networks, i.e., complex networks which are located on a geographical plane. The geographical feature effects in two ways: In one way, the geographically-induced network structure influences the overall evolutionary dynamics, and, in the other way, the geographical length of an edge influences the cost when the two players at the two ends interact. For the latter effect, we design a new cost function of cooperators, which simply assumes that the longer the distance between two players, the higher cost the cooperator(s) of them have to pay. In this study, network substrates are generated by a previous spatial network model with a cost-benefit parameter controlling the network topology. Our simulations show that the greatest promotion of cooperation is achieved in the intermediate regime of the parameter, in which empirical estimates of various railway networks fall. Further, we investigate how the distribution of edges' geographical costs influences the evolutionary dynamics and consider three patterns of the distribution: an approximately-equal distribution, a diverse distribution, and a polarized distribution. For normal geographical networks which are generated using intermediate values of the cost-benefit parameter, a diverse distribution hinders the evolution of cooperation, whereas a polarized distribution lowers the threshold value of the amplification factor for cooperation in public goods game. These results are helpful for understanding the evolution of cooperation on real-world geographical networks.

  20. Interactive analysis of geographically distributed population imaging data collections over light-path data networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lew, Baldur; Botha, Charl P.; Milles, Julien R.; Vrooman, Henri A.; van de Giessen, Martijn; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.

    2015-03-01

    The cohort size required in epidemiological imaging genetics studies often mandates the pooling of data from multiple hospitals. Patient data, however, is subject to strict privacy protection regimes, and physical data storage may be legally restricted to a hospital network. To enable biomarker discovery, fast data access and interactive data exploration must be combined with high-performance computing resources, while respecting privacy regulations. We present a system using fast and inherently secure light-paths to access distributed data, thereby obviating the need for a central data repository. A secure private cloud computing framework facilitates interactive, computationally intensive exploration of this geographically distributed, privacy sensitive data. As a proof of concept, MRI brain imaging data hosted at two remote sites were processed in response to a user command at a third site. The system was able to automatically start virtual machines, run a selected processing pipeline and write results to a user accessible database, while keeping data locally stored in the hospitals. Individual tasks took approximately 50% longer compared to a locally hosted blade server but the cloud infrastructure reduced the total elapsed time by a factor of 40 using 70 virtual machines in the cloud. We demonstrated that the combination light-path and private cloud is a viable means of building an analysis infrastructure for secure data analysis. The system requires further work in the areas of error handling, load balancing and secure support of multiple users.

  1. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Andrade, Andrey José; Sciamarelli, Alan; Raizer, Josué; Menegatti, Jaqueline Aparecida; Hermes, Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira; de Carvalho, Maria do Socorro Laurentino; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies. PMID:26018450

  2. Behavioral and physiological correlates of the geographic distributions of amphibious sea kraits (Laticauda spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brischoux, François; Tingley, Reid; Shine, Richard; Lillywhite, Harvey B.

    2013-02-01

    The physiological costs of living in seawater likely influenced the secondary evolutionary transitions to marine life in tetrapods. However, these costs are alleviated for species that commute between the land and the sea, because terrestrial habitats can provide frequent access to fresh water. Here, we investigate how differences in the ecology and physiology of three sea krait species (Laticauda spp.) interact to determine their environmental tolerances and geographic distributions. These three species vary in their relative use of terrestrial versus marine environments, and they display concomitant adaptations to life on land versus at sea. A species with relatively high dehydration rates in seawater (Laticauda colubrina) occupied oceanic areas with low mean salinities, whereas a species with comparatively high rates of transcutaneous evaporative water loss on land (Laticauda semifasciata) occupied regions with low mean temperatures. A third taxon (Laticauda laticaudata) was intermediate in both of these traits, and yet occupied the broadest geographic range. Our results suggest that the abilities of sea kraits to acquire fresh water on land and tolerate dehydration at sea determine their environmental tolerances and geographic distributions. This finding supports the notion that speciation patterns within sea kraits have been driven by interspecific variation in the degree of reliance upon terrestrial versus marine habitats. Future studies could usefully examine the effects of osmotic challenges on diversification rates in other secondarily marine tetrapod species.

  3. Geographic distribution of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis infection in stray dogs of eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Ciucă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in the eastern part of Romania to assess the prevalence and geographical distribution of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs. Plasma samples were collected from 458 stray dogs hosted in shelters in 8 counties and tested serologically for the presence of heartworm. In addition, 45 blood samples from dogs of a shelter in Galati city were examined by the modified Knott and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. The immmunological assay showed a heartworm infection prevalence of 8.9% in the dogs. Optical density results for positive samples ranged between 0.217 and 2.683. Geographical information systems (GIS were used to produce overlays of distribution maps of D. immitis prevalence and predictive maps based on temperature suitability. High prevalence of D. immitis was found in the central East up to the northern border of the country, i.e. Galati county (60%, followed by the counties of Vaslui (12.0% and Iasi (7.7%. Out of 45 samples examined using the Knott test, 23 were positive for circulating microfilariae (51.1%, while 19 dogs were positive for D. immitis and 4 for both D. immitis and D. repens with the multiplex PCR test. The high prevalence for D. immitis shown in dogs in the Southeast (Galati, 42.2% also by multiplex PCR gave strong support to the results achieved by the serological tests. The present study confirms the ability of GIS to predict the distribution and epidemiology of dirofilariosis in different geographical territories as has been already demonstrated by the empirical epidemiological data obtained at the continental, national and intraregional levels.

  4. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  5. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Distribution of important habitats for coastal and offshore biological resources and offshore sand resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics GeoPDF of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political boundaries and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, and locations of important habitats (for example, Essential Fish Habitats (EFH), nesting areas, strandings) for marine invertebrates, fish, reptiles, birds, and marine mammals. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in marine habitats and submerged obstructions of Florida's coastal region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map can be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers. The map was originally developed to assist the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE) and coastal resources managers with planning beach restoration projects. The BOEMRE uses a systematic approach in planning the development of submerged lands of the Continental Shelf seaward of Florida's territorial waters. Such development could affect the environment. BOEMRE is required to ascertain the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic conditions of the submerged lands and estimate the impact of developing these lands. Data sources included the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, BOEMRE, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Geographic Data Library, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, and the State of Florida, Bureau of Archeological Research. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata are

  6. Distributed Energy Resource (DER) Cybersecurity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Danish [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Laboratories

    2017-11-08

    This presentation covers the work that Sandia National Laboratories and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are doing for distributed energy resource cybersecurity standards, prepared for NREL's Annual Cybersecurity & Resilience Workshop on October 9-10, 2017.

  7. Integration of Cloud resources in the LHCb Distributed Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda García, Mario; Méndez Muñoz, Víctor; Stagni, Federico; Cabarrou, Baptiste; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Charpentier, Philippe; Closier, Joel

    2014-06-01

    This contribution describes how Cloud resources have been integrated in the LHCb Distributed Computing. LHCb is using its specific Dirac extension (LHCbDirac) as an interware for its Distributed Computing. So far, it was seamlessly integrating Grid resources and Computer clusters. The cloud extension of DIRAC (VMDIRAC) allows the integration of Cloud computing infrastructures. It is able to interact with multiple types of infrastructures in commercial and institutional clouds, supported by multiple interfaces (Amazon EC2, OpenNebula, OpenStack and CloudStack) - instantiates, monitors and manages Virtual Machines running on this aggregation of Cloud resources. Moreover, specifications for institutional Cloud resources proposed by Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), mainly by the High Energy Physics Unix Information Exchange (HEPiX) group, have been taken into account. Several initiatives and computing resource providers in the eScience environment have already deployed IaaS in production during 2013. Keeping this on mind, pros and cons of a cloud based infrasctructure have been studied in contrast with the current setup. As a result, this work addresses four different use cases which represent a major improvement on several levels of our infrastructure. We describe the solution implemented by LHCb for the contextualisation of the VMs based on the idea of Cloud Site. We report on operational experience of using in production several institutional Cloud resources that are thus becoming integral part of the LHCb Distributed Computing resources. Furthermore, we describe as well the gradual migration of our Service Infrastructure towards a fully distributed architecture following the Service as a Service (SaaS) model.

  8. Integration of cloud resources in the LHCb distributed computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Mario Úbeda; Stagni, Federico; Cabarrou, Baptiste; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Charpentier, Philippe; Closier, Joel; Muñoz, Víctor Méndez

    2014-01-01

    This contribution describes how Cloud resources have been integrated in the LHCb Distributed Computing. LHCb is using its specific Dirac extension (LHCbDirac) as an interware for its Distributed Computing. So far, it was seamlessly integrating Grid resources and Computer clusters. The cloud extension of DIRAC (VMDIRAC) allows the integration of Cloud computing infrastructures. It is able to interact with multiple types of infrastructures in commercial and institutional clouds, supported by multiple interfaces (Amazon EC2, OpenNebula, OpenStack and CloudStack) – instantiates, monitors and manages Virtual Machines running on this aggregation of Cloud resources. Moreover, specifications for institutional Cloud resources proposed by Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), mainly by the High Energy Physics Unix Information Exchange (HEPiX) group, have been taken into account. Several initiatives and computing resource providers in the eScience environment have already deployed IaaS in production during 2013. Keeping this on mind, pros and cons of a cloud based infrasctructure have been studied in contrast with the current setup. As a result, this work addresses four different use cases which represent a major improvement on several levels of our infrastructure. We describe the solution implemented by LHCb for the contextualisation of the VMs based on the idea of Cloud Site. We report on operational experience of using in production several institutional Cloud resources that are thus becoming integral part of the LHCb Distributed Computing resources. Furthermore, we describe as well the gradual migration of our Service Infrastructure towards a fully distributed architecture following the Service as a Service (SaaS) model.

  9. Research on TQCS Strategy of Digital Manufacturing Resource Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zude; ZHANG Huifu

    2006-01-01

    Heterogeneous in nature, digitized manufacturing resources are geographically distributed, and owned by different organizations each having their own resource management policies and different access-and-cost models. In this paper, by means of stateful serviceData, we make manufacturing resources as grid nodes. Considering TQCS requirements of resources in the manufacturing industry, we capture the essentials of grid resource management models and propose the TQCS market model to inquire, browse and use manufacturing resources. The manufacturing resource integration will integrate and organize the manufacture technology resource to form the core manufacture powers.

  10. Distributed resources and re-regulated electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This paper briefly defines distributed resources (DR) and discusses the current status of DR. The main focus is on discussing the value DR can provide to re-regulated electricity markets. DR can, under certain circumstances, help to significantly reduce the main problem of re-regulation, i.e. market power. Distributed generation and demand-side resources may, even if only small quantities in terms of size of the entire market are utilised, be able to help to significantly reduce market power. This results in a significantly more efficient market. To achieve such benefits, however, DR must be in operation during times when market power issues are likely to arise. To a certain extent this is the case as demand-side resources are usually independent of established generation companies. In addition, many business cases for DG require DG to actually operate to capture the second revenue. (author)

  11. History Shaped the Geographic Distribution of Genomic Admixture on the Island of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Marc; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Fejerman, Laura; Galanter, Joshua; Choudhry, Shweta; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Viera-Vera, Jorge; Oleksyk, Taras K.; Beckman, Kenneth; Ziv, Elad; Risch, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary genetic variation among Latin Americans human groups reflects population migrations shaped by complex historical, social and economic factors. Consequently, admixture patterns may vary by geographic regions ranging from countries to neighborhoods. We examined the geographic variation of admixture across the island of Puerto Rico and the degree to which it could be explained by historic and social events. We analyzed a census-based sample of 642 Puerto Rican individuals that were genotyped for 93 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate African, European and Native American ancestry. Socioeconomic status (SES) data and geographic location were obtained for each individual. There was significant geographic variation of ancestry across the island. In particular, African ancestry demonstrated a decreasing East to West gradient that was partially explained by historical factors linked to the colonial sugar plantation system. SES also demonstrated a parallel decreasing cline from East to West. However, at a local level, SES and African ancestry were negatively correlated. European ancestry was strongly negatively correlated with African ancestry and therefore showed patterns complementary to African ancestry. By contrast, Native American ancestry showed little variation across the island and across individuals and appears to have played little social role historically. The observed geographic distributions of SES and genetic variation relate to historical social events and mating patterns, and have substantial implications for the design of studies in the recently admixed Puerto Rican population. More generally, our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating social and geographic data with genetics when studying contemporary admixed populations. PMID:21304981

  12. Virtual Geographic Simulation of Light Distribution within Three-Dimensional Plant Canopy Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyu Tang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtual geographic environments (VGEs have been regarded as an important new means of simulating, analyzing, and understanding complex geological processes. Plants and light are major components of the geographic environment. Light is a critical factor that affects ecological systems. In this study, we focused on simulating light transmission and distribution within a three-dimensional plant canopy model. A progressive refinement radiosity algorithm was applied to simulate the transmission and distribution of solar light within a detailed, three-dimensional (3D loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. canopy model. The canopy was described in three dimensions, and each organ surface was represented by a set of triangular facets. The form factors in radiosity were calculated using a hemi-cube algorithm. We developed a module for simulating the instantaneous light distribution within a virtual canopy, which was integrated into ParaTree. We simulated the distribution of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR within a loquat canopy, and calculated the total PAR intercepted at the whole canopy scale, as well as the mean PAR interception per unit leaf area. The ParaTree-integrated radiosity model simulates the uncollided propagation of direct solar and diffuse sky light and the light-scattering effect of foliage. The PAR captured by the whole canopy based on the radiosity is approximately 9.4% greater than that obtained using ray tracing and TURTLE methods. The latter methods do not account for the scattering among leaves in the canopy in the study, and therefore, the difference might be due to the contribution of light scattering in the foliage. The simulation result is close to Myneni’s findings, in which the light scattering within a canopy is less than 10% of the incident PAR. Our method can be employed for visualizing and analyzing the spatial distribution of light within a canopy, and for estimating the PAR interception at the organ and canopy

  13. Heterogeneous game resource distributions promote cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guang-Hai; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Yan-Cun; Tian, Sheng-Wen; Yue, Jun

    2018-01-01

    In social networks, individual abilities to establish interactions are always heterogeneous and independent of the number of topological neighbors. We here study the influence of heterogeneous distributions of abilities on the evolution of individual cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game. First, we introduced a prisoner's dilemma game, taking into account individual heterogeneous abilities to establish games, which are determined by the owned game resources. Second, we studied three types of game resource distributions that follow the power-law property. Simulation results show that the heterogeneous distribution of individual game resources can promote cooperation effectively, and the heterogeneous level of resource distributions has a positive influence on the maintenance of cooperation. Extensive analysis shows that cooperators with large resource capacities can foster cooperator clusters around themselves. Furthermore, when the temptation to defect is high, cooperator clusters in which the central pure cooperators have larger game resource capacities are more stable than other cooperator clusters.

  14. Multi-objective optimal dispatch of distributed energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, Ayomide

    This thesis is composed of two papers which investigate the optimal dispatch for distributed energy resources. In the first paper, an economic dispatch problem for a community microgrid is studied. In this microgrid, each agent pursues an economic dispatch for its personal resources. In addition, each agent is capable of trading electricity with other agents through a local energy market. In this paper, a simple market structure is introduced as a framework for energy trades in a small community microgrid such as the Solar Village. It was found that both sellers and buyers benefited by participating in this market. In the second paper, Semidefinite Programming (SDP) for convex relaxation of power flow equations is used for optimal active and reactive dispatch for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Various objective functions including voltage regulation, reduced transmission line power losses, and minimized reactive power charges for a microgrid are introduced. Combinations of these goals are attained by solving a multiobjective optimization for the proposed ORPD problem. Also, both centralized and distributed versions of this optimal dispatch are investigated. It was found that SDP made the optimal dispatch faster and distributed solution allowed for scalability.

  15. Empirical analysis for Distributed Energy Resources' impact on future distribution network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Sandels, Claes; Zhu, Kun

    2012-01-01

    There has been a large body of statements claiming that the large scale deployment of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) will eventually reshape the future distribution grid operation in various ways. Thus, it is interesting to introduce a platform to interpret to what extent the power system...... operation will be alternated. In this paper, quantitative results in terms of how the future distribution grid will be changed by the deployment of distributed generation, active demand and electric vehicles, are presented. The analysis is based on the conditions for both a radial and a meshed distribution...... network. The input parameters are based on the current and envisioned DER deployment scenarios proposed for Sweden....

  16. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Armenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2003-07-01

    This wind energy resource atlas identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in the country of Armenia. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications. The maps portray the wind resource with high-resolution (1-km2) grids of wind power density at 50-m above ground. The wind maps were created at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) using a computerized wind mapping system that uses Geographic Information System (GIS) software.

  17. Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.; Hedman, B.; Knowles, D.; Freedman, S. I.; Woods, R.; Schweizer, T.

    2003-11-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is directing substantial programs in the development and encouragement of new energy technologies. Among them are renewable energy and distributed energy resource technologies. As part of its ongoing effort to document the status and potential of these technologies, DOE EERE directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to lead an effort to develop and publish Distributed Energy Technology Characterizations (TCs) that would provide both the department and energy community with a consistent and objective set of cost and performance data in prospective electric-power generation applications in the United States. Toward that goal, DOE/EERE - joined by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) - published the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations in December 1997.As a follow-up, DOE EERE - joined by the Gas Research Institute - is now publishing this document, Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations.

  18. Potential distribution of the endangered endemic lizard Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 (Liolaemidae: are there other suitable areas for a geographically restricted species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR. Winck

    Full Text Available In this study we attempted to access further information on the geographical distribution of the endangered lizard Liolaemus lutzae, estimating its potential distribution through the maximum entropy algorithm. For this purpose, we related its points of occurrence with matrices of environmental variables. After examining the correlation between environmental matrices, we selected 10 for model construction. The main variables influencing the current geographic distribution of L. lutzae were the diurnal temperature range and altitude. The species endemism seemed to be a consequence of a reduction of the original distribution area. Alternatively, the resulting model may reflect the geographic distribution of an ancestral lineage, since the model selected areas of occurrence of the two other species of Liolaemus from Brazil (L. arambarensis and L. occipitalis, all living in sand dune habitats and having psamophilic habits. Due to the high loss rate of habitat occupied by the species, the conservation and recovery of the remaining areas affected by human actions is essential.

  19. Effect of Heterogeneity in Initial Geographic Distribution on Opinions’ Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Balankin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Spin dynamics on networks allows us to understand how a global consensus emerges out of individual opinions. Here, we are interested in the effect of heterogeneity in the initial geographic distribution of a competing opinion on the competitiveness of its own opinion. Accordingly, in this work, we studied the effect of spatial heterogeneity on the majority rule dynamics using a three-state spin model, in which one state is neutral. Monte Carlo simulations were performed on square lattices divided into square blocks (cells. Accordingly, one competing opinion was distributed uniformly among cells, whereas the spatial distribution of the rival opinion was varied from the uniform to heterogeneous, with the median-to-mean ratio in the range from 1 to 0. When the size of discussion group is odd, the uncommitted agents disappear completely after  3.30 ± 0.05 update cycles, and then the system evolves in a two-state regime with complementary spatial distributions of two competing opinions. Even so, the initial heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of one of the competing opinions causes a decrease of this opinion competitiveness. That is, the opinion with initially heterogeneous spatial distribution has less probability to win, than the opinion with the initially uniform spatial distribution, even when the initial concentrations of both opinions are equal. We found that although the time to consensus , the opinion’s recession rate is determined during the first 3.3 update cycles. On the other hand, we found that the initial heterogeneity of the opinion spatial distribution assists the formation of quasi-stable regions, in which this opinion is dominant. The results of Monte Carlo simulations are discussed with regard to the electoral competition of political parties.

  20. 'Y' a distributed resource sharing system in nuclear research environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu-Zeletin, R.

    1986-01-01

    The paper outlines the rationales for the transition from HMINET-2 to a distributed resource sharing system in Hahn-Meitner-Institute for Nuclear Research. The architecture and rationales for the planned new distributed resource system (Y) in HMI are outlined. The introduction of a distributed operating system is a prerequisite for a resource-sharing system. Y will provide not only the integration of networks of different qualities (high speed back-bone, LANs of different technologies, ports to national X.25 network and satellite) at hardware level, but also an integrated global user view of the whole system. This will be designed and implemented by decoupling the user-view from the hardware topology by introducing a netwide distributed operating system. (Auth.)

  1. Autonomy-oriented mechanisms for efficient energy distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiming; Shi, Benyun

    2010-09-15

    Due to the uneven geographical availability of energy resources, it is essential for the energy suppliers and consumers in different countries/regions to most efficiently, economically, as well as reliably distribute energy resources. In this paper, starting from a specific energy distribution problem, we present a decentralized behavior-based paradigm that draws on the methodology of autonomy-oriented computing. The goal is twofold: (i) to characterize the underlying mechanism of the energy distribution systems, (ii) to provide scalable solutions for efficient energy distribution. We conjecture that efficient energy trading markets can emerge from appropriate behavior-based mechanisms, which can autonomously improve energy distribution efficiency.

  2. Legal, regulatory & institutional issues facing distributed resources development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report describes legal, regulatory, and institutional considerations likely to shape the development and deployment of distributed resources. It is based on research co-sponsored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and four investor-owned utilities (Central & South West Services, Cinergy Corp., Florida Power Corporation, and San Diego Gas & Electric Company). The research was performed between August 1995 and March 1996 by a team of four consulting firms experienced in energy and utility law, regulation, and economics. It is the survey phase of a project known as the Distributed Resources Institutional Analysis Project.

  3. Review of the geographic distribution of Micrurus decoratus (Jan, 1858 (Serpentes: Elapidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Castellari Gonzalez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Micrurus decoratus (Jan, 1858 is a poorly known species of coral snake, with a controversial history concerning its geographical range. The lack of consensus among researchers, since its original description, is largely due to the reporting of erroneous localities in publications. Herein we present the geographical range for the species based on the review of 184 records from 67 different municipalities in Brazil, including two new records for the state of Espírito Santo, extending its distribution to ca. 300 km northward from the previous northernmost locality. We also comment on doubtful records for the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Bahia, which contain no accurate data. We restrict the occurrence of Micrurus decoratus to the Atlantic Rainforest, with elevation range from 400 up to 1,600 m in the Brazilian states of Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo.

  4. Distribution and uses of legume DNA clone resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990, my lab has developed and distributed various DNA clone resources for the legumes. In the first several years, the focus was on members of the tropical genus, Vigna, including the widely cultivated species, mungbean (V. radiata) and cowpea (V. unguiculata). Both of these grain legumes play key roles in agriculture in developing countries of Asia (mungbean) and Africa (cowpea). Moreover, because there is substantial genome conservation among legumes, these genetic resources have also been utilized by a wide range of researchers in other crop species. In 1997, my lab began to focus on the development and distribution of a new generation of DNA clone resources; Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC). A library of these clones was constructed in soybean (Glycine max) the most important legume species worldwide in terms of economic value. Again, the library has become a valuable resource for the legume research community and has been widely used in studies of legume genomics. (author)

  5. Nitrate Measurment in Water Source of Karaj City and Zonning it Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Shakib; J. Rahimi; M. Noori Sepehr; M. Zarrabi

    2015-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Nitrate is one of drinking water pollutant which is introduced to water body from municipal wastewater. Information on nitrate concentration and its distribution in water resource is necessary in safe drinking water supply. For that reason, the present work was done for investigation of nitrate in Karaj water supply resource and its zonning with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Materials and Methods: In this work, the nitrate concentration in 200 wells of Karaj w...

  6. WEB GIS SUPPORT OF ENVIRONMENTAL-GEOGRAPHICAL ASSESSMENT OF LAND RESOURCES IN THE NEW MOSCOW TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Lurie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the area of Moscow, one of the largest urbanized megacomplexes, increased by more than 1440 km2 due to the accession of the Troitsky and Novomoskovsky аutonomous districts. That called for conducting detailed comprehensive environmental-geographical research, integrated assessment of the lands state of the annexed territories and the corresponding cartographic support to maintain further socio-economic development of the area. In the same 2011, at Lomonosov Moscow State University, MSU Geoportal started working as a new instrument of collective access and processing of spatial data to provide innovative research and educational activities with relevant materials of remote sensing data of the Earth and analytical tools for conducting geographic data analysis in the Geoportal environment. Cartographic support of the «New Moscow» project has been realized by means of collection, processing and systematization of geo-spatial data, formation of a geo-data bank and a series of thematic maps, created on its basis. It has been decided to develop Web GIS software by creating a geo-resource on the existed MSU Geoportal, which main purpose is forming the information and cartographic support for the New Moscow territories, based on the profound study of different components of the environment and affecting factors. The realization of this project has required the creation of a few dozens of maps for the comprehensive ecological and geographical assessment of the lands of the new annexed territories because of their status, economic and socio-geographical state changes.

  7. Distributed and organized decision making under resource boundedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawaragi, Tetsuo

    1994-01-01

    The coming bottleneck to be overcome in the era of the distributed and open-architectured environment will be the establishment of the rational design and coordination of the total system where multiple decision makers, problem solvers and automated machinery components coexist interacting with each other. In such an environment, they are not achieving some absolute standard of performance with unlimited amounts of resources nor with simple algorithms, but is doing as well as possible given what resources one has. In this article, we focus on the potentials of decision theory as a tool for tackling with the limited rationality under resource boundedness. First, the bottlenecks for establishing the organized and distributed decision making are summarized, and the importance of the formalization of decision activities of intelligent agents is stressed to establish an efficient and effective cooperation by distributed and organized decision making and/or problem solving. Some of the practical systems developed based on such a principle are reviewed briefly with respect to the real-time man-machine collaboration and the cooperative computational framework for the intelligent mobile robots. (author)

  8. Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ciolli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PyGRASS is an object-oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS Geographic Information System (GIS, a powerful open source GIS widely used in academia, commercial settings and governmental agencies. We present the architecture of the PyGRASS library, covering interfaces to GRASS modules, vector and raster data, with a focus on the new capabilities that it provides to GRASS users and developers. Our design concept of the module interface allows the direct linking of inputs and outputs of GRASS modules to create process chains, including compatibility checks, process control and error handling. The module interface was designed to be easily extended to work with remote processing services (Web Processing Service (WPS, Web Service Definition Language (WSDL/Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP. The new object-oriented Python programming API introduces an abstract layer that opens the possibility to use and access transparently the efficient raster and vector functions of GRASS that are implemented in C. The design goal was to provide an easy to use, but powerful, Python interface for users and developers who are not familiar with the programming language C and with the GRASS C-API. We demonstrate the capabilities, scalability and performance of PyGRASS with several dedicated tests and benchmarks. We compare and discuss the results of the benchmarks with dedicated C implementations.

  9. On the geographical distribution of induced time-varying crustal magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thebault, E.; Hemant, K.; Hulot, G.

    2009-01-01

    A long standing question in geomagnetism is whether the time variation of the induced crustal field is a detectable quantity and, if so, at which spatial wavelengths. We tackle this problem with the help of a forward modeling approach using a vertically integrated susceptibility (VIS) grid...... of the Earth's crust. For spherical harmonic degrees 15-90, we estimate the root mean square of the crustal magnetic field secular variation to amount 0.06-0.12 nT/yr at the terrestrial surface between epochs 1960-2002.5. The geographical distribution of the signal shows absolute values reaching 0.65-1.30 n...

  10. Geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium, 2008-2013: a principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strale, Mathieu; Krysinska, Karolina; Overmeiren, Gaëtan Van; Andriessen, Karl

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium over 2008--2013 on local (i.e., district or arrondissement) level. There were differences in the regional distribution of suicide and railway suicides in Belgium over the study period. Principal component analysis identified three groups of correlations among population variables and socio-economic indicators, such as population density, unemployment, and age group distribution, on two components that helped explaining the variance of railway suicide at a local (arrondissement) level. This information is of particular importance to prevent suicides in high-risk areas on the Belgian railway network.

  11. Integration of Cloud resources in the LHCb Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Stagni, Federico; Cabarrou, Baptiste; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Charpentier, Philippe; Closier, Joel

    2014-01-01

    This contribution describes how Cloud resources have been integrated in the LHCb Distributed Computing. LHCb is using its specific Dirac extension (LHCbDirac) as an interware for its Distributed Computing. So far, it was seamlessly integrating Grid resources and Computer clusters. The cloud extension of DIRAC (VMDIRAC) allows the integration of Cloud computing infrastructures. It is able to interact with multiple types of infrastructures in commercial and institutional clouds, supported by multiple interfaces (Amazon EC2, OpenNebula, OpenStack and CloudStack) – instantiates, monitors and manages Virtual Machines running on this aggregation of Cloud resources. Moreover, specifications for institutional Cloud resources proposed by Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), mainly by the High Energy Physics Unix Information Exchange (HEPiX) group, have been taken into account. Several initiatives and computing resource providers in the eScience environment have already deployed IaaS in production during 2013. Keepin...

  12. Evaluation on equality and efficiency of health resources allocation and health services utilization in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Luo, Hongye

    2017-07-14

    China is faced with a daunting challenge to equality and efficiency in health resources allocation and health services utilization in the context of rapid economic growth. This study sought to evaluate the equality and efficiency of health resources allocation and health services utilization in China. Demographic, economic, and geographic area data was sourced from China Statistical Yearbook 2012-2016. Data related to health resources and health services was obtained from China Health Statistics Yearbook 2012-2016. Furthermore, we evaluated the equality of health resources allocation based on Gini coefficient. Concentration index was used to measure the equality in utilization of health services. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was employed to assess the efficiency of health resources allocation. From 2011 to 2015, the Gini coefficients for health resources by population ranged between 0.0644 and 0.1879, while the Gini coefficients for the resources by geographic area ranged from 0.6136 to 0.6568. Meanwhile, the concentration index values for health services utilization ranged from -0.0392 to 0.2110. Moreover, in 2015, 10 provinces (32.26%) were relatively efficient in terms of health resources allocation, while 7 provinces (22.58%) and 14 provinces (45.16%) were weakly efficient and inefficient, respectively. There exist distinct regional disparities in the distribution of health resources in China, which are mainly reflected in the geographic distribution of health resources. Furthermore, the people living in the eastern developed areas are more likely to use outpatient care, while the people living in western underdeveloped areas are more likely to use inpatient care. Moreover, the efficiency of health resources allocation in 21 provinces (67.74%) of China was low and needs to be improved. Thus, the government should pay more attention to the equality based on geographic area, guide patients to choose medical treatment rationally, and optimize the resource

  13. The geographic distribution of the otolaryngology workforce in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lango, Miriam N; Handorf, Elizabeth; Arjmand, Ellis

    2017-01-01

    To describe the deployment of otolaryngologists and evaluate factors associated with the geographic distribution of otolaryngologists in the United States. Cross-sectional study. The otolaryngology physician supply was defined as the number of otolaryngologists per 100,000 in the hospital referral region (HRR). The otolaryngology physician supply was derived from the American Medical Association Masterfile or from the Medicare Enrollment and Provider Utilization Files. Multiple linear regression tested the association of population, physician, and hospital factors on the supply of Medicare-enrolled otolaryngologists/HRR. Two methods of measuring the otolaryngology workforce were moderately correlated across hospital referral regions (Pearson coefficient 0.513, P = .0001); regardless, the supply of otolaryngology providers varies greatly over different geographic regions. Otolaryngologists concentrate in regions with many other physicians, particularly specialist physicians. The otolaryngology supply also increases with regional population income and education levels. Using AMA-derived data, there was no association between the supply of otolaryngologists and staffed acute-care hospital beds and the presence of an otolaryngology residency-training program. In contrast, the supply of otolaryngology providers enrolled in Medicare independently increases for each HRR by 0.8 per 100,000 for each unit increase in supply of hospital beds (P otolaryngology residency-training program (P = .006), accounting for all other factors. Irrespective of methodology, the supply of otolaryngologists varies widely across geographic regions in the United States. For Medicare beneficiaries, regional hospital factors-including the presence of an otolaryngology residency program-may improve access to otolaryngology services. NA Laryngoscope, 127:95-101, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Spatial distribution and influence factors of interprovincial terrestrial physical geographical names in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Wang, Y.; Ju, H.

    2017-12-01

    The interprovincial terrestrial physical geographical entities are the key areas of regional integrated management. Based on toponomy dictionaries and different thematic maps, the attributes and the spatial extent of the interprovincial terrestrial physical geographical names (ITPGN, including terrain ITPGN and water ITPGN) were extracted. The coefficient of variation and Moran's I were combined together to measure the spatial variation and spatial association of ITPGN. The influencing factors of the distribution of ITPGN and the implications for the regional management were further discussed. The results showed that 11325 ITPGN were extracted, including 7082 terrain ITPGN and 4243 water ITPGN. Hunan Province had the largest number of ITPGN in China, and Shanghai had the smallest number. The spatial variance of the terrain ITPGN was larger than that of the water ITPGN, and the ITPGN showed a significant agglomeration phenomenon in the southern part of China. Further analysis showed that the number of ITPGN was positively related with the relative elevation and the population where the relative elevation was lower than 2000m and the population was less than 50 million. But the number of ITPGN showed a negative relationship with the two factors when their values became larger, indicating a large number of unnamed entities existed in complex terrain areas and a decreasing number of terrestrial physical geographical entities in densely populated area. Based on these analysis, we suggest the government take the ITPGN as management units to realize a balance development between different parts of the entities and strengthen the geographical names census and the nomination of unnamed interprovincial physical geographical entities. This study also demonstrated that the methods of literature survey, coefficient of variation and Moran's I can be combined to enhance the understanding of the spatial pattern of ITPGN.

  15. Towards Integrating Distributed Energy Resources and Storage Devices in Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guobin; Yu, Wei; Griffith, David; Golmie, Nada; Moulema, Paul

    2017-02-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) provides a generic infrastructure for different applications to integrate information communication techniques with physical components to achieve automatic data collection, transmission, exchange, and computation. The smart grid, as one of typical applications supported by IoT, denoted as a re-engineering and a modernization of the traditional power grid, aims to provide reliable, secure, and efficient energy transmission and distribution to consumers. How to effectively integrate distributed (renewable) energy resources and storage devices to satisfy the energy service requirements of users, while minimizing the power generation and transmission cost, remains a highly pressing challenge in the smart grid. To address this challenge and assess the effectiveness of integrating distributed energy resources and storage devices, in this paper we develop a theoretical framework to model and analyze three types of power grid systems: the power grid with only bulk energy generators, the power grid with distributed energy resources, and the power grid with both distributed energy resources and storage devices. Based on the metrics of the power cumulative cost and the service reliability to users, we formally model and analyze the impact of integrating distributed energy resources and storage devices in the power grid. We also use the concept of network calculus, which has been traditionally used for carrying out traffic engineering in computer networks, to derive the bounds of both power supply and user demand to achieve a high service reliability to users. Through an extensive performance evaluation, our data shows that integrating distributed energy resources conjointly with energy storage devices can reduce generation costs, smooth the curve of bulk power generation over time, reduce bulk power generation and power distribution losses, and provide a sustainable service reliability to users in the power grid.

  16. Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen A Slagter

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The information processing capacity of the human mind is limited, as is evidenced by the so-called "attentional-blink" deficit: When two targets (T1 and T2 embedded in a rapid stream of events are presented in close temporal proximity, the second target is often not seen. This deficit is believed to result from competition between the two targets for limited attentional resources. Here we show, using performance in an attentional-blink task and scalp-recorded brain potentials, that meditation, or mental training, affects the distribution of limited brain resources. Three months of intensive mental training resulted in a smaller attentional blink and reduced brain-resource allocation to the first target, as reflected by a smaller T1-elicited P3b, a brain-potential index of resource allocation. Furthermore, those individuals that showed the largest decrease in brain-resource allocation to T1 generally showed the greatest reduction in attentional-blink size. These observations provide novel support for the view that the ability to accurately identify T2 depends upon the efficient deployment of resources to T1. The results also demonstrate that mental training can result in increased control over the distribution of limited brain resources. Our study supports the idea that plasticity in brain and mental function exists throughout life and illustrates the usefulness of systematic mental training in the study of the human mind.

  17. Integrating Smart Resources in ROS-based systems to distribute services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo MUNERA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robots need to manage a lot of sensors and actuators using micro-controllers.To do complexes tasks, a highly computation central unit is also needed. In many cases, a robot is a intelligent distributed system formed with a central unit, which manages and distributes several specific tasks to some micro-controller embedded systems onboard.Now these embedded systems are also evolving to more complex systems that are developed not only for executing simple tasks but offering some advanced algorithmsjust as complex data processing, adaptive execution, or fault-tolerance and alarm rising mechanisms. To manage these types of embedded systems a paradigm, calledSmart Resource has been developed. Smart Resources topology has been raised to manage resources which execution relies on a physical embedded hardware. TheseSmart Resources are defined as a list of distributed services that can configure its execution in order to accomplish a context and quality requirements. In order to provide a more general implementation Smart Resources are integrated into the RobotOperating System (ROS. Paper presents a solution based on the Turtlebot platformrunning ROS. The solution shows how robots can make use of all the functions andmechanisms provided by the ROS and the distribution, reliability and adaptability ofthe Smart Resources. In addition it is also addressed the flexibility and scalability ofimplementation by combining real and simulated devices into the same platform

  18. Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas: geographical and chronological distribution of definitive hosts versus disease reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Romina; Robles, Maria Del Rosario; Navone, Graciela T; Diaz, Julia I

    2018-03-01

    Angiostrongyliasis is an infection caused by nematode worms of the genus Angiostrongylus. The adult worms inhabit the pulmonary arteries, heart, bronchioles of the lung, or mesenteric arteries of the caecum of definitive host. Of a total of 23 species of Angiostrongylus cited worldwide, only nine were registered in the American Continent. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are considered zoonoses when the larvae accidentally parasitise man. In the present study, geographical and chronological distribution of definitive hosts of Angiostrongylus in the Americas is analysed in order to observe their relationship with disease reports. Moreover, the role of different definitive hosts as sentinels and dispersers of infective stages is discussed. The study area includes the Americas. First records of Angiostrongylus spp. in definitive or accidental hosts were compiled from the literature. Data were included in tables and figures and were matched to geographic information systems (GIS). Most geographical records of Angiostrongylus spp. both for definitive and accidental hosts belong to tropical areas, mainly equatorial zone. In relation to those species of human health importance, as A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, most disease cases indicate a coincidence between the finding of definitive host and disease record. However, in some geographic site there are gaps between report of definitive host and disease record. In many areas, human populations have invaded natural environments and their socioeconomic conditions do not allow adequate medical care. Consequently, many cases for angiostrongyliasis could have gone unreported or unrecognised throughout history and in the nowadays. Moreover, the population expansion and the climatic changes invite to make broader and more complete range of observation on the species that involve possible epidemiological risks. This paper integrates and shows the current distribution of Angiostrongylus species in America

  19. Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas: geographical and chronological distribution of definitive hosts versus disease reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Romina; Robles, Maria del Rosario; Navone, Graciela T; Diaz, Julia I

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Angiostrongyliasis is an infection caused by nematode worms of the genus Angiostrongylus. The adult worms inhabit the pulmonary arteries, heart, bronchioles of the lung, or mesenteric arteries of the caecum of definitive host. Of a total of 23 species of Angiostrongylus cited worldwide, only nine were registered in the American Continent. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are considered zoonoses when the larvae accidentally parasitise man. OBJECTIVES In the present study, geographical and chronological distribution of definitive hosts of Angiostrongylus in the Americas is analysed in order to observe their relationship with disease reports. Moreover, the role of different definitive hosts as sentinels and dispersers of infective stages is discussed. METHODS The study area includes the Americas. First records of Angiostrongylus spp. in definitive or accidental hosts were compiled from the literature. Data were included in tables and figures and were matched to geographic information systems (GIS). FINDINGS Most geographical records of Angiostrongylus spp. both for definitive and accidental hosts belong to tropical areas, mainly equatorial zone. In relation to those species of human health importance, as A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, most disease cases indicate a coincidence between the finding of definitive host and disease record. However, in some geographic site there are gaps between report of definitive host and disease record. In many areas, human populations have invaded natural environments and their socioeconomic conditions do not allow adequate medical care. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Consequently, many cases for angiostrongyliasis could have gone unreported or unrecognised throughout history and in the nowadays. Moreover, the population expansion and the climatic changes invite to make broader and more complete range of observation on the species that involve possible epidemiological risks. This paper integrates and shows the

  20. Geographic distribution of ebony leaf monkey Trachypithecus auratus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812) (Mammalia: Primates: Cercopithecidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    As one of the fundamental units of ecology and biogeography, the geographic distribution of the endemic and threatened ebony leaf monkey Trachypithecus auratus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812) on the islands of Java, Bali, and Lombok (Indonesia) has been assessed. All localities where the species

  1. Optimal dynamic control of resources in a distributed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang G.; Krishna, C. M.; Lee, Yann-Hang

    1989-01-01

    The authors quantitatively formulate the problem of controlling resources in a distributed system so as to optimize a reward function and derive optimal control strategies using Markov decision theory. The control variables treated are quite general; they could be control decisions related to system configuration, repair, diagnostics, files, or data. Two algorithms for resource control in distributed systems are derived for time-invariant and periodic environments, respectively. A detailed example to demonstrate the power and usefulness of the approach is provided.

  2. Social justice issues related to uneven distribution of resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Naomi E; Bell, Sue Ellen

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the social justice issues resulting from the uneven distribution of resources. In this article, justice theories are discussed in relation to two of these issues: lack of adequate food and shelter and inequitable access to an appropriate continuum of health care. Public health nurses have the obligation to deal with the results of poverty and the uneven distribution of resources, which pose a threat to the common good in the United States and throughout the global community.

  3. The bioclimatic envelope of the wolverine (Gulo gulo): do climatic constraints limit its geographic distribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Copeland; K. S. McKelvey; K. B. Aubry; A. Landa; J. Persson; R. M. Inman; J. Krebs; E. Lofroth; H. Golden; J. R. Squires; A. Magoun; M. K. Schwartz; J. Wilmot; C. L. Copeland; R. E. Yates; I. Kojola; R. May

    2010-01-01

    We propose a fundamental geographic distribution for the wolverine (Gulo gulo (L., 1758)) based on the hypothesis that the occurrence of wolverines is constrained by their obligate association with persistent spring snow cover for successful reproductive denning and by an upper limit of thermoneutrality. To investigate this hypothesis, we developed a composite of MODIS...

  4. Geographic distribution of Staphylococcus aureus causing invasive infections in Europe: a molecular-epidemiological analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajo Grundmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important human pathogens and methicillin-resistant variants (MRSAs are a major cause of hospital and community-acquired infection. We aimed to map the geographic distribution of the dominant clones that cause invasive infections in Europe.In each country, staphylococcal reference laboratories secured the participation of a sufficient number of hospital laboratories to achieve national geo-demographic representation. Participating laboratories collected successive methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and MRSA isolates from patients with invasive S. aureus infection using an agreed protocol. All isolates were sent to the respective national reference laboratories and characterised by quality-controlled sequence typing of the variable region of the staphylococcal spa gene (spa typing, and data were uploaded to a central database. Relevant genetic and phenotypic information was assembled for interactive interrogation by a purpose-built Web-based mapping application. Between September 2006 and February 2007, 357 laboratories serving 450 hospitals in 26 countries collected 2,890 MSSA and MRSA isolates from patients with invasive S. aureus infection. A wide geographical distribution of spa types was found with some prevalent in all European countries. MSSA were more diverse than MRSA. Genetic diversity of MRSA differed considerably between countries with dominant MRSA spa types forming distinctive geographical clusters. We provide evidence that a network approach consisting of decentralised typing and visualisation of aggregated data using an interactive mapping tool can provide important information on the dynamics of MRSA populations such as early signalling of emerging strains, cross border spread, and importation by travel.In contrast to MSSA, MRSA spa types have a predominantly regional distribution in Europe. This finding is indicative of the selection and spread of a limited number of clones within health care

  5. The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System (OGIRS) is a highly interactive data entry, storage, manipulation, and display software system for use with geographically referenced data. Although originally developed for a project concerned with coal strip mine reclamation, OGIRS is capable of handling any geographically referenced data for a variety of natural resource management applications. A special effort has been made to integrate remotely sensed data into the information system. The timeliness and synoptic coverage of satellite data are particularly useful attributes for inclusion into the geographic information system.

  6. Modeling the geographic distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Micah; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Eisen, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to serving as vectors of several other human pathogens, the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, and western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls, are the primary vectors of the spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi ) that causes Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. Over the past two decades, the geographic range of I. pacificus has changed modestly while, in contrast, the I. scapularis range has expanded substantially, which likely contributes to the concurrent expansion in the distribution of human Lyme disease cases in the Northeastern, North-Central and Mid-Atlantic states. Identifying counties that contain suitable habitat for these ticks that have not yet reported established vector populations can aid in targeting limited vector surveillance resources to areas where tick invasion and potential human risk are likely to occur. We used county-level vector distribution information and ensemble modeling to map the potential distribution of I. scapularis and I. pacificus in the contiguous United States as a function of climate, elevation, and forest cover. Results show that I. pacificus is currently present within much of the range classified by our model as suitable for establishment. In contrast, environmental conditions are suitable for I. scapularis to continue expanding its range into northwestern Minnesota, central and northern Michigan, within the Ohio River Valley, and inland from the southeastern and Gulf coasts. Overall, our ensemble models show suitable habitat for I. scapularis in 441 eastern counties and for I. pacificus in 11 western counties where surveillance records have not yet supported classification of the counties as established.

  7. Enforcing Resource Sharing Agreements Among Distributed Server Clusters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Tao; Karamcheti, Vijay

    2001-01-01

    Future scalable, high throughput, and high performance applications are likely to execute on platforms constructed by clustering multiple autonomous distributed servers, with resource access governed...

  8. Assessment of grid-friendly collective optimization framework for distributed energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pensini, Alessandro; Robinson, Matthew; Heine, Nicholas; Stadler, Michael; Mammoli, Andrea

    2015-11-04

    Distributed energy resources have the potential to provide services to facilities and buildings at lower cost and environmental impact in comparison to traditional electric-gridonly services. The reduced cost could result from a combination of higher system efficiency and exploitation of electricity tariff structures. Traditionally, electricity tariffs are designed to encourage the use of ‘off peak’ power and discourage the use of ‘onpeak’ power, although recent developments in renewable energy resources and distributed generation systems (such as their increasing levels of penetration and their increased controllability) are resulting in pressures to adopt tariffs of increasing complexity. Independently of the tariff structure, more or less sophisticated methods exist that allow distributed energy resources to take advantage of such tariffs, ranging from simple pre-planned schedules to Software-as-a-Service schedule optimization tools. However, as the penetration of distributed energy resources increases, there is an increasing chance of a ‘tragedy of the commons’ mechanism taking place, where taking advantage of tariffs for local benefit can ultimately result in degradation of service and higher energy costs for all. In this work, we use a scheduling optimization tool, in combination with a power distribution system simulator, to investigate techniques that could mitigate the deleterious effect of ‘selfish’ optimization, so that the high-penetration use of distributed energy resources to reduce operating costs remains advantageous while the quality of service and overall energy cost to the community is not affected.

  9. Indoor radon concentration data: Its geographic and geologic distribution, an example from the Capital District, NY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.J.; Overeynder, H.M.; Thomas, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    Most studies of the geographic distribution of indoor radon levels are plotted by county or ZIP code. This method is used for the radon potential maps produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH). The basis for the mapping is the mean or median indoor radon count for all the data provided by NYSDOH within each geographic area. While testing the indoor radon analyses provided to the authors by CMT Independent Laboratories, we discovered data that deviated markedly from the EPA and NYSDOH means for the Capital District of New York (Albany and surrounding counties). Their screening indoor radon average concentrations in pCi/L, indicate low potential for Schenectady (3.0), Saratoga (3.2), and Albany (3.7) counties; and moderate potential for Rensselaer (6.4) and Columbia (7.0) counties. Our database of over 3,000 analyses contains over 800 records of indoor radon counts above 4 pCi/L (14-47% of each county's analyses), many high enough to be rated as a serious health hazard. In order to obtain greater precision of information, the authors plotted their indoor radon data by street address using MapInfo, a geographic Information System (GIS), and StreetInfo, MapInfo's TIGER address database. We compared the geographic distribution of our data to both the Bedrock Geology and Surficial Geology Maps of New York State. The results show a striking relationship of radon concentrations to bedrock, faults and permeability of surficial material. Data being compiled and mapped by street address by the NYSDOH in Erie County in western New York, confirm our results

  10. Geographic distribution and clinical description of leishmaniasis cases in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C M; Franke, E D; Cachay, M I; Tejada, A; Cruz, M E; Kreutzer, R D; Barker, D C; McCann, S H; Watts, D M

    1998-08-01

    Studies were conducted from 1986 through 1993 to further define the geographic distribution and relative importance of different species of Leishmania as a cause of leishmaniasis in Peru. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of cutaneous and/or mucosal or diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis were enrolled at the Naval Medical Research Institute Detachment (NAMRID) Laboratory in Lima, the Tropical Disease Clinic at San Marcos University Daniel A. Carrión, the Central Military Hospital, and a Ministry of Health hospital in Cusco, Peru. Clinical features, lesion aspirates, and biopsy tissue were obtained from each patient. All specimens were collected and assayed separately, including multiple specimens from some of the same patients for Leishmania parasites by inoculating aliquots of either aspirates or biopsy tissue suspensions onto Senekji's blood agar medium. Stocks of Leishmania isolates were used to prepare promastigotes to produce extracts for identifying the Leishmania species by the cellulose acetate electrophoresis enzyme technique. A total of 351 isolates of Leishmania were obtained from 350 patients who were infected primarily in the low and high jungle of at least 15 different Departments of Peru. Of the 351 isolates, 79% were identified as L. (V.) braziliensis, 7% as L. (V.) guyanensis, 10% as L. (V.) peruviana, 2% as L. (V.) lainsoni, and 1.7% as L. (L.) amazonensis. The clinical form of disease varied depending on the species of Leishmania, with L. (V.) braziliensis being associated most frequently with cutaneous, mucosal ulcers and mixed cutaneous and mucosal disease, and L. (V) peruviana, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) lainsoni with cutaneous lesions. Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was isolated from six patients, three with cutaneous lesions, one with mucosal lesions, and two with diffuse cutaneous lesions. Among all of the leishmaniasis cases, males were affected more frequently, and cases occurred among patients less than 10 to more than 51 years of age. These

  11. Distributed Control and Management of Renewable Electric Energy Resources for Future Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokhtari, Ghassem; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Nourbakhsh, Ghavameddin

    2016-01-01

    strategy is a promising approach to manage and utilise the resources in future distribution networks to effectively deal with grid electric quality issues and requirements. Jointly, utility and customers the owners of the resources in the network are considered as part of a practical coordination strategy......It is anticipated that both medium- and low-voltage distribution networks will include high level of distributed renewable energy resources, in the future. The high penetration of these resources inevitably can introduce various power quality issues, including; overvoltage and overloading....... This book chapter provides the current research state of the art concepts and techniques in dealing with these potential issues. The methods provided in this chapter are based on distributed control approach, tailored and suitable particularly for the future distribution composition. The distributed control...

  12. Geographic distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus collected from used tires in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Yukiko; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Kawada, Hitoshi; Son, Tran Hai; Hoa, Nguyen Thuy; Takagi, Masahiro

    2010-03-01

    The spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in environmental and geographical zones, e.g., urban-rural, coastal-mountainous, and north-south, was investigated throughout Vietnam. Immature stages were collected from used tires along roads. The effects of regions, seasons, and the degree of urbanization on the density and the frequency were statistically analyzed. Aedes aegypti predominated in the southern and central regions, while Ae. albopictus predominated in the northern region, which may be related to climatic conditions (temperature and rainfall). Larval collection from used tires may be suitable to assess rapidly the current distribution of dengue mosquitoes for estimating health risks and implementing vector control measures.

  13. Mapping and Modelling the Geographical Distribution and Environmental Limits of Podoconiosis in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Deribe, Kebede; Cano, Jorge; Newport, Melanie J.; Golding, Nick; Pullan, Rachel L.; Sime, Heven; Gebretsadik, Abeba; Assefa, Ashenafi; Kebede, Amha; Hailu, Asrat; Rebollo, Maria P.; Shafi, Oumer; Bockarie, Moses J.; Aseffa, Abraham; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud Ethiopia is assumed to have the highest burden of podoconiosis globally, but the geographical distribution and environmental limits and correlates are yet to be fully investigated. In this paper we use data from a nationwide survey to address these issues.\\ud \\ud Methodology\\ud \\ud Our analyses are based on data arising from the integrated mapping of podoconiosis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) conducted in 2013, supplemented by data from an earlier mapping of LF in western Et...

  14. Exploring geographic distributions of high-risk water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and their association with child diarrhea in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuaki Hirai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-risk water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH practices are still prevalent in most low-income countries. Because of limited access to WASH, children may be put at an increased risk of diarrheal diseases. Objectives: This study aims to 1 develop a new measure of WASH-induced burden, the WASH Resource Index (WRI, and estimate its correlation with child diarrhea and an additive index of high-risk WASH practices; 2 explore the geographic distribution of high-risk WASH practices, child diarrhea, and summary indices at the cluster level; and 3 examine the association between the WRI and child diarrhea at the individual level. Design: A sample of 7,019 children from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2011 were included in this study. Principal component analysis was used to develop a WRI, and households were classified as WASH poorest, poorer, middle, richer, and richest. A hot spot analysis was conducted to assess whether and how high-risk WASH practices and child diarrhea were geographically clustered. A potential association between the WRI and child diarrhea was examined through a nested regression analysis. Results: High-risk WASH practices were clustered at geographically distant regions from Kampala. The 2-week prevalence of child diarrhea, however, was concentrated in Eastern and East Central regions where high-risk WASH practices were not prevalent. At the individual level, none of the high-risk WASH practices were significantly associated with child diarrhea. Being in the highest WASH quintile was, however, significantly associated with 24.9% lower prevalence of child diarrhea compared to being in the lowest quintile (p<0.05. Conclusions: Only a weak association was found between the WRI and child diarrhea in this study. Future research should explore the potential utility of the WRI to examine WASH-induced burden.

  15. The impact of pesticide suicide on the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan: a spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Sterne, Jonathan Ac; Eddleston, Michael; Lin, Jin-Jia; Gunnell, David

    2012-04-02

    Pesticide self-poisoning is the most commonly used suicide method worldwide, but few studies have investigated the national epidemiology of pesticide suicide in countries where it is a major public health problem. This study aims to investigate geographic variations in pesticide suicide and their impact on the spatial distribution of suicide in Taiwan. Smoothed standardized mortality ratios for pesticide suicide (2002-2009) were mapped across Taiwan's 358 districts (median population aged 15 or above = 27 000), and their associations with the size of agricultural workforce were investigated using Bayesian hierarchical models. In 2002-2009 pesticide poisoning was the third most common suicide method in Taiwan, accounting for 13.6% (4913/36 110) of all suicides. Rates were higher in agricultural East and Central Taiwan and lower in major cities. Almost half (47%) of all pesticide suicides occurred in areas where only 13% of Taiwan's population lived. The geographic distribution of overall suicides was more similar to that of pesticide suicides than non-pesticide suicides. Rural-urban differences in suicide were mostly due to pesticide suicide. Areas where a higher proportion of people worked in agriculture showed higher pesticide suicide rates (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] per standard deviation increase in the proportion of agricultural workers = 1.58, 95% Credible Interval [CrI] 1.44-1.74) and overall suicide rates (ARR = 1.06, 95% CrI 1.03-1.10) but lower non-pesticide suicide rates (ARR = 0.91, 95% CrI 0.87-0.95). Easy access to pesticides appears to influence the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan, highlighting the potential benefits of targeted prevention strategies such as restricting access to highly toxic pesticides.

  16. Vermont Natural Resources Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The purpose of the�Natural Resources Atlas�is to provide geographic information about environmental features and sites that the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources...

  17. Advanced model for expansion of natural gas distribution networks based on geographic information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Rosado, I.J.; Fernandez-Jimenez, L.A.; Garcia-Garrido, E.; Zorzano-Santamaria, P.; Zorzano-Alba, E. [La Rioja Univ., La Rioja (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Miranda, V.; Montneiro, C. [Porto Univ., Porto (Portugal). Faculty of Engineering]|[Inst. de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2005-07-01

    An advanced geographic information system (GIS) model of natural gas distribution networks was presented. The raster-based model was developed to evaluate costs associated with the expansion of electrical networks due to increased demand in the La Rioja region of Spain. The model was also used to evaluate costs associated with maintenance and amortization of the already existing distribution network. Expansion costs of the distribution network were modelled in various demand scenarios. The model also considered a variety of technical factors associated with pipeline length and topography. Soil and slope data from previous pipeline projects were used to estimate real costs per unit length of pipeline. It was concluded that results obtained by the model will be used by planners to select zones where expansion is economically feasible. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Geographical Simulation and Optimization System (GeoSOS and Its Application in the Analysis of Geographic National Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the Chinese first survey on geographic national conditions has completed, an urgent need is to analyze these geographical data, such as mining of spatial distribution patterns, land use transition rules, development trends. The analysis is crucial for extracting the knowledge from these big data about geographic national conditions. The remote sensing interpretation data and land use/cover data generated by these geographic national conditions monitoring projects are the basic data sources for a variety of research and applications in terms of land use change detection, urban dynamic analysis, and urban/land use planning. The information can be used for assisting in the coordination of land resource use and decision making for urban and rural development, ecological environment protection and other issues that depends on spatial intelligent decisions. We proposed the theoretical framework of geographical simulation and optimization system (GeoSOS, which coupled geographic process simulation/prediction and spatial optimization, provides powerful theoretical support and practical tools for above researches. This paper develops the extension of GeoSOS software-GeoSOS for ArcGIS, which is an ArcGIS Add-In runs on ArcGIS platform for facilitating the above analyses. We take the urban expansion and ecological protection research in rapid urbanization area as an example, use the software to tackle a series of urbanization issues in the study area. The simulation results show that the predicted land development intensity of Guangdong Province will exceed the constraint index in 2020 according to the national development plan. However, the urbanization expansion based on the constraints of land development intensity and ecological protection can satisfy these constraints, and obtain a more compact landscape pattern. The analysis has shown that GeoSOS can be a useful tool for assisting in the analysis of geographic national conditions information

  19. Geographical Accessibility to Obstetric and Neonatal Care and its Effect on Early Neonatal Mortality in Colombia, 2012-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Rojas Gualdrón

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The distribution of health resources influences early neonatal mortality, granting access to obstetric care which is a major public health problem. However, the geographical dimension of this influence has not been studied in Colombia. Objective: To describe the geographical accessibility to obstetric and neonatal care beds and its association with early neonatal mortality in Colombia and its municipalities. Method:An ecological study at municipal level was carried out. Ordinary least squares (OLS regression and a geographically weighted regression (GWR were used to explore statistical and spatial associations. Results: The municipalities in Colombia with Higher mortality tend to have lower geographical accessibility to obstetric and neonatal beds after controlling the fertility and economic characteristics of these municipalities. This association is significant only in municipalities of the west coast. The strength of this association decreases in inner municipalities. Discussion: The centralization of obstetric and neonatal beds in major municipalities around the central region leaves municipalities with high risk of mortality underserved. The decentralization of obstetric and neonatal healthcare resources is a mandatory issue in order to reduce geographical disparities in mortality and to improve neonatal survival, and a healthy beginning of life.

  20. Simultaneous allocation of distributed resources using improved teaching learning based optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanwar, Neeraj; Gupta, Nikhil; Niazi, K.R.; Swarnkar, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simultaneous allocation of distributed energy resources in distribution networks. • Annual energy loss reduction is optimized using a multi-level load profile. • A new penalty factor approach is suggested to check node voltage deviations. • An improved TLBO is proposed by suggesting several modifications in standard TLBO. • An intelligent search is proposed to enhance the performance of solution technique. - Abstract: Active and reactive power flow in distribution networks can be effectively controlled by optimally placing distributed resources like shunt capacitors and distributed generators. This paper presents improved variant of Teaching Learning Based Optimization (TLBO) to efficiently and effectively deal with the problem of simultaneous allocation of these distributed resources in radial distribution networks while considering multi-level load scenario. Several algorithm specific modifications are suggested in the standard form of TLBO to cope against the intrinsic flaws of this technique. In addition, an intelligent search approach is proposed to restrict the problem search space without loss of diversity. This enhances the overall performance of the proposed method. The proposed method is investigated on IEEE 33-bus, 69-bus and 83-bus test distribution systems showing promising results

  1. TNT Maritime Interdiction Operation Experiments: Enabling Radiation Awareness and Geographically Distributed Collaboration for Network-Centric Maritime Interdiction Operations [Preprint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bordetsky, Alex; Dougan, Arden; Chiann, Foo Y; Kilberg, Andres

    2007-01-01

    ...) comprised of long-haul OFDM networks combined with self-forming wireless mesh links to radiation detection sensors, and real-time radiation awareness collaboration with geographically distributed partners...

  2. Distributed energy resources management using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a fuel-shifting demand response resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, H.; Sousa, T.; Soares, J.; Faria, P.; Vale, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Definition fuel shifting demand response programs applied to the electric vehicles. • Integration of the proposed fuel shifting in energy resource management algorithm. • Analysis of fuel shifting contribution to support the consumption increasing. • Analysis of fuel shifting contribution to support the electric vehicles growing. • Sensitivity analysis considering different electric vehicles penetration levels. - Abstract: In the smart grids context, distributed energy resources management plays an important role in the power systems’ operation. Battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles should be important resources in the future distribution networks operation. Therefore, it is important to develop adequate methodologies to schedule the electric vehicles’ charge and discharge processes, avoiding network congestions and providing ancillary services. This paper proposes the participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in fuel shifting demand response programs. Two services are proposed, namely the fuel shifting and the fuel discharging. The fuel shifting program consists in replacing the electric energy by fossil fuels in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles daily trips, and the fuel discharge program consists in use of their internal combustion engine to generate electricity injecting into the network. These programs are included in an energy resources management algorithm which integrates the management of other resources. The paper presents a case study considering a 37-bus distribution network with 25 distributed generators, 1908 consumers, and 2430 plug-in vehicles. Two scenarios are tested, namely a scenario with high photovoltaic generation, and a scenario without photovoltaic generation. A sensitivity analyses is performed in order to evaluate when each energy resource is required

  3. Wide-Area Publish/Subscribe Mobile Resource Discovery Based on IPv6 GeoNetworking

    OpenAIRE

    Noguchi, Satoru; Matsuura, Satoshi; Inomata, Atsuo; Fujikawa, Kazutoshi; Sunahara, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Resource discovery is an essential function for distributed mobile applications integrated in vehicular communication systems. Key requirements of the mobile resource discovery are wide-area geographic-based discovery and scalable resource discovery not only inside a vehicular ad-hoc network but also through the Internet. While a number of resource discovery solutions have been proposed, most of them have focused on specific scale of network. Furthermore, managing a large number of mobile res...

  4. Developing Distributed System With Service Resource Oriented Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermawan Hermawan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Service Oriented Architecture is a design paradigm in software engineering with which a distributed system is built for an enterprise. This paradigm aims at providing the system as a service through a protocol in web service technology, namely Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP. However, SOA is service level agreements of webservice. For this reason, this reasearch aims at combining SOA with Resource Oriented Architecture in order to expand scalability of services. This combination creates Sevice Resource Oriented Architecture (SROA with which a distributed system is developed that integrates services within project management software. Following this design, the software is developed according to a framework of Agile Model Driven Development which can reduce complexities of the whole process of software development.

  5. [Predicting the impact of global warming on the geographical distribution pattern of Quercus variabilis in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Zhang, Xing-wang; Fang, Yan-ming

    2014-12-01

    The geographical distribution of Quercus variabilis in China with its climate characteristics was analyzed based on DIVA-GIS which was also used to estimate the response of future potential distribution to global warming by Bioclim and Domain models. Analysis results showed the geographical distribution of Q. variabilis could be divided into 7 subregions: Henduan Mountains, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, North China, East China, Liaodong-Shandong Peninsula, Taiwan Island, and Qinling-Daba Mountains. These subregions are across 7 temperature zones, 2 moisture regions and 17 climatic subregions, including 8 climate types. The modern abundance center of Q. variabilis is Qinling, Daba and Funiu mountains. The condition of mean annual temperature 7.5-19.8 degrees C annual precipitation 471-1511 mm, is suitable for Q. variabilis. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC values), of Domain and Boiclim models were 0.910, 0.779; the former predicted that the potential regions of high suitability for Q. variabilis are Qinling, Daba, Funiu, Tongbai, and Dabie mountains, eastern and western Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, hills of southern Jiangsu and Anhui, part of the mountains in North China. Global warming might lead to the shrinking in suitable region and retreating from the south for Q. variabilis.

  6. The Distribution of Heavy Metal Pollutants in Suez Bay Using Geographic Information System (GIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.B.; Mohamed, W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Suez city represents the southern entrance of the Suez Canal. As a result of the rapid development of industrialization and anthropogenic activities of Suez city may be entered containments such as heavy metals through Suez bay boundaries. The geographical information system (Arc GIS 9.1) is used to study the spatial distribution of heavy metals concentrations (Cd, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cu and Zn) of water samples which were collected in four different sampling sites (I, II, III and IV) from Suez bay. In this study, tabular data representation of the spatial distribution was developed using the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation method. The GIS technique was applied to transfer the information into a final map illustrating the spatial distribution of heavy metals within the studied area. GIS models showed the high concentrations of heavy metals in some sites in the Suez city affecting by their activities. An overall distribution map of heavy metals is observed from GIS special analysis. Site (IV) in Suez City demonstrated the highest polluted are a in the overall distribution map

  7. Using geographic distribution of well-screen depths and hydrogeologic conditions to identify areas of concern for contaminant migration through inactive supply wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailey, Robert M.

    2018-02-01

    Contaminant migration through inactive supply wells can negatively affect groundwater quality and the combined effects from groups of such wells may cause greater impacts. Because the number of wells in many basins is often large and the geographic areas involved can be vast, approaches are needed to estimate potential impacts and focus limited resources for investigation and corrective measures on the most important areas. One possibility is to evaluate the geographic distribution of well-screen depths relative to hydrogeologic conditions and assess where contaminant migration through wells may be impacting groundwater quality. This approach is demonstrated for a geographically extensive area in the southern Central Valley of California, USA. The conditions that lead to wells acting as conduits for contaminant migration are evaluated and areas where the problem likely occurs are identified. Although only a small fraction of all wells appear to act as conduits, potential impacts may be significant considering needs to control nonpoint-source pollution and improve drinking water quality for rural residents. Addressing a limited number of areas where contaminant migration rates are expected to be high may cost-effectively accomplish the most beneficial groundwater quality protection and improvement. While this work focuses on a specific region, the results indicate that impacts from groups of wells may occur in other areas with similar conditions. Analyses similar to that demonstrated here may guide efficient investigation and corrective action in such areas with benefits occurring for groundwater quality. Potential benefits may justify expenditures to develop the necessary data for performing the analyses.

  8. Understanding the geographic distribution of tropical cyclone formation for applications in climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tory, Kevin J.; Ye, H.; Dare, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    Projections of Tropical cyclone (TC) formation under future climate scenarios are dependent on climate model simulations. However, many models produce unrealistic geographical distributions of TC formation, especially in the north and south Atlantic and eastern south Pacific TC basins. In order to improve confidence in projections it is important to understand the reasons behind these model errors. However, considerable effort is required to analyse the many models used in projection studies. To address this problem, a novel diagnostic is developed that provides compelling insight into why TCs form where they do, using a few summary diagrams. The diagnostic is developed after identifying a relationship between seasonal climatologies of atmospheric variables in 34 years of ECMWF reanalysis data, and TC detection distributions in the same data. Geographic boundaries of TC formation are constructed from four threshold quantities. TCs form where Emanuel's Maximum Potential Intensity, V_{{PI}}, exceeds 40 {ms}^{{ - 1}}, 700 hPa relative humidity, RH_{{700}}, exceeds 40%, and the magnitude of the difference in vector winds between 850 and 200 hPa, V_{{sh}}, is less than 20 {ms}^{{ - 1}}. The equatorial boundary is best defined by a composite quantity containing the ratio of absolute vorticity (η ) to the meridional gradient of absolute vorticity (β ^{*}), rather than η alone. {β ^*} is also identified as a potentially important ingredient for TC genesis indices. A comparison of detected Tropical Depression (TD) and Tropical Storm (TS) climatologies revealed TDs more readily intensify further to TS where {V_{PI}} is elevated and {V_{sh}} is relatively weak. The distributions of each threshold quantity identify the factors that favour and suppress TC formation throughout the tropics in the real world. This information can be used to understand why TC formation is poorly represented in some climate models, and shows potential for understanding anomalous TC formation

  9. Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medlock Jolyon M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors are involved in determining the latitudinal and altitudinal spread of the important tick vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae in Europe, as well as in changes in the distribution within its prior endemic zones. This paper builds on published literature and unpublished expert opinion from the VBORNET network with the aim of reviewing the evidence for these changes in Europe and discusses the many climatic, ecological, landscape and anthropogenic drivers. These can be divided into those directly related to climatic change, contributing to an expansion in the tick’s geographic range at extremes of altitude in central Europe, and at extremes of latitude in Scandinavia; those related to changes in the distribution of tick hosts, particularly roe deer and other cervids; other ecological changes such as habitat connectivity and changes in land management; and finally, anthropogenically induced changes. These factors are strongly interlinked and often not well quantified. Although a change in climate plays an important role in certain geographic regions, for much of Europe it is non-climatic factors that are becoming increasingly important. How we manage habitats on a landscape scale, and the changes in the distribution and abundance of tick hosts are important considerations during our assessment and management of the public health risks associated with ticks and tick-borne disease issues in 21st century Europe. Better understanding and mapping of the spread of I. ricinus (and changes in its abundance is, however, essential to assess the risk of the spread of infections transmitted by this vector species. Enhanced tick surveillance with harmonized approaches for comparison of data enabling the follow-up of trends at EU level will improve the messages on risk related to tick-borne diseases to policy makers, other stake holders and to the general public.

  10. The impact of pesticide suicide on the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shu-Sen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide self-poisoning is the most commonly used suicide method worldwide, but few studies have investigated the national epidemiology of pesticide suicide in countries where it is a major public health problem. This study aims to investigate geographic variations in pesticide suicide and their impact on the spatial distribution of suicide in Taiwan. Methods Smoothed standardized mortality ratios for pesticide suicide (2002-2009 were mapped across Taiwan's 358 districts (median population aged 15 or above = 27 000, and their associations with the size of agricultural workforce were investigated using Bayesian hierarchical models. Results In 2002-2009 pesticide poisoning was the third most common suicide method in Taiwan, accounting for 13.6% (4913/36 110 of all suicides. Rates were higher in agricultural East and Central Taiwan and lower in major cities. Almost half (47% of all pesticide suicides occurred in areas where only 13% of Taiwan's population lived. The geographic distribution of overall suicides was more similar to that of pesticide suicides than non-pesticide suicides. Rural-urban differences in suicide were mostly due to pesticide suicide. Areas where a higher proportion of people worked in agriculture showed higher pesticide suicide rates (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] per standard deviation increase in the proportion of agricultural workers = 1.58, 95% Credible Interval [CrI] 1.44-1.74 and overall suicide rates (ARR = 1.06, 95% CrI 1.03-1.10 but lower non-pesticide suicide rates (ARR = 0.91, 95% CrI 0.87-0.95. Conclusion Easy access to pesticides appears to influence the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan, highlighting the potential benefits of targeted prevention strategies such as restricting access to highly toxic pesticides.

  11. Quantitative Study of the Geographical Distribution of the Authorship of High-Energy Physics Journals

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Jan; Mele, S

    2007-01-01

    The recent debate on Open Access publishing in High-Energy Physics has exposed the problem of assessing the scienti c production of every country where scholars are active in this discipline. This assessment is complicated by the highly-collaborative cross-border tradition of High-Energy Physics research. We present the results of a quantitative study of the geographical distribution of authors of High-Energy Physics articles, which takes into account cross-border co-authorship by attributing articles to countries on a pro-rata basis. Aggregated data on the share of scienti c results published by each country are presented together with a breakdown for the most popular journals in the eld, and a separation for articles by small groups or large collaborations. Collaborative patterns across large geographic areas are also investigated. Finally, the High-Energy Physics production of each country is compared with some economic indicators.

  12. Random-growth urban model with geographical fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kii, Masanobu; Akimoto, Keigo; Doi, Kenji

    2012-12-01

    This paper formulates a random-growth urban model with a notion of geographical fitness. Using techniques of complex-network theory, we study our system as a type of preferential-attachment model with fitness, and we analyze its macro behavior to clarify the properties of the city-size distributions it predicts. First, restricting the geographical fitness to take positive values and using a continuum approach, we show that the city-size distributions predicted by our model asymptotically approach Pareto distributions with coefficients greater than unity. Then, allowing the geographical fitness to take negative values, we perform local coefficient analysis to show that the predicted city-size distributions can deviate from Pareto distributions, as is often observed in actual city-size distributions. As a result, the model we propose can generate a generic class of city-size distributions, including but not limited to Pareto distributions. For applications to city-population projections, our simple model requires randomness only when new cities are created, not during their subsequent growth. This property leads to smooth trajectories of city population growth, in contrast to other models using Gibrat’s law. In addition, a discrete form of our dynamical equations can be used to estimate past city populations based on present-day data; this fact allows quantitative assessment of the performance of our model. Further study is needed to determine appropriate formulas for the geographical fitness.

  13. Temperature effects on gametophyte life-history traits and geographic distribution of two cryptic kelp species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Valeria Oppliger

    Full Text Available A major determinant of the geographic distribution of a species is expected to be its physiological response to changing abiotic variables over its range. The range of a species often corresponds to the geographic extent of temperature regimes the organism can physiologically tolerate. Many species have very distinct life history stages that may exhibit different responses to environmental factors. In this study we emphasized the critical role of the haploid microscopic stage (gametophyte of the life cycle to explain the difference of edge distribution of two related kelp species. Lessonia nigrescens was recently identified as two cryptic species occurring in parapatry along the Chilean coast: one located north and the other south of a biogeographic boundary at latitude 29-30°S. Six life history traits from microscopic stages were identified and estimated under five treatments of temperature in eight locations distributed along the Chilean coast in order to (1 estimate the role of temperature in the present distribution of the two cryptic L. nigrescens species, (2 compare marginal populations to central populations of the two cryptic species. In addition, we created a periodic matrix model to estimate the population growth rate (λ at the five temperature treatments. Differential tolerance to temperature was demonstrated between the two species, with the gametophytes of the Northern species being more tolerant to higher temperatures than gametophytes from the south. Second, the two species exhibited different life history strategies with a shorter haploid phase in the Northern species contrasted with considerable vegetative growth in the Southern species haploid stage. These results provide strong ecological evidence for the differentiation process of the two cryptic species and show local adaptation of the life cycle at the range limits of the distribution. Ecological and evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Robot-Beacon Distributed Range-Only SLAM for Resource-Constrained Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-González, Arturo; Martínez-de Dios, Jose Ramiro; Ollero, Anibal

    2017-04-20

    This work deals with robot-sensor network cooperation where sensor nodes (beacons) are used as landmarks for Range-Only (RO) Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). Most existing RO-SLAM techniques consider beacons as passive devices disregarding the sensing, computational and communication capabilities with which they are actually endowed. SLAM is a resource-demanding task. Besides the technological constraints of the robot and beacons, many applications impose further resource consumption limitations. This paper presents a scalable distributed RO-SLAM scheme for resource-constrained operation. It is capable of exploiting robot-beacon cooperation in order to improve SLAM accuracy while meeting a given resource consumption bound expressed as the maximum number of measurements that are integrated in SLAM per iteration. The proposed scheme combines a Sparse Extended Information Filter (SEIF) SLAM method, in which each beacon gathers and integrates robot-beacon and inter-beacon measurements, and a distributed information-driven measurement allocation tool that dynamically selects the measurements that are integrated in SLAM, balancing uncertainty improvement and resource consumption. The scheme adopts a robot-beacon distributed approach in which each beacon participates in the selection, gathering and integration in SLAM of robot-beacon and inter-beacon measurements, resulting in significant estimation accuracies, resource-consumption efficiency and scalability. It has been integrated in an octorotor Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) and evaluated in 3D SLAM outdoor experiments. The experimental results obtained show its performance and robustness and evidence its advantages over existing methods.

  15. Current Solutions: Recent Experience in Interconnecting Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.

    2003-09-01

    This report catalogues selected real-world technical experiences of utilities and customers that have interconnected distributed energy assets with the electric grid. This study was initiated to assess the actual technical practices for interconnecting distributed generation and had a particular focus on the technical issues covered under the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1547(TM) Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.

  16. Water Resources of Tajikistan and Water Use Issues in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Mukhabbatov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the formation and use of water resources in Tajikistan. The natural and geographic conditions as well as distribution of water resources across the economic regions are analyzed. It is stressed that after breakup of the Soviet Union the water use issues in Central Asia have acquired the dimensions of the interstate economic and political problems. Demographic growth, activation of desertification, global warming make most relevant the issue of equitable redistribution of water resources as the most valuable resource for economy.

  17. Diversity, natural history, and geographic distribution of snakes in the Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Thaís B; Nogueira, Cristiano; Marques, Otavio A V

    2014-09-19

    The present study is a synthesis on snake diversity and distribution in the Caatinga region of northeastern Brazil, providing an updated species list and data on natural history and geographic distribution. Our study is based on the careful revision of 7,102 voucher specimens, housed in 17 herpetological collections, complemented by data on taxonomic literature. We recorded a total of 112 snake species in the Caatinga, belonging to nine families: Anomalepididae, Leptotyphlopidae, Typhlopidae, Aniliidae, Boidae, Viperidae, Elapidae, Colubridae, and Dipsadidae. Our list includes at least 13 never recorded species for this region, as well as distribution records for all species known from the Caatinga (including expansion and new records of distribution). The snake assemblage of the Caatinga is complex, sharing species with other continental open areas (38.4%), forested areas (27.7%), and both open and forested areas (32.1%). The richest areas were isolated plateaus, followed by contact areas, semi-arid caatinga, and sandy dunes of the São Franscisco River. We identified 22 Caatinga endemic species with the sandy dunes of São Franscico River showing the highest endemism level (12 species, with six endemic species restricted to the area) followed by semi-arid caatinga, and isolated plateaus (eight endemic species each, and six and three endemic species with restricted distribution to each area, respectively). Most species show relatively restricted ranges in parts of the Caatinga. The snake assemblage in Caatinga includes mainly terrestrial species (38.4%), followed by fossorial/cryptozoic (26.8%), arboreal/semi-arboreal (26.8%), and aquatic/semi-aquatic (7.1%) species. Vertebrates are the most important dietary item (80.4%), with 56.6% of species being generalist consumers of this kind of prey; 24.4% are frog-eaters, 7.8% prey on caecilians/amphisbaenians, 6.7% lizard-eaters, 3.3% mammal-eaters, and 1.1% are fish-eaters. Only 18.7% of the snakes eat invertebrate

  18. Natural hydrocarbon gases in Canada: the resource base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osadetz, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) has an ongoing national hydrocarbon resource assessment project which examines, characterizes and quantifies the hydrocarbon resource potential of Canada. In this paper the distribution, characteristics and sizes of conventional and unconventional natural gas resources in Canada are summarized. Four topics were addressed: (1) the origins of conventional and unconventional natural hydrocarbon gases in Canada, (2) the resource assessment techniques used at the GSC, with emphasis on predicting undiscovered reserves, (3) the setting, distribution and size of the conventional natural gas endowment of Canada in a geographic and geological context, and (4) the indications of unconventional natural gas resource endowment in Canada. Conventional in-place natural gas resources for Canada was estimated at 26.8 trillion cubic metres of which 54 per cent comes from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The national inventory of unconventional in-place gas resource is 3,460 trillion cubic metres. At current rates of production, the expected life expectancy for the in-place conventional natural gas resource base was estimated to be about 150 years. 1 tab., 9 figs

  19. Public and private dental services in NSW: a geographic information system analysis of access to care for 7 million Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie-Stephens, Jenny; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the distribution of public and private dental practices in NSW in relation to population distribution and socioeconomic status. Dental practices (public and private) were mapped and overlayed with Census data on Collection District population and Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA). Overall, there was an uneven geographic distribution of public and private dental practices across NSW. When the geographic distribution was compared to population socioeconomics it was found that in rural NSW, 12% of the most disadvantaged residents lived further than 50km from a public dental practice, compared to 0% of the least disadvantaged. In Sydney, 9% of the three most disadvantaged groups lived greater than 7.5km from a public dental practice, compared to 21% of the three least disadvantaged groups. The findings of this study can contribute to informing decisions to determine future areas for focus of dental resource development (infrastructure and workforce) and identifying subgroups in the population (who are geographically isolated from accessing care) where public health initiatives focused on amelioration of disease consequences should be a focus.

  20. Modeling of customer adoption of distributed energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Chard, Joseph S.; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Lipman, Timothy; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-08-01

    This report describes work completed for the California Energy Commission (CEC) on the continued development and application of the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This work was performed at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) between July 2000 and June 2001 under the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. Our research on distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid ({mu}Grid), a semiautonomous grouping of electricity-generating sources and end-use sinks that are placed and operated for the benefit of its members. Although a {mu}Grid can operate independent of the macrogrid (the utility power network), the {mu}Grid is usually interconnected, purchasing energy and ancillary services from the macrogrid. Groups of customers can be aggregated into {mu}Grids by pooling their electrical and other loads, and the most cost-effective combination of generation resources for a particular {mu}Grid can be found. In this study, DER-CAM, an economic model of customer DER adoption implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software is used, to find the cost-minimizing combination of on-site generation customers (individual businesses and a {mu}Grid) in a specified test year. DER-CAM's objective is to minimize the cost of supplying electricity to a specific customer by optimizing the installation of distributed generation and the self-generation of part or all of its electricity. Currently, the model only considers electrical loads, but combined heat and power (CHP) analysis capability is being developed under the second year of CEC funding. The key accomplishments of this year's work were the acquisition of increasingly accurate data on DER technologies, including the development of methods for forecasting cost reductions for these technologies, and the creation of a

  1. Infusing considerations of trophic dependencies into species distribution modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Anne M; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2014-12-01

    Community ecology involves studying the interdependence of species with each other and their environment to predict their geographical distribution and abundance. Modern species distribution analyses characterise species-environment dependency well, but offer only crude approximations of species interdependency. Typically, the dependency between focal species and other species is characterised using other species' point occurrences as spatial covariates to constrain the focal species' predicted range. This implicitly assumes that the strength of interdependency is homogeneous across space, which is not generally supported by analyses of species interactions. This discrepancy has an important bearing on the accuracy of inferences about habitat suitability for species. We introduce a framework that integrates principles from consumer-resource analyses, resource selection theory and species distribution modelling to enhance quantitative prediction of species geographical distributions. We show how to apply the framework using a case study of lynx and snowshoe hare interactions with each other and their environment. The analysis shows how the framework offers a spatially refined understanding of species distribution that is sensitive to nuances in biophysical attributes of the environment that determine the location and strength of species interactions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  2. Mapping the Global Potential Geographical Distribution of Black Locust (Robinia Pseudoacacia L. Using Herbarium Data and a Maximum Entropy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is a tree species of high economic and ecological value, but is also considered to be highly invasive. Understanding the global potential distribution and ecological characteristics of this species is a prerequisite for its practical exploitation as a resource. Here, a maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt was used to simulate the potential distribution of this species around the world, and the dominant climatic factors affecting its distribution were selected by using a jackknife test and the regularized gain change during each iteration of the training algorithm. The results show that the MaxEnt model performs better than random, with an average test AUC value of 0.9165 (±0.0088. The coldness index, annual mean temperature and warmth index were the most important climatic factors affecting the species distribution, explaining 65.79% of the variability in the geographical distribution. Species response curves showed unimodal relationships with the annual mean temperature and warmth index, whereas there was a linear relationship with the coldness index. The dominant climatic conditions in the core of the black locust distribution are a coldness index of −9.8 °C–0 °C, an annual mean temperature of 5.8 °C–14.5 °C, a warmth index of 66 °C–168 °C and an annual precipitation of 508–1867 mm. The potential distribution of black locust is located mainly in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland, Australia, New Zealand, China, Japan, South Korea, South Africa, Chile and Argentina. The predictive map of black locust, climatic thresholds and species response curves can provide globally applicable guidelines and valuable information for policymakers and planners involved in the introduction, planting and invasion control of this species around the world.

  3. Coordinated Optimization of Distributed Energy Resources and Smart Loads in Distribution Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui; Zhang, Yingchen

    2016-08-01

    Distributed energy resources (DERs) and smart loads have the potential to provide flexibility to the distribution system operation. A coordinated optimization approach is proposed in this paper to actively manage DERs and smart loads in distribution systems to achieve the optimal operation status. A three-phase unbalanced Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem is developed to determine the output from DERs and smart loads with respect to the system operator's control objective. This paper focuses on coordinating PV systems and smart loads to improve the overall voltage profile in distribution systems. Simulations have been carried out in a 12-bus distribution feeder and results illustrate the superior control performance of the proposed approach.

  4. Geographical distribution of a specific mitochondrial haplotype of Zymoseptoria tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh BOUKEF

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Severity of disease caused by the fungus Zymoseptoria tritici throughout world cereal growing regions has elicited much debate on the potential evolutionary mechanism conferring high adaptability of the pathogen to diverse climate conditions and different wheat hosts (Triticum durum and T. aestivum. Specific mitochondrial DNA sequence was used to investigate geographic distribution of the type 4 haplotype (mtRFLP4 within 1363 isolates of Z. tritici originating from 21 countries. The mtRFLP4 haplotype was detected from both durum and bread wheat hosts with greater frequency on durum wheat. The distribution of mtRFLP4 was limited to populations sampled from the Mediterranean and the Red Sea region. Greater frequencies of mtRFLP4 were found in Tunisia (87% and Algeria (60%. The haplotype was absent within European, Australian, North and South American populations except Argentina. While alternative hypotheses such as climatic adaptation could not be ruled out, it is postulated that mtRFLP4 originated in North Africa (e.g. Tunisia or Algeria as an adaptation to durum wheat as the prevailing cereal crop. The specialized haplotype has subsequently spread as indicated by lower frequency of occurrence in the surrounding Mediterranean countries and on bread wheat hosts.

  5. Ethnic and geographic variations in HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in north-western Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Zulqarnain; Yuan, Tao; Wang, Binghui; Tai, Wenlin; Feng, Yue; Liu, Yanqing; Li, Xiao; Feng, Yue; Liu, Li; Zhang, A-mei; Wu, Xiaomei; Xia, Xueshan

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) vary throughout the world. To assess the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV among three ethnic groups in two geographic locations in north-western Yunnan, we recruited 522 women in Shangri-le (n = 255) and Lijiang (n = 267). PCR amplification of HPV DNA was performed on cervical cells from these women using two consensus primer systems (MY09/11 and GP5/6). Amplified-HPV DNA was genotyped using the HPV GenoArray test. Geographically, the HPV prevalence was significantly higher (P = 0.002) among Shangri-le women than among Lijiang women. Infections with high-risk (HR)-HPV and with multiple HPV genotypes were also significantly more common (P = 0.001) among women in Shangri-le than women in Lijiang. Additionally, the prevalence of overall, HR-HPV, and single genotype HPV infections was significantly higher (P = 0.001) among Tibetan women than among Naxi and Han women. HPV-16 and HPV-33 were significantly more frequent in Shangri-le women compared with Lijiang (P = 0.006) women. In addition, HPV-16 (9.81%) and HPV-33 (5.88%) were significantly more prevalent in Tibetan women than in Naxi and Han women. Here, for the first time, we highlight the significant variation in the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV in various populations in the north-western region of Yunnan Province. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Geographic information system-coupling sediment delivery distributed modeling based on observed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S E; Kang, S H

    2014-01-01

    Spatially distributed sediment delivery (SEDD) models are of great interest in estimating the expected effect of changes on soil erosion and sediment yield. However, they can only be applied if the model can be calibrated using observed data. This paper presents a geographic information system (GIS)-based method to calculate the sediment discharge from basins to coastal areas. For this, an SEDD model, with a sediment rating curve method based on observed data, is proposed and validated. The model proposed here has been developed using the combined application of the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and a spatially distributed sediment delivery ratio, within Model Builder of ArcGIS's software. The model focuses on spatial variability and is useful for estimating the spatial patterns of soil loss and sediment discharge. The model consists of two modules, a soil erosion prediction component and a sediment delivery model. The integrated approach allows for relatively practical and cost-effective estimation of spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery, for gauged or ungauged basins. This paper provides the first attempt at estimating sediment delivery ratio based on observed data in the monsoon region of Korea.

  7. Water resources assessment in a poorly gauged mountainous catchment using a geographical information system and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Roshan; Takara, Kaoru; Tachikawa, Yasuto; Jha, Raghu N.

    2004-11-01

    Water resources assessment, which is an essential task in making development plans managing water resources, is considerably difficult to do in a data-poor region. In this study, we attempted to conduct a quantitative water resources assessment in a poorly gauged mountainous catchment, i.e. the River Indrawati catchment (1233 km2) in Nepal. This catchment is facing problems such as dry-season water scarcity and water use conflicts. However, the region lacks the basic data that this study needs. The data needed are supplemented from field surveys and global data (e.g. GTOPO30 DEM data, LandsatTM data and MODIS NDVI data). The global data have significantly helped us to draw out the information needed for a number of water-use scenarios. These data helped us determine that the available water quantity is enough at present to address the dry-season problems. The situation is not much worse for the immediate future; however, the threat of drought is noticed in a future scenario in which resources are consumed extensively. The study uses a geographical information system and remotely sensed data analysis tools extensively. Utilization of modern tools and global data is found effective for investigating practical problems and for detecting important features of water resources, even though the catchment is poorly gauged.

  8. Changes in the geographical distribution of plant species and climatic variables on the West Cornwall peninsula (South West UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanic, Aleksandra; Anderson, Karen; Harrison, Stephan; Turkington, Thea; Bennie, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Recent climate change has had a major impact on biodiversity and has altered the geographical distribution of vascular plant species. This trend is visible globally; however, more local and regional scale research is needed to improve understanding of the patterns of change and to develop appropriate conservation strategies that can minimise cultural, health, and economic losses at finer scales. Here we describe a method to manually geo-reference botanical records from a historical herbarium to track changes in the geographical distributions of plant species in West Cornwall (South West England) using both historical (pre-1900) and contemporary (post-1900) distribution records. We also assess the use of Ellenberg and climate indicator values as markers of responses to climate and environmental change. Using these techniques we detect a loss in 19 plant species, with 6 species losing more than 50% of their previous range. Statistical analysis showed that Ellenberg (light, moisture, nitrogen) and climate indicator values (mean January temperature, mean July temperature and mean precipitation) could be used as environmental change indicators. Significantly higher percentages of area lost were detected in species with lower January temperatures, July temperatures, light, and nitrogen values, as well as higher annual precipitation and moisture values. This study highlights the importance of historical records in examining the changes in plant species' geographical distributions. We present a method for manual geo-referencing of such records, and demonstrate how using Ellenberg and climate indicator values as environmental and climate change indicators can contribute towards directing appropriate conservation strategies.

  9. Changes in the geographical distribution of plant species and climatic variables on the West Cornwall peninsula (South West UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanic, Aleksandra; Anderson, Karen; Harrison, Stephan; Turkington, Thea; Bennie, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Recent climate change has had a major impact on biodiversity and has altered the geographical distribution of vascular plant species. This trend is visible globally; however, more local and regional scale research is needed to improve understanding of the patterns of change and to develop appropriate conservation strategies that can minimise cultural, health, and economic losses at finer scales. Here we describe a method to manually geo-reference botanical records from a historical herbarium to track changes in the geographical distributions of plant species in West Cornwall (South West England) using both historical (pre-1900) and contemporary (post-1900) distribution records. We also assess the use of Ellenberg and climate indicator values as markers of responses to climate and environmental change. Using these techniques we detect a loss in 19 plant species, with 6 species losing more than 50% of their previous range. Statistical analysis showed that Ellenberg (light, moisture, nitrogen) and climate indicator values (mean January temperature, mean July temperature and mean precipitation) could be used as environmental change indicators. Significantly higher percentages of area lost were detected in species with lower January temperatures, July temperatures, light, and nitrogen values, as well as higher annual precipitation and moisture values. This study highlights the importance of historical records in examining the changes in plant species’ geographical distributions. We present a method for manual geo-referencing of such records, and demonstrate how using Ellenberg and climate indicator values as environmental and climate change indicators can contribute towards directing appropriate conservation strategies. PMID:29401494

  10. Parallel Harmony Search Based Distributed Energy Resource Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceylan, Oguzhan [ORNL; Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a harmony search based parallel optimization algorithm to minimize voltage deviations in three phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems and to maximize active power outputs of distributed energy resources (DR). The main contribution is to reduce the adverse impacts on voltage profile during a day as photovoltaics (PVs) output or electrical vehicles (EVs) charging changes throughout a day. The IEEE 123- bus distribution test system is modified by adding DRs and EVs under different load profiles. The simulation results show that by using parallel computing techniques, heuristic methods may be used as an alternative optimization tool in electrical power distribution systems operation.

  11. Relative importance of meteorological and geographical factors in the distribution of Fasciola hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica is an important trematode parasite of economic importance that infests sheep and cattle worldwide. We conducted a detailed investigation into the spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai (Wutumeiren province, Mainland China. Mathematical modelling was used to assess the inter-relationships between meteorological and geographical factors and the risk of F. hepatica infestation across the province. A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test (MM3-SERO was used to detect F. hepatica infestation. A niche model based on the maximum entropy method (MaxEnt was used to estimate the influence of meteorological and geographical factors on the observed spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation. Results of jackknife analysis indicated that temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, digital elevation and slope were associated with the occurrence of F. hepatica infestation, and that infestation rates were significantly higher among animals from districts with a high percentage of grassland habitat. The findings indicate that meteorological and geographical factors may be important variables affecting the distribution of F. hepatica infestation and should be taken into account in the development of future surveillance and control programmes for fascioliasis.

  12. Distributed energy resources in grid interactive AC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Guerrero, Josep; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    Increased penetration of distributed energy resources (DER) and large-scale deployment of renewable energy sources are challenging the entire architecture of traditional power system. Microgrid, featuring higher flexibility and reliability, becomes an attractive candidate for the configuration...

  13. Onondaga Lake Watershed – A Geographic Information System Project Phase I – Needs assessment and spatial data framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freehafer, Douglas A.; Pierson, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2002, the Onondaga Lake Partnership (OLP) formed a Geographic Information System (GIS) Planning Committee to begin the process of developing a comprehensive watershed geographic information system for Onondaga Lake. The goal of the Onondaga Lake Partnership geographic information system is to integrate the various types of spatial data used for scientific investigations, resource management, and planning and design of improvement projects in the Onondaga Lake Watershed. A needs-assessment survey was conducted and a spatial data framework developed to support the Onondaga Lake Partnership use of geographic information system technology. The design focused on the collection, management, and distribution of spatial data, maps, and internet mapping applications. A geographic information system library of over 100 spatial datasets and metadata links was assembled on the basis of the results of the needs assessment survey. Implementation options were presented, and the Geographic Information System Planning Committee offered recommendations for the management and distribution of spatial data belonging to Onondaga Lake Partnership members. The Onondaga Lake Partnership now has a strong foundation for building a comprehensive geographic information system for the Onondaga Lake watershed. The successful implementation of a geographic information system depends on the Onondaga Lake Partnership’s determination of: (1) the design and plan for a geographic information system, including the applications and spatial data that will be provided and to whom, (2) the level of geographic information system technology to be utilized and funded, and (3) the institutional issues of operation and maintenance of the system.

  14. Geographic distribution of childhood diabetes and obesity relative to the supply of pediatric endocrinologists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joyce M; Davis, Matthew M; Menon, Ram K; Freed, Gary L

    2008-03-01

    To determine the geographic distribution of childhood diabetes and obesity relative to the supply of US pediatric endocrinologists. Estimation of observed and "index" ratios of children with diabetes (by region and division) and obesity (body mass index >/=95th % for age and sex) (by region and state) to board-certified pediatric endocrinologists. At the national level, the ratio of children with diabetes to pediatric endocrinologists is 290:1, and the ratio of obese children to pediatric endocrinologists is 17,741:1. Ratios of children with diabetes to pediatric endocrinologists in the Midwest (370:1), South (335:1), and West (367:1) are twice as high as in the Northeast (144:1). Across states, there is up to a 19-fold difference in the observed ratios of obese children to pediatric endocrinologists. Under conditions of equitably distributed endocrinologist supply, variation across states would be mitigated considerably. The distribution of children with diabetes and obesity does not parallel the distribution of pediatric endocrinologists in the United States, due largely to geographic disparities in endocrinologist supply. Given the large burden of obese children to endocrinologists, multidisciplinary models of care delivery are essential for the US health care system to address the needs of children with diabetes and obesity.

  15. Fine scale distribution constrains cadmium accumulation rates in two geographical groups of Franciscana dolphin from Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polizzi, P.S.; Chiodi Boudet, L.N.; Romero, M.B.; Denuncio, P.E.; Rodríguez, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Fine scale distribution of two Argentine stocks constrains the Cd accumulation rates. • Cadmium levels and accumulation patterns were different between geographic groups. • Marine diet has a major influence than the impact degree of origin environment. • Engraulis anchoita is the main Cd vector species in Argentine shelf for Franciscana. • Information is valuable for the conservation of Franciscana, a vulnerable species. -- Abstract: Franciscana dolphin is an endemic cetacean in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and is classified as Vulnerable A3d by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Cadmium accumulation was assessed in two geographic groups from Argentina; one inhabits the La Plata River estuary, a high anthropogenic impacted environment, and the other is distributed in marine coastal, with negligible pollution. Despite the environment, marine dolphins showed an increase of renal Cd concentrations since trophic independence; while in estuarine dolphins was from 6 years. This is associated with dietary Argentine anchovy which was absent in the diet of estuarine dolphins, being a trophic vector of cadmium in shelf waters of Argentina. Cluster analysis also showed high levels of cd in association with the presence of anchovy in the stomach. The difference in the fine scale distribution of species influences dietary exposure to Cd and, along with other data, indicates two stocks in Argentina

  16. Modelling distributed energy resources in energy service networks

    CERN Document Server

    Acha, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Focuses on modelling two key infrastructures (natural gas and electrical) in urban energy systems with embedded technologies (cogeneration and electric vehicles) to optimise the operation of natural gas and electrical infrastructures under the presence of distributed energy resources

  17. Modelling the geographical distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Malone, John B; Bavia, Mara E; Nieto, Prixia; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-05-25

    The prevalence of infection with the three common soil-transmitted helminths (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm) in Bolivia is among the highest in Latin America. However, the spatial distribution and burden of soil-transmitted helminthiasis are poorly documented. We analysed historical survey data using Bayesian geostatistical models to identify determinants of the distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections, predict the geographical distribution of infection risk, and assess treatment needs and costs in the frame of preventive chemotherapy. Rigorous geostatistical variable selection identified the most important predictors of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm transmission. Results show that precipitation during the wettest quarter above 400 mm favours the distribution of A. lumbricoides. Altitude has a negative effect on T. trichiura. Hookworm is sensitive to temperature during the coldest month. We estimate that 38.0%, 19.3%, and 11.4% of the Bolivian population is infected with A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm, respectively. Assuming independence of the three infections, 48.4% of the population is infected with any soil-transmitted helminth. Empirical-based estimates, according to treatment recommendations by the World Health Organization, suggest a total of 2.9 million annualised treatments for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Bolivia. We provide estimates of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia based on high-resolution spatial prediction and an innovative variable selection approach. However, the scarcity of the data suggests that a national survey is required for more accurate mapping that will govern spatial targeting of soil-transmitted helminthiasis control.

  18. Local electricity market design for the coordination of distributed energy resources at district level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ampatzis, M.; Nguyen, P.H.; Kling, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing penetration of distributed energy resources at the distribution grid level creates concerns about their successful integration in the existing electric grid, designed for centralized generation by large power plants. Failure to the proper integration of distributed energy resources

  19. Age and Geographical Distribution in Families with BRCA1/BRCA2 Mutations in the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciernikova Sona

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular diagnostics of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer is mainly based on detection of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in suspected families. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency, age and geographical distribution in 130 Slovak hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC families diagnosed within the years 2000-2004. Mutation screening was performed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP, heteroduplex analysis (HDA and sequencing of PCR products showing an abnormal migration pattern. Twenty of 130 (15.6% HBOC suspected families were found to carry mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. The glossary data from the National Cancer Registry of Slovakia (NCRS were compared with the results from HBOC suspected kindreds. Age distribution of breast cancer onset in our study group showed the highest proportion of onset in HBC families within the 5th decade of life, while NCRS reports at least a ten year later onset. These findings confirmed that cases of breast cancer under 50 years of age can be used as one of the principal criteria to assign a family as a hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer kindred. In contrast with unselected ovarian cancer cases, about 75% of all HOC index cases were diagnosed between 40 and 49 years of age. To study the geographical distribution of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer, Slovakia was divided into three parts. The distribution of HBOC suspected families approximately follows this division, with an increasing number in the western area of the country.

  20. An Introduction to Macro- Level Spatial Nonstationarity: a Geographically Weighted Regression Analysis of Diabetes and Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siordia, Carlos; Saenz, Joseph; Tom, Sarah E

    2012-01-01

    Type II diabetes is a growing health problem in the United States. Understanding geographic variation in diabetes prevalence will inform where resources for management and prevention should be allocated. Investigations of the correlates of diabetes prevalence have largely ignored how spatial nonstationarity might play a role in the macro-level distribution of diabetes. This paper introduces the reader to the concept of spatial nonstationarity-variance in statistical relationships as a function of geographical location. Since spatial nonstationarity means different predictors can have varying effects on model outcomes, we make use of a geographically weighed regression to calculate correlates of diabetes as a function of geographic location. By doing so, we demonstrate an exploratory example in which the diabetes-poverty macro-level statistical relationship varies as a function of location. In particular, we provide evidence that when predicting macro-level diabetes prevalence, poverty is not always positively associated with diabetes.

  1. Multiple sclerosis: a geographical hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle, I P

    1997-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis remains a rare neurological disease of unknown aetiology, with a unique distribution, both geographically and historically. Rare in equatorial regions, it becomes increasingly common in higher latitudes; historically, it was first clinically recognized in the early nineteenth century. A hypothesis, based on geographical reasoning, is here proposed: that the disease is the result of a specific vitamin deficiency. Different individuals suffer the deficiency in separate and often unique ways. Evidence to support the hypothesis exists in cultural considerations, in the global distribution of the disease, and in its historical prevalence.

  2. Determination of distribution pattern of the heavy metal concentrations in the potable network of Gachsaran by Geographical Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Paraham

    2013-12-01

    . Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, samples were taken from11 spots of the drinking water distribution network and tested for concentration of 10 metals by Inductivity Coupled Ions Plasma (ICP method in summer of 2010. The research data were compared with national and international water standards. Then the distribution map of heavy metals concentrations in the drinking water wells of the region was prepared by using the Geographical Information System (GIS software. Data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: In all samples, the average concentration of heavy metals were: Arsenic 0.54, Cadmium 0.05, Zinc 55.9, Lead 0.18, Copper .82, Chromium 1.6, Barium 36.5, Selenium0.5, Mercury 0.1 and Silver 0.05 micrograms per liter and was less than the water quality standard. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that concentrations of heavy metals in Gachsaran’s drinking water distribution network are not higher than national and international standards and therefore not harmful for people. Key words: Heavy metals, Distribution network, Gachsaran, geographical information system (GIS

  3. A Heterogeneous Distributed Virtual Geographic Environment—Potential Application in Spatiotemporal Behavior Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Shen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to their strong immersion and real-time interactivity, helmet-mounted virtual reality (VR devices are becoming increasingly popular. Based on these devices, an immersive virtual geographic environment (VGE provides a promising method for research into crowd behavior in an emergency. However, the current cheaper helmet-mounted VR devices are not popular enough, and will continue to coexist with personal computer (PC-based systems for a long time. Therefore, a heterogeneous distributed virtual geographic environment (HDVGE could be a feasible solution to the heterogeneous problems caused by various types of clients, and support the implementation of spatiotemporal crowd behavior experiments with large numbers of concurrent participants. In this study, we developed an HDVGE framework, and put forward a set of design principles to define the similarities between the real world and the VGE. We discussed the HDVGE architecture, and proposed an abstract interaction layer, a protocol-based interaction algorithm, and an adjusted dead reckoning algorithm to solve the heterogeneous distributed problems. We then implemented an HDVGE prototype system focusing on subway fire evacuation experiments. Two types of clients are considered in the system: PC, and all-in-one VR. Finally, we evaluated the performances of the prototype system and the key algorithms. The results showed that in a low-latency local area network (LAN environment, the prototype system can smoothly support 90 concurrent users consisting of PC and all-in-one VR clients. HDVGE provides a feasible solution for studying not only spatiotemporal crowd behaviors in normal conditions, but also evacuation behaviors in emergency conditions such as fires and earthquakes. HDVGE could also serve as a new means of obtaining observational data about individual and group behavior in support of human geography research.

  4. Temporal, geographic, and host distribution of avian paramyxovirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Qiu, Xueting; Bahl, Justin; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease is caused by virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus of serotype 1 (APMV-1) and has global economic importance. The disease reached panzootic proportions within two decades after first being identified in 1926 in the United Kingdom and Indonesia and still remains endemic in many countries across the world. Here we review information on the host, temporal, and geographic distribution of APMV-1 genetic diversity based on the evolutionary systematics of the complete coding region of the fusion gene. Strains of APMV-1 are phylogenetically separated into two classes (class I and class II) and further classified into genotypes based on genetic differences. Class I viruses are genetically less diverse, generally present in wild waterfowl, and are of low virulence. Class II viruses are genetically and phenotypically more diverse, frequently isolated from poultry with occasional spillovers into wild birds, and exhibit a wider range of virulence. Waterfowl, cormorants, and pigeons are natural reservoirs of all APMV-1 pathotypes, except viscerotropic velogenic viruses for which natural reservoirs have not been identified. Genotypes I and II within class II include isolates of high and low virulence, the latter often being used as vaccines. Viruses of genotypes III and IX that emerged decades ago are now isolated rarely, but may be found in domestic and wild birds in China. Containing only virulent viruses and responsible for the majority of recent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds, viruses from genotypes V, VI, and VII, are highly mobile and have been isolated on different continents. Conversely, virulent viruses of genotypes XI (Madagascar), XIII (mainly Southwest Asia), XVI (North America) and XIV, XVII and XVIII (Africa) appear to have a more limited geographic distribution and have been isolated predominantly from poultry.

  5. Climate Controls AM Fungal Distributions from Global to Local Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlin, S. N.; Hawkes, C.; Muscarella, R.; Treseder, K. K.; Kazenel, M.; Lynn, J.; Rudgers, J.

    2016-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have key functions in terrestrial biogeochemical processes; thus, determining the relative importance of climate, edaphic factors, and plant community composition on their geographic distributions can improve predictions of their sensitivity to global change. Local adaptation by AM fungi to plant hosts, soil nutrients, and climate suggests that all of these factors may control fungal geographic distributions, but their relative importance is unknown. We created species distribution models for 142 AM fungal taxa at the global scale with data from GenBank. We compared climate variables (BioClim and soil moisture), edaphic variables (phosphorus, carbon, pH, and clay content), and plant variables using model selection on models with (1) all variables, (2) climatic variables only (including soil moisture) and (3) resource-related variables only (all other soil parameters and NPP) using the MaxEnt algorithm evaluated with ENMEval. We also evaluated whether drivers of AM fungal distributions were phylogenetically conserved. To test whether global correlates of AM fungal distributions were reflected at local scales, we then surveyed AM fungi in nine plant hosts along three elevation gradients in the Upper Gunnison Basin, Colorado, USA. At the global scale, the distributions of 55% of AM fungal taxa were affected by both climate and soil resources, whereas 16% were only affected by climate and 29% were only affected by soil resources. Even for AM fungi that were affected by both climate and resources, the effects of climatic variables nearly always outweighed those of resources. Soil moisture and isothermality were the main climatic and NPP and soil carbon the main resource related factors influencing AM fungal distributions. Distributions of closely related AM fungal taxa were similarly affected by climate, but not by resources. Local scale surveys of AM fungi across elevations confirmed that climate was a key driver of AM fungal

  6. Automatic Management of Parallel and Distributed System Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jerry; Ngai, Tin Fook; Lundstrom, Stephen F.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on automatic management of parallel and distributed system resources are presented. Topics covered include: parallel applications; intelligent management of multiprocessing systems; performance evaluation of parallel architecture; dynamic concurrent programs; compiler-directed system approach; lattice gaseous cellular automata; and sparse matrix Cholesky factorization.

  7. Predicting the geographical distribution of two invasive termite species from occurrence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Francesco; Divino, Fabio; Lasinio, Giovanna Jona; Hochmair, Hartwig H; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H

    2014-10-01

    Predicting the potential habitat of species under both current and future climate change scenarios is crucial for monitoring invasive species and understanding a species' response to different environmental conditions. Frequently, the only data available on a species is the location of its occurrence (presence-only data). Using occurrence records only, two models were used to predict the geographical distribution of two destructive invasive termite species, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) and Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. The first model uses a Bayesian linear logistic regression approach adjusted for presence-only data while the second one is the widely used maximum entropy approach (Maxent). Results show that the predicted distributions of both C. gestroi and C. formosanus are strongly linked to urban development. The impact of future scenarios such as climate warming and population growth on the biotic distribution of both termite species was also assessed. Future climate warming seems to affect their projected probability of presence to a lesser extent than population growth. The Bayesian logistic approach outperformed Maxent consistently in all models according to evaluation criteria such as model sensitivity and ecological realism. The importance of further studies for an explicit treatment of residual spatial autocorrelation and a more comprehensive comparison between both statistical approaches is suggested.

  8. Optimizing Geographic Allotment of Photovoltaic Capacity in a Distributed Generation Setting: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquhart, B.; Sengupta, M.; Keller, J.

    2012-09-01

    A multi-objective optimization was performed to allocate 2MW of PV among four candidate sites on the island of Lanai such that energy was maximized and variability in the form of ramp rates was minimized. This resulted in an optimal solution set which provides a range of geographic allotment alternatives for the fixed PV capacity. Within the optimal set, a tradeoff between energy produced and variability experienced was found, whereby a decrease in variability always necessitates a simultaneous decrease in energy. A design point within the optimal set was selected for study which decreased extreme ramp rates by over 50% while only decreasing annual energy generation by 3% over the maximum generation allocation. To quantify the allotment mix selected, a metric was developed, called the ramp ratio, which compares ramping magnitude when all capacity is allotted to a single location to the aggregate ramping magnitude in a distributed scenario. The ramp ratio quantifies simultaneously how much smoothing a distributed scenario would experience over single site allotment and how much a single site is being under-utilized for its ability to reduce aggregate variability. This paper creates a framework for use by cities and municipal utilities to reduce variability impacts while planning for high penetration of PV on the distribution grid.

  9. Constrained consumption shifting management in the distributed energy resources scheduling considering demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Pedro; Vale, Zita; Baptista, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Consumption reduction and/or shift to several periods before and after. • Optimization problem for scheduling of demand response and distributed generation. • Minimization of the Virtual Power Player operation (remuneration) costs. • Demand response can be efficient to meet distributed generation shortages. • Consumers benefit with the remuneration of the participation in demand response. - Abstract: Demand response concept has been gaining increasing importance while the success of several recent implementations makes this resource benefits unquestionable. This happens in a power systems operation environment that also considers an intensive use of distributed generation. However, more adequate approaches and models are needed in order to address the small size consumers and producers aggregation, while taking into account these resources goals. The present paper focuses on the demand response programs and distributed generation resources management by a Virtual Power Player that optimally aims to minimize its operation costs taking the consumption shifting constraints into account. The impact of the consumption shifting in the distributed generation resources schedule is also considered. The methodology is applied to three scenarios based on 218 consumers and 4 types of distributed generation, in a time frame of 96 periods

  10. The Geographic Distribution of Liver Cancer in Canada Does Not Associate with Cyanobacterial Toxin Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan A. Labine

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of liver cancer has been increasing in Canada over the past decade, as has cyanobacterial contamination of Canadian freshwater lakes and drinking water sources. Cyanotoxins released by cyanobacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of liver cancer. Objective: To determine whether a geographic association exists between liver cancer and surrogate markers of cyanobacterial contamination of freshwater lakes in Canada. Methods: A negative binomial regression model was employed based on previously identified risk factors for liver cancer. Results: No association existed between the geographic distribution of liver cancer and surrogate markers of cyanobacterial contamination. As predicted, significant associations existed in areas with a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection, large immigrant populations and urban residences. Discussion and Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that cyanobacterial contamination of freshwater lakes does not play an important role in the increasing incidence of liver cancer in Canada.

  11. Integrating Intelligent Electric Devices into Distributed Energy Resources in a Cloud-Based Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo Søborg; Winther, D.; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2013-01-01

    Until now the main purpose of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) has been to compliment the power plants. However, if DERs are to play a larger role in the power grid of the future, then improved communication and cooperation between these resources and the system operators is necessary. Coopera......Until now the main purpose of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) has been to compliment the power plants. However, if DERs are to play a larger role in the power grid of the future, then improved communication and cooperation between these resources and the system operators is necessary...

  12. Reschedule of Distributed Energy Resources by an Aggregator for Market Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Faria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Demand response aggregators have been developed and implemented all through the world with more seen in Europe and the United States. The participation of aggregators in energy markets improves the access of small-size resources to these, which enables successful business cases for demand-side flexibility. The present paper proposes aggregator’s assessment of the integration of distributed energy resources in energy markets, which provides an optimized reschedule. An aggregation and remuneration model is proposed by using the k-means and group tariff, respectively. The main objective is to identify the available options for the aggregator to define tariff groups for the implementation of demand response. After the first schedule, the distributed energy resources are aggregated into a given number of groups. For each of the new groups, a new tariff is computed and the resources are again scheduled according to the new group tariff. In this way, the impact of implementing the new tariffs is analyzed in order to support a more sustained decision to be taken by the aggregator. A 180-bus network in the case study accommodates 90 consumers, 116 distributed generators, and one supplier.

  13. Geographical distribution of β-globin gene mutations in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Hossam; Moasses, Faten; Dabboul, Amir; Mukhalalaty, Yasser; Bakoor, Ahmad Omar; Al-Achkar, Walid; Jarjour, Rami A

    2018-04-11

    Objectives β-Thalassemia disease is caused by mutations in the β-globin gene. This is considered as one of the common genetic disorders in Syria. The aim of this study was to identify the geographical distribution of the β-thalassemia mutations in Syria. Methods β-Globin gene mutations were characterized in 636 affected patients and 94 unrelated carriers using the amplification refractory mutations system-polymerase chain reaction technique and DNA sequencing. Results The study has revealed the presence of 38 β-globin gene mutations responsible for β-thalassemia in Syria. Important differences in regional distribution were observed. IVS-I.110 [G > A] (22.2%), IVS-I.1 [G > A] (17.8%), Cd 39 [C > T] (8.2%), IVS-II.1 [G > A] (7.6%), IVS-I.6 [T > C] (7.1%), Cd 8 [-AA] (6%), Cd 5 [-CT] (5.6%) and IVS-I.5 [G > C] (4.1%) were the eight predominant mutations found in our study. The coastal region had higher relative frequencies (37.9 and 22%) than other regions. A clear drift in the distribution of the third common Cd 39 [C > T] mutation in the northeast region (34.8%) to the northwest region (2.5%) was noted, while the IVS-I.5 [G > C] mutation has the highest prevalence in north regions. The IVS-I.6 [T > C] mutation had a distinct frequency in the middle region. Ten mutations -86 [C > G], -31 [A > G], -29 [A > G], 5'UTR; +22 [G > A], CAP + 1 [A > C], Codon 5/6 [-TG], IVS-I (-3) or codon 29 [C > T], IVS-I.2 [T > A], IVS-I.128 [T > G] and IVS-II.705 [T > G] were found in Syria for the first time. Conclusions These data will significantly facilitate the population screening, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis in Syrian population.

  14. Geographic distance and ecosystem size determine the distribution of smallest protists in lacustrine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepère, Cécile; Domaizon, Isabelle; Taïb, Najwa; Mangot, Jean-François; Bronner, Gisèle; Boucher, Delphine; Debroas, Didier

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution of aquatic microbial diversity and the underlying mechanisms causing differences in community composition is a challenging and central goal for ecologists. Recent insights into protistan diversity and ecology are increasing the debate over their spatial distribution. In this study, we investigate the importance of spatial and environmental factors in shaping the small protists community structure in lakes. We analyzed small protists community composition (beta-diversity) and richness (alpha-diversity) at regional scale by different molecular methods targeting the gene coding for 18S rRNA gene (T-RFLP and 454 pyrosequencing). Our results show a distance-decay pattern for rare and dominant taxa and the spatial distribution of the latter followed the prediction of the island biogeography theory. Furthermore, geographic distances between lakes seem to be the main force shaping the protists community composition in the lakes studied here. Finally, the spatial distribution of protists was discussed at the global scale (11 worldwide distributed lakes) by comparing these results with those present in the public database. UniFrac analysis showed 18S rRNA gene OTUs compositions significantly different among most of lakes, and this difference does not seem to be related to the trophic status. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Geographic distribution of methyltransferases of Helicobacter pylori: evidence of human host population isolation and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Jorge MB

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. This ubiquitous association between H. pylori and humans is thought to be present since the origin of modern humans. The H. pylori genome encodes for an exceptional number of restriction and modifications (R-M systems. To evaluate if R-M systems are an adequate tool to determine the geographic distribution of H. pylori strains, we typed 221 strains from Africa, America, Asia, and Europe, and evaluated the expression of different 29 methyltransferases. Results Independence tests and logistic regression models revealed that ten R-M systems correlate with geographical localization. The distribution pattern of these methyltransferases may have been originated by co-divergence of regional H. pylori after its human host migrated out of Africa. The expression of specific methyltransferases in the H. pylori population may also reflect the genetic and cultural background of its human host. Methyltransferases common to all strains, M. HhaI and M. NaeI, are likely conserved in H. pylori, and may have been present in the bacteria genome since the human diaspora out of Africa. Conclusion This study indicates that some methyltransferases are useful geomarkers, which allow discrimination of bacterial populations, and that can be added to our tools to investigate human migrations.

  16. Geographical distribution of salmonella infected pig, cattle and sheep herds in Sweden 1993-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skog Lars

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Swedish salmonella control programme covers the entire production chain, from feed to food. All salmonella serotypes are notifiable. On average, less than 20 cases of salmonella in food-producing animals are reported every year. In some situations, the cases would be expected to cluster geographically. The aim of this study was to illustrate the geographic distribution of the salmonella cases detected in pigs, cattle and sheep. Methods Data on all herds with pigs, cattle and sheep found to be infected with salmonella during the time period from 1993 to 2010 were obtained from the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Using the ArcGIS software, various maps were produced of infected herds, stratified on animal species as well as salmonella serotype. Based on ocular inspection of all maps, some were collapsed and some used separately. Data were also examined for temporal trends. Results No geographical clustering was observed for ovine or porcine cases. Cattle herds infected with Salmonella Dublin were mainly located in the southeast region and cattle herds infected with Salmonella Typhimurium in the most southern part of the country. Some seasonal variation was seen in cattle, but available data was not sufficient for further analyses. Conclusions Analyses of data on salmonella infected herds revealed some spatial and temporal patterns for salmonella in cattle. However, despite using 18 years' of data, the number of infected herds was too low for any useful statistical analyses.

  17. LHCb Distributed Data Analysis on the Computing Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Paterson, S; Parkes, C

    2006-01-01

    LHCb is one of the four Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments based at CERN, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research. The LHC experiments will start taking an unprecedented amount of data when they come online in 2007. Since no single institute has the compute resources to handle this data, resources must be pooled to form the Grid. Where the Internet has made it possible to share information stored on computers across the world, Grid computing aims to provide access to computing power and storage capacity on geographically distributed systems. LHCb software applications must work seamlessly on the Grid allowing users to efficiently access distributed compute resources. It is essential to the success of the LHCb experiment that physicists can access data from the detector, stored in many heterogeneous systems, to perform distributed data analysis. This thesis describes the work performed to enable distributed data analysis for the LHCb experiment on the LHC Computing Grid.

  18. Positive identity entry control system with geographically distributed portals and enrollment stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntire, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    A positive identity entry control system using distributed processing to allow reliable geographically separated portals and enrollment stations has been installed and is fully operational at a large area DOE site. Identity verification requires a credential, a memorized number and measurement of a physical characteristic of the user. Additionally, all portal activity is monitored by guards. The portal system is dual redundant such that no single point failure will shut down operations. Each portal site maintains its own subset of the master data base so off-site failure of the central data base manager or its communication links will not significantly affect local portal activity. The system is suitable for installations with large populations requiring access control at several remote sites scattered over a large area

  19. Modeling of customer adoption of distributed energy resources; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnay, Chris; Chard, Joseph S.; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Lipman, Timothy; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes work completed for the California Energy Commission (CEC) on the continued development and application of the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This work was performed at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) between July 2000 and June 2001 under the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. Our research on distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid ((mu)Grid), a semiautonomous grouping of electricity-generating sources and end-use sinks that are placed and operated for the benefit of its members. Although a(mu)Grid can operate independent of the macrogrid (the utility power network), the(mu)Grid is usually interconnected, purchasing energy and ancillary services from the macrogrid. Groups of customers can be aggregated into(mu)Grids by pooling their electrical and other loads, and the most cost-effective combination of generation resources for a particular(mu)Grid can be found. In this study, DER-CAM, an economic model of customer DER adoption implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software is used, to find the cost-minimizing combination of on-site generation customers (individual businesses and a(mu)Grid) in a specified test year. DER-CAM's objective is to minimize the cost of supplying electricity to a specific customer by optimizing the installation of distributed generation and the self-generation of part or all of its electricity. Currently, the model only considers electrical loads, but combined heat and power (CHP) analysis capability is being developed under the second year of CEC funding. The key accomplishments of this year's work were the acquisition of increasingly accurate data on DER technologies, including the development of methods for forecasting cost reductions for these technologies, and the creation of a credible example

  20. An Ambient Intelligence Framework for the Provision of Geographically Distributed Multimedia Content to Mobility Impaired Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehagias, Dionysios D.; Giakoumis, Dimitris; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Bekiaris, Evangelos; Wiethoff, Marion

    This chapter presents an ambient intelligence framework whose goal is to facilitate the information needs of mobility impaired users on the move. This framework couples users with geographically distributed services and the corresponding multimedia content, enabling access to context-sensitive information based on user geographic location and the use case under consideration. It provides a multi-modal facility that is realized through a set of mobile devices and user interfaces that address the needs of ten different types of user impairments. The overall ambient intelligence framework enables users who are equipped with mobile devices to access multimedia content in order to undertake activities relevant to one or more of the following domains: transportation, tourism and leisure, personal support services, work, business, education, social relations and community building. User experience is being explored against those activities through a specific usage scenario.

  1. Distributed Wind Resource Assessment: State of the Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tinnesand, Heidi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office (WWPTO) goals, researchers from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are investigating the Distributed Wind Resource Assessment (DWRA) process, which includes pre-construction energy estimation as well as turbine site suitability assessment. DWRA can have a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that will help the distributed wind industry follow a similar trajectory to the low-wind-speed designs in the utility-scale industry sector. By understanding the wind resource better, the industry could install larger rotors, capture more energy, and as a result, increase deployment while lowering the LCOE. a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that

  2. Prevalence and geographic distribution of herniated intervertebral disc in Korean 19-year-old male from 2008 to 2009: a study based on Korean conscription -national and geographic prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc in Korean 19YO male-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Park, Hyeong-chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2013-09-01

    This study was to determine the prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) among Korean 19-year-old male in a large national sample and to compare the prevalence across geographic regions based on the data of conscription. We analyzed the conscription data of 615508 cases who were 19-year-old male, given an examination for conscription at nationwide Korean Military Manpower Administration from January 2008 to December 2009. Prevalence was determined by dividing the number of cases by the number of persons enrolled for 2 years. The analyses included of a cross-tabulations and nonparametric chi-square to compare the prevalence according to geographic region, disc severity, and conscription year. The prevalence of HIVD among 19-year-old male was 0.47%. Seoul had the highest prevalence of HIVD (total HIVD was 0.60%, and severe HIVD was 0.44%). The prevalence of HIVD was lower in Jeollabuk- do and Jeollanam-do (total HIVD was 0.25-0.27%, and severe HIVD was 0.16-0.17%). Annual prevalence of HIVD was slightly decreased in 2009, but geographic distribution annually was not different. In Korean 19-year-old male, the national prevalence of adolescent HIVD was 0.60%, but different geographic distribution was observed. It is quite possible that secondary contributing factor(s) interfere with the different geographic prevalence of HIVD.

  3. The structure, distribution, and biomass of the world's forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yude Pan; Richard A. Birdsey; Oliver L. Phillips; Robert B. Jackson

    2013-01-01

    Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem on Earth. We review the environmental factors controlling their structure and global distribution and evaluate their current and future trajectory. Adaptations of trees to climate and resource gradients, coupled with disturbances and forest dynamics, create complex geographical patterns in forest assemblages and structures...

  4. Foundational Report Series: Advanced Distribution Management Systems for Grid Modernization, DMS Integration of Distributed Energy Resources and Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ravindra [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Reilly, James T. [Reilly Associates, Pittston, PA (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lu, Xiaonan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kang, Ning [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Deregulation of the electric utility industry, environmental concerns associated with traditional fossil fuel-based power plants, volatility of electric energy costs, Federal and State regulatory support of “green” energy, and rapid technological developments all support the growth of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) in electric utility systems and ensure an important role for DERs in the smart grid and other aspects of modern utilities. DERs include distributed generation (DG) systems, such as renewables; controllable loads (also known as demand response); and energy storage systems. This report describes the role of aggregators of DERs in providing optimal services to distribution networks, through DER monitoring and control systems—collectively referred to as a Distributed Energy Resource Management System (DERMS)—and microgrids in various configurations.

  5. Activate distributed energy resources' services: Hierarchical voltage controller as an application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Gehrke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The flexibilities from controllable distributed energy resources (DERs) offer the opportunities to mitigate some of the operation problems in the power distribution grid. The provision of system services requires the aggregation and coordination of their flexibilities, in order to obtain the flex......The flexibilities from controllable distributed energy resources (DERs) offer the opportunities to mitigate some of the operation problems in the power distribution grid. The provision of system services requires the aggregation and coordination of their flexibilities, in order to obtain...... the flexible capacity of large scale. In this paper, a hierarchical controller is presented to activate the aggregation, and tries to obtain a global optimum of the grid operation. A distribution grid with large penetration of highly varying generation or load is under the risk that the voltage quality...... delivered to the end users is very poor. Hence, a coordinated voltage control function is investigated given such control hierarchy utilizing the flexibilities from the DER units to obtain an optimal voltage profile along the distribution feeder. The results are two folded: the controller enables...

  6. Distributed resource management across process boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Suresh, Lalith

    2017-09-27

    Multi-tenant distributed systems composed of small services, such as Service-oriented Architectures (SOAs) and Micro-services, raise new challenges in attaining high performance and efficient resource utilization. In these systems, a request execution spans tens to thousands of processes, and the execution paths and resource demands on different services are generally not known when a request first enters the system. In this paper, we highlight the fundamental challenges of regulating load and scheduling in SOAs while meeting end-to-end performance objectives on metrics of concern to both tenants and operators. We design Wisp, a framework for building SOAs that transparently adapts rate limiters and request schedulers system-wide according to operator policies to satisfy end-to-end goals while responding to changing system conditions. In evaluations against production as well as synthetic workloads, Wisp successfully enforces a range of end-to-end performance objectives, such as reducing average latencies, meeting deadlines, providing fairness and isolation, and avoiding system overload.

  7. Distributed resource management across process boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Suresh, Lalith; Bodik, Peter; Menache, Ishai; Canini, Marco; Ciucu, Florin

    2017-01-01

    Multi-tenant distributed systems composed of small services, such as Service-oriented Architectures (SOAs) and Micro-services, raise new challenges in attaining high performance and efficient resource utilization. In these systems, a request execution spans tens to thousands of processes, and the execution paths and resource demands on different services are generally not known when a request first enters the system. In this paper, we highlight the fundamental challenges of regulating load and scheduling in SOAs while meeting end-to-end performance objectives on metrics of concern to both tenants and operators. We design Wisp, a framework for building SOAs that transparently adapts rate limiters and request schedulers system-wide according to operator policies to satisfy end-to-end goals while responding to changing system conditions. In evaluations against production as well as synthetic workloads, Wisp successfully enforces a range of end-to-end performance objectives, such as reducing average latencies, meeting deadlines, providing fairness and isolation, and avoiding system overload.

  8. Teaching medical students about fair distribution of healthcare resources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leget, C.J.W.; Hoedemaekers, R.H.M.V.

    2007-01-01

    Healthcare package decisions are complex. Different judgements about effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and disease burden influence the decision-making process. Moreover, different concepts of justice generate different ideas about fair distribution of healthcare resources. This paper presents a

  9. What influences national and foreign physicians' geographic distribution? An analysis of medical doctors' residence location in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giuliano; Ferrinho, Paulo; de Sousa, Bruno; Conceição, Cláudia

    2012-07-02

    The debate over physicians' geographical distribution has attracted the attention of the economic and public health literature over the last forty years. Nonetheless, it is still to date unclear what influences physicians' location, and whether foreign physicians contribute to fill the geographical gaps left by national doctors in any given country. The present research sets out to investigate the current distribution of national and international physicians in Portugal, with the objective to understand its determinants and provide an evidence base for policy-makers to identify policies to influence it. A cross-sectional study of physicians currently registered in Portugal was conducted to describe the population and explore the association of physician residence patterns with relevant personal and municipality characteristics. Data from the Portuguese Medical Council on physicians' residence and characteristics were analysed, as well as data from the National Institute of Statistics on municipalities' population, living standards and health care network. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, negative binomial and logistic regression modelling were applied to determine: (a) municipality characteristics predicting Portuguese and International physicians' geographical distribution, and; (b) doctors' characteristics that could increase the odds of residing outside the country's metropolitan areas. There were 39,473 physicians in Portugal in 2008, 51.1% of whom male, and 40.2% between 41 and 55 years of age. They were predominantly Portuguese (90.5%), with Spanish, Brazilian and African nationalities also represented. Population, Population's Purchasing Power, Nurses per capita and Municipality Development Index (MDI) were the municipality characteristics displaying the strongest association with national physicians' location. For foreign physicians, the MDI was not statistically significant, while municipalities' foreign population applying for residence

  10. What influences national and foreign physicians’ geographic distribution? An analysis of medical doctors’ residence location in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Giuliano

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The debate over physicians’ geographical distribution has attracted the attention of the economic and public health literature over the last forty years. Nonetheless, it is still to date unclear what influences physicians’ location, and whether foreign physicians contribute to fill the geographical gaps left by national doctors in any given country. The present research sets out to investigate the current distribution of national and international physicians in Portugal, with the objective to understand its determinants and provide an evidence base for policy-makers to identify policies to influence it. Methods A cross-sectional study of physicians currently registered in Portugal was conducted to describe the population and explore the association of physician residence patterns with relevant personal and municipality characteristics. Data from the Portuguese Medical Council on physicians’ residence and characteristics were analysed, as well as data from the National Institute of Statistics on municipalities’ population, living standards and health care network. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, negative binomial and logistic regression modelling were applied to determine: (a municipality characteristics predicting Portuguese and International physicians’ geographical distribution, and; (b doctors’ characteristics that could increase the odds of residing outside the country’s metropolitan areas. Results There were 39,473 physicians in Portugal in 2008, 51.1% of whom male, and 40.2% between 41 and 55 years of age. They were predominantly Portuguese (90.5%, with Spanish, Brazilian and African nationalities also represented. Population, Population’s Purchasing Power, Nurses per capita and Municipality Development Index (MDI were the municipality characteristics displaying the strongest association with national physicians’ location. For foreign physicians, the MDI was not statistically significant

  11. An approach for heterogeneous and loosely coupled geospatial data distributed computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Huang, Fengru; Fang, Yu; Huang, Zhou; Lin, Hui

    2010-07-01

    Most GIS (Geographic Information System) applications tend to have heterogeneous and autonomous geospatial information resources, and the availability of these local resources is unpredictable and dynamic under a distributed computing environment. In order to make use of these local resources together to solve larger geospatial information processing problems that are related to an overall situation, in this paper, with the support of peer-to-peer computing technologies, we propose a geospatial data distributed computing mechanism that involves loosely coupled geospatial resource directories and a term named as Equivalent Distributed Program of global geospatial queries to solve geospatial distributed computing problems under heterogeneous GIS environments. First, a geospatial query process schema for distributed computing as well as a method for equivalent transformation from a global geospatial query to distributed local queries at SQL (Structured Query Language) level to solve the coordinating problem among heterogeneous resources are presented. Second, peer-to-peer technologies are used to maintain a loosely coupled network environment that consists of autonomous geospatial information resources, thus to achieve decentralized and consistent synchronization among global geospatial resource directories, and to carry out distributed transaction management of local queries. Finally, based on the developed prototype system, example applications of simple and complex geospatial data distributed queries are presented to illustrate the procedure of global geospatial information processing.

  12. The spatial distribution of known predictors of autism spectrum disorders impacts geographic variability in prevalence in central North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Kate

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD remain largely unknown and widely debated; however, evidence increasingly points to the importance of environmental exposures. A growing number of studies use geographic variability in ASD prevalence or exposure patterns to investigate the association between environmental factors and ASD. However, differences in the geographic distribution of established risk and predictive factors for ASD, such as maternal education or age, can interfere with investigations of ASD etiology. We evaluated geographic variability in the prevalence of ASD in central North Carolina and the impact of spatial confounding by known risk and predictive factors. Methods Children meeting a standardized case definition for ASD at 8 years of age were identified through records-based surveillance for 8 counties biennially from 2002 to 2008 (n=532. Vital records were used to identify the underlying cohort (15% random sample of children born in the same years as children with an ASD, n=11,034, and to obtain birth addresses. We used generalized additive models (GAMs to estimate the prevalence of ASD across the region by smoothing latitude and longitude. GAMs, unlike methods used in previous spatial analyses of ASD, allow for extensive adjustment of individual-level risk factors (e.g. maternal age and education when evaluating spatial variability of disease prevalence. Results Unadjusted maps revealed geographic variation in surveillance-recognized ASD. Children born in certain regions of the study area were up to 1.27 times as likely to be recognized as having ASD compared to children born in the study area as a whole (prevalence ratio (PR range across the study area 0.57-1.27; global P=0.003. However, geographic gradients of ASD prevalence were attenuated after adjusting for spatial confounders (adjusted PR range 0.72-1.12 across the study area; global P=0.052. Conclusions In these data, spatial variation of ASD

  13. Agent-based Integration of Complex and Heterogeneous Distributed Energy Resources in Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Umair, Aisha; Demazeau, Yves

    2017-01-01

    A Virtual Power Plant aggregates several Distributed Energy Resources in order to expose them as a single, controllable entity. This enables smaller Distributed Energy Resources to take part in Demand Response programs which traditionally only targeted larger consumers. To date, models for Virtual...

  14. Distributed GIS Systems, Open Specifications and Interoperability: How do They Relate to the Sustainable Management of Natural Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael Moreno-Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this is paper is to provide a conceptual framework for the session: “The role of web-based Geographic Information Systems in supporting sustainable management.” The concepts of sustainability, sustainable forest management, Web Services, Distributed Geographic Information Systems, interoperability, Open Specifications, and Open Source Software are defined...

  15. About the Geographic Distribution of Economic Science in Asian Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Nikolaevich Demyanenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of empirical studies of modern geographic distribution of economic science in Asian Russia (i. e. three macro-regions of Russia: Far East, Siberia and the Urals Region. The study is based on an original database of articles on Economics and related disciplines which arearranged within the Elibrary platformfor 2005-2013. These articles arewritten by fellows of research organizations that are located in the Asian part of Russia.Statistical analysis of the main indicators of publication activity shows that there are significant differences in the scope, dynamics, and quality of the results of this activity among the research organizations of various types.The authors focused on the territorial structure of the study of the economy defined as a set of scientific centers of varying scale and type, as well as networks of scientific communication.It is revealed that publication activity of economic research institutions in Asian Russia has a high level of spatial concentration and the system of scientific communication, formed by the scientific journals of the region, has a high level of fragmentation

  16. Hawai‘i Distributed Energy Resource Technologies for Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-09-30

    HNEI has conducted research to address a number of issues important to move Hawai‘i to greater use of intermittent renewable and distributed energy resource (DER) technologies in order to facilitate greater use of Hawai‘i's indigenous renewable energy resources. Efforts have been concentrated on the Islands of Hawai‘i, Maui, and O‘ahu, focusing in three areas of endeavor: 1) Energy Modeling and Scenario Analysis (previously called Energy Road mapping); 2) Research, Development, and Validation of Renewable DER and Microgrid Technologies; and 3) Analysis and Policy. These efforts focused on analysis of the island energy systems and development of specific candidate technologies for future insertion into an integrated energy system, which would lead to a more robust transmission and distribution system in the state of Hawai‘i and eventually elsewhere in the nation.

  17. Day-ahead distributed energy resource scheduling using differential search algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, J.; Lobo, C.; Silva, M.

    2015-01-01

    The number of dispersed energy resources is growing every day, such as the use of more distributed generators. This paper deals with energy resource scheduling model in future smart grids. The methodology can be used by virtual power players (VPPs) considering day-ahead time horizon. This method...... considers that energy resources are managed by a VPP which establishes contracts with their owners. The full AC power flow calculation included in the model takes into account network constraints. This paper presents an application of differential search algorithm (DSA) for solving the day-ahead scheduling...

  18. Evaluation methodology for tariff design under escalating penetrations of distributed energy resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdelmotteleb, I.I.A.; Gómez, Tomás; Reneses, Javier

    2017-01-01

    As the penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) escalates in distribution networks, new network tariffs are needed to cope with this new situation. These tariffs should allocate network costs to users, promoting an efficient use of the distribution network. This paper proposes a

  19. Equity in the allocation of public sector financial resources in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Laura; Lagarde, Mylene; Hanson, Kara

    2015-05-01

    This review aims to identify, assess and analyse the evidence on equity in the distribution of public health sector expenditure in low- and middle-income countries. Four bibliographic databases and five websites were searched to identify quantitative studies examining equity in the distribution of public health funding in individual countries or groups of countries. Two different types of studies were identified: benefit incidence analysis (BIA) and resource allocation comparison (RAC) studies. Quality appraisal and data synthesis were tailored to each study type to reflect differences in the methods used and in the information provided. We identified 39 studies focusing on African, Asian and Latin American countries. Of these, 31 were BIA studies that described the distribution, typically across socio-economic status, of individual monetary benefit derived from service utilization. The remaining eight were RAC studies that compared the actual expenditure across geographic areas to an ideal need-based distribution. Overall, the quality of the evidence from both types of study was relatively weak. Looking across studies, the evidence confirms that resource allocation formulae can enhance equity in resource allocation across geographic areas and that the poor benefits proportionally more from primary health care than from hospital expenditure. The lack of information on the distribution of benefit from utilization in RAC studies and on the countries' approaches to resource allocation in BIA studies prevents further policy analysis. Additional research that relates the type of resource allocation mechanism to service provision and to the benefit distribution is required for a better understanding of equity-enhancing resource allocation policies. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics of the socio-geographical factors in the Drina-Velika Morava strategic direction zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Radivoj Inđić

    2013-06-01

    settlements: compact type (including cities and villages in the plains of Mačva, Posavina, Morava scattered type (including villages in the mountainous regions – Tara, Zlatibor and Maljen, Povlen and mixed type (spa, mining and tourist resorts. It should be noticed that almost all the towns on the line are located along the most important communication lines, in major river valleys, at mountain foothills, namely in the geographic space naturally suitable for combat operations. Characteristics of Communication Networks The communications network on the strategic direction is not developed well and does not provide for a high tempo of well–equipped agressor attacks. Through this strategic geographic space there are two longitudinal directions (Bačka–Kosovo and Bačka–Crnagora and two transverse (Šumadija– Timok and Zapadnamorava–Nišava communication nodes.. The communication networks in the geographic direction enable successful maneuvers and regrouping of forces in the front and rear, successful execution of combat operations, timely and successful execution of mobilization and evacuation. In the geographic strategic direction, the river and canal traffic does not follow the natural and geographic conditions, so it is of no special significance to the military aspect. The general characteristics of air traffic in the strategic direction is an unfavourable territorial distribution of airports (in the southeast direction.   Characteristics of the economy The consideration of the economy in this strategic direction is done through the consideration of the military geographic characteristics of natural–economic potential and military geographic characteristics of technical–economic and technological potentials. The natural economic resources are viewed through: agricultural land, energy resources and mining potential. Much of the farmland is located in the Semberija–Šumadija operating direction (Mačva, Pocerina, Šumadija that gravitates towards the

  1. Modelling Framework and the Quantitative Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources in Future Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Sandels, Claes; Zhu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    There has been a large body of statements claiming that the large-scale deployment of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) could eventually reshape the future distribution grid operation in numerous ways. Thus, it is necessary to introduce a framework to measure to what extent the power system......, comprising distributed generation, active demand and electric vehicles. Subsequently, quantitative analysis was made on the basis of the current and envisioned DER deployment scenarios proposed for Sweden. Simulations are performed in two typical distribution network models for four seasons. The simulation...... results show that in general the DER deployment brings in the possibilities to reduce the power losses and voltage drops by compensating power from the local generation and optimizing the local load profiles....

  2. Geographic Distribution of Radiologists and Utilization of Teleradiology in Japan: A Longitudinal Analysis Based on National Census Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Koike, Soichi; Kashima, Saori; Awai, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Japan has the most CT and MRI scanners per unit population in the world, and as these technologies spread, their geographic distribution is becoming equalized. In contrast, the number of radiologists per unit population in Japan is the lowest among OECD countries and their geographic distribution is unknown. Likewise, little is known about the use of teleradiology, which can compensate for the uneven distribution of radiologists. Based on the Survey of Physicians, Dentists and Pharmacists and the Static Survey of Medical Institutions by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, a dataset of radiologists and CT and MRI utilizations in each of Japan's 1811 municipalities was created. The inter-municipality equity of the number of radiologists was evaluated using Gini coefficient. Logistic regression analysis, based on Static Survey data, was performed to evaluate the association between hospital location and teleradiology use. Between 2006 and 2012 the number of radiologists increased by 21.7%, but the Gini coefficient remained unchanged. The number of radiologists per 1,000 CT (MRI) utilizations decreased by 17.9% (1.0%); the number was highest in metropolis and lowest in town/village and the disparity has widened from 1.9 to 2.2 (1.6 to 2.0) times. The number of hospitals and clinics using teleradiology has increased (by 69.6% and 18.1%, respectively). Hospitals located in towns/villages (odds ratio 1.61; 95% confidence interval 1.26-2.07) were more likely to use teleradiology than those in metropolises. Contrary to the CT and MRI distributions, radiologist distribution has not been evened out by the increase in their number; in other words, the distribution of radiologists was not affected by market-derived spatial competition force. As a consequence, the gap of the radiologist shortage between urban and rural areas is increasing. Teleradiology, which is one way to ameliorate this gap, should be encouraged.

  3. Geographic distribution of ebony leaf monkey Trachypithecus auratus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812) (Mammalia: Primates: Cercopithecidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nijman, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    As one of the fundamental units of ecology and biogeography, the geographic distribution of the endemic and threatened ebony leaf monkey Trachypithecus auratus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812) on the islands of Java, Bali, and Lombok (Indonesia) has been assessed. All localities where the species has been collected are listed, and forty-two areas (each in itself consisting of numerous smaller sites) where the species has been recorded are discussed. The species occurs in a large variety of f...

  4. Geographical Distribution of the Most Frequent Mutations of Familial Mediterranean fever in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Hadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF is an autosomal recessive disease. Generally, the Mediterranean basin is the region where the first cases of FMF have been identified. The gene responsible for FMF is gene MEFV. Disease occurs due to mutations in the gene MEFV. Our aim was to determine the geographical distribution of the most frequent mutations in Familial Mediterranean Fever Disease in the world. Material and Methods: In this study, databases including Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, Ovid, IranMedex, Irandoc, SID, Magiran and published papers were searched with no limitation in time. Then, all collected studies without any limitation were assessed to determine relevant studies. At the end, world map of the most frequent mutations of FMF was generated by Geographical Information System (GIS software. Results: Although more than 290 mutations of the MEFV gene have been described, only four mutations (M694V, M694I, V726A, and E148Q were prevalent among patients with FMF. Conclusion: The most frequent mutation associated with FMF mutation is M694V all over the world. E148Q mutation was found to be with mild clinical relevance.

  5. Predicting the geographic distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) and visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Paulo Silva de; Sciamarelli, Alan; Batista, Paulo Mira; Ferreira, Ademar Dimas; Nascimento, João; Raizer, Josué; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-12-01

    To understand the geographic distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil, both the climatic niches of Lutzomyia longipalpis and VL cases were analysed. Distributional data were obtained from 55 of the 79 counties of MS between 2003-2012. Ecological niche models (ENM) of Lu. longipalpis and VL cases were produced using the maximum entropy algorithm based on eight climatic variables. Lu. longipalpis showed a wide distribution in MS. The highest climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis was observed in southern MS. Temperature seasonality and annual mean precipitation were the variables that most influenced these models. Two areas of high climatic suitability for the occurrence of VL cases were predicted: one near Aquidauana and another encompassing several municipalities in the southeast region of MS. As expected, a large overlap between the models for Lu. longipalpis and VL cases was detected. Northern and northwestern areas of MS were suitable for the occurrence of cases, but did not show high climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis. ENM of vectors and human cases provided a greater understanding of the geographic distribution of VL in MS, which can be applied to the development of future surveillance strategies.

  6. Vascular plants of the Nevada Test Site and Central-Southern Nevada: ecologic and geographic distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The physical environment of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding area is described with regard to physiography, geology, soils, and climate. A discussion of plant associations is given for the Mojave Desert, Transition Desert, and Great Basin Desert. The vegetation of disturbed sites is discussed with regard to introduced species as well as endangered and threatened species. Collections of vascular plants were made during 1959 to 1975. The plants, belonging to 1093 taxa and 98 families are listed together with information concerning ecologic and geographic distributions. Indexes to families, genera, and species are included. (HLW)

  7. Overcoming scepticism: Interacting influences of geographical location on perceived climate change adaptation measures to water resources in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Bardaji, Isabel; Iglesias, Pedro; Granados, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    Though many climate adaptation efforts attempt to be defined with the participation of local communities, these strategies may be ineffective because among citizens affected equally, a local risk perception rather than scientific understanding largely drives adaptation choices. Further, the geographical location may polarize climate risk perceptions, making some adaptation efforts ineffective among sceptics. This study examines how the local degradation of the environment and water resources relates to adaption choices and in turn, climate change risk perception among a range of citizens in the Tagus basin, Spain (n = 300). We find respondents of less degraded areas have individualistic responses, and are significantly less likely to accept adaptation strategies than respondents in water stressed communities. The interaction between climate knowledge and adaptation choices is positively related to acceptance of adaptation choices in both groups, and had a stronger positive relationship among individualists. There is no statistical difference in acceptance of adaptation between individualists and communitarians at high levels of knowledge (top decile). Thus, education efforts specific to climate change may counteract divisions based geographical location and environmental stress.

  8. Integration of 100% Micro-Distributed Energy Resources in the Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Segerberg, Helena

    2014-01-01

    of heat pumps (HPs) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) at 100% penetration level on a representative urban residential low voltage (LV) distribution network of Denmark are investigated by performing a steady-state load flow analysis through an integrated simulation setup. Three DERs integration...... oriented integration strategies, having 100% integration of DER in the provided LV network is feasible.......The existing electricity infrastructure may to a great extent limit a high penetration of the micro-sized Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), due to the physical bottlenecks, e.g. thermal capacitates of cables, transformers and the voltage limitations. In this study, the integration impacts...

  9. Geographic Distribution of Chagas Disease Vectors in Brazil Based on Ecological Niche Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Brazil was declared free from Chagas disease transmission by the domestic vector Triatoma infestans, human acute cases are still being registered based on transmission by native triatomine species. For a better understanding of transmission risk, the geographic distribution of Brazilian triatomines was analyzed. Sixteen out of 62 Brazilian species that both occur in >20 municipalities and present synanthropic tendencies were modeled based on their ecological niches. Panstrongylus geniculatus and P. megistus showed broad ecological ranges, but most of the species sort out by the biome in which they are distributed: Rhodnius pictipes and R. robustus in the Amazon; R. neglectus, Triatoma sordida, and T. costalimai in the Cerrado; R. nasutus, P. lutzi, T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata, T. melanocephala, and T. petrocchiae in the Caatinga; T. rubrovaria in the southern pampas; T. tibiamaculata and T. vitticeps in the Atlantic Forest. Although most occurrences were recorded in open areas (Cerrado and Caatinga, our results show that all environmental conditions in the country are favorable to one or more of the species analyzed, such that almost nowhere is Chagas transmission risk negligible.

  10. Energy gradients and the geographic distribution of local ant diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspari, Michael; Ward, Philip S; Yuan, May

    2004-08-01

    Geographical diversity gradients, even among local communities, can ultimately arise from geographical differences in speciation and extinction rates. We evaluated three models--energy-speciation, energy-abundance, and area--that predict how geographic trends in net diversification rates generate trends in diversity. We sampled 96 litter ant communities from four provinces: Australia, Madagascar, North America, and South America. The energy-speciation hypothesis best predicted ant species richness by accurately predicting the slope of the temperature diversity curve, and accounting for most of the variation in diversity. The communities showed a strong latitudinal gradient in species richness as well as inter-province differences in diversity. The former vanished in the temperature-diversity residuals, suggesting that the latitudinal gradient arises primarily from higher diversification rates in the tropics. However, inter-province differences in diversity persisted in those residuals--South American communities remained more diverse than those in North America and Australia even after the effects of temperature were removed.

  11. Real-time modeling and simulation of distribution feeder and distributed resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pawan

    The analysis of the electrical system dates back to the days when analog network analyzers were used. With the advent of digital computers, many programs were written for power-flow and short circuit analysis for the improvement of the electrical system. Real-time computer simulations can answer many what-if scenarios in the existing or the proposed power system. In this thesis, the standard IEEE 13-Node distribution feeder is developed and validated on a real-time platform OPAL-RT. The concept and the challenges of the real-time simulation are studied and addressed. Distributed energy resources include some of the commonly used distributed generation and storage devices like diesel engine, solar photovoltaic array, and battery storage system are modeled and simulated on a real-time platform. A microgrid encompasses a portion of an electric power distribution which is located downstream of the distribution substation. Normally, the microgrid operates in paralleled mode with the grid; however, scheduled or forced isolation can take place. In such conditions, the microgrid must have the ability to operate stably and autonomously. The microgrid can operate in grid connected and islanded mode, both the operating modes are studied in the last chapter. Towards the end, a simple microgrid controller modeled and simulated on the real-time platform is developed for energy management and protection for the microgrid.

  12. Energy Policy Case Study - California: Renewables and Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    The purpose of this document is to present a case study of energy policies in California related to power system transformation and renewable and distributed energy resources (DERs). Distributed energy resources represent a broad range of technologies that can significantly impact how much, and when, electricity is demanded from the grid. Key policies and proceedings related to power system transformation and DERs are grouped into the following categories: 1.Policies that support achieving environmental and climate goals 2.Policies that promote deployment of DERs 3.Policies that support reliability and integration of DERs 4.Policies that promote market animation and support customer choice. Major challenges going forward are forecasting and modeling DERs, regulatory and utility business model issues, reliability, valuation and pricing, and data management and sharing.

  13. Geographic distribution of selected elements in the livers of polar bears from Greenland, Canada and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, Scott A.; Borga, Katrine; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W.; Sonne, Christian; Evans, Thomas; Muir, Derek C.G.; Letcher, Robert J.; Norstrom, Ross J.; Fisk, Aaron T.

    2008-01-01

    To assess geographic distributions of elements in the Arctic we compared essential and non-essential elements in the livers of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) collected from five regions within Canada in 2002, in Alaska between 1994 and 1999 and from the northwest and east coasts of Greenland between 1988 and 2000. As, Hg, Pb and Se varied with age, and Co and Zn with gender, which limited spatial comparisons across all populations to Cd, which was highest in Greenland bears. Collectively, geographic relationships appeared similar to past studies with little change in concentration over time in Canada and Greenland for most elements; Hg and Se were higher in some Canadian populations in 2002 as compared to 1982 and 1984. Concentrations of most elements in the polar bears did not exceed toxicity thresholds, although Cd and Hg exceeded levels correlated with the formation of hepatic lesions in laboratory animals. - Geographical trends were observed for a number of elements in livers, including mercury, of polar bears collected across Alaska, Canada and Greenland and were similar to those observed in the early 1980s

  14. Local breast cancer spatial patterning: a tool for community health resource allocation to address local disparities in breast cancer mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M Brantley-Sieders

    Full Text Available Despite available demographic data on the factors that contribute to breast cancer mortality in large population datasets, local patterns are often overlooked. Such local information could provide a valuable metric by which regional community health resources can be allocated to reduce breast cancer mortality. We used national and statewide datasets to assess geographical distribution of breast cancer mortality rates and known risk factors influencing breast cancer mortality in middle Tennessee. Each county in middle Tennessee, and each ZIP code within metropolitan Davidson County, was scored for risk factor prevalence and assigned quartile scores that were used as a metric to identify geographic areas of need. While breast cancer mortality often correlated with age and incidence, geographic areas were identified in which breast cancer mortality rates did not correlate with age and incidence, but correlated with additional risk factors, such as mammography screening and socioeconomic status. Geographical variability in specific risk factors was evident, demonstrating the utility of this approach to identify local areas of risk. This method revealed local patterns in breast cancer mortality that might otherwise be overlooked in a more broadly based analysis. Our data suggest that understanding the geographic distribution of breast cancer mortality, and the distribution of risk factors that contribute to breast cancer mortality, will not only identify communities with the greatest need of support, but will identify the types of resources that would provide the most benefit to reduce breast cancer mortality in the community.

  15. Mapping and modelling the geographical distribution of soil-transmitted helminthiases in Peninsular Malaysia: implications for control approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Ngui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections in Malaysia are still highly prevalent, especially in rural and remote communities. Complete estimations of the total disease burden in the country has not been performed, since available data are not easily accessible in the public domain. The current study utilised geographical information system (GIS to collate and map the distribution of STH infections from available empirical survey data in Peninsular Malaysia, highlighting areas where information is lacking. The assembled database, comprising surveys conducted between 1970 and 2012 in 99 different locations, represents one of the most comprehensive compilations of STH infections in the country. It was found that the geographical distribution of STH varies considerably with no clear pattern across the surveyed locations. Our attempt to generate predictive risk maps of STH infections on the basis of ecological limits such as climate and other environmental factors shows that the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides is low along the western coast and the southern part of the country, whilst the prevalence is high in the central plains and in the North. In the present study, we demonstrate that GIS can play an important role in providing data for the implementation of sustainable and effective STH control programmes to policy-makers and authorities in charge.

  16. Current Knowledge of Leishmania Vectors in Mexico: How Geographic Distributions of Species Relate to Transmission Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Camila; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne diseases with different clinical manifestations caused by parasites transmitted by sand fly vectors. In Mexico, the sand fly Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca is the only vector proven to transmit the parasite Leishmania mexicana to humans, which causes leishmaniasis. Other vector species with potential medical importance have been obtained, but their geographic distributions and relation to transmission areas have never been assessed. We modeled the ecological niches of nine sand fly species and projected niches to estimate potential distributions by using known occurrences, environmental coverages, and the algorithms GARP and Maxent. All vector species were distributed in areas with known recurrent transmission, except for Lu. diabolica, which appeared to be related only to areas of occasional transmission in northern Mexico. The distribution of Lu. o. olmeca does not overlap with all reported cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, suggesting that Lu. cruciata and Lu. shannoni are likely also involved as primary vectors in those areas. Our study provides useful information of potential risk areas of leishmaniasis transmission in Mexico. PMID:22049037

  17. The significant surface-water connectivity of "geographically isolated wetlands"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Mushet, David M.; Alexander, Laurie C.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Richter, Stephen; Walls, Susan

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the current literature, coupled with our collective research expertise, on surface-water connectivity of wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” (sensu Tiner Wetlands 23:494–516, 2003a) to critically assess the scientific foundation of grouping wetlands based on the singular condition of being surrounded by uplands. The most recent research on wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” shows the difficulties in grouping an ecological resource that does not reliably indicate lack of surface water connectivity in order to meet legal, regulatory, or scientific needs. Additionally, the practice of identifying “geographically isolated wetlands” based on distance from a stream can result in gross overestimates of the number of wetlands lacking ecologically important surface-water connections. Our findings do not support use of the overly simplistic label of “geographically isolated wetlands”. Wetlands surrounded by uplands vary in function and surface-water connections based on wetland landscape setting, context, climate, and geographic region and should be evaluated as such. We found that the “geographically isolated” grouping does not reflect our understanding of the hydrologic variability of these wetlands and hence does not benefit conservation of the Nation’s diverse wetland resources. Therefore, we strongly discourage use of categorizations that provide overly simplistic views of surface-water connectivity of wetlands fully embedded in upland landscapes.

  18. Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection Systems: Technology Review and Research Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, N. R.

    2002-09-01

    Interconnecting distributed energy resources (DER) to the electric utility grid (or Area Electric Power System, Area EPS) involves system engineering, safety, and reliability considerations. This report documents US DOE Distribution and Interconnection R&D (formerly Distributed Power Program) activities, furthering the development and safe and reliable integration of DER interconnected with our nation's electric power systems. The key to that is system integration and technology development of the interconnection devices that perform the functions necessary to maintain the safety, power quality, and reliability of the EPS when DER are connected to it.

  19. Geographical patterns in cyanobacteria distribution: climate influence at regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitois, Frédéric; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle; Thomas, Olivier

    2014-01-28

    Cyanobacteria are a component of public health hazards in freshwater environments because of their potential as toxin producers. Eutrophication has long been considered the main cause of cyanobacteria outbreak and proliferation, whereas many studies emphasized the effect of abiotic parameters (mainly temperature and light) on cell growth rate or toxin production. In view of the growing concerns of global change consequences on public health parameters, this study attempts to enlighten climate influence on cyanobacteria at regional scale in Brittany (NW France). The results show that homogeneous cyanobacteria groups are associated with climatic domains related to temperature, global radiation and pluviometry, whereas microcystins (MCs) occurrences are only correlated to local cyanobacteria species composition. As the regional climatic gradient amplitude is similar to the projected climate evolution on a 30-year timespan, a comparison between the present NW and SE situations was used to extrapolate the evolution of geographical cyanobacteria distribution in Brittany. Cyanobacteria composition should shift toward species associated with more frequent Microcystins occurrences along a NW/SE axis whereas lakes situated along a SW/NE axis should transition to species (mainly Nostocales) associated with lower MCs detection frequencies.

  20. The Natural Resources Conservation Service land resource hierarchy and ecological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resource areas of the NRCS have long been important to soil geography. At both regional and landscape scales, resource areas are used to stratify programs and practices based on geographical areas where resource concerns, problems, or treatment needs are similar. However, the inability to quantifiab...

  1. Geographic distribution and taxonomic circumscription of populations within Coryphantha section Robustispina (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Marc A; Butterworth, Charles A

    2013-05-01

    Taxonomic circumscription of subspecific taxa within Coryphantha robustispina was evaluated with morphological data and microsatellites. This study was the first to compare adequately sampled morphological and DNA analyses at the population level in the Cactaceae. This comparison was important to test reliability of both methods and to gain a better understanding of phytogeography, evolution, and systematics of the species, knowledge that could prove useful for other taxa as well. Populations of C. robustispina subsp. robustispina are listed as endangered by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our primary goal was to explore correlations among geographical distribution, morphology, and genetics of selected populations throughout the range of the species and the outgroup, C. poselgeriana. • Stem characters were measured for 638 individuals among 16 populations. Flower characters were measured for 180 individuals among 12 populations. Ten microsatellite DNA loci were isolated and characterized for 204 individuals among 13 populations. Data were analyzed using various multivariate analyses. • Our results indicated that, within Coryphantha robustispina, there were three morphologically, genetically, and geographically coherent groups represented by the names C. robustispina subsp. robustispina, C. robustispina subsp. uncinata, and C. robustispina subsp. scheeri. For most analyses, distinctions among the three groups were primarily not as great as those between any one of them and the outgroup. • Results suggested that the three subspecific taxa within Coryphantha robustispina are good subspecies but should not be elevated to species rank. The closely aligned results between morphology and microsatellite data support the design and utility of both methods.

  2. Extent and Distribution of Groundwater Resources in Parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent and distribution of groundwater resources in parts of Anambra State, Nigeria has been investigated. The results show that the study area is directly underlain by four different geological formations including, Alluvial Plain Sands, Ogwashi-Asaba Formation, Ameki/Nanka Sands and Imo Shale, with varying water ...

  3. ANALISIS BULLWHIP EFFECT TERHADAP PENERAPAN DISTRIBUTION RESOURCE PLANNING DI PT. MNJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Suseno

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Manajemen persediaan barang/produk menjadi sangat penting dan krusial bagi perusahaan distribusi. PT. MNJ sebagai perusahaan distribusi produk farmasi dan pangan, memiliki komitmen yang tinggi dan kepedulian dalam memberikan barang/produk dengan jumlah yang tepat dan waktu yang tepat. Penelitian ini berusaha untuk mengendalikan persediaan secara optimal dengan metode Distribusi Resource Planning (DRP dan melakukan pengukuran nilai bullwhip effect. Sampel penelitian adalah dua cabang utama dari 56 cabang PT.MNJ, dengan dua produk utama yaitu Paramex dan Konicare 125 ml. Penelitian ini menghitung dan menentukan rencana penjualan dengan menggunakan empat metode peramalan eksponensial. Selanjutnya, dilakukan perencanaan persediaan dengan metode DRP untuk menghasilkan kapan dan berapa banyak barang yang didistribusi ke cabang penjualan dengan biaya terendah. Penelitian ini juga membahas hasil perhitungan bullwhip effect selama 3 bulan.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dengan menerapkan DRP dapat menurunkan nilai bullwhip effect baik untuk cabang Jakarta maupun Solo.   Kata Kunci: distribusi resource planning; bullwhip effect; peramalan Abstract Inventory management of goods/product becomes very important and crucial for distribution company. PT. MNJ as a distribution company of pharmaceutical and food products, have high commitment and concern in providing the goods/products with the right amount and the right time. This study attempted to optimal control the supply with Distribution Resource Planning (DRP method and measuring the value of the bullwhip effect. Samples are two main branches of the 56 branches PT.MNJ, with two main product Paramex and Konicare 125 ml. This research calculates and determines the sales plans using four methods of forecasting exponential. Furthermore, the inventory planning with DRP method to produce when and how many goods are distributed to branch sales at the lowest cost. This study also discusses the results of

  4. A review on distributed energy resources and MicroGrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiayi, Huang; Chuanwen, Jiang; Rong, Xu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Huashan Road 1954, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The distributed energy resources (DER) comprise several technologies, such as diesel engines, micro turbines, fuel cells, photovoltaic, small wind turbines, etc. The coordinated operation and control of DER together with controllable loads and storage devices, such as flywheels, energy capacitors and batteries are central to the concept of MicroGrid (MG). MG can operate interconnected to the main distribution grid, or in an islanded mode. This paper reviews the researches and studies on MG technology. The operation of MG and the MG in the market environment are also described in the paper. (author)

  5. Molecular insight into systematics, host associations, life cycles and geographic distribution of the nematode family Rhabdiasidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkach, Vasyl V; Kuzmin, Yuriy; Snyder, Scott D

    2014-04-01

    Rhabdiasidae Railliet, 1915 is a globally distributed group of up to 100 known species of nematodes parasitic in amphibians and reptiles. This work presents the results of a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 36 species of Rhabdiasidae from reptiles and amphibians from six continents. New DNA sequences encompassing partial 18S rDNA, ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA were obtained from 27 species and pre-existing sequences for nine species were incorporated. The broad taxonomic, host and geographical coverage of the specimens allowed us to address long-standing questions in rhabdiasid systematics, evolution, geographic distribution, and patterns of host association. Our analysis demonstrated that rhabdiasids parasitic in snakes are an independent genus sister to the rest of the Rhabdiasidae, a status supported by life cycle data. Based on the combined evidence of molecular phylogeny, morphology and life cycle characteristics, a new genus Serpentirhabdias gen. nov. with the type species Serpentirhabdias elaphe (Sharpilo, 1976) comb. nov. is established. The phylogeny supports the monophyly of Entomelas Travassos, 1930, Pneumonema Johnston, 1916 and the largest genus of the family, Rhabdias Stiles and Hassall, 1905. DNA sequence comparisons demonstrate the presence of more than one species in the previously monotypic Pneumonema from Australian scincid lizards. The distribution of some morphological characters in the genus Rhabdias shows little consistency within the phylogenetic tree topology, in particular the apical structures widely used in rhabdiasid systematics. Our data suggest that some of the characters, while valuable for species differentiation, are not appropriate for differentiation among higher taxa and are of limited phylogenetic utility. Rhabdias is the only genus with a cosmopolitan distribution, but some of the lineages within Rhabdias are distributed on a single continent or a group of adjacent

  6. Effects of resource distribution patterns on ungulate foraging behaviour: a modelling approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallis de Vries, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    The food resources of forest ungulates typically are patchily distributed. Research on foraging behaviour has often focused on habitat selection but has rarely taken into account the influence of the spatial distribution of different food patches in two dimensions. However, especially when

  7. Geographic Distribution of Leishmania Species in Ecuador Based on the Cytochrome B Gene Sequence Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio, Jenny; Velez, Lenin; Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-07-01

    A countrywide epidemiological study was performed to elucidate the current geographic distribution of causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ecuador by using FTA card-spotted samples and smear slides as DNA sources. Putative Leishmania in 165 samples collected from patients with CL in 16 provinces of Ecuador were examined at the species level based on the cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. Of these, 125 samples were successfully identified as Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) naiffi, L. (V.) lainsoni, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana. Two dominant species, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, were widely distributed in Pacific coast subtropical and Amazonian tropical areas, respectively. Recently reported L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni were identified in Amazonian areas, and L. (L.) mexicana was identified in an Andean highland area. Importantly, the present study demonstrated that cases of L. (V.) braziliensis infection are increasing in Pacific coast areas.

  8. Power flow control strategy in distribution network for dc type distributed energy resource at load bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, A.; Choudhry, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work presents a feed forward power flow control strategy in the secondary distribution network working in parallel with a DC type distributed energy resource (DER) unit with SPWM-IGBT Voltage Source Converter (VSC). The developed control strategy enables the VSC to be used as power flow controller at the load bus in the presence of utility supply. Due to the investigated control strategy, power flow control from distributed energy resource (DER) to common load bus is such that power flows to the load without facing any power quality problem. The technique has an added advantage of controlling power flow without having a dedicated power flow controller. The SPWM-IGBT VSC is serving the purpose of dc-ac converter as well as power flow controller. Simulations for a test system using proposed power flow control strategy are carried out using SimPower Systems toolbox of MATLAB at the rate and Simulink at the rate. The results show that a reliable, effective and efficient operation of DC type DER unit in coordination with main utility network can be achieved. (author)

  9. Effects of Abiotic Factors on the Geographic Distribution of Body Size Variation and Chromosomal Polymorphisms in Two Neotropical Grasshopper Species (Dichroplus: Melanoplinae: Acrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio J. Bidau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the effects of abiotic factors on body size in two grasshopper species with large geographical distributions: Dichroplus pratensis and D. vittatus, inhabiting Argentina in diverse natural habitats. Geographical spans for both species provide an opportunity to study the effects of changes in abiotic factors on body size. The analyses of body size distribution in both species revealed a converse Bergmannian pattern: body size is positively correlated with latitude, altitude, and seasonality that influences time available for development and growth. Allen’s rule is also inverted. Morphological variability increases towards the ends of the Bergmannian clines and, in D. pratensis, is related with a central-marginal distribution of chromosomal variants that influence recombination. The converse Bergmannian patterns influence sexual size dimorphism in both species but in different fashions. Body size variation at a microspatial scale in D. pratensis is extremely sensitive to microclimatic clines. We finally compare our results with those for other Orthopteran species.

  10. [Prediction of potential geographic distribution of Lyme disease in Qinghai province with Maximum Entropy model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Hou, Xuexia; Liu, Huixin; Liu, Wei; Wan, Kanglin; Hao, Qin

    2016-01-01

    To predict the potential geographic distribution of Lyme disease in Qinghai by using Maximum Entropy model (MaxEnt). The sero-diagnosis data of Lyme disease in 6 counties (Huzhu, Zeku, Tongde, Datong, Qilian and Xunhua) and the environmental and anthropogenic data including altitude, human footprint, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and temperature in Qinghai province since 1990 were collected. By using the data of Huzhu Zeku and Tongde, the prediction of potential distribution of Lyme disease in Qinghai was conducted with MaxEnt. The prediction results were compared with the human sero-prevalence of Lyme disease in Datong, Qilian and Xunhua counties in Qinghai. Three hot spots of Lyme disease were predicted in Qinghai, which were all in the east forest areas. Furthermore, the NDVI showed the most important role in the model prediction, followed by human footprint. Datong, Qilian and Xunhua counties were all in eastern Qinghai. Xunhua was in hot spot areaⅡ, Datong was close to the north of hot spot area Ⅲ, while Qilian with lowest sero-prevalence of Lyme disease was not in the hot spot areas. The data were well modeled in MaxEnt (Area Under Curve=0.980). The actual distribution of Lyme disease in Qinghai was in consistent with the results of the model prediction. MaxEnt could be used in predicting the potential distribution patterns of Lyme disease. The distribution of vegetation and the range and intensity of human activity might be related with Lyme disease distribution.

  11. Geographic Variation in Morbidity and Mortality of Cerebrovascular Diseases in Korea during 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juyeon; Bahk, Jinwook; Kim, Ikhan; Kim, Yeon-Yong; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Kang, Hee-Yeon; Lee, Jeehye; Park, Jong Heon; Shin, Soon-Ae; Khang, Young-Ho

    2018-03-01

    Little is known about within-country variation in morbidity and mortality of cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs). Geographic differences in CVD morbidity and mortality have yet to be properly examined. This study examined geographic variation in morbidity and mortality of CVD, neighborhood factors for CVD morbidity and mortality, and the association between CVD morbidity and mortality across the 245 local districts in Korea during 2011-2015. District-level health care utilization and mortality data were obtained to estimate age-standardized CVD morbidity and mortality. The bivariate Pearson correlation was used to examine the linear relationship between district-level CVD morbidity and mortality Z-scores. Simple linear regression and multivariate analyses were conducted to investigate the associations of area characteristics with CVD morbidity, mortality, and discrepancies between morbidity and mortality. Substantial variation was found in CVD morbidity and mortality across the country, with 1074.9 excess CVD inpatients and 73.8 excess CVD deaths per 100,000 between the districts with the lowest and highest CVD morbidity and mortality, respectively. Higher rates of CVD admissions and deaths were clustered in the noncapital regions. A moderate geographic correlation between CVD morbidity and mortality was found (Pearson correlation coefficient = .62 for both genders). Neighborhood level indicators for socioeconomic disadvantages, undersupply of health care resources, and unhealthy behaviors were positively associated with CVD morbidity and mortality and the relative standing of CVD mortality vis-à-vis morbidity. Policy actions targeting life-course socioeconomic conditions, equitable distribution of health care resources, and behavioral risk factors may help reduce geographic differences in CVD morbidity and mortality in Korea. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Resource abundance and distribution drive bee visitation within developing tropical urban landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcik, Victoria

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes include a mix of biotic and anthropogenic elements that can interact with and influence species occurrence and behaviour. In order to outline the drivers of bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea occurrence in tropical urban landscapes, foraging patterns and community characteristics were examined at a common and broadly attractive food resource, Tecoma stans (Bignoniaceae. Bee visitation was monitored at 120 individual resources in three cities from June 2007 to March 2009. Resource characteristics, spatial distribution, and other local and regional landscape variables were assessed and then used to develop descriptive regression models of forager visitation. The results indicated that increased bee abundance and taxon richness consistently correlated with increased floral abundance. Resource distribution was also influential, with more spatially aggregated resources receiving more foragers. Individual bee guilds had differential responses to the variables tested, but the significant impact of increased floral abundance was generally conserved. Smaller bodied bee species responded to floral abundance, resource structure, and proximity to natural habitats, suggesting that size-related dispersal abilities structure occurrence patterns in this guild. Larger bees favoured spatially aggregated resources in addition to increased floral abundance, suggesting an optimization of foraging energetics. The impact of the urban matrix was minimal and was only seen in generalist feeders (African honey bees. The strongly resource-driven foraging dynamics described in this study can be used to inform conservation and management practices in urban landscapes.

  13. Mapping and Modelling the Geographical Distribution and Environmental Limits of Podoconiosis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deribe, Kebede; Cano, Jorge; Newport, Melanie J; Golding, Nick; Pullan, Rachel L; Sime, Heven; Gebretsadik, Abeba; Assefa, Ashenafi; Kebede, Amha; Hailu, Asrat; Rebollo, Maria P; Shafi, Oumer; Bockarie, Moses J; Aseffa, Abraham; Hay, Simon I; Reithinger, Richard; Enquselassie, Fikre; Davey, Gail; Brooker, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Ethiopia is assumed to have the highest burden of podoconiosis globally, but the geographical distribution and environmental limits and correlates are yet to be fully investigated. In this paper we use data from a nationwide survey to address these issues. Our analyses are based on data arising from the integrated mapping of podoconiosis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) conducted in 2013, supplemented by data from an earlier mapping of LF in western Ethiopia in 2008-2010. The integrated mapping used woreda (district) health offices' reports of podoconiosis and LF to guide selection of survey sites. A suite of environmental and climatic data and boosted regression tree (BRT) modelling was used to investigate environmental limits and predict the probability of podoconiosis occurrence. Data were available for 141,238 individuals from 1,442 communities in 775 districts from all nine regional states and two city administrations of Ethiopia. In 41.9% of surveyed districts no cases of podoconiosis were identified, with all districts in Affar, Dire Dawa, Somali and Gambella regional states lacking the disease. The disease was most common, with lymphoedema positivity rate exceeding 5%, in the central highlands of Ethiopia, in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples regional states. BRT modelling indicated that the probability of podoconiosis occurrence increased with increasing altitude, precipitation and silt fraction of soil and decreased with population density and clay content. Based on the BRT model, we estimate that in 2010, 34.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.2-51.7) million people (i.e. 43.8%; 95% CI: 25.3-64.8% of Ethiopia's national population) lived in areas environmentally suitable for the occurrence of podoconiosis. Podoconiosis is more widespread in Ethiopia than previously estimated, but occurs in distinct geographical regions that are tied to identifiable environmental factors. The resultant maps can be used to guide programme planning

  14. Mapping and Modelling the Geographical Distribution and Environmental Limits of Podoconiosis in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede Deribe

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is assumed to have the highest burden of podoconiosis globally, but the geographical distribution and environmental limits and correlates are yet to be fully investigated. In this paper we use data from a nationwide survey to address these issues.Our analyses are based on data arising from the integrated mapping of podoconiosis and lymphatic filariasis (LF conducted in 2013, supplemented by data from an earlier mapping of LF in western Ethiopia in 2008-2010. The integrated mapping used woreda (district health offices' reports of podoconiosis and LF to guide selection of survey sites. A suite of environmental and climatic data and boosted regression tree (BRT modelling was used to investigate environmental limits and predict the probability of podoconiosis occurrence.Data were available for 141,238 individuals from 1,442 communities in 775 districts from all nine regional states and two city administrations of Ethiopia. In 41.9% of surveyed districts no cases of podoconiosis were identified, with all districts in Affar, Dire Dawa, Somali and Gambella regional states lacking the disease. The disease was most common, with lymphoedema positivity rate exceeding 5%, in the central highlands of Ethiopia, in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples regional states. BRT modelling indicated that the probability of podoconiosis occurrence increased with increasing altitude, precipitation and silt fraction of soil and decreased with population density and clay content. Based on the BRT model, we estimate that in 2010, 34.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.2-51.7 million people (i.e. 43.8%; 95% CI: 25.3-64.8% of Ethiopia's national population lived in areas environmentally suitable for the occurrence of podoconiosis.Podoconiosis is more widespread in Ethiopia than previously estimated, but occurs in distinct geographical regions that are tied to identifiable environmental factors. The resultant maps can be used to guide

  15. Description of the male of Eburella pinima Martins and notes on the geographical distribution of Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins and Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Botero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the male of Eburella pinima Martins and notes on the geographical distribution of Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins and Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. The male of Eburella pinima Martins, 1997 is described and illustrated for the first time. Information on Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins, 2006, previously known only from the female holotype, which lacked locality label, is herein complemented. This species is recorded from Brazil and the male is depicted for the first time. The geographical distribution of Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw, 1958 is further restricted here as some previous records are confirmed to result from misidentifications of E. aenigma.

  16. Integrating GRID tools to build a computing resource broker: activities of DataGrid WP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglano, C.; Barale, S.; Gaido, L.; Guarise, A.; Lusso, S.; Werbrouck, A.

    2001-01-01

    Resources on a computational Grid are geographically distributed, heterogeneous in nature, owned by different individuals or organizations with their own scheduling policies, have different access cost models with dynamically varying loads and availability conditions. This makes traditional approaches to workload management, load balancing and scheduling inappropriate. The first work package (WP1) of the EU-funded DataGrid project is addressing the issue of optimizing the distribution of jobs onto Grid resources based on a knowledge of the status and characteristics of these resources that is necessarily out-of-date (collected in a finite amount of time at a very loosely coupled site). The authors describe the DataGrid approach in integrating existing software components (from Condor, Globus, etc.) to build a Grid Resource Broker, and the early efforts to define a workable scheduling strategy

  17. Effect of locus of resource control on operational efficiency in distributed operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, A. L.

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in view graph form: space network control (SNC) usage in the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (ATDRSS) era; an acronym and icon list; demands of the SNC; tightness of resources coupling; sharing information and sharing control; potential ways of distributing control; efficiency problems unrelated to distribution of control; efficiency problems related to distribution of control; and recommendations.

  18. Distributed energy resources management using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a fuel-shifting demand response resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Soares, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the smart grids context, distributed energy resources management plays an important role in the power systems' operation. Battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles should be important resources in the future distribution networks operation. Therefore, it is important...... to develop adequate methodologies to schedule the electric vehicles' charge and discharge processes, avoiding network congestions and providing ancillary services.This paper proposes the participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in fuel shifting demand response programs. Two services are proposed......, namely the fuel shifting and the fuel discharging. The fuel shifting program consists in replacing the electric energy by fossil fuels in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles daily trips, and the fuel discharge program consists in use of their internal combustion engine to generate electricity injecting...

  19. Geographical National Condition and Complex System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jiayao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of studying the complex system of geographical national conditions lies in rationally expressing the complex relationships of the “resources-environment-ecology-economy-society” system. Aiming to the problems faced by the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions, including the disunity of research contents, the inconsistency of range, the uncertainty of goals, etc.the present paper conducted a range of discussions from the perspectives of concept, theory and method, and designed some solutions based on the complex system theory and coordination degree analysis methods.By analyzing the concepts of geographical national conditions, geographical national conditions survey and geographical national conditions statistical analysis, as well as investigating the relationships between theirs, the statistical contents and the analytical range of geographical national conditions are clarified and defined. This investigation also clarifies the goals of the statistical analysis by analyzing the basic characteristics of the geographical national conditions and the complex system, and the consistency between the analysis of the degree of coordination and statistical analyses. It outlines their goals, proposes a concept for the complex system of geographical national conditions, and it describes the concept. The complex system theory provides new theoretical guidance for the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions. The degree of coordination offers new approaches on how to undertake the analysis based on the measurement method and decision-making analysis scheme upon which the complex system of geographical national conditions is based. It analyzes the overall trend via the degree of coordination of the complex system on a macro level, and it determines the direction of remediation on a micro level based on the degree of coordination among various subsystems and of single systems. These results establish

  20. The interaction between the spatial distribution of resource patches and population density: consequences for intraspecific growth and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Bailey; Grant, James W A; Peres-Neto, Pedro R

    2015-07-01

    How individuals within a population distribute themselves across resource patches of varying quality has been an important focus of ecological theory. The ideal free distribution predicts equal fitness amongst individuals in a 1 : 1 ratio with resources, whereas resource defence theory predicts different degrees of monopolization (fitness variance) as a function of temporal and spatial resource clumping and population density. One overlooked landscape characteristic is the spatial distribution of resource patches, altering the equitability of resource accessibility and thereby the effective number of competitors. While much work has investigated the influence of morphology on competitive ability for different resource types, less is known regarding the phenotypic characteristics conferring relative ability for a single resource type, particularly when exploitative competition predominates. Here we used young-of-the-year rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to test whether and how the spatial distribution of resource patches and population density interact to influence the level and variance of individual growth, as well as if functional morphology relates to competitive ability. Feeding trials were conducted within stream channels under three spatial distributions of nine resource patches (distributed, semi-clumped and clumped) at two density levels (9 and 27 individuals). Average trial growth was greater in high-density treatments with no effect of resource distribution. Within-trial growth variance had opposite patterns across resource distributions. Here, variance decreased at low-population, but increased at high-population densities as patches became increasingly clumped as the result of changes in the levels of interference vs. exploitative competition. Within-trial growth was related to both pre- and post-trial morphology where competitive individuals were those with traits associated with swimming capacity and efficiency: larger heads/bodies/caudal fins

  1. The Geographical Distribution of Leadership in Globalized Clinical Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, J.; Frenken, K.; de Zeeuw, D.; Lambers-Heerspink, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceutical trials are mainly initiated by sponsors and investigators in the United States, Western Europe and Japan. However, more and more patients are enrolled in Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America and Asia. The involvement of patients in new geographical settings raises

  2. Current Control and Performance Evaluation of Converter Interfaced Distribution Resources in Grid Connected Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SINGH Alka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of distributed resources is growing in developing countries like India and in developed nations too. The increased acceptance of suchresources is mainly due to their modularity, increased reliability, good power quality and environment friendly operation. These are currently being interfaced to the existing systems using voltage source inverters (VSC’s. The control of such distributed resources is significantly different than the conventional power systems mainly because the VSC’s have no inertia unlike the synchronous generators.This paper deals with the Matlab modeling and design of control aspects of one such distributed source feeding a common load. A grid connected supply is also available. The control algorithm is developed for real and reactive power sharing of the load between thedistributed source and the grid. The developed control scheme is tested for linear (R-L load as well as nonlinear loads. With suitable modifications, the control algorithm can be extended for several distributed resources connected in parallel.

  3. A Geographic Method for High Resolution Spatial Heat Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    more detailed modelling that takes the geographic placement of buildings and the differences among DH systems into account. In the present article, a method for assessing the costs of DH expansions has been developed. The method was applied in a geographic information system (GIS) model that consists...... are considering distribution costs based on the geographic properties of each area and assessing transmission costs based on an iterative process that examines expansion potentials gradually. The GIS model is only applicable to a Danish context, but the method itself can be applied to other countries....... of three parts and assesses the costs of heat production, distribution, and transmission. The model was also applied to an actual case in order to show how it can be used. The model shows many improvements in the method for the assessment of distribution costs and transmission costs. Most notable...

  4. Automating usability of ATLAS distributed computing resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tupputi, S A; Girolamo, A Di; Kouba, T; Schovancová, J

    2014-01-01

    The automation of ATLAS Distributed Computing (ADC) operations is essential to reduce manpower costs and allow performance-enhancing actions, which improve the reliability of the system. In this perspective a crucial case is the automatic handling of outages of ATLAS computing sites storage resources, which are continuously exploited at the edge of their capabilities. It is challenging to adopt unambiguous decision criteria for storage resources of non-homogeneous types, sizes and roles. The recently developed Storage Area Automatic Blacklisting (SAAB) tool has provided a suitable solution, by employing an inference algorithm which processes history of storage monitoring tests outcome. SAAB accomplishes both the tasks of providing global monitoring as well as automatic operations on single sites. The implementation of the SAAB tool has been the first step in a comprehensive review of the storage areas monitoring and central management at all levels. Such review has involved the reordering and optimization of SAM tests deployment and the inclusion of SAAB results in the ATLAS Site Status Board with both dedicated metrics and views. The resulting structure allows monitoring the storage resources status with fine time-granularity and automatic actions to be taken in foreseen cases, like automatic outage handling and notifications to sites. Hence, the human actions are restricted to reporting and following up problems, where and when needed. In this work we show SAAB working principles and features. We present also the decrease of human interactions achieved within the ATLAS Computing Operation team. The automation results in a prompt reaction to failures, which leads to the optimization of resource exploitation.

  5. Determinants of the geographical distribution of endemic giardiasis in Ontario, Canada: a spatial modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoi, A; Martin, S W; Michel, P; Holt, J; Middleton, D; Wilson, J

    2004-10-01

    Giardiasis surveillance data as well as drinking water, socioeconomic and land-use data were used in spatial regression models to investigate determinants of the geographic distribution of endemic giardiasis in southern Ontario. Higher giardiasis rates were observed in areas using surface water [rate ratio (RR) 2.36, 95 % CI 1.38-4.05] and in rural areas (RR 1.79, 95 % CI 1.32-2.37). Lower rates were observed in areas using filtered water (RR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.42-0.94) and in those with high median income (RR 0.62, 95 % CI 0.42-0.92). Chlorination of drinking water, cattle density and intensity of manure application on farmland were not significant determinants. The study shows that waterborne transmission plays an important role in giardiasis distribution in southern Ontario and that well-collected routine surveillance data could be useful for investigation of disease determinants and identification of high-risk communities. This information is useful in guiding decisions on control strategies.

  6. Geographic Distribution of Leishmania Species in Ecuador Based on the Cytochrome B Gene Sequence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio, Jenny; Velez, Lenin; Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    A countrywide epidemiological study was performed to elucidate the current geographic distribution of causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ecuador by using FTA card-spotted samples and smear slides as DNA sources. Putative Leishmania in 165 samples collected from patients with CL in 16 provinces of Ecuador were examined at the species level based on the cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. Of these, 125 samples were successfully identified as Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) naiffi, L. (V.) lainsoni, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana. Two dominant species, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, were widely distributed in Pacific coast subtropical and Amazonian tropical areas, respectively. Recently reported L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni were identified in Amazonian areas, and L. (L.) mexicana was identified in an Andean highland area. Importantly, the present study demonstrated that cases of L. (V.) braziliensis infection are increasing in Pacific coast areas. PMID:27410039

  7. Geographic Distribution of Leishmania Species in Ecuador Based on the Cytochrome B Gene Sequence Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotomo Kato

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A countrywide epidemiological study was performed to elucidate the current geographic distribution of causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Ecuador by using FTA card-spotted samples and smear slides as DNA sources. Putative Leishmania in 165 samples collected from patients with CL in 16 provinces of Ecuador were examined at the species level based on the cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. Of these, 125 samples were successfully identified as Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis, L. (V. braziliensis, L. (V. naiffi, L. (V. lainsoni, and L. (Leishmania mexicana. Two dominant species, L. (V. guyanensis and L. (V. braziliensis, were widely distributed in Pacific coast subtropical and Amazonian tropical areas, respectively. Recently reported L. (V. naiffi and L. (V. lainsoni were identified in Amazonian areas, and L. (L. mexicana was identified in an Andean highland area. Importantly, the present study demonstrated that cases of L. (V. braziliensis infection are increasing in Pacific coast areas.

  8. Resource acquisition, distribution and end-use efficiencies and the growth of industrial society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, A. J.; Jarvis, S. J.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2015-10-01

    A key feature of the growth of industrial society is the acquisition of increasing quantities of resources from the environment and their distribution for end-use. With respect to energy, the growth of industrial society appears to have been near-exponential for the last 160 years. We provide evidence that indicates that the global distribution of resources that underpins this growth may be facilitated by the continual development and expansion of near-optimal directed networks (roads, railways, flight paths, pipelines, cables etc.). However, despite this continual striving for optimisation, the distribution efficiencies of these networks must decline over time as they expand due to path lengths becoming longer and more tortuous. Therefore, to maintain long-term exponential growth the physical limits placed on the distribution networks appear to be counteracted by innovations deployed elsewhere in the system, namely at the points of acquisition and end-use of resources. We postulate that the maintenance of the growth of industrial society, as measured by global energy use, at the observed rate of ~ 2.4 % yr-1 stems from an implicit desire to optimise patterns of energy use over human working lifetimes.

  9. The challenges of teaching geographical information systems integrated into the management of environment and natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, John; Betancur, Teresita; Palacio, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The Geographic Information Systems, GIS, have the potential to become tools and methodologies for the solution of practical problems that involve complex spatial analyses, like the associated with natural resources and environmental management areas. The university, with its postgraduate programs, can help with the social adaptation processes for this new technology and can contribute to achieve the success sooner and with more effectiveness. To do so, three main challenges must be reached in the users of this technology: first, a spatial thinking second, skills to design and to make use of this instrument as supporting in environmental and natural resources analyses and finally, the identification of strategies to use this technology in projects and corporative surroundings. The Antioquia University in its Engineering Faculty (at first, in agreement with the Education Faculty)developed a Specialization in Environment and Geoinformatic. In this, the curriculum is worked in three moments (one for each challenge): first, a moment to building a common language and to adopting conceptual and technical instruments? second, a moment to put together instruments and methods and finally, a moment to make the practical application of the environmental management supported in the geo information spatial systems. This article gives account of this institutional experience.

  10. Distribution and quantitative assessment of world crude oil reserves and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Charles D.; Root, David H.; Dietzman, William D.

    1983-01-01

    World Demonstrated Reserves of crude oil are approximately 723 billion barrels of oil (BBO). Cumulative production is 445 BBO and annual production is 20 BBO. Demonstrated Reserves of crude-oil have declined over the past 10 years consistent with discoveries lagging production over the same period. The assessment of Undiscovered Resources shows a 90 percent probability that the amount discoverable lies between 321 and 1,417 BBO, 550 BBO being the most likely value. The most likely value for Ultimate recoverable resources is 1,718 BBO. The distribution of Ultimate Resources of crude oil will remain highly skewed toward the Middle East; no frontier areas that have potentials large enough to significantly affect present distribution are recognized. Rates of discovery have continued to decline over the past 20 years even though exploration activity has increased in recent years. Prudence dictates, therefore, that the low side of the assessment of Undiscovered Resources be responsibly considered and that alternate energy sources be a part of future planning. Extra-heavy oil and bitumen are assessed separately, with Reserves being figured as the annual productive capacity of installed facilities times 25 years. The annual production of extra-heavy oil is about 8 million barrels and of bitumen about 60 million barrels.

  11. Ring distributions leading to species formation: a global topographic analysis of geographic barriers associated with ring species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, William B; Pereira, Ricardo J; Wake, David B

    2012-03-12

    In the mid 20th century, Ernst Mayr and Theodosius Dobzhansky championed the significance of circular overlaps or ring species as the perfect demonstration of speciation, yet in the over 50 years since, only a handful of such taxa are known. We developed a topographic model to evaluate whether the geographic barriers that favor processes leading to ring species are common or rare, and to predict where other candidate ring barriers might be found. Of the 952,147 geographic barriers identified on the planet, only about 1% are topographically similar to barriers associated with known ring taxa, with most of the likely candidates occurring in under-studied parts of the world (for example, marine environments, tropical latitudes). Predicted barriers separate into two distinct categories: (i) single cohesive barriers (barriers - formed by groups of barriers (each 184,000 to 1.7 million km2) in close geographic proximity (totaling 1.9 to 2.3 million km2) - associated with taxa that differentiate at larger spatial scales (birds: Phylloscopus trochiloides and Larus (sp. argentatus and fuscus)). When evaluated globally, we find a large number of cohesive barriers that are topographically similar to those associated with known ring taxa. Yet, compared to cohesive barriers, an order of magnitude fewer composite barriers are similar to those that favor ring divergence in species with higher dispersal. While these findings confirm that the topographic conditions that favor evolutionary processes leading to ring speciation are, in fact, rare, they also suggest that many understudied natural systems could provide valuable demonstrations of continuous divergence towards the formation of new species. Distinct advantages of the model are that it (i) requires no a priori information on the relative importance of features that define barriers, (ii) can be replicated using any kind of continuously distributed environmental variable, and (iii) generates spatially explicit hypotheses of

  12. Molecular Identification of Paramecium bursaria Syngens and Studies on Geographic Distribution using Mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagata, Patrycja; Greczek-Stachura, Magdalena; Tarcz, Sebastian; Rautian, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Paramecium bursaria is composed of five syngens that are morphologically indistinguishable but sexually isolated. The aim of the present study was to confirm by molecular methods (analyses of mitochondrial COI) the identification of P. bursaria syngens originating from different geographical locations. Phylograms constructed using both the neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood methods based on a comparison of 34 sequences of P. bursaria strains and P. multimicronucleatum, P. caudatum and P.calkinsi strains used as outgroups revealed five clusters which correspond to results obtained previously by mating reaction. Our analysis shows the existence of 24 haplotypes for the COI gene sequence in the studied strains. The interspecies haplotype diversity was Hd = 0.967. We confirmed genetic differentiation between strains of P. bursaria and the occurrence of a correlation between geographical distribution and the correspondent syngen.

  13. Epidemiologic Investigation of Dysentery in North of Iran: Use of Geographic Information System (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadi, Aliasghar; Abedi, Ghassem; Isazadeh, Khatoon; Rostami, Farideh; Siamian, Hasan; Hosseini, Mahbobeh; Asadi-Aliabadi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dysentery is an intestinal inflammation which is created by the microorganisms attacking intestine mucus. Knowing the prevalence of this disease in different societies paves the way for programming and providing treatment and preventive measures. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the epidemiologic pattern and geographical distribution of dysentery based on GIS. Method: This was a cross-sectional and analytical study. The dysentery cases were gathered from the section of contagious diseases in health chancellery of Mazandaran University of medical sciences through a checklist during the years 2008 to 2013. In order to analyze the data, we made use of chi-square test. Then, the GIS software was used to recognize the geographical distribution of the disease. Findings: There was reported about 653 cases affected by dysentery and the disease proportion was equal for both men and women. Most of the persons with dysentery was city dwellers. The highest rate of incidents was reported to be in Fereidunkenar in 2011, and the disease was mostly found among farmers, students, and college students. Conclusion: Since dysentery is a disease transmitted from water and food, and in this study, it was found out that the disease sources included using polluted water, vegetables, and lack of appropriate personal hygiene. Therefore, it is essential to take into consideration the health issues. Moreover, the suitable conditions of the geographical area which has the highest rate of incident have paved the way for dysentery occurrence. In addition, using geographic information system (GIS) as a visual instrument can help the stakeholders and officials to elaborate on the death trend and recognize the areas for optimal use of the available resources. PMID:28144197

  14. Exploitation of heterogeneous resources for ATLAS Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chudoba, Jiri; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    LHC experiments require significant computational resources for Monte Carlo simulations and real data processing and the ATLAS experiment is not an exception. In 2017, ATLAS exploited steadily almost 3M HS06 units, which corresponds to about 300 000 standard CPU cores. The total disk and tape capacity managed by the Rucio data management system exceeded 350 PB. Resources are provided mostly by Grid computing centers distributed in geographically separated locations and connected by the Grid middleware. The ATLAS collaboration developed several systems to manage computational jobs, data files and network transfers. ATLAS solutions for job and data management (PanDA and Rucio) were generalized and now are used also by other collaborations. More components are needed to include new resources such as private and public clouds, volunteers' desktop computers and primarily supercomputers in major HPC centers. Workflows and data flows significantly differ for these less traditional resources and extensive software re...

  15. The geographical co-distribution and socio-ecological drivers of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z; Hu, W; Tong, S

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY This study aimed to explore the spatio-temporal patterns, geographical co-distribution, and socio-ecological drivers of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea in Queensland. A Bayesian conditional autoregressive model was used to quantify the impacts of socio-ecological factors on both childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea at a postal area level. A distinct seasonality of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea was found. Childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea were mainly distributed in the northwest of Queensland. Mount Isa city was the high-risk cluster where childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea co-distributed. Emergency department visits (EDVs) for pneumonia increased by 3% per 10-mm increase in monthly average rainfall in wet seasons. By comparison, a 10-mm increase in monthly average rainfall may cause an increase of 4% in EDVs for diarrhoea. Monthly average temperature was negatively associated with EDVs for childhood diarrhoea in wet seasons. Low socioeconomic index for areas (SEIFA) was associated with high EDVs for childhood pneumonia. Future pneumonia and diarrhoea prevention and control measures in Queensland should focus more on Mount Isa.

  16. Trading strategies for distribution company with stochastic distributed energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui; Korpås, Magnus; Pinson, Pierre; Østergaard, Jacob; Khodayar, Mohammad E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A market framework is presented for a proactive DISCO (PDISCO). • Two-stage wholesale markets and stochastic distributed energy resources are involved. • A one-leader multi-follower bilevel model is proposed. • Continuous strategic offers and bids are achieved. - Abstract: This paper proposes a methodology to address the trading strategies of a proactive distribution company (PDISCO) engaged in the transmission-level (TL) markets. A one-leader multi-follower bilevel model is presented to formulate the gaming framework between the PDISCO and markets. The lower-level (LL) problems include the TL day-ahead market and scenario-based real-time markets, respectively with the objectives of maximizing social welfare and minimizing operation cost. The upper-level (UL) problem is to maximize the PDISCO’s profit across these markets. The PDISCO’s strategic offers/bids interactively influence the outcomes of each market. Since the LL problems are linear and convex, while the UL problem is non-linear and non-convex, an equivalent primal–dual approach is used to reformulate this bilevel model to a solvable mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC). The effectiveness of the proposed model is verified by case studies.

  17. Geographical analyses of wood chips potentials, cost and supply for sustainable energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  18. Optimizing Power–Frequency Droop Characteristics of Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guggilam, Swaroop S.; Zhao, Changhong; Dall Anese, Emiliano; Chen, Yu Christine; Dhople, Sairaj V.

    2018-05-01

    This paper outlines a procedure to design power-frequency droop slopes for distributed energy resources (DERs) installed in distribution networks to optimally participate in primary frequency response. In particular, the droop slopes are engineered such that DERs respond in proportion to their power ratings and they are not unfairly penalized in power provisioning based on their location in the distribution network. The main contribution of our approach is that a guaranteed level of frequency regulation can be guaranteed at the feeder head, while ensuring that the outputs of individual DERs conform to some well-defined notion of fairness. The approach we adopt leverages an optimization-based perspective and suitable linearizations of the power-flow equations to embed notions of fairness and information regarding the physics of the power flows within the distribution network into the droop slopes. Time-domain simulations from a differential algebraic equation model of the 39-bus New England test-case system augmented with three instances of the IEEE 37-node distribution-network with frequency-sensitive DERs are provided to validate our approach.

  19. Modeling species’ realized climatic niche space and predicting their response to global warming for several western forest species with small geographic distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V. Warwell; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2010-01-01

    The Random Forests multiple regression tree was used to develop an empirically based bioclimatic model of the presence-absence of species occupying small geographic distributions in western North America. The species assessed were subalpine larch (Larix lyallii), smooth Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica ssp. glabra...

  20. Estimating cyclopoid copepod species richness and geographical distribution (Crustacea across a large hydrographical basin: comparing between samples from water column (plankton and macrophyte stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Perbiche-Neves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Species richness and geographical distribution of Cyclopoida freshwater copepods were analyzed along the "La Plata" River basin. Ninety-six samples were taken from 24 sampling sites, twelve sites for zooplankton in open waters and twelve sites for zooplankton within macrophyte stands, including reservoirs and lotic stretches. There were, on average, three species per sample in the plankton compared to five per sample in macrophytes. Six species were exclusive to the plankton, 10 to macrophyte stands, and 17 were common to both. Only one species was found in similar proportions in plankton and macrophytes, while five species were widely found in plankton, and thirteen in macrophytes. The distinction between species from open water zooplankton and macrophytes was supported by nonmetric multidimensional analysis. There was no distinct pattern of endemicity within the basin, and double sampling contributes to this result. This lack of sub-regional faunal differentiation is in accordance with other studies that have shown that cyclopoids generally have wide geographical distribution in the Neotropics and that some species there are cosmopolitan. This contrasts with other freshwater copepods such as Calanoida and some Harpacticoida. We conclude that sampling plankton and macrophytes together provided a more accurate estimate of the richness and geographical distribution of these organisms than sampling in either one of those zones alone.

  1. Grid-based modeling for land use planning and environmental resource mapping.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J. A.

    1999-08-04

    Geographic Information System (GIS) technology is used by land managers and natural resource planners for examining resource distribution and conducting project planning, often by visually interpreting spatial data representing environmental or regulatory variables. Frequently, many variables influence the decision-making process, and modeling can improve results with even a small investment of time and effort. Presented are several grid-based GIS modeling projects, including: (1) land use optimization under environmental and regulatory constraints; (2) identification of suitable wetland mitigation sites; and (3) predictive mapping of prehistoric cultural resource sites. As different as the applications are, each follows a similar process of problem conceptualization, implementation of a practical grid-based GIS model, and evaluation of results.

  2. Geographic distribution of otolaryngologists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Thad W; Weterings, Robbie; Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a study to determine the demographic traits, training characteristics, and geographic distribution of otolaryngologists in the United States using publicly available data. We then correlated our findings with U.S. census data. Univariate analysis was performed to analyze results, with a p value of <0.05 determined as significant. We used data from the American Board of Otolaryngology's list of 18,587 board-certified allopathic otolaryngologists through 2013 and the American Osteopathic Colleges of Ophthalmology & Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery's list of 428 osteopathic otolaryngologists. From these two databases, 9,642 otolaryngologists met inclusion criteria, which included an active practice in the United States and an age of 70 years and younger. This group was made up of 8,185 men (84.9%) and 1,449 women (15.0%); we were not able to identify the sex of 8 otolaryngologists (0.1%). The median age of the women was significantly lower than that of the men (54 vs. 48 yr; p < 0.001). A total of 8,510 otolaryngologists (88.3%) graduated from a U.S. allopathic medical school, and 8,520 (88.4%) graduated from a U.S. allopathic residency program. We determined that 25.9% of otolaryngologists established their practice in the same metropolitan statistical area where they completed their residency training. Older practitioners (p < 0.001) and women (p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to stay in the same area than younger physicians and men. In terms of population, 61.8% of the otolaryngologists practiced in metropolitan areas with more than 1 million residents; by comparison, these areas represent only 55.3% of the total U.S. population, indicating that otolaryngologists are over-represented in larger U.S. cities.

  3. Identification of geographically distributed sub-populations of Leishmania (Leishmania major by microsatellite analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenkenbecher Jan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania (Leishmania major, one of the agents causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in humans, is widely distributed in the Old World where different species of wild rodent and phlebotomine sand fly serve as animal reservoir hosts and vectors, respectively. Despite this, strains of L. (L. major isolated from many different sources over many years have proved to be relatively uniform. To investigate the population structure of the species highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were employed for greater discrimination among it's otherwise closely related strains, an approach applied successfully to other species of Leishmania. Results Multilocus Microsatellite Typing (MLMT based on 10 different microsatellite markers was applied to 106 strains of L. (L. major from different regions where it is endemic. On applying a Bayesian model-based approach, three main populations were identified, corresponding to three separate geographical regions: Central Asia (CA; the Middle East (ME; and Africa (AF. This was congruent with phylogenetic reconstructions based on genetic distances. Re-analysis separated each of the populations into two sub-populations. The two African sub-populations did not correlate well with strains' geographical origin. Strains falling into the sub-populations CA and ME did mostly group according to their place of isolation although some anomalies were seen, probably, owing to human migration. Conclusion The model- and distance-based analyses of the microsatellite data exposed three main populations of L. (L. major, Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa, each of which separated into two sub-populations. This probably correlates with the different species of rodent host.

  4. Evaluation methodology for tariff design under escalating penetrations of distributed energy resources

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmotteleb, I.I.A.; Gómez, Tomás; Reneses, Javier

    2017-01-01

    As the penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) escalates in distribution networks, new network tariffs are needed to cope with this new situation. These tariffs should allocate network costs to users, promoting an efficient use of the distribution network. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate and compare network tariff designs. Four design attributes are proposed for this aim: (i) network cost recovery; (ii) deferral of network reinforcements; (iii) efficient consumer resp...

  5. Present, past and future of the European rock fern Asplenium fontanum: combining distribution modelling and population genetics to study the effect of climate change on geographic range and genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystriakova, Nadia; Ansell, Stephen W; Russell, Stephen J; Grundmann, Michael; Vogel, Johannes C; Schneider, Harald

    2014-02-01

    Climate change is expected to alter the geographic range of many plant species dramatically. Predicting this response will be critical to managing the conservation of plant resources and the effects of invasive species. The aim of this study was to predict the response of temperate homosporous ferns to climate change. Genetic diversity and changes in distribution range were inferred for the diploid rock fern Asplenium fontanum along a South-North transect, extending from its putative last glacial maximum (LGM) refugia in southern France towards southern Germany and eastern-central France. This study reconciles observations from distribution models and phylogeographic analyses derived from plastid and nuclear diversity. Genetic diversity distribution and niche modelling propose that genetic diversity accumulates in the LGM climate refugium in southern France with the formation of a diversity gradient reflecting a slow, post-LGM range expansion towards the current distribution range. Evidence supports the fern's preference for outcrossing, contradicting the expectation that homosporous ferns would populate new sites by single-spore colonization. Prediction of climate and distribution range change suggests that a dramatic loss of range and genetic diversity in this fern is possible. The observed migration is best described by the phalanx expansion model. The results suggest that homosporous ferns reproducing preferentially by outcrossing accumulate genetic diversity primarily in LGM climate refugia and may be threatened if these areas disappear due to global climate change.

  6. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Colin K; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Sosa, Chrystian C; Miller, Richard E; Scotland, Robert W; Wood, John R I; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A; Jarret, Robert L; Yencho, G C; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.

  7. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., I. series Batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Kahlil Khoury

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.

  8. SERI Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Fiscal Year 1990 Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riordan, C; Maxwell, E; Stoffel, T; Rymes, M; Wilcox, S

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of the Solar Radiation Resource Project is to help meet the needs of the public, government, industry, and utilities for solar radiation data, models, and assessments as required to develop, design, deploy, and operate solar energy conversion systems. The project scientists produce information on the spatial (geographic), temporal (hourly, daily, and seasonal), and spectral (wavelength distribution) variability of solar radiation at different locations in the United States. Resources committed to the project in FY 1990 supported about four staff members, including part-time administrative support. With these resources, the staff must concentrate on solar radiation resource assessment in the United States; funds do not allow for significant efforts to respond to a common need for improved worldwide data. 34 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Energy management in a microgrid with distributed energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Linfeng; Gari, Nicolae; Hmurcik, Lawrence V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A performance metric is proposed with the consideration of price, environment effect, and service quality. • Models of a microgrid and a microgrid network are designed with distribute energy resources and storage. • Different cases in MG operation are discussed. - Abstract: A smart grid power system with renewable energy resources and distributed energy storage shows significant improvement in the power system’s emission reduction, reliability, efficiency, and security. A microgrid is a smart grid in a small scale which can be stand-alone or grid-tied. Multi microgrids form a network with energy management and operational planning through two-way power flow and communication. To comprehensively evaluate the performance of a microgrid, a performance metric is proposed with consideration of the electricity price, emission, and service quality, each of them is given a weighting factor. Thus, the performance metric is flexible according to the consumers’ preference. With the weighting factors set in this paper, this performance metric is further applied on microgrids operated as stand-alone, grid-tied, and networked. Each microgrid consists of a solar panel, a hydrogen fuel cell stack, an electrolyzer, a hydrogen storage tank, and a load. For a stand-alone system, the load prediction lowers down the daily electricity consumption about 5.7%, the quantity of H 2 stored fluctuates in a wide range, and overall performance indexes increase with the solar panel size. In a grid-tied MG, the load prediction has a significant effect on the daily consumed electricity which drops 25% in 4 days, some day-time loads are shifted to the night time, and the capacity of hydrogen tank is lower than that in a stand-alone MG. In a network with multiple MGs, the control of the power distribution strongly affects the MG’s performance. However, the overall performance index instead of any specific index increases with the MG’s power generated from renewable energy

  10. Implications of China's future bride shortage for the geographical distribution and social protection needs of never-married men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharygin, Ethan; Ebenstein, Avraham; Das Gupta, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Because sex ratios at birth have risen sharply in China in recent decades, an increasing proportion of men will be unable to find a bride, and will face old age without the support of a wife and children. We project the proportions of never-married men and their geographical distribution in China in the coming decades. Our projections assume that two tendencies in current marriage patterns will persist: that women will continue to migrate to wealthier areas and to prefer men with better prospects. We find that, by 2030, more than 20 per cent of men in China aged 30-39 will never have married, and that the proportion will be especially high among poor men in low-income provinces that are least able to provide social protection programmes. The projected geographic concentration of bachelors could be socially disruptive, and the results suggest a need to expand the coverage and central financing of social protection programmes.

  11. Smart grid communication infrastructure comparison-for distributed control of distributed energy resources using internet of things devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo Søborg; Bindner, Henrik W.; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2018-01-01

    Communication between distributed energy resources and aggregators is necessary to improve the efficiency of power use and solve stability issues. For the communication, the probability of delivery for measurements and control commands, determines the possible power system services. The probabili...

  12. Geographical differences in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartra, Joan; García-Moral, Alba; Enrique, Ernesto

    2016-06-01

    Food allergy represents a health problem worldwide and leads to life-threatening reactions and even impairs quality of life. Epidemiological data during the past decades is very heterogeneous because of the use of different diagnostic procedures, and most studies have only been performed in specific geographical areas. The aim of this article is to review the available data on the geographical distribution of food allergies at the food source and molecular level and to link food allergy patterns to the aeroallergen influence in each area. Systematic reviews, meta-analysis, studies performed within the EuroPrevall Project and EAACI position papers regarding food allergy were analysed. The prevalence of food allergy sensitization differs between geographical areas, probably as a consequence of differences among populations, their habits and the influence of the cross-reactivity of aeroallergens and other sources of allergens. Geographical differences in food allergy are clearly evident at the allergenic molecular level, which seems to be directly influenced by the aeroallergens of each region and associated with specific clinical patterns.

  13. Multi-agent system for energy resource scheduling of integrated microgrids in a distributed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logenthiran, T.; Srinivasan, Dipti; Khambadkone, Ashwin M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a multi-agent system for energy resource scheduling of an islanded power system with distributed resources, which consists of integrated microgrids and lumped loads. Distributed intelligent multi-agent technology is applied to make the power system more reliable, efficient and capable of exploiting and integrating alternative sources of energy. The algorithm behind the proposed energy resource scheduling has three stages. The first stage is to schedule each microgrid individually to satisfy its internal demand. The next stage involves finding the best possible bids for exporting power to the network and compete in a whole sale energy market. The final stage is to reschedule each microgrid individually to satisfy the total demand, which is the addition of internal demand and the demand from the results of the whole sale energy market simulation. The simulation results of a power system with distributed resources comprising three microgrids and five lumped loads show that the proposed multi-agent system allows efficient management of micro-sources with minimum operational cost. The case studies demonstrate that the system is successfully monitored, controlled and operated by means of the developed multi-agent system. (author)

  14. Multi-agent system for energy resource scheduling of integrated microgrids in a distributed system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logenthiran, T.; Srinivasan, Dipti; Khambadkone, Ashwin M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2011-01-15

    This paper proposes a multi-agent system for energy resource scheduling of an islanded power system with distributed resources, which consists of integrated microgrids and lumped loads. Distributed intelligent multi-agent technology is applied to make the power system more reliable, efficient and capable of exploiting and integrating alternative sources of energy. The algorithm behind the proposed energy resource scheduling has three stages. The first stage is to schedule each microgrid individually to satisfy its internal demand. The next stage involves finding the best possible bids for exporting power to the network and compete in a whole sale energy market. The final stage is to reschedule each microgrid individually to satisfy the total demand, which is the addition of internal demand and the demand from the results of the whole sale energy market simulation. The simulation results of a power system with distributed resources comprising three microgrids and five lumped loads show that the proposed multi-agent system allows efficient management of micro-sources with minimum operational cost. The case studies demonstrate that the system is successfully monitored, controlled and operated by means of the developed multi-agent system. (author)

  15. System Integration of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben

    units, including the ICT solutions that can facilitate the integration. Specifically, the international standard "IEC 61850-7-420 Communications systems for Distributed Energy Resources" is considered as a possible brick in the solution. This standard has undergone continuous development....... It is therefore investigated in this project how ancillary services can be provided by alternatives to central power stations, and to what extent these can be integrated in the system by means of market-based methods. Particular emphasis is put on automatic solutions, which is particularly relevant for small......, and this project has actively contributed to its further development and improvements. Different types of integration methods are investigated in the project. Some are based on local measurement and control, e.g. by measuring the grid frequency, whereas others are based on direct remote control or market...

  16. Electricity End Uses, Energy Efficiency, and Distributed Energy Resources Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leow, Woei Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of analysts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with Argonne National Laboratory contributing the transportation section, and is a DOE EPSA product and part of a series of “baseline” reports intended to inform the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). QER 1.2 provides a comprehensive review of the nation’s electricity system and cover the current state and key trends related to the electricity system, including generation, transmission, distribution, grid operations and planning, and end use. The baseline reports provide an overview of elements of the electricity system. This report focuses on end uses, electricity consumption, electric energy efficiency, distributed energy resources (DERs) (such as demand response, distributed generation, and distributed storage), and evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methods for energy efficiency and DERs.

  17. Large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of Australian deep-water kelp forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel M Marzinelli

    Full Text Available Despite the significance of marine habitat-forming organisms, little is known about their large-scale distribution and abundance in deeper waters, where they are difficult to access. Such information is necessary to develop sound conservation and management strategies. Kelps are main habitat-formers in temperate reefs worldwide; however, these habitats are highly sensitive to environmental change. The kelp Ecklonia radiate is the major habitat-forming organism on subtidal reefs in temperate Australia. Here, we provide large-scale ecological data encompassing the latitudinal distribution along the continent of these kelp forests, which is a necessary first step towards quantitative inferences about the effects of climatic change and other stressors on these valuable habitats. We used the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV facility of Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS to survey 157,000 m2 of seabed, of which ca 13,000 m2 were used to quantify kelp covers at multiple spatial scales (10-100 m to 100-1,000 km and depths (15-60 m across several regions ca 2-6° latitude apart along the East and West coast of Australia. We investigated the large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of deep-water kelp (>15 m depth and their relationships with physical variables. Kelp cover generally increased with latitude despite great variability at smaller spatial scales. Maximum depth of kelp occurrence was 40-50 m. Kelp latitudinal distribution along the continent was most strongly related to water temperature and substratum availability. This extensive survey data, coupled with ongoing AUV missions, will allow for the detection of long-term shifts in the distribution and abundance of habitat-forming kelp and the organisms they support on a continental scale, and provide information necessary for successful implementation and management of conservation reserves.

  18. Temporal changes in the geographic distribution, elevation, and potential origin of the Martian outflow channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribe, S.; Clifford, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Observational evidence of outflow channel activity on Mars suggests that water was abundant in the planet's early crust. However, with the decline in the planet's internal heat flow, a freezing front developed within the regolith that propagated downward with time and acted as a thermodynamic sink for crustal H2O. One result of this thermal evolution is that, if the initial inventory of water on Mars was small, the cryosphere may have grown to the point where all the available water was taken up as ground ice. Alternatively, if the inventory of H2O exceeds the current pore volume of the cryosphere, then Mars has always possessed extensive bodies of subpermafrost groundwater. We have investigated the relative age, geographic distribution, elevation, and geologic setting of the outflow channels in an effort to accomplish the following: (1) identify possible modes of origin and evolutionary trends in their formation; (2) gain evidence regarding the duration and spatial distribution of groundwater in the crust; and (3) better constraint estimates of the planetary inventory of H2O.

  19. Translocation 1;7 in dyshematopoiesis: possibly induced with a nonrandom geographic distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheres, J.M.; Hustinx, T.W.; Holdrinet, R.S.; Geraedts, J.P.; Hagemeijer, A.; van der Blij-Philipsen, M.

    1984-01-01

    Eight patients with various hematologic disorders had an identical chromosomal aberration in their bone marrow or unstimulated peripheral blood, a translocation t(1;7) interpreted as t(1;7)(p11;p11). The translocation chromosome replaced one normal chromosome number7; therefore, the karyotype of the abnormal cells was trisomic for 1q and monosomic for 7q. Including four cases from the literature, a total of 12 patients (4 women, 8 men) with this translocation are known at the moment. The translocation does not seem to be associated with a specific disorder, but almost all patients had a preleukemic syndrome during some stage of their disease. It is very remarkable that 11 of the 12 patients lived in the Netherlands, and 7 patients had a history of iatrogenic exposure to alkylating agents or irradiation; one patient was a radiation worker and another one had a history of toxic exposure to chloramphenicol. It is suggested, therefore, that the t(1;7) is a possibly induced chromosomal aberration with a clearly nonrandom geographic distribution

  20. Geographic variability in elevation and topographic constraints on the distribution of native and nonnative trout in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Dana R.; Dunham, Jason B.; Hockman-Wert, David

    2014-01-01

    Understanding local and geographic factors influencing species distributions is a prerequisite for conservation planning. Our objective in this study was to model local and geographic variability in elevations occupied by native and nonnative trout in the northwestern Great Basin, USA. To this end, we analyzed a large existing data set of trout presence (5,156 observations) to evaluate two fundamental factors influencing occupied elevations: climate-related gradients in geography and local constraints imposed by topography. We applied quantile regression to model upstream and downstream distribution elevation limits for each trout species commonly found in the region (two native and two nonnative species). With these models in hand, we simulated an upstream shift in elevation limits of trout distributions to evaluate potential consequences of habitat loss. Downstream elevation limits were inversely associated with latitude, reflecting regional gradients in temperature. Upstream limits were positively related to maximum stream elevation as expected. Downstream elevation limits were constrained topographically by valley bottom elevations in northern streams but not in southern streams, where limits began well above valley bottoms. Elevation limits were similar among species. Upstream shifts in elevation limits for trout would lead to more habitat loss in the north than in the south, a result attributable to differences in topography. Because downstream distributions of trout in the north extend into valley bottoms with reduced topographic relief, trout in more northerly latitudes are more likely to experience habitat loss associated with an upstream shift in lower elevation limits. By applying quantile regression to relatively simple information (species presence, elevation, geography, topography), we were able to identify elevation limits for trout in the Great Basin and explore the effects of potential shifts in these limits that could occur in response to changing

  1. Geographic information system for pigweed distribution in the US Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the southeastern United States, pigweeds have become troublesome weeds in agricultural systems. To implement management strategies to control them, agriculturalists need information on areas affected by pigweeds. Geographic information systems (GIS) afford users the ability to evaluate agricult...

  2. Ring distributions leading to species formation: a global topographic analysis of geographic barriers associated with ring species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monahan William B

    2012-03-01

    relative importance of features that define barriers, (ii can be replicated using any kind of continuously distributed environmental variable, and (iii generates spatially explicit hypotheses of geographic species formation. The methods developed here - combined with study of the geographical ecology and genetics of taxa in their environments - should enable recognition of ring species phenomena throughout the world.

  3. Comprehensive Monitoring for Heterogeneous Geographically Distributed Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnikova, N. [Fermilab; Karavakis, E. [CERN; Lammel, S. [Fermilab; Wildish, T. [Princeton U.

    2015-12-23

    Storage capacity at CMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 sites reached over 100 Petabytes in 2014, and will be substantially increased during Run 2 data taking. The allocation of storage for the individual users analysis data, which is not accounted as a centrally managed storage space, will be increased to up to 40%. For comprehensive tracking and monitoring of the storage utilization across all participating sites, CMS developed a space monitoring system, which provides a central view of the geographically dispersed heterogeneous storage systems. The first prototype was deployed at pilot sites in summer 2014, and has been substantially reworked since then. In this paper we discuss the functionality and our experience of system deployment and operation on the full CMS scale.

  4. Better access to microcredits: does geographical proximity matter?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alimukhamedova, Nargiza

    -, 2013/2014 Winter (2014), s. 24-25 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : microcredits * geographical proximity Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.e-mfp.eu/sites/ default /files/resources/2014/02/e-MFP_Winter2013-2014_Newsletter%20.pdf

  5. Evaluation of heavy metals level (arsenic, nickel, mercury and lead effecting on health in drinking water resource of Kohgiluyeh county using geographic information system (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolazim Alinejad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the amount of heavy metals (Arsenic, Nickel, Mercury, and Lead in drinking water resource of Kohgiluyeh County using Geographic Information System (GIS. This cross-sectional study was conducted on drinking water resource of Kohgiluyeh County (33 water supplies and 4 heavy metals in 2013. 264 samples were analyzed in this study. The experiments were performed at the laboratory of Water and Wastewater Company based on Standard Method. The Atomic Adsorption was used to evaluate the amount of heavy metals. The results were mapping by Geographic Information System software (GIS 9.3 after processing of parameters. Finally, the data were analyzed by SPSS 16 and Excel 2007. The maximum amount of each heavy metal and its resource were shown as follow: Nickel or Ni (Source of w12, 124ppb, Arsenic or As (w33, 42 ppb, Mercury or Hg (w22 and w30, 96ppb, Lead or Pb (w21, 1553ppb. Also, the GIS maps showed that Lead in the central region was very high, Mercury and Arsenic in the northern region were high and Nickel in the eastern and western regions was high. The Kriging method and Gauss model were introduced as best method for interpolation of these metals. Since the concentration of these heavy metals was higher than standard levels in most drinking water supplies in Kohgiluyeh County and these high levels of heavy metals can cause the adverse effects on human health; therefore, the environmental and geological studies are necessary to identify the pollution resource and elimination and removal of heavy metals

  6. Addressing the unequal geographic distribution of specialist doctors in indonesia: the role of the private sector and effectiveness of current regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliala, Andreasta; Hort, Krishna; Trisnantoro, Laksono

    2013-04-01

    As in many countries, the geographic distribution of the health workforce in Indonesia is unequal, with a concentration in urban and more developed areas, and a scarcity in rural and remote areas. There is less information on the distribution of specialist doctors, yet inequalities in their distribution could compromise efforts to achieve universal coverage by 2014. This paper uses data from 2007 and 2008 to describe the geographic distribution of specialist doctors in Indonesia, and to examine two key factors that influence the distribution and are targets of current policies: sources of income for specialist doctors, and specialist doctor engagement in private practice. The data demonstrates large differences in the ratio of specialist doctors to population among the provinces of Indonesia, with higher ratios on the provinces of the islands of Java, and much lower ratios on the more remote provinces in eastern Indonesia. Between 65% and 80% of specialist doctors' income derives from private practice in non-state hospitals or private clinics. Despite regulations limiting practice locations to three, most specialists studied in a provincial capital city were working in more than three locations, with some working in up to 7 locations, and spending only a few hours per week in their government hospital practice. Our study demonstrates that the current regulatory policies and financial incentives have not been effective in addressing the maldistribution of specialist doctors in a context of a growing private sector and predominance of doctors' income from private sources. A broader and more integrated policy approach, including more innovative service delivery strategies for rural and remote areas, is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Individual Preference Rankings Compatible with Prices, Income Distributions and Total Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich

    We consider the problem of determining the individual preference rankings that are necessarily implied by a dataset consisting of prices, income distributions and total resources. We show the equivalence between the compatibility with individual preference rankings and the existence of a solution...

  8. The economic-geographical and environmental polarization as a factor of new functional relations between areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milinčić Miroljub A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographical clustering, in the way of economic-geographical polarization represents regular and positive process of development of human society. These processes are characterized by stressed intensity, together with relatively short time dimension at the territory of Serbia. Extreme recent ecological polarization is the main consequence of this type of recomposition of economic-geographical elements in the territory of Serbia. At the one hand, anthropogenic or socio-economic areas (locations, axis and crossroads of development are formed, together with the numerous ecological problems as developing barriers, while at the other hand are territories of economic-geographical stagnation also with satisfying quality of basic natural resources and environmental condition. These differences generates and permanently increases their spatial, resource and ecological interdependence.

  9. New records and update on the geographic distribution of Clitocybula lignicola (Lj.N. Vassiljeva) E.F. Malysheva & O.V. Morozova (Basidiomycota: Agaricales) in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Shiryaeva, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Clitocybula lignicola is predominantly distributed in the Asian part of Russia. In Europe it was found only in the Urals (Komi Republic, Russia). Two new localities are situated in the northwestern part of Vologda Region (Russia). These are the first records of this species from the East European Plain, as well as the most western ones known in Europe. New records extend the geographic distribution of C. lignicola 1,204 km west of the closest site in the Urals. An updated distribution map for...

  10. Geographic Information Systems and Web Page Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The Facilities Engineering and Architectural Branch is responsible for the design and maintenance of buildings, laboratories, and civil structures. In order to improve efficiency and quality, the FEAB has dedicated itself to establishing a data infrastructure based on Geographic Information Systems, GIS. The value of GIS was explained in an article dating back to 1980 entitled "Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre" which stated, "There is a critical need for a better land-information system in the United States to improve land-conveyance procedures, furnish a basis for equitable taxation, and provide much-needed information for resource management and environmental planning." Scientists and engineers both point to GIS as the solution. What is GIS? According to most text books, Geographic Information Systems is a class of software that stores, manages, and analyzes mapable features on, above, or below the surface of the earth. GIS software is basically database management software to the management of spatial data and information. Simply put, Geographic Information Systems manage, analyze, chart, graph, and map spatial information. GIS can be broken down into two main categories, urban GIS and natural resource GIS. Further still, natural resource GIS can be broken down into six sub-categories, agriculture, forestry, wildlife, catchment management, archaeology, and geology/mining. Agriculture GIS has several applications, such as agricultural capability analysis, land conservation, market analysis, or whole farming planning. Forestry GIs can be used for timber assessment and management, harvest scheduling and planning, environmental impact assessment, and pest management. GIS when used in wildlife applications enables the user to assess and manage habitats, identify and track endangered and rare species, and monitor impact assessment.

  11. Developing a distributed HTML5-based search engine for geospatial resource discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHOU, N.; XIA, J.; Nebert, D.; Yang, C.; Gui, Z.; Liu, K.

    2013-12-01

    With explosive growth of data, Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure(GCI) components are developed to manage geospatial resources, such as data discovery and data publishing. However, the efficiency of geospatial resources discovery is still challenging in that: (1) existing GCIs are usually developed for users of specific domains. Users may have to visit a number of GCIs to find appropriate resources; (2) The complexity of decentralized network environment usually results in slow response and pool user experience; (3) Users who use different browsers and devices may have very different user experiences because of the diversity of front-end platforms (e.g. Silverlight, Flash or HTML). To address these issues, we developed a distributed and HTML5-based search engine. Specifically, (1)the search engine adopts a brokering approach to retrieve geospatial metadata from various and distributed GCIs; (2) the asynchronous record retrieval mode enhances the search performance and user interactivity; (3) the search engine based on HTML5 is able to provide unified access capabilities for users with different devices (e.g. tablet and smartphone).

  12. Harmonic Mitigation in Islanded Microgrids by Inverter-Interfaced Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei

    of Distributed Energy Resource (DER) for both customers and utilities. However, during islanded operations, microgrids are more sensitive to power quality disturbances, owing to the low short-circuit ratio and limited capacity of DER units. As a consequence, harmonic distortion caused by the proliferation...

  13. Energy and Reserve under Distributed Energy Resources Management—Day-Ahead, Hour-Ahead and Real-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Soares

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of distributed energy resources based on renewable energy sources in distribution systems leads to a more complex management of power systems. Consequently, ancillary services become even more important to maintain the system security and reliability. This paper proposes and evaluates a generic model for day-ahead, intraday (hour-ahead and real-time scheduling, considering the joint optimization of energy and reserve in the scope of the virtual power player concept. The model aims to minimize the operation costs in the point of view of one aggregator agent taking into account the balance of the distribution system. For each scheduling stage, previous scheduling results and updated forecasts are considered. An illustrative test case of a distribution network with 33 buses, considering a large penetration of distribution energy resources allows demonstrating the benefits of the proposed model.

  14. Spatial distribution of dengue disease in municipality of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, using the Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Narcísio Bessa Júnior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The dengue viral infection is one of the most relevant vector-borne diseases in the world. The disease can manifest in a variety of forms, from asymptomatic to a condition of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. The last reported cases in Brazil correspond to 80% of the cases reported in the Americas, which emphasizes the magnitude of the problem. This study was conducted using Geographic Information System (GIS techniques, in order to evaluate the spatial distribution of the disease in the urban area of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte. In the period between 2001 and 2007, 867 new cases were listed. About 85.7% of the addresses were georeferenced, with a larger number of cases, 14.8%, in the neighborhoods of Santo Antônio and Santa Delmira (north region, and 11.7% in the neighborhoods of Conjunto Vingt-Rosado and Alto de São Manoel (east region. There were 18 confirmed cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever associated with regions with the highest incidence of classic cases of the disease. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS proved a great benefit for better visualization of the endemic, especially in elucidating the actual distribution of dengue cases in the county and providing an effective tool for planning the monitoring of the disease at a local level.

  15. Using Metadata to Build Geographic Information Sharing Environment on Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-hong Sun

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet provides a convenient environment to share geographic information. Web GIS (Geographic Information System even provides users a direct access environment to geographic databases through Internet. However, the complexity of geographic data makes it difficult for users to understand the real content and the limitation of geographic information. In some cases, users may misuse the geographic data and make wrong decisions. Meanwhile, geographic data are distributed across various government agencies, academic institutes, and private organizations, which make it even more difficult for users to fully understand the content of these complex data. To overcome these difficulties, this research uses metadata as a guiding mechanism for users to fully understand the content and the limitation of geographic data. We introduce three metadata standards commonly used for geographic data and metadata authoring tools available in the US. We also review the current development of geographic metadata standard in Taiwan. Two metadata authoring tools are developed in this research, which will enable users to build their own geographic metadata easily.[Article content in Chinese

  16. Resource control in ATLAS distributed data management: Rucio Accounting and Quotas

    CERN Document Server

    Barisits, Martin-Stefan; The ATLAS collaboration; Garonne, Vincent; Lassnig, Mario; Beermann, Thomas Alfons; Vigne, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Data Management system manages more than 160PB of physics data across more than 130 sites globally. Rucio, the next generation Distributed Data Management system of the ATLAS experiment, replaced DQ2 in December 2014 and will manage the experiments data throughout Run 2 of the LHC and beyond. The previous data management system pursued a rather simplistic approach for resource management, but with the increased data volume and more dynamic handling of data workflows required by the experiment, a more elaborate approach to this issue is needed. Rucio was delivered with an initial quota system, but during the first months of operation it turned out to not fully satisfy the collaborations resource management needs. We consequently introduce a new concept of declaring quota policies (limits) for accounts in Rucio. This new quota concept is based on accounts and RSE (Rucio storage element) expressions, which allows the definition of hierarchical quotas in a dynamic way. This concept enables t...

  17. Geographical distribution of the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) and yellow fever in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrahita-Cortés, Juan; Soler-Tovar, Diego

    2016-02-11

    Colombia is a country with an important diversity of non-human primates, of which the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) stands out because of its distribution and the role it plays in the occurrence of yellow fever.  To describe the geographic co-occurrence of Alouatta seniculus and the reported presence of yellow fever.  We conducted a descriptive study. The reported presence of yellow fever in Colombia was obtained from the reports and bulletins issued by the Instituto Nacional de Salud, and the study by Segura, et al. (2013). The occurrence of A. seniculus was determined based on the data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility and the Colombian Biodiversity Information System. A map of the occurrence was developed using the DIVA-GIS program, and the ecological niche model under current conditions was created with the Maxent program.  The departments with the highest occurrence of A. seniculus were Antioquia, Meta and Casanare; 69.5% of the departments with reported history of yellow fever had co-occurrence with A. seniculus. The ecological niche model showed that Antioquia, Bolívar, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Santander, Norte de Santander and Vichada had geographical portions with a probability rate nearing to 0.9 (90%).  In 69.5% of the departments with a history of yellow fever there was co-occurrence with A. seniculus, which is relevant because non-human primates play a well-known role as natural reservoirs of the virus, and they might contribute to the occurrence of the yellow fever, which makes them very useful as sentinels.

  18. Semantic distributed resource discovery for multiple resource providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittaras, C.; Ghijsen, M.; Wibisono, A.; Grosso, P.; van der Ham, J.; de Laat, C.

    2012-01-01

    An emerging modus operandi among providers of cloud infrastructures is the one where they share and combine their heterogenous resources to offer end user services tailored to specific scientific and business needs. A challenge to overcome is the discovery of suitable resources among these multiple

  19. An Analysis of the Geographic Distribution of Recently Graduated Dentists from the University of Western Australia: The World's Most Isolated Dental School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuxani, Amit; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the geographic distribution of all new dentists who graduated over a period of six years. Perth, the capital city of Western Australia, is one of the world's most isolated cities, with a population of approximately 1.6 million people, situated over 2000km from its nearest next major capital…

  20. Temperature responses of some North Atlantic Cladophora species (Chlorophyceae) in relation to their geographic distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, M.; Breeman, A. M.; van Oosterwijk, R.; van den Hoek, C.

    1984-09-01

    The temperature responses for growth and survival have been experimentally tested for 6 species of the green algal genus Cladophora (Chlorophyceae; Cladophorales) (all isolated from Roscoff, Brittany, France, one also from Connecticut, USA), selected from 4 distribution groups, in order to determine which phase in the annual temperature regime might prevent the spread of a species beyond its present latitudinal range on the N. Atlantic coasts. For five species geographic limits could be specifically defined as due to a growth limit in the growing season or to a lethal limit in the adverse season. These species were: (1) C. coelothrix (Amphiatlantic tropical to warm temperate), with a northern boundary on the European coasts formed by a summer growth limit near the 12°C August isotherm. On the American coasts sea temperatures should allow its occurrence further north. (2) C. vagabunda (Amphiatlantic tropical to temperate), with a northern boundary formed by a summer growth limit near the 15°C August isotherm on both sides of the Atlantic. (3) C. dalmatica, as for C. vagabunda. (4) C. hutchinsiae (Mediterranean-Atlantic warm temperate), with a northern boundary formed by a summer growth limit near the 12°C August isotherm, and possibly also a winter lethal limit near the 6°C February isotherm; and a southern boundary formed by a southern lethal limit near the 26°C August isotherm. It is absent from the warm temperate American coast because its lethal limits, 5° and 30°C, are regularly reached there. (5) Preliminary data for C. rupestris (Amphiatlantic temperate), suggest the southeastern boundary on the African coast to be a summer lethal limit near the 26°C August isotherm; the southwestern boundary on the American coast lies on the 20°C August isotherm. For one species, C. albida, the experimental growth and survival range was wider than expected from its geographic distribution, and reasons to account for this are suggested.

  1. World mineral energy resources and their distribution in time and space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Camisani-Calzolari, F.A.G.M.; Van der Merwe, P.J.; Andreoli, M.A.G.

    1985-01-01

    If the estimated total geological potential of the world mineral energy resources is reduced to a common denominator, then the total resources are estimated at 20 600 terawatt years (TWyr). Assuming that all these resources are recoverable, and applying today's technology, they would suffice for 1 700 years under no-growth conditions and approximately 130 years assuming an annual growth rate of 3%. It should, however, be borne in mind that only about 15% (or 3 100 TWry) of the world's resources can be regarded as proved or partly proved and recoverable at current price levels and with current technology. Assuming a no-growth scenario, these resources will meet future energy requirements for a period of approximately 260 years. At a 3% annual growth rate resources will last for about 70 years. From these figures it is clear that the known mineral energy resources will be depleted in the near future. The challenge to the geologist to locate additional energy potential is enormous and in order to do so, the distribution of known resources in time and space was reappraised. The present investigation confirms the time-bound character of the mineralising processes. These took place in a series of clearly defined rhythms ranging from the early Proterozoic to the Recent. Uranium and thorium constitute the only energy resources of the Proterozoic. In contrast, the Phanerozoiceon contains the totality of fossil fuels and at least 60% of the nuclear resources; strata younger than 600 Ma therefore represent the most favourable target areas for prospecting

  2. NASA's Information Power Grid: Large Scale Distributed Computing and Data Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William E.; Vaziri, Arsi; Hinke, Tom; Tanner, Leigh Ann; Feiereisen, William J.; Thigpen, William; Tang, Harry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Large-scale science and engineering are done through the interaction of people, heterogeneous computing resources, information systems, and instruments, all of which are geographically and organizationally dispersed. The overall motivation for Grids is to facilitate the routine interactions of these resources in order to support large-scale science and engineering. Multi-disciplinary simulations provide a good example of a class of applications that are very likely to require aggregation of widely distributed computing, data, and intellectual resources. Such simulations - e.g. whole system aircraft simulation and whole system living cell simulation - require integrating applications and data that are developed by different teams of researchers frequently in different locations. The research team's are the only ones that have the expertise to maintain and improve the simulation code and/or the body of experimental data that drives the simulations. This results in an inherently distributed computing and data management environment.

  3. Genetic diversity and geographic distribution of genetically distinct rabies viruses in the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Saito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rabies continues to be a major public health problem in the Philippines, where 200-300 human cases were reported annually between 2001 and 2011. Understanding the phylogeography of rabies viruses is important for establishing a more effective and feasible control strategy. METHODS: We performed a molecular analysis of rabies viruses in the Philippines using rabied animal brain samples. The samples were collected from 11 of 17 regions, which covered three island groups (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Partial nucleoprotein (N gene sequencing was performed on 57 samples and complete glycoprotein (G gene sequencing was performed on 235 samples collected between 2004 and 2010. RESULTS: The Philippine strains of rabies viruses were included in a distinct phylogenetic cluster, previously named Asian 2b, which appeared to have diverged from the Chinese strain named Asian 2a. The Philippine strains were further divided into three major clades, which were found exclusively in different island groups: clades L, V, and M in Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao, respectively. Clade L was subdivided into nine subclades (L1-L9 and clade V was subdivided into two subclades (V1 and V2. With a few exceptions, most strains in each subclade were distributed in specific geographic areas. There were also four strains that were divided into two genogroups but were not classified into any of the three major clades, and all four strains were found in the island group of Luzon. CONCLUSION: We detected three major clades and two distinct genogroups of rabies viruses in the Philippines. Our data suggest that viruses of each clade and subclade evolved independently in each area without frequent introduction into other areas. An important implication of these data is that geographically targeted dog vaccination using the island group approach may effectively control rabies in the Philippines.

  4. Using geographical semi-variogram method to quantify the difference between NO2 and PM2.5 spatial distribution characteristics in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weize; Jia, Haifeng; Li, Zhilin; Tang, Deliang

    2018-08-01

    Urban air pollutant distribution is a concern in environmental and health studies. Particularly, the spatial distribution of NO 2 and PM 2.5 , which represent photochemical smog and haze pollution in urban areas, is of concern. This paper presents a study quantifying the seasonal differences between urban NO 2 and PM 2.5 distributions in Foshan, China. A geographical semi-variogram analysis was conducted to delineate the spatial variation in daily NO 2 and PM 2.5 concentrations. The data were collected from 38 sites in the government-operated monitoring network. The results showed that the total spatial variance of NO 2 is 38.5% higher than that of PM 2.5 . The random spatial variance of NO 2 was 1.6 times than that of PM 2.5 . The nugget effect (i.e., random to total spatial variance ratio) values of NO 2 and PM 2.5 were 29.7 and 20.9%, respectively. This indicates that urban NO 2 distribution was affected by both local and regional influencing factors, while urban PM 2.5 distribution was dominated by regional influencing factors. NO 2 had a larger seasonally averaged spatial autocorrelation distance (48km) than that of PM 2.5 (33km). The spatial range of NO 2 autocorrelation was larger in winter than the other seasons, and PM 2.5 has a smaller range of spatial autocorrelation in winter than the other seasons. Overall, the geographical semi-variogram analysis is a very effective method to enrich the understanding of NO 2 and PM 2.5 distributions. It can provide scientific evidences for the buffering radius selection of spatial predictors for land use regression models. It will also be beneficial for developing the targeted policies and measures to reduce NO 2 and PM 2.5 pollution levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Geography and major host evolutionary transitions shape the resource use of plant parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquín; Hórreo, José Luis; Madrigal-González, Jaime; Migeon, Alain; Rodríguez, Miguel Á; Magalhães, Sara; Hortal, Joaquín

    2016-08-30

    The evolution of resource use in herbivores has been conceptualized as an analog of the theory of island biogeography, assuming that plant species are islands separated by phylogenetic distances. Despite its usefulness, this analogy has paradoxically led to neglecting real biogeographical processes in the study of macroevolutionary patterns of herbivore-plant interactions. Here we show that host use is mostly determined by the geographical cooccurrence of hosts and parasites in spider mites (Tetranychidae), a globally distributed group of plant parasites. Strikingly, geography accounts for most of the phylogenetic signal in host use by these parasites. Beyond geography, only evolutionary transitions among major plant lineages (i.e., gymnosperms, commelinids, and eudicots) shape resource use patterns in these herbivores. Still, even these barriers have been repeatedly overcome in evolutionary time, resulting in phylogenetically diverse parasite communities feeding on similar hosts. Therefore, our results imply that patterns of apparent evolutionary conservatism may largely be a byproduct of the geographic cooccurrence of hosts and parasites.

  6. New data on the ecology and geographic distribution of Saguinus inustus Schwarz, 1951 (Primates, Callitrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valsecchi

    Full Text Available Saguinus inustus (Schwarz, 1951 is one of the neotropical primates least studied. The distribution of the species ranges from the north of the Solimões River, between the Negro and Japurá Rivers in Brazil, and Guayabero-Guaviare Rivers in Colombia. Nevertheless, due to the low number of specimens collected from the lower Japurá and lower Negro Rivers areas, the geographic distribution is so far poorly delineated. In this study, field data was composed of sightings and the collection of specimens during a survey of mammal diversity in the Amana Sustainable Development Reserve (ASDR. For this survey, two 40-day expeditions were carried out in 2004. The first one occurred during the flooded season in June and July, and the second was during the peak of the dry season in October. Direct sightings were made through hiking along transects, navigation along water channels with a 30-hp speedboat, and gliding along flooded trails in the forest. New records of S. inustus were made in 11 different localities in ASDR. The study has confirmed the presence of the species in the Amanã area, carrying out the first records of the species in flooded forest habitats.

  7. Georgia resource assessment project: Institutionalizing LANDSAT and geographic data base techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, R. R.; Rado, B. Q.; Faust, N.

    1981-01-01

    Digital data from LANDSAT for each 1.1-acre cell in Georgia were processed and the land cover conditions were categorized. Several test cases were completed and an operational hardware and software processing capability was established at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The operational capability was developed to process the entire state (60,000 sq. miles and 14 LANDSAT scenes) in a cooperative project between eleven divisions and agencies at the regional, state, and federal levels. Products were developed for State agencies such as in both mapped and statistical formats. A computerized geographical data base was developed for management programs. To a large extent the applications of the data base evolved as users of LANDSAT information requested that other data (i.e., soils, slope, land use, etc.) be made compatible with LANDSAT for management programs. To date, geographic data bases incorporating LANDSAT and other spatial data deal with elements of the municipal solid waste management program, and reservoir management for the Corps of Engineers. LANDSAT data are also being used for applications in wetland, wildlife, and forestry management.

  8. Assessment of grid-friendly collective optimization framework for distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pensini, Alessandro; Robinson, Matthew; Heine, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    for reducing their energy bills. However, as the penetration of distributed energy resources increases, there is an increasing chance of a “tragedy of the commons” mechanism taking place, where taking advantage of tariffs for local benefit can ultimately result in power quality degradation. In this work, we...... use a scheduling optimization tool, in combination with a distribution feeder simulator, to investigate techniques that could mitigate the deleterious effect of “selfish” optimization, so that the high-penetration use of DERs to reduce operating costs remains advantageous while the quality of service...

  9. Methylmercury in fish from the South China Sea: geographical distribution and biomagnification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Aijia; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Zhanzhou; Huang, Liangmin; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2013-12-15

    We conducted a large-scale investigation of methylmercury (MeHg) in a total of 628 marine wild fish covering 46 different species collected from the South China Sea between 2008 and 2009. Biological and ecological characteristics such as size (length and wet weight), feeding habit, habitat, and stable isotope (δ(15)N) were examined to explain MeHg bioaccumulation in marine fish and their geographical distribution. MeHg levels in the muscle tissues of the 628 individuals ranged from 0.010 to 1.811 μg/g dry wt. Log10MeHg concentration was significantly related to their length and wet weight. Feeding habit and habitat were the primary factors influencing MeHg bioaccumulation. Demersal fish were more likely to be contaminated with MeHg than the epipelagic and mesopelagic varieties. Linear relationships were obtained between Log10(MeHg) and δ(15)N only for one location, indicating that biomagnification was site-specific. Results from this study suggest that dietary preference and trophic structure were the main factors affecting MeHg bioaccumulation in marine fish from the South China Sea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Balanites aegyptiaca (L. Delile: geographical distribution and ethnobotanical knowledge by local populations in the Ferlo (north Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagna, MB.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Balanites aegyptiaca (L. Delile is a species of tropical flora for which the variety aegyptiaca is adapted to Sahelian climate. The species is among those chosen for the restoration of Sahelian ecosystems in the context of the pan-African reforestation project, the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and Sahel Initiative (GGW. This study redefines the distribution range and its ecology and studies its uses in the Ferlo region in the north of Senegal using surveys carried out among the local population. The eco-geographical study shows that the species occupies several Sahel-Saharan regions of Africa and the Middle East. With broad ecological amplitude, it is very resistant to drought and relatively indifferent to the type of soil. Results of the ethno-botanical survey show that local people in the Ferlo region have a wealth of knowledge and expertise on B. aegyptiaca. These surveys also revealed the extent to which local populations rely on the tree for food, fodder, construction and medicine. The fruit and wood are the most highly prized parts of the tree, with the greatest use of the fruit in people's diets. In medicinal terms, B. aegyptiaca is used to treat several affections. Marketing the fruits could be of socio-economic interest for local people, and in particular, for women. This study is particularly opportune since B. aegyptiaca var. aegyptiaca is currently being planted in large numbers within the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative (GGW. It also provides information that could help in better management of this natural resource, adapted both to the hostile Sahelian climate and of great use to Mankind.

  11. Distribution, behavior, and condition of herbivorous fishes on coral reefs track algal resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tootell, Jesse S; Steele, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    Herbivore distribution can impact community structure and ecosystem function. On coral reefs, herbivores are thought to play an important role in promoting coral dominance, but how they are distributed relative to algae is not well known. Here, we evaluated whether the distribution, behavior, and condition of herbivorous fishes correlated with algal resource availability at six sites in the back reef environment of Moorea, French Polynesia. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that increased algal turf availability would coincide with (1) increased biomass, (2) altered foraging behavior, and (3) increased energy reserves of herbivorous fishes. Fish biomass and algal cover were visually estimated along underwater transects; behavior of herbivorous fishes was quantified by observations of focal individuals; fish were collected to assess their condition; and algal turf production rates were measured on standardized tiles. The best predictor of herbivorous fish biomass was algal turf production, with fish biomass increasing with algal production. Biomass of herbivorous fishes was also negatively related to sea urchin density, suggesting competition for limited resources. Regression models including both algal turf production and urchin density explained 94 % of the variation in herbivorous fish biomass among sites spread over ~20 km. Behavioral observations of the parrotfish Chlorurus sordidus revealed that foraging area increased as algal turf cover decreased. Additionally, energy reserves increased with algal turf production, but declined with herbivorous fish density, implying that algal turf is a limited resource for this species. Our findings support the hypothesis that herbivorous fishes can spatially track algal resources on coral reefs.

  12. Distributed Problem Solving: Adaptive Networks with a Computer Intermediary Resource. Intelligent Executive Computer Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Proceedings of The National Conference on Artificial Intelligence , pages 181-184, The American Association for Aritificial Intelligence , Pittsburgh...Intermediary Resource: Intelligent Executive Computer Communication John Lyman and Carla J. Conaway University of California at Los Angeles for Contracting...Include Security Classification) Interim Report: Distributed Problem Solving: Adaptive Networks With a Computer Intermediary Resource: Intelligent

  13. On the Use of the Beta Distribution in Probabilistic Resource Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olea, Ricardo A., E-mail: olea@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The triangular distribution is a popular choice when it comes to modeling bounded continuous random variables. Its wide acceptance derives mostly from its simple analytic properties and the ease with which modelers can specify its three parameters through the extremes and the mode. On the negative side, hardly any real process follows a triangular distribution, which from the outset puts at a disadvantage any model employing triangular distributions. At a time when numerical techniques such as the Monte Carlo method are displacing analytic approaches in stochastic resource assessments, easy specification remains the most attractive characteristic of the triangular distribution. The beta distribution is another continuous distribution defined within a finite interval offering wider flexibility in style of variation, thus allowing consideration of models in which the random variables closely follow the observed or expected styles of variation. Despite its more complex definition, generation of values following a beta distribution is as straightforward as generating values following a triangular distribution, leaving the selection of parameters as the main impediment to practically considering beta distributions. This contribution intends to promote the acceptance of the beta distribution by explaining its properties and offering several suggestions to facilitate the specification of its two shape parameters. In general, given the same distributional parameters, use of the beta distributions in stochastic modeling may yield significantly different results, yet better estimates, than the triangular distribution.

  14. On the Use of the Beta Distribution in Probabilistic Resource Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olea, Ricardo A.

    2011-01-01

    The triangular distribution is a popular choice when it comes to modeling bounded continuous random variables. Its wide acceptance derives mostly from its simple analytic properties and the ease with which modelers can specify its three parameters through the extremes and the mode. On the negative side, hardly any real process follows a triangular distribution, which from the outset puts at a disadvantage any model employing triangular distributions. At a time when numerical techniques such as the Monte Carlo method are displacing analytic approaches in stochastic resource assessments, easy specification remains the most attractive characteristic of the triangular distribution. The beta distribution is another continuous distribution defined within a finite interval offering wider flexibility in style of variation, thus allowing consideration of models in which the random variables closely follow the observed or expected styles of variation. Despite its more complex definition, generation of values following a beta distribution is as straightforward as generating values following a triangular distribution, leaving the selection of parameters as the main impediment to practically considering beta distributions. This contribution intends to promote the acceptance of the beta distribution by explaining its properties and offering several suggestions to facilitate the specification of its two shape parameters. In general, given the same distributional parameters, use of the beta distributions in stochastic modeling may yield significantly different results, yet better estimates, than the triangular distribution.

  15. Geographic distribution and spatial differentiation in the color pattern of abdominal stripes of the Neotropical stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Batalha-Filho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier, 1836, regionally known as "mandaçaia", has been traditionally divided in two distinct subspecies: M. quadrifasciata anthidioides and M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata. The main difference between the subspecies refers to the yellow metasomal stripes which are continuous in M. q. quadrifasciata and discontinuous in M. q. anthidioides. This study investigated the geographic differentiation in the metasomal stripes and characterized the restriction sites in the mtDNA of both chromatic types. Specimens from 198 localities were examined, and the variation observed in the pattern of stripes was grouped into distinct classes. The distribution pattern found in the present work agrees with the previously reported pattern: M. q. quadrifasciata inhabits the southern portion of the distribution, from Misiones, Argentina, southeastern Paraguay and Rio Grande do Sul to southern São Paulo, and M. q. anthidioides ranges from northeastern São Paulo to the northern Diamantina Plateau, Bahia, and westwards to the central portion of the Goiás state. It is documented for the first time the occurrence of two populations with continuous stripes inhabiting disjunct areas in relation to M. q. quadrifasciata - one in northern Minas Gerais and another in northeastern Bahia and Sergipe. The data of RFLP showed two restriction patterns, one present in M. q. quadrifasciata, and another in M. q. anthidioides and in populations with continuous metasomal stripes from northern Minas Gerais and northeastern Bahia and Sergipe. The observed patterns of geographic differentiation of M. quadrifasciata suggests the occurrence of repeated events of geographical isolation, followed by range expansion, that occurred probably during the cycles of climatic changes in the Pleistocene.

  16. Uses of population census data for monitoring geographical imbalance in the health workforce: snapshots from three developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diallo Khassoum

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imbalance in the distribution of human resources for health (HRH, eventually leading to inequities in health services delivery and population health outcomes, is an issue of social and political concern in many countries. However, the empirical evidence to support decision-making is often fragmented, and many standard data sources that can potentially produce statistics relevant to the issue remain underused, especially in developing countries. This study investigated the uses of demographic census data for monitoring geographical imbalance in the health workforce for three developing countries, as a basis for formulation of evidence-based health policy options. Methods Population-based indicators of geographical variations among HRH were extracted from census microdata samples for Kenya, Mexico and Viet Nam. Health workforce statistics were matched against international standards of occupational classification to control for cross-national comparability. Summary measures of inequality were calculated to monitor the distribution of health workers across spatial units and by occupational group. Results Strong inequalities were found in the geographical distribution of the health workforce in all three countries, with the highest densities of HRH tending to be found in the capital areas. Cross-national differences were found in the magnitude of distributional inequality according to occupational group, with health professionals most susceptible to inequitable distribution in Kenya and Viet Nam but less so in Mexico compared to their associate professional counterparts. Some discrepancies were suggested between mappings of occupational information from the raw data with the international system, especially for nursing and midwifery specializations. Conclusions The problem of geographical imbalance among HRH across countries in the developing world holds important implications at the local, national and international levels, in

  17. Potential geographic distribution and conservation of Audubon's Shearwater, Puffinus lherminieri in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecília P.A. Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Audubon's Shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri Lesson 1839 is a tropical seabird occurring mainly between southern Canada and the southeast coast of Brazil. Puffinus lherminieri is considered Critically Endangered on the Brazilian Red List because it only occurs in two known localities, both of which contain very small populations. However, many offshore islands along the Brazilian coast are poorly known and the discovery of new colonies would be of considerable significance for the conservation of this species. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential geographic distribution of Audubon's Shearwater in Brazil, based on ecological niche model (ENM using Maxent algorithm with layers obtained from AquaMaps environmental dataset. The ENM was based on 37 records for reproduction areas in North and South America. The model yielded a very broad potential distribution, covering most of the Atlantic coast ranging from Brazil to the US. When filtered for islands along the Brazilian coast, the model indicates higher levels of environmental suitability near the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Bahia. However, P. lherminieri prefers islands in environments with warm saline water. Thus, based on the influence of currents that act on the Brazilian coast we can infer undiscovered colonies are most likely to occur on islands on coast of Bahia, Espírito Santo and extreme north of the Rio de Janeiro. These should be intensively surveyed while the islands south of Cabo Frio should be discarded. The existence of new populations would have profound effects on the conservation status of this enigmatic and rarely seen seabird.

  18. Examining Police Strategic Resource Allocation in a Time of Austerity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth den Heyer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of proactive policing has highlighted the need to ensure that the police utilise their resources both efficiently and effectively. Traditionally, police agencies have allocated resources in response to their operational demands or requirements, with the majority of resources being distributed in response to political demands and public calls for service. In recent years there has been a greater emphasis by police to deliver services proactively, and to direct resources to specific geographic areas of high crime or to specific crimes, and to apply intelligence led targeted policing initiatives. The changing operating environment to a public service ethos of accountability and ‘do more with less’ means that historical methods of allocating police officers may not meet an agency's strategic goals. This paper examines if an economic approach to allocating police strategic resources is an appropriate and equitable method in a time of austerity. This greater emphasis on proactive, rather than reactive policing, which also represents a shift from centralised control, underlines the need to ensure the efficient and effective use of resources.

  19. A theoretical bilevel control scheme for power networks with large-scale penetration of distributed renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boroojeni, Kianoosh; Amini, M. Hadi; Nejadpak, Arash

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a bilevel control framework to achieve a highly-reliable smart distribution network with large-scale penetration of distributed renewable resources (DRRs). We assume that the power distribution network consists of several residential/commercial communities. In the first ...

  20. Effects of geographical extent on the determinants of woody plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhiheng; Rahbek, Carsten; Fang, Jingyun

    2012-01-01

    the quantitative effects of geographical extent are rarely tested. Here, using distribution maps of 11,405 woody species found in China and associated environmental data to the domain, we investigated the influence of geographical extent on the determinants of species richness patterns. Our results revealed...

  1. Energy and other resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenqvist, I.Th.

    It is pointed out that inorganic mineral raw materials, usually called ores, do not form a separate geological class, with a strictly defined limit in quantity. The raw materials are in fact present in continuously variable concentrations and amounts with differing geographical distribution. It is only the richest occurrences which are regarded as resources and exploited. The cone concept of available material is presented, where the amount of material available increases as the work invested is increased, but the profitable ore is represented only by the apex of the cone. In applying this idea to fossil fuels the concept must be modified to a 'pear', since the energy invested in retrieving the fuel must not exceed the energy content of the fuel. Renewable energy sources are also discussed, and it is pointed out that geothermal energy should not be regarded as renewable. It is pointed out, too, that, unless breeder reactors are introduced, the fossil fuel resources will give more energy than uranium, and probably cheaper. (JIW)Ψ

  2. Distributed Multi-Cell Resource Allocation with Price Based ICI Coordination in Downlink OFDMA Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Gangming; Zhu, Shihua; Hui, Hui

    Multi-cell resource allocation under minimum rate request for each user in OFDMA networks is addressed in this paper. Based on Lagrange dual decomposition theory, the joint multi-cell resource allocation problem is decomposed and modeled as a limited-cooperative game, and a distributed multi-cell resource allocation algorithm is thus proposed. Analysis and simulation results show that, compared with non-cooperative iterative water-filling algorithm, the proposed algorithm can remarkably reduce the ICI level and improve overall system performances.

  3. Temporal trend, geographic distribution, and publication quality in asbestos research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Donatella; Bonassi, Stefano; Cristaudo, Alfonso; Leoncini, Giacomo; Ratto, Giovanni Battista; Neri, Monica

    2015-05-01

    Asbestos is a well-known cause of cancer and respiratory diseases. The aim of the current study was to investigate the scientific production in asbestos research evaluating temporal trend, geographic distribution, impact factor (IF) of published literature, and taking into account socioeconomic variables. The PubMed database was searched starting from 1970. Publication numbers and IF were evaluated as absolute values and after standardization by population and gross domestic product (GDP). Six thousand nine hundred seven articles related to asbestos were retrieved. Publications grew steeply in the 1970s, leveled off in the 1980s, decreased in the 1990s, and then increased again. Mesothelioma, lung neoplasms, and occupational diseases are the most commonly used keywords. In the period of 1988-2011, 4220 citations were retrieved, 3187 of whom had an impact factor. The US, Italy, and the UK were the most productive countries. European countries published about 20 % more asbestos-related articles than the US, although the latter reached a higher mean IF, ranking second after Australia. When the national scientific production (sum of IF) was compared taking into account socioeconomic variables, Australia and Scandinavian countries performed very well, opposite to all main asbestos producers like Russia, China, and Brazil (except for Canada). The American Journal of Industrial Medicine and the Italian La Medicina del Lavoro published the highest numbers of articles. This study provides the first bibliometric analysis of scientific production in asbestos research. Interest appears to be higher in selected countries, with strong national features, and is growing again in the new millennium.

  4. Developing Virtual Power Plant for Optimized Distributed Energy Resources Operation and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi

    Distributed Energy Resources (DER) are small-scale power generation and storage technologies, (typically in the range of a few kWe to tens of kWe) located close to the customer side. They are right now under heavy development and have a great market potential in the near future. However, these so......Distributed Energy Resources (DER) are small-scale power generation and storage technologies, (typically in the range of a few kWe to tens of kWe) located close to the customer side. They are right now under heavy development and have a great market potential in the near future. However...... units in the electric power system  Efficient electricity market participation to benefit both power system operation and DER owners To address these issues, an innovative concept Virtual Power Plant (VPP) is investigated in this PhD study. Based on a comprehensive overview of the state of the art...

  5. Getting the Most from Distributed Resources With an Analytics Platform for ATLAS Computing Services

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00225336; The ATLAS collaboration; Gardner, Robert; Bryant, Lincoln

    2016-01-01

    To meet a sharply increasing demand for computing resources for LHC Run 2, ATLAS distributed computing systems reach far and wide to gather CPU resources and storage capacity to execute an evolving ecosystem of production and analysis workflow tools. Indeed more than a hundred computing sites from the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, plus many “opportunistic” facilities at HPC centers, universities, national laboratories, and public clouds, combine to meet these requirements. These resources have characteristics (such as local queuing availability, proximity to data sources and target destinations, network latency and bandwidth capacity, etc.) affecting the overall processing efficiency and throughput. To quantitatively understand and in some instances predict behavior, we have developed a platform to aggregate, index (for user queries), and analyze the more important information streams affecting performance. These data streams come from the ATLAS production system (PanDA), the distributed data management s...

  6. Equality in Distribution of Human Resources: the Case of Iran's Ministry of Health and Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaraki, H; Hassani, A; Kashkalani, T; Khalilnejad, R; Chimeh, E Ehsani

    2013-01-01

    Equity in access to and utilization of health services is a common goal of policy-makers in most countries. The fair allocation of human resources is one of the dimensions of equity, which was evaluated in this study. We evaluated the equity of human resources' distribution among Iran's medical science universities between 2005 and 2009 by inequality measures including Lorenze curve, Gini coefficient and Rabin hood indexes. In the distribution 60403 recruitment licenses among medical universities with 72456140 covered populations, Gini coefficient was 0.167 and Robin Hood Index 0.11. Calculations indicated Recruitment licenses are equitably distributed in MOH&ME of Iran. However a portion of recruitment licenses should redistributed for achieving perfect equal distribution among all public medical universities of Iran.

  7. An empirical study on the spatial distribution of the population, economy and water resources in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Conglin; Liu, Yu; Qiao, Haijuan

    The relationship among the population, economy and water resources is complex, and the contradictions and conflicts will appear and aggravate with the rapid development of economy and society in Northeast China. Based on the statistical analysis of the available data, this paper depicted the static distribution characteristics of the population, economy and water resources of Northeast China in 2011. It was found that the spatial distribution of the population, economy and water resources was unbalanced in Northeast China. The water resources mismatched with the population and economy. The population and economy were relatively dense and developed in the southwestern part of Northeast China respectively, while the water resources was relatively scarce. However, the situations in the northern part of Northeast China were opposite to those in the southwestern part. The population-economy inconsistence indexes of the cities in northern part of Northeast China showed a significant trend of spatial aggregation and heterogeneity. The cities with lower (1) inconsistence indexes all faced the problem of water resources shortage. Applying geometric gravity center method and grey correlation model, the result indicated that there was relatively high spatial relevance and the relative deviation among the spatial dynamic distributions of the population, economy and water resources was large. The gravity centers of economy and per capita average annual total water resources moved westward, while the gravity center of population gravity center moved eastward in the period of 1997-2011 in Northeast China. It must be noted that, the migration trend of the economy gravity center was more significant than those of the population and water resources.

  8. Hierarchical Distributed-Lag Models: Exploring Varying Geographic Scale and Magnitude in Associations Between the Built Environment and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jonggyu; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N

    2016-03-15

    It is well known that associations between features of the built environment and health depend on the geographic scale used to construct environmental attributes. In the built environment literature, it has long been argued that geographic scales may vary across study locations. However, this hypothesized variation has not been systematically examined due to a lack of available statistical methods. We propose a hierarchical distributed-lag model (HDLM) for estimating the underlying overall shape of food environment-health associations as a function of distance from locations of interest. This method enables indirect assessment of relevant geographic scales and captures area-level heterogeneity in the magnitudes of associations, along with relevant distances within areas. The proposed model was used to systematically examine area-level variation in the association between availability of convenience stores around schools and children's weights. For this case study, body mass index (weight kg)/height (m)2) z scores (BMIz) for 7th grade children collected via California's 2001-2009 FitnessGram testing program were linked to a commercial database that contained locations of food outlets statewide. Findings suggested that convenience store availability may influence BMIz only in some places and at varying distances from schools. Future research should examine localized environmental or policy differences that may explain the heterogeneity in convenience store-BMIz associations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Optimum Aggregation and Control of Spatially Distributed Flexible Resources in Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Myers, Kurt S.

    2018-01-01

    system operators (DSOs) to make faster operational decisions. Moreover, the aggregation enables flexibility from small distributed flexible resources to be traded to different power and energy markets. A hierarchical control architecture comprising a combination of centralized and decentralized control...... is demonstrated through simulation of three operational scenarios in a real low voltage distribution system having high penetrations of electric vehicles and heat pumps. The simulation results demonstrated that the aggregation helps DSOs not only in taking faster operational decisions, but also in effectively...

  10. On the Use of the Beta Distribution in Probabilistic Resource Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    The triangular distribution is a popular choice when it comes to modeling bounded continuous random variables. Its wide acceptance derives mostly from its simple analytic properties and the ease with which modelers can specify its three parameters through the extremes and the mode. On the negative side, hardly any real process follows a triangular distribution, which from the outset puts at a disadvantage any model employing triangular distributions. At a time when numerical techniques such as the Monte Carlo method are displacing analytic approaches in stochastic resource assessments, easy specification remains the most attractive characteristic of the triangular distribution. The beta distribution is another continuous distribution defined within a finite interval offering wider flexibility in style of variation, thus allowing consideration of models in which the random variables closely follow the observed or expected styles of variation. Despite its more complex definition, generation of values following a beta distribution is as straightforward as generating values following a triangular distribution, leaving the selection of parameters as the main impediment to practically considering beta distributions. This contribution intends to promote the acceptance of the beta distribution by explaining its properties and offering several suggestions to facilitate the specification of its two shape parameters. In general, given the same distributional parameters, use of the beta distributions in stochastic modeling may yield significantly different results, yet better estimates, than the triangular distribution. ?? 2011 International Association for Mathematical Geology (outside the USA).

  11. Research on a Method of Geographical Information Service Load Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heyuan; Li, Yongxing; Xue, Zhiyong; Feng, Tao

    2018-05-01

    With the development of geographical information service technologies, how to achieve the intelligent scheduling and high concurrent access of geographical information service resources based on load balancing is a focal point of current study. This paper presents an algorithm of dynamic load balancing. In the algorithm, types of geographical information service are matched with the corresponding server group, then the RED algorithm is combined with the method of double threshold effectively to judge the load state of serve node, finally the service is scheduled based on weighted probabilistic in a certain period. At the last, an experiment system is built based on cluster server, which proves the effectiveness of the method presented in this paper.

  12. Distributed energy resources at naval base ventura county building 1512

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Owen C.; Marnay, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a preliminary assessment of the cost effectiveness of distributed energy resources at Naval Base Ventura County (NBVC) Building 1512. This study was conducted in response to the base's request for design assistance to the Federal Energy Management Program. Given the current tariff structure there are two main decisions facing NBVC: whether to install distributed energy resources (DER), or whether to continue the direct access energy supply contract. At the current effective rate, given assumptions about the performance and structure of building energy loads and available generating technology characteristics, the results of this study indicate that if the building installed a 600 kW DER system with absorption cooling and heat capabilities chosen by cost minimization, the energy cost savings would be about 14 percent, or $55,000 per year. However, under current conditions, this study also suggests that significant savings could be obtained if Building 1 512 changed from the direct access contract to a SCE TOU-8 (Southern California Edison time of use tariff number 8) rate without installing a DER system. At current SCE TOU-8 tariffs, the potential savings from installation of a DER system would be about 4 percent, or $15,000 per year

  13. The distribution and habitat preferences of the declining species Orobanche arenaria Borkh at the northern limit of its geographical range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new sites of Orobanche arenaria were discovered during floristic investigations in the Wyżyna Małopolska upland in central Poland. The new localities are concentrated in the Ponidzie area (Garb Pińczowski ridge and Niecka Połaniecka basin and form the northern limit of the geographical range of O. arenaria. The paper presents information on the distribution of Orobanche arenaria in Poland, the abundance at the sites and habitats occupied by the species.

  14. Information Modeling for Direct Control of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    We present an architecture for an unbundled liberalized electricity market system where a virtual power plant (VPP) is able to control a number of distributed energy resources (DERs) directly through a two-way communication link. The aggregator who operates the VPP utilizes the accumulated...... a desired accumulated response. In this paper, we design such an information model based on the markets that the aggregator participates in and based on the flexibility characteristics of the remote controlled DERs. The information model is constructed in a modular manner making the interface suitable...

  15. Geographic distribution of the tortoises and freshwater turtles of Colombia and their representation in the protected area network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero Medina, German; Yusti Munoz, Ana Paola; Castano Mora, Olga V

    2014-01-01

    Colombia has a remarkable diversity of tortoises and freshwater turtles. However, a considerable portion of these species is threatened, and for others there is not enough information to make an adequate evaluation of their conservation status. This study is a first approximation to the quantitative evaluation of the geographic distribution of Colombia's non-marine chelonians. Based on records of occurrence for each species, we evaluated the geographic distribution using statistical models (maxent), hydrological basins, and the extent of occurrence and area of occupancy. Based on the presence data and the models, we studied the representation of each species in national natural parks (NNP), which correspond to the most rigorous conservation category of IUCN classification in Colombia, and other types of protected areas such as private reserves. We generated distribution models and estimated the area (km"2) for 25 out of 27 species in the country. This information will be valuable for updating and evaluating the threat categories at the national level. The areas with the highest species richness correspond to the riverine ecosystems of the Amazon and Orinoco River Basins and the Caribbean Region, particularly the Western Caribbean. This region is a top priority not only because of its richness but also because of the presence of endemics and its high level of threat. Only 56 % of the species have confirmed records within national parks. A greater portion could be present in these areas according to the statistical models, but only ten of those species would have more than 10 % of their ranges within a park's boundary. Although the resulting models have certain limitations due to the nature of the data and analyses, they can be a starting point for research on the occurrence of turtles in NNP. Endemic species are poorly represented in protected areas, both in NNP and in other categories. Thus, protected areas that can assure the persistence of their populations are

  16. Technologies for Distributed Energy Resources. Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Technical Assistance Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitchford, P.; Brown, T.

    2001-01-01

    This four-page fact sheet describes distributed energy resources for Federal facilities, which are being supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Distributed energy resources include both existing and emerging energy technologies: advanced industrial turbines and microturbines; combined heat and power (CHP) systems; fuel cells; geothermal systems; natural gas reciprocating engines; photovoltaics and other solar systems; wind turbines; small, modular biopower; energy storage systems; and hybrid systems. DOE FEMP is investigating ways to use these alternative energy systems in government facilities to meet greater demand, to increase the reliability of the power-generation system, and to reduce the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels

  17. Route Instruction Mechanism for Mobile Users Leveraging Distributed Wireless Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehi, Takeshi; Shinkuma, Ryoichi; Murase, Tutomu; Motoyoshi, Gen; Yamori, Kyoko; Takahashi, Tatsuro

    The market growths of smart-phones and thin clients have been significantly increasing communication traffic in mobile networks. To handle the increased traffic, network operators should consider how to leverage distributed wireless resources such as distributed spots of wireless local access networks. In this paper, we consider the system where multiple moving users share distributed wireless access points on their traveling routes between their start and goal points and formulate as an optimization problem. Then, we come up with three algorithms as a solution for the problem. The key idea here is ‘longcut route instruction’, in which users are instructed to choose a traveling route where less congested access points are available; even if the moving distance increases, the throughput for users in the system would improve. In this paper, we define the gain function. Moreover, we analyze the basic characteristics of the system using as a simple model as possible.

  18. [Temporal variation and geographical distribution: congenital heart defects in the Comunitat Valenciana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero Carbonell, C; Zurriaga, O; Pérez Panadés, J; Barona Vilar, C; Martos Jiménez, C

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHD) in the Comunitat Valenciana (CV) in children less than one year old and identify whether there are temporal and geographic variations within this prevalence. The minimum basic data set from hospital discharge reports was used to select patients, who were born between 1999-2008, were less than one year old, and who lived in the CV with at least one hospital admission in which the primary diagnosis and/or any of the events were coded as CHD (codes 745-747 of the International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision Clinical Modification). The first hospital discharge report with CHD was selected, using the health card number to detect duplication. The prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and the prevalence ratio (PR) and smoothed PR was obtained for each municipality to identify geographic patterns. In the period 1999-2008 there were 6.377 patients younger than one year with some CHD, representing the 43.2% of cases of congenital anomalies. The prevalence was 134.3 per 10.000 live births (95% CI: 131.1-137.6). There was a significant increase in the prevalence, from 115.8 in the 1999-2003 period to 149.5 in the 2004-2008 period. A higher risk was identified in the north of the CV, and in some municipalities of the province of Alicante, in the south. The observed increase in CHD agrees with the findings in other countries and it can be explained, at least in part, by improved diagnostic techniques. The geographic pattern identified requires a more detailed analysis that could explain the geographic variations found. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Age related distributive justice and claims on resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, S

    1996-03-01

    The ageing population structure, and claims on resources by non-working groups, are seen by many to be contributing to a growing welfare crisis. In their arguments, relations between age groups and generations will become increasingly fraught, and welfare arrangements will be undermined, as 'unacceptable' levels of taxation blight the experience of a contracting workforce, required to resource a growing welfare population. However, more seems to be known about researchers' views on distributive justice than is known about the perceptions of their subject populations. It has not been demonstrated that members of age groups share interests which are consonant with their cohort experience, or perceive their interests to be in conflict with those members of other age groups or generations. This paper analyses empirical evidence on people's perceptions of who should get, and do, what, in developing an argument that standard processes do not place age groups or generations in antagonistic relationship. Understanding the relations between age groups and generations is essential to explaining change in patterns of inequality, but the interdependence of these relations suggest that they are part of a coherent social structure, and not likely to give rise to crisis in the ways predicted.

  20. Hybrid control scheme for distributed energy resource management in a market context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Bindner, Henrik W.; Mehmedalic, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    In modernizing the electricity grid, distributed energy resources (DERs) can play an important role in accommodating intermittent energy sources, assisting system operation and the transition to a smart grid. Proper aggregation and coordination of the available DER units is required to provide...... flexibility to meet regular demand from the distribution system operator (DSO). By considering both their physical constraints and the economical system operation, this paper proposes a realtime hybrid management system for DER units in a market environment, which considers both the request from the DSO...

  1. Correlation of geographic distributions of haptoglobin alleles with prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) - a narrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamm, Vladimir V; Geist, Arielle M; Harauz, George

    2017-02-01

    We have proposed that the myelin damage observed in multiple sclerosis (MS) may be partly mediated through the long-term release and degradation of extracellular hemoglobin (Hb) and the products of its oxidative degradation [Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 71, 1789-1798, 2014]. The protein haptoglobin (Hpt) binds extracellular Hb as a first line of defense, and can serve as a vascular antioxidant. Humans have two different Hpt alleles: Hpt1 and Hpt2, giving either homozygous Hpt1-1 or Hpt2-2 phenotypes, or a heterozygous Hpt1-2 phenotype. We questioned whether those geographic regions with higher frequency of the Hpt2 allele (conversely, lower frequency of Hpt1 allele) would correlate with an increased incidence of MS, because different Hpt phenotypes will have variable anti-oxidative potentials in protecting myelin from damage inflicted by extracellular Hb and its degradation products. To test this hypothesis, we undertook a systematic analysis of the literature on reported geographic distributions of Hpt alleles to compare them with data reported in the World Health Organization Atlas of worldwide MS prevalence. We found the frequency of the Hpt1 allele to be low in European and North American countries with a high prevalence of MS, consistent with our hypothesis. However, this correlation was not observed in China and India, countries with the lowest Hpt1 frequencies, yet low reported prevalence of MS. Nevertheless, this work shows the need for continued refinement of geographic patterns of MS prevalence, including data on ethnic or racial origin, and for new clinical studies to probe the observed correlation and evaluate Hpt phenotype as a predictor of disease variability and progression, severity, and/or comorbidity with cardiovascular disorders.

  2. A Mechanism for Fair Distribution of Resources without Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforou, Evgenia; Anta, Antonio Fernández; Santos, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    We design a mechanism for Fair and Efficient Distribution of Resources (FEDoR) in the presence of strategic agents. We consider a multiple-instances, Bayesian setting, where in each round the preference of an agent over the set of resources is a private information. We assume that in each of r rounds n agents are competing for k non-identical indivisible goods, (n > k). In each round the strategic agents declare how much they value receiving any of the goods in the specific round. The agent declaring the highest valuation receives the good with the highest value, the agent with the second highest valuation receives the second highest valued good, etc. Hence we assume a decision function that assigns goods to agents based on their valuations. The novelty of the mechanism is that no payment scheme is required to achieve truthfulness in a setting with rational/strategic agents. The FEDoR mechanism takes advantage of the repeated nature of the framework, and through a statistical test is able to punish the misreporting agents and be fair, truthful, and socially efficient. FEDoR is fair in the sense that, in expectation over the course of the rounds, all agents will receive the same good the same amount of times. FEDoR is an eligible candidate for applications that require fair distribution of resources over time. For example, equal share of bandwidth for nodes through the same point of access. But further on, FEDoR can be applied in less trivial settings like sponsored search, where payment is necessary and can be given in the form of a flat participation fee. FEDoR can be a good candidate in a setting like that to solve the problem of starvation of publicity slots for some advertisers that have a difficult time determining their true valuations. To this extent we perform a comparison with traditional mechanisms applied to sponsored search, presenting the advantage of FEDoR. PMID:27227992

  3. A Mechanism for Fair Distribution of Resources without Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforou, Evgenia; Anta, Antonio Fernández; Santos, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    We design a mechanism for Fair and Efficient Distribution of Resources (FEDoR) in the presence of strategic agents. We consider a multiple-instances, Bayesian setting, where in each round the preference of an agent over the set of resources is a private information. We assume that in each of r rounds n agents are competing for k non-identical indivisible goods, (n > k). In each round the strategic agents declare how much they value receiving any of the goods in the specific round. The agent declaring the highest valuation receives the good with the highest value, the agent with the second highest valuation receives the second highest valued good, etc. Hence we assume a decision function that assigns goods to agents based on their valuations. The novelty of the mechanism is that no payment scheme is required to achieve truthfulness in a setting with rational/strategic agents. The FEDoR mechanism takes advantage of the repeated nature of the framework, and through a statistical test is able to punish the misreporting agents and be fair, truthful, and socially efficient. FEDoR is fair in the sense that, in expectation over the course of the rounds, all agents will receive the same good the same amount of times. FEDoR is an eligible candidate for applications that require fair distribution of resources over time. For example, equal share of bandwidth for nodes through the same point of access. But further on, FEDoR can be applied in less trivial settings like sponsored search, where payment is necessary and can be given in the form of a flat participation fee. FEDoR can be a good candidate in a setting like that to solve the problem of starvation of publicity slots for some advertisers that have a difficult time determining their true valuations. To this extent we perform a comparison with traditional mechanisms applied to sponsored search, presenting the advantage of FEDoR.

  4. A Mechanism for Fair Distribution of Resources without Payments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Christoforou

    Full Text Available We design a mechanism for Fair and Efficient Distribution of Resources (FEDoR in the presence of strategic agents. We consider a multiple-instances, Bayesian setting, where in each round the preference of an agent over the set of resources is a private information. We assume that in each of r rounds n agents are competing for k non-identical indivisible goods, (n > k. In each round the strategic agents declare how much they value receiving any of the goods in the specific round. The agent declaring the highest valuation receives the good with the highest value, the agent with the second highest valuation receives the second highest valued good, etc. Hence we assume a decision function that assigns goods to agents based on their valuations. The novelty of the mechanism is that no payment scheme is required to achieve truthfulness in a setting with rational/strategic agents. The FEDoR mechanism takes advantage of the repeated nature of the framework, and through a statistical test is able to punish the misreporting agents and be fair, truthful, and socially efficient. FEDoR is fair in the sense that, in expectation over the course of the rounds, all agents will receive the same good the same amount of times. FEDoR is an eligible candidate for applications that require fair distribution of resources over time. For example, equal share of bandwidth for nodes through the same point of access. But further on, FEDoR can be applied in less trivial settings like sponsored search, where payment is necessary and can be given in the form of a flat participation fee. FEDoR can be a good candidate in a setting like that to solve the problem of starvation of publicity slots for some advertisers that have a difficult time determining their true valuations. To this extent we perform a comparison with traditional mechanisms applied to sponsored search, presenting the advantage of FEDoR.

  5. Coastal Geographic Structures in Coastal-Marine Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, P. Ya.; Ganzei, K. S.; Ermoshin, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    It has been proposed to distinguish the coastal geographic structures consisting of a spatial combination of three interconnected and mutually conditioned parts (coastal-territorial, coastal, coastal-marine), which are interlinked with each other by the cumulative effect of real-energy flows. Distinguishing specific resource features of the coastal structures, by which they play a connecting role in the complex coastalmarine management, has been considered. The main integral resource feature of the coastal structures is their connecting functions, which form transitional parts mutually connecting the coastal-territorial and coastalmarine environmental management.

  6. Human migration, railways and the geographic distribution of leprosy in Rio Grande do Norte State – Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Mauricio Lisboa; Dupnik, Kathryn Margaret; Nobre, Paulo José Lisboa; De Souza, Márcia Célia Freitas; Dűppre, Nádia Cristina; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Jerŏnimo, Selma Maria Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction Leprosy is a public health problem in Brazil where 31,044 new cases were detected in 2013. Rio Grande do Norte is a small Brazilian state with a rate of leprosy lower than other areas in the same region, for unknown reasons. Objectives We present here a review based on the analysis of a database of registered leprosy cases in Rio Grande do Norte state, comparing leprosy's geographic distribution among municipalities with local socio-economic and public health indicators and with historical documents about human migration in this Brazilian region. Results The current distribution of leprosy in Rio Grande do Norte did not show correlation with socio-economic or public health indicators at the municipal level, but it appears related to economically emerging municipalities 100 years ago, with spread facilitated by railroads and train stations. Drought-related migratory movements which occurred from this state to leprosy endemic areas within the same period may be involved in the introduction of leprosy and with its present distribution within Rio Grande do Norte. Conclusions Leprosy may disseminate slowly, over many decades in certain circumstances, such as in small cities with few cases. This is a very unusual situation currently and a unique opportunity for epidemiologic studies of leprosy as an emerging disease. PMID:26964429

  7. Surveying and Mapping Geographical Information from the Perspective of Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÜ Guonian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It briefly reviewed the history of geographic information content development since the existence of geographic information system. It pointed out that the current definition of geographic information is always the extension from the "spatial+ attributes" basic mapping framework of geographic information. It is increasingly difficult to adapt to the analysis and application of spatial-temporal big data. From the perspective of geography research subject and content, it summarized systematically that the content and extension of the "geographic information" that geography needs. It put forward that a six-element expression model of geographic information, including spatial location, semantic description, attribute characteristics, geometric form, evolution process, and objects relationship.Under the guidance of the laws of geography, for geographical phenomenon of spatial distribution, temporal pattern and evolution process, the interaction mechanism of the integrated expression, system analysis and efficient management, it designed that a unified GIS data model which is expressed by six basic elements, a new GIS data structure driven by geographical rules and interaction, and key technologies of unstructured spatio-temporal data organization and storage. It provided that a theoretical basis and technical support for the shift from the surveying and mapping geographic information to the scientific geographic information, and it can help improving the organization, management, analysis and expression ability of the GIS of the geographical laws such as geographical pattern, evolution process, and interaction between elements.

  8. Geographic Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea along the Kuril Islands in the Western Subarctic Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA in the ocean were affected by different physicochemical conditions, but their responses to physical barriers (such as a chain of islands were largely unknown. In our study, geographic distribution of the AOA from the surface photic zone to the deep bathypelagic waters in the western subarctic Pacific adjacent to the Kuril Islands was investigated using pyrosequencing based on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA gene. Genotypes of clusters A and B dominated in the upper euphotic zone and the deep waters, respectively. Quantitative PCR assays revealed that the occurrence and ammonia-oxidizing activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA reached their maxima at the depth of 200 m, where a higher diversity and abundance of actively transcribed AOA was observed at the station located in the marginal sea exposed to more terrestrial input. Similar community composition of AOA observed at the two stations adjacent to the Kuril Islands maybe due to water exchange across the Bussol Strait. They distinct from the station located in the western subarctic gyre, where sub-cluster WCAII had a specific distribution in the surface water, and this sub-cluster seemed having a confined distribution in the western Pacific. Habitat-specific groupings of different WCB sub-clusters were observed reflecting the isolated microevolution existed in cluster WCB. The effect of the Kuril Islands on the phylogenetic composition of AOA between the Sea of Okhotsk and the western subarctic Pacific is not obvious, possibly because our sampling stations are near to the Bussol Strait, the main gateway through which water is exchanged between the Sea of Okhotsk and the Pacific. The vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of AOA communities among stations along the Kuril Islands were essentially determined by the in situ prevailing physicochemical gradients along the two dimensions.

  9. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-04-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal.

  10. Scarcity and the future of politics. [Conceptualizing political system as resource-distribution mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, D W

    1976-06-01

    Assuming that a political system is a resource-distribution mechanism, the author examines the possible effects of the predicted new age of scarcity on the system built on the assumption of continuing abundance of both energy and resource stocks. He does this by examining generally the relationship between the carrying capacity (along a scarcity and abundance continuum) and the value system (along a steady-state and growth-oriented continuum), and showing the possible outcomes of the interaction between the two. 35 references.

  11. [Geographic distribution and exposure population of drinking water with high concentration of arsenic in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Chen, C

    1997-09-01

    According to the data obtained from the "National Survey on Drinking Water Quality and Waterborne Diseases", the geographic distribution and exposure population of high arsenic drinking water were reported. From the data of more than 28,800 water samples, we found 9.02 million people drinking the water with As concentration of 0.030-0.049 mg/L, 3.34 million people having their water of 0.050-0.099 mg/L and 2.29 million people having water of > 0.1 mg/L. A total of 14.6 million people, about 1.5% of the surveyed population was exposed to As (> 0.030 mg/L) from drinking water. 80% of high-As-drinking water was groundwater. The situation of As in drinking water in provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities were listed. The locations of sampling site where water As exceeded the national standard for drinking water were illustrated.

  12. Monitoring potential geographical distribution of four wild bird species in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Feng, D.; Xu, B.

    2015-12-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype in wild birds and poultry have caught worldwide attention. To explore the association between wild bird migration and avian influenza virus transmission, we monitored potential geographical distribution of four wild bird species that might carry the avian influenza viruses in China. They are Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus), Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus) and Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus). They served as major reservoir of the avian influenza viruses. We used bird watching records with the precise latitude/longitude coordinates from January 2002 to August 2014, and environmental variables with a pixel resolution of 5 km × 5 km from 2002 to 2014. The study utilized maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model based on ecological niche model approaches, and got the following results: 1) MaxEnt model have good discriminatory ability with the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating curve (ROC) of 0.86-0.97; 2) The four wild bird species were estimated to concentrate in the North China Plain, the middle and lower region of the Yangtze River, Qinghai Lake, Tianshan Mountain and Tarim Basin, part of Tibet Plateau, and Hengduan Mountains; 3) Radiation and the minimum temperature were found to provide the most significant information. Our findings will help to understand the spread of avian influenza viruses by wild bird migration in China, which benefits for effective monitoring strategies and prevention measures.

  13. VT County National Resources Inventory Data 1982-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This collection provides tabular USDA - Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), National Resources Inventory (NRI) data (1982-1997), by...

  14. [Analysis on geographic distribution of high blood pressure prevalence in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y H; Zou, Z Y; Wang, Z H; Wang, S; Yang, Z P; Chen, Y J; Ma, J

    2017-07-10

    Objective: To understand and evaluate the characteristics of geographic distribution of high blood pressure prevalence in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in China in 2014, and provide evidence for the prevention of hypertension in children and adolescents. Methods: The data of 2014 Chinese National Surveys on Students Constitution and Health conducting 31 provinces (except Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) were collected. A total of 216 299 children and adolescents who had complete blood pressure records were selected as study subjects. The low, middle and high prevalence areas were identified according to their high blood pressure detection rates in the children and adolescents,7 % , to analyze the geographic distribution of high blood pressure prevalence in the children and adolescents. The environmental data in the capitals of 31 provinces in 2014 were collected to analyze the correlation between environmental factors and blood pressure Z score in the children and adolescents. Results: The average detection rates of high blood pressure was 6.4 % in 31 provinces (1.5 % -14.2 % ). The high prevalence areas were mainly distributed in the eastern China, especially the Circum-Bohai sea area, low prevalence areas were mainly distributed in the central and western areas of China and some provinces in the east. Correlation analysis results showed that the annual average temperature, annual average air humidity and local altitude were negatively correlated with blood pressure Z score, including diastolic and systolic blood pressure, in both boys and girls. The annual average sunshine time, PM(2.5) and PM(10) concentrations, content of SO(2) were positively correlated with blood pressure Z score in both boys and girls. Conclusions: There was a significant difference in high blood pressure of children and adolescents among 31 provinces. More attention should be paid to the children and adolescents living high prevalence area. And it is necessary to understand

  15. Estimating the accuracy of geographical imputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscoe Francis P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the number of non-geocoded cases researchers and organizations sometimes include cases geocoded to postal code centroids along with cases geocoded with the greater precision of a full street address. Some analysts then use the postal code to assign information to the cases from finer-level geographies such as a census tract. Assignment is commonly completed using either a postal centroid or by a geographical imputation method which assigns a location by using both the demographic characteristics of the case and the population characteristics of the postal delivery area. To date no systematic evaluation of geographical imputation methods ("geo-imputation" has been completed. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of census tract assignment using geo-imputation. Methods Using a large dataset of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer cases reported to the New Jersey Cancer Registry, we determined how often cases were assigned to the correct census tract using alternate strategies of demographic based geo-imputation, and using assignments obtained from postal code centroids. Assignment accuracy was measured by comparing the tract assigned with the tract originally identified from the full street address. Results Assigning cases to census tracts using the race/ethnicity population distribution within a postal code resulted in more correctly assigned cases than when using postal code centroids. The addition of age characteristics increased the match rates even further. Match rates were highly dependent on both the geographic distribution of race/ethnicity groups and population density. Conclusion Geo-imputation appears to offer some advantages and no serious drawbacks as compared with the alternative of assigning cases to census tracts based on postal code centroids. For a specific analysis, researchers will still need to consider the potential impact of geocoding quality on their results and evaluate

  16. Comparison of geographic distributions of Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Inflammatory Bowel Disease fail to support common evolutionary roots: Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases are not related by evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Andrew; Xue, Xiaoqing

    2018-01-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) shares overlapping symptoms and some features of pathogenesis with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD: Crohn's disease [CD], and Ulcerative Colitis [UC]). Geographic markers such as latitude/sunshine and more recently lactase population distributions are found to be correlated with IBD. As a result of clinical and pathogenic similarities between the 2 conditions, some authorities questioned whether a connection exists between them. We compare IBS directly with IBD, and indirectly with geographic markers associated with IBD, in order to evaluate possible evolutionary links between IBS and IBD. Similar correlations may link IBS as a precursor to IBD and possibly other conditions which are geographically connected with IBD. Data from four systematic reviews on IBD incidence and prevalence, IBS prevalence, and lactase distributions were included. Pearson's correlations were used for comparisons, with IBD values log-transformed because of skewed distribution. The articles provided 18-28 complete set of national data. Direct comparison between IBS and IBD showed no significant correlations (r = -0.14, r = -0.06 for CD and UC prevalence, r = -0.10 for CD incidence). Indirect comparisons also failed to show correlations of IBS with lactase distributions (r = -0.17), sunshine (r = -0.2) or latitude (r = 0.097); however, there was significant correlation between lactase distributions and CD incidence (r = -0.84), prevalence (r = -0.55) and UC prevalence (r = -0.59). Both sunshine (r= -0.53) and latitude (r = 0.58) are also significantly related to CD incidence. It is concluded that IBS and IBD do not follow similar global geographic patterns. This suggests a lack of an evolutionary genetic background coincident with emergence of lactase persistence. As well, vitamin D has no obvious impact on development of IBS. Similarities with IBD may result from sub groups (not yet identified) within the current Rome

  17. Maximum Regional Emission Reduction Potential in Residential Sector Based on Spatial Distribution of Population and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winijkul, E.; Bond, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    In the residential sector, major activities that generate emissions are cooking and heating, and fuels ranging from traditional (wood) to modern (natural gas, or electricity) are used. Direct air pollutant emissions from this sector are low when natural gas or electricity are the dominant energy sources, as is the case in developed countries. However, in developing countries, people may rely on solid fuels and this sector can contribute a large fraction of emissions. The magnitude of the health loss associated with exposure to indoor smoke as well as its concentration among rural population in developing countries have recently put preventive measures high on the agenda of international development and public health organizations. This study focuses on these developing regions: Central America, Africa, and Asia. Current and future emissions from the residential sector depend on both fuel and cooking device (stove) type. Availability of fuels, stoves, and interventions depends strongly on spatial distribution. However, regional emission calculations do not consider this spatial dependence. Fuel consumption data is presented at country level, without information about where different types of fuel are used. Moreover, information about stove types that are currently used and can be used in the future is not available. In this study, we first spatially allocate current emissions within residential sector. We use Geographic Information System maps of temperature, electricity availability, forest area, and population to determine the distribution of fuel types and availability of stoves. Within each country, consumption of different fuel types, such as fuelwood, coal, and LPG is distributed among different area types (urban, peri-urban, and rural area). Then, the cleanest stove technologies which could be used in the area are selected based on the constraints of each area, i.e. availability of resources. Using this map, the maximum emission reduction compared with

  18. Economic viability of distributed energy resources relative to substation and feeder facilities expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akorede, M. F.; Hizam, H.; Aris, I.

    2010-01-01

    Distributed energy resources have numerous benefits, of which is transmission network upgrade deferral. This application is particularly important where there are constraints in upgrading of the existing or construction of new generation units and transmission circuits. This paper presents a cost...

  19. An assessment of geographical distribution of different plant functional types over North America simulated using the CLASS-CTEM modelling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Rudra K.; Arora, Vivek K.; Melton, Joe R.; Sushama, Laxmi

    2017-10-01

    The performance of the competition module of the CLASS-CTEM (Canadian Land Surface Scheme and Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model) modelling framework is assessed at 1° spatial resolution over North America by comparing the simulated geographical distribution of its plant functional types (PFTs) with two observation-based estimates. The model successfully reproduces the broad geographical distribution of trees, grasses and bare ground although limitations remain. In particular, compared to the two observation-based estimates, the simulated fractional vegetation coverage is lower in the arid southwest North American region and higher in the Arctic region. The lower-than-observed simulated vegetation coverage in the southwest region is attributed to lack of representation of shrubs in the model and plausible errors in the observation-based data sets. The observation-based data indicate vegetation fractional coverage of more than 60 % in this arid region, despite only 200-300 mm of precipitation that the region receives annually, and observation-based leaf area index (LAI) values in the region are lower than one. The higher-than-observed vegetation fractional coverage in the Arctic is likely due to the lack of representation of moss and lichen PFTs and also likely because of inadequate representation of permafrost in the model as a result of which the C3 grass PFT performs overly well in the region. The model generally reproduces the broad spatial distribution and the total area covered by the two primary tree PFTs (needleleaf evergreen trees, NDL-EVG; and broadleaf cold deciduous trees, BDL-DCD-CLD) reasonably well. The simulated fractional coverage of tree PFTs increases after the 1960s in response to the CO2 fertilization effect and climate warming. Differences between observed and simulated PFT coverages highlight model limitations and suggest that the inclusion of shrubs, and moss and lichen PFTs, and an adequate representation of permafrost will help improve

  20. Future Opportunities and Challenges with Using Demand Response as a Resource in Distribution System Operation and Planning Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Page, Janie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Potter, Jennifer [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stewart, Emma [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This scoping study focuses on identifying the ability for current and future demand response opportunities to contribute to distribution system management. To do so, this scoping study will identify the needs of a distribution system to operate efficiently, safely and reliably; summarize both benefits and challenges for the operation of the distribution system with high penetration levels of distributed energy resources; define a suite of services based on those changing operational needs that could be provided by resources; identify existing demand response opportunities sponsored by distribution utilities and/or aggregators of retail customers; assess the extent to which distribution system services can be provided via DR opportunities both in their current form and with alterations to their design; and provide a qualitative assessment of coordination issues that bulk power and distribution system providers of DR opportunities will need to address.

  1. A multi-objective optimization of the active and reactive resource scheduling at a distribution level in a smart grid context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Vale, Zita

    2015-01-01

    In the traditional paradigm, the large power plants supply the reactive power required at a transmission level and the capacitors and transformer tap changer were also used at a distribution level. However, in a near future will be necessary to schedule both active and reactive power...... at a distribution level, due to the high number of resources connected in distribution levels. This paper proposes a new multi-objective methodology to deal with the optimal resource scheduling considering the distributed generation, electric vehicles and capacitor banks for the joint active and reactive power...... scheduling. The proposed methodology considers the minimization of the cost (economic perspective) of all distributed resources, and the minimization of the voltage magnitude difference (technical perspective) in all buses. The Pareto front is determined and a fuzzy-based mechanism is applied to present...

  2. Local Information as a Resource in Distributed Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Paweł; Horodecki, Ryszard; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Sende, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2003-03-01

    A new paradigm for distributed quantum systems where information is a valuable resource is developed. After finding a unique measure for information, we construct a scheme for its manipulation in analogy with entanglement theory. In this scheme, instead of maximally entangled states, two parties distill local states. We show that, surprisingly, the main tools of entanglement theory are general enough to work in this opposite scheme. Up to plausible assumptions, we show that the amount of information that must be lost during the protocol of concentration of local information can be expressed as the relative entropy distance from some special set of states.

  3. Health system resource gaps and associated mortality from pandemic influenza across six Asian territories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Rudge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Southeast Asia has been the focus of considerable investment in pandemic influenza preparedness. Given the wide variation in socio-economic conditions, health system capacity across the region is likely to impact to varying degrees on pandemic mitigation operations. We aimed to estimate and compare the resource gaps, and potential mortalities associated with those gaps, for responding to pandemic influenza within and between six territories in Asia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected health system resource data from Cambodia, Indonesia (Jakarta and Bali, Lao PDR, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. We applied a mathematical transmission model to simulate a "mild-to-moderate" pandemic influenza scenario to estimate resource needs, gaps, and attributable mortalities at province level within each territory. The results show that wide variations exist in resource capacities between and within the six territories, with substantial mortalities predicted as a result of resource gaps (referred to here as "avoidable" mortalities, particularly in poorer areas. Severe nationwide shortages of mechanical ventilators were estimated to be a major cause of avoidable mortalities in all territories except Taiwan. Other resources (oseltamivir, hospital beds and human resources are inequitably distributed within countries. Estimates of resource gaps and avoidable mortalities were highly sensitive to model parameters defining the transmissibility and clinical severity of the pandemic scenario. However, geographic patterns observed within and across territories remained similar for the range of parameter values explored. CONCLUSIONS: The findings have important implications for where (both geographically and in terms of which resource types investment is most needed, and the potential impact of resource mobilization for mitigating the disease burden of an influenza pandemic. Effective mobilization of resources across administrative boundaries could go some way

  4. Smart Operations in Distributed Energy Resources System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Jie, Shu; Zhang-XianYong; Qing, Zhou

    Smart grid capabilities are being proposed to help solve the challenges concerning system operations due to that the trade-offs between energy and environmental needs will be constantly negotiated while a reliable supply of electricity needs even greater assurance in case of that threats of disruption have risen. This paper mainly explores models for distributed energy resources system (DG, storage, and load),and also reviews the evolving nature of electricity markets to deal with this complexity and a change of emphasis on signals from these markets to affect power system control. Smart grid capabilities will also impact reliable operations, while cyber security issues must be solved as a culture change that influences all system design, implementation, and maintenance. Lastly, the paper explores significant questions for further research and the need for a simulation environment that supports such investigation and informs deployments to mitigate operational issues as they arise.

  5. Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of the Gunnison Basin: A Geographical Study of Current Versus Historical Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J.; Townsend, A.; Alexander, K.

    2005-05-01

    We compared the stonefly diversity sampled from 11 selected sites in the Gunnison River Basin over the last three years to the stonefly diversity recorded by Knight (1965) from the same or nearby sites. The 11 sites in this study were chosen from the 22 sites reported by Knight (1965) because they represented mainstem Gunnison River sites that would be predicted to experience the most alteration due to anthropogenic changes such as the construction of impoundments, differences in land use patterns, and effects from the increase in human population of the region. We have been unable to locate ten of the stonefly species that were historically found and we presume that they have gone locally extinct or have become increasingly rare. We have also found six species present today that were not historically reported from Knight (1965). Maps showing current and historical stonefly diversity and distribution have been produced using ArcGIS and analyzed with relevant geographical data to form hypotheses to account for specific changes in the stonefly fauna of the basin.

  6. Evaluating renewable natural resources flow and net primary productivity with a GIS-Emergy approach: A case study of Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengdong; Zhang, Shenyan; Yan, Wanglin; Wang, Renqing; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yutao

    2016-11-18

    Renewable natural resources, such as solar radiation, rainfall, wind, and geothermal heat, together with ecosystem services, provide the elementary supports for the sustainable development of human society. To improve regional sustainability, we studied the spatial distributions and quantities of renewable natural resources and net primary productivity (NPP) in Hokkaido, which is the second largest island of Japan. With the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) software, distribution maps for each type of renewable natural resource were generated by kriging interpolation based on statistical records. A composite map of the flow of all types of renewable natural resources was also generated by map layer overlapping. Additionally, we utilized emergy analysis to convert each renewable flow with different attributes into a unified unit (i.e., solar equivalent joules [sej]). As a result, the spatial distributions of the flow of renewable natural resources of the Hokkaido region are presented in the form of thematic emergy maps. Thus, the areas with higher renewable emergy can be easily visualized and identified. The dominant renewable flow in certain areas can also be directly distinguished. The results can provide useful information for regional sustainable development, environmental conservation and ecological management.

  7. Using size distribution analysis to forecast natural gas resources in Asia Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Roberto F.; Ripple, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We estimate the total endowment of conventional natural gas in Asia Pacific. → Includes volumes in previously unassessed provinces. → Endowment distributed across countries to show where volumes are most likely to be found. → A breakdown between offshore versus onshore resources is also estimated. → We find there is a significant natural gas endowment in the region. -- Abstract: Increasing energy consumption in Asia Pacific will largely be met by fossil fuels. Natural gas production in the region presently ranks behind that of oil and coal. However, the abundance of gas could lead to a significant gas market share increase in the energy mix. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the total endowment of conventional gas in Asia Pacific. This is carried out with a Variable Shape Distribution (VSD) model that forecasts volumes in provinces that have not been previously evaluated. The endowment is then distributed across countries to show where volumes are most likely to be found. A breakdown between offshore versus onshore resources is also estimated. The results of the analysis show there is a significant gas endowment. The estimated distribution across countries and onshore/offshore areas provides insight into the relative economics of gas production, as well as a basis for potential investment decisions. With appropriate energy policies, it may be possible to tap the vast gas potential in Asia Pacific. Considering gas may be the most abundant, inexpensive, and clean fossil fuel, the outcome would be increased energy security and a low carbon economy.

  8. Distribution and Resources of the Medicinal Plant Colchicum autumnale L. in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Semerdjieva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Colchicum autumnale (Colchicaceae is a perennial geophyte and a medicinal plant. Its biomass is collected for industrial uses for obtaining the alkaloids colchicine and demecolcine. The objective of the present study was to estimate the distribution and potential resources of C. autumnale populations in Bulgaria in terms of their sustainable use. Monitoring of habitats was carried out in concrete harvesting areas. The distribution of the populations and the amount of drug production in specific sites and conditions were studied. In 2014-2015, eleven localities were established in seven floristic regions, spread on an area of 498000 m². Seed resources obtained from the different populations ranged from 3.57 g to 12225 g. The seed yield depends on the environmental conditions, the number of plants per m², the number of fruit capsules per plant and the weight of the seeds contained in them. Changes in the management approach to habitats occupied by C. autumnale caused degradation of the areas, resulting in the decrease of the population density of the species.

  9. Leishmania in the Old World: 1. The geographical and hostal distribution of L. major zymodemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Blancq, S M; Schnur, L F; Peters, W

    1986-01-01

    135 stocks of Leishmania major from man, reservoir hosts and sandflies were characterized using thin-layer starch-gel electrophoresis of 13 enzymes: MDH, 6PGD, GD, SOD, ASAT, ALAT, PK, PGM, ES, NH, PEPD, MPI, GPI. Homogeneity in this species was demonstrated by identical electrophoretic mobilities in nine enzymes. Polymorphism in four enzymes: 6PGD, GPI, PEPD, ES, gave six zymodemes among the collection. Stocks from sandflies and several species of burrowing rodents were indistinguishable from those from man in the same areas. Stocks of Leishmania from North-West India were identified as L. major. In some foci the distribution of zymodemes has some correlation with the presence of particular rodent reservoir hosts. The enzymic homogeneity of L. major throughout its geographical and host range appears to be correlated with the close association between L. major and sandflies of the subgenus Phlebotomus. The status of L. major as a distinct species is supported.

  10. REINVENTING THE GEOGRAPHIC EDUCATION IN TIMES OF CRISIS: ICT IN THE UNIVERSITY CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Peinado Rodríguez

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCTION: The objective of this work is to carry out a reflection on the changes that we have been forced to address from the teaching of the social sciences, and in particular, in the course “Didactics of Social Sciences: geographical space and its didactic treatment”, a subject which is greatly enriched with school trips and educational itineraries for which we lack economic funding, although new technologies are erected in an indispensable resource to offset, at least in part, these deficiencies. We propose to use ICT resources to bring the environment into the classroom, natural and virtual, to have their space in the process of teaching and learning in geographical discipline.

  11. The geographical distribution and habitats of three liver fluke intermediate hosts in South - Africa and the health implications involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. de Kock

    2008-09-01

    persons and authorities were totally unsuccessful. In view of statistics available for elsewhere in the world, it would be unwise to assume that no problems exist in this regard in South Africa. The number of people suffering from fasciolosis was already estimated at 2.4 million in 61 countries in 1995 and another 180 million at risk of becoming infected, with the highest prevalence’s reported from Bolivia, China, Ecuador, Egypt, France, Iran, Peru and Portugal. The results of recent serological assays for the detection of fasciolosis in cattle herds in selected areas in South Africa indicated positive cases from localities that closely correspond to the geographical distribution of the three Lymnaea species in this country. According to reports in the literature, the high prevalence of fasciolosis in livestock in the highlands of Ethiopia couldhave serious health implications for people in the area because they have to use the same water resources. In many rural areas in South Africa local populations also have no other options than to share natural water resources with their livestock. In most instances these water bodies harbour at least one of the Lymnaea species which can maintain the life cycle of fasciola. Under such conditions residents could daily be exposed to the risk of becoming infected. It is a matter of concern that epidemiological research with regard to human fasciolosis is such aneglected subject in South Africa. In our opinion epidemiological surveys should be conducted to determine the prevalence of human fasciolosis in specific areas which could be selected on the basis of using the geographical distribution of the three Linnaean species as guidelines. Efforts should also be made to conduct surveys to update the geographical distribution of the snail intermediate hosts and awareness programmes should be launched in rural areas at risk.

  12. On the Efficiency of Connection Charges---Part II: Integration of Distributed Energy Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz-Alvarez, Daniel; Garcia-Franco, Juan F.; Tong, Lang

    2017-01-01

    This two-part paper addresses the design of retail electricity tariffs for distribution systems with distributed energy resources (DERs). Part I presents a framework to optimize an ex-ante two-part tariff for a regulated monopolistic retailer who faces stochastic wholesale prices on the one hand and stochastic demand on the other. In Part II, the integration of DERs is addressed by analyzing their endogenous effect on the optimal two-part tariff and the induced welfare gains. Two DER integrat...

  13. The impact of travel time on geographic distribution of dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Saori; Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Takahiko; Eboshida, Akira; Takeuchi, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    The geographic disparity of prevalence rates among dialysis patients is unclear. We evaluate the association between travel time to dialysis facilities and prevalence rates of dialysis patients living in 1,867 census areas of Hiroshima, Japan. Furthermore, we study the effects of geographic features (mainland or island) on the prevalence rates and assess if these effects modify the association between travel time and prevalence. The study subjects were all 7,374 people that were certified as the "renal disabled" by local governments in 2011. The travel time from each patient to the nearest available dialysis facility was calculated by incorporating both travel time and the capacity of all 98 facilities. The effect of travel time on the age- and sex-adjusted standard prevalence rate (SPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) at each census area was evaluated in two-level Poisson regression models with 1,867 census areas (level 1) nested within 35 towns or cities (level 2). The results were adjusted for area-based parameters of socioeconomic status, urbanity, and land type. Furthermore, the SPR of dialysis patients was calculated in each specific subgroup of population for travel time, land type, and combination of land type and travel time. In the regression analysis, SPR decreased by 5.2% (95% CI: -7.9--2.3) per 10-min increase in travel time even after adjusting for potential confounders. The effect of travel time on prevalence was different in the mainland and island groups. There was no travel time-dependent SPR disparity on the islands. The SPR among remote residents (>30 min from facilities) in the mainland was lower (0.77, 95% CI: 0.71-0.85) than that of closer residents (≤ 30 min; 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92-0.97). The prevalence of dialysis patients was lower among remote residents. Geographic difficulties for commuting seem to decrease the prevalence rate.

  14. Inferring geographic isolation of wolverines in California using historical DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Schwartz; Keith B. Aubry; Kevin S. McKelvey; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Jeffrey P. Copeland; John R. Squires; Robert M. Inman; Samantha M. Wisely; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2007-01-01

    Delineating a species' geographic range using the spatial distribution of museum specimens or even contemporary detection-non-detection data can be difficult. This is particularly true at the periphery of a species range where species' distributions are often disjunct. Wolverines (Gulo gulo) are wide-ranging mammals with discontinuous and...

  15. Accidental hazardous material releases with human impacts in the United States: exploration of geographical distribution and temporal trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Hatice; Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Chermak, Christina

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the circumstances and geographic and temporal distributions of hazardous material releases and resulting human impacts in the United States. Releases with fatalities, injuries, and evacuations were identified from reports to the National Response Center between 1990 and 2008, correcting for data quality issues identified in previous studies. From more than 550,000 reports, 861 deaths, 16,348 injuries and 741,427 evacuations were identified. Injuries from releases of chemicals at fixed facilities and natural gas from pipelines have decreased whereas evacuations from petroleum releases at fixed facilities have increased. Results confirm recent advances in chemical and pipeline safety and suggest directions for further improvement including targeted training and inspections and adoption of inherently safer design principles.

  16. Common accounting system for monitoring the ATLAS distributed computing resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavakis, E; Andreeva, J; Campana, S; Saiz, P; Gayazov, S; Jezequel, S; Sargsyan, L; Schovancova, J; Ueda, I

    2014-01-01

    This paper covers in detail a variety of accounting tools used to monitor the utilisation of the available computational and storage resources within the ATLAS Distributed Computing during the first three years of Large Hadron Collider data taking. The Experiment Dashboard provides a set of common accounting tools that combine monitoring information originating from many different information sources; either generic or ATLAS specific. This set of tools provides quality and scalable solutions that are flexible enough to support the constantly evolving requirements of the ATLAS user community.

  17. Multi-VO support in IHEP's distributed computing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, T; Suo, B; Zhao, X H; Zhang, X M; Ma, Z T; Yan, X F; Lin, T; Deng, Z Y; Li, W D; Belov, S; Pelevanyuk, I; Zhemchugov, A; Cai, H

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the success of BESDIRAC, the distributed computing environment based on DIRAC for BESIII experiment, several other experiments operated by Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), such as Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC), Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) and Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) etc, are willing to use DIRAC to integrate the geographically distributed computing resources available by their collaborations. In order to minimize manpower and hardware cost, we extended the BESDIRAC platform to support multi-VO scenario, instead of setting up a self-contained distributed computing environment for each VO. This makes DIRAC as a service for the community of those experiments. To support multi-VO, the system architecture of BESDIRAC is adjusted for scalability. The VOMS and DIRAC servers are reconfigured to manage users and groups belong to several VOs. A lightweight storage resource manager StoRM is employed as the central SE to integrate local and grid data. A frontend system is designed for user's massive job splitting, submission and management, with plugins to support new VOs. A monitoring and accounting system is also considered to easy the system administration and VO related resources usage accounting. (paper)

  18. An historical and geographic data set on the distribution of macroinvertebrates in Italian mountain lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Boggero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates play a key role in freshwater food webs, acting as major links between organic matter resources, primary consumers (such as bacteria, and secondary consumers (e.g.fish, amphibians, birds, and reptiles. In this paper we present a data set encompassing all geographic and historical data available on macroinvertebrates of the Italian mountain lakes from 1902 to 2016. The data set, divided per Italian mountain range (Alps and Apennines and administrative region, covers more than a century of studies of many foreign and Italian scientists. The data set includes 2372 records and shows macroinvertebrate occurrence data in 176 Alpine and in 13 Apennine lakes, of which 178 of natural origin, 5 reservoirs, and 6 artificially extended. The data set lists 605 taxa, updated on the basis of their current taxonomic position. Only 353 taxa are identified at species level, highlighting the still poorly investigated biodiversity of Italian mountain lake macroinvertebrates. Since they function as key elements to characterize lake ecological status, our data set emphasizes the huge taxonomic effort that still has to be undertaken to fully characterize these ecosystems. The data set is available in csv (comma-separated values format.

  19. China's Mission in Surveying, Mapping and Geographic Information during Global Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, D.; Xue, C.; Chen, X.

    2018-04-01

    In the new era, it is proposed that China should be transformed from a participant and a cooperator into a designer, an impeller and a leader, continue taking an effect of responsible great power, increase public product supply, perfect a global governance system and contribute to China's wisdom and China's schemes during global governance, thus surveying and mapping geographic information takes on great mission. On the one hand, we have to timely grasp global geographic information data resources to provide an important scientific data support for China's wisdom and China's schemes. On the other hand, we have to provide surveying and mapping geographic information infrastructure construction and public products for developing countries, support location services within a global territorial scope, and realize the smoothness of talent flow, material flow and information flow between China and countries in the world. Meanwhile, external assistance and international communication and cooperation of surveying and mapping geographic information are also enhanced, and popularization and application of a geographic information technology in underdeveloped countries and regions are promoted.

  20. A Distributed Middleware Architecture for Attack-Resilient Communications in Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wu, Yifu [University of Akron; Wei, Jin [University of Akron

    2017-07-31

    Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) are being increasingly accepted as an excellent complement to traditional energy sources in smart grids. As most of these generators are geographically dispersed, dedicated communications investments for every generator are capital cost prohibitive. Real-time distributed communications middleware, which supervises, organizes and schedules tremendous amounts of data traffic in smart grids with high penetrations of DERs, allows for the use of existing network infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a distributed attack-resilient middleware architecture that detects and mitigates the congestion attacks by exploiting the Quality of Experience (QoE) measures to complement the conventional Quality of Service (QoS) information to detect and mitigate the congestion attacks effectively. The simulation results illustrate the efficiency of our proposed communications middleware architecture.

  1. Assessment of grid-friendly collective optimization framework for distributed energy resources:

    OpenAIRE

    Pensini, Alessandro; Robinson, Matthew; Heine, Nicholas; Stadler, Michael; Mammoli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Distributed energy resources have the potential to provide services to facilities and buildings at lower cost and environmental impact in comparison to traditional electric-gridonly services. The reduced cost could result from a combination of higher system efficiency and exploitation of electricity tariff structures. Traditionally, electricity tariffs are designed to encourage the use of ‘off peak’ power and discourage the use of ‘onpeak’ power, although recent developments in renewable ener...

  2. New indices for home nursing care resource disparities in rural and urban areas, based on geocoding and geographic distance barriers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shyang-Woei; Yen, Chia-Feng; Chiu, Tzu-Ying; Chi, Wen-Chou; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2015-10-08

    Aging in place is the crucial object of long-term care policy worldwide. Approximately 15.6-19.4% of people aged 15 or above live with a disability, and 15.3% of them have moderate or severe disabilities. The allocation of home nursing care services is therefore an important issue. Service providers in Taiwan vary substantially across regions, and between rural and urban areas. There are no appropriate indices for describing the capacity of providers that it is due to the distances from care recipients. This study therefore aimed to describe and compare distance barriers for home nursing care providers using indices of the "profit willing distance" and the "tolerance limited distance". This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2012 and 2013 using geocoding and a geographic information system to identify the distance from the providers' locations to participants' homes in urban (Taipei City) and rural (Hualien County) areas in Taiwan. Data were collected in-person by professionals in Taiwanese hospitals using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. The indices were calculated using regression curves, and the first inflection points were determined as the points on the curves where the first and second derivatives equaled 0. There were 5627 participants from urban areas and 956 from rural areas. In urban areas, the profit willing distance was 550-600 m, and we were unable to identify them in rural areas. This demonstrates that providers may need to supply services even when there is little profit. The tolerance limited distance were 1600-1650 m in urban areas and 1950-2000 m in rural areas. In rural areas, 33.3% of those living inside the tolerance limited distance and there was no provider within this distance, but this figure fell to just 13.9% in urban areas. There were strong disparities between urban and rural areas in home nursing care resource allocation. Our new "profit willing distance" and the "tolerance limited distance" are

  3. Efficient Allocation of Resources for Defense of Spatially Distributed Networks Using Agent-Based Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshl, William M; Sarkani, Shahram; Mazzuchi, Thomas A

    2015-09-01

    This article presents ongoing research that focuses on efficient allocation of defense resources to minimize the damage inflicted on a spatially distributed physical network such as a pipeline, water system, or power distribution system from an attack by an active adversary, recognizing the fundamental difference between preparing for natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, or even accidental systems failures and the problem of allocating resources to defend against an opponent who is aware of, and anticipating, the defender's efforts to mitigate the threat. Our approach is to utilize a combination of integer programming and agent-based modeling to allocate the defensive resources. We conceptualize the problem as a Stackelberg "leader follower" game where the defender first places his assets to defend key areas of the network, and the attacker then seeks to inflict the maximum damage possible within the constraints of resources and network structure. The criticality of arcs in the network is estimated by a deterministic network interdiction formulation, which then informs an evolutionary agent-based simulation. The evolutionary agent-based simulation is used to determine the allocation of resources for attackers and defenders that results in evolutionary stable strategies, where actions by either side alone cannot increase its share of victories. We demonstrate these techniques on an example network, comparing the evolutionary agent-based results to a more traditional, probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) approach. Our results show that the agent-based approach results in a greater percentage of defender victories than does the PRA-based approach. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. On Optimal Geographical Caching in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serbetci, Berksan; Goseling, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    In this work we investigate optimal geographical caching in heterogeneous cellular networks where different types of base stations (BSs) have different cache capacities. Users request files from a content library according to a known probability distribution. The performance metric is the total hit

  5. No Geographic Correlation between Lyme Disease and Death Due to 4 Neurodegenerative Disorders, United States, 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Joseph D; Kugeler, Kiersten J; Perea, Anna E; Pastula, Daniel M; Mead, Paul S

    2015-11-01

    Associations between Lyme disease and certain neurodegenerative diseases have been proposed, but supportive evidence for an association is lacking. Similar geographic distributions would be expected if 2 conditions were etiologically linked. Thus, we compared the distribution of Lyme disease cases in the United States with the distributions of deaths due to Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson disease; no geographic correlations were identified. Lyme disease incidence per US state was not correlated with rates of death due to ALS, MS, or Parkinson disease; however, an inverse correlation was detected between Lyme disease and Alzheimer disease. The absence of a positive correlation between the geographic distribution of Lyme disease and the distribution of deaths due to Alzheimer disease, ALS, MS, and Parkinson disease provides further evidence that Lyme disease is not associated with the development of these neurodegenerative conditions.

  6. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and variation in risk factors across four geographically diverse resource-limited settings in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganath, Devan; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Wise, Robert A; Diette, Gregory B; Miele, Catherine H; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Checkley, William

    2015-03-18

    It is unclear how geographic and social diversity affects the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to characterize the prevalence of COPD and identify risk factors across four settings in Peru with varying degrees of urbanization, altitude, and biomass fuel use. We collected sociodemographics, clinical history, and post-bronchodilator spirometry in a randomly selected, age-, sex- and site-stratified, population-based sample of 2,957 adults aged ≥35 years (median age was 54.8 years and 49.3% were men) from four resource-poor settings: Lima, Tumbes, urban and rural Puno. We defined COPD as a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC Peru was not uniform and, unlike other settings, was not predominantly explained by tobacco smoking. This study emphasizes the role of biomass fuel use, and highlights pulmonary tuberculosis as an often neglected risk factor in endemic areas.

  7. Evaluation of Resources Carrying Capacity in China Based on Remote Sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.; Gan, Y. H.; Zhang, T.; Luo, Z. Y.; Wang, J. J.; Lin, F. N.

    2018-04-01

    This paper accurately extracted the information of arable land, grassland (wetland), forest land, water area and construction land, based on 1 : 250000 basic geographic information data. It made model modification of comprehensive CCRR to achieve carrying capacity calculation taking resource quality into consideration. Ultimately it achieved a comprehensive assessment of CCRR status in China. The top ten cities where the status of carrying capacity of resources was overloaded were Wenzhou, Shanghai, Chengdu, Baoding, Shantou, Jieyang, Dongguan, Fuyang, Zhoukou and Handan. The cities were basically distributed in the central and southern areas with convenient transportation and more economically developed areas. Among the cities in surplus status, resources carrying capacity in Hulun Buir was the most abundant, followed by Heihe, Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Qiqihar, Chifeng and Jiamusi, all of which were located in northeastern China with a small population and plentiful cultivated land.

  8. Model Checking Geographically Distributed Interlocking Systems Using UMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nielsen, Michel Bøje Randahl

    2017-01-01

    the relevant distributed protocols. By doing that we obey the safety guidelines of the railway signalling domain, that require formal methods to support the certification of such products. We also show how formal modelling can help designing alternative distributed solutions, while maintaining adherence...

  9. Geographic distribution of habitat, development, and population growth rates of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Collado, José; Isabel López-Arroyo, J; Robles-García, Pedro L; Márquez-Santos, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an introduced pest in Mexico and a vector of huanglongbing, a lethal citrus disease. Estimations of the habitat distribution and population growth rates of D. citri are required to establish regional and areawide management strategies and can be used as a pest risk analysis tools. In this study, the habitat distribution of D. citri in Mexico was computed with MaxEnt, an inductive, machine-learning program that uses bioclimatic layers and point location data. Geographic distributions of development and population growth rates were determined by fitting a temperature-dependent, nonlinear model and projecting the rates over the target area, using the annual mean temperature as the predictor variable. The results showed that the most suitable regions for habitat of D. citri comprise the Gulf of Mexico states, Yucatán Peninsula, and areas scattered throughout the Pacific coastal states. Less suitable areas occurred in northern and central states. The most important predictor variables were related to temperature. Development and growth rates had a distribution wider than habitat, reaching some of the northern states of México. Habitat, development, and population growth rates were correlated to each other and with the citrus producing area. These relationships indicated that citrus producing states are within the most suitable regions for the occurrence, development, and population growth of D. citri, therefore increasing the risk of huanglongbing dispersion.

  10. Capacity of Physiotherapy Workforce Production in Thailand: Public-Private Mix, Secular Trend and Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewsawang, Sarinee; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Vongsirinavarat, Mantana

    2016-06-01

    In Thailand, the shortage of physiotherapists has been an increasing concern because of increased health burden from demographic and epidemiologic changes. This study aims to analyse the current situation of the physiotherapy workforce production system, secular trend, geographical distribution and comparison of public and private physiotherapy training institutes. Longitudinal data related to production capacity of the physiotherapy institutes were applied. Data from 2008 to 2012 were obtained from all 16 physiotherapy institutes in Thailand. Data during 2000-2007 were also retrieved from annual reports from the Ministry of Education. Descriptive statistics were initially used. Comparison was made between public and private physiotherapy institutes in terms of the number of students admitted and graduated, number of teachers, annual tuition fee, student-teacher ratio and dropout rate within 1 year. Predictive factors for graduation within 4 years were determined using logistic regression. In Thailand, there was an average of 800 physiotherapy graduates per year. New private institutes have been recently established and have steadily increased student admission rates. However, this has resulted in a high student-teacher ratio (median 7.1, inter-quartile range (IQR) 5.9-10.0). The first-year dropout rate in 2012 was 29.1%. Geographically, the majority of the institutes are clustered in the central region. Multivariate analysis revealed significantly lower probability of graduation within 4 years among students admitted to the private institutes and those in non-north-east region. The production capacity of the physiotherapy workforce is below an estimated need. Private physiotherapy institutes need more support to improve the situation of staff shortages and student graduation rates. The non-central regions should be encouraged to produce more physiotherapists. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. [Epidemiological characteristics and geographical distribution of schistosomiasis and geohelminths, in the State of Sergipe, according to data from the Schistosomiasis Control Program in Sergipe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollemberg, Carla Virginia Vieira; Santos, Cybele Maria Bomfim; Silva, Marília Matos Bezerra Lemos; Souza, Acacia Maria Barros; Silva, Angela Maria da; Almeida, José Antônio Pacheco de; Almeida, Roque Pacheco de; Jesus, Amélia Ribeiro de

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is endemic in Brazil, with high prevalence in the State of Sergipe, despite the existence of the Schistosomiasis Control Program (PCE). The data from Sergipe's PCE between 2005 and 2008 were surveyed. From the raw information, a database was created on a spreadsheet using the Access software. The frequency and geographic distribution of infections due to Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasites were analyzed. These data were exported to the Spring 5.0.5 software for georeferencing and preparation of thematic maps of the spatial and temporal distribution according to year of evaluation. In 2005, 13.6% (14,471/106,287) of the tests were positive for S. mansoni, 11.2% (16,196/145,069) in 2006, 11.8% (10,220/86,824) in 2007 and 10.6% (8,329/78,859) in 2008. Analysis on the maps showed that there was high prevalence of the disease in Sergipe, and particularly in the municipalities of Ilha das Flores, Santa Rosa de Lima, Santa Luzia do Itanhi and São Cristóvão. Furthermore, we evaluated the association between the frequencies of these parasitic diseases and social and developmental indicators in the different municipalities, according to data from the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and the Department of Water Resources (SRH). We found that municipalities with schistosomiasis prevalence higher than 15% had lower coverage of sewage systems (hygiene index) (p = 0.05). Additionally, municipalities with hookworm prevalence higher than 10% had lower educational HDI (p = 0.04). The importance of greater control over environmental risk and educational factors needs to be emphasized in attempts to reduce the prevalence of these parasitic diseases.

  12. An emendation of the generic diagnosis of the monotypic Glanitaenia (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae), with notes on the geographical distribution of G-osculata, a parasite of invasive wels catfish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Chambrier, A.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-9 ISSN 0035-418X R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cestoda * Glanitaenia osculata * morphology * redescription * freshwater fish * geographical distribution * Europe Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.380, year: 2016

  13. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.

  14. Species distribution of kobs (Kobus kob) in the Shai Hills Resource Reserve: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Raymond Agyepong; Owusu, Erasmus Henaku; Attuquayefio, Daniel Korley

    2018-02-01

    The well-being of a species fundamentally rests on understanding its biology, home range, and distribution. The highly seasonal distribution of kobs poses conservation and management difficulties, particularly because of the capricious nature of the ever-changing ecological and vegetation dynamics of the ecosystem. Assessing the distribution of kobs and their associated vegetation provides insight into the vulnerability and conservation status of the species. Species distribution and habitat suitability maps were developed and created respectively for the management of kobs in the Shai Hills Resource Reserve. Kob presence data collected was analyzed using the spatial analyst and Hawth's tool in the ArcGIS software where the gradients of kob distribution within the protected area landscape were plotted and mapped. Seven environmental variables including location, land cover/use, slope/elevation, nearness to dams and rivers, temperature, and rainfall were considered to have effect on kob distribution pattern and as such used in the development of species distribution and habitat suitability maps. The results indicated that kobs in the Shai Hills Resource Reserve (SHRR) assume a clumped or contagious distribution pattern where individual kobs are aggregated in patches. Rainfall, temperature, nearness to dams and rivers, slope/elevation, and land cover/use had influence in kob distribution. Of all the cataloged habitats, 86, 13, and 1% were moderately suitable, suitable, and unsuitable, respectively. Long-term survival of species depends on adequately large areas of suitable habitats and opportunities for home range activities between such areas. As such, it is recommended that suitable habitats for kobs be dedicated and designated as conservation areas, especially areas along the western boundary.

  15. The resource soil in Colombia - Inventory and problematic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagon Castro; Dimas

    1998-01-01

    Soil survey studies as performed in Colombia, sintethize geographical knowledge both of the natural resource and the land as such. This holistic approach integrals geomorphology, climate, petrography-sediment logy, soils, land cover and land use. The Colombian geographic institute has performed these studies for the last five decades. This article initially summarizes the historical development of Colombian soil survey, continues with the Colombian soil resource knowledge and its application through land interpretative classifications, land use conflicts, soil degradation aspects and Colombian land zonifications. The final discussion emphasizes soil survey issues and perspective

  16. [Study on spatial distribution characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine resource species richness based on national census of Chinese medicine resources (pilot)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Hui; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Li, Meng; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-11-01

    Based on the data collected by the census team in the national census information management system, the spatial autocorrelation analysis method was used to analyze the similarity of the richness of Chinese herbal medicine resources in the investigated counties. The results showed that the species richness in the investigated counties appeared a tendency to focus on the distribution of the characteristics. Among them, the areas with sparse resources are concentrated in most areas of the north of the Yangtze River, northwest and most areas of Tibet. The areas with abundant resources are concentrated in the areas south of the Yangtze River. The results showed that there were significant differences in the abundance of traditional Chinese medicine resources between regions. The results showed that there were significant differences in the abundance of traditional Chinese medicine resources between regions. Due to the large differences in the land area between the county and the richness of the types of traditional Chinese medicine resources, it is proposed to increase the land area of the traditional Chinese medicine resource census when allocating the fourth national census of Chinese medicine resources by the "factor method", and the richness of traditional Chinese medicine and other indicators, in order to give full play to the efficiency of transfer payment system. Based on the county area and the rich variety of traditional Chinese medicine resources, combined with the national drug resources census pilot work carried out, it is recommended to focus on attention and support in the national medicine resources census work, personnel team, funding, summary of results on the western and southern provinces. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Coordinated control of distributed energy resources to support load frequency control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikumar Pandi, V.; Al-Hinai, A.; Feliachi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We aims to maintain feeder power flow by the coordination of DER units. • The error in feeder flow with respect to scheduled value is used by the controller. • The particle swarm optimization is employed to minimize the error in feeder flow. • Implemented on a transmission system along with 37 bus distribution feeder. • The results of proposed feeder control is analyzed with no feeder control scheme. - Abstract: The control of generating resources to follow the unscheduled load changes is considered to be an essential process in the power system in order to maintain the frequency of power supply. This load frequency control (LFC) problem has been given more importance in the recent smart grid environment because of the impact from high penetration of distributed energy resources (DER) installed at the distribution level. The renewable sources are highly intermittent in nature, so it is required to coordinate and control the DER units to maintain the feeder power flow at substation bus bar which is seen by transmission system operator during the LFC process. This paper aims to identify the impact of distributed generation and its control method to reduce the deviation of feeder power flow from the scheduled value in real time operation. The error in feeder power flow with respect to scheduled value is utilized by the PI controller to estimate the change in power reference of all DER units. The power output of DER units are maintained to reference values by the individual PI controllers. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to minimize the error in feeder power flow by optimally tuning the gain values of all PI controllers. The proposed method is examined on a small transmission system along with the feeder of IEEE 37 bus distribution system with balanced loading condition. The complete system along with DER units is implemented in the MATLAB based stability package named Power Analysis Toolbox (PAT) for performing time domain

  18. Geographical and Ethnic Distributions of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MTRR A66G Gene Polymorphisms in Chinese Populations: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingmin Wang

    Full Text Available The geographical and ethnic distributions of the polymorphic methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR mutations (C677T and A1298C and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR mutation (A66G remain heterogeneous in China. The goal of this study was to estimate the pooled frequencies of the alleles and associated genotypes of these gene polymorphisms among healthy populations in Mainland China.We systematically reviewed published epidemiological studies on the distributions of 3 genetic variants in Chinese healthy populations living in Mainland China through a meta-analysis. The relevant electronic databases were searched. All of the raw data of the eligible citations were extracted. The frequency estimates were stratified by geography, ethnicity and sex.Sixty-six studies were identified with a total of 92277 study participants. The meta-analysis revealed that the frequencies of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and MTRR A66G gene polymorphisms varied significantly between different ethnic groups and along geographical gradients. The frequencies of the 677T allele and 677TT genotype increased along the southern-central-northern direction across Mainland China (all Pvalues≤0.001. The frequencies of the 1298C, 1298CC, 66G and 66GG genotypes decreased along the south-central-north direction across the country (all Pvalues≤0.001.Our meta-analysis strongly indicates significant geographical and ethnic variations in the frequencies of the C677T, A1298C, and A66G gene polymorphisms in the folate metabolism pathway among Chinese populations.

  19. VT Mineral Resources - MRDS Extract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) MRDSVT is an extract from the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) covering the State of Vermont only. MRDS database contains the records provided...

  20. Economic models for management of resources in peer-to-peer and grid computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyya, Rajkumar; Stockinger, Heinz; Giddy, Jonathan; Abramson, David

    2001-07-01

    The accelerated development in Peer-to-Peer (P2P) and Grid computing has positioned them as promising next generation computing platforms. They enable the creation of Virtual Enterprises (VE) for sharing resources distributed across the world. However, resource management, application development and usage models in these environments is a complex undertaking. This is due to the geographic distribution of resources that are owned by different organizations or peers. The resource owners of each of these resources have different usage or access policies and cost models, and varying loads and availability. In order to address complex resource management issues, we have proposed a computational economy framework for resource allocation and for regulating supply and demand in Grid computing environments. The framework provides mechanisms for optimizing resource provider and consumer objective functions through trading and brokering services. In a real world market, there exist various economic models for setting the price for goods based on supply-and-demand and their value to the user. They include commodity market, posted price, tenders and auctions. In this paper, we discuss the use of these models for interaction between Grid components in deciding resource value and the necessary infrastructure to realize them. In addition to normal services offered by Grid computing systems, we need an infrastructure to support interaction protocols, allocation mechanisms, currency, secure banking, and enforcement services. Furthermore, we demonstrate the usage of some of these economic models in resource brokering through Nimrod/G deadline and cost-based scheduling for two different optimization strategies on the World Wide Grid (WWG) testbed that contains peer-to-peer resources located on five continents: Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America.

  1. Mapping the Distribution and Flora of the Weeds in Canola Fields of Gorgan Township by Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sahar jannati ataie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oil seeds are the second world’s food supply after cereals. These crops are grown primarily for the oil contained in the seeds. The major world sources of edible seed oils are soybeans, sunflowers, canola, cotton and peanuts. Canola is one of the most important plants in the world that has great importance. The plant belongs to the Brassica genus, the botanical family that includes cauliflower and cabbages. Weeds are one of the major problems in canola production that reduce yield and its quality. In general, one of the most important factors in development of management plans is information about the weed’s flora and geographic