WorldWideScience

Sample records for geographic zoning based

  1. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  2. Zoning of Water Quality of Hamadan Darreh-Morad Beyg River Based on NSFWQI Index Using Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Rahmani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Rivers are one of the main water supply resources for various uses such as agricultural, industrial and drinking purposes. As population and consumption increase, monitoring of rivers water quality becomes an important function of environmental management field. Because Darreh-Morad Beyg river of Hamadan is a water supply for different purposes and many pollutants are discharged in it, its water quality assessment seems necessary. Zoning of pollution and depicting a detailed image of surface water resources quality using geographic information system (GIS are the key factors for the better management of these resources.Materials & Methods: This research is a cross sectional- descriptive study and river water samples were taken for 7 months from 6 sampling stations on the length of the river. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen (D.O., pH, fecal coli form, nitrate, temperature, phosphate and total solids were determined in the samples. Obtained data were analyzed by national sanitation foundation water quality index (NSFWQI and the river was zoned using GIS software.Results: Results of the analyses by NSFWQI showed the best water quality for station 1 and the worst water quality for station 6 with scores of 62.78 and 27.49, respectively.Conclusion: The NSFWQI is a suitable index for zoning of Darreh-Morad Beyg river. Monitoring of physical, chemical, bacteriological quality parameters and using water quality index in various sampling stations are used in the assessment of water pollution. It also helps the officials to correctly decide about the water uses for different purposes.

  3. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island - Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  4. Louisiana Coastal Zone Boundary, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (1998)[coastal_zone_boundary_LDNR_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset representing the extent of the LDNR regulatory area defined as the Louisiana Coastal Zone. This area comprises a band across the southern...

  5. The contribution of travel-related urban zones, cycling and pedestrian networks and green space to commuting physical activity among adults - a cross-sectional population-based study using geographical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki-Opas, Tomi E; Borodulin, Katja; Valkeinen, Heli; Stenholm, Sari; Kunst, Anton E; Abel, Thomas; Härkänen, Tommi; Kopperoinen, Leena; Itkonen, Pekka; Prättälä, Ritva; Karvonen, Sakari; Koskinen, Seppo

    2016-08-11

    The current political agenda aims to promote active environments and physical activity while commuting to work, but research on it has provided mixed results. This study examines whether the proximity of green space and people's residence in different travel-related urban zones contributes to commuting physical activity. Population-based cross-sectional health examination survey, Health 2011 study, and geographical information system (GIS) data were utilized. The GIS data on green space and travel-related urban zones were linked to the individuals of the Health 2011 study, based on their home geocoordinates. Commuting physical activity was self-reported. Logistic regression models were applied, and age, gender, education, leisure-time and occupational physical activity were adjusted. Analyses were limited to those of working age, living in the core-urban areas of Finland and having completed information on commuting physical activity (n = 2 098). Home location in a pedestrian zone of a main centre (odds ratio = 1.63; 95 % confidence interval = 1.06-2.51) or a pedestrian zone of a sub-centre (2.03; 1.09-3.80) and higher proportion of cycling and pedestrian networks (3.28; 1.71-6.31) contributed to higher levels of commuting physical activity. The contribution remained after adjusting for all the environmental attributes and individuals. Based on interaction analyses, women living in a public transport zone were almost two times more likely to be physically active while commuting compared to men. A high proportion of recreational green space contributed negatively to the levels of commuting physical activity (0.73; 0.57-0.94) after adjusting for several background factors. Based on interaction analyses, individuals aged from 44 to 54 years and living in sub-centres, men living in pedestrian zones of sub-centres, and those individuals who are physically inactive during leisure-time were less likely to be physically active while commuting. Good pedestrian

  6. Modern geographical reconnaissance of target populations in malaria elimination zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallely Andrew

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographical Reconnaissance (GR operations using Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs and Global Positioning Systems (GPS have been conducted in the elimination provinces of Temotu, Solomon Islands and Tafea, Republic of Vanuatu. These operations aimed to examine modern approaches to GR to define the spatial distribution of target populations to support contemporary malaria elimination interventions. Methods Three GR surveys were carried out covering the outer islands of Temotu Province (October - November, 2008; Santa Cruz Island, Temotu Province (February 2009 and Tanna Island, Tafea Province (July - September 2009. Integrated PDA/GPS handheld units were used in the field to rapidly map and enumerate households, and collect associated population and household structure data to support priority elimination interventions, including bed net distribution, indoor residual spraying (IRS and malaria case surveillance. Data were uploaded and analysed in customized Geographic Information System (GIS databases to produce household distribution maps and generate relevant summary information pertaining to the GR operations. Following completion of field operations, group discussions were also conducted to review GR approaches and technology implemented. Results 10,459 households were geo-referenced and mapped. A population of 43,497 and 30,663 household structures were recorded during the three GR surveys. The spatial distribution of the population was concentrated in coastal village clusters. Survey operations were completed over a combined total of 77 field days covering a total land mass area of approximately 1103.2 km2. An average of 45 households, 118 structures and a population of 184 people were recorded per handheld device per day. Geo-spatial household distribution maps were also produced immediately following the completion of GR fieldwork. An overall high acceptability of modern GR techniques and technology was observed by both

  7. Modern geographical reconnaissance of target populations in malaria elimination zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gerard C; Hii, Jeffrey; Batarii, William; Donald, Wesley; Hale, Erick; Nausien, Johnny; Pontifex, Scott; Vallely, Andrew; Tanner, Marcel; Clements, Archie

    2010-10-20

    Geographical Reconnaissance (GR) operations using Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) have been conducted in the elimination provinces of Temotu, Solomon Islands and Tafea, Republic of Vanuatu. These operations aimed to examine modern approaches to GR to define the spatial distribution of target populations to support contemporary malaria elimination interventions. Three GR surveys were carried out covering the outer islands of Temotu Province (October - November, 2008); Santa Cruz Island, Temotu Province (February 2009) and Tanna Island, Tafea Province (July - September 2009). Integrated PDA/GPS handheld units were used in the field to rapidly map and enumerate households, and collect associated population and household structure data to support priority elimination interventions, including bed net distribution, indoor residual spraying (IRS) and malaria case surveillance. Data were uploaded and analysed in customized Geographic Information System (GIS) databases to produce household distribution maps and generate relevant summary information pertaining to the GR operations. Following completion of field operations, group discussions were also conducted to review GR approaches and technology implemented. 10,459 households were geo-referenced and mapped. A population of 43,497 and 30,663 household structures were recorded during the three GR surveys. The spatial distribution of the population was concentrated in coastal village clusters. Survey operations were completed over a combined total of 77 field days covering a total land mass area of approximately 1103.2 km2. An average of 45 households, 118 structures and a population of 184 people were recorded per handheld device per day. Geo-spatial household distribution maps were also produced immediately following the completion of GR fieldwork. An overall high acceptability of modern GR techniques and technology was observed by both field operations staff and communities. GR

  8. Characteristics of the socio-geographical factors in the Drina-Velika Morava strategic direction zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Radivoj Inđić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the assessment of the operational – geographic features of the Drina–Velikamorava strategic direction. Due to the scope of the article, a variant of the assessment of the strategic direction is presented through its socio–geographic factors, while the mathematical–geographical and physical–geographic factors, as well as the operating lines of action are not discussed. Within the socio–geographic factors, the characteristics of the population, economy and communication networks are considered. The geographic area of the direction is nationally compact and provides war mobilization of units with no particular strain. The transportation network is not fully developed which makes combat operations difficult to attackers and facilitates them for the deffenders.. There are significant technical and technological potentials in the direction of the zone, but they are not evenly distributed. After the consideration of the complex socio – geographical factors, it is  concluded that the shown strategic direction enables, without any special restrictions, a successful execution of combat operations in the long run.   Introduction The Drina–Velikamorava strategic direction of action consists of two operational lines: Semberija–Šumadija and Glasinac–Zapadnamorava. This paper presents a variant of a complex evaluation of the socio–geographic factors in the area of strategic direction. Within the socio–geographic factors in the strategic direction, the characteristics of the population, economy and communication networks are discussed.   Characteristics of the population and settlements In the geographic strategic direction, there is about 30% of the population of the Republic of Serbia. The highest population density is in major cities (Belgrade, Novi Sad, Šabac, Čačak, etc.. The space is nationally compact, and over 95% of the population are Serbs. In terms of building methods,there are the following types of

  9. A Framework for Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) based on geographic ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, H. Y.; Li, H. T.; Yan, L.; Lu, X. J.

    2015-06-01

    GEOBIA (Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis) is not only a hot topic of current remote sensing and geographical research. It is believed to be a paradigm in remote sensing and GIScience. The lack of a systematic approach designed to conceptualize and formalize the class definitions makes GEOBIA a highly subjective and difficult method to reproduce. This paper aims to put forward a framework for GEOBIA based on geographic ontology theory, which could implement "Geographic entities - Image objects - Geographic objects" true reappearance. It consists of three steps, first, geographical entities are described by geographic ontology, second, semantic network model is built based on OWL(ontology web language), at last, geographical objects are classified with decision rule or other classifiers. A case study of farmland ontology was conducted for describing the framework. The strength of this framework is that it provides interpretation strategies and global framework for GEOBIA with the property of objective, overall, universal, universality, etc., which avoids inconsistencies caused by different experts' experience and provides an objective model for mage analysis.

  10. Geographic variation in the structure of oak hybrid zones provides insights into the dynamics of speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan-Fei; Liao, Wan-Jin; Petit, Rémy J; Zhang, Da-Yong

    2011-12-01

    Studying geographic variation in the rate of hybridization between closely related species could provide a useful window on the evolution of reproductive isolation. Reinforcement theory predicts greater prezygotic isolation in areas of prolonged contact between recently diverged species than in areas of recent contact, which implies that old contact zones would be dominated by parental phenotypes with few hybrids (bimodal hybrid zones), whereas recent contact zones would be characterized by hybrid swarms (unimodal hybrid zones). Here, we investigate how the hybrid zones of two closely related Chinese oaks, Quercus mongolica and Q. liaotungensis, are structured geographically using both nuclear and chloroplast markers. We found that populations of Q. liaotungensis located around the Changbai Mountains in Northeast China, an inferred glacial refugium, were introgressed by genes from Q. mongolica, suggesting historical contact between the two species in this region. However, these introgressed populations form sharp bimodal hybrid zones with Q. mongolica. In contrast, populations of Q. liaotungensis located in North China, which show no sign of ancient introgression with Q. mongolica, form unimodal hybrid zones with Q. mongolica. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that selection against hybrids has had sufficient time to reinforce the reproductive barriers between Q. liaotungensis and Q. mongolica in Northeast China but not in North China.

  11. Ontology for cell-based geographic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Huang, Lina; Lu, Xinhai

    2009-10-01

    Inter-operability is a key notion in geographic information science (GIS) for the sharing of geographic information (GI). That requires a seamless translation among different information sources. Ontology is enrolled in GI discovery to settle the semantic conflicts for its natural language appearance and logical hierarchy structure, which are considered to be able to provide better context for both human understanding and machine cognition in describing the location and relationships in the geographic world. However, for the current, most studies on field ontology are deduced from philosophical theme and not applicable for the raster expression in GIS-which is a kind of field-like phenomenon but does not physically coincide to the general concept of philosophical field (mostly comes from the physics concepts). That's why we specifically discuss the cell-based GI ontology in this paper. The discussion starts at the investigation of the physical characteristics of cell-based raster GI. Then, a unified cell-based GI ontology framework for the recognition of the raster objects is introduced, from which a conceptual interface for the connection of the human epistemology and the computer world so called "endurant-occurrant window" is developed for the better raster GI discovery and sharing.

  12. Research on Geographical Environment Unit Division Based on the Method of Natural Breaks (Jenks)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Yang, S. T.; Li, H. W.; Zhang, B.; Lv, J. R.

    2013-11-01

    Zoning which is to divide the study area into different zones according to their geographical differences at the global, national or regional level, includes natural division, economic division, geographical zoning of departments, comprehensive zoning and so on. Zoning is of important practical significance, for example, knowing regional differences and characteristics, regional research and regional development planning, understanding the favorable and unfavorable conditions of the regional development etc. Geographical environment is arising from the geographical position linkages. Geographical environment unit division is also a type of zoning. The geographical environment indicators are deeply studied and summed up in the article, including the background, the associated and the potential. The background indicators are divided into four categories, such as the socio-economic, the political and military, the strategic resources and the ecological environment, which can be divided into more sub-indexes. While the sub-indexes can be integrated to comprehensive index system by weighted stacking method. The Jenks natural breaks classification method, also called the Jenks optimization method, is a data classification method designed to determine the best arrangement of values into different classes. This is done by seeking to minimize each class's average deviation from the class mean, while maximizing each class's deviation from the means of the other groups. In this paper, the experiment of Chinese surrounding geographical environment unit division has been done based on the natural breaks (jenks) method, the geographical environment index system and the weighted stacking method, taking South Asia as an example. The result indicates that natural breaks (jenks) method is of good adaptability and high accuracy on the geographical environment unit division. The geographical environment research was originated in the geopolitics and flourished in the geo

  13. Application of remote sensing and geographical information system in mapping forest fire risk zone at Bhadra wildlife sanctuary, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, S V; Somashekar, R K

    2010-11-01

    Fire is the most spectacular natural disturbance that affects the forest ecosystem composition and diversity. Fire has a devastating effect on the landscape and its impact is felt at every level of the ecosystem and it is possible to map forest fire risk zone and thereby minimize the frequency of fire. There is a need for supranational approaches that analyze wide scenarios of factors involved and global fire effects. Fires can be monitored and analyzed over large areas in a timely and cost effective manner by using satellite imagery. Also Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used effectively to demarcate the fire risk zone map. Bhadra wildlife Sanctuary located in Kamataka, India was selected for this study. Vegetation, slope, distance from roads, settlements parameters were derived for a study area using topographic maps and field information. The Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS)-based forest fire risk model of the study area appeared to be highly compatible with the actual fire-affected sites. The temporal satellite data from 1989 to2006 have been analyzed to map the burnt areas. These classes were weighted according to their influence on forest fire. Four categories of fire risk regions such as Low, Moderate, High and Very high fire intensity zones were identified. It is predicted that around 10.31% of the area falls undermoderate risk zone.

  14. U.S. Coast Guard Marine Safety Office Zones in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2000) [mso_zones_LOSCO_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset delineating the boundaries of the three U.S. Coast Guard Marine Safety Office (MSO) zones that encompass the state of Louisiana. The MSO...

  15. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Dispersant Preapproval Zone, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_dispersant_preapproval_zone_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains dispersant preapproval zones in coastal Louisiana. Feature-specific contact, type, and source information are stored in relational data tables...

  16. Research on Geographical Environment Unit Division Based on the Method of Natural Breaks (Jenks)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J; S. T. Yang; Li, H. W.; Zhang, B.(Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et de Hautes Energies, IN2P3/CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, Université Denis Diderot-Paris7, F-75252, Paris, France); J. R. Lv

    2013-01-01

    Zoning which is to divide the study area into different zones according to their geographical differences at the global, national or regional level, includes natural division, economic division, geographical zoning of departments, comprehensive zoning and so on. Zoning is of important practical significance, for example, knowing regional differences and characteristics, regional research and regional development planning, understanding the favorable and unfavorable conditions of the ...

  17. A common sense geographic knowledge base for GIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As background knowledge of geographic information retrieval (GIR),the gazetteers have their limitations. In this paper we propose to develop and implement a com-mon sense geographic knowledge base (CSGKB) instead of the gazetteers. We define that CSGKB is concerned with the representation of geographic knowledge in human brain and the simulation of geographic reasoning in daily life. Traditional geographic information system (GIS) is based on the model of map with its data based on geographic coordinates and its computation based on geometry. However,CSGKB,which is made up of geographic features and relationships and is based on qualitative spatio-temporal reasoning,can be viewed as the direct model of geographic world. This paper also discusses the characters of CSGKB and pre-sents its structure which is composed of knowledge base,inference engine,geo-graphic ontology and learner. The applications using CSGKB include geographic information retrieval (GIR),natural language processing (NLP),named entity rec-ognition (NER),Semantic Web,etc. At present,our work focuses on the design of geographic ontology and the implementation of the CSGKB knowledge base. In this paper we describe the CSGKB ontology structure,top ontology,geographic loca-tion ontology,spatial relationship ontology,and domain ontologies. Finally,we in-troduce the current state of implementation of CSGKB and give an outlook on our future researches.

  18. Ontology-Based Geographic Data Set Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitermark, Henricus Theodorus Johannes Antonius

    2001-01-01

    Geographic data set integration is particularly important for update propagation, i.e. the reuse of updates from one data set in another data set. In this thesis geographic data set integration (also known as map integration) between two topographic data sets, GBKN and TOP10vector, is described. GBK

  19. Testing taxon tenacity of tortoises: evidence for a geographical selection gradient at a secondary contact zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Taylor; Berry, Kristin H.; Inman, Richard D.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Jones, Cristina A.; Culver, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    We examined a secondary contact zone between two species of desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizii and G. morafkai. The taxa were isolated from a common ancestor during the formation of the Colorado River (4-8 mya) and are a classic example of allopatric speciation. However, an anomalous population of G. agassizii comes into secondary contact with G. morafkai east of the Colorado River in the Black Mountains of Arizona and provides an opportunity to examine reinforcement of species' boundaries under natural conditions. We sampled 234 tortoises representing G. agassizii in California (n = 103), G. morafkai in Arizona (n = 78), and 53 individuals of undetermined assignment in the contact zone including and surrounding the Black Mountains. We genotyped individuals for 25 STR loci and determined maternal lineage using mtDNA sequence data. We performed multilocus genetic clustering analyses and used multiple statistical methods to detect levels of hybridization. We tested hypotheses about habitat use between G. agassizii and G. morafkai in the region where they co-occur using habitat suitability models. Gopherus agassizii and G. morafkai maintain independent taxonomic identities likely due to ecological niche partitioning, and the maintenance of the hybrid zone is best described by a geographical selection gradient model.

  20. Ontology-Based Geographic Data Set Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitermark, Harry T.; Oosterom, Peter J.M.; Mars, Nicolaas J.I.; Molenaar, Martien

    1999-01-01

    In order to develop a system to propagate updates we investigate the semantic and spatial relationships between independently produced geographic data sets of the same region (data set integration). The goal of this system is to reduce operator intervention in update operations between corresponding

  1. Estimating medically fragile population in storm surge zones: a geographic information system application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James L; Little, Ruth; Novick, Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    To develop a simple, cost-effective method for determining the size and geographic distribution of medically fragile (MF) individuals at risk from tropical storm surges for use by emergency management planners. The study used Geographic Information System (GIS) spatially referenced layers based on secondary data sources from both state and federal levels. The study setting included the eastern North Carolina coastal counties that would be affected by tropical storm surges. The initial MF population was extrapolated from national estimates for five conditions and then applied to US Census block population. These conditions included insulin dependent diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, end stage renal disease, and patients receiving long-term oxygen treatment. The main outcome of this study was a series of local and regional maps that portrayed the geographic distribution and estimated counts of potentially at-risk MF population from a tropical storm surge scenario. Maps depicting the geographic distribution and potential numbers of MF individuals are important information for planning and preparedness in emergency management and potentially engaging the public.

  2. Ontology-based geographic information semantic metadata integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Qin; Li, Deren; Zhang, Xia; Xia, Yu

    2009-10-01

    Metadata is important to facilitate data sharing among Geospatial Information Communities in distributed environment. For unanimous understanding and standard production of metadata annotations, metadata specifications are documented such as Geographic Information Metadata Standard (ISO19115-2003), the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM), and so on. Though these specifications provide frameworks for description of geographic data, there are two problems which embarrass sufficiently data sharing. One problem is that specifications are lack of domainspecific semantics. Another problem is that specifications can not always solve semantic heterogeneities. To solve the former problem, an ontology-based geographic information metadata extension framework is proposed which can incorporate domain-specific semantics. Besides, for solving the later problem, metadata integration mechanism based on the proposed extension is studied. In this paper, integration of metadata is realized through integration of ontologies. So integration of ontologies is also discussed. By ontology-based geographic information semantic metadata integration, sharing of geographic data is realized more efficiently.

  3. Interoperability of Geographic Information: A Communication Process –Based Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Brodeur

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 1990, municipal, state/provincial, and federal governments have developed numerous geographic databases over the years to fulfill organizations' specific needs. As such, same real world topographic phenomena have been abstracted differently, for instance vegetation (surface, trees (surface, wooded area (line, wooded area (point and line, milieu boisé (surface, zone boisée (unknown geometry. Today, information about these geographic phenomena is accessible on the Internet from Web infrastructures specially developed to simplify their access. Early in the nineties, the development of interoperability of geographic information has been undertaken to solve syntactic, structural, and semantic heterogeneities as well as spatial and temporal heterogeneities to facilitate sharing and integration of such data. Recently, we have proposed a new conceptual framework for interoperability of geographic information based on the human communication process, cognitive science, and ontology, and introduced geosemantic proximity, a reasoning methodology to qualify dynamically the semantic similarity between geographic abstractions. This framework could be of interest to other disciplines. This paper presents the details of our framework for interoperability of geographic information as well as a prototype.

  4. Practical applications of the geographic coordinate data base in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickie Warwick; Don C. Bragg

    2005-01-01

    Though not intended for these applications, the General Land Office (GLO) survey notes are a primary source of historical, ecological, and cultural information, making it imperative that their spatial coordinates be as reliable as possible. The Geographic Coordinate Data Base (GCDB) is a statistically-based coordinate fitting program that uses the GLO notes and other...

  5. Impacts of climate warming on hybrid zone movement: Geographically diffuse and biologically porous "species borders"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Mark Scriber

    2011-01-01

    The ecology and evolutionary biology of insect-plant associations has realized extensive attention, especially during the past 60 years. The classifications (categorical designations) of continuous variation in biodiversity, ranging from global patterns (e.g., latitudinal gradients in species richness/diversity and degree of herbivore feeding specialization) to localized insect-plant associations that span the biospectrum from polyphenisms,polymorphisms, biotypes, demes, host races, to cryptic species, remain academically contentious. Semantic and biosystematic (taxonomical) disagreements sometimes detract from more important ecological and evolutionary processes that drive diversification, the dynarnics of gene flow and local extinctions. This review addresses several aspects of insect specialization, host-associated divergence and ecological (including "hybrid") speciation,with special reference to the climate warming impacts on species borders of hybridizing swallowtail butterflies (Papilionidae). Interspecific hybrid introgression may result in collapse of multi-species communities or increase species numbers via homoploid hybrid speeiation. We may see diverging, merging, or emerging genotypes across hybrid zones,all part of the ongoing processes of evolution. Molecular analyses of genetic mosaics and genomic dynamics with "divergence hitchhiking", combined with ecological, ethological and physiological studies of "species porosity", have already begun to unveil some answers for some important ecological/evolutionary questions. (i) How rapidly can host-associated divergence lead to new species (and why doesn't it always do so, e.g., resulting in "incomplete" speciation)? (ii) How might "speeiation genes" function, and how/where would we find them? (iii) Can oscillations from specialists to generalists and back to specialists help explain global diversity in herbivorous insects? (iv) How could recombinant interspecific hybridization lead to divergence and

  6. Knowledge-based flow field zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Alison E.

    1988-01-01

    Automation flow field zoning in two dimensions is an important step towards easing the three-dimensional grid generation bottleneck in computational fluid dynamics. A knowledge based approach works well, but certain aspects of flow field zoning make the use of such an approach challenging. A knowledge based flow field zoner, called EZGrid, was implemented and tested on representative two-dimensional aerodynamic configurations. Results are shown which illustrate the way in which EZGrid incorporates the effects of physics, shape description, position, and user bias in a flow field zoning.

  7. The Geographic Information Grid System Based on Mobile Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the deficiencies of current application systems, and discuss the key requirements of distributed Geographic Information service (GIS). We construct the distributed GIS on grid platform. Considering the flexibility and efficiency, we integrate the mobile agent technology into the system. We propose a new prototype system, the Geographic Information Grid System (GIGS) based on mobile agent. This system has flexible services and high performance, and improves the sharing of distributed resources. The service strategy of the system and the examples are also presented.

  8. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis: Towards a new paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaschke, T.; Hay, G.J.; Kelly, M.; Lang, S.; Hofmann, P.; Addink, E.A.; Queiroz Feitosa, R.; van der Meer, F.D.; van der Werff, H.M.A.; van Coillie, F.; Tiede, A.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of scientific literature on (Geographic) Object-based Image Analysis – GEOBIA has been and still is sharply increasing. These approaches to analysing imagery have antecedents in earlier research on image segmentation and use GIS-like spatial analysis within classification and feature extr

  9. An Intelligent Agent Based on Virtual Geographic Environment System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Dayong; LIN Hui; GONG Jianhua; ZHAO Yibin; FANG Zhaobao; GUO Zhongyang

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of previous work, this paper designs an intelligent agent based on virtual geographic environment (VGE) system that is characterized by huge data, rapid computation, multi-user, multi-thread and intelligence and issues challenges to traditional GIS models and algorithms. The new advances in software and hardware technology lay a reliable basis for system design, development and application.

  10. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF THE IMMUNE STATUS IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS IN RELATION TO THE CLIMATIC, GEOGRAPHICAL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ZONES OF UZBEKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. S. Akhmedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The feature of rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the predominant clinical picture of chronic synovial joint inflammation accompanied by progressive cartilage and bone destruction, the pathogenesis of which is greatly due to autoimmune mechanisms. Some investigations demonstrate that a set of poor climatic and geographical factors may influence the development of immune disorders that are a trigger in the development of RA.Objective: to comparative analyze immunological parameters in RA in dwellers from different regions of Uzbekistan.Subjects and methods. The study enrolled RA patients from three Uzbekistan zones: 1 Tashkent (n = 25, 2 Xorazm Region (n = 25; 3 Namangan Region (n = 28.Results and discussion. Comparative analysis of the immune status indicated that the patients living in Zone 2 exhibited a significantly reduced T cell immune response (p < 0.05, a considerably higher count of B lymphocytes (p < 0.001, and significantly lower levels of CD11b+, CD18+, CD25+, and CD95+ cells (p < 0.05 than did those from the two other zones. Examination of the frequency of the monomorphic determinant of histocompatibility Class I (HLA-I antigens revealed its significant decrease in the patients residing in Zones 1 and 3 (p < 0.05 whereas the RA patients from Zone 2 had a significantly higher frequency of HLA-DR (p < 0.05.Conclusion. The comparative analysis shows that the immunological parameters differ in the patients from the three zones of Uzbekistan, which may suggest that the climatic and geographical factors of the environment may influence the course of the disease.

  11. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts, Polygon boundaries representing the geographic extent of Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) revitalization and incentive zones as set forth by SB206 BRAC Communty Enhancement Act. Focus growth in areas already designated for growth., Published in 2010, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Business and Economic Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of...

  12. Russia’s Coastal Zone as a Social and Geographic Phenomenon: Conceptualisation and Delimitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin Aleksandr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article defines coastal zones as a priority subject of studies in social geography and interprets coastalisation of population and economy as a key indicator of the development of a coastal zone. The author stresses the inverted coastalisation in Russia at the macro- and meso-levels and identifies its causes. The article defines the coastal zone as a full-scale, continuum-discrete phenomenon with clear crossborder characteristics and increased potential for cluster formation in the economy. Marine cross-border clusters are identified as independent typological units. Characteristics and conditions for their formation and development are described in view of contemporary geoeconomic trends. The author examines the conditions and prospects for the formation of marine cross-border clusters in the key segments of Russia’s coastal zone.

  13. An Ontology-Based Framework for Geographic Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Vânia M. P.; Sacramento, Eveline R.; de Macêdo, José Antonio Fernandes; Casanova, Marco Antonio

    Ontologies have been extensively used to model domain-specific knowledge. Recent research has applied ontologies to enhance the discovery and retrieval of geographic data in Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs). However, in those approaches it is assumed that all the data required for answering a query can be obtained from a single data source. In this work, we propose an ontology-based framework for the integration of geographic data. In our approach, a query posed on a domain ontology is rewritten into sub-queries submitted over multiples data sources, and the query result is obtained by the proper combination of data resulting from these sub-queries. We illustrate how our framework allows the combination of data from different sources, thus overcoming some limitations of other ontology-based approaches. Our approach is illustrated by an example from the domain of aeronautical flights.

  14. Fresnel zones for ground-based antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. Bach

    1964-01-01

    The ordinary Fresnel zone concept is modified to include the influence of finite ground conductivity. This is important for ground-based antennas because the influence on the radiation pattern of irregularities near the antenna is determined by the amplitude and phase of the groundwave. A new...

  15. 中国中温带东部生态地理区划的土壤指标%Soil indicators for eco-geographic regionalization:A case study in mid-temperate zone of eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晔; 吴绍洪; 郑度; 戴尔阜

    2009-01-01

    Eco-geographic regional system is formed by division or combination of natural features based on geographic relativity and comparison of major ecosystem factors (including biological and non-biological) and geographic zonality. In previous studies, soil types were often taken as a basis for soil regionalization. However, the quantitative characteristics of soil indicators are fitter than the qualitative ones of soil types for modern regionalization re-searches. Based on the second China's national soil survey data and the provincial soil re-source information, by principal analysis and discriminant analysis, this paper discusses the appropriate soil indicators as the complement of eco-geographic region indicator systems and the relationships between these soil indicators and soil types in regionalization. The results show that five indicators are used in eco-geographic zonality in mid-temperate zone of east-ern China which are organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, pH, clay content and bulk density in topsoils. With a regression-kriging approach, the maps of soil indicators in mid-temperate zone of eastern China are compiled with a resolution of 1 km in every grid and the indicative meanings of these soil indicators are discussed. By cluster analysis it is proved that these soil indicators are better than the soil types and soil regionalization in delineating eco-geographic regions.

  16. Geographical classification of apple based on hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiming; Huang, Wenqian; Chen, Liping; Zhao, Chunjiang; Peng, Yankun

    2013-05-01

    Attribute of apple according to geographical origin is often recognized and appreciated by the consumers. It is usually an important factor to determine the price of a commercial product. Hyperspectral imaging technology and supervised pattern recognition was attempted to discriminate apple according to geographical origins in this work. Hyperspectral images of 207 Fuji apple samples were collected by hyperspectral camera (400-1000nm). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on hyperspectral imaging data to determine main efficient wavelength images, and then characteristic variables were extracted by texture analysis based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) from dominant waveband image. All characteristic variables were obtained by fusing the data of images in efficient spectra. Support vector machine (SVM) was used to construct the classification model, and showed excellent performance in classification results. The total classification rate had the high classify accuracy of 92.75% in the training set and 89.86% in the prediction sets, respectively. The overall results demonstrated that the hyperspectral imaging technique coupled with SVM classifier can be efficiently utilized to discriminate Fuji apple according to geographical origins.

  17. GSM Base Stations Location Monitoring using Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuboye B. M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM is a digital system developed to meet the desires of the entire public. As the population of a particular area, city or country increases, the number of mobile subscribers increases too. GSM network operators have to reduce congestion on their networks in order to satisfy their subscribers, therefore, a means of monitoring the base stations' locations and the geographical area of where they are located are important factor to achieve this purpose. This work provides a simple step-by-step approach on how to monitor the location of the base stations. A review of GSM and Global Positioning System (GPS technology and their applications to the Geographic Information System (GIS are presented. The means of taken the coordinates of base stations using a GPS device is also presented. ESRI's ArcView application software was used to design the map that shows the location of the base station and thereafter was integrated into the web. It concluded with the recommendation to GSM operators in Nigeria. If the recommendations are given necessary attention, the planning and optimization of cell sites will be enhanced and thereby reduce congestion on network. As a result, the performance of Network will improve, and it will give rise to subscribers' satisfaction and increasing profit returns to the operators.

  18. Species Diversity Distribution Patterns of Chinese Endemic Seed Plants Based on Geographical Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Ma, Keping; Huang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Based on a great number of literatures, we established the database about the Chinese endemic seed plants and analyzed the compositions, growth form, distribution and angiosperm original families of them within three big natural areas and seven natural regions. The results indicate that the above characters of Chinese endemic plants take on relative rule at the different geographical scales. Among the three big natural areas, Eastern Monsoon area has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas Northwest Dryness area is the lowest. For life forms, herbs dominate. In contrast, the proportion of herbs of Eastern Monsoon area is remarkable under other two areas. Correspondingly the proportions of trees and shrubs are substantially higher than other two. For angiosperm original families, the number is the highest in Eastern Monsoon area, and lowest in Northwest Dryness area. On the other hand, among the seven natural regions, the humid and subtropical zone in Central and Southern China has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas the humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China has the lowest. For life forms, the proportion of herbs tends to decrease from humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China to humid and tropical zone in Southern China. Comparably, trees, shrubs and vines or lianas increase with the same directions. This fully represents these characters of Chinese endemic plants vary with latitudinal gradients. Furthermore, as to the number of endemic plants belonging to angiosperm original families, the number is the most in humid and subtropical zone in Center and Southern China, and tropical zone in Southern China in the next place. In contrast, the endemic plant of these two regions relatively is richer than that of The Qinghai-Tibet alpine and cold region. All above results sufficiently reflect that the Chinese endemic plants mainly distribute in Eastern Monsoon area, especially humid and subtropical zone in Center

  19. Species Diversity Distribution Patterns of Chinese Endemic Seed Plants Based on Geographical Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Ma, Keping; Huang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Based on a great number of literatures, we established the database about the Chinese endemic seed plants and analyzed the compositions, growth form, distribution and angiosperm original families of them within three big natural areas and seven natural regions. The results indicate that the above characters of Chinese endemic plants take on relative rule at the different geographical scales. Among the three big natural areas, Eastern Monsoon area has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas Northwest Dryness area is the lowest. For life forms, herbs dominate. In contrast, the proportion of herbs of Eastern Monsoon area is remarkable under other two areas. Correspondingly the proportions of trees and shrubs are substantially higher than other two. For angiosperm original families, the number is the highest in Eastern Monsoon area, and lowest in Northwest Dryness area. On the other hand, among the seven natural regions, the humid and subtropical zone in Central and Southern China has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas the humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China has the lowest. For life forms, the proportion of herbs tends to decrease from humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China to humid and tropical zone in Southern China. Comparably, trees, shrubs and vines or lianas increase with the same directions. This fully represents these characters of Chinese endemic plants vary with latitudinal gradients. Furthermore, as to the number of endemic plants belonging to angiosperm original families, the number is the most in humid and subtropical zone in Center and Southern China, and tropical zone in Southern China in the next place. In contrast, the endemic plant of these two regions relatively is richer than that of The Qinghai-Tibet alpine and cold region. All above results sufficiently reflect that the Chinese endemic plants mainly distribute in Eastern Monsoon area, especially humid and subtropical zone in Center

  20. GIDEON: a comprehensive Web-based resource for geographic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Stephen A

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract GIDEON (Global Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Network is a web-based computer program designed for decision support and informatics in the field of Geographic Medicine. The first of four interactive modules generates a ranked differential diagnosis based on patient signs, symptoms, exposure history and country of disease acquisition. Additional options include syndromic disease surveillance capability and simulation of bioterrorism scenarios. The second module accesses detailed and current information regarding the status of 338 individual diseases in each of 220 countries. Over 50,000 disease images, maps and user-designed graphs may be downloaded for use in teaching and preparation of written materials. The third module is a comprehensive source on the use of 328 anti-infective drugs and vaccines, including a listing of over 9,500 international trade names. The fourth module can be used to characterize or identify any bacterium or yeast, based on laboratory phenotype. GIDEON is an up-to-date and comprehensive resource for Geographic Medicine.

  1. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis - Towards a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Thomas; Hay, Geoffrey J; Kelly, Maggi; Lang, Stefan; Hofmann, Peter; Addink, Elisabeth; Queiroz Feitosa, Raul; van der Meer, Freek; van der Werff, Harald; van Coillie, Frieke; Tiede, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The amount of scientific literature on (Geographic) Object-based Image Analysis - GEOBIA has been and still is sharply increasing. These approaches to analysing imagery have antecedents in earlier research on image segmentation and use GIS-like spatial analysis within classification and feature extraction approaches. This article investigates these development and its implications and asks whether or not this is a new paradigm in remote sensing and Geographic Information Science (GIScience). We first discuss several limitations of prevailing per-pixel methods when applied to high resolution images. Then we explore the paradigm concept developed by Kuhn (1962) and discuss whether GEOBIA can be regarded as a paradigm according to this definition. We crystallize core concepts of GEOBIA, including the role of objects, of ontologies and the multiplicity of scales and we discuss how these conceptual developments support important methods in remote sensing such as change detection and accuracy assessment. The ramifications of the different theoretical foundations between the 'per-pixel paradigm' and GEOBIA are analysed, as are some of the challenges along this path from pixels, to objects, to geo-intelligence. Based on several paradigm indications as defined by Kuhn and based on an analysis of peer-reviewed scientific literature we conclude that GEOBIA is a new and evolving paradigm.

  2. COMPARATIVE INDICATORS OF THE PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF BOYS IN REPUBLIC OF DAGESTAN IN THE VARIOUS ECO-GEOGRAPHICAL ZONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Kamalov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Purpose. The examination of the comparative aspect of the physical parameters of the boys in the pre - and puberty in different ecological zones (EZ of the Republic of Dagestan (RD: mountain, foothills and plains of the taxiway.Materials and Methods. The study in 3 eco-geographic zones of the Republic of Dagestan in 2641 a boy aged 11 to 17 years. Inclusion criteria were: age of onset of puberty and the completion of 11-17 years, male gender and residence in the territory (extragenital diseases. We compared the following anthropometric indicators: height, weight, body mass index.Results and conclusions. The analysing of the physical parameters of development in different areas of extragenital diseases RD identifies the following pattern: the lowest height and weight were boys living in the foothills of the taxiway. Their peers living in highland and lowland extragenital diseases taxiway growth were similar and statistically significant differences were found statistically significant differences are particularly evident with 13-14 years in boys from foothills of RD, especially when compared with their peers plain COPIES. Thus, the overall physical development of boys RD closes to those boys Russia, although the tendency to reduce them was determined. Comparative physical development of boys in various extragenital diseases RD, the worst performance demonstrated teenagers from foothill extragenital diseases.

  3. A GIS-based zoning of illegal dumping potential for efficient surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Tomohiro; Kawahata, Takatsune; Osako, Masahiro; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Takagishi, Susumu; Morita, Akihiro; Akishima, Shigeki

    2007-01-01

    To assist in the efficient surveillance against illegal dumping, this study examined and evaluated two methods to illustrate the illegal dumping potential of sites using GIS (Geographic Information System) data. One approach focused on the occurrence of illegal dumping sites; the other on the size of the illegal dumping. Both approaches to zoning were implemented for the Kanto region of Japan, utilizing seven or eight major geographical attributes most closely related to illegal dumping. The zoning results revealed the areas requiring patrols against illegal dumping. Evaluation of the zoning results using the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve showed the number of illegal dumping sites detectable under certain surveillance conditions and that the size-based zoning was superior, but this superiority was insignificant for revealing sites with higher potential for large illegal dumping, for which it would be sufficient to use the occurrence-based zoning. The evaluation also showed the contribution of each geographical attribute. Finally, application of the ROC curve to the surveillance planning process was examined, which enables the total social cost of pollution by illegal dumping, rehabilitation of dumping sites, and illegal dumping surveillance to be minimized.

  4. Frequency of damage by external hazards based on geographical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G. [RISA Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Camarinopoulos, A.; Karali, T. [ERRA, Athens (Greece); Camarinopoulos, L. [Piraeus Univ. (Greece); Schubert, B. [VENE, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    External explosions can significantly contribute to risk of damage for industrial plants. External explosions may origin from other plants in the neighborhood, which store and operate with explosive substances, or from transport of such substances on road, rail, or water. In all cases, some accident is a necessary condition for a hazard. Another probabilistic element is the probability of ignition. If transport causes the explosion, the location of the accident will influence the consequences. If deflagration is involved, ignition will not necessarily occur at the place of the accident, but a cloud of a combustible gas-air mixture may develop, which will ignite at some distance depending on wind velocity. In order to avoid unnecessarily pessimistic approaches, geographical information can be used in addition to local weather statistics. Geographical information systems provide map material for sites, roads, rail and rivers on a computer. This information can be used to find frequencies of damage based on numerical integration or on Monte Carlo simulation. A probabilistic model has been developed. It is based on: - A joint probability density function for wind direction and wind speed, which has been estimated from local weather statistics, - Frequency of hazards for neighboring plants and various types of traffic, - Statistics on the amounts and types of explosive materials, - The model has been implemented using one numerical integrations method and two variants of Monte Carlo method. Data has been collected and applied for a nuclear power plant in Northern Germany as an example. The method, however, can be used for any type of plant subject to external explosion hazards. In its present form, it makes use of design criteria specific for nuclear power plants, but these could be replaced by different criteria. (orig.)

  5. Mapping of groundwater prospective zones integrating remote sensing, geographic information systems and geophysical techniques in El-Qaà Plain area, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzied, Sara M.; Alrefaee, Hamed A.

    2017-05-01

    The geospatial mapping of groundwater prospective zones is essential to support the needs of local inhabitants and agricultural activities in arid regions such as El-Qaà area, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The study aims to locate new wells that can serve to cope with water scarcity. The integration of remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS) and geophysical techniques is a breakthrough for groundwater prospecting. Based on these techniques, several factors contributing to groundwater potential in El-Qaà Plain were determined. Geophysical data were supported by information derived from a digital elevation model, and from geologic, geomorphologic and hydrologic data, to reveal the promising sites. All the spatial data that represent the contributing factors were integrated and analyzed in a GIS framework to develop a groundwater prospective model. An appropriate weightage was specified to each factor based on its relative contribution towards groundwater potential, and the resulting map delineates the study area into five classes, from very poor to very good potential. The very good potential zones are located in the Quaternary deposits, with flat to gentle topography, dense lineaments and structurally controlled drainage channels. The groundwater potential map was tested against the distribution of groundwater wells and cultivated land. The integrated methodology provides a powerful tool to design a suitable groundwater management plan in arid regions.

  6. Investigation on the geographical distribution and life form of plant species in sub alpine zone Karsanak region, Shahrekord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanbakhsh Pairanj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in rangelands of Karsanak, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, which is regarded as one of the rich rangelands. Phytogeographically, this region is located in Irano-Turanian (zone of sub alpine. Endemic and rare plants were identified and geographical distribution and life form of identified plant species were investigated as well. Overall, 100 species from 17 families were identified from which 20 percent of identified species was endemic element of Irano-Turanian region. Results indicated that 75.7 percent of identified plants belonged to the Irano-Turanian and only 3 and 2 percent belonged to Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean regions respectively. The reason of high percentage of Irano-Turanian elements is probably the long distance of this region from other regions. Similarities of Irano-Turanian and Mediterranean were included 6.1 percent of identified plants and Irano-Turanian and Euro-Siberian included 2 percent. Results of life forms showed hemichryptophytes including 60 percent of life forms which indicate the cold and mountainous weather.

  7. Automated geographic registration and radiometric correction for UAV-based mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasson, J. Alex; Shi, Yeyin; Sima, Chao; Yang, Chenghai; Cope, Dale A.

    2017-05-01

    Texas A and M University has been operating a large-scale, UAV-based, agricultural remote-sensing research project since 2015. To use UAV-based images in agricultural production, many high-resolution images must be mosaicked together to create an image of an agricultural field. Two key difficulties to science-based utilization of such mosaics are geographic registration and radiometric calibration. In our current research project, image files are taken to the computer laboratory after the flight, and semi-manual pre-processing is implemented on the raw image data, including ortho-mosaicking and radiometric calibration. Ground control points (GCPs) are critical for high-quality geographic registration of images during mosaicking. Applications requiring accurate reflectance data also require radiometric-calibration references so that reflectance values of image objects can be calculated. We have developed a method for automated geographic registration and radiometric correction with targets that are installed semi-permanently at distributed locations around fields. The targets are a combination of black (≍5% reflectance), dark gray (≍20% reflectance), and light gray (≍40% reflectance) sections that provide for a transformation of pixel-value to reflectance in the dynamic range of crop fields. The exact spectral reflectance of each target is known, having been measured with a spectrophotometer. At the time of installation, each target is measured for position with a real-time kinematic GPS receiver to give its precise latitude and longitude. Automated location of the reference targets in the images is required for precise, automated, geographic registration; and automated calculation of the digital-number to reflectance transformation is required for automated radiometric calibration. To validate the system for radiometric calibration, a calibrated UAV-based image mosaic of a field was compared to a calibrated single image from a manned aircraft. Reflectance

  8. SCHOOL LINGUISTIC CREATIVITY BASED ON SCIENTIFIC GEOGRAPHICAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA BLÎNDĂ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and observation of the natural environment and of the social and economic one, observing phenomena, objects, beings, and geographical events are at the basis of producing geographical scientific texts. The symbols of iconotexts and cartotexts are another source of inspiration for linguistic interpretation. The linguistic creations that we selected for our study are the scientific analysis, the commentary, the characterization, the parallel, the synthesis, epitomizing and abstracting, the scientific communication, the essay, and the scientific description. The representations on maps, photos, graphics and profiles are translated into verbal or written expression in order to render geographical scientific information from diagrams and images through diverse discursive procedures. Through school linguistic creations, teachers develop their students’ observation spirit, in a written and oral form, their geographical thinking through metaphors, they develop and stimulate their students’ imagination and fantasy, their cognitive, reflexive and affective sensitivity, their abilities to express themselves, to present and argument in a scientific way according to different criteria (sufficiency, demonstrative reasoning, lineal reasoning, pros and cons, giving examples, inferential deduction through using truth tables, etc.. Trough description, students give names and define geographical objects and beings (plants, animals, and people according to their form and aspect, they explain toponyms and appellatives, they classify and make hierarchies, they define their identity through processes of differentiation, emblematizing, personification, location in time and space.

  9. The Use of Web-Based Video for Instruction of GIS and Other Digital Geographic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudow, Joshua; Sounny-Slitine, M. Anwar

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case study that highlights the benefits and limitations of Web-based video in lab sections of The Geographer's Craft, an upper-level undergraduate course in which students apply digital geographic methods. Over three years (2010-2013), the authors experimented with different teaching strategies utilizing Web-based video for…

  10. Object-based landslide detection in different geographic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Barbara; Hölbling, Daniel; Eisank, Clemens; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    , SPOT-5 images are combined with digital elevation models (DEM) for developing a consistent semi-automated landslide detection approach using eCognition (Trimble) software. Suitable image objects are generated by means of multiresolution segmentation. Expert knowledge, i.e. reported facts on features (e.g. mean object slope, mean NDVI) and thresholds that are commonly chosen by professionals for digital landslide mapping, is considered during classification. The applicability of a range of features is tested and the most promising parameters, i.e. features that produce appropriate results for both regions, are selected for landslide detection. However, minor adaptations of particular thresholds are necessary due to the distinct environmental conditions of the test sites. In order to reduce the number of required adjustments to a minimum, relational features and spectral indices are primarily used for classification. The obtained results are finally compared to manually digitized reference polygons and existing landslide inventories in order to quantify the applicability of the developed object-based landslide detection approach in different geographic regions.

  11. Tsunami potential assessment based on rupture zones, focal mechanisms and repeat times of strong earthquakes in the major Atlantic-Mediterranean seismic fracture zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agalos, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Kijko, Andrzej; Papageorgiou, Antonia; Smit, Ansie; Triantafyllou, Ioanna

    2016-04-01

    In the major Atlantic-Mediterranean seismic fracture zone, extended from Azores islands in the west to the easternmost Mediterranean Sea in the east, including the Marmara and Black Seas, a number of 22 tsunamigenic zones have been determined from historical and instrumental tsunami documentation. Although some tsunamis were produced by volcanic activity or landslides, the majority of them was generated by strong earthquakes. Since the generation of seismic tsunamis depends on several factors, like the earthquake size, focal depth and focal mechanism, the study of such parameters is of particular importance for the assessment of the potential for the generation of future tsunamis. However, one may not rule out the possibility for tsunami generation in areas outside of the 22 zones determined so far. For the Atlantic-Mediterranean seismic fracture zone we have compiled a catalogue of strong, potentially tsunamigenic (focal depth less than 100 km) historical earthquakes from various data bases and other sources. The lateral areas of rupture zones of these earthquakes were determined. Rupture zone is the area where the strain after the earthquake has dropped substantially with respect the strain before the earthquake. Aftershock areas were assumed to determine areas of rupture zones for instrumental earthquakes. For historical earthquakes macroseismic criteria were used such as spots of higher-degree seismic intensity and of important ground failures. For the period of instrumental seismicity, focal mechanism solutions from CMT, EMMA and other data bases were selected for strong earthquakes. From the geographical distribution of seismic rupture zones and the corresponding focal mechanisms in the entire Atlantic-Mediterranean seismic fracture zone we determined potentially tsunamigenic zones regardless they are known to have produced seismic tsunamis in the past or not. An attempt has been made to calculate in each one of such zones the repeat times of strong

  12. A Map-Based Service Supporting Different Types of Geographic Knowledge for the Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mengjie; Wang, Rui; Tian, Jing; Ye, Ning; Mai, Shumin

    2016-01-01

    The internet enables the rapid and easy creation, storage, and transfer of knowledge; however, services that transfer geographic knowledge and facilitate the public understanding of geographic knowledge are still underdeveloped to date. Existing online maps (or atlases) can support limited types of geographic knowledge. In this study, we propose a framework for map-based services to represent and transfer different types of geographic knowledge to the public. A map-based service provides tools to ensure the effective transfer of geographic knowledge. We discuss the types of geographic knowledge that should be represented and transferred to the public, and we propose guidelines and a method to represent various types of knowledge through a map-based service. To facilitate the effective transfer of geographic knowledge, tools such as auxiliary background knowledge and auxiliary map-reading tools are provided through interactions with maps. An experiment conducted to illustrate our idea and to evaluate the usefulness of the map-based service is described; the results demonstrate that the map-based service is useful for transferring different types of geographic knowledge.

  13. Risk-based zoning for urbanizing floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porse, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Urban floodplain development brings economic benefits and enhanced flood risks. Rapidly growing cities must often balance the economic benefits and increased risks of floodplain settlement. Planning can provide multiple flood mitigation and environmental benefits by combining traditional structural measures such as levees, increasingly popular landscape and design features (green infrastructure), and non-structural measures such as zoning. Flexibility in both structural and non-structural options, including zoning procedures, can reduce flood risks. This paper presents a linear programming formulation to assess cost-effective urban floodplain development decisions that consider benefits and costs of development along with expected flood damages. It uses a probabilistic approach to identify combinations of land-use allocations (residential and commercial development, flood channels, distributed runoff management) and zoning regulations (development zones in channel) to maximize benefits. The model is applied to a floodplain planning analysis for an urbanizing region in the Baja Sur peninsula of Mexico. The analysis demonstrates how (1) economic benefits drive floodplain development, (2) flexible zoning can improve economic returns, and (3) cities can use landscapes, enhanced by technology and design, to manage floods. The framework can incorporate additional green infrastructure benefits, and bridges typical disciplinary gaps for planning and engineering.

  14. A geographic information system-based method for estimating cancer rates in non-census defined geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Vincent L; Boylan, Emma E; Pugach, Oksana; Mclafferty, Sara L; Tossas-Milligan, Katherine Y; Watson, Karriem S; Winn, Robert A

    2017-08-20

    To address locally relevant cancer-related health issues, health departments frequently need data beyond that contained in standard census area-based statistics. We describe a geographic information system-based method for calculating age-standardized cancer incidence rates in non-census defined geographical areas using publically available data. Aggregated records of cancer cases diagnosed from 2009 through 2013 in each of Chicago's 77 census-defined community areas were obtained from the Illinois State Cancer Registry. Areal interpolation through dasymetric mapping of census blocks was used to redistribute populations and case counts from community areas to Chicago's 50 politically defined aldermanic wards, and ward-level age-standardized 5-year cumulative incidence rates were calculated. Potential errors in redistributing populations between geographies were limited to r = 0.99, mean difference = -4 persons). A map overlay of safety-net primary care clinic locations and ward-level incidence rates for advanced-staged cancers revealed potential pathways for prevention. Areal interpolation through dasymetric mapping can estimate cancer rates in non-census defined geographies. This can address gaps in local cancer-related health data, inform health resource advocacy, and guide community-centered cancer prevention and control.

  15. E-Government and Geographical Information Based Collaboration Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Lise; Hvingel, Line Træholt; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2010-01-01

    in regard of e-Government readiness. In Denmark the development of e-Government is characterised by a very informal, bottom-up approach, with a focus on standardisation, the use of geographic information systems (GIS) and IT-architecture. The organisational aspects have not been an issue of much attention....... A national survey conducted by the University of Aalborg and Geoforum Denmark shows that the way the different players actually collaborate is a determining factor for a successful development in the field of e-Government....

  16. Linear optical pulse compression based on temporal zone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Li, Ming; Lou, Shuqin; Azaña, José

    2013-07-15

    We propose and demonstrate time-domain equivalents of spatial zone plates, namely temporal zone plates, as alternatives to conventional time lenses. Both temporal intensity zone plates, based on intensity-only temporal modulation, and temporal phase zone plates, based on phase-only temporal modulation, are introduced and studied. Temporal zone plates do not exhibit the limiting tradeoff between temporal aperture and frequency bandwidth (temporal resolution) of conventional linear time lenses. As a result, these zone plates can be ideally designed to offer a time-bandwidth product (TBP) as large as desired, practically limited by the achievable temporal modulation bandwidth (limiting the temporal resolution) and the amount of dispersion needed in the target processing systems (limiting the temporal aperture). We numerically and experimentally demonstrate linear optical pulse compression by using temporal zone plates based on linear electro-optic temporal modulation followed by fiber-optics dispersion. In the pulse-compression experiment based on temporal phase zone plates, we achieve a resolution of ~25.5 ps over a temporal aperture of ~5.77 ns, representing an experimental TBP larger than 226 using a phase-modulation amplitude of only ~0.8π rad. We also numerically study the potential of these devices to achieve temporal imaging of optical waveforms and present a comparative analysis on the performance of different temporal intensity and phase zone plates.

  17. iZone: A Location-Based Mobile Social Networking System

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Rui; Xia, Feng

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of wireless technology, the extensive use of mobile phones and the availability of location information are facilitating personalized location-based applications. Easy to carry, easy to use and easy to buy, smart phones with certain software are of great advantage. Consequently, mobile social networking (MSN) systems have emerged rapidly, being a revolution for our everyday life. Based on the analysis of general requirements of MSN and location-based services (LBS), this paper presents the design of iZone, a mobile social networking system, as well as a prototype implementation. This platform exploits mobile GIS (Geographic Information Systems), LBS and J2ME technologies, combining geographical data to display map on mobile phones. It can provide a number of social networking services via smartphones.

  18. GIS-based Risk Zone of Flood Hazard in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the flood disaster risks in Anhui Province based on GIS. [Method] Taking country as basic unit, the 1∶ 250 000 basic geographic data in Anhui Province as basis, from the angle of flood disaster hazard and economic vulnerability, and by dint of the calculation of the weight of each impact factor with entropy-based fuzzy AHP method, flood risk assessment model was established to study the flood disaster risks zoning in Anhui Province. Using nearly 10 years of disaster informat...

  19. A GIS-based modeling system for petroleum waste management. Geographical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Huang, G H; Li, J B

    2003-01-01

    With an urgent need for effective management of petroleum-contaminated sites, a GIS-aided simulation (GISSIM) system is presented in this study. The GISSIM contains two components: an advanced 3D numerical model and a geographical information system (GIS), which are integrated within a general framework. The modeling component undertakes simulation for the fate of contaminants in subsurface unsaturated and saturated zones. The GIS component is used in three areas throughout the system development and implementation process: (i) managing spatial and non-spatial databases; (ii) linking inputs, model, and outputs; and (iii) providing an interface between the GISSIM and its users. The developed system is applied to a North American case study. Concentrations of benzene, toluene, and xylenes in groundwater under a petroleum-contaminated site are dynamically simulated. Reasonable outputs have been obtained and presented graphically. They provide quantitative and scientific bases for further assessment of site-contamination impacts and risks, as well as decisions on practical remediation actions.

  20. Fractal zone plate beam based optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shubo; Zhang, Xinyu; Ma, Wenzhuo; Tao, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate optical manipulation with an optical beam generated by a fractral zone plate (FZP). The experimental results show that the FZP beam can simultaneously trap multiple particles positioned in different focal planes of the FZP beam, owing to the multiple foci and self-reconstruction property of the FZP beam. The FZP beam can also be used to construct three-dimensional optical tweezers for potential applications. PMID:27678305

  1. Physiographic Zones of the Sea Floor for Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts (polygon shapefile, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geologic, sediment texture, and physiographic zone maps characterize the sea floor of Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts. These maps were derived...

  2. Physiographic Zones of the Sea Floor for Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts (polygon shapefile, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geologic, sediment texture, and physiographic zone maps characterize the sea floor of Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts. These maps were derived...

  3. Nahant_NH_Pzones: Physiographic Zones of the Sea Floor from Nahant to Salisbury, Massachusetts (polygon shapefile, Geographic WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are qualitatively derived interpretive polygon shapefiles defining sediment type and distribution, and physiographic zones of the sea floor from Nahant to...

  4. General physiographic zones of the inner continental shelf between Cape Ann and Salisbury Beach Massachusetts (PHYSIOGRAPHICZONES, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and...

  5. General physiographic zones of the inner continental shelf between Cape Ann and Salisbury Beach Massachusetts (PHYSIOGRAPHICZONES, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and...

  6. A population-based Habitable Zone perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Zsom, Andras

    2015-01-01

    What can we tell about exoplanet habitability if currently only the stellar properties, planet radius, and the incoming stellar flux are known? A planet is in the Habitable Zone (HZ) if it harbors liquid water on its surface. The HZ is traditionally conceived as a sharp region around stars because it is calculated for one planet with specific properties. Such an approach is limiting because the planets' atmospheric and geophysical properties, which influence the presence of liquid water on the surface, are currently unknown but expected to be diverse. A statistical HZ description is outlined which does not favor one planet type. Instead the stellar and planet properties are treated as random variables and a continuous range of planet scenarios are considered. Various probability density functions are assigned to each random variable, and a combination of Monte Carlo sampling and climate modeling is used to generate synthetic exoplanet populations with known surface climates. Then, the properties of the liquid...

  7. Web-Based Geographic Information Systems: Experience and Perspectives of Planners and the Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçmen, Z. Asligül

    2016-01-01

    Web-based geographic information system (GIS) technology, or web-based GIS, offers many opportunities for public planners and Extension educators who have limited GIS backgrounds or resources. However, investigation of its use in planning has been limited. The study described here examined the use of web-based GIS by public planning agencies. A…

  8. Renewal of the base model for geographic information of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, C.W.; Janssen, P.; Reuvers, M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005 a base model for geographic information in the Netherlands was published named NEN 3610. The model consist of a modeling framework (based on the ISO19100 series) and a collection of extensible base classes. In the following years many organizations have built their models in conformance to t

  9. Web-Based Geographic Information Systems: Experience and Perspectives of Planners and the Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçmen, Z. Asligül

    2016-01-01

    Web-based geographic information system (GIS) technology, or web-based GIS, offers many opportunities for public planners and Extension educators who have limited GIS backgrounds or resources. However, investigation of its use in planning has been limited. The study described here examined the use of web-based GIS by public planning agencies. A…

  10. Geographical patterns of dominant bivalves and a polychaete in Europe: no metapopulations in the marine coastal zone?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, H.

    2003-01-01

    The genetic diversity, differentiation and performance of some dominant invertebrates in the marine coastal zone of Europe are reviewed in order to discuss the use of the metapopulation concept in the marine coastal realm. A consistently high genetic diversity of the species studied (mussels of the

  11. Generation of 3D Virtual Geographic Environment Based on Laser Scanning Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Jie; CHEN Xiaoyong; FumioYamazaki

    2003-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an experiment on the generation of 3D virtual geographic environment on the basis of experimental flight laser scanning data by a set of algorithms and methods that were developed to automatically interpret range images for extracting geo-spatial features and then to reconstruct geo-objects. The algorithms and methods for the interpretation and modeling of laser scanner data include triangulated-irregular-network (TIN)-based range image interpolation ; mathematical-morphology(MM)-based range image filtering,feature extraction and range image segmentation, feature generalization and optimization, 3D objects reconstruction and modeling; computergraphics (CG)-based visualization and animation of geographic virtual reality environment.

  12. Geographical based situational awareness in military mobile domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, T.; Hoekstra, J.; Jansen, B.; Boltjes, B.; Oever, J. van den

    2007-01-01

    In 2006 it became clear for the Royal Netherlands Army (RNLA) that the traditional concept for exchanging data in the mobile domain, based upon hierarchical radio nets, could not offer sufficient performance for the future Battlefield Management System' (BMS). The C2 Support Centre, who develops the

  13. Ecological Construction Based on Land Use Zoning of Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin; YE; Zhongxiang; YU

    2013-01-01

    Anhui Province is divided into 6 zones according to land use. This paper firstly introduces ranges, characteristics and problems of land use zoning in Anhui Province. On these bases, it presents the respective ecological construction mode. Huaibei Plain Zone should focus on agriculture and implement water conservancy project, ecological shelterbelt project and mining subsidence area control works. Jianghuai Hilly Zone should make breakthrough in transforming slope land, speed up restoring forest, grass and vegetation, and implement water-saving agriculture and prevention and control of soil erosion. The Yangtze River Side Plain Zone should take the opportunity of agricultural structural adjustment to implement the ecological construction mode of "reconverting farmland to forests, wetland and lakes". Western Anhui Dabie Mountain Zone should concentrate on setting apart hills for tree growing and transforming slope land, restoring and expanding forest, grass and vegetation, and implementing prevention and control of soil erosion. Southern Anhui Mountain Zone should focus on protecting natural forest, setting apart hills for tree growing, conceding the land to forestry and developing eco-tourism. Residential area should pay close attention to new urbanization construction, center on citizenship of agricultural population, push forward integration of industry and city, coordination of urban and rural areas, and interactive development of primary, secondary and tertiary industries.

  14. A Geographic Optimization Approach to Coast Guard Ship Basing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Objective Value of the different allocation of total ten ships to two different bases at y = 50 and y = 170 ( Calculated with 1% error rate) 36 ix THIS...the objective of minimizing the sum of the average demand (im- portance and quantity) multiplied by the distance of the point (x,y) to the assigned...factors quantitatively. Corum calculates an overall value to compare the alternatives and choose the best option by giving different weights to each

  15. OGC Geographic Information Service Deductive Semantic Reasoning Based on Description Vocabularies Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIAO Lizhi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As geographic information interoperability and sharing developing, more and more interoperable OGC (open geospatial consortium Web services (OWS are generated and published through the internet. These services can facilitate the integration of different scientific applications by searching, finding, and utilizing the large number of scientific data and Web services. However, these services are widely dispersed and hard to be found and utilized with executive semantic retrieval. This is especially true when considering the weak semantic description of geographic information service data. Focusing on semantic retrieval and reasoning of the distributed OWS resources, a deductive and semantic reasoning method is proposed to describe and search relevant OWS resources. Specifically, ①description words are extracted from OWS metadata file to generate GISe ontology-database and instance-database based on geographic ontology according to basic geographic elements category, ②a description words reduction model is put forward to implement knowledge reduction on GISe instance-database based on rough set theory and generate optimized instances database, ③utilizing GISe ontology-database and optimized instance-database to implement semantic inference and reasoning of geographic searching objects is used as an example to demonstrate the efficiency, feasibility and recall ration of the proposed description-word-based reduction model.

  16. Geographic bases of tourist development of the Sjenica's region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šabić Dejan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the central places in finding out the overall solutions to stop the processes of economic power weakening of Sjenica's region, deagrarianization and depopulation of rural regions, is assumed by the question of adequate rural economy structuring in accordance with locally available resources. Within these frameworks we should look for the place, i.e. the position of tourist activity in Sjenica's region, which so far has not been given an appropriate role in development policies and concepts related to these areas, although it is based on various strong, highly attractive natural-ecological and anthropogenesis values. Rural areas were used for some forms of economic production and were known by low overall population densities. Tourism is attracted into these regions by natural features landscape quality and rural way of life. Rural tourism brings life to many areas. It can include a great variety of activities and can be way to prosperous life for people in Sjenica's region.

  17. Design Research of TIANDITU (Map Worl)-Based Geographic Information System for Travelling Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Zhang, H.; Wang, C.

    2014-04-01

    TIANDITU (Map World) is the public version of the National Platform for Common Geospatial Information Service, and the travelling channel is TIANDITU-based geographic information platform for travelling service. With the development of tourism, traditional ways for providing travelling information cannot meet the needs of travelers. As such, the travelling channel of TIANDITU focuses on providing travel information abundantly and precisely, which integrated the geographic information data of TIANDITU Version 2.0 and the authoritative information resources from China National Tourism Administration. Furthermore, spatial positioning, category and information query of various travelling information were offered for the public in the travelling channel. This research mainly involves three important parts: the system design, key technologies of the system design and application examples. Firstly, this paper introduced the design of TIANDITU-based geographic information system for travelling service, and the general and database design were described in detail. The designs for general, database and travelling service above should consider lots of factors which illustrated in the paper in order to guarantee the efficient service. The process of system construction, the content of geographic information for travelling and system functions of geographic information for travelling are also proposed via diagram in this part. Then several key technologies were discussed, including the travelling information integration for main node and among nodes, general architecture design and management system for travelling channel, web portals and system interface. From the perspective of main technologies, this part describes how TIANDITU travelling channel can realize various functions and reach the requirements from different users. Finally, three application examples about travelling information query were listed shortly. The functions and search results are shown clearly in this

  18. Open-Source web-based geographical information system for health exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Barry; Sabel, Clive E

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of an open source web-based Geographical Information System allowing users to visualise, customise and interact with spatial data within their web browser. The developed application shows that by using solely Open Source software it was possible...

  19. Do "Some" Enterprise Zones Create Jobs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, Jed; Neumark, David

    2010-01-01

    We study how the employment effects of enterprise zones vary with their location, implementation, and administration, based on evidence from California. We use new establishment-level data and geographic mapping methods, coupled with a survey of enterprise zone administrators. Overall, the evidence indicates that enterprise zones do not increase…

  20. Hyperconnected Attribute Filters Based on k-Flat Zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouzounis, Georgios K.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method for attribute filtering, combining contrast and structural information. Using hyperconnectivity based on k-flat zones, we improve the ability of attribute filters to retain internal details in detected objects. Simultaneously, we improve the suppression of smal

  1. Hyperconnected Attribute Filters Based on k-Flat Zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouzounis, Georgios K.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    In this paper, we present a new method for attribute filtering, combining contrast and structural information. Using hyperconnectivity based on k-flat zones, we improve the ability of attribute filters to retain internal details in detected objects. Simultaneously, we improve the suppression of

  2. Riparian zone controls on base cation concentrations in boreal streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. J. Ledesma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest riparian zones are a major in control of surface water quality. Base cation (BC concentrations, fluxes, and cycling in the riparian zone merit attention because of increasing concern of negative consequences for re-acidification of surface waters from future climate and forest harvesting scenarios. We present a two-year study of BC and silica (Si flow-weighted concentrations from 13 riparian zones and 14 streams in a boreal catchment in northern Sweden. The Riparian Flow-Concentration Integration Model (RIM was used to estimate riparian zone flow-weighted concentrations and tested to predict the stream flow-weighted concentrations. Spatial variation in BC and Si concentrations as well as in flow-weighted concentrations was related to differences in Quaternary deposits, with the largest contribution from lower lying silty sediments and the lowest contribution from wetland areas higher up in the catchment. Temporal stability in the concentrations of most elements, a remarkably stable Mg / Ca ratio in the soil water and a homogeneous mineralogy suggest that the stable patterns found in the riparian zones are a result of distinct mineralogical upslope groundwater signals integrating the chemical signals of biological and chemical weathering. Stream water Mg / Ca ratio indicates that the signal is subsequently maintained in the streams. RIM gave good predictions of Ca, Mg, and Na flow-weighted concentrations in headwater streams. The difficulty in modelling K and Si suggests a stronger biogeochemical influence on these elements. The observed chemical dilution effect with flow in the streams was related to variation in groundwater levels and element concentration profiles in the riparian zones. This study provides a first step toward specific investigations of the vulnerability of riparian zones to changes induced by forest management or climate change, with focus on BC or other compounds.

  3. Riparian zone controls on base cation concentrations in boreal streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, J. L. J.; Grabs, T.; Futter, M. N.; Bishop, K. H.; Laudon, H.; Köhler, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Forest riparian zones are a major in control of surface water quality. Base cation (BC) concentrations, fluxes, and cycling in the riparian zone merit attention because of increasing concern of negative consequences for re-acidification of surface waters from future climate and forest harvesting scenarios. We present a two-year study of BC and silica (Si) flow-weighted concentrations from 13 riparian zones and 14 streams in a boreal catchment in northern Sweden. The Riparian Flow-Concentration Integration Model (RIM) was used to estimate riparian zone flow-weighted concentrations and tested to predict the stream flow-weighted concentrations. Spatial variation in BC and Si concentrations as well as in flow-weighted concentrations was related to differences in Quaternary deposits, with the largest contribution from lower lying silty sediments and the lowest contribution from wetland areas higher up in the catchment. Temporal stability in the concentrations of most elements, a remarkably stable Mg / Ca ratio in the soil water and a homogeneous mineralogy suggest that the stable patterns found in the riparian zones are a result of distinct mineralogical upslope groundwater signals integrating the chemical signals of biological and chemical weathering. Stream water Mg / Ca ratio indicates that the signal is subsequently maintained in the streams. RIM gave good predictions of Ca, Mg, and Na flow-weighted concentrations in headwater streams. The difficulty in modelling K and Si suggests a stronger biogeochemical influence on these elements. The observed chemical dilution effect with flow in the streams was related to variation in groundwater levels and element concentration profiles in the riparian zones. This study provides a first step toward specific investigations of the vulnerability of riparian zones to changes induced by forest management or climate change, with focus on BC or other compounds.

  4. Open-Source web-based geographical information system for health exposure assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Barry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the design and development of an open source web-based Geographical Information System allowing users to visualise, customise and interact with spatial data within their web browser. The developed application shows that by using solely Open Source software it was possible to develop a customisable web based GIS application that provides functions necessary to convey health and environmental data to experts and non-experts alike without the requirement of proprietary software.

  5. Open-Source web-based Geographical Information System for health exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barry; Sabel, Clive E

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of an open source web-based Geographical Information System allowing users to visualise, customise and interact with spatial data within their web browser. The developed application shows that by using solely Open Source software it was possible to develop a customisable web based GIS application that provides functions necessary to convey health and environmental data to experts and non-experts alike without the requirement of proprietary software.

  6. RS AND GIS-BASED FOREST FIRE RISK ZONE MAPPING IN DA HINGGAN MOUNTAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Hai-wei; KONG Fan-hua; LI Xiu-zhen

    2004-01-01

    The Da Hinggan Mountains is one of the most important forest areas in China,but forest fire there is also of high frequency.So it is completely necessary to map forest fire risk zones in order to effectively manage and protect the forest resources.Two forest farms of Tuqiang Forest Bureau (53°34′-52°15′N,124°05′- 122°18′E) were chosen as typical areas in this study.Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) play a vital role and can be used effectively to obtain and combine different forest-fire-causing factors for demarcating the forest fire risk zone map.Forest fire risk zones were described by assigning subjective weights to the classes of all the coverage layers according to their sensitivity to fire,using the ARC/INFO GIS software.Four classes of forest fire risk ranging from low to extremely high were generated automatically in ARC/INFO.The results showed that about 60.33% of the study area were predicted to be upper moderate risk zones,indicating that the forest fire management task in this area is super onerous.The RS and GIS-based forest fire risk model of the study area was found to be highly compatible with the actual fire-affected sites in 1987.Therefore the forest fire risk zone map can be used for guidance of forest fire management,and as basis for fire prevention strategies.

  7. [Geographic information system based spatial analysis on chronic arsenic poisoning in a tin mining area, Thailand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Wu, Liping; Lin, Kun

    2007-05-01

    To explore the spatial features of arsenic contamination and its association with chronic arsenic poisoning in a tin mining area of Thailand. Geographic information system(GIS) was built up with integration of arsenic concentration in varied environmental media and occurring location data of chronic arsenism patients. Then, the spatial interpolation (IDW), buffer zoning, query and rank correlation analysis were applied. Groundwater and surface farming land were classified according to local environmental arsenic standards; the relative risk areas were identified. The incidence of chronic arsenic poisoning was significantly correlated with arsenic level in groundwater and soil type (P water soluble arsenic in soil (P > 0.05). The arsenic content in drinking water could be critical to chronic arsenic poisoning. The soil type could be an important factor affecting such poisoning. Trend analysis in GIS could provide a valuable tool for understanding the pollution situation and disease surveillance.

  8. DEFINING MANAGEMENT ZONES BASED ON SOIL ATTRIBUTES AND SOYBEAN PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRICIO TOMAZ RAMOS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Demarcating soil management zones can be useful, for instance, delimiting homogeneous areas and selecting attributes that are generally correlated with plant productivity, but doing so involves several different steps. The objective of this study was to identify the chemical and physical attributes of soil and soybean plants that explain crop productivity, in addition to suggesting and testing a methodological procedure for defining soil management zones. The procedure consisted of six steps: sample collection, data filtering, variable selection, interpolation, grouping, and evaluation of management zones. The samples were collected in an experimental area of 12.5 ha cultivated with soybean during the 2013/14 crop in Dystrophic Red Latosol, in Mato Grosso, Brazil. A total of 117 pairs of plant and soil samples were collected. Student’s t - test was used ( α = 0.02 to verify that the number of samples was adequate for correlation analysis. Results showed that only the P and Mn content in the grains explained (based on R 2 values the variation in soybean grain productivity the area. Based on the interpolation of these contents by ordinary kriging, the fuzzy C - means algorithm was used to separate them into groups by similarity. Division into two groups was the best option, which could be differentiated by Mann – Whitney test (P < 0.05, resulting in a map with 10 management zones.

  9. Zoning Districts, This dataset designates the zoning district for geographical areas in Polk County, Wisconsin. The data set is a compilation of multiple interanal data sets including 'ZoningComp', 'ZoningShoreland', 'ZoneGenPur', and 'ZoningWet'., Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Polk County, Wisconsin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zoning Districts dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'This dataset...

  10. Study on dynamic changes of land desertification in the circum-lake zone of the Qinghai Lake in the past 30 years supported by Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MengJun Hu; WenLi Zhang; AiLi Yang; LiHui Tian; DengShan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The circum-lake zone of the Qinghai Lake is one of the most serious regions of desertification on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Based on Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques, the four sets of remote sensing images acquired in 1976, 1987, 1995, and 2006 were selected to conduct thematic information extraction in 14,300 km2 of land in the circum-lake zone using the Earth Resource Data Analysis System (ERDAS) image and information processing function. In the meantime the off-site interpretation and filed check-correction methods were used to recon-struct the temporal-spatial dynamic changes and differentiation patterns of land desertification in the circum-lake zone in the past 30 years, and based on this, the developmental trend of land desertification in the next 20 years was predicted. The results of the study show that in the past 30 years land desertification in the region experienced a continuous fluctuation between rapid-and slow-development processes in time, while in space it exhibited a few small patchy distributions or sporadic distributions in many places while at the same time, four large sand-dominated distributions stood out and evolved into a circum-lake belt differentiation pattern with a lakeside dike as the connecting line. Due to the integrated effects of climate changes, human activities and artificial rehabilitation, land desertification area in the region in the next 20 years will exhibit an increasing trend in the first 15 years and then increase at a slower rate, and afterward occur in a reverse, decreasing trend.

  11. Tools of creation of urban geographic information systems based on software and open source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Пилипович Ткаченко

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual principles of the creation of Urban Geographic Information System (UGIS tools based on software products with open source are considered. Organizational and technical structure of UGIS, the basic provisions of its conceptual architecture, tool software modules functions and their means of implementation are provided. Rational organization of municipal information resources for functional UGIS subsystem creations is proposed, and the examples of its implementation are provided

  12. The Use of a Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Technology for Monitoring Land Use and Soil Carbon Change in the Subtropical Dry Forest Life Zone of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Rodriguez, Linda L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Aerial photography, one of the first form of remote sensing technology, has long been an invaluable means to monitor activities and conditions at the Earth's surface. Geographic Information Systems or GIS is the use of computers in showing and manipulating spatial data. This report will present the use of geographic information systems and remote sensing technology for monitoring land use and soil carbon change in the subtropical dry forest life zone of Puerto Rico. This research included the south of Puerto Rico that belongs to the subtropical dry forest life zone. The Guanica Commonwealth Forest Biosphere Reserve and the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve are studied in detail, because of their location in the subtropical dry forest life zone. Aerial photography, digital multispectral imagery, soil samples, soil survey maps, field inspections, and differential global positioning system (DGPS) observations were used.

  13. Russian and Foreign Experience of Integration of Agent-Based Models and Geographic Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Anatol’evich Gulin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of the mechanisms of integration of agent-based models and GIS technology developed by Russian and foreign researchers. The basic framework of the article is based on critical analysis of domestic and foreign literature (monographs, scientific articles. The study is based on the application of universal scientific research methods: system approach, analysis and synthesis, classification, systematization and grouping, generalization and comparison. The article presents theoretical and methodological bases of integration of agent-based models and geographic information systems. The concept and essence of agent-based models are explained; their main advantages (compared to other modeling methods are identified. The paper characterizes the operating environment of agents as a key concept in the theory of agent-based modeling. It is shown that geographic information systems have a wide range of information resources for calculations, searching, modeling of the real world in various aspects, acting as an effective tool for displaying the agents’ operating environment and allowing to bring the model as close as possible to the real conditions. The authors also focus on a wide range of possibilities for various researches in different spatial and temporal contexts. Comparative analysis of platforms supporting the integration of agent-based models and geographic information systems has been carried out. The authors give examples of complex socio-economic models: the model of a creative city, humanitarian assistance model. In the absence of standards for research results description, the authors focus on the models’ elements such as the characteristics of the agents and their operation environment, agents’ behavior, rules of interaction between the agents and the external environment. The paper describes the possibilities and prospects of implementing these models

  14. Pancreatic Cancer Survival Outcomes at a Tertiary Medical Center Based on Sex and Geographic Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyamurthy, Anjana; Chela, Harleen; Romana, Bhupinder; Yousef, Mohamad; Winn, Jessica; Madsen, Richard; Bechtold, Matthew; Asombang, Akwi W

    2016-11-01

    To describe the survival outcomes of patients with histologically proven primary pancreatic cancer based on geographic location and sex. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records from 2009 through 2013 of patients with pancreatic cancer using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 157.9 and International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision code C 25.9. The variables extracted included demographics, date of diagnosis, mode of diagnosis, duration, treatment methods, family history, history of chronic pancreatitis, and diabetes mellitus. ZIP codes were used to identify the geographic location of each subject, and rural urban commuting area codes were used to further classify the areas as metropolitan, micropolitan, small town, and rural. Population sizes were classified as metropolitan >50,000, micropolitan 10,000 to 49,999, small town 2500 to 9999, and rural location (P = 0.96). There is no difference in survival outcomes of patients with primary pancreatic cancer based on sex or geographic location. Our survival outcomes differ from the national survival outcomes, which reveal that mortality in men is higher than it is in women.

  15. Accurate Determination of Geographical Origin of Tea Based on Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a structured model for the identification of green tea, as well as tracing its geographical origins. Considering that the features of different types of green tea are similar under THz time-domain spectroscopy, we designed a program to perform principal component analysis (PCA of the spectroscopic data of various green tea samples and to determine the data sequences of principal components. We then established a training set for the principal components to train a support vector machine (SVM model via a genetic algorithm (GA. We used this model to optimize the parameters and develop a GA-based SVM model with an identification rate of 96.25% for the tested samples. Taken together, our results confirm that THz time-domain spectroscopy combined with GA-SVM can be effectively applied to rapidly identify types of green tea with different geographical origins.

  16. COHESIVE ZONE FINITE ELEMENT-BASED MODELING OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuorong Chen; A.P. Bunger; Xi Zhang; Robert G. Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a powerful technology used to stimulate fluid production from reservoirs. The fully 3-D numerical simulation of the hydraulic fracturing process is of great importance to the efficient application of this technology, but is also a great challenge because of the strong nonlinear coupling between the viscous flow of fluid and fracture propagation. By taking advantage of a cohesive zone method to simulate the fracture process, a finite element model based on the existing pore pressure cohesive finite elements has been established to investigate the propagation of a penny-shaped hydraulic fracture in an infinite elastic medium. The effect of cohesive material parameters and fluid viscosity on the hydraulic fracture behaviour has been investigated. Excellent agreement between the finite element results and analytical solutions for the limiting case where the fracture process is dominated by rock fracture toughness demonstrates the ability of the cohesive zone finite element model in simulating the hydraulic fracture growth for this case.

  17. Molecular and morphological characterization of Parabronema skrjabini of sheep and goats at three different geographical zones in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminasab, Seyed Sajjad; Jalousian, Fatemeh; Meshgi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Parabronema skrjabini is a spirurid nematode of the family Habronematidae that lives in the abomasum of ruminants such as sheep and goats. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular and morphological aspects of Parabronema skrjabini in sheep and goats in Iran. The worms were collected from these animal species from three different regions. An internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA (ITS2-rDNA) fragment of Parabronema skrjabini was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a pair of specific primers (Para-Ir-R and Para-Ir-F). Morphological studies based on the body length, the frontal shield, spicules of male and egg dimensions were performed. ITS2-rDNA sequences were between 167 and 299 bp in different isolates. ITS2 homology in different isolates was between 68% and 77% compared with the sequence data in GenBank. Morphological results showed that the average length of male and female worms in sheep were 16.5 mm and 36 mm and in goats 16 mm and 35.5 mm, respectively. The average length of the small and large spicules in sheep were 657.5 μm and 304.07 μm and in goats 653.08 μm and 302.66 μm, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study in the world exploring the genetic diversity of Parabronema in sheep and goats. Add this sentence in discussion: the low ITS2-rDNA identity in different isolates from Iran as compared to the reference sequence in GenBank (68-77%) raise questions regarding the species identity of the parasites isolated in Iran.

  18. Energy Zones Study: A Comprehensive Web-Based Mapping Tool to Identify and Analyze Clean Energy Zones in the Eastern Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koritarov, Vladimir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kuiper, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hlava, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Orr, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rollins, Katherine [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunner, Donna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Green, Herman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makar, Jeffrey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ayers, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Holm, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Simunich, Kathy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); McLamore, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shamsuddin, Shabbir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kavicky, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Portante, Edgar [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Conzelmann, Guenter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Molburg, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Clark, Corrie [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, Seth [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Darling, Seth [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Braun, Joseph [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gasper, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Richmond, Pamela [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Beardsley, Brett [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schlueter, Scott [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Augustine, Chad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurlbut, David J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Thomas R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gracia, Jose R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mays, Gary T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Omitaomu, Olufemi A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fernandez, Steven [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stewart, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kodysh, Jeffrey [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Travis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the work conducted in support of the Eastern Interconnection States’ Planning Council (EISPC) Energy Zones Study and the development of the Energy Zones Mapping Tool performed by a team of experts from three National Laboratories. The multi-laboratory effort was led by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In June 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory published Funding Opportunity Announcement FOA-0000068, which invited applications for interconnection-level analysis and planning. In December 2009, the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) and the EISPC were selected as two award recipients for the Eastern Interconnection. Subsequently, in 2010, DOE issued Research Call RC-BM-2010 to DOE’s Federal Laboratories to provide research support and assistance to FOA-0000068 awardees on a variety of key subjects. Argonne was selected as the lead laboratory to provide support to EISPC in developing a methodology and a mapping tool for identifying potential clean energy zones in the Eastern Interconnection. In developing the EISPC Energy Zones Mapping Tool (EZ Mapping Tool), Argonne, NREL, and ORNL closely collaborated with the EISPC Energy Zones Work Group which coordinated the work on the Energy Zones Study. The main product of the Energy Zones Study is the EZ Mapping Tool, which is a web-based decision support system that allows users to locate areas with high suitability for clean power generation in the U.S. portion of the Eastern Interconnection. The mapping tool includes 9 clean (low- or no-carbon) energy resource categories and 29 types of clean energy technologies. The EZ Mapping Tool contains an extensive geographic information system database and allows the user to apply a flexible modeling approach for the identification and analysis of potential energy zones

  19. Spatial distribution of ecological security status assessment of West-Liaohe River based on geographic information system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Geng; WU Wei

    2007-01-01

    Eco-security assessment is a hot research area in resource and environmental science,which involves data with much spatial,non-linear,and random features.Geographic information system (GIS),as a useful tool to analyze and manage spatial information,has a superior advantage in this field.A case study in the western part of the Liaohe River featuring a method of eco-security spatial differences (ESSD) based on GIS is developed in this paper.The method includes four steps:1) developing the pressure-state-response (P-S-R) framework with site data;2) digitizing West-Liaohe River and setting its GRID database of ecosecurity assessment indicators;3) figuring out the relative membership degree (RMD) of eco-security indicators by using the analytical hierarchy process with the weight of indicator;4) classifying the security zone and mapping the assessment result of eco-security status in grid by GIS method of assigning and clustering.The visual spatial differences of eco-security based on GIS enables decision makers to know the status of eco-security better in making policies for achieving sustainability.

  20. Optimizing Urban Spatial Structure of Lanzhou Based on Geographic Concentration Method of Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Shuang; Chen Xiaojian

    2007-01-01

    Geographic concentration of industries is the regionalized distribution of some industries in certain areas, which focuses on the ratio of a certain industry to the whole industries (He and Liu, 2006). In this paper we explore the improved M function of geographic concentration that adds the parameter of the number of firms according to the definition of geographic concentration of industries. The spatial distribution of the main manufacturing industries of Lanzhou urban area is evaluated based on it. The results of the evaluation imply that the spatial distribution of the main manufacturing industries is more concentrated than that of others in Lanzhou and it can absorb lots of labor forces. But the incidence, competition ability and density of the distribution of enterprises are different for each single sector, and enterprises with different production features are located closely. And three main problems are discovered. Finally, three countermeasures are put forward: locating the industrial enterprises in urban areas in a proper way through planning and policies; adjusting the industrial structure of the inner city; strengthening the local rearrangement of the existing industrial concentration areas.

  1. An Allometric Algorithm for Fractal-Based Cobb-Douglas Function of Geographical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The generalized Cobb-Douglas production function has been derived from a general input-output relation based on fractality assumptions. It was proved to be a useful self-affine model for geographical analysis. However, the ordinary least square calculation is always an ineffectual method for the Cobb-Douglas modeling because of the multicollinearity in the logarithmic linear regression. In this paper, a novel approach is proposed to build the geographical Cobb-Douglas models. Combining the concept of allometric scaling with the linear regression technique, we obtain a simple algorithm that can be employed to estimate the parameters of the Cobb-Douglas function. As a case, the algorithm and models are applied to the public transportation of China’s cities, and the results validate the allometric algorithm. A conclusion can be drawn that the allometric analysis is an effective way of modeling geographical systems with the general Cobb-Douglas function. This study is significant for integrating the notions of allometry, fractals, and scaling into a new framework to form a quantitative methodology of spatial analysis.

  2. Transit Traffic Analysis Zone Delineating Method Based on Thiessen Polygon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwei Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A green transportation system composed of transit, busses and bicycles could be a significant in alleviating traffic congestion. However, the inaccuracy of current transit ridership forecasting methods is imposing a negative impact on the development of urban transit systems. Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ delineating is a fundamental and essential step in ridership forecasting, existing delineating method in four-step models have some problems in reflecting the travel characteristics of urban transit. This paper aims to come up with a Transit Traffic Analysis Zone delineation method as supplement of traditional TAZs in transit service analysis. The deficiencies of current TAZ delineating methods were analyzed, and the requirements of Transit Traffic Analysis Zone (TTAZ were summarized. Considering these requirements, Thiessen Polygon was introduced into TTAZ delineating. In order to validate its feasibility, Beijing was then taken as an example to delineate TTAZs, followed by a spatial analysis of office buildings within a TTAZ and transit station departure passengers. Analysis result shows that the TTAZs based on Thiessen polygon could reflect the transit travel characteristic and is of in-depth research value.

  3. a Version-Similarity Based Trust Degree Computation Model for Crowdsourcing Geographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Yijiang

    2016-06-01

    Quality evaluation and control has become the main concern of VGI. In this paper, trust is used as a proxy of VGI quality, a version-similarity based trust degree computation model for crowdsourcing geographic data is presented. This model is based on the assumption that the quality of VGI objects mainly determined by the professional skill and integrity (called reputation in this paper), and the reputation of the contributor is movable. The contributor's reputation is calculated using the similarity degree among the multi-versions for the same entity state. The trust degree of VGI object is determined by the trust degree of its previous version, the reputation of the last contributor and the modification proportion. In order to verify this presented model, a prototype system for computing the trust degree of VGI objects is developed by programming with Visual C# 2010. The historical data of Berlin of OpenStreetMap (OSM) are employed for experiments. The experimental results demonstrate that the quality of crowdsourcing geographic data is highly positive correlation with its trustworthiness. As the evaluation is based on version-similarity, not based on the direct subjective evaluation among users, the evaluation result is objective. Furthermore, as the movability property of the contributors' reputation is used in this presented method, our method has a higher assessment coverage than the existing methods.

  4. IBIS - A geographic information system based on digital image processing and image raster datatype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    IBIS (Image Based Information System) is a geographic information system which makes use of digital image processing techniques to interface existing geocoded data sets and information management systems with thematic maps and remotely sensed imagery. The basic premise is that geocoded data sets can be referenced to a raster scan that is equivalent to a grid cell data set. The first applications (St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, and Los Angeles County) have been restricted to the design of a land resource inventory and analysis system. It is thought that the algorithms and the hardware interfaces developed will be readily applicable to other Landsat imagery.

  5. New spatial clustering-based models for optimal urban facility location considering geographical obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Maryam; Shahrabi, Jamal

    2014-03-01

    The problems of facility location and the allocation of demand points to facilities are crucial research issues in spatial data analysis and urban planning. It is very important for an organization or governments to best locate its resources and facilities and efficiently manage resources to ensure that all demand points are covered and all the needs are met. Most of the recent studies, which focused on solving facility location problems by performing spatial clustering, have used the Euclidean distance between two points as the dissimilarity function. Natural obstacles, such as mountains and rivers, can have drastic impacts on the distance that needs to be traveled between two geographical locations. While calculating the distance between various supply chain entities (including facilities and demand points), it is necessary to take such obstacles into account to obtain better and more realistic results regarding location-allocation. In this article, new models were presented for location of urban facilities while considering geographical obstacles at the same time. In these models, three new distance functions were proposed. The first function was based on the analysis of shortest path in linear network, which was called SPD function. The other two functions, namely PD and P2D, were based on the algorithms that deal with robot geometry and route-based robot navigation in the presence of obstacles. The models were implemented in ArcGIS Desktop 9.2 software using the visual basic programming language. These models were evaluated using synthetic and real data sets. The overall performance was evaluated based on the sum of distance from demand points to their corresponding facilities. Because of the distance between the demand points and facilities becoming more realistic in the proposed functions, results indicated desired quality of the proposed models in terms of quality of allocating points to centers and logistic cost. Obtained results show promising

  6. Geographic Comparison of Women in Academic Obstetrics and Gynecology Department-Based Leadership Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciotti, Hope A; Dodge, Laura E; Aluko, Ashley; Hofler, Lisa G; Hacker, Michele R

    2017-10-01

    To describe and compare geographic representation of women in obstetrics and gynecology department-based leadership roles across American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) districts and U.S. Census Bureau regions while accounting for the proportion of women practicing in each area. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study. To more meaningfully quantify representation of women as leaders in ACOG districts and U.S. Census Bureau regions, we calculated representation ratios-the proportion of department-based leaders who were women divided by the proportion of obstetrician-gynecologists who were women. A ratio of 1.0 indicates proportionate representation and less than 1.0 indicates underrepresentation. We calculated 95% CIs to compare representation of women in leadership roles across geographic areas. The gender of major department-based leaders (chair, vice chair, division director) and educational leaders (fellowship, residency, associate residency, medical student clerkship director) was determined from websites. The proportion of department chairs who were women was highest in the West and lowest in the South Census Bureau regions. Representation ratios for women in major department-based leadership roles demonstrated underrepresentation relative to the practicing base nationally and in all four regions. Although women were underrepresented in major department-based leadership throughout the country, there was significantly higher women's representation in major department-based leadership roles in the West (ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.68-0.99) compared with the Northeast (ratio 0.50, 95% CI 0.42-0.59) and the South (ratio 0.45, 95% CI 0.36-0.57). Similarly, in the division director role, the West (ratio 0.85, 95% CI 0.68-1.1) had significantly higher representation of women compared with the Northeast (ratio 0.50, 95% CI 0.40-0.62). Nationally, women were underrepresented as fellowship directors, proportionately represented as residency

  7. Georgia resource assessment project: Institutionalizing LANDSAT and geographic data base techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, R. R.; Rado, B. Q.; Faust, N.

    1981-01-01

    Digital data from LANDSAT for each 1.1-acre cell in Georgia were processed and the land cover conditions were categorized. Several test cases were completed and an operational hardware and software processing capability was established at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The operational capability was developed to process the entire state (60,000 sq. miles and 14 LANDSAT scenes) in a cooperative project between eleven divisions and agencies at the regional, state, and federal levels. Products were developed for State agencies such as in both mapped and statistical formats. A computerized geographical data base was developed for management programs. To a large extent the applications of the data base evolved as users of LANDSAT information requested that other data (i.e., soils, slope, land use, etc.) be made compatible with LANDSAT for management programs. To date, geographic data bases incorporating LANDSAT and other spatial data deal with elements of the municipal solid waste management program, and reservoir management for the Corps of Engineers. LANDSAT data are also being used for applications in wetland, wildlife, and forestry management.

  8. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis – Towards a new paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Thomas; Hay, Geoffrey J.; Kelly, Maggi; Lang, Stefan; Hofmann, Peter; Addink, Elisabeth; Queiroz Feitosa, Raul; van der Meer, Freek; van der Werff, Harald; van Coillie, Frieke; Tiede, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The amount of scientific literature on (Geographic) Object-based Image Analysis – GEOBIA has been and still is sharply increasing. These approaches to analysing imagery have antecedents in earlier research on image segmentation and use GIS-like spatial analysis within classification and feature extraction approaches. This article investigates these development and its implications and asks whether or not this is a new paradigm in remote sensing and Geographic Information Science (GIScience). We first discuss several limitations of prevailing per-pixel methods when applied to high resolution images. Then we explore the paradigm concept developed by Kuhn (1962) and discuss whether GEOBIA can be regarded as a paradigm according to this definition. We crystallize core concepts of GEOBIA, including the role of objects, of ontologies and the multiplicity of scales and we discuss how these conceptual developments support important methods in remote sensing such as change detection and accuracy assessment. The ramifications of the different theoretical foundations between the ‘per-pixel paradigm’ and GEOBIA are analysed, as are some of the challenges along this path from pixels, to objects, to geo-intelligence. Based on several paradigm indications as defined by Kuhn and based on an analysis of peer-reviewed scientific literature we conclude that GEOBIA is a new and evolving paradigm. PMID:24623958

  9. Comprehensive assessment method for environmental impact of railway based on geographic information system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小萍; 陈秀方; 马超群; 杨晓宇; 冉茂平; 孟祥定

    2004-01-01

    By integrating the merits of the map overlay method and the geographic information system (GIS), a GIS based map overlay method was developed to analyze comprehensively the environmental vulnerability around railway and its impact on the environment, which is adapted for the comprehensive assessment of railway environmental impact and the optimization of railway alignments. The assessment process of the GIS based map overlay method was presented, which includes deciding the system structure and weights of assessment factors, making environmental vulnerability grade maps, and evaluating the alternative alignments comprehensively to obtain the best one. With the GIS functions of spatial analysis, such as overlay analysis and buffer analysis, and functions of handling attribute data, the GIS based map overlay method overcomes the shortcomings of the existing map overlay method and the conclusion is more reasonable. In the end, a detailed case study was illustrated to verify the efficiency of the method.

  10. Population-based geographic access to parent and satellite National Cancer Institute Cancer Center Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Tracy; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer; Wang, Fahui

    2017-09-01

    Satellite facilities of National Cancer Institute (NCI) cancer centers have expanded their regional footprints. This study characterized geographic access to parent and satellite NCI cancer center facilities nationally overall and by sociodemographics. Parent and satellite NCI cancer center facilities, which were geocoded in ArcGIS, were ascertained. Travel times from every census tract in the continental United States and Hawaii to the nearest parent and satellite facilities were calculated. Census-based population attributes were used to characterize measures of geographic access for sociodemographic groups. From the 62 NCI cancer centers providing clinical care in 2014, 76 unique parent locations and 211 satellite locations were mapped. The overall proportion of the population within 60 minutes of a facility was 22% for parent facilities and 32.7% for satellite facilities. When satellites were included for potential access, the proportion of some racial groups for which a satellite was the closest NCI cancer center facility increased notably (Native Americans, 22.6% with parent facilities and 39.7% with satellite facilities; whites, 34.8% with parent facilities and 50.3% with satellite facilities; and Asians, 40.0% with parent facilities and 54.0% with satellite facilities), with less marked increases for Hispanic and black populations. Rural populations of all categories had dramatically low proportions living within 60 minutes of an NCI cancer center facility of any type (1.0%-6.6%). Approximately 14% of the population (n = 43,033,310) lived more than 180 minutes from a parent or satellite facility, and most of these individuals were Native Americans and/or rural residents (37% of Native Americans and 41.7% of isolated rural residents). Racial/ethnic and rural populations showed markedly improved geographic access to NCI cancer center care when satellite facilities were included. Cancer 2017;123:3305-11. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American

  11. Hazards Assessment of Regional Debris Flows Based on Geographic Information Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiaobo; GUI Peng

    2007-01-01

    Supported by the spatial analysis feature of geographic information science and assessment model of regional debris flows, hazards degrees of the debris flows in the Upper Yangtze River Watershed (UYRW) are divided into five grades based on grid cell. The area of no danger, light danger, medium danger, severe danger and extreme severe danger regions respectively are 278 000, 288 000, 217 000, 127 000, 15 000 km2. Furthermore, the counties in the UYRW are classified into four classes based on the hazards degrees in each county. The number of severe danger, medium danger, light danger and no danger counties respectively are 49, 82, 77 and 105. The assessment results will be provided for the hazards forecasting and mitigation in the UYRW and ongoing regionalization of Main Function Regions in China as data and technique framework.

  12. Using a geographical-information-system-based decision support to enhance malaria vector control in zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Mukonka, Victor Munyongwe; Mthembu, David; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Coetzer, Sarel; Shinondo, Cecilia Jill

    2012-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GISs) with emerging technologies are being harnessed for studying spatial patterns in vector-borne diseases to reduce transmission. To implement effective vector control, increased knowledge on interactions of epidemiological and entomological malaria transmission determinants in the assessment of impact of interventions is critical. This requires availability of relevant spatial and attribute data to support malaria surveillance, monitoring, and evaluation. Monitoring the impact of vector control through a GIS-based decision support (DSS) has revealed spatial relative change in prevalence of infection and vector susceptibility to insecticides and has enabled measurement of spatial heterogeneity of trend or impact. The revealed trends and interrelationships have allowed the identification of areas with reduced parasitaemia and increased insecticide resistance thus demonstrating the impact of resistance on vector control. The GIS-based DSS provides opportunity for rational policy formulation and cost-effective utilization of limited resources for enhanced malaria vector control.

  13. [Ecosystem services evaluation based on geographic information system and remote sensing technology: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Shi-Huang; Wang, Hui-Min

    2011-12-01

    Ecosystem services evaluation is a hot topic in current ecosystem management, and has a close link with human beings welfare. This paper summarized the research progress on the evaluation of ecosystem services based on geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology, which could be reduced to the following three characters, i. e., ecological economics theory is widely applied as a key method in quantifying ecosystem services, GIS and RS technology play a key role in multi-source data acquisition, spatiotemporal analysis, and integrated platform, and ecosystem mechanism model becomes a powerful tool for understanding the relationships between natural phenomena and human activities. Aiming at the present research status and its inadequacies, this paper put forward an "Assembly Line" framework, which was a distributed one with scalable characteristics, and discussed the future development trend of the integration research on ecosystem services evaluation based on GIS and RS technologies.

  14. Geographic object-based delineation of neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana using QuickBird satellite imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stow, Douglas A; Lippitt, Christopher D; Weeks, John R

    2010-08-01

    The objective was to test GEographic Object-based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) techniques for delineating neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana using QuickBird multispectral imagery. Two approaches to aggregating census enumeration areas (EAs) based on image-derived measures of vegetation objects were tested: (1) merging adjacent EAs according to vegetation measures and (2) image segmentation. Both approaches exploit readily available functions within commercial GEOBIA software. Image-derived neighborhood maps were compared to a reference map derived by spatial clustering of slum index values (from census data), to provide a relative assessment of potential map utility. A size-constrained iterative segmentation approach to aggregation was more successful than standard image segmentation or feature merge techniques. The segmentation approaches account for size and shape characteristics, enabling more realistic neighborhood boundaries to be delineated. The percentage of vegetation patches within each EA yielded more realistic delineation of potential neighborhoods than mean vegetation patch size per EA.

  15. Landscape Epidemiology Modeling Using an Agent-Based Model and a Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Niaz Arifin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A landscape epidemiology modeling framework is presented which integrates the simulation outputs from an established spatial agent-based model (ABM of malaria with a geographic information system (GIS. For a study area in Kenya, five landscape scenarios are constructed with varying coverage levels of two mosquito-control interventions. For each scenario, maps are presented to show the average distributions of three output indices obtained from the results of 750 simulation runs. Hot spot analysis is performed to detect statistically significant hot spots and cold spots. Additional spatial analysis is conducted using ordinary kriging with circular semivariograms for all scenarios. The integration of epidemiological simulation-based results with spatial analyses techniques within a single modeling framework can be a valuable tool for conducting a variety of disease control activities such as exploring new biological insights, monitoring epidemiological landscape changes, and guiding resource allocation for further investigation.

  16. Butia spp. (Arecaceae) LC-MS-Based Metabolomics for Species and Geographical Origin Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Jessica Fernanda; Carvalho, Ivan Ricardo; Barbieri, Rosa Lia; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; Chaves, Fabio Clasen

    2017-01-18

    The metabolic variability of fruit from Butia spp. (Arecaceae) genotypes from different geographical locations was characterized using untargeted metabolomics by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) followed by multivariate data analyses. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) from LC-MS data sets showed a clear distinction among Butia catarinensis, Butia odorata, Butia paraguayensis, and Butia yatay. The major metabolites that contributed to species discrimination were primary metabolites including sugars and organic acids and specialized metabolites such as tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene and rutin. B. odorata fruit from Tapes, RS, Brazil, showed a high content of organic acids and flavonoids, whereas B. odorata fruits from Capão do Leão, RS, Brazil, showed a high sugar content. The results demonstrate that LC-ESI-qToF-MS-based metabolic profiling coupled with chemometric analysis can be used to discriminate among Butia species and between geographical origins of B. odorata and to identify primary and specialized metabolites responsible for the discrimination.

  17. Analysis Of Educational Services Distribution-Based Geographic Information System GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Lagrab

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzes the spatial distribution of kindergarten facilities in the study area based on the Geographic Information Systems GIS in order to test an efficiency of GIS technology to redistribute the existing kindergarten and choose the best location in the future and applying the standard criteria for selecting the suitable locations for kindergarten. To achieve this goal the data and information are collected via interviews and comprehensive statistics on the education facilities in Mukalla districts in YEMEN which contributed to building a geographic database for the study area. After that the Kindergarten spatial patterns are analyzed in terms of proximity to each other and used near some other land in the surrounding area such as streets highways factories etc. Also measures the concentration dispersion clustering and distribution direction for the kindergarten this study showed the effectiveness of the GIS for spatial data analysis. One of the most important finding that most of the Kindergarten was established in Mukalla city did not take into account the criteria that set by the authorities. Furthermore almost district suffers from a shortage in the number of kindergarten and pattern of distribution of those kindergartens dominated by spatial dispersed.

  18. The study of disaster situation awareness based on volunteered geographic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiansheng; Chen, Zi; Li, Shengming; Luo, Nianxue

    2015-12-01

    As the development of Web 2.0, the social media like microblog, blogs and social network have supplied a bunch of information with locations (Volunteered Geographical Information, VGI).Recent years many cases have shown that, if disaster happened, the cyber citizens will get together very quickly and share the disaster information, this results a bunch of volunteered geographical information about disaster situation which is very valuable for disaster response if this VGIs are used efficiently and properly. This project will take typhoon disaster as case study. In this paper, we study the relations between weibo messages and the real typhoon situation, we proposed an analysis framework for mine the relations between weibo messages distribution and physical space. We found that the number of the weibo messages, key words frequency and spatial temporary distribution of the messages have strong relations with the disaster spread in the real world, and this research results can improve our disaster situation awareness in the future. The achievement of the study will give a method for typhoon disaster situation awareness based on VGI from the bottom up, and will locate the disaster spot and evolution quickly which is very important for disaster response and recover.

  19. A Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Ali Idarous; Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Due to the lack of dependency for routing initiation and an inadequate allocated sextant on responding messages, the secure geographic routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have attracted considerable attention. However, the existing protocols are more likely to drop packets when legitimate nodes fail to respond to the routing initiation messages while attackers in the allocated sextant manage to respond. Furthermore, these protocols are designed with inefficient collection window and inadequate verification criteria which may lead to a high number of attacker selections. To prevent the failure to find an appropriate relay node and undesirable packet retransmission, this paper presents Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) to increase the probability of selecting the appropriate relay node. By extending the allocated sextant and applying different message contention priorities more legitimate nodes can be admitted in the routing process. Moreover, the paper also proposed the bound collection window for a sufficient collection time and verification cost for both attacker identification and isolation. Extensive simulation experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol in comparison with other existing protocols. The results demonstrate that SRBGR increases network performance in terms of the packet delivery ratio and isolates attacks such as Sybil and Black hole. PMID:28121992

  20. A Geographical-Based Multi-Criteria Approach for Marine Energy Farm Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Maslov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to devise a strategy for developing a flexible tool to efficiently install a marine energy farm in a suitable area. The current methodology is applied to marine tidal current, although it can be extended to other energy contexts with some adaptations. We introduce a three-step approach that searches for marine farm sites and technological solutions. The methodology applied is based on a combination of Geographic Information Systems (GIS, multi-criteria analysis (MCA and an optimization algorithm. The integration of GIS and MCA is at the core of the search process for the best-suited marine areas, taking into account geographical constraints, such as human activity, pressure on the environment and technological opportunities. The optimization step of the approach evaluates the most appropriate technologies and farm configurations in order to maximize the quantity of energy produced while minimizing the cost of the farm. Three main criteria are applied to finally characterize a location for a marine energy farm: the global cost of the project, the quantity of energy produced and social acceptance. The social acceptance criterion is evaluated by the MCA method, Electre III, while the optimization of the energy cost is approximated by a genetic algorithm. The whole approach is illustrated by a case study applied to a maritime area in North-West France.

  1. Community structure in traffic zones based on travel demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Ling, Ximan; He, Kun; Tan, Qian

    2016-09-01

    Large structure in complex networks can be studied by dividing it into communities or modules. Urban traffic system is one of the most critical infrastructures. It can be abstracted into a complex network composed of tightly connected groups. Here, we analyze community structure in urban traffic zones based on the community detection method in network science. Spectral algorithm using the eigenvectors of matrices is employed. Our empirical results indicate that the traffic communities are variant with the travel demand distribution, since in the morning the majority of the passengers are traveling from home to work and in the evening they are traveling a contrary direction. Meanwhile, the origin-destination pairs with large number of trips play a significant role in urban traffic network's community division. The layout of traffic community in a city also depends on the residents' trajectories.

  2. GIS Based Measurement and Regulatory Zoning of Urban Ecological Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban ecological vulnerability is measured on the basis of ecological sensitivity and resilience based on the concept analysis of vulnerability. GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis (GIS-MCDA methods are used, supported by the spatial analysis tools of GIS, to define different levels of vulnerability for areas of the urban ecology. These areas are further classified into different types of regulatory zones. Taking the city of Hefei in China as the empirical research site, this study uses GIS-MCDA, including the index system, index weights and overlay rules, to measure the degree of its ecological vulnerability on the GIS platform. There are eight indices in the system. Raking and analytical hierarchy process (AHP methods are used to calculate index weights according to the characteristics of the index system. The integrated overlay rule, including selection of the maximum value, and weighted linear combination (WLC are applied as the overlay rules. In this way, five types of vulnerability areas have been classified as follows: very low vulnerability, low vulnerability, medium vulnerability, high vulnerability and very high vulnerability. They can be further grouped into three types of regulatory zone of ecological green line, ecological grey line and ecological red line. The study demonstrates that ecological green line areas are the largest (53.61% of the total study area and can be intensively developed; ecological grey line areas (19.59% of the total area can serve as the ecological buffer zone, and ecological red line areas (26.80% cannot be developed and must be protected. The results indicate that ecological green line areas may provide sufficient room for future urban development in Hefei city. Finally, the respective regulatory countermeasures are put forward. This research provides a scientific basis for decision-making around urban ecological protection, construction and sustainable development. It also provides theoretical method

  3. A zone-based approach to identifying urban land uses using nationally-available data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, James A.

    Accurate identification of urban land use is essential for many applications in environmental study, ecological assessment, and urban planning, among other fields. However, because physical surfaces of land cover types are not necessarily related to their use and economic function, differentiating among thematically-detailed urban land uses (single-family residential, multi-family residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) using remotely-sensed imagery is a challenging task, particularly over large areas. Because the process requires an interpretation of tone/color, size, shape, pattern, and neighborhood association elements within a scene, it has traditionally been accomplished via manual interpretation of aerial photography or high-resolution satellite imagery. Although success has been achieved for localized areas using various automated techniques based on high-spatial or high-spectral resolution data, few detailed (Anderson Level II equivalent or greater) urban land use mapping products have successfully been created via automated means for broad (multi-county or larger) areas, and no such product exists today for the United States. In this study I argue that by employing a zone-based approach it is feasible to map thematically-detailed urban land use classes over large areas using appropriate combinations of non-image based predictor data which are nationally and publicly available. The approach presented here uses U.S. Census block groups as the basic unit of geography, and predicts the percent of each of ten land use types---nine of them urban---for each block group based on a number of data sources, to include census data, nationally-available point locations of features from the USGS Geographic Names Information System, historical land cover, and metrics which characterize spatial pattern, context (e.g. distance to city centers or other features), and measures of spatial autocorrelation. The method was demonstrated over a four-county area surrounding the

  4. Delineation of eco—geographic regional system of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUShaohong; YANGOinye; ZHENGDu

    2003-01-01

    Eco-geographic regionalization has been one of the most important topics in China's regionalization researches since the end of the 20th century. It is a major ecosystem in geographic zonality. A hierarchical system, which is formed by division or combination of natural features based on geographic relativity and comparison of major ecosystem factors (including biological and non-biological) and geographic zonality, is called eco-geographic regional system. This paper introduces process of China's regionalization development. The first level unit, temperature zone, is delineated with main criteria of temperature. The second level unit, humidity region, is based on criteria of water/moisture states. The third level unit, natural region, is divided according to medium geomorphologic units. Vegetation types and soils are applied as supplementary criteria to indicate temperature and water/moisture states. Mapping process from qualitative to quantitative and China's eco-geographic regional system are also explained in this paper.

  5. Frequency of damage by external explosion hazards based on geographical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Guenter [Risa Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH, Berlin-Charlottenburg (Germany); Camarinopoulos, Alexis; Theodora, Karali [Environment Reliability and Risk Analysis (ERRA), Athens (Greece); Camarinopoulos, Leonidas [Piraeus Univ. (Greece); Schubert, B. [VENE, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    External explosions can significantly contribute to risk of damage for industrial plants. External explosions may origin from other plants in the neighbourhood, which store and operate with explosive substances, or from transport of such substances on road, rail, or water. If deflagration is involved, ignition will not necessarily occur at the place of the accident, but a cloud of a combustible gas-air mixture may develop, which will ignite at some distance depending on wind velocity. A probabilistic model has been developed to calculate frequencies of damage based on numerical integration or on Monte Carlo simulation. Geographical information systems provide map material for sites, roads, rail and rivers on a computer. Data has been collected and applied for a nuclear power plant in Germany as an example. The method, however, can be used for any type of plant subject to external explosion hazards. (orig.)

  6. Scanning for signatures of geographically restricted selection based on population genomics analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Natural selection, as the driving force of human evolution, has direct impact on population differentiation. However, it is still unclear to what extent the genetic differentiation has been caused by natural selection. To explore this question, we performed a genome-wide scan with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from the International HapMap Project. Single locus FST analysis was applied to assess the frequency difference among populations in autosomes. Based on the empirical distribution of FST, we identified 12669 SNPs correlating to population differentiation and 1853 candidate genes subjected to geographic restricted natural selection. Further interpretation of gene ontogeny revealed 121 categories of biological process with the enrichments of candidate genes. Our results suggest that natural selection may play an important role in human population differentiation. In addition, our analysis provides new clues as well as research methods for our understanding of population differentiation and natural selection.

  7. Evaluation of Eco-Environmental Frangibility Based on Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hua; TAG Heping; LU Yuan

    2007-01-01

    The eco-environmental frangibility is studied by choosing the factors of land use class change and vegetation cover rate, and the equation of eco-environmental frangibility and its evaluation system are established based on remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system technology (GIS). Four different years of TM images are selected to calculate land use change grads and vegetation cover rate, and the relationship between the two factors and eco-environment frangibility index are build, taking Fuzhou as an example. The character of times change and space distribution of eco-environment frangibility are described. The result indicates the area of eco-environment frangibility increased 2.6% in Fuzhou during twelve years, and expands from the region between infield and forest land to forest land in space distribution.

  8. Geographic Distribution of Leishmania Species in Ecuador Based on the Cytochrome B Gene Sequence Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio, Jenny; Velez, Lenin; Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-07-01

    A countrywide epidemiological study was performed to elucidate the current geographic distribution of causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ecuador by using FTA card-spotted samples and smear slides as DNA sources. Putative Leishmania in 165 samples collected from patients with CL in 16 provinces of Ecuador were examined at the species level based on the cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. Of these, 125 samples were successfully identified as Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) naiffi, L. (V.) lainsoni, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana. Two dominant species, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, were widely distributed in Pacific coast subtropical and Amazonian tropical areas, respectively. Recently reported L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni were identified in Amazonian areas, and L. (L.) mexicana was identified in an Andean highland area. Importantly, the present study demonstrated that cases of L. (V.) braziliensis infection are increasing in Pacific coast areas.

  9. Geographic Distribution of Leishmania Species in Ecuador Based on the Cytochrome B Gene Sequence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio, Jenny; Velez, Lenin; Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    A countrywide epidemiological study was performed to elucidate the current geographic distribution of causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ecuador by using FTA card-spotted samples and smear slides as DNA sources. Putative Leishmania in 165 samples collected from patients with CL in 16 provinces of Ecuador were examined at the species level based on the cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. Of these, 125 samples were successfully identified as Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) naiffi, L. (V.) lainsoni, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana. Two dominant species, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, were widely distributed in Pacific coast subtropical and Amazonian tropical areas, respectively. Recently reported L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni were identified in Amazonian areas, and L. (L.) mexicana was identified in an Andean highland area. Importantly, the present study demonstrated that cases of L. (V.) braziliensis infection are increasing in Pacific coast areas. PMID:27410039

  10. Geographical classification of Epimedium based on HPLC fingerprint analysis combined with multi-ingredients quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Zhou, Guofu; Li, Xiaojuan; Lu, Heng; Meng, Fanyun; Zhai, Huaqiang

    2017-05-01

    A reliable and comprehensive method for identifying the origin and assessing the quality of Epimedium has been developed. The method is based on analysis of HPLC fingerprints, combined with similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and multi-ingredient quantitative analysis. Nineteen batches of Epimedium, collected from different areas in the western regions of China, were used to establish the fingerprints and 18 peaks were selected for the analysis. Similarity analysis, HCA and PCA all classified the 19 areas into three groups. Simultaneous quantification of the five major bioactive ingredients in the Epimedium samples was also carried out to confirm the consistency of the quality tests. These methods were successfully used to identify the geographical origin of the Epimedium samples and to evaluate their quality.

  11. Olivine friction at the base of oceanic seismogenic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, M.S.; Hirth, G.; Evans, B. M.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the strength and frictional behavior of olivine aggregates at temperatures and effective confining pressures similar to those at the base of the seismogenic zone on a typical ridge transform fault. Triaxial compression tests were conducted on dry olivine powder (grain size ???60 ??m) at effective confining pressures between 50 and 300 MPa (using Argon as a pore fluid), temperatures between 600??C and 1000??C, and axial displacement rates from 0.06 to 60 ??m/s (axial strain rates from 3 ?? 10-6 to 3 ?? 10-3 s-1). Yielding shows a negative pressure dependence, consistent with predictions for shear enhanced compaction and with the observation that samples exhibit compaction during the initial stages of the experiments. A combination of mechanical data and microstructural observations demonstrate that deformation was accommodated by frictional processes. Sample strengths were pressure-dependent and nearly independent of temperature. Localized shear zones formed in initially homogeneous aggregates early in the experiments. The frictional response to changes in loading rate is well described by rate and state constitutive laws, with a transition from velocity-weakening to velocity-strengthening at 1000??C. Microstructural observations and physical models indicate that plastic yielding of asperities at high temperatures and low axial strain rates stabilizes frictional sliding. Extrapolation of our experimental data to geologic strain rates indicates that a transition from velocity weakening to velocity strengthening occurs at approximately 600??C, consistent with the focal depths of earthquakes in the oceanic lithosphere. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Objected-oriented remote sensing image classification method based on geographic ontology model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Z.; Liu, Z. J.; Gu, H. Y.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, with the development of high resolution remote sensing image and the wide application of laser point cloud data, proceeding objected-oriented remote sensing classification based on the characteristic knowledge of multi-source spatial data has been an important trend on the field of remote sensing image classification, which gradually replaced the traditional method through improving algorithm to optimize image classification results. For this purpose, the paper puts forward a remote sensing image classification method that uses the he characteristic knowledge of multi-source spatial data to build the geographic ontology semantic network model, and carries out the objected-oriented classification experiment to implement urban features classification, the experiment uses protégé software which is developed by Stanford University in the United States, and intelligent image analysis software—eCognition software as the experiment platform, uses hyperspectral image and Lidar data that is obtained through flight in DaFeng City of JiangSu as the main data source, first of all, the experiment uses hyperspectral image to obtain feature knowledge of remote sensing image and related special index, the second, the experiment uses Lidar data to generate nDSM(Normalized DSM, Normalized Digital Surface Model),obtaining elevation information, the last, the experiment bases image feature knowledge, special index and elevation information to build the geographic ontology semantic network model that implement urban features classification, the experiment results show that, this method is significantly higher than the traditional classification algorithm on classification accuracy, especially it performs more evidently on the respect of building classification. The method not only considers the advantage of multi-source spatial data, for example, remote sensing image, Lidar data and so on, but also realizes multi-source spatial data knowledge integration and application

  13. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based automatic tool for selection of gas pipeline corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Denise F.; Menezes, Paulo Cesar P.; Paz, Luciana R.L.; Garcia, Katia C.; Cruz, Cristiane B.; Pires, Silvia H.M.; Damazio, Jorge M.; Medeiros, Alexandre M.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a methodology developed to build total accumulated surfaces in order to better select gas pipelines corridor alternatives. The methodology is based on the minimization of negative impacts and the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), allowing an automatic method of construction, evaluation and selection of alternatives, that will contribute to the decision making process. It is important to emphasize that this paper follows the assumptions presented on the research reports of a project sponsored by the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) and elaborated at the Electric Power Research Center (CEPEL), called 'Development of a Geographic Information System to Oil and Gas Sectors in Brazil', and also the studies d GTW Project (Gas to Wire). Gas pipelines, as for their linear characteristic, may cross a variety of habitats and settlements, increasing the complexity of their environmental management. Considering this reality, this paper presents a methodology that takes into account different environmental criteria (layers), according to the area impacted. From the synthesis of the criteria it is presented the total accumulated surface. It is showed an example of a hypothetical gas pipeline connection between two points using the total accumulated surface. To select the 'impact scores' of the features, the gas pipeline was considered as a linear feature, but the result is a region, formed by pixels, each pixel with an accumulated impact score lower than some arbitrary measure. This region is called 'corridor', and it is the final result obtained using the proposed methodology. (author)

  14. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  15. Geographic information system-coupling sediment delivery distributed modeling based on observed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S E; Kang, S H

    2014-01-01

    Spatially distributed sediment delivery (SEDD) models are of great interest in estimating the expected effect of changes on soil erosion and sediment yield. However, they can only be applied if the model can be calibrated using observed data. This paper presents a geographic information system (GIS)-based method to calculate the sediment discharge from basins to coastal areas. For this, an SEDD model, with a sediment rating curve method based on observed data, is proposed and validated. The model proposed here has been developed using the combined application of the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and a spatially distributed sediment delivery ratio, within Model Builder of ArcGIS's software. The model focuses on spatial variability and is useful for estimating the spatial patterns of soil loss and sediment discharge. The model consists of two modules, a soil erosion prediction component and a sediment delivery model. The integrated approach allows for relatively practical and cost-effective estimation of spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery, for gauged or ungauged basins. This paper provides the first attempt at estimating sediment delivery ratio based on observed data in the monsoon region of Korea.

  16. Zone Based Routing Protocol for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Taruna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks, are made of low-cost, low -power, small in size, and multifunctional sensor nodes. The efficient energy utilization is one of t he important performance factors for wireless senso r networks survivability be-cause nodes operate with limited battery power. In this paper we propose and analyze a new approach of zone based clustering hea d selection algorithm for wireless sensor network o f homogeneous nodes. Nodes in the network are uniform ly distributed. In this clustering algorithm, netwo rk performance is improved by selecting cluster heads on the basis of the residual energy of existing clu ster heads, and nearest hop distance of the node. In thi s paper we evaluate various performance metrics lik e energy consumption, network life time, number of ch annel heads metrics in each round and compare these with respect to random algorithm i.e. LEACH. We con clude that proposed protocol effectively extends th e network lifetime without degrading the other critic al overheads and perform-ance metrics.

  17. Cloud Based GIS Approach for Monitoring Environmental Pollution in the Coastal Zone of Kalutara, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.P.M. Sirirwardane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Information Systems (GIS can be used as a powerful tool in many aspects of handling geospatial data. By considering the modern geospatial approaches, this research is focused on monitoring environmental pollution in the coastal zone of Kalutara area, with the objective of identification of existing natural resources. Green vegetation patches, water bodies and beech areas were detected using remote sensing techniques. A detailed GPS field survey was conducted and identified minor environmental resources with various pollution incidents. This information was used to improve the available data sets. The types of pollution incidents were categorised according to the severity level by considering the relationship to each natural resource. Maps were created and data was uploaded to the ArcGIS online cloud platform. Web services were hosted using this cloud infrastructure. Pollution incidents data layer has been given web based editing capabilities for field monitoring using GPS enabled mobiles. Field observations were conducted and locations of the pollution effects were uploaded into web maps from the field with related attributes. The hot spots were used to get better understanding and awareness of the environmental pollution. As the results, pollution incidents were identified and there was a significant effect to the minor environmental elements. The cloud infrastructure, helped to bring down the barriers of data sharing and the incident reporting mechanism became more convenient during the field observations.

  18. Adaptive membership functions for handwritten character recognition by Voronoi-based image zoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirlo, Giuseppe; Impedovo, Donato

    2012-09-01

    In the field of handwritten character recognition, image zoning is a widespread technique for feature extraction since it is rightly considered to be able to cope with handwritten pattern variability. As a matter of fact, the problem of zoning design has attracted many researchers who have proposed several image-zoning topologies, according to static and dynamic strategies. Unfortunately, little attention has been paid so far to the role of feature-zone membership functions that define the way in which a feature influences different zones of the zoning method. The result is that the membership functions defined to date follow nonadaptive, global approaches that are unable to model local information on feature distributions. In this paper, a new class of zone-based membership functions with adaptive capabilities is introduced and its effectiveness is shown. The basic idea is to select, for each zone of the zoning method, the membership function best suited to exploit the characteristics of the feature distribution of that zone. In addition, a genetic algorithm is proposed to determine-in a unique process-the most favorable membership functions along with the optimal zoning topology, described by Voronoi tessellation. The experimental tests show the superiority of the new technique with respect to traditional zoning methods.

  19. Ontology-based analysis of multi-scale modeling of geographical features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yanhui; LI; Xiaojuan; GONG; Huili

    2006-01-01

    As multi-scale databases based on scale series of map data are built, conceptual models are needed to define proper multi-scale representation formulas and to extract model entities and the relationships among them. However, the results of multi-scale conceptual abstraction schema may differ, according to which cognition, abstraction and application views are utilized, which presents an obvious obstacle to the reuse and sharing of spatial data. To facilitate the design of unified, common and objective abstract schema views for multi-scale spatial databases, this paper proposes an ontology-based analysis method for the multi-scale modeling of geographical features. It includes a three-layer ontology model, which serves as the framework for common multi-scale abstraction schema; an explanation of formulary abstractions accompanied by definitions of entities and their relationships at the same scale, as well as different scales,which are meant to provide strong feasibility, expansibility and speciality functions; and a case in point involving multi-scale representations of road features, to verify the method's feasibility.

  20. The Creation Of Web-Based Geographical Information System Of Drugstore Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Kosasi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties of finding the locations of the drugstores in a certain area often happen. They make the customers’ demands not satisfied. Low competitiveness of the drugstores is another impact. This research aims to create a web-based geographical information system (WebGis on the distribution of all drugstores located in the sub-districts of Pontianak using a web-based mapping approach. It is beneficial to use WebGis because the integrated information (i.e. spatial and non-spatial data can be provided. The information displays are also interactive and ease the customers to know the locations of the drugstores using certain view. Moreover, the system has a maptip feature that can be used to know the information of coordinate points showing the drugstore names, medical schedules, services, insurance, and addresses. The search column can be used to search the information of medicine and of physical appearance of drugstore buildings. Finally, the system maps all drugstores and gives accurate information. Therefore, the customers can analyze and find the drugstores with the nearest distance.

  1. Optimal Relay Selection using Efficient Beaconless Geographic Contention-Based Routing Protocol in Wireless Adhoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Srimathy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Ad hoc network, cooperation of nodes can be achieved by more interactions at higher protocol layers, particularly the MAC (Medium Access Control and network layers play vital role. MAC facilitates a routing protocol based on position location of nodes at network layer specially known as Beacon-less geographic routing (BLGR using Contention-based selection process. This paper proposes two levels of cross-layer framework -a MAC network cross-layer design for forwarder selection (or routing and a MAC-PHY for relay selection. CoopGeo; the proposed cross-layer protocol provides an efficient, distributed approach to select next hops and optimal relays to form a communication path. Wireless networks suffers huge number of communication at the same time leads to increase in collision and energy consumption; hence focused on new Contention access method that uses a dynamical change of channel access probability which can reduce the number of contention times and collisions. Simulation result demonstrates the best Relay selection and the comparative of direct mode with the cooperative networks. And Performance evaluation of contention probability with Collision avoidance.

  2. 33 CFR 165.1120 - Security Zone; Naval Amphibious Base, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Base, San Diego, CA. 165.1120 Section 165.1120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.1120 Security Zone; Naval Amphibious Base, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone: the waters of San Diego Bay, enclosed by lines connecting the following points: Beginning at...

  3. Predicting geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species (Aves: Furnariidae in South America based on ecological niche modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Salete Gurgel Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phacellodomus Reichenbach, 1853, comprises nine species of Furnariids that occur in South America in open and generally dry areas. This study estimated the geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species in South America by ecological niche modeling. Applying maximum entropy method, models were produced for eight species based on six climatic variables and 949 occurrence records. Since highest climatic suitability for Phacellodomus species has been estimated in open and dry areas, the Amazon rainforest areas are not very suitable for these species. Annual precipitation and minimum temperature of the coldest month are the variables that most influence the models. Phacellodomus species occurred in 35 ecoregions of South America. Chaco and Uruguayan savannas were the ecoregions with the highest number of species. Despite the overall connection of Phacellodomus species with dry areas, species such as P. ruber, P. rufifrons, P. ferrugineigula and P. erythrophthalmus occurred in wet forests and wetland ecoregions.

  4. Multi-pipeline geographical information system based on high accuracy inertial surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyz, J.A.; Pettigrew, C. [BJ Pipeline Inspection Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Pino, H.; Gomez, R. [Pemex Refinacion, Mexico City, (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The GIS system developed for the Pemex pipeline network in the Valley of Mexico was described. The system makes it possible to retrieve information on the precise location of pipelines and their features. It also displays their relative position to each other and other landmarks. It is useful in accurately identifying linear features. The system facilitates the management of various pipeline data. The UTM coordinates which are the basis of the geographical information system (GIS) were obtained from Geopig{sup R} inertial and caliper surveys which provided information on pipeline features and anomalies. The information was incorporated into the GIS along with metal loss data from past in-line inspections. The system is based on the ArcView{sup R} GIS Software with the ArcView 3D Analyst{sup TM} extension that makes it possible to view the cartography and pipeline data in 3D. One of the biggest advantages of the GIS system is that it stores a multitude of information from various pipelines into one database which is easy to manage and update. For example, it stores information on pipeline plan, profile, girth weld locations, dents, wall thickness, bending strains, metal loss and other features such as roads, buildings, political boundaries and hydrology. This makes it possible to detect defects and anomalies and helps to eliminate unnecessary excavations. It also helps to plan and schedule pipeline repairs. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Remote sensing and geographic information system-based African civet habitat mapping in Andracha, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melese, Dagnachew; Suryabhagavan, Karuturi Venkata; Gelet, Melakneh; Balakrishnan, Mundanthra

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing and geographic information systems have enormous applications in ecological studies, particularly in the habitat analysis of wild animals. The present study aimed to evaluate the habitats of the African civet in Andracha, Ethiopia, in order to generate geo-referenced ecological data on the habitats of this species. Habitat evaluation and habitat changes during 1986 to 2012 were analyzed using LANDSAT imageries. In the year 1986, 1017.56 km2 (99.75%) of the study area was covered with forest, but in 2012 only 949.61 km2 (93.09%) had forest cover. There has been a reduction of 5.97% forest cover at a rate of 0.22% per year since 1986. The study area has been classified into three suitability categories based on forest cover, water, settlement/agriculture, road and slope. Currently, 611.07 km2 (59.9%) of the area has dense forest cover, which is less preferred by the African civet, 336.75 km2 (33.01%) is moderately interfered with human activities and is suitable for civets, and 70.56 km2 (6.91%) is degraded forest around human habitats, which is highly preferred by civets. Habitat suitability analysis is useful to predict potential habitats of African civets in Ethiopia and elsewhere in Africa.

  6. China’s Island Frontier: Geographical Ideas on the Continent-based Nationalist Narratives on Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how nationalist narratives from Taiwan grappled with incorporating their ‘island frontier’ into conceptions of a Chinese unitary state. In the post World War II era, after the Chinese Nationalist government-in-exile re-established itself on the island of Taiwan, US-dominated scholarship strategically framed Taiwan as a convenient substitute for the study of China. This framing went hand in hand with the re-sinicization project on the island vigorously pursued by the Nationalists after they took control over the island after the collapse of the Japanese Empire. The Nationalist agenda emphasized the historical connection between the island and mainland China in order to politically create an imagined, and imagining, national community across the Strait. This paper critically investigates how continent-based nationalist narratives have sought to incorporate offshore islands into their unitary framework. It does so by deploying the concepts of geobody, geomancy, geochronology, geosymmetrical analogies, and regional demarcation to explore the geographical ideas on the construction of the postwar national imaginary.

  7. Exploring the human body space: A geographical information system based anatomical atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Barbeito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical atlases allow mapping the anatomical structures of the human body. Early versions of these systems consisted of analogical representations with informative text and labeled images of the human body. With computer systems, digital versions emerged and the third and fourth dimensions were introduced. Consequently, these systems increased their efficiency, allowing more realistic visualizations with improved interactivity and functionality. The 4D atlases allow modeling changes over time on the structures represented. The anatomical atlases based on geographic information system (GIS environments allow the creation of platforms with a high degree of interactivity and new tools to explore and analyze the human body. In this study we expand the functions of a human body representation system by creating new vector data, topology, functions, and an improved user interface. The new prototype emulates a 3D GIS with a topological model of the human body, replicates the information provided by anatomical atlases, and provides a higher level of functionality and interactivity. At this stage, the developed system is intended to be used as an educational tool and integrates into the same interface the typical representations of surface and sectional atlases.

  8. Software Application for Remote Monitoring of Fleets Based on Geographic Information Systems Using Open Source Technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Daniel Cano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Controlling a fleet usually implies to establish means of control of vehicles, to collect the data associated with the routes taken by these vehicles, to interpret and evaluate the meaning of the collected data and to make the appropriate decisions to improve the efficiency in the use of vehicles in an organization. The implementation of this process of fleet management is mainly performed manually and the solutions available on the market are costly because of the payments for licenses, it is also necessary that the people monitoring the fleets are geographically close to them. This paper aims to answer the following questions: How to reduce errors in the management of information resulting from the fleet management process? How to reduce the cost of remote fleet monitoring? To obtain the solution, we propose the use of GPS devices in each vehicle, the GPS device’s information is captured and consistently stored in a data base, then the information is consulted, analyzed and represented on a map. The result is a software application that allows users have fast and reliable information that will enable them to take the necessary decisions in the vehicle fleet they are trying to control at a low cost.

  9. Riparian zone control on base cation concentration in boreal streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. J. Ledesma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Riparian zones (RZ are a major factor controlling water chemistry in forest streams. Base cations' (BC concentrations, fluxes, and cycling in the RZ merit attention because a changing climate and increased forest harvesting could have negative consequences, including re-acidification, for boreal surface waters. We present a two-year study of BC and silica (Si flow-weighted concentrations from 13 RZ and 14 streams in different landscape elements of a boreal catchment in northern Sweden. The spatial variation in BC and Si dynamics in both RZ and streams was explained by differences in landscape element type, with highest concentrations in silty sediments and lowest concentrations in peat-dominated wetland areas. Temporal stability in BC and Si concentrations in riparian soil water, remarkably stable Mg/Ca ratios, and homogeneous mineralogy suggest that patterns found in the RZ are a result of a distinct mineralogical upslope signal in groundwater. Stream water Mg/Ca ratios indicate that the signal is subsequently maintained in the streams. Flow-weighted concentrations of Ca, Mg, and Na in headwater streams were represented by the corresponding concentrations in the RZ, which were estimated using the Riparian Flow-Concentration Integration Model (RIM approach. Stream and RZ flow-weighted concentrations differed for K and Si, suggesting a stronger biogeochemical influence on these elements, including K recirculation by vegetation and retention of Si within the RZ. Potential increases in groundwater levels linked to forest harvesting or changes in precipitation regimes would tend to reduce BC concentrations from RZ to streams, potentially leading to episodic acidification.

  10. Riparian zone control on base cation concentration in boreal streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, J. L. J.; Grabs, T.; Futter, M. N.; Bishop, K. H.; Laudon, H.; Köhler, S. J.

    2013-06-01

    Riparian zones (RZ) are a major factor controlling water chemistry in forest streams. Base cations' (BC) concentrations, fluxes, and cycling in the RZ merit attention because a changing climate and increased forest harvesting could have negative consequences, including re-acidification, for boreal surface waters. We present a two-year study of BC and silica (Si) flow-weighted concentrations from 13 RZ and 14 streams in different landscape elements of a boreal catchment in northern Sweden. The spatial variation in BC and Si dynamics in both RZ and streams was explained by differences in landscape element type, with highest concentrations in silty sediments and lowest concentrations in peat-dominated wetland areas. Temporal stability in BC and Si concentrations in riparian soil water, remarkably stable Mg/Ca ratios, and homogeneous mineralogy suggest that patterns found in the RZ are a result of a distinct mineralogical upslope signal in groundwater. Stream water Mg/Ca ratios indicate that the signal is subsequently maintained in the streams. Flow-weighted concentrations of Ca, Mg, and Na in headwater streams were represented by the corresponding concentrations in the RZ, which were estimated using the Riparian Flow-Concentration Integration Model (RIM) approach. Stream and RZ flow-weighted concentrations differed for K and Si, suggesting a stronger biogeochemical influence on these elements, including K recirculation by vegetation and retention of Si within the RZ. Potential increases in groundwater levels linked to forest harvesting or changes in precipitation regimes would tend to reduce BC concentrations from RZ to streams, potentially leading to episodic acidification.

  11. Integrated Coastal Zone Planning Based on Environment Carrying Capacity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miharja, M.; Arsallia, S.

    2017-07-01

    Coastal zone is a crucial area in terms of planning development. It holds high economic value, which affect to increasing number of inhabitants living in the area. As a result, this condition influences environmental degradation. Thus, in every attempt towards coastal zone development, it is crucial to always refer to environment carrying capacity. Carrying capacity is the limit of a certain coastal zone capability to support all human created activities, in which all ecological performances are maintained at sustainable level. The failure to establish strong and clear method and regulation on carrying capacity analysis will lead to a very risky coastal zone development, which in turn would threat the area’s sustainability. This paper discusses method for analysing carrying capacity of coastal zone as important input for the area development plan. Two key parameters, i.e. land and clean water carrying capacities are discussed to form carrying capacity analytical method. Furthermore, an empirical data of Ambon Bay, Moluccas Province, is used to illustrate the operationalization of the method.

  12. Development and implementation of a low cost micro computer system for LANDSAT analysis and geographic data base applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, N.; Jordon, L.

    1981-01-01

    Since the implementation of the GRID and IMGRID computer programs for multivariate spatial analysis in the early 1970's, geographic data analysis subsequently moved from large computers to minicomputers and now to microcomputers with radical reduction in the costs associated with planning analyses. Programs designed to process LANDSAT data to be used as one element in a geographic data base were used once NIMGRID (new IMGRID), a raster oriented geographic information system, was implemented on the microcomputer. Programs for training field selection, supervised and unsupervised classification, and image enhancement were added. Enhancements to the color graphics capabilities of the microsystem allow display of three channels of LANDSAT data in color infrared format. The basic microcomputer hardware needed to perform NIMGRID and most LANDSAT analyses is listed as well as the software available for LANDSAT processing.

  13. Crash Prediction and Risk Evaluation Based on Traffic Analysis Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiping Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic safety evaluation for traffic analysis zones (TAZs plays an important role in transportation safety planning and long-range transportation plan development. This paper aims to present a comprehensive analysis of zonal safety evaluation. First, several criteria are proposed to measure the crash risk at zonal level. Then these criteria are integrated into one measure-average hazard index (AHI, which is used to identify unsafe zones. In addition, the study develops a negative binomial regression model to statistically estimate significant factors for the unsafe zones. The model results indicate that the zonal crash frequency can be associated with several social-economic, demographic, and transportation system factors. The impact of these significant factors on zonal crash is also discussed. The finding of this study suggests that safety evaluation and estimation might benefit engineers and decision makers in identifying high crash locations for potential safety improvements.

  14. Parcels versus pixels: modeling agricultural land use across broad geographic regions using parcel-based field boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Terry L.; Dornbierer, Jordan; Wika, Steve; Sayler, Kristi L.; Quenzer, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Land use and land cover (LULC) change occurs at a local level within contiguous ownership and management units (parcels), yet LULC models primarily use pixel-based spatial frameworks. The few parcel-based models being used overwhelmingly focus on small geographic areas, limiting the ability to assess LULC change impacts at regional to national scales. We developed a modified version of the Forecasting Scenarios of land use change model to project parcel-based agricultural change across a large region in the United States Great Plains. A scenario representing an agricultural biofuel scenario was modeled from 2012 to 2030, using real parcel boundaries based on contiguous ownership and land management units. The resulting LULC projection provides a vastly improved representation of landscape pattern over existing pixel-based models, while simultaneously providing an unprecedented combination of thematic detail and broad geographic extent. The conceptual approach is practical and scalable, with potential use for national-scale projections.

  15. Workload management and geographic disorientation in aviation incidents: A review of the ASRS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Henry P.; Tham, Mingpo; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident reports are reviewed in two related areas: pilots' failures to appropriately manage tasks, and breakdowns in geographic orientation. Examination of 51 relevant reports on task management breakdowns revealed that altitude busts and inappropriate runway usee were the most frequently reported consequences. Task management breakdowns appeared to occur at all levels of expertise, and prominent causal factors were related to breakdowns in crew communications, over-involvement with the flight management system and, for small (general aviation) aircraft, preoccupation with weather. Analysis of the 83 cases of geographic disorientation suggested that these too occurred at all levels of pilot experience. With regard to causal factors, a majority was related to poor cockpit resource management, in which inattention led to a loss of geographic awareness. Other leading causes were related to poor weather and poor decision making. The potential of the ASRS database for contributing to research and design issues is addressed.

  16. Designing a web-based learning portal for geographic visualization and analysis in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Anthony C; MacEachren, Alan M; Roth, Robert E

    2011-09-01

    Interactive mapping and spatial analysis tools are under-utilized by health researchers and decision-makers as a result of scarce training materials, few examples demonstrating the successful use of geographic visualization, and poor mechanisms for sharing results generated by geovisualization. Here, we report on the development of the Geovisual EXplication(G-EX) Portal, a web-based application designed to connect researchers in geovisualization and related mapping sciences, to users who are working in public health and epidemiology. This paper focuses on the design and development of the G-EX Portal Learn module, a set of tools intended to disseminate learning artifacts. Initial design and development of the G-EX Portal has been guided by our past research on the use and usability of geovisualization in public health. As part of the iterative design and development process, we conducted a needs assessment survey with targeted end-users, which we report on here. The survey focused on users' current learning habits, their preferred kind of learning artifacts and issues they may have with contributing learning artifacts to web portals. Survey results showed that users desire a diverse set of learning artifacts in terms of both formats and topics covered. Results also revealed a willingness of users to contribute both learning artifacts and personal information that would help other users to evaluate the credibility of the learning artifact source. We include a detailed description of the G-EX Portal Learn module and focus on modifications to the design of the Learn module as a result from feedback we received from our survey.

  17. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Geographical Information System and Groundwater Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Derakhshan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Iran is located in an arid and semi-arid part of the world. Accordingly, the management of the water resources in the country is a priority. In this regard, determining the quality and pollution of surface water and groundwater is very important, especially in areas where groundwater resources are used for drinking. Groundwater quality index (GQI checks the components of the available water with various quality levels. To assess the quality of drinking groundwater of Yazd-Ardakan plain according to GQI in geographical information system (GIS environment, the electrical conductivity, sodium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, pH, sodium adsorption ratio, bicarbonate, sulfate, potassium, water hardness, and all substances dissolved in the waters of 80 wells were determined. The samples were obtained from Yazd Regional Water Organization from 2005 to 2014. Using this data, the map components were plotted by Kriging geostatistical method. Then, the map of GQI was prepared after normalizing each map component, switching to a rating map, and extracting the weight of each component from the rating map. Based on the GQI index map, the index point which was 87 in 2005 has increased to 81 in 2014. These maps show a decline in groundwater quality from west to the east region. This decline in groundwater quality is due to the existence of Neogene Organizations in the east and geomorphologic unit of the bare epandage pediment in the west. The map removal and single-parameter sensitivity analysis showed that GQI index in Yazd-Ardakan plain is more sensitive to the components of electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, and total hardness (TH. Therefore, these components should be monitored more carefully and repeatedly.

  18. State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) Data Base for the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Gregory E.; Alexander, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    USSOILS is an Arc 7.0 coverage containing hydrology-relevant information for 10,498 map units covering the entire conterminous United States. The coverage was compiled from individual State coverages contained in the October 1994 State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) Data Base produced on CD-ROM. The geo-dataset USSOILS.PAT relates (on the basis of a map unit identifier) the 10,498 map units to 78,518 polygons. The scale of the geo-dataset is 1:250,000. The INFO attribute table USSOILS.MUID_ATTS contains selected variables from the STATSGO data set for 10,501 map units (an extra 3 map units are contained in the attribute table that are not in the geo-dataset - see the 'Procedures' section below), including: the map unit identifier, a 2-character state abbreviation, available water capacity of the soil, percent clay in the soil, the actual k-factor used in the water erosion component of the universal soil loss equation, the organic material in soil, soil permeability, cumulative thickness of all soil layers, hydrologic characteristics of the soil, quality of drainage, surface slope, liquid limit of the soil, share of a map unit having hydric soils, and the annual frequency of flooding. To facilitate mapping the attribute data, the narrative section below contains instructions for transferring the information contained in the attribute table USSOILS.MUID_ATTS to the polygon attribute table USSOILS.PAT. STATSGO United States Soil Water Capacity Clay Organic material Permeability Infiltration Drainage Hydric Flood frequency Slope

  19. Beyond redundancy how geographic redundancy can improve service availability and reliability of computer-based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Eric; Eustace, Dan

    2012-01-01

    "While geographic redundancy can obviously be a huge benefit for disaster recovery, it is far less obvious what benefit is feasible and likely for more typical non-catastrophic hardware, software, and human failures. Georedundancy and Service Availability provides both a theoretical and practical treatment of the feasible and likely benefits of geographic redundancy for both service availability and service reliability. The text provides network/system planners, IS/IT operations folks, system architects, system engineers, developers, testers, and other industry practitioners with a general discussion about the capital expense/operating expense tradeoff that frames system redundancy and georedundancy"--

  20. A new statistical model of wave heights based on the concept of wave breaking critical zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jiaxuan; LI Xunqiang; ZHU Shouxian; ZHANG Wenjing; WANG Lei

    2015-01-01

    When waves propagate from deep water to shallow water, wave heights and steepness increase and then waves roll back and break. This phenomenon is called surf. Currently, the present statistical calculation model of surf was derived mainly from the wave energy conservation equation and the linear wave dispersion relation, but it cannot reflect accurately the process which is a rapid increasing in wave height near the broken point. So, the concept of a surf breaking critical zone is presented. And the nearshore is divided as deep water zone, shallow water zone, surf breaking critical zone and after breaking zone. Besides, the calculation formula for the height of the surf breaking critical zone has founded based on flume experiments, thereby a new statistical calculation model on the surf has been established. Using the new model, the calculation error of wave height maximum is reduced from 17.62% to 6.43%.

  1. Agricultural Ecological Zoning Plan of Old Industrial Bases in Liaoning Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of brief description of current situation of old industrial bases and primary industry of Liaoning Province, the paper introduces the general situation of agriculture-ecological zoning plan in Liaoning Province. First, the ecological bases of agricultural zoning plan are introduced through various topographic and geomorphic types, regional climate differences and imbalanced distribution of natural resources; Second, in accordance with the theory of comparative advantage, distribution of production and resource economics, on the basis of comprehensive evaluation of agricultural natural resources, with the principle of fully excavating economic function of different natural resources, and in order to improve allocation efficiency of the two resources of market and government, the formation of ecological zoning plan of agriculture in Liaoning Province is analyzed; Third, according to Regional Layout Planning of Characteristic Agricultural Products of Liaoning Province (2006-2010), the paper describes basic layout of agriculture-ecological zoning plan in Liaoning Province. The policy support of agriculture-ecological zoning plan in Liaoning Province is analyzed from three aspects-support policy of functional zone major in producing grain, support policy of other characteristic agriculture-ecological zone and support measures of development of agriculture-ecological zone. The paper also analyzes experiences of agricultural development of old industrial bases in ecological zoning plan: First, agriculture-ecological zoning plan is a effective way of the revitalization of old industrial bases; Second, scientificity of plan is the basis of improving competitiveness of regional agriculture; Third, multi-input mechanism guiding by government is the key of agricultural packing effect; Fourth, integrated agricultural industrial chain is guarantee of realizing industrialization in ecological zone.

  2. An Activity-Based Learning Approach for Key Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sanjeev Kumar; Tait, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the effect of active learning methods of concepts in geographical information systems where students participated in a series of interlocked learning experiences. These activities spanned several teaching weeks and involved the creation of a hand drawn map that was scanned and geo-referenced with locations' coordinates derived…

  3. The National Council for Geographic Education Standards-Based Geography Test. Intermediate Level. Directions for Administering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council for Geographic Education.

    This document contains a test designed by the National Council for Geographic Education for middle school students to determine what knowledge, skills, and understandings students have developed in geography. The document also contains directions for administering the test, test performance data from a sample of 468 middle school students in 18…

  4. Integrating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) into Secondary Education: A Community-Based Learning Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northon, Cherie

    Teaching secondary students the basics of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) results in a variety of benefits. Conventional secondary educational programs are enhanced, and high school students are provided an opportunity to experience a rapidly expanding field as they plan for college and their professional future. For such projects, stipends…

  5. Employment-based retirement plan participation: geographic differences and trends, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Craig

    2011-10-01

    LATEST DATA: This Issue Brief examines the level of participation by workers in public- and private-sector employment-based pension or retirement plans, based on the U.S. Census Bureau's March 2011 Current Population Survey (CPS), the most recent data currently available (for year-end 2010). SPONSORSHIP RATE: Among all working-age (21-64) wage and salary employees, 54.2 percent worked for an employer or union that sponsored a retirement plan in 2010. Among full-time, full-year wage and salary workers ages 21-64 (those with the strongest connection to the work force), 61.6 percent worked for an employer or union that sponsors a plan. PARTICIPATION LEVEL: Among full-time, full-year wage and salary workers ages 21-64, 54.5 percent participated in a retirement plan. TREND: This is virtually unchanged from 54.4 percent in 2009. Participation trends increased significantly in the late 1990s, and decreased in 2001 and 2002. In 2003 and 2004, the participation trend flattened out. The retirement plan participation level subsequently declined in 2005 and 2006, before a significant increase in 2007. Slight declines occurred in 2008 and 2009, followed by a flattening out of the trend in 2010. AGE: Participation increased with age (61.4 percent for wage and salary workers ages 55-64, compared with 29.2 percent for those ages 21-24). GENDER: Among wage and salary workers ages 21-64, men had a higher participation level than women, but among full-time, full-year workers, women had a higher percentage participating than men (55.5 percent for women, compared with 53.8 percent for men). Female workers' lower probability of participation among wage and salary workers results from their overall lower earnings and lower rates of full-time work in comparison with males. RACE: Hispanic wage and salary workers were significantly less likely than both white and black workers to participate in a retirement plan. The gap between the percentages of black and white plan participants that

  6. Food security and vulnerability modeling of East Java Province based on Geographically Weighted Ordinal Logistic Regression Semiparametric (GWOLRS model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.W. Surya Wardhani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of food security based on the characteristics of the area will be affected by the geographical location which means that geographical location will affect the region’s potential. Therefore, we need a method of statistical modeling that takes into account the geographical location or the location factor observations. In this case, the research variables could be global means that the location affects the response variables significantly; when some of the predictor variables are global and the other variables are local, then Geographically Weighted Ordinal Logistic Regression Semiparametric (GWOLRS could be used to analyze the data. The data used is the resilience and food insecurity data in 2011 in East Java Province. The result showed that three predictor variables that influenced by the location are the percentage of poor (%, rice production per district (tons and life expectancy (%. Those three predictor variables are local because they have significant influence in some districts/cities but had no significant effect in other districts/cities, while other two variables that are clean water and good quality road length (km are assumed global because it is not a significant factor for the whole districts/towns in East Java .

  7. Applying geographic information systems to delineate residential suburbs and summarise data based on individual parcel attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan A. Sinske

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information aggregation to suburb level is of interest to engineers and urban planners. Readily available suburb boundaries do not always correspond to the suburb names recorded for individual properties in different data bases and unwanted errors are inherent. This mismatch of suburb names at different spatial scales poses a particular problem to analysts. As part of a parallel research project into the development of a robust guideline for suburb-based water demand analyses it was necessary to evaluate a large number of suburbs in terms of various attributes, one of which was the total suburb area.Objectives: Suburb boundaries were needed to assess the total suburb area. The objective of this research was to develop a novel geographic information system (GIS application to delineate suburbs with boundaries corresponding to information contained in another data base comprising individual property records. The suburb boundaries derived in this manner may not relate to municipal boundaries, or sociopolitical boundaries, nor do they have to. The fundamentally correct suburb boundary would be the one encompassing what is perceived to be the suburb based on the suburb name in a particular data base that also contains other interesting attributes, such as water use, of individual properties.Method: The ArcGIS environment was used to delineate suburbs by means of triangulated irregular network (TIN modelling. Boundaries for suburbs with predominantly residential land use were created that included all residential properties according to the suburb name field as recorded in the treasury system. Other vacant areas were also included so as to obtain the total suburb area. The methodology was developed to assist research in the field of potable water services, but the method presented could be applied to other services that require management of information at suburb level.Results: This article illustrates how a tedious task of suburb

  8. Accuracy of two geocoding methods for geographic information system-based exposure assessment in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Elodie; Danjou, Aurélie M N; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Fervers, Béatrice

    2017-02-24

    Environmental exposure assessment based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and study participants' residential proximity to environmental exposure sources relies on the positional accuracy of subjects' residences to avoid misclassification bias. Our study compared the positional accuracy of two automatic geocoding methods to a manual reference method. We geocoded 4,247 address records representing the residential history (1990-2008) of 1,685 women from the French national E3N cohort living in the Rhône-Alpes region. We compared two automatic geocoding methods, a free-online geocoding service (method A) and an in-house geocoder (method B), to a reference layer created by manually relocating addresses from method A (method R). For each automatic geocoding method, positional accuracy levels were compared according to the urban/rural status of addresses and time-periods (1990-2000, 2001-2008), using Chi Square tests. Kappa statistics were performed to assess agreement of positional accuracy of both methods A and B with the reference method, overall, by time-periods and by urban/rural status of addresses. Respectively 81.4% and 84.4% of addresses were geocoded to the exact address (65.1% and 61.4%) or to the street segment (16.3% and 23.0%) with methods A and B. In the reference layer, geocoding accuracy was higher in urban areas compared to rural areas (74.4% vs. 10.5% addresses geocoded to the address or interpolated address level, p < 0.0001); no difference was observed according to the period of residence. Compared to the reference method, median positional errors were 0.0 m (IQR = 0.0-37.2 m) and 26.5 m (8.0-134.8 m), with positional errors <100 m for 82.5% and 71.3% of addresses, for method A and method B respectively. Positional agreement of method A and method B with method R was 'substantial' for both methods, with kappa coefficients of 0.60 and 0.61 for methods A and B, respectively. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of geocoding

  9. Context sensitive trust based geographic opportunistic routing in mobile ad hoc networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A RAJESH; N MOHAN KUMAR

    2016-11-01

    Position based opportunistic routing (POR) is a stateless, robust, and reliable geographic routing protocol in Mobile AdHoc NETwork (MANET). The opportunistic routing embraces broadcast property of wireless channels and utilizes it for opportunistic forwarding. Both the malicious node behavior and the backupnodes’ behavior are equally treated as malicious in the existing misbehavior detection mechanisms. Hence, incorporating a general trust model in POR is not combative with routing attacks. It is necessary to determine whether the misbehavior is likely a result of malicious activity or due to the backup scenario of opportunistic forwarding. On the other hand, if context-sensitive trust information is available on every node, it ensures a fair decision making and also supports secured routing in an opportunistic approach. This work investigates the utilization of context attributes along with generic trust model to allow POR for secure and reliable data forwarding. This paper introduces context-sensitive trust for choosing the data forwarding node in POR (CPOR) to assist opportunistic routing in selecting the trusted optimal data forwarding node and to cope with both security and reliability of communications. The proposed work exercises both coarse- and fine-grained trust evaluation to strengthen the trustworthiness. The coarse-grained trust measure includes positive progress per hop and behavioral attribute of the nodes in terms of routing service. The fine-grained trust evaluation differs the opportunistic routing environment from the adverse scenarios and aids the source node such that it builds a highly trusted positive progress set using contextual attributes. The fine-grained trust evaluation deduces the ideal contextual information such as the link quality, battery energy, and the backup service to determine the accurate trust value of nodes. As a result, it involves optimal routes and enables CPOR to maintain the routingperformance equal to the POR even

  10. The acid-base resistant zone in three dentin bonding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Go; Nikaido, Toru; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2009-11-01

    An acid-base resistant zone has been found to exist after acid-base challenge adjacent to the hybrid layer using SEM. The aim of this study was to examine the acid-base resistant zone using three different bonding systems. Dentin disks were applied with three different bonding systems, and then a resin composite was light-cured to make dentin disk sandwiches. After acid-base challenge, the polished surfaces were observed using SEM. For both one- and two-step self-etching primer systems, an acid-base resistant zone was clearly observed adjacent to the hybrid layer - but with differing appearances. For the wet bonding system, the presence of an acid-base resistant zone was unclear. This was because the self-etching primer systems etched the dentin surface mildly, such that the remaining mineral phase of dentin and the bonding agent yielded clear acid-base resistant zones. In conclusion, the acid-base resistant zone was clearly observed when self-etching primer systems were used, but not so for the wet bonding system.

  11. Risk map for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia based on environmental factors as revealed by geographical information systems and statistics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease strongly associated with poverty. Treatment is problematic and no vaccine is available. Ethiopia has seen new outbreaks in areas previously not known to be endemic, often with co-infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with rates reaching 5.6% of the cases. The present study concerns the development of a risk model based on environmental factors using geographical information systems (GIS), statistical analysis and model...

  12. A Python-Based Open Source System for Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA Utilizing Raster Attribute Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Clewley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A modular system for performing Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA, using entirely open source (General Public License compatible software, is presented based around representing objects as raster clumps and storing attributes as a raster attribute table (RAT. The system utilizes a number of libraries, developed by the authors: The Remote Sensing and GIS Library (RSGISLib, the Raster I/O Simplification (RIOS Python Library, the KEA image format and TuiView image viewer. All libraries are accessed through Python, providing a common interface on which to build processing chains. Three examples are presented, to demonstrate the capabilities of the system: (1 classification of mangrove extent and change in French Guiana; (2 a generic scheme for the classification of the UN-FAO land cover classification system (LCCS and their subsequent translation to habitat categories; and (3 a national-scale segmentation for Australia. The system presented provides similar functionality to existing GEOBIA packages, but is more flexible, due to its modular environment, capable of handling complex classification processes and applying them to larger datasets.

  13. Recognition of online handwritten Gurmukhi characters based on zone and stroke identification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KARUN VERMA; R K SHARMA

    2017-05-01

    Handwriting recognition is a technique that converts handwritten characters into a machine-processable format. Handwritten characters can either be presented to machine online or offline. A good amount of research in this area has been carried out for English, Chinese, Japanese and Korean languages. Research is also going on for Indian languages on developing online handwriting recognition systems. Headline and baseline are common features in most Indic languages which divide a character into three zones, namely, upper, middle andlower zones. Identification of headline and baseline is a major task for classification of strokes located in these three zones. A zone identification algorithm is proposed and tested in this text for online handwriting recognitionof Gurmukhi script. The strokes are grouped into these separate zones and are recognized based on respective support vector machine model for each zone. A rule-based approach has also been applied and tested for generation of characters from the set of recognized strokes. In this work, an accuracy of 95.3% has been achieved for zone identification and an accuracy of 74.8% has been achieved for character identification for Gurmukhi script. This accuracy has been achieved when the recognition engines of three zones were tested onthe dataset of 428 characters each written by 10 users.

  14. Nation-wide, web-based, geographic information system for the integrated surveillance and control of dengue fever in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ávila, Juan Eugenio; Rodríguez, Mario-Henry; Santos-Luna, René; Sánchez-Castañeda, Veronica; Román-Pérez, Susana; Ríos-Salgado, Víctor Hugo; Salas-Sarmiento, Jesús Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever incidence and its geographical distribution are increasing throughout the world. Quality and timely information is essential for its prevention and control. A web based, geographically enabled, dengue integral surveillance system (Dengue-GIS) was developed for the nation-wide collection, integration, analysis and reporting of geo-referenced epidemiologic, entomologic, and control interventions data. Consensus in the design and practical operation of the system was a key factor for its acceptance. Working with information systems already implemented as a starting point facilitated its acceptance by officials and operative personnel. Dengue-GIS provides the geographical detail needed to plan, asses and evaluate the impact of control activities. The system is beginning to be adopted as a knowledge base by vector control programs. It is used to generate evidence on impact and cost-effectiveness of control activities, promoting the use of information for decision making at all levels of the vector control program. Dengue-GIS has also been used as a hypothesis generator for the academic community. This GIS-based model system for dengue surveillance and the experience gathered during its development and implementation could be useful in other dengue endemic countries and extended to other infectious or chronic diseases.

  15. Nation-wide, web-based, geographic information system for the integrated surveillance and control of dengue fever in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eugenio Hernández-Ávila

    Full Text Available Dengue fever incidence and its geographical distribution are increasing throughout the world. Quality and timely information is essential for its prevention and control. A web based, geographically enabled, dengue integral surveillance system (Dengue-GIS was developed for the nation-wide collection, integration, analysis and reporting of geo-referenced epidemiologic, entomologic, and control interventions data. Consensus in the design and practical operation of the system was a key factor for its acceptance. Working with information systems already implemented as a starting point facilitated its acceptance by officials and operative personnel. Dengue-GIS provides the geographical detail needed to plan, asses and evaluate the impact of control activities. The system is beginning to be adopted as a knowledge base by vector control programs. It is used to generate evidence on impact and cost-effectiveness of control activities, promoting the use of information for decision making at all levels of the vector control program. Dengue-GIS has also been used as a hypothesis generator for the academic community. This GIS-based model system for dengue surveillance and the experience gathered during its development and implementation could be useful in other dengue endemic countries and extended to other infectious or chronic diseases.

  16. Geospatial mapping of Antarctic coastal oasis using geographic object-based image analysis and high resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawak, Shridhar D.; Luis, Alvarinho J.

    2016-04-01

    An accurate spatial mapping and characterization of land cover features in cryospheric regions is an essential procedure for many geoscientific studies. A novel semi-automated method was devised by coupling spectral index ratios (SIRs) and geographic object-based image analysis (OBIA) to extract cryospheric geospatial information from very high resolution WorldView 2 (WV-2) satellite imagery. The present study addresses development of multiple rule sets for OBIA-based classification of WV-2 imagery to accurately extract land cover features in the Larsemann Hills, east Antarctica. Multilevel segmentation process was applied to WV-2 image to generate different sizes of geographic image objects corresponding to various land cover features with respect to scale parameter. Several SIRs were applied to geographic objects at different segmentation levels to classify land mass, man-made features, snow/ice, and water bodies. We focus on water body class to identify water areas at the image level, considering their uneven appearance on landmass and ice. The results illustrated that synergetic usage of SIRs and OBIA can provide accurate means to identify land cover classes with an overall classification accuracy of ≍97%. In conclusion, our results suggest that OBIA is a powerful tool for carrying out automatic and semiautomatic analysis for most cryospheric remote-sensing applications, and the synergetic coupling with pixel-based SIRs is found to be a superior method for mining geospatial information.

  17. Geographic Object-based Image Analysis for Developing Cryospheric Surface Mapping Application using Remotely Sensed High-Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawak, S. D.; Luis, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    A novel semi-automated method was devised by coupling spectral index ratios (SIRs) and geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) to extract cryospheric geoinformation from very high resolution WorldView 2 (WV-2) satellite imagery. The present study addresses development of multiple rule sets for GEOBIA-based classification of WV-2 imagery to accurately extract land cover features in the Larsemann Hills, Antarctica. Multi-level segmentation process was applied to WV-2 image to generate different sizes of geographic image objects corresponding to various land cover features w.r.t scale parameter. Several SIRs were applied to geographic objects at different segmentation levels to classify landmass, man-made features, snow/ice, and water bodies. A specific attention was paid to water body class to identify water areas at the image level, considering their uneven appearance on landmass and ice. The results illustrated that synergetic usage of SIRs and GEOBIA can provide accurate means to identify land cover classes with an overall classification accuracy of ≈97%. In conclusion, the results suggest that GEOBIA is a powerful tool for carrying out automatic and semiautomatic analysis for most cryospheric remote-sensing applications, and the synergetic coupling with pixel-based SIRs is found to be a superior method for mining geoinformation.

  18. Geographic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cases, most often related to eating hot, spicy, salty or acidic foods Many people with geographic tongue ... sensitive oral tissues, including: Hot, spicy, acidic or salty foods Tobacco products Toothpaste that contains tartar-control ...

  19. Design and implementation of distributed virtual geographic environment system based on MAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Kaiping; Yang, Xiaoxia

    2007-11-01

    The use of distributed virtual geographic environments (DVGE) is one of the most promising uses of virtual reality in geographic field. Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) is flexible and adaptive enough to resolve highly complex distributed computing problems. This paper aims to discuss how to apply MAS technology to improve the efficiency of collaborative work among multi-user. We firstly design the three-layer system architecture and multi agent system of the DVGE. Then dynamic cooperative group algorithm is also addressed. Finally, we built a collaborative virtual environment and implemented prototype system in silt dams system planning on a case study area, Jiu-Yuan-Gou watershed of Loess Plateau, China. Experiment results prove that the scheme addressed in this paper is efficient and feasible.

  20. Modelling of ultrasonic motor with dead-zone based on Hammerstein model structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The ultrasonic motor (USM) possesses heavy nonlinearities which vary with driving conditions and load-dependent characteristics such as the dead-zone. In this paper, an identification method for the rotary travelling-wave type ultrasonic motor (RTWUSM) with dead-zone is proposed based on a modified Hammerstein model structure. The driving voltage contributing effect on the nonlinearities of the RTWUSM was transformed to the change of dynamic parameters against the driving voltage.The dead-zone of the RTWUSM is identified based upon the above transformation. Experiment results showed good agreement between the output of the proposed model and actual measured output.

  1. Modification of the Geographic Corrosivity Index and its Application to Overseas Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    characteristics. The weight loss data was obtained on coupons of aluminium alloys 6061 and 7075 exposed in the open. Comprehensive climate data for...geographic and climatic conditions, the correlation between the GCIA and weight loss data from aluminium alloy coupons exposed in the open at 38 sites in...University of Surrey. On returning to Australia he worked in the copper and aluminium alloy extrusion industry for many years in areas such as R & D

  2. Considerations in developing geographic informations systems based on low-cost digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, F. M.; Dobson, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of digital image processing systems costing $20,000 or less for geographic information systems is assessed with the emphasis on the volume of data to be handled, the commercial hardware systems available, and the basic software for: (1) data entry, conversion and digitization; (2) georeferencing and geometric correction; (3) data structuring; (4) editing and updating; (5) analysis and retrieval; (6) output drivers; and (7) data management. Costs must also be considered as tangible and intangible factors.

  3. Simplified theory of plastic zones based on Zarka's method

    CERN Document Server

    Hübel, Hartwig

    2017-01-01

    The present book provides a new method to estimate elastic-plastic strains via a series of linear elastic analyses. For a life prediction of structures subjected to variable loads, frequently encountered in mechanical and civil engineering, the cyclically accumulated deformation and the elastic plastic strain ranges are required. The Simplified Theory of Plastic Zones (STPZ) is a direct method which provides the estimates of these and all other mechanical quantities in the state of elastic and plastic shakedown. The STPZ is described in detail, with emphasis on the fact that not only scientists but engineers working in applied fields and advanced students are able to get an idea of the possibilities and limitations of the STPZ. Numerous illustrations and examples are provided to support the reader's understanding.

  4. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, Tesfaye; Lakew, Yihunie; Deribe, Kebede

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country. We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005) Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS) were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000) and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005) women of reproductive age (15-49 years) were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM). The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change), bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF) with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots. The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated with decreased odds of women

  5. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Setegn

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country.We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005 Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000 and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005 women of reproductive age (15-49 years were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM. The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots.The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated with decreased odds

  6. Another Look at Taurus Littrow: An Interactive Geographic Information System DataBase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Meisburger, J. L.; Nettles, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    A variety of data has been amassed for the Apollo 17 landing site, including topography, sample locations, and imagery. These data were compiled into a Geographic Information System (GIS) to analyze their interrelationships more easily. The database will allow the evaluation of the resource potential of the Taurus Littrow region pyroclastic deposits. The database also serves as a catalog for the returned lunar samples. This catalog includes rock type, size, and location. While this project specifically targets the Taurus Littrow region, it is applicable to other regions as well.

  7. Comparing Perception-Based and Geographic Information System (GIS)-based characterizations of the local food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Latetia V; Diez Roux, Ana V; Brines, Shannon

    2008-03-01

    Measuring features of the local food environment has been a major challenge in studying the effect of the environment on diet. This study examined associations between alternate ways of characterizing the local food environment by comparing Geographic Information System (GIS)-derived densities of various types of stores to perception-based measures of the availability of healthy foods. Survey questions rating the availability of produce and low-fat products in neighborhoods were aggregated into a healthy food availability score for 5,774 residents of North Carolina, Maryland, and New York. Densities of supermarkets and smaller stores per square mile were computed for 1 mile around each respondent's residence using kernel estimation. The number of different store types in the area was used to measure variety in the food environment. Linear regression was used to examine associations of store densities and variety with reported availability. Respondents living in areas with lower densities of supermarkets rated the selection and availability of produce and low-fat foods 17% lower than those in areas with the highest densities of supermarkets (95% CL, -18.8, -15.1). In areas without supermarkets, low densities of smaller stores and less store variety were associated with worse perceived availability of healthy foods only in North Carolina (8.8% lower availability, 95% CL, -13.8, -3.4 for lowest vs. highest small-store density; 10.5% lower 95% CL, -16.0, -4.7 for least vs. most store variety). In contrast, higher smaller store densities and more variety were associated with worse perceived healthy food availability in Maryland. Perception- and GIS-based characterizations of the environment are associated but are not identical. Combinations of different types of measures may yield more valid measures of the environment.

  8. 33 CFR 334.370 - Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; danger zones, U.S. Naval Amphibious Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; danger zones, U.S. Naval Amphibious Base. 334.370 Section 334.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.370 Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; danger zones, U.S. Naval Amphibious Base....

  9. Prevalence and geographic distribution of herniated intervertebral disc in Korean 19-year-old male from 2008 to 2009: a study based on Korean conscription -national and geographic prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc in Korean 19YO male-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Park, Hyeong-chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2013-09-01

    This study was to determine the prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) among Korean 19-year-old male in a large national sample and to compare the prevalence across geographic regions based on the data of conscription. We analyzed the conscription data of 615508 cases who were 19-year-old male, given an examination for conscription at nationwide Korean Military Manpower Administration from January 2008 to December 2009. Prevalence was determined by dividing the number of cases by the number of persons enrolled for 2 years. The analyses included of a cross-tabulations and nonparametric chi-square to compare the prevalence according to geographic region, disc severity, and conscription year. The prevalence of HIVD among 19-year-old male was 0.47%. Seoul had the highest prevalence of HIVD (total HIVD was 0.60%, and severe HIVD was 0.44%). The prevalence of HIVD was lower in Jeollabuk- do and Jeollanam-do (total HIVD was 0.25-0.27%, and severe HIVD was 0.16-0.17%). Annual prevalence of HIVD was slightly decreased in 2009, but geographic distribution annually was not different. In Korean 19-year-old male, the national prevalence of adolescent HIVD was 0.60%, but different geographic distribution was observed. It is quite possible that secondary contributing factor(s) interfere with the different geographic prevalence of HIVD.

  10. Geographic Distribution of CT, MRI and PET Devices in Japan: A Longitudinal Analysis Based on National Census Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Koike, Soichi; Kashima, Saori; Awai, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Japan has the most CT and MRI scanners per unit population in the world; however, the geographic distribution of these technologies is currently unknown. Moreover, nothing is known of the cause-effect relationship between the number of diagnostic imaging devices and their geographic distribution. Data on the number of CT, MRI and PET devices and that of their utilizations in all 1829 municipalities of Japan was generated, based on the Static Survey of Medical Institutions conducted by the government. The inter-municipality equity of the number of devices or utilizations was evaluated with Gini coefficient. Between 2005 and 2011, the number of CT, MRI and PET devices in Japan increased by 47% (8789 to 12945), 19% (5034 to 5990) and 70% (274 to 466), respectively. Gini coefficient of the number of devices was largest for PET and smallest for CT (p for PET-MRI difference geographic distribution of the diagnostic imaging technology in Japan appears to be affected by spatial competition derived from a market force.

  11. Predicting the potential geographic distribution of cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis in India based on MAXENT ecological niche model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fand, Babasaheb B; Kumar, Mahesh; Kamble, Ankush L

    2014-09-01

    Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley has recently emerged as a serious insect pest of cotton in India. This study demonstrates the use of Maxent algorithm for modeling the potential geographic distribution of P. solenopsis in India with presence-only data. Predictions were made based on the analysis of the relationship between 111 occurrence records for P. solenopsis and the corresponding current and future climate data defined on the study area. The climate data from worldclim database for current (1950-2000) and future (SRES A2 emission scenario for 2050) conditions were used. DIVA-GIS, an open source software for conducting spatial analysis was used for mapping the predictions from Maxent. The algorithm provided reasonable estimates of the species range indicating better discrimination of suitable and unsuitable areas for its occurrence in India under both present and future climatic conditions. The fit for the model as measured by AUC was high, with value of 0.930 for the training data and 0.895 for the test data, indicating the high level of discriminatory power for the Maxent. A Jackknife test for variable importance indicated that mean temperature of coldest quarter with highest gain value was the most important environmental variable determining the potential geographic distribution of P. solenopsis. The approaches used for delineating the ecological niche and prediction of potential geographic distribution are described briefly. Possible applications and limitations of the present modeling approach in future research and as a decision making tool in integrated pest management are discussed.

  12. Geographic and socio-demographic differences in uptake of population-based screening for atrial fibrillation: The STROKESTOP I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Johan; Holmén, Anders; Svennberg, Emma; Friberg, Leif; Frykman-Kull, Viveka; Al-Khalili, Faris; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Strömberg, Ulf

    2016-11-01

    The rationale behind screening for atrial fibrillation (AF) is to prevent ischemic stroke. Socio-demographic differences are expected to affect screening uptake. Geographic differences may provide further insights leading to targeted interventions for improved uptake. The objective of this study was to evaluate geographic and socio-demographic differences in uptake of AF screening in the population-based study STROKESTOP I. STROKESTOP was carried out in two Swedish counties with a total population of 2.3 million inhabitants. Half of the residents aged 75-76years were randomized to the screening arm: invitation to clinical examination followed by ambulant ECG recording. Information on each invited person's residential parish (n=157) was used. On parish-level, aggregated data for the participants and non-participants, respectively, were obtained with respect to socioeconomic variables: educational level, disposable income, immigrant and marital status. Geo-maps displaying participation ratios were estimated by hierarchical Bayes methods. The overall participation rate was similar in men and women but lower in Stockholm, 47.6% (5665/11,903) than in Halland, 61.2% (1495/2443). Participation was clearly associated with the socioeconomic variables. Participation not taking into account socioeconomy varied more markedly across the parishes in the Stockholm county (range: 0.65-1.26) than in the Halland county (0.94-1.27). After adjustment for socioeconomic variables, a geographic variation remained in Stockholm, but not in Halland. Participation in AF screening varied according to socioeconomic conditions. Geographic variation in participation was marked in the Stockholm county, with only one screening clinic. Geo-mapping of participation yielded useful information needed to intervene for improved screening uptake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based assessment of rice hull energy resource in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capareda, S.C. [University of the Philippines at Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines)

    1999-07-01

    Geographic Information System (GIS) was used as a tool in encoding available rice hull production data in the Philippines to determine the exact location of rice hull resources, the potential electrical power that could be generated given a certain radius of coverage, and the trend in yearly production. Data from the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (1997), the National Statistics Office (1994), and the National Food Authority (1997) were used to calculate and validate available rice hull resources. Maps from the National Mapping and Resource Wonnation Administration (1997) were digitized and the available rice hull resource was estimated for each municipality in the top producing regions. In 1996, an estimated 2.3 million metric tons of rice hull produced over a wide geographic range with an energy equivalent of about 970 MW. Central Luzon, Western Visayas and the Cagayan Valley are the regions with the largest rice hull resource. There is sufficient rice hull resource in the Philippines to merit the development of technologies for thermal energy production. (author)

  14. 76 FR 75453 - Restricted Areas and Danger Zones at Eglin Air Force Base, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... follows: Sec. 334.700 Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base... Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Headquarters Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a... Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The areas. (1) The danger zone....

  15. [Evaluation of land resources carrying capacity of development zone based on planning environment impact assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shi-Feng; Zhang, Ping; Jiang, Jin-Long

    2012-02-01

    Assessment of land resources carrying capacity is the key point of planning environment impact assessment and the main foundation to determine whether the planning could be implemented or not. With the help of the space analysis function of Geographic Information System, and selecting altitude, slope, land use type, distance from resident land, distance from main traffic roads, and distance from environmentally sensitive area as the sensitive factors, a comprehensive assessment on the ecological sensitivity and its spatial distribution in Zhangzhou Merchants Economic and Technological Development Zone, Fujian Province of East China was conducted, and the assessment results were combined with the planning land layout diagram for the ecological suitability analysis. In the Development Zone, 84.0% of resident land, 93.1% of industrial land, 86.0% of traffic land, and 76. 0% of other constructive lands in planning were located in insensitive and gently sensitive areas, and thus, the implement of the land use planning generally had little impact on the ecological environment, and the land resources in the planning area was able to meet the land use demand. The assessment of the population carrying capacity with ecological land as the limiting factor indicated that in considering the highly sensitive area and 60% of the moderately sensitive area as ecological land, the population within the Zone in the planning could reach 240000, and the available land area per capita could be 134.0 m2. Such a planned population scale is appropriate, according to the related standards of constructive land.

  16. Zone Based Hybrid Feature Extraction Algorithm for Handwritten Numeral Recognition of South Indian Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekararadhya, S. V.; Ranjan, P. Vanaja

    India is a multi-lingual multi script country, where eighteen official scripts are accepted and have over hundred regional languages. In this paper we propose a zone based hybrid feature extraction algorithm scheme towards the recognition of off-line handwritten numerals of south Indian scripts. The character centroid is computed and the image (character/numeral) is further divided in to n equal zones. Average distance and Average angle from the character centroid to the pixels present in the zone are computed (two features). Similarly zone centroid is computed (two features). This procedure is repeated sequentially for all the zones/grids/boxes present in the numeral image. There could be some zones that are empty, and then the value of that particular zone image value in the feature vector is zero. Finally 4*n such features are extracted. Nearest neighbor classifier is used for subsequent classification and recognition purpose. We obtained 97.55 %, 94 %, 92.5% and 95.2 % recognition rate for Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam numerals respectively.

  17. Oregon Hazard Explorer for Lifelines Program (OHELP): A web-based geographic information system tool for assessing potential Cascadia earthquake hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi Mood, M.; Olsen, M. J.; Gillins, D. T.; Javadnejad, F.

    2016-12-01

    The Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) has the ability to generate earthquake as powerful as 9 moment magnitude creating great amount of damage to structures and facilities in Oregon. Series of deterministic earthquake analysis are performed for M9.0, M8.7, M8.4 and M8.1 presenting persistent, long lasting shaking associated with other geological threats such as ground shaking, landslides, liquefaction-induced ground deformations, fault rupture vertical displacement, tsunamis, etc. These ground deformation endangers urban structures, foundations, bridges, roadways, pipelines and other lifelines. Lifeline providers in Oregon, including private and public practices responsible for transportation, electric and gas utilities, water and wastewater, fuel, airports, and harbors face an aging infrastructure that was built prior to a full understanding of this extreme seismic risk. As recently experienced in Chile and Japan, a three to five minutes long earthquake scenario, expected in Oregon, necessities a whole different method of risk mitigation for these major lifelines than those created for shorter shakings from crustal earthquakes. A web-based geographic information system tool is developed to fully assess the potential hazard from the multiple threats impending from Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes in the region. The purpose of this website is to provide easy access to the latest and best available hazard information over the web, including work completed in the recent Oregon Resilience Plan (ORP) (OSSPAC, 2013) and other work completed by the Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). As a result, this tool is designated for engineers, planners, geologists, and others who need this information to help make appropriate decisions despite the fact that this web-GIS tool only needs minimal knowledge of GIS to work with.

  18. Horizontal and Vertical Zone Based Location Techniques for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Doja

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Localization is an important feature in Wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Accuracy in node localizationwith proper synchronization and required localization of sensor nodes, save node energy and enhance theperformance of communication network protocols. In this paper we propose distributed localizationalgorithms and assume position known Cluster Head (CH and position unknown three beacon nodes foreach cluster. Using trilateration technique beacon nodes are located. Additional beacon node is added toconfirm the location of beacon nodes and maintain location accuracy. These position localized beaconnodes help to locate other sensor nodes. The proposed two distributed zone based localization algorithmsare (i Horizontal Location Position System (H-LPS, where cluster is divided into Horizontal Zones(HZs and beacon nodes locate in horizontal direction and (ii Vertical Location Position System(V-LPS, where cluster is divided into Vertical Zones (VZs and beacon nodes locate in vertical direction.The main advantage of zone based localization is nodes belonging to a bounded zone (horizontal orvertical are localized and participate in WSN computing. If a bounded zone is eliminated duringlocalization, then nodes do not participate in localization and thus save WSN computing. We provide zonebased simulations for H-LPS and V-LPS in comparison with existing localization algorithms like Ad hocPositioning System (APS, Recursive Positioning Estimation (RPE and Directed Positioning Estimation(DPE. Performance evaluation of H-LPS and V-LPS illustrate that for zone based localization, H-LPSand V-LPS perform better that existing localization techniques. Bounded zone performance is optimal forH-LPS and V-LPS compared to existing localization techniques in WSN.

  19. Simulation of Distance Relay for Load Encroachment Alleviation with Agent Based Supervision of Zone3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Badr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cascaded tripping of power lines due to mal-operation of zone-3 distance relays has been one of the main causes of many previous blackouts worldwide. Encroachment of load into zone-3 characteristics during stressed system operation conditions is a basic factor for such mal-operation of the relays. By improving the operation of zone-3, it is possible to prevent mal-operations so that cascaded line tripping can be avoided. For proper study of the behavior of distance relay during faults and load encroachment phenomenon, we must build a model of distance relay, so in this paper a modeling study of distance relay is implemented using MATLAB/Simulink program. However, this model is distinguished from previous models that, examines in detail the third zone of distance relay. Many cases are simulated with changing line loading and fault location to ensure the capability of the relay to detect the fault and thus the maximum load ability limit of distance relay is obtained. In order to prevent cascading events caused by hidden failures in zone-3 relays, agent based relay architectures have been suggested in the recent past. In such architectures each zone-3 relay contains agents that require communication with other agents at various relevant relays in order to distinguish a real zone-3 event from a temporary overload. In this paper, a local master agent is consulted by all zone-3 agents before a tripping decision is made. The master agent maintains a rule base which is updated based on the local topology of the network and real time monitoring of the status of other relays and circuit breakers. Cisco Packet Tracer program is used for running communication network simulations. The result of the simulation indicate that the time estimated to send and receive a packet data unit (PDU message between one relay to anther can satisfy the communication requirement for the proposed scheme with fiber media.

  20. Zone-based RSS Reporting for Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Treu, Georg; Linnhoff–Popien, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    In typical location fingerprinting systems a tracked terminal reports sampled Received Signal Strength (RSS) values to a location server, which estimates its position based on a database of pre-recorded RSS fingerprints. So far, poll-based and periodic RSS reporting has been proposed. However...

  1. Spatial distribution and risk factors of influenza in Jiangsu province, China, based on geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Cheng Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza poses a constant, heavy burden on society. Recent research has focused on ecological factors associated with influenza incidence and has also studied influenza with respect to its geographic spread at different scales. This research explores the temporal and spatial parameters of influenza and identifies factors influencing its transmission. A spatial autocorrelation analysis, a spatial-temporal cluster analysis and a spatial regression analysis of influenza rates, carried out in Jiangsu province from 2004 to 2011, found that influenza rates to be spatially dependent in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2008. South-western districts consistently revealed hotspots of high-incidence influenza. The regression analysis indicates that railways, rivers and lakes are important predictive environmental variables for influenza risk. A better understanding of the epidemic pattern and ecological factors associated with pandemic influenza should benefit public health officials with respect to prevention and controlling measures during future epidemics.

  2. An efficient and reliable geographic routing protocol based on partial network coding for underwater sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kun; Jin, Zhigang; Shen, Haifeng; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Efficient routing protocols for data packet delivery are crucial to underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). However, communication in UWSNs is a challenging task because of the characteristics of the acoustic channel. Network coding is a promising technique for efficient data packet delivery thanks to the broadcast nature of acoustic channels and the relatively high computation capabilities of the sensor nodes. In this work, we present GPNC, a novel geographic routing protocol for UWSNs that incorporates partial network coding to encode data packets and uses sensor nodes' location information to greedily forward data packets to sink nodes. GPNC can effectively reduce network delays and retransmissions of redundant packets causing additional network energy consumption. Simulation results show that GPNC can significantly improve network throughput and packet delivery ratio, while reducing energy consumption and network latency when compared with other routing protocols.

  3. An Efficient and Reliable Geographic Routing Protocol Based on Partial Network Coding for Underwater Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Hao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficient routing protocols for data packet delivery are crucial to underwater sensor networks (UWSNs. However, communication in UWSNs is a challenging task because of the characteristics of the acoustic channel. Network coding is a promising technique for efficient data packet delivery thanks to the broadcast nature of acoustic channels and the relatively high computation capabilities of the sensor nodes. In this work, we present GPNC, a novel geographic routing protocol for UWSNs that incorporates partial network coding to encode data packets and uses sensor nodes’ location information to greedily forward data packets to sink nodes. GPNC can effectively reduce network delays and retransmissions of redundant packets causing additional network energy consumption. Simulation results show that GPNC can significantly improve network throughput and packet delivery ratio, while reducing energy consumption and network latency when compared with other routing protocols.

  4. Geographic information system documentation of watershed data for Direct/Delayed Response Project. Northeast data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortenson, D.C.

    1989-03-01

    The Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) was designed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency within the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program to predict the long-term response of watersheds and surface waters to acidic deposition. The purpose of the DDRP is to investigate and distinguish the time scales over which surface water systems might change chemically under varying levels of acidic deposition. The DDRP is examining a subset of watersheds sampled as part of the National Surface Water Survey. In the Northeast Region of the United States, 145 watersheds are under study. The DDRP required detailed watershed information on those characteristics thought important relative to the effects of acid deposition. The information was then mapped, then entered into a Geographic Information System (GIS). The document discusses protocols, guidelines, and standards used to complete GIS entry of the mapping data, and quality control procedures used to ensure accuracy and consistency.

  5. Determination of the geographical origin of Chinese teas based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long ZHANG; Jia-rong PAN; Cheng ZHU

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical origin of Chinese teas using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratio technology.The results showed that inter-provincial dispersion of teas in Guangdong (GD),Guangxi (GX),Hainan (HA),Fujian (F J),Shandong (SD),Sichuan (SC),Chongqing (CQ),and Henan (HN) provinces was high,while in Zhejiang (ZJ),Hubei (HB),Yunnan (YN),and Anhui (AH) provinces,it was low.Tea samples from GD,GX,HA,and FJ provinces were clustered in one group and separated from those from AH and HB provinces.Thus,carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratio technology could discriminate teas from among some provinces of China,but not from among others.Better separation might be obtained with a combination of isotopic ratios and other indexes,such as elemental data and organic components.

  6. Spatial distribution and risk factors of influenza in Jiangsu province, China, based on geographical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Cheng; Liu, Wen-Dong; Liang, Qi; Hu, Jian-Li; Norris, Jessie; Wu, Ying; Bao, Chang-Jun; Tang, Fen-Yang; Huang, Peng; Zhao, Yang; Yu, Rong-Bin; Zhou, Ming-Hao; Shen, Hong-Bing; Chen, Feng; Peng, Zhi-Hang

    2014-05-01

    Influenza poses a constant, heavy burden on society. Recent research has focused on ecological factors associated with influenza incidence and has also studied influenza with respect to its geographic spread at different scales. This research explores the temporal and spatial parameters of influenza and identifies factors influencing its transmission. A spatial autocorrelation analysis, a spatial-temporal cluster analysis and a spatial regression analysis of influenza rates, carried out in Jiangsu province from 2004 to 2011, found that influenza rates to be spatially dependent in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2008. South-western districts consistently revealed hotspots of high-incidence influenza. The regression analysis indicates that railways, rivers and lakes are important predictive environmental variables for influenza risk. A better understanding of the epidemic pattern and ecological factors associated with pandemic influenza should benefit public health officials with respect to prevention and controlling measures during future epidemics.

  7. Expression and Organization of Geographic Spatial Relations Based on Topic Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, H. J.; Wang, H.; Cui, T. J.; Guo, J. F.

    2017-09-01

    Spatial Relation is one of the important components of Geographical Information Science and Spatial Database. There have been lots of researches on Spatial Relation and many different spatial relations have been proposed. The relationships among these spatial relations such as hierarchy and so on are complex and this brings some difficulties to the applications and teaching of these spatial relations. This paper summaries some common spatial relations, extracts the topic types, association types, resource types of these spatial relations using the technology of Topic Maps, and builds many different relationships among these spatial relations. Finally, this paper utilizes Java and Ontopia to build a topic map among these common spatial relations, forms a complex knowledge network of spatial relations, and realizes the effective management and retrieval of spatial relations.

  8. Identifying geographical regions serviced by hospitals to assess laboratory-based outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sonja; Shariff, Salimah Z; Beyea, Michael M; Weir, Matthew A; Hands, Theresa; Kearns, Glen; Garg, Amit X

    2013-01-01

    Objective To define geographical regions (forward sortation areas; FSAs) in Southwestern Ontario, Canada from which patients would reliably present to a hospital with linked laboratory data if they developed adverse events related to medications dispensed in outpatient pharmacies. Design Descriptive research. Setting Forty-five hospitals in Southwestern Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2009. Participants Patients aged 66 years and older who received an outpatient prescription for any drug and presented to the emergency department in the subsequent 120 days. Main outcome measure The proportion of patients in a given FSA presenting to an emergency department at a hospital with linked laboratory data versus a hospital without linked laboratory data. To be included in the catchment area at least 90% of emergency department visits in an FSA must have occurred at laboratory-linked hospitals in a given year. Results Over the study period, there were 649 713 emergency department visits by patients with recent prescription claims from pharmacies in 1 of 118 FSAs. In total, 141 302 of these patients presented to an emergency department at a laboratory-linked hospital. For the year 2003, 12 FSAs met our criteria to be in the catchment area and this number grew to 25 FSAs by the year 2009. Conclusions The relevant geographical regions for hospitals with linked laboratory data have been successfully identified. Studies can now be conducted using these well-defined areas to obtain reliable information on the incidence and absolute risk of presenting to hospital with laboratory abnormalities in older adults dispensed commonly prescribed medications in outpatient pharmacies. PMID:23293246

  9. Diversity of sickle cell trait in Jharkhand state in India: Is it the zone of contact between two geographically and ethnically distinct populations in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Rachana; Raman, Rajiva

    2015-09-01

    Incidence of sickle cell trait in India is high in peninsular south, south-eastern, central and south-western India, while in north and north-eastern India, it is absent. Unicentric origin of SCD in the tribals of nilgiri hills in southern India has been proposed. The present study on the frequency of HbS trait and beta-globin gene haplotypes was conducted in the tribal-rich states of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand to get an insight into the uneven distribution of HbS in India. Jharkhand borders with the HbS-high Odisha and Chhattisgarh, and HbS-low UP, Bihar and Bengal. Cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis was performed on the collected blood samples, to detect sickle haemoglobin (HbS) followed by DNA analysis. HbS associated beta-gene haplotype was constructed for the samples positive for HbS and all the tribals by PCR-RFLP. Out of 805 (Chhattisgarh - 261, Jharkhand - 544; greater than 36 percent tribals) samples analysed HbS frequency was 13 percent in Chhattisgarh and 3.3 percent in Jharkhand. Within Jharkhand, frequencies varied considerably from 10 percent in Tatanagar to nil in Sahibganj. The Arab-India (AI) haplotype of beta-globin cluster occurred in low frequency, confined mainly to Chhattisgarh. The most abundant haplotype in all the populations was the East Asian, + - - - - - +, rare in HbS, mainly in Sahibganj in east Jharkhand, which lacked AI. Our results indicate that besides the heterozygote advantage againstmalaria, the uneven regional distribution of HbS trait is because of restricted movement of two different populations, Dravidian from the south and Tibeto-Burman from the east into the Indianmainland which failed tomeet, we conjecture, due to severe climatic conditions (deserts and heat) prevailing through parts of central India. Apparently, Jharkhand became a zone of contact between them in recent times.

  10. Diversity of sickle cell trait in Jharkhand state in India: Is it the zone of contact between two geographically and ethnically distinct populations in India?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rachana Nagar; Rajiva Raman

    2015-09-01

    Incidence of sickle cell trait in India is high in peninsular south, south-eastern, central and south-western India, while in north and north-eastern India, it is absent. Unicentric origin of SCD in the tribals of nilgiri hills in southern India has been proposed. The present study on the frequency of HbS trait and -globin gene haplotypes was conducted in the tribal-rich states of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand to get an insight into the uneven distribution of HbS in India. Jharkhand borders with the HbS-high Odisha and Chhattisgarh, and HbS-low UP, Bihar and Bengal. Cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis was performed on the collected blood samples, to detect sickle haemoglobin (HbS) followed by DNA analysis. HbS associated -gene haplotype was constructed for the samples positive for HbS and all the tribals by PCR-RFLP. Out of 805 (Chhattisgarh – 261, Jharkhand – 544; >36% tribals) samples analysed HbS frequency was 13% in Chhattisgarh and 3.3% in Jharkhand. Within Jharkhand, frequencies varied considerably from 10% in Tatanagar to nil in Sahibganj. The Arab-India (AI) haplotype of -globin cluster occurred in low frequency, confined mainly to Chhattisgarh. The most abundant haplotype in all the populations was the East Asian, + − − − − − +, rare in HbS, mainly in Sahibganj in east Jharkhand, which lacked AI. Our results indicate that besides the heterozygote advantage againstmalaria, the uneven regional distribution of HbS trait is because of restricted movement of two different populations, Dravidian from the south and Tibeto-Burman from the east into the Indianmainland which failed tomeet, we conjecture, due to severe climatic conditions (deserts and heat) prevailing through parts of central India. Apparently, Jharkhand became a zone of contact between them in recent times.

  11. Application of a GIS-/remote sensing-based approach for predicting groundwater potential zones using a multi-criteria data mining methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogaji, Kehinde Anthony; Lim, Hwee San

    2017-07-01

    This study integrates the application of Dempster-Shafer-driven evidential belief function (DS-EBF) methodology with remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to analyze surface and subsurface data sets for the spatial prediction of groundwater potential in Perak Province, Malaysia. The study used additional data obtained from the records of the groundwater yield rate of approximately 28 bore well locations. The processed surface and subsurface data produced sets of groundwater potential conditioning factors (GPCFs) from which multiple surface hydrologic and subsurface hydrogeologic parameter thematic maps were generated. The bore well location inventories were partitioned randomly into a ratio of 70% (19 wells) for model training to 30% (9 wells) for model testing. Application results of the DS-EBF relationship model algorithms of the surface- and subsurface-based GPCF thematic maps and the bore well locations produced two groundwater potential prediction (GPP) maps based on surface hydrologic and subsurface hydrogeologic characteristics which established that more than 60% of the study area falling within the moderate-high groundwater potential zones and less than 35% falling within the low potential zones. The estimated uncertainty values within the range of 0 to 17% for the predicted potential zones were quantified using the uncertainty algorithm of the model. The validation results of the GPP maps using relative operating characteristic curve method yielded 80 and 68% success rates and 89 and 53% prediction rates for the subsurface hydrogeologic factor (SUHF)- and surface hydrologic factor (SHF)-based GPP maps, respectively. The study results revealed that the SUHF-based GPP map accurately delineated groundwater potential zones better than the SHF-based GPP map. However, significant information on the low degree of uncertainty of the predicted potential zones established the suitability of the two GPP maps for future development of

  12. Transmission tower classification based on landslide risk Map generated by Geographical Information System (GIS) at Cameron Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Hazwani N.; O, Rohayu C.; U, Fathoni; Baharuddin, I. N. Z.; A, Azwin Z.

    2013-06-01

    Transmission tower is usually locates at remote area which is covered by hilly topography. Landslide is mainly occurring at hilly area and causing failure to the tower structure. This phenomenon subsequently will affect the national electricity supply. A landslide risk hazard map is generated using Geographical Information System (GIS). Risk classification is introduced to initiate the monitoring process along Jor-Bintang transmission line, Cameron Highland, Pahang. The classification has been divided into three categories, which are low, medium and high. This method can be applied in slope monitoring activities since all towers have been classified based on their risk level. Therefore, maintenance schedule can be planned smoothly and efficiently.

  13. Influence of topography on the endemicity of Kala-azar: a study based on remote sensing and geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri S. Bhunia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Kala-azar, a fatal infectious disease in many Indian states, particularly in Bihar, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, and Jharkhand, is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani and transmitted by the sandfly vector Phlebotomus argentipes. The vector is distributed all over the country but the disease is confined to particular zones since before the last century. In this study, parameters such as altitude, temperature, humidity, rainfall and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI were investigated for correlation with the distribution of the disease in the northeastern corner of the Indian sub-continent. Data analysis on Kala-azar prevalence during the period 2005-2007 in the four states showed that the highest prevalence was below 150 m of altitude with very few cases located above the 300 m level. Low NDVI value ranges (0.03-0.015 correlated with a high occurrence of the disease. The maximum temperatures in the affected sites varied between an upper level of 25-29°C and a minimum of 16-20°C. The rainfall in these areas fluctuated between 1154 and 1834 mm. As the disease showed a high correlation with the prevailing topographic conditions, an attempt was made to improve the relative strength of the approach to predict the potential for endemicity of leishmaniasis by introducing satellite imagery complemented with a geographical information system database.

  14. Filaria monitoring visualization system: a geographical information system-based application to manage lymphatic filariasis in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyayula, Suryanaryana Murty; Mutheneni, Srinivasa Rao; Kumaraswamy, Sriram; Kadiri, Madhusudhan Rao; Pabbisetty, Sampath Kumar; Yellepeddi, Venkata Suryanarayana Murthy

    2012-05-01

    Among various public health diseases, filariasis constitutes a major public health problem in India, wherein an estimated 553.7 million people are at risk of infection. The aim of this article is to present a spatial mapping and analysis of filariasis data over a 3-year period (2004-2007) from Karimnagar, Chittoor, East and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. The data include epidemiological and entomological studies (i.e., infection rate, infectivity rate, mosquito per man hour, and microfilaria rate). These parameters were customized on Geographical Information System (GIS) platform and developed filaria monitoring visualization system (FMVS) for identifying the endemic/risk areas of filariasis among these four districts. GIS map for filariasis transmission from the study areas was created and stratified into different spatial entities like low, medium, and high risk zones. On the basis of the data and FMVS maps, it was demonstrated that filariasis remained unevenly distributed within the districts. Balancing the intervention coverage in different villages with overall mass drug administration and continued promotion of the proper use of control measures are necessary for further reduction of filarial cases in these districts.

  15. A priori parameter estimates for global hydrological modeling using geographically based information: Application of the CREST hydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z.; Zhang, K.; Xue, X.; Huang, J.; Hong, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Floods are among the most common natural disasters with worldwide impacts that cause significant humanitarian and economic negative consequences. The increasing availability of satellite-based precipitation estimates and geospatial datasets with global coverage and improved temporal resolutions has enhanced our capability of forecasting floods and monitoring water resources across the world. This study presents an approach combing physically based and empirical methods for a-priori parameter estimates and a parameter dataset for the Coupled Routing and Excess Storage (CREST) hydrological model at the global scale. This approach takes advantage of geographic information such as topography, land cover, and soil properties to derive the distributed parameter values across the world. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the utility of a-priori parameter estimates to improve the performance of the CREST distributed hydrologic model and enable its prediction at poorly gauged or ungauged catchments. Using the CREST hydrologic model, several typical river basins in different continents were selected to serve as test areas. The results show that the simulated daily stream flows using the parameters derived from geographically based information outperform the results using the lumped parameters. Overall, this early study highlights that a priori parameter estimates for hydrologic model warrants improved model predictive capability in ungauged basins at regional to global scales.

  16. Shortest route finding by ant system algorithm in web geographical information system-based advanced traveller information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the methodology used in the development of advanced traveller information system (ATIS. This system is designed as a part of web geographical information system (GIS based advanced public transport systems. Web GIS-based ATIS system includes spatial data for the designed functionalities and provides GIS capabilities to the users through the internet. In addition to these functionalities, a route planning algorithm to plan the shortest route between the selected bus transit points is also designed using ant system algorithm and is integrated with web GIS. This study presents the ant system algorithm adopted for the shortest route finding with the methodology developed for the web GIS-based ATIS system for the study area of the city Chandigarh in India using open source software MapServer as web map server. This study also discusses the three-tier logical architecture used in the methodology for providing GIS capabilities to the user over the internet.

  17. S3: School Zone Safety System Based on Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poh Kit Chong

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available School zones are areas near schools that have lower speed limits and where illegally parked vehicles pose a threat to school children by obstructing them from the view of drivers. However, these laws are regularly flouted. Thus, we propose a novel wireless sensor network application called School zone Safety System (S3 to help regulate the speed limit and to prevent illegal parking in school zones. S3 detects illegally parked vehicles, and warns the driver and records the license plate number. To reduce the traveling speed of vehicles in a school zone, S3 measures the speed of vehicles and displays the speed to the driver via an LED display, and also captures the image of the speeding vehicle with a speed camera. We developed a state machine based vehicle detection algorithm for S3. From extensive experiments in our testbeds and data from a real school zone, it is shown that the system can detect all kinds of vehicles, and has an accuracy of over 95% for speed measurement. We modeled the battery life time of a sensor node and validated the model with a downscaled measurement; we estimate the battery life time to be over 2 years. We have deployed S3 in 15 school zones in 2007, and we have demonstrated the robustness of S3 by operating them for over 1 year.

  18. Mapping the Indonesian territory, based on pollution, social demography and geographical data, using self organizing feature map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernawati, Kuswari; Insani, Nur; Bambang S. H., M.; Nur Hadi, W.; Sahid

    2017-08-01

    This research aims to mapping the 33 (thirty-three) provinces in Indonesia, based on the data on air, water and soil pollution, as well as social demography and geography data, into a clustered model. The method used in this study was unsupervised method that combines the basic concept of Kohonen or Self-Organizing Feature Maps (SOFM). The method is done by providing the design parameters for the model based on data related directly/ indirectly to pollution, which are the demographic and social data, pollution levels of air, water and soil, as well as the geographical situation of each province. The parameters used consists of 19 features/characteristics, including the human development index, the number of vehicles, the availability of the plant's water absorption and flood prevention, as well as geographic and demographic situation. The data used were secondary data from the Central Statistics Agency (BPS), Indonesia. The data are mapped into SOFM from a high-dimensional vector space into two-dimensional vector space according to the closeness of location in term of Euclidean distance. The resulting outputs are represented in clustered grouping. Thirty-three provinces are grouped into five clusters, where each cluster has different features/characteristics and level of pollution. The result can used to help the efforts on prevention and resolution of pollution problems on each cluster in an effective and efficient way.

  19. Implementing Database Lookup Method in Mobile Wimax for Location Management Area Based Mbs Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Sivaranjani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The mobile WiMAX plays a vital role in accessing the delay sensitive audio, video streaming and mobile IPTV. To minimize the handover delay, a Location Management Area (LMA based Multicast and Broadcast Service (MBS zone is established. The handover delay is increased based on the size of the MBS zone. In this paper, Location Management Area is easily identified by using Database Lookup Method to obtain efficient bandwidth utilization along with reduced handover delay and increased throughput. The handover delay and throughput is calculated by implementing this scenario in OPNET tool.

  20. Flood risk zoning using a rule mining based on ant colony algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chengguang; Shao, Quanxi; Chen, Xiaohong; Wang, Zhaoli; Zhou, Xiaowen; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Lilan

    2016-11-01

    Risk assessment is a preliminary step in flood management and mitigation, and risk zoning provides a quantitative measure of flood risk. The difficulty in flood risk zoning is to deal with the complicated non-linear relationship among indices and risk levels. To solve this problem, the ant colony algorithm based on rule mining (Ant-Miner) is promoted in this paper to map the regional flood risk at grid scale. For the case study in the Dongjiang River Basin in Southern China, 11 and 14 indices (without and with the socio-economic indices considered) are respectively chosen to construct the zoning model based on Ant-Miner. The results show that Ant-Miner exhibits higher accuracy and more simple rules that can be used to generate flood risk zoning map quickly and easily than decision tree method (DT); compared to random forest (RF) and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE), Ant-Miner has significant advantages both in implementation step-reducing and computing time-saving. Although the comprehensive measure and natural hazard measure of flood risk distributed similarly over the entire region, the former one which considered the socio-economic indices is more reasonable in term of real impact to natural and socio-economy. The areas with high-risk level obtained in this paper matched well with the integrated risk zoning map and the inundation areas of historical floods, suggesting that the proposed Ant-Miner method is capable of zoning the flood risk at grid scale. This study shows the potential to provide a novel and successful approach to flood risk zoning. Evaluation results provide a reference for flood risk management, prevention, and reduction of natural disasters in the study basin.

  1. Geographical Distribution, Ecological Position, and Formation Causes of Temperate Zone Sparse Forest in China%中国温带疏林的地理分布、生态地位及成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于顺利

    2011-01-01

    temperate zone of China, there are many types of sparse forests, such as Ulmus pumila sparse forest, Picea schrekiana sparse forest, Platycladus orientalis sparse forest, Junipents rigida sparse forest, Pinus sylveslnis var. Mongolica sparse forest, Larix tibetica sparse forest, Abies densa sparse forest, Cupressus gigantean sparse forest, Sabina tibetica sparse forest, Sabina wallichiana sparse forest, Sabina saltuaria sparse forest, Larix potaninii var. Macrocarpa sparse forest, Cupressus torulosa sparse forest, Sabina convallium sparse forest, Pinus roxburghii sparse forest, Pinus yunnanensis sparse forest, Picea lihiangensis var. Balfouriana sparse forest, Ulmus macrocarpa sparse forest, and Ailanihus altissima sparse forest, etc. Sparse forest ecosystem is a transition between forest and grassland or shrub ecosystem. It belongs to a zonal vegetation type. Comprehensive ecological factors have determined its geographical distribution; however, the key factor is water (local rainfall amount). In the mainland of China from south to north, there are rain forests, season rain forests, evergreen broad leaf forests, summer green broad leaf forests, sparse forests, and grassland or shrubs along altitudinal gradient. From east to west, there are forests, sparse forest, shrubs, and grassland or meadow along longitudinal gradient. Compared with the distribution area of forests and grassland,China possesses various types of sparse forests. Except sparse forests in tropic regions of China, other two types of sparse forests are classified, namely, temperate zone spare forests and temperate zone mountain spare forests. In temperate zone of China, there are many types of sparse forests, such as Ulmus pumila sparse forest, Picea schrekiana sparse forest, Platycladus orientalis sparse forest, Junipents rigida sparse forest, Pinus sylveslnis var. Mongolica sparse forest, Larix tibetica sparse forest, Abies densa sparse forest, Cupressus gigantean sparse forest, Sabina tibetica sparse

  2. Zoning Modulus Inversion Method for Concrete Dams Based on Chaos Genetic Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For dams and rock foundations of ages, the actual mechanical parameters sometimes differed from the design and the experimental values. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out the inversion analysis on main physical and mechanical parameters of dams and rock foundations. However, only the integrated deformation modulus can be inversed by utilizing the conventional inversion method, and it does not meet the actual situation. Therefore, a new method is developed in this paper to inverse the actual initial zoning deformation modulus and to determine the inversion objective function for the actual zoning deformation modulus, based on the dam displacement measured data and finite element calculation results. Furthermore, based on the chaos genetic optimization algorithm, the inversion method for zoning deformation modulus of dam, dam foundation and, reservoir basin is proposed. Combined with the project case, the feasibility and validity of the proposed method are verified.

  3. A fast chemometric procedure based on NIR data for authentication of honey with protected geographical indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero Latorre, C; Peña Crecente, R M; García Martín, S; Barciela García, J

    2013-12-15

    In this work, information contained in near infrared (NIR) spectra of honeys with protected geographical indication (PGI) "Mel de Galicia" was processed by means of different chemometric techniques to develop an authentication system for this high quality food product. Honey spectra were obtained in a fast and single way, and they were pretreated by means of standard normal variate transformation in order to remove the influence of particle size, scattering and other factors, and prior to their use as input data. As the first step in chemometric study, display techniques such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied in order to demonstrate that the NIR data contained useful information to develop a pattern recognition classification system to authenticate honeys with PGI. The second step consisted in the application of different pattern recognition techniques (such as D-PLS: Discriminant partial least squares regression; SIMCA: Soft independent modelling of class analogy; KNN: K-nearest neighbours; and MLF-NN: Multilayer feedforward neural networks) to derive diverse models for PGI-honey class with the objective of detecting possible falsification of these high-quality honeys. Amongst all the classification chemometric procedures, SIMCA achieved to be the best PGI-model with 93.3% of sensitivity and 100% of specificity. Therefore, the combination of NIR information data with SIMCA developed a single and fast method in order to differentiate between genuine PGI-Galician honey samples and other commercial honey samples from other origins that, due to their lower price, could be used as substrates for falsification of genuine PGI ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Social and geographical inequalities in suicide in Japan from 1975 through 2005: a census-based longitudinal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuji Suzuki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite advances in our understanding of the countercyclical association between economic contraction and suicide, less is known about the levels of and changes in inequalities in suicide. The authors examined social and geographical inequalities in suicide in Japan from 1975 through 2005. METHODS: Based on quinquennial vital statistics and census data, the authors analyzed the entire population aged 25-64 years. The total number of suicides was 75,840 men and 30,487 women. For each sex, the authors estimated odds ratios (ORs and 95% credible intervals (CIs for suicide using multilevel logistic regression models with "cells" (cross-tabulated by age and occupation at level 1, seven different years at level 2, and 47 prefectures at level 3. Prefecture-level variance was used as an estimate of geographical inequalities in suicide. RESULTS: Adjusting for age and time-trends, the lowest odds for suicide was observed among production process and related workers (the reference group in both sexes. The highest OR for men was 2.52 (95% CI: 2.43, 2.61 among service workers, whereas the highest OR for women was 9.24 (95% CI: 7.03, 12.13 among security workers. The degree of occupational inequalities increased among men with a striking change in the pattern. Among women, we observed a steady decline in suicide risk across all occupations, except for administrative and managerial workers and transport and communication workers. After adjusting for individual age, occupation, and time-trends, prefecture-specific ORs ranged from 0.76 (Nara Prefecture to 1.36 (Akita Prefecture for men and from 0.79 (Kanagawa Prefecture to 1.22 (Akita Prefecture for women. Geographical inequalities have increased primarily among men since 1995. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings demonstrate a striking temporal change in the pattern of social inequalities in suicide among men. Further, geographical inequalities in suicide have considerably increased across 47

  5. Impact of Sybil and Wormhole Attacks in Location Based Geographic Multicast Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamala Ramachandran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Wireless sensor networks have been used in many applications, such as home automation, military surveillances and entity tracking systems. The sensor nodes have low computational capabilities and are highly resource constrained. Routing protocols of wireless sensor networks are prone to various routing attacks, such as black hole, rushing, wormhole, Sybil and denial of service attacks. Approach: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of wormhole in conjunction with Sybil attack on a location based-Geographic Multicast Routing (GMR protocol. Results: The NS-2 based simulation was used in analyzing the wormhole in conjunction with Sybil attack on GMR. Conclusion: It is found that, the Sybil attack degrades the network performance by 24% and the wormhole attack by 20%.

  6. Classification of Tempranillo wines according to geographic origin: Combination of mass spectrometry based electronic nose and chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cynkar, Wies, E-mail: wies.cynkar@awri.com.au [Australian Wine Research Institute, PO Box 197, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Dambergs, Robert [Australian Wine Research Institute, Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 98, Hobart Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Smith, Paul; Cozzolino, Daniel [Australian Wine Research Institute, PO Box 197, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Rapid methods employing instruments such as electronic noses (EN) or gas sensors are used in the food and beverage industries to monitor and assess the composition and quality of products. Similar to other food industries, the wine industry has a clear need for simple, rapid and cost effective techniques for objectively evaluating the quality of grapes, wine and spirits. In this study a mass spectrometry based electronic nose (MS-EN) instrument combined with chemometrics was used to predict the geographical origin of Tempranillo wines produced in Australia and Spain. The MS-EN data generated were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) with full cross validation (leave-one-out method). The SLDA classified correctly 86% of the samples while PLS-DA 85% of Tempranillo wines according to their geographical origin. The relative benefits of using MS-EN will provide capability for rapid screening of wines. However, this technique does not provide the identification and quantitative determination of individual compounds responsible for the different aroma notes in the wine.

  7. Geographic Concentration and Development Potential of Poultry Microenterprises and Value Chain: A Study Based on Suitable Sites in Gazipur, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Khaleda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, many poultry microenterprises (MEs have flourished through the lending of microcredit to the poor. These MEs are linked to the value chain and play a significant role in poverty reduction. Not all of these MEs are located in favorable places. Almost all are developed utilizing homestead lands, which results in poor input supply and marketing facilities, and causes higher costs and less profit. This paper tries to uncover the constraints in value chain development, mainly those related to its physical and infrastructural environment; verify the potential of MEs through an analysis of their geographic concentration in sites with different suitability levels; and make recommendations as to how to overcome the constraints, with a view to ensuring higher profit levels for vulnerable poor. The suitability of sites was delineated through Geographic Information System (GIS. The analysis—a combination of field survey data with a site suitability map of farms/MEs concentration—is important, because it helps to validate the GIS analysis-based results of sites’ suitability, helps supporters to design interventions in areas where the farms exist, and thus, helps farmers in vulnerable sites to lift themselves out of poverty.

  8. A Novel Petri Nets-Based Modeling Method for the Interaction between the Sensor and the Geographic Environment in Emerging Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Xu, Yuetong; Chou, Jarong

    2016-01-01

    The service of sensor device in Emerging Sensor Networks (ESNs) is the extension of traditional Web services. Through the sensor network, the service of sensor device can communicate directly with the entity in the geographic environment, and even impact the geographic entity directly. The interaction between the sensor device in ESNs and geographic environment is very complex, and the interaction modeling is a challenging problem. This paper proposed a novel Petri Nets-based modeling method for the interaction between the sensor device and the geographic environment. The feature of the sensor device service in ESNs is more easily affected by the geographic environment than the traditional Web service. Therefore, the response time, the fault-tolerant ability and the resource consumption become important factors in the performance of the whole sensor application system. Thus, this paper classified IoT services as Sensing services and Controlling services according to the interaction between IoT service and geographic entity, and classified GIS services as data services and processing services. Then, this paper designed and analyzed service algebra and Colored Petri Nets model to modeling the geo-feature, IoT service, GIS service and the interaction process between the sensor and the geographic enviroment. At last, the modeling process is discussed by examples. PMID:27681730

  9. A Novel Petri Nets-Based Modeling Method for the Interaction between the Sensor and the Geographic Environment in Emerging Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The service of sensor device in Emerging Sensor Networks (ESNs is the extension of traditional Web services. Through the sensor network, the service of sensor device can communicate directly with the entity in the geographic environment, and even impact the geographic entity directly. The interaction between the sensor device in ESNs and geographic environment is very complex, and the interaction modeling is a challenging problem. This paper proposed a novel Petri Nets-based modeling method for the interaction between the sensor device and the geographic environment. The feature of the sensor device service in ESNs is more easily affected by the geographic environment than the traditional Web service. Therefore, the response time, the fault-tolerant ability and the resource consumption become important factors in the performance of the whole sensor application system. Thus, this paper classified IoT services as Sensing services and Controlling services according to the interaction between IoT service and geographic entity, and classified GIS services as data services and processing services. Then, this paper designed and analyzed service algebra and Colored Petri Nets model to modeling the geo-feature, IoT service, GIS service and the interaction process between the sensor and the geographic enviroment. At last, the modeling process is discussed by examples.

  10. A Novel Petri Nets-Based Modeling Method for the Interaction between the Sensor and the Geographic Environment in Emerging Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Xu, Yuetong; Chou, Jarong

    2016-09-25

    The service of sensor device in Emerging Sensor Networks (ESNs) is the extension of traditional Web services. Through the sensor network, the service of sensor device can communicate directly with the entity in the geographic environment, and even impact the geographic entity directly. The interaction between the sensor device in ESNs and geographic environment is very complex, and the interaction modeling is a challenging problem. This paper proposed a novel Petri Nets-based modeling method for the interaction between the sensor device and the geographic environment. The feature of the sensor device service in ESNs is more easily affected by the geographic environment than the traditional Web service. Therefore, the response time, the fault-tolerant ability and the resource consumption become important factors in the performance of the whole sensor application system. Thus, this paper classified IoT services as Sensing services and Controlling services according to the interaction between IoT service and geographic entity, and classified GIS services as data services and processing services. Then, this paper designed and analyzed service algebra and Colored Petri Nets model to modeling the geo-feature, IoT service, GIS service and the interaction process between the sensor and the geographic enviroment. At last, the modeling process is discussed by examples.

  11. Geographical Tatoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cazetta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with maps tattooed on bodies. My interest in studying the corporeality is inserted in a broader project entitled Geographies and (in Bodies. There is several published research on tattoos, but none in particular about tattooed maps. However some of these works interested me because they present important discussions in contemporary about body modification that helped me locate the body modifications most within the culture than on the nature. At this time, I looked at pictures of geographical tattoos available in several sites of the internet.

  12. Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision Special Economic Zones, UTM Zone 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_vision_special_economic_zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates special economic zones included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. Special economic zones include existing national,...

  13. Role of street patterns in zone-based traffic safety analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭强; 裴欣; 姚丹亚; 黄仕进

    2015-01-01

    Although extensive analyses of road segments and intersections located in urban road networks have examined the role of many factors that contribute to the frequency and severity of crashes, the explicit relationship between street pattern characteristics and traffic safety remains underexplored. Based on a zone-based Hong Kong database, the Space Syntax was used to quantify the topological characteristics of street patterns and investigate the role of street patterns and zone-related factors in zone-based traffic safety analysis. A joint probability model was adopted to analyze crash frequency and severity in an integrated modeling framework and the maximum likelihood estimation method was used to estimate the parameters. In addition to the characteristics of street patterns, speed, road geometry, land-use patterns, and temporal factors were considered. The vehicle hours was also included as an exposure proxy in the model to make crash frequency predictions. The results indicate that the joint probability model can reveal the relationship between zone-based traffic safety and various other factors, and that street pattern characteristics play an important role in crash frequency prediction.

  14. Benchmarking LSM root-zone soil mositure predictions using satellite-based vegetation indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of modern land surface models (LSMs) to agricultural drought monitoring is based on the premise that anomalies in LSM root-zone soil moisture estimates can accurately anticipate the subsequent impact of drought on vegetation productivity and health. In addition, the water and energy ...

  15. A Layered Zone Routing Algorithm in Ad Hoc Network Based on Matrix of Adjacency Connection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guang-wei; LI Feng; SHI Xiu-jin; HUO Jia-zhen

    2007-01-01

    The hybrid routing protocol has received more attention recently than the proactive and the reactive, especially for large-scale and highly dynamic connection, in mobile ad hoc network. A crucial reason is that zone-layered is being utilized in the complex systems. A hybrid routing algorithm which is layered zone based on adjacency connection(LZBAC) is put forward under the background of a few members in network with steady position and link. The algorithm modifies storage structure of nodes and improves routing mechanism. The theoretical analysis and simulation testing testify that the algorithm costs shorter time of route finding and less delay than others.

  16. Ship Analysis and Detection in High-resolution Pol-SAR Imagery Based on Peak Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Cheng-bin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To deal with the problem of false alarm in the ship detection, a method base on proportion of spiral scattering in the peak zone is proposed. By comparing the proportion of spiral scattering in the peak zone, which is available from Krogager decomposition, the ships and interfering targets are identified and analyzed. The effectiveness of this method is justified with C-band full-polarization data from RADARSAT-2. The result show that this method can discriminate ships from interfering targets such as island, water-break, nautical platforms and bridges, thus reducing the false alarm rate of ship targets detection in SAR images.

  17. Risk map for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia based on environmental factors as revealed by geographical information systems and statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Ahmed; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Tsegaw, Teshome; Abera, Adugna; Teshome, Aklilu; Mulugeta, Abate; Herrero, Merce; Argaw, Daniel; Jorge, Alvar; Kebede, Asnakew; Aseffa, Abraham

    2014-05-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease strongly associated with poverty. Treatment is problematic and no vaccine is available. Ethiopia has seen new outbreaks in areas previously not known to be endemic, often with co-infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with rates reaching 5.6% of the cases. The present study concerns the development of a risk model based on environmental factors using geographical information systems (GIS), statistical analysis and modelling. Odds ratio (OR) of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the relative importance of environmental factors, accepting P ≤ 0.056 as the inclusion level for the model's environmental variables. When estimating risk from the viewpoint of geographical surface, slope, elevation and annual rainfall were found to be good predictors of CL presence based on both probabilistic and weighted overlay approaches. However, when considering Ethiopia as whole, a minor difference was observed between the two methods with the probabilistic technique giving a 22.5% estimate, while that of weighted overlay approach was 19.5%. Calculating the population according to the land surface estimated by the latter method, the total Ethiopian population at risk for CL was estimated at 28,955,035, mainly including people in the highlands of the regional states of Amhara, Oromia, Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region, one of the nine ethnic divisions in Ethiopia. Our environmental risk model provided an overall prediction accuracy of 90.4%. The approach proposed here can be replicated for other diseases to facilitate implementation of evidence-based, integrated disease control activities.

  18. Risk map for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia based on environmental factors as revealed by geographical information systems and statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Seid

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a neglected tropical disease strongly associated with poverty. Treatment is problematic and no vaccine is available. Ethiopia has seen new outbreaks in areas previously not known to be endemic, often with co-infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV with rates reaching 5.6% of the cases. The present study concerns the development of a risk model based on environmental factors using geographical information systems (GIS, statistical analysis and modelling. Odds ratio (OR of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the relative importance of environmental factors, accepting P ≤0.056 as the inclusion level for the model’s environmental variables. When estimating risk from the viewpoint of geographical surface, slope, elevation and annual rainfall were found to be good predictors of CL presence based on both probabilistic and weighted overlay approaches. However, when considering Ethiopia as whole, a minor difference was observed between the two methods with the probabilistic technique giving a 22.5% estimate, while that of weighted overlay approach was 19.5%. Calculating the population according to the land surface estimated by the latter method, the total Ethiopian population at risk for CL was estimated at 28,955,035, mainly including people in the highlands of the regional states of Amhara, Oromia, Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ Region, one of the nine ethnic divisions in Ethiopia. Our environmental risk model provided an overall prediction accuracy of 90.4%. The approach proposed here can be replicated for other diseases to facilitate implementation of evidence-based, integrated disease control activities.

  19. Extending Geographic Weights of Evidence Models for Use in Location Based Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwalkar, Mukul Dinkar

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the use and modeling of spatio-temporal data for the purposes of providing applications for location based services. One of the major issues in dealing with spatio-temporal data for location based services is the availability and sparseness of such data. Other than the hardware costs associated with collecting movement…

  20. Impact of road environment on drivers' behaviors in dilemma zone: Application of agent-based simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sojung; Son, Young-Jun; Chiu, Yi-Chang; Jeffers, Mary Anne B; Yang, C Y David

    2016-11-01

    At a signalized intersection, there exists an area where drivers become indecisive as to either stop their car or proceed through when the traffic signal turns yellow. This point, called a dilemma zone, has remained a safety concern for drivers due to the great possibility of a rear-end or right-angle crash occurring. In order to reduce the risk of car crashes at the dilemma zone, Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) recommended a dilemma zone model. The model, however, fails to provide precise calculations on the decision of drivers because it disregards the supplemental roadway information, such as whether a red light camera is present. Hence, the goal of this study was to incorporate such roadway environmental factors into a more realistic driver decision-making model for the dilemma zone. A driving simulator was used to determine the influence of roadway conditions on decision-making of real drivers. Following data collection, each driver's decision outcomes were implemented in an Agent-Based Simulation (ABS) so as to analyze behaviors under realistic road environments. The experimental results revealed that the proposed dilemma zone model was able to accurately predict the decisions of drivers. Specifically, the model confirmed the findings from the driving simulator study that the changes in the roadway environment reduced the number of red light violations at an intersection.

  1. A millimeter-wave integrated-circuit antenna based on the Fresnel zone plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouker, Mark A.; Smith, Glenn S.

    1992-05-01

    A moderate-gain, easily constructed, millimeter-wave IC antenna based on the Fresnel zone plate has been developed. The gain and beamwidth of the antenna can be varied by adjusting the diameter and focal length of the zone plate. A theory is developed which accurately predicts the on-axis gain, beamwidth, and sidelobe levels of antennas with zone-plate focal lengths greater than 8-9 lambda. Graphs are presented to aid in the design of other IC zone-plate antennas. The performance of the antenna without the reflector and lambda/4 spacer was investigated. The gain of the antenna with nothing behind the zone plate is found to approach that of the fully configured antenna with the lambda/4 spacer and reflector. The reflection from the open rings which is responsible for this phenomenon is enhanced as the dielectric constant of the substrate is increased. Thus, on substrates with high permittivity the reflector and lambda/4 spacer may not be necessary.

  2. [Defining of wheat growth management zones based on remote sensing and geostatistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zhu, Yan; Ma, Meng-Li; Wang, Hang; Cao, Wei-Xing; Tian, Yong-Chao

    2011-02-01

    Taking the winter wheat planting areas in Rugao City and Haian County of Jiangsu Province as test objects, the clustering defining of wheat growth management zones was made, based on the spatial variability analysis and principal component extraction of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data calculated from the HJ-1A/B CCD images (30 m resolution) at different growth stages of winter wheat, and of the soil nutrient indices (total nitrogen, organic matter, available phosphorus, and available potassium). The results showed that the integration of the NDVI at heading stage with above-mentioned soil nutrient indices produced the best results of wheat growth management zone defining, with the variation coefficients of NDVI and soil nutrient indices in each defined zone ranged in 4.5% -6.1% and 3.3% -87.9%, respectively. However, the variation coefficients were much larger when the wheat growth management zones were defined individually by NDVI or by soil nutrient indices, suggesting that the newly developed defining method could reduce the variability within the defined management zones and improve the crop management precision, and thereby, contribute to the winter wheat growth management and process simulation at regional scale.

  3. Coupling on the northern Cascadia subduction zone from geodetic measurements and physics-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhat, Lucile; Segall, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Kinematic inversions of GPS and tide gauge/leveling data display an unresolved "gap" between the downdip limit of the locked megathrust and the top of the episodic tremor and slip (ETS) zone in northern Cascadia. This work combines physics-based models of slow-slip events with both mean ETS displacements and decadal-averaged deformation rates to explain the gap and determine how interseismic stress accumulates on the megathrust. While physics-based predictions match the average ETS displacements, they significantly misfit long-term rates, implying faster slip rates within both the gap and the ETS region. Heterogeneous Green's functions or velocity-strengthening friction within the gap cannot explain the decadal rates. The observed uplift rates require steeper gradients in slip rate at the base of the locked zone. We invert for the smallest possible shear stress rate on the creeping megathrust below a locked zone that satisfactorily fits the data. A nonzero shear stress rate within the ETS zone, reaching -2.5 kPa/yr at a depth of 25-30 km, is required. Finally, of all the models that adequately fit both horizontal and vertical data, only those with deep locking depths, around 21 km, significantly improve the fit to the uplift rates.

  4. Study on integration of geographical information system and real-time control system based on Agent architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远飞; 叶雷; 何洪林; 张超

    2004-01-01

    The real-time control system correlatively dealing with spatial information will become an important part of the artificial control system in the future. Geographical information system, as an analyzing and processing spatial data platform and powerful tool, will play a more and more role in the real-time control field. Agent-based architecture, as a concept of artificial intelligence, has been introduced in this paper. A new intelligent soft Agent, spatial-info Agent was developed, compared with the central nerve system, integrated by GIS and the traditional real-time control system. The realization model structure of spatial-info Agent was given too. And the techniques and integration methods were discussed by integrating mapinfo and fiber integration measurement system.

  5. Evidence of geographical structuring in the Malaysian Snakehead, Channa striata based on partial segment of the CO1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti-Balkhis, Abu Bakar; Jamsari, Amirul Firdaus Jamaluddin; Hwai, Tan Shau; Yasin, Zulfigar; Siti-Azizah, Mohd Nor

    2011-07-01

    Channa striata, locally known as "haruan", is economically important in fisheries and aquaculture industries in several Asian countries. DNA sequencing, based on a partial segment of the Cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (CO1) gene, was used to determine genetic variation in C. striata samples from four different populations on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The highest nucleotide and haplotype diversities were observed in the Linggi population (π = 0.0067, h = 0.835), and the lowest in the Timah Tasoh population (π = 0.0008, h = 0.286). Apart from Kajang-Linggi, which was insignificant, F(ST) values were significant (p < 0.05) in all pairwise-population comparisons. Consequently, it is inferred that genetic structuring C. striata populations in this region was largely shaped by a common origin, with secondary influences from geographical factors and isolation.

  6. Evidence of geographical structuring in the Malaysian Snakehead, Channa striata based on partial segment of the CO1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Siti-Balkhis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Channa striata, locally known as "haruan", is economically important in fisheries and aquaculture industries in several Asian countries. DNA sequencing, based on a partial segment of the Cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (CO1 gene, was used to determine genetic variation in C. striata samples from four different populations on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The highest nucleotide and haplotype diversities were observed in the Linggi population (π = 0.0067, h = 0.835, and the lowest in the Timah Tasoh population (π = 0.0008, h = 0.286. Apart from Kajang-Linggi, which was insignificant, F ST values were significant (p < 0.05 in all pairwise-population comparisons. Consequently, it is inferred that genetic structuring C. striata populations in this region was largely shaped by a common origin, with secondary influences from geographical factors and isolation.

  7. Ecological study and risk mapping of leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil based on a geographical information systems approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Valéria Machado da Silva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease highly influenced by eco-epidemiological factors. Geographical information systems (GIS have proved to be a suitable approach for the analysis of environmental components that affect the spatial distribution of diseases. Exploiting this methodology, a model was developed for the mapping of the distribution and incidence of canine leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil. Local variations were observed with respect to infection incidence and distribution of serological titers, i.e. high titers were noted close to areas with preserved vegetation, while low titers were more frequent in areas where people kept chickens. Based on these results, we conclude that the environment plays an important role in generating relatively protected areas within larger endemic regions, but that it can also contribute to the creation of hotspots with clusters of comparatively high serological titers indicating a high level of transmission compared with neighbouring areas.

  8. Ecological study and risk mapping of leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil based on a geographical information systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado da Silva, Alba Valéria; Magalhães, Monica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra; Peçanha Brazil, Reginaldo; Carreira, João Carlos Araujo

    2011-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease highly influenced by eco-epidemiological factors. Geographical information systems (GIS) have proved to be a suitable approach for the analysis of environmental components that affect the spatial distribution of diseases. Exploiting this methodology, a model was developed for the mapping of the distribution and incidence of canine leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil. Local variations were observed with respect to infection incidence and distribution of serological titers, i.e. high titers were noted close to areas with preserved vegetation, while low titers were more frequent in areas where people kept chickens. Based on these results, we conclude that the environment plays an important role in generating relatively protected areas within larger endemic regions, but that it can also contribute to the creation of hotspots with clusters of comparatively high serological titers indicating a high level of transmission compared with neighbouring areas.

  9. Geographical detector-based risk assessment of the under-five mortality in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hu

    Full Text Available On 12 May, 2008, a devastating earthquake registering 8.0 on the Richter scale occurred in Sichuan Province, China, taking tens of thousands of lives and destroying the homes of millions of people. Many of the deceased were children, particular children less than five years old who were more vulnerable to such a huge disaster than the adult. In order to obtain information specifically relevant to further researches and future preventive measures, potential risk factors associated with earthquake-related child mortality need to be identified. We used four geographical detectors (risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector, and interaction detector based on spatial variation analysis of some potential factors to assess their effects on the under-five mortality. It was found that three factors are responsible for child mortality: earthquake intensity, collapsed house, and slope. The study, despite some limitations, has important implications for both researchers and policy makers.

  10. Geographic Distribution of Radiologists and Utilization of Teleradiology in Japan: A Longitudinal Analysis Based on National Census Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Koike, Soichi; Kashima, Saori; Awai, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Japan has the most CT and MRI scanners per unit population in the world, and as these technologies spread, their geographic distribution is becoming equalized. In contrast, the number of radiologists per unit population in Japan is the lowest among OECD countries and their geographic distribution is unknown. Likewise, little is known about the use of teleradiology, which can compensate for the uneven distribution of radiologists. Based on the Survey of Physicians, Dentists and Pharmacists and the Static Survey of Medical Institutions by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, a dataset of radiologists and CT and MRI utilizations in each of Japan's 1811 municipalities was created. The inter-municipality equity of the number of radiologists was evaluated using Gini coefficient. Logistic regression analysis, based on Static Survey data, was performed to evaluate the association between hospital location and teleradiology use. Between 2006 and 2012 the number of radiologists increased by 21.7%, but the Gini coefficient remained unchanged. The number of radiologists per 1,000 CT (MRI) utilizations decreased by 17.9% (1.0%); the number was highest in metropolis and lowest in town/village and the disparity has widened from 1.9 to 2.2 (1.6 to 2.0) times. The number of hospitals and clinics using teleradiology has increased (by 69.6% and 18.1%, respectively). Hospitals located in towns/villages (odds ratio 1.61; 95% confidence interval 1.26-2.07) were more likely to use teleradiology than those in metropolises. Contrary to the CT and MRI distributions, radiologist distribution has not been evened out by the increase in their number; in other words, the distribution of radiologists was not affected by market-derived spatial competition force. As a consequence, the gap of the radiologist shortage between urban and rural areas is increasing. Teleradiology, which is one way to ameliorate this gap, should be encouraged.

  11. Geographic information system-based screening for TB, HIV, and syphilis (GIS-THIS: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neela D Goswami

    Full Text Available To determine the feasibility and case detection rate of a geographic information systems (GIS-based integrated community screening strategy for tuberculosis, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV.Prospective cross-sectional study of all participants presenting to geographic hot spot screenings in Wake County, North Carolina.The residences of tuberculosis, HIV, and syphilis cases incident between 1/1/05-12/31/07 were mapped. Areas with high densities of all 3 diseases were designated "hot spots." Combined screening for tuberculosis, HIV, and syphilis were conducted at the hot spots; participants with positive tests were referred to the health department.Participants (N = 247 reported high-risk characteristics: 67% previously incarcerated, 40% had lived in a homeless shelter, and 29% had a history of crack cocaine use. However, 34% reported never having been tested for HIV, and 41% did not recall prior tuberculin skin testing. Screening identified 3% (8/240 of participants with HIV infection, 1% (3/239 with untreated syphilis, and 15% (36/234 with latent tuberculosis infection. Of the eight persons with HIV, one was newly diagnosed and co-infected with latent tuberculosis; he was treated for latent TB and linked to an HIV provider. Two other HIV-positive persons had fallen out of care, and as a result of the study were linked back into HIV clinics. Of 27 persons with latent tuberculosis offered therapy, nine initiated and three completed treatment. GIS-based screening can effectively penetrate populations with high disease burden and poor healthcare access. Linkage to care remains challenging and will require creative interventions to impact morbidity.

  12. Geographic Distribution of Radiologists and Utilization of Teleradiology in Japan: A Longitudinal Analysis Based on National Census Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Japan has the most CT and MRI scanners per unit population in the world, and as these technologies spread, their geographic distribution is becoming equalized. In contrast, the number of radiologists per unit population in Japan is the lowest among OECD countries and their geographic distribution is unknown. Likewise, little is known about the use of teleradiology, which can compensate for the uneven distribution of radiologists.Based on the Survey of Physicians, Dentists and Pharmacists and the Static Survey of Medical Institutions by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, a dataset of radiologists and CT and MRI utilizations in each of Japan's 1811 municipalities was created. The inter-municipality equity of the number of radiologists was evaluated using Gini coefficient. Logistic regression analysis, based on Static Survey data, was performed to evaluate the association between hospital location and teleradiology use.Between 2006 and 2012 the number of radiologists increased by 21.7%, but the Gini coefficient remained unchanged. The number of radiologists per 1,000 CT (MRI utilizations decreased by 17.9% (1.0%; the number was highest in metropolis and lowest in town/village and the disparity has widened from 1.9 to 2.2 (1.6 to 2.0 times. The number of hospitals and clinics using teleradiology has increased (by 69.6% and 18.1%, respectively. Hospitals located in towns/villages (odds ratio 1.61; 95% confidence interval 1.26-2.07 were more likely to use teleradiology than those in metropolises.Contrary to the CT and MRI distributions, radiologist distribution has not been evened out by the increase in their number; in other words, the distribution of radiologists was not affected by market-derived spatial competition force. As a consequence, the gap of the radiologist shortage between urban and rural areas is increasing. Teleradiology, which is one way to ameliorate this gap, should be encouraged.

  13. Prediction of subsurface fracture in mining zone of Papua using passive seismic tomography based on Fresnel zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setiadi, Herlan; Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wely, Woen [WISFIR Lab., Physics of Complex System, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Riyanto, Erwin [PT Freeport Indonesia, Tembagapura, Indonesia herlansetiadi@yahoo.com (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Fracture prediction in a block cave of underground mine is very important to monitor the structure of the fracture that can be harmful to the mining activities. Many methods can be used to obtain such information, such as TDR (Time Domain Relectometry) and open hole. Both of them have limitations in range measurement. Passive seismic tomography is one of the subsurface imaging method. It has advantage in terms of measurements, cost, and rich of rock physical information. This passive seismic tomography studies using Fresnel zone to model the wavepath by using frequency parameter. Fresnel zone was developed by Nurhandoko in 2000. The result of this study is tomography of P and S wave velocity which can predict position of fracture. The study also attempted to use sum of the wavefronts to obtain position and time of seismic event occurence. Fresnel zone tomography and the summation wavefront can predict location of geological structure of mine area as well.

  14. Evaluation of air quality zone classification methods based on ambient air concentration exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Brian; McBean, Ed; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Thé, Jesse

    2017-05-01

    Air quality zones are used by regulatory authorities to implement ambient air standards in order to protect human health. Air quality measurements at discrete air monitoring stations are critical tools to determine whether an air quality zone complies with local air quality standards or is noncompliant. This study presents a novel approach for evaluation of air quality zone classification methods by breaking the concentration distribution of a pollutant measured at an air monitoring station into compliance and exceedance probability density functions (PDFs) and then using Monte Carlo analysis with the Central Limit Theorem to estimate long-term exposure. The purpose of this paper is to compare the risk associated with selecting one ambient air classification approach over another by testing the possible exposure an individual living within a zone may face. The chronic daily intake (CDI) is utilized to compare different pollutant exposures over the classification duration of 3 years between two classification methods. Historical data collected from air monitoring stations in Kuwait are used to build representative models of 1-hr NO2 and 8-hr O3 within a zone that meets the compliance requirements of each method. The first method, the "3 Strike" method, is a conservative approach based on a winner-take-all approach common with most compliance classification methods, while the second, the 99% Rule method, allows for more robust analyses and incorporates long-term trends. A Monte Carlo analysis is used to model the CDI for each pollutant and each method with the zone at a single station and with multiple stations. The model assumes that the zone is already in compliance with air quality standards over the 3 years under the different classification methodologies. The model shows that while the CDI of the two methods differs by 2.7% over the exposure period for the single station case, the large number of samples taken over the duration period impacts the sensitivity of

  15. Fault Identification Algorithm Based on Zone-Division Wide Area Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As the power grid becomes more magnified and complicated, wide-area protection system in the practical engineering application is more and more restricted by the communication level. Based on the concept of limitedness of wide-area protection system, the grid with complex structure is divided orderly in this paper, and fault identification and protection action are executed in each divided zone to reduce the pressure of the communication system. In protection zone, a new wide-area protection algorithm based on positive sequence fault components directional comparison principle is proposed. The special associated intelligent electronic devices (IEDs zones which contain buses and transmission lines are created according to the installation location of the IEDs. When a fault occurs, with the help of the fault information collecting and sharing from associated zones with the fault discrimination principle defined in this paper, the IEDs can identify the fault location and remove the fault according to the predetermined action strategy. The algorithm will not be impacted by the load changes and transition resistance and also has good adaptability in open phase running power system. It can be used as a main protection, and it also can be taken into account for the back-up protection function. The results of cases study show that, the division method of the wide-area protection system and the proposed algorithm are effective.

  16. An Improved Artificial Bee Colony-Based Approach for Zoning Protected Ecological Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shao

    Full Text Available China is facing ecological and environmental challenges as its urban growth rate continues to rise, and zoning protected ecological areas is recognized as an effective response measure. Zoning inherently involves both site attributes and aggregation attributes, and the combination of mathematical models and heuristic algorithms have proven advantageous. In this article, an improved artificial bee colony (IABC-based approach is proposed for zoning protected ecological areas at a regional scale. Three main improvements were made: the first is the use of multiple strategies to generate the initial bee population of a specific quality and diversity, the second is an exploitation search procedure to generate neighbor solutions combining "replace" and "alter" operations, and the third is a "swap" strategy to enable a local search for the iterative optimal solution. The IABC algorithm was verified using simulated data. Then it was applied to define an optimum scheme of protected ecological areas of Sanya (in the Hainan province of China, and a reasonable solution was obtained. Finally, a comparison experiment with other methods (agent-based land allocation model, ant colony optimization, and density slicing was conducted and demonstrated that the IABC algorithm was more effective and efficient than the other methods. Through this study, we aimed to provide a scientifically sound, practical approach for zoning procedures.

  17. An Improved Artificial Bee Colony-Based Approach for Zoning Protected Ecological Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jing; Yang, Lina; Peng, Ling; Chi, Tianhe; Wang, Xiaomeng

    2015-01-01

    China is facing ecological and environmental challenges as its urban growth rate continues to rise, and zoning protected ecological areas is recognized as an effective response measure. Zoning inherently involves both site attributes and aggregation attributes, and the combination of mathematical models and heuristic algorithms have proven advantageous. In this article, an improved artificial bee colony (IABC)-based approach is proposed for zoning protected ecological areas at a regional scale. Three main improvements were made: the first is the use of multiple strategies to generate the initial bee population of a specific quality and diversity, the second is an exploitation search procedure to generate neighbor solutions combining "replace" and "alter" operations, and the third is a "swap" strategy to enable a local search for the iterative optimal solution. The IABC algorithm was verified using simulated data. Then it was applied to define an optimum scheme of protected ecological areas of Sanya (in the Hainan province of China), and a reasonable solution was obtained. Finally, a comparison experiment with other methods (agent-based land allocation model, ant colony optimization, and density slicing) was conducted and demonstrated that the IABC algorithm was more effective and efficient than the other methods. Through this study, we aimed to provide a scientifically sound, practical approach for zoning procedures.

  18. FOSS4G as a Key Building Block for Case-Based Learning in Geographic Information Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghini, M.; Brovelli, M. A.; Vandenbroucke, D.; Carbonaro, M.; Prüller, S.; Painho, M.; Martirano, G.; Frigne, D.

    2017-07-01

    In the sector of Geographic Information (GI) there is a gap between the education and training currently being offered by European universities and the knowledge and skills required by enterprises and public authorities. New forms of collaboration based on innovative methods are needed to cope with the challenges derived from the fast technological developments in the geospatial and ICT field. This paper presents the approach and the first findings of the EU Erasmus+ project giCASES - Creating a University-Enterprise Alliance for a Spatially Enabled Society (2016-2018) which addresses this challenge by introducing new methods for case-based and collaborative learning, and for the co-creation, management and sharing of knowledge between universities and enterprises. The aim of the project is to develop new training material and create innovative, multi-disciplinary learning processes based on real-world case studies (case-based learning). The paper focuses on the methodological approach developed during the first half of the project, and presents the 6 case studies where this approach will be tested during the second half. Despite the diversity of application domains (indoor mapping, environmental hazards, e-Government, utility networks, energy saving policies, and forestry), the case studies are all relevant to open source software and FOSS4G technologies will play a key role in their implementation, thus demonstrating their matureness and flexibility not only as GI teaching tools at the universities, but also as powerful means to develop innovative new services at the companies.

  19. 77 FR 19010 - Zone J Tolling Co., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Zone J Tolling Co., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Zone J Tolling Co., LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1102 - Security Zone; Naval Base Point Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. 165.1102 Section 165.1102 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1102 Security Zone; Naval Base Point Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone: The water adjacent to the Naval Base Point Loma, San Diego...

  1. Geographical origin of Sauvignon Blanc wines predicted by mass spectrometry and metal oxide based electronic nose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berna, Amalia Z., E-mail: Amalia.Berna@csiro.au [CSIRO Entomology and Food Futures Flagship, PO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Trowell, Stephen [CSIRO Entomology and Food Futures Flagship, PO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Clifford, David [CSIRO Mathematical and Information Sciences, Locked Bag 17, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Cynkar, Wies; Cozzolino, Daniel [The Australian Wine Research Institute, Waite Road, Urrbrae, PO Box 197, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2009-08-26

    Analysis of 34 Sauvignon Blanc wine samples from three different countries and six regions was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that there were three distinct clusters or classes of wines with different aroma profiles. Wines from the Loire region in France and Australian wines from Tasmania and Western Australia were found to have similar aroma patterns. New Zealand wines from the Marlborough region as well as the Australian ones from Victoria were grouped together based on the volatile composition. Wines from South Australia region formed one discrete class. Seven analytes, most of them esters, were found to be the relevant chemical compounds that characterized the classes. The grouping information obtained by GC-MS, was used to train metal oxide based electronic (MOS-Enose) and mass spectrometry based electronic (MS-Enose) noses. The combined use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and ethanol removal prior to MOS-Enose analysis, allowed an average error of prediction of the regional origins of Sauvignon Blanc wines of 6.5% compared to 24% when static headspace (SHS) was employed. For MS-Enose, the misclassification rate was higher probably due to the requirement to delimit the m/z range considered.

  2. Development of a digital geographic data base for resource planning in a wildland environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, P. R.; Benson, A. S.; Nedeff, N. E.

    1981-01-01

    Multiple resource planning requires the ability to access information for several parameters in a coordinated way. Attempts to do this manually, through the use of multiple transparent overlays or similar techniques can become awkward if there are more than a few parameters under consideration. One solution to this problem is to use a computer system to collect and organize the information into a data base that will make access and analysis easier, even for large numbers of parameters. The increase in the types and forms of remote sensing data and the decrease in costs for computer systems in the last decade has made this approach more popular than in the past. This paper describes the development of one such data base for the Big Basin Redwoods State Park in the Santa Cruz Mountains in California. The data base contains information for satellite spectral data, soil type, vegetation type, and hypsographic data and was developed for use in a cooperative project being conducted by personnel from the Remote Sensing Research Program and the California Department of Parks and Recreation

  3. A method of groundwater quality assessment based on fuzzy network-CANFIS and geographic information system (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, V.; Khaleghi, M. R.; Sebghati, M.

    2016-12-01

    The process of water quality testing is money/time-consuming, quite important and difficult stage for routine measurements. Therefore, use of models has become commonplace in simulating water quality. In this study, the coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) was used to simulate groundwater quality. Further, geographic information system (GIS) was used as the pre-processor and post-processor tool to demonstrate spatial variation of groundwater quality. All important factors were quantified and groundwater quality index (GWQI) was developed. The proposed model was trained and validated by taking a case study of Mazandaran Plain located in northern part of Iran. The factors affecting groundwater quality were the input variables for the simulation, whereas GWQI index was the output. The developed model was validated to simulate groundwater quality. Network validation was performed via comparison between the estimated and actual GWQI values. In GIS, the study area was separated to raster format in the pixel dimensions of 1 km and also by incorporation of input data layers of the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model; the geo-referenced layers of the effective factors in groundwater quality were earned. Therefore, numeric values of each pixel with geographical coordinates were entered to the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model and thus simulation of groundwater quality was accessed in the study area. Finally, the simulated GWQI indices using the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model were entered into GIS, and hence groundwater quality map (raster layer) based on the results of the network simulation was earned. The study's results confirm the high efficiency of incorporation of neuro-fuzzy techniques and GIS. It is also worth noting that the general quality of the groundwater in the most studied plain is fairly low.

  4. Scale Effects of the Relationships between Urban Heat Islands and Impact Factors Based on a Geographically-Weighted Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Luo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban heat island (UHI effect, the side effect of rapid urbanization, has become an obstacle to the further healthy development of the city. Understanding its relationships with impact factors is important to provide useful information for climate adaptation urban planning strategies. For this purpose, the geographically-weighted regression (GWR approach is used to explore the scale effects in a mountainous city, namely the change laws and characteristics of the relationships between land surface temperature and impact factors at different spatial resolutions (30–960 m. The impact factors include the Soil-adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI, the Index-based Built-up Index (IBI, and the Soil Brightness Index (NDSI, which indicate the coverage of the vegetation, built-up, and bare land, respectively. For reference, the ordinary least squares (OLS model, a global regression technique, is also employed by using the same dependent variable and explanatory variables as in the GWR model. Results from the experiment exemplified by Chongqing showed that the GWR approach had a better prediction accuracy and a better ability to describe spatial non-stationarity than the OLS approach judged by the analysis of the local coefficient of determination (R2, Corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc, and F-test at small spatial resolution (< 240 m; however, when the spatial scale was increased to 480 m, this advantage has become relatively weak. This indicates that the GWR model becomes increasingly global, revealing the relationships with more generalized geographical patterns, and then spatial non-stationarity in the relationship will tend to be neglected with the increase of spatial resolution.

  5. Bioimaging of geographically adjacent proteins in a single cell by quantum dot-based fluorescent resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Won Jun; Ko, Mee Hyang; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Soonhag

    2009-12-01

    Thousands of proteins are simultaneously involved in the maintenance of a single cancer cell. Fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) is one of the most general techniques for imaging biologically interacting molecules in a cell. Here, we applied FRET to image the co-localization of two proteins that do not interact biologically (nucleolin and integrin α(v) β(3),) both of which are highly expressed in the plasma membrane of cancer cells. AS1411 aptamer, which targets nucleolin, was labeled by Cy3 (Cy3-AS1411) and arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide, which targets integrin α(v) β(3) , was conjugated with quantum dot (525 nm, Qd) Qd arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (Qd-RGD). FRET activities between Cy3-AS1411 and Qd-RGD were measured in HeLa cells, a human cervical cancer cell line. FRET phenomena between Qd and Cy3 showed good compatibility according to proximity. The fluorescence signature using Qd-RGD and Cy3-AS1411 showed that nucleolin and integrin α(v) β(3) proteins were highly expressed in HeLa cells. Co-incubation of Qd-RGD and Cy3-AS1411 in a single HeLa cell demonstrated that the fluorescence overlay by FRET was quantitatively and geographically quite different from that of individual confocal images. These results suggest that Qd-based FRET analysis can provide information on geographical co-localization of proteins in naïve cells, which is very important for determining the molecular and cellular functions of genes involved in cancers and other clinical diseases.

  6. Geographic clustering of emergency department presentations for acute coronary syndromes and heart failure in Alberta: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Rowe, Brian H; McAlister, Finlay A

    2017-05-18

    Collectively, the most common acute cardiac presentations to emergency departments are acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) and heart failure. We examined geographic variation and clustering in emergency department presentations by adults for ACS or heart failure in Alberta in 2010/11. All emergency department presentations for ACS or heart failure made by Alberta residents aged 35 years or more during 2010/11 were extracted from 5 linked population-based Alberta administrative health databases. Data extracted included demographic characteristics, hospital admissions and physician claims. Spatial scan tests and logistic regression analyses were performed. There were 6342 patients with ACS (mean age 65.9 yr, 63.1% male) and 4780 patients with heart failure (mean age 76.6 yr, 49.9% male). For both ACS and heart failure, a primary cluster and 2 secondary clusters were identified. Different clusters were identified for the 2 conditions. For both conditions, patients living in the clusters had more primary care physician claims, prior emergency department visits and prior hospital admissions than did patients living outside the clusters. However, they were less likely to have had a specialist claim in the prior 2 years (odds ratio 0.64 [95% confidence interval 0.56-0.73] for ACS and 0.51 [95% confidence interval 0.43-0.61] for heart failure). Geographic areas were identified with higher numbers than expected of patients presenting to the emergency department for ACS or heart failure. Lower specialist access in these areas was associated with increased emergency department use. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  7. Aeronautical geographic data modeling based on GML%基于GML的航空地理数据建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 顾春艳

    2012-01-01

    Aeronautical information is an important type of geospatial data to ensure the safety and efficiency for air traffic. Currently, aeronautical information service (AIS) pro- vide these data to users by the medium of aeronautical chart, aeronautical information pub- lic (AIP), notice to airman (NOTA M), and so on. We are in the age of the Internet, sat- ellite navigation and computer networks, yet our approach to aeronautical geospatial data distribution is still based on paper charts, paper documentation and telex-based text mes- sages. Systems exist in isolation. Many of the data is entered more than twice in different computers using a keyboard rather than via file transfer or database transactions. To satisfy new requirements for the Global Air Traffic Management Operational Con- cept, aeronautical information services should be transferred to support a digital, real- time, accredited and secure aeronautical information environment. As an open geospatial data standard, GML gives aeronautical information feature coding method and interchan- ging format. Much has been done in air traffic community, and the technology has become more mature and is widely used. EUROCONTROL and FAA have developed AIXM (Aeronautical Information Exchange Model) based on GML. In Europe, the European AIS Database (EAD) provide unique reference database of aeronautical information on be- half of AIXM. In Chinese air traffic community, unique aeronautical geospatial data model has been considered as the key to ensure quality, integrity and interoperation of the aeronautical in- formation. But there is littlematerial progress on the data modeling. Based on studies on the characteristic of aeronautical information, the paper analyzed the mapping aeronautical data between and GML. Taking the basic aeronautical information database in Airline Management System as an example, an aeronautical geographic data model has been brought forward in this paper. Studies have shown that

  8. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...

  9. Geographic profiling survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emeno, Karla; Bennell, Craig; Snook, Brent; Taylor, Paul Jonathon

    Geographic profiling (GP) is an investigative technique that involves predicting a serial offender?s home location (or some other anchor point) based on where he or she committed a crime. Although the use of GP in police investigations appears to be on the rise, little is known about the procedure

  10. Toward molecular trait-based ecology through integration of biogeochemical, geographical and metagenomic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raes, Jeroen; Letunic, Ivica; Yamada, Takuji;

    2011-01-01

    Using metagenomic 'parts lists' to infer global patterns on microbial ecology remains a significant challenge. To deduce important ecological indicators such as environmental adaptation, molecular trait dispersal, diversity variation and primary production from the gene pool of an ecosystem, we...... provincialism). Molecular functional richness and diversity show a distinct latitudinal gradient peaking at 20° N and correlate with primary production. The latter can also be predicted from the molecular functional composition of an environmental sample. Together, our results show that the functional community...... composition derived from metagenomes is an important quantitative readout for molecular trait-based biogeography and ecology....

  11. Random property allocation: A novel geographic imputation procedure based on a complete geocoded address file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Scott R; Rose, Nectarios

    2013-09-01

    Allocating an incomplete address to randomly selected property coordinates within a locality, known as random property allocation, has many advantages over other geoimputation techniques. We compared the performance of random property allocation to four other methods under various conditions using a simulation approach. All methods performed well for large spatial units, but random property allocation was the least prone to bias and error under volatile scenarios with small units and low prevalence. Both its coordinate based approach as well as the random process of assignment contribute to its increased accuracy and reduced bias in many scenarios. Hence it is preferable to fixed or areal geoimputation for many epidemiological and surveillance applications.

  12. Preparation of Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and State Soil Geographic Data Base (STATSGO) data for global change research in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loius R. Iverson; Anantha M. G. Prasad; Charles T. Scott

    1996-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and the Natural Resource Conservation Service's State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) data bases provide valuable natural resource data that can be analyzed at the national scale. When coupled with other data (e.g., climate), these data bases can provide insights into factors associated with current and...

  13. A new approach to geographic routing for location aided cluster based MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamilarasi Angamuthu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Routing has been the main challenge for ad hoc networks due to dynamic topology as well as resource constraints. Completely GPS(Global Positioning System free as well as GPS scarce positioning systems for wireless, mobile, ad-hoc networks has been proposed recently by many authors. High computational overhead and high mobility of the nodes typically require completely GPS enabled MANETs for higher performance. In this article, Improved Location aided Cluster based Routing Protocol (ILCRP for GPS enabled MANETs has been evaluated for performance metrics such as end to end delay, control overhead, and packet delivery ratio. Use of cluster based routing as well as exact location information of the nodes in ILCRP reduces the control overhead resulting in higher packet delivery ratio. GPS utility in nodes reduces the end to end delay even during its high mobility. Simulations are performed using NS2 by varying the mobility (speed of nodes as well as number of the nodes. The results illustrate that ILCRP performs better compared to other protocols.

  14. Dissemination of an evidence-based multicomponent fall risk-assessment and -management strategy throughout a geographic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dorothy I; King, Mary B; Fortinsky, Richard H; Graff, Louis G; Gottschalk, Margaret; Acampora, Denise; Preston, Jeanette; Brown, Cynthia J; Tinetti, Mary E

    2005-04-01

    To report on the penetration of, and identified barriers to and facilitators of, efforts to incorporate evidence-based fall risk assessment and management into clinical practice throughout a defined geographic area. Dissemination project. North central Connecticut. Hospitals, home care agencies, primary care providers, and outpatient rehabilitation facilities. Multiple professional behavior-change strategies were used to encourage providers to incorporate evidence-based fall assessment and management into their practices. Penetration of dissemination efforts over 36 months; barriers and facilitators identified by provider working groups during the first 2 years of the project. All seven hospitals and 26 home care agencies in the area, 119 of 130 rehabilitation facilities, and 138 of 212 primary care offices participated. Most provider working groups expressed similar barriers and facilitating factors. Reported barriers specific to fall risk management included lack of awareness of fall morbidity and preventability, perceived lack of expertise and Medicare coverage, inadequate referral patterns among providers, and lack of a federal mandate for physicians. Facilitating factors specific to falls included the opportunity to market new services and to develop new networks of professional relationships across disciplines and the Medicare mandate that home care agencies focus on functional outcomes. Dissemination efforts showed notable successes as well as challenges. Although many of the barriers were general to diffusing new practices, several were specific to fall assessment and management that span disciplines and sites. Project results have implications for efforts to diffuse evidence-based practices for multifactorial geriatric conditions such as falls.

  15. [GIS-based forest fire risk zone mapping in Daxing'an Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haiwei; Kong, Fanhua; Li, Xiuzhen

    2005-05-01

    In this study, the Yuying and Fendou forest farms of Tuqiang Forest Bureau in Daxing'an Mountains were chosen as test areas, and their vegetation type, altitude, slop, aspect, and settlement buffer were selected as the main forest fire factors. The circumstances of forest fire risk were quantified by the factor-weights union method with the support of GIS. Four classes of forest fire risk ranging from low to extreme were generated. The none-, low, moderate, high, and extremely high fire risk zones accounted for 0.37%, 0.63%, 38.67%, 58.63% and 1.70%, respectively, which was in corresponding with normal distribution. About 60.33% of the test areas were predicted to be upper moderate risk zones, indicating that the forest fire management task in these areas is super onerous. There was an obvious regional difference in the distribution of forest fire risk zones, being higher in the center and lower around the center, and the difference in fire factors was also obvious. The GIS-based forest fire risk model of test areas strongly cohered with the actual fire-affected sites in 1987, which suggested that the forest fire risk zone mapping had a higher reliability, and could be used as the reference and guidance of forest fire management.

  16. Technology-Enhanced Problem-Based Learning Methodology in Geographically Dispersed Learners of Tshwane University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibitse M. Tlhapane

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Improving teaching and learning methodologies is not just a wish but rather strife for most educational institutions globally. To attain this, the Adelaide Tambo School of Nursing Science implemented a Technology-enhanced Problem-Based Learning methodology in the programme B Tech Occupational Nursing, in 2006. This is a two-year post-basic nursing program. The students are geographically dispersed and the curriculum design is the typically student-centred outcomes-based education. The research question posed by this paper is: How does technology-enhanced problem-based learning enhance student-centred learning, thinking skills, social skills and social space for learners? To answer the above question, a case study with both qualitative and quantitative data was utilised. The participants consisted of all students registered for the subject Occupational Health level 4. The sample group was chosen from willing participants from the Pretoria, eMalahleni and Polokwane learning sites, using the snowball method. This method was seen as appropriate due to the timing of the study. Data was collected using a questionnaire with both open and closed-ended questions. An analyses of the students‟ end of year examination was also done, including a comparison of performances by students on technology enhanced problem-based learning and those on problem-based learning only. The findings revealed that with Technology-enhanced Problem Based Learning (PBL, students‟ critical thinking, problem solving, and social skills improved and that social space was enhanced. This was supported by improved grades in students‟ on Technology-enhanced PBL as compared to those on PBL only.

  17. Search and selection hotel system in Surabaya based on geographic information system (GIS) with fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purbandini, Taufik

    2016-03-01

    Surabaya is a metropolitan city in Indonesia. When the visitor has an interest in Surabaya for several days, then the visitor was looking for lodging that is closest to the interests of making it more efficient and practical. It was not a waste of time for the businessman because of congestion and so we need full information about the hotel as an inn during a stay in Surabaya began name, address of the hotel, the hotel's website, the distance from the hotel to the destination until the display of the map along the route with the help of Google Maps. This system was designed using fuzzy logic which aims to assist the user in making decisions. Design of hotel search and selection system was done through four stages. The first phase was the collection of data and as the factors that influence the decision-making along with the limit values of these factors. Factors that influence covers a distance of the hotel, the price of hotel rooms, and hotel reviews. The second stage was the processing of data and information by creating membership functions. The third stage was the analysis of systems with fuzzy logic. The steps were performed in systems analysis, namely fuzzification, inference using Mamdani, and defuzzification. The last stage was the design and construction of the system. Designing the system using use case diagrams and activity diagram to describe any process that occurs. Development system includes system implementation and evaluation systems. Implementation of mobile with Android-based system so that these applications were user friendly.

  18. A Zone-Based Self-Organized Handover Scheme for Heterogeneous Mobile and Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Murad Khan; Kijun Han

    2014-01-01

    Uninterrupted internet services are need of the day and their demand will increase in future by manifold. However, providing uninterrupted services under heterogeneous networks environment is a challenging task. One of the major challenges in this regard is the management of handover system between various networks. This paper proposes a handover management scheme by dividing the total coverage area of the base station (BS) or access point (AP) into three different zones (strong, average, and...

  19. A Metagenomic Assembly-Based Approach to Decoding Taxa in the Dead Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, C.; Baker, B.; Seitz, K.; Gillies, L.; Temperton, B.; Rabalais, N. N.; Mason, O. U.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal regions of eutrophication-driven oxygen depletion are widespread and increasing in number. Also known as dead zones, these regions take their name from the deleterious effects of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen less than 2 mg/L) on shrimp, demersal fish, and other animal life. Dead zones result from nutrient enrichment of primary production, concomitant consumption by chemoorganotrophic aerobic microorganisms, and strong stratification that prevents ventilation of bottom water. One of the largest dead zones in the world occurs seasonally in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), where hypoxia can reach up to 22,000 square kilometers. To explore the underlying genomic variation and metabolic potential of microorganisms in hypoxia, we performed metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing on six samples from the 2013 nGOM dead zone from both hypoxic and oxic bottom waters. Over 217 Mb of sequence was assembled into contigs of at least 3 kb with IDBA-UD, with 72 greater than 100 kb, and the largest 495 kb in length. Annotation by IMG recovered over 224 thousand genes in these contigs. Binning with tetra-ESOM and quality filtering based on relative coverage of sample-specific reads led to the recovery of 83 partial to near complete (31 over 70%) high-quality genomes. These metagenomes represent key microbial taxa previously determined to be numerically abundant from 16S rRNA data, such as Thaumarcheaota, Marine Group II Euryarchaeota, SAR406, Synechococcus spp., Actinobacteria, and Planctomycetes. Ongoing work includes the recruitment of metatranscriptomic data to binned contigs for evaluation of relative gene expression, metabolic reconstruction, and comparative genomics with related organisms elsewhere in the global oceans. These data will provide us with detailed information regarding the metabolic potential and activity of many of the key players in the nGOM dead zone.

  20. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts, Polygon boundaries representing the geographic extent of Enterprise Zones. Businesses located in a Maryland Enterprise Zone may be eligible for income tax credits and real property tax credits in return for job creation and investments., Published in 2010, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Business and Economic Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of...

  1. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts, Polygon boundaries representing geographic extent of Enterprise Zone Focus Areas. Businesses in Baltimore City or Prince George's Co. Enterprise Zone Focus Areas may be eligible for Real Property, Personal Property or Income Tax Credits., Published in 2010, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Business and Economic Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of...

  2. Land Use in Ma’anshan Economic and Technological Development Zone: Based on the Land Survey of Typical Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minmin; HUO; Zhongxiang; YU

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the typical enterprise’s land use structure,land use efficiency,land use intensity and industrial structure in Ma’anshan Economic and Technological Development Zone. Based on the survey results about the typical enterprises,this article put forth the following recommendations: promoting the economical and intensive land use in the development zone by tapping connotation; enhancing the smart land use in the development zone through optimization of function layout; promoting the industrial chain linkage in the development zone through the establishment of industrial land exit mechanism.

  3. 78 FR 72025 - Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is increasing a portion of an existing San Diego Bay security zone at Naval Base... Diego Bay in order to ensure the safety and security of Naval assets. Both security zones will safeguard...

  4. 基于ZoneMinder的多触发源网络视频监控方案%Embedded network video monitor based on ZoneMinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正; 安峰

    2012-01-01

    引入开源项目ZoneMinder,搭建基于Linux平台的网络视频监控系统。介绍了整体方案和ZoneMinder的基本原理,重点讲述了视频的多触发监控方式。基于此方案,只需采用普通的摄像头和简单的配置,无需额外布线和昂贵的监控设备,即可以快速地搭建一套经济实用的网络监控系统.为智能家居、楼宇安保提供了一个新的解决方案,具有较高的应用价值。%ZoneMinder is the top Linux video camera security and surveillance solution, together with an embedded device as a remote console and some communication interface, it can build an embedded network video monitor system. Based on this system, intelligence housing could come true. In this paper, it introduces the steps, communication interface and principles of how to build a monitor system based on ZoneMinder, which should be useful in the application fields.

  5. The safe zone for blinded sternal interventions based on CT evaluation of midline congenital sternal foramina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boruah, Deb K.; Dhingani, Dhaval D.; Achar, Shashidhar; Augustine, Antony; Mahanta, Kangkana [Assam Medical College and Hospital, Department of Radio-diagnosis, Dibrugarh, Assam (India); Prakash, Arjun [NIMHANS, Department of Radio-diagnosis, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Yadav, Rajnikant R. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute and Medical Sciences, Department of Radio-diagnosis, Lucknow (India)

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safe zone for performing blind sternal procedures based on computed tomography (CT) evaluation of congenital midline sternal foramina using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). This retrospective study was carried out on 1,180 patients who underwent MDCT of the thorax from March 2015 to February 2016. The MDCT images were evaluated in axial and reformatted planes. Morphometry and prevalence of midline congenital sternal foramina (SF) and manubrio-foraminal distance (MFD) were evaluated. The safe zone was defined for a blinded intervention, based on palpable anatomical landmarks. Data were presented in terms of percentage, mean ± standard deviation and calculations were carried out using Microsoft Excel. The prevalence of SF in our study sample was 11.6 %. The majority of SF were located in a typical position in the lower sternal body at the level of fifth costo-chondral junction (CCJ) in 108 patients (78.8 %). The structure directly beneath the SF was mediastinal fat in 73 patients (53.3 %), followed by anterior pericardium in 44 patients (32.1 %) and lung parenchyma in 20 patients (14.6 %). The mean MFD in our study population was 11.90 ± 1.31 cm. Sternal interventions should be avoided at the level of fourth to sixth CCJ, which is considered the danger zone. An intervention at the fourth to sixth CCJ may lead to disastrous consequences in patients who have SF. (orig.)

  6. Striking a balance: socioeconomic development and conservation in grassland through community-based zoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisher, Craig; Brouwer, Roy; Boucher, Timothy M; Vogelij, Rogier; Bainbridge, W R; Sanjayan, M

    2011-01-01

    The goal of preserving nature is often in conflict with economic development and the aspirations of the rural poor. Nowhere is this more striking than in native grasslands, which have been extensively converted until a mere fraction of their original extent remains. This is not surprising; grasslands flourish in places coveted by humans, primed for agriculture, plantations, and settlements that nearly always trump conservation efforts. The Umgano grassland conservation and poverty reduction project in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa uses community-based spatial planning to balance the conversion of its lower-conservation value grasslands to a timber plantation, while conserving higher-value grasslands for heritage purposes and managed livestock grazing. Ten years after project launch, we measured the ecological and socioeconomic impacts of the project using Normalized Differential Vegetation Index remote sensing data and over 500 household interviews, as compared with similar non-conserved areas. Zoned management of the Umgano area had resulted in between 9% and 17% greater average peak production in the grassland areas compared to control sites. There was also a 21% gain in incomes for the roughly one hundred people employed by the forestry efforts, when compared to others in their village. Community-based spatial zoning is an overlooked tool for balancing conservation and development but may require, as we found in Umgano, certain critical factors including strong local leadership, an accountable financial management mechanism to distribute income, outside technical expertise for the zoning design, and community support.

  7. Striking a balance: socioeconomic development and conservation in grassland through community-based zoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Leisher

    Full Text Available The goal of preserving nature is often in conflict with economic development and the aspirations of the rural poor. Nowhere is this more striking than in native grasslands, which have been extensively converted until a mere fraction of their original extent remains. This is not surprising; grasslands flourish in places coveted by humans, primed for agriculture, plantations, and settlements that nearly always trump conservation efforts. The Umgano grassland conservation and poverty reduction project in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa uses community-based spatial planning to balance the conversion of its lower-conservation value grasslands to a timber plantation, while conserving higher-value grasslands for heritage purposes and managed livestock grazing. Ten years after project launch, we measured the ecological and socioeconomic impacts of the project using Normalized Differential Vegetation Index remote sensing data and over 500 household interviews, as compared with similar non-conserved areas. Zoned management of the Umgano area had resulted in between 9% and 17% greater average peak production in the grassland areas compared to control sites. There was also a 21% gain in incomes for the roughly one hundred people employed by the forestry efforts, when compared to others in their village. Community-based spatial zoning is an overlooked tool for balancing conservation and development but may require, as we found in Umgano, certain critical factors including strong local leadership, an accountable financial management mechanism to distribute income, outside technical expertise for the zoning design, and community support.

  8. A Block Based Adaptive Video Data Hiding Method Using Forbidden Zone Data Hiding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banoth, Rajkumar

    2013-01-01

    -Data hiding is a process of embedding information into some sort of host media. Especially video data hiding has become an important research topic as it is complex when compared data hiding process in other media. This paper proposes a new method based on erasure correction capability of RA codes...... using forbidden zone data hiding. This method finds suitable host signals that are useful for data hiding. The proposed method also overcomes the problems of frame drop and inserts attacks. The simulation results reveal that this video data hiding framework can be used in data hiding applications...... of the real world. Key Words – RA codes, selective embedding, watermarking, forbidden zone data hiding, simulation, selective embedding, erasure handling, block partitioning...

  9. Maximum Entropy Niche-Based Modeling (Maxent) of Potential Geographical Distributions of Lobesia Botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in China

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Simulation, Optimization, Monitoring and Control Technology; International audience; Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is one of the most destructive pests of grape in the Palearctic region. The potential geographical distribution of this pest is important to agriculture security. In this study, Maxent and ArcGIS were used to project the potential geographical distribution of L. botrana in China under the current climate. The result indicated th...

  10. Geographical information system (GIS) as a new tool to evaluate epidemiology based on spatial analysis and clinical outcomes in acromegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Naves, Luciana Ansaneli; Porto, Lara Benigno; Rosa, João Willy Corrêa; Casulari, Luiz Augusto; Rosa, José Wilson Corrêa

    2013-01-01

    Geographical information systems (GIS) have emerged as a group of innovative software components useful for projects in epidemiology and planning in Health Care System. This is an original study to investigate environmental and geographical influences on epidemiology of acromegaly in Brazil. We aimed to validate a method to link an acromegaly registry with a GIS mapping program, to describe the spatial distribution of patients, to identify disease clusters and to evaluate if the access to Hea...

  11. Geographical patterns of malaria transmission based on serological markers for falciparum and vivax malaria in Ratanakiri, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Kerkhof

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous, especially in low endemic countries, such as Cambodia. This results in geographical clusters of residual transmission in the dry, low transmission season, which can fuel the transmission to wider areas or populations during the wet season. A better understanding of spatial clustering of malaria can lead to a more efficient, targeted strategy to reduce malaria transmission. This study aims to evaluate the potential of the use of serological markers to define spatial patterns in malaria exposure. Methods Blood samples collected in a community-based randomized trial performed in 98 high endemic communities in Ratanakiri province, north-eastern Cambodia, were screened with a multiplex serological assay for five serological markers (three Plasmodium falciparum and two Plasmodium vivax. The antibody half-lives range from approximately six months until more than two years. Geographical heterogeneity in malaria transmission was examined using a spatial scan statistic on serology, PCR prevalence and malaria incidence rate data. Furthermore, to identify behavioural patterns or intrinsic factors associated with malaria exposure (antibody levels, risk factor analyses were performed by using multivariable random effect logistic regression models. The serological outcomes were then compared to PCR prevalence and malaria incidence data. Results A total of 6502 samples from two surveys were screened in an area where the average parasite prevalence estimated by PCR among the selected villages is 3.4 %. High-risk malaria pockets were observed adjacent to the ‘Tonle San River’ and neighbouring Vietnam for all three sets of data (serology, PCR prevalence and malaria incidence rates. The main risk factors for all P. falciparum antigens and P. vivax MSP1.19 are age, ethnicity and staying overnight at the plot hut. Conclusion It is possible to identify similar malaria pockets of higher malaria

  12. Geographical patterns of malaria transmission based on serological markers for falciparum and vivax malaria in Ratanakiri, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhof, Karen; Sluydts, Vincent; Heng, Somony; Kim, Saorin; Pareyn, Myrthe; Willen, Laura; Canier, Lydie; Sovannaroth, Siv; Ménard, Didier; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Durnez, Lies

    2016-10-19

    Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous, especially in low endemic countries, such as Cambodia. This results in geographical clusters of residual transmission in the dry, low transmission season, which can fuel the transmission to wider areas or populations during the wet season. A better understanding of spatial clustering of malaria can lead to a more efficient, targeted strategy to reduce malaria transmission. This study aims to evaluate the potential of the use of serological markers to define spatial patterns in malaria exposure. Blood samples collected in a community-based randomized trial performed in 98 high endemic communities in Ratanakiri province, north-eastern Cambodia, were screened with a multiplex serological assay for five serological markers (three Plasmodium falciparum and two Plasmodium vivax). The antibody half-lives range from approximately six months until more than two years. Geographical heterogeneity in malaria transmission was examined using a spatial scan statistic on serology, PCR prevalence and malaria incidence rate data. Furthermore, to identify behavioural patterns or intrinsic factors associated with malaria exposure (antibody levels), risk factor analyses were performed by using multivariable random effect logistic regression models. The serological outcomes were then compared to PCR prevalence and malaria incidence data. A total of 6502 samples from two surveys were screened in an area where the average parasite prevalence estimated by PCR among the selected villages is 3.4 %. High-risk malaria pockets were observed adjacent to the 'Tonle San River' and neighbouring Vietnam for all three sets of data (serology, PCR prevalence and malaria incidence rates). The main risk factors for all P. falciparum antigens and P. vivax MSP1.19 are age, ethnicity and staying overnight at the plot hut. It is possible to identify similar malaria pockets of higher malaria transmission together with the potential risk factors by using serology

  13. Geomorphology and Ecology of Mountain Landscapes: an interdisciplinary approach to problem-based learning in a particular geographical setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemple, B.; Thomas, E. P.; Shanley, J.

    2006-12-01

    Mountain settings provide some unique conditions for the instruction of earth surface processes and ecology. Recent attention has also highlighted certain risks to mountain environments posed by development pressures and climate change scenarios. We describe a course developed for senior undergraduate students that focuses on an integrated, interdisciplinary view of ecological, geophysical, and socio-political processes in mountain settings. We use a problem-based learning approach where students first learn to collect and analyze data around a set of field problems tackled during a one-week field intensive. Next, students explore a range of research problems from mountain settings through a semester-long seminar focusing on current scholarly readings and visits with resource managers, policy makers and stakeholders. Finally, students craft and execute a research project and present results in a symposium setting. Our course builds on the traditional model of the Geoscience field camp, employs a geographical perspective to think synthetically about the nature of mountain landscapes, uses an interdisciplinary approach to study processes and process- interactions of the mountain setting, and explores some of the unique challenges facing mountain regions.

  14. Geographic Information Systems (GIS Based Village Roads Management Model For Monitoring, Maintenance And Repairing Purposes: Example Of Denizli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetiş Şazi Murat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Geographic information systems has become a tool that is often used in many fields especially in developed countries, yet in Turkey while it's been recognized and acknowledged by central and local authorities, its use in public services is still in only the crawling stages.Within the borders of Denizli Provincial Administration Roads and Transportation Services Directorship, a GIS-supported study has been undertaken in order to update information on all village roads in the related area of responsibility and service and to aid the Directorship's country infrastructure service with modern and technical methods over different analysis results obtained. In this study, executed with the Strategy Development Directorship, through using developed layers, topographic maps, satellite photos, etc. devised in fact for different purposes, it was aimed to ensure that the service concerning village roads are based on correct and update data. In line with the fast and sensitive analysis results obtained in this study as an attempt to ensure that public resources are used efficiently, it was aimed to put forth a pilot project to be used later on as a product which is thought to serve as a model to help re-plan village road constructions, determine lacking and incomplete cases, thereby establish a complete and integrated management plan.

  15. Estimation of the monthly average daily solar radiation using geographic information system and advanced case-based reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Lee, Minhyun; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-05-07

    The photovoltaic (PV) system is considered an unlimited source of clean energy, whose amount of electricity generation changes according to the monthly average daily solar radiation (MADSR). It is revealed that the MADSR distribution in South Korea has very diverse patterns due to the country's climatic and geographical characteristics. This study aimed to develop a MADSR estimation model for the location without the measured MADSR data, using an advanced case based reasoning (CBR) model, which is a hybrid methodology combining CBR with artificial neural network, multiregression analysis, and genetic algorithm. The average prediction accuracy of the advanced CBR model was very high at 95.69%, and the standard deviation of the prediction accuracy was 3.67%, showing a significant improvement in prediction accuracy and consistency. A case study was conducted to verify the proposed model. The proposed model could be useful for owner or construction manager in charge of determining whether or not to introduce the PV system and where to install it. Also, it would benefit contractors in a competitive bidding process to accurately estimate the electricity generation of the PV system in advance and to conduct an economic and environmental feasibility study from the life cycle perspective.

  16. Development of an Antarctic digital elevation model by integrating cartographic and remotely sensed data: A geographic information system based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongxing; Jezek, Kenneth C.; Li, Biyan

    1999-10-01

    We present a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the Antarctic. It was created in a geographic information system (GIS) environment by integrating the best available topographic data from a variety of sources. Extensive GIS-based error detection and correction operations ensured that our DEM is free of gross errors. The carefully designed interpolation algorithms for different types of source data and incorporation of surface morphologic information preserved and enhanced the fine surface structures present in the source data. The effective control of adverse edge effects and the use of the Hermite blending weight function in data merging minimized the discontinuities between different types of data, leading to a seamless and topographically consistent DEM throughout the Antarctic. This new DEM provides exceptional topographical details and represents a substantial improvement in horizontal resolution and vertical accuracy over the earlier, continental-scale renditions, particularly in mountainous and coastal regions. It has a horizontal resolution of 200 m over the rugged mountains, 400 m in the coastal regions, and approximately 5 km in the interior. The vertical accuracy of the DEM is estimated at about 100-130 m over the rugged mountainous area, better than 2 m for the ice shelves, better than 15 m for the interior ice sheet, and about 35 m for the steeper ice sheet perimeter. The Antarctic DEM can be obtained from the authors.

  17. Geographic structure and demographic history of Iranian brown bear (Ursus arctos based on mtDNA control region sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Ashrafzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the brown bear's range has declined and its populations in some areas have faced extinction. Therefore, to have a comprehensive picture of genetic diversity and geographic structure of populations is essential for effective conservation strategies. In this research, we sequenced a 271bp segment of mtDNA control region of seven Iranian brown bears, where a total dataset of 467 sequences (brown and polar bears were used in analyses. Overall, 113 different haplotypes and 77 polymorphic sites were identified within the segment. Based on phylogenetic analyses, Iranian brown bears were not nested in any other clades. The low values of Nm (range=0.014-0.187 and high values of Fst (range=0.728-0.972 among Iranian bears and others revealed a genetically significant differentiation. We aren't found any significant signal of demographic reduction in Iranian bears. The time to the most recent common ancestor of Iranian brown bears (Northern Iran was found to be around 19000 BP.

  18. Land Cover/Land Use Classification and Change Detection Analysis with Astronaut Photography and Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollier, Andi B.; Jagge, Amy M.; Stefanov, William L.; Vanderbloemen, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    For over fifty years, NASA astronauts have taken exceptional photographs of the Earth from the unique vantage point of low Earth orbit (as well as from lunar orbit and surface of the Moon). The Crew Earth Observations (CEO) Facility is the NASA ISS payload supporting astronaut photography of the Earth surface and atmosphere. From aurora to mountain ranges, deltas, and cities, there are over two million images of the Earth's surface dating back to the Mercury missions in the early 1960s. The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth website (eol.jsc.nasa.gov) provides a publically accessible platform to query and download these images at a variety of spatial resolutions and perform scientific research at no cost to the end user. As a demonstration to the science, application, and education user communities we examine astronaut photography of the Washington D.C. metropolitan area for three time steps between 1998 and 2016 using Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) to classify and quantify land cover/land use and provide a template for future change detection studies with astronaut photography.

  19. Using risk-based analysis and geographic information systems to assess flooding problems in an urban watershed in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardmeyer, Kent; Spencer, Michael A

    2007-04-01

    This article provides an overview of the use of risk-based analysis (RBA) in flood damage assessment, and it illustrates the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in identifying flood-prone areas, which can aid in flood-mitigation planning assistance. We use RBA to calculate expected annual flood damages in an urban watershed in the state of Rhode Island, USA. The method accounts for the uncertainty in the three primary relationships used in computing flood damage: (1) the probability that a given flood will produce a given amount of floodwater, (2) the probability that a given amount of floodwater will reach a certain stage or height, and (3) the probability that a certain stage of floodwater will produce a given amount of damage. A greater than 50% increase in expected annual flood damage is estimated for the future if previous development patterns continue and flood-mitigation measures are not taken. GIS is then used to create a map that shows where and how often floods might occur in the future, which can help (1) identify priority areas for flood-mitigation planning assistance and (2) disseminate information to public officials and other decision-makers.

  20. Development of an Indoor Location Based Service Test Bed and Geographic Information System with a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shau-Shiun Jan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D geographic information system (GIS. A wireless sensor network (WSN is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system.

  1. Development of an indoor location based service test bed and geographic information system with a wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Hsu, Li-Ta; Tsai, Wen-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS) test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D) geographic information system (GIS). A wireless sensor network (WSN) is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS) fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN) algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN) algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD) software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML) to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system.

  2. Estuarine Salinity Zones in US East Coast, Gulf of Mexico, and US West Coast from 1999-01-01 to 1999-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0127396)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These unprojected (geographic coordinates) 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geographies are based on analysis of long-term salinity data for 147 estuaries of...

  3. An automatic segmentation method for building facades from vehicle-borne LiDAR point cloud data based on fundamental geographical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqiang; Mao, Jie; Cai, Lailiang; Zhang, Xitong; Li, Lixue

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the author proposed a segmentation method based on the fundamental geographic data, the algorithm describes as following: Firstly, convert the coordinate system of fundamental geographic data to that of vehicle- borne LiDAR point cloud though some data preprocessing work, and realize the coordinate system between them; Secondly, simplify the feature of fundamental geographic data, extract effective contour information of the buildings, then set a suitable buffer threshold value for building contour, and segment out point cloud data of building facades automatically; Thirdly, take a reasonable quality assessment mechanism, check and evaluate of the segmentation results, control the quality of segmentation result. Experiment shows that the proposed method is simple and effective. The method also has reference value for the automatic segmentation for surface features of other types of point cloud.

  4. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  5. Gulf of California biogeographic regions based on coastal zone color scanner imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    SantamaríA-Del-Angel, Eduardo; Alvarez-Borrego, Saúl; Müller-Karger, Frank E.

    1994-04-01

    Topographically, the Gulf of California is divided into a series of basins and trenches that deepen to the south. Maximum depth at the mouth is greater than 3000 m. Most of the northern gulf is less than 200 m deep. The gulf has hydrographic features conducive to high primary productivity. Upwelling events have been described on the basis of temperature distributions at the eastern coast during winter and spring and at the western coast during summer. Tidal amplitude may be as high as 9 m in the upper gulf. On the basis of discrete phytoplankton sampling, the gulf was previously divided into four geographic regions. This division took into consideration only the space distribution, taxonomic composition, and abundance of microphytoplankton. With the availability of the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) imagery, we were able to include the time variability of pigments to make a more detailed biogeographic division of the gulf. With weekly composites of the imagery, we generated time series of pigment concentrations for 33 locations throughout the gulf and for the whole life span of the CZCS. The time series show a clear seasonal variation, with maxima in winter and spring and minima in summer. The effect of upwelling at the eastern coast is clearly evident, with high pigment concentrations. The effect of the summer upwelling off the Baja California coast is not evident in these time series. Time series from locations on the western side of the gulf also show maxima in winter and spring that are due to the eddy circulation that brings upwelled water from the eastern side. Principal-component analysis was applied to define 14 regions. Ballenas Channel, between Angel de la Guarda and Baja California, and the upper gulf always appeared as very distinct regions. Some of these 14 regions relate to the geographic distributions of important faunal groups, including the benthos, or their life cycles. For example, the upper gulf is a place for reproduction and the nursery of

  6. Relevance Measures Using Geographic Scopes and Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andogah, Geoffrey; Bouma, Gosse; Peters, C; Jikoun,; Mandl, T; Muller, H; Oard, DW; Penas, A; Petras,; Santos, D

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes two kinds of relevance measures to rank documents by geographic restriction: scope-based and type-based. The non-geographic and geographic relevance scores are combined using a weighted harmonic mean. The proposed relevance measures and weighting schemes are evaluated on GeoCLEF

  7. Ecological Benefits Evaluation in Ecological Migration Zone Based on Ecological Green Equivalent: A Case Study of Migration Zone in Yanchi County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun; SHI; Muwen; HAN; Zhuzhou; ZHUANG; Chao; Ma; Jin; WU; Xue; MA

    2015-01-01

    With four ecological migration zones in Huamachi Town of Yanchi County in Ningxia Autonomous Region as the object of study,we carry out the evaluation of ecological benefits in ecological migration zone. Using the SPOT satellite remote sensing image in 2008 and UAV aerophotographic image in 2013,we first monitor and analyze the land use change over five years in the study area,and then adopt ecological green equivalent evaluation model for the evaluation of ecological benefits in the ecological migration zone. Studies have shown that:( i) from 2008 to 2013,the ecological green equivalent in the study area was increased and the ecological environment was improved;( ii) the ecological green equivalent in the study area was less than 1 in 2008 and 2013,and ecological environment was still fragile in the migration zone;( iii)the forest coverage rate of the study area was 20% less than the minimum forest coverage rate of the United Nations,but 15% higher than the forest coverage rate of the Ministry of Environmental Protection. There is a large gap between the forest coverage rate based on ecological green equivalent and optimal forest coverage rate,suggesting that the land use still needs to be adjusted in study area,and it is necessary to increase efforts to strengthen ecological restoration and continue to implement forest conservation,returning land for farming to forestry and other measures.

  8. Land Suitability Modeling using a Geographic Socio-Environmental Niche-Based Approach: A Case Study from Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heumann, Benjamin W; Walsh, Stephen J; Verdery, Ashton M; McDaniel, Phillip M; Rindfuss, Ronald R

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the pattern-process relations of land use/land cover change is an important area of research that provides key insights into human-environment interactions. The suitability or likelihood of occurrence of land use such as agricultural crop types across a human-managed landscape is a central consideration. Recent advances in niche-based, geographic species distribution modeling (SDM) offer a novel approach to understanding land suitability and land use decisions. SDM links species presence-location data with geospatial information and uses machine learning algorithms to develop non-linear and discontinuous species-environment relationships. Here, we apply the MaxEnt (Maximum Entropy) model for land suitability modeling by adapting niche theory to a human-managed landscape. In this article, we use data from an agricultural district in Northeastern Thailand as a case study for examining the relationships between the natural, built, and social environments and the likelihood of crop choice for the commonly grown crops that occur in the Nang Rong District - cassava, heavy rice, and jasmine rice, as well as an emerging crop, fruit trees. Our results indicate that while the natural environment (e.g., elevation and soils) is often the dominant factor in crop likelihood, the likelihood is also influenced by household characteristics, such as household assets and conditions of the neighborhood or built environment. Furthermore, the shape of the land use-environment curves illustrates the non-continuous and non-linear nature of these relationships. This approach demonstrates a novel method of understanding non-linear relationships between land and people. The article concludes with a proposed method for integrating the niche-based rules of land use allocation into a dynamic land use model that can address both allocation and quantity of agricultural crops.

  9. Use of Aerial Images for Regular Updates of Buildings in the Fundamental Base of Geographic Data of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hron, V.; Halounova, L.

    2015-03-01

    Digital aerial images (DAI) include position, elevation and also spectral information (visible bands and near-infrared band) about the captured area. The aim of this paper is to present the possibilities of automatic analysis of DAI for updating of the Fundamental Base of Geographic Data of the Czech Republic with a focus on buildings. Regular updates of buildings (automatic detection of new and demolished buildings) are based on the analysis of coloured point clouds created by an automatic image matching technique from each time period. The created approach compares point clouds from different time periods to each other. The advantage of this solution is that it is independent of the manner of keeping the buildings in the database. It does not matter whether the buildings in the database have correct positions and their footprints correspond to the roof shapes or external walls. The involved method is robust because a digital surface model generated by image matching techniques can contain numerous errors. Shaded areas and objects with blurred textures are problematic for automatic image correlation algorithms and lead to false results. For this reason, derived layers containing additional information are used. Shadow masks (layers with modelled shadows) are used for the verification of indications and to filter out errors in the shaded areas using a contextual evaluation. Furthermore, additional information about the road and railway networks and morphological operations of opening and closing were used to achieve more accurate results. All these information sources are then evaluated using decision logic, which uses the generally applicable rules that are available for different datasets without the need for modification. The method was tested on different datasets with various types of buildings (villages, suburbs and city centres) which cover more than 20 square kilometres. The developed solution leads to very promising results without the need of acquiring

  10. An Operational Web-Based Indicator System for Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Sten Hansen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Coastal zones are under severe pressure from anthropogenic activities, as well as on-going climate change with associated sea level rise and increased storminess. These challenges call for integrated and forward looking solutions. The concept on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, as defined during the last twenty years, provides the overall policy frames, but tools to support the planning and management efforts are almost lacking. Furthermore, the forward-looking dimension to embrace the effects of climate change is nearly absent in most implementations. The BLAST project, financed by the European Union Regional Fund through the INTERREG IV North Sea Region Programme, aimed at developing a web-based decision support system to assist Integrated Coastal Zone Management from a climate change perspective, and the current paper describes the methods used and the computing platform for implementing a decision support system. The software applied in developing the system is mainly Open Source components, thus, facilitating a more widespread use of the system.

  11. Application of Holdridge life-zone model based on the terrain factor in Xinjiang Automous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Yong-ming; OUYANG Zhi-yun; WANG Xiao-ke

    2005-01-01

    This study improved the application of the Holdridge life-zone model to simulate the distribution of desert vegetation in China which gives statistics to support eco-recovery and ecosystem reconstruction in desert area. This study classified the desert vegetation into four types: (1) LAD: little arbor desert; (2) SD: shrub desert; (3) HLHSD: half-shrub, little half-shrub desert; (4) LHSCD: little halfshrub cushion desert. Based on the classification of Xinjiang desert vegetation, the classical Holdridge life-zone model was used to simulate Xinjiang desert vegetation's distribution and compare the Kappa coefficient result of the model with table of accuracy represented by Kappa values. The Kappa value of the model was only 0.19, it means the simulation result was poor. To improve the life-zone model application to Xinjiang desert vegetation type, a set of plot standards for terrain factors was developed by using the plot standard as the reclassification criterion to climate sub-regime. Then the desert vegetation in Xinjiang was simulated. The average Kappa value of the second simulation to the respective climate regime was 0.45. The Kappa value of final modeling result was 0.64, which is the better value.The modification of the model made it in more application region. In the end, the model' s ecological relevance to the Xinjiang desert vegetation types was studied.

  12. Zoning, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the zoning boundaries of the East Baton Rouge Parish of the State of Louisiana. Zoning can be defined as the range of...

  13. CMIP5 ensemble-based spatial rainfall projection over homogeneous zones of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Javed; Das, Lalu; Deb, Argha

    2016-11-01

    Performances of the state-of-the-art CMIP5 models in reproducing the spatial rainfall patterns over seven homogeneous rainfall zones of India viz. North Mountainous India (NMI), Northwest India (NWI), North Central India (NCI), Northeast India (NEI), West Peninsular India (WPI), East Peninsular India (EPI) and South Peninsular India (SPI) have been assessed using different conventional performance metrics namely spatial correlation (R), index of agreement (d-index), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), Ratio of RMSE to the standard deviation of the observations (RSR) and mean bias (MB). The results based on these indices revealed that majority of the models are unable to reproduce finer-scaled spatial patterns over most of the zones. Thereafter, four bias correction methods i.e. Scaling, Standardized Reconstruction, Empirical Quantile Mapping and Gamma Quantile Mapping have been applied on GCM simulations to enhance the skills of the GCM projections. It has been found that scaling method compared to other three methods shown its better skill in capturing mean spatial patterns. Multi-model ensemble (MME) comprising 25 numbers of better performing bias corrected (Scaled) GCMs, have been considered for developing future rainfall patterns over seven zones. Models' spread from ensemble mean (uncertainty) has been found to be larger in RCP 8.5 than RCP4.5 ensemble. In general, future rainfall projections from RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 revealed an increasing rainfall over seven zones during 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. The maximum increase has been found over southwestern part of NWI (12-30%), northwestern part of WPI (3-30%), southeastern part of NEI (5-18%) and northern and eastern part of SPI (6-24%). However, the contiguous region comprising by the southeastern part of NCI and northeastern part of EPI, may experience slight decreasing rainfall (about 3%) during 2020s whereas the western part of NMI may also receive around 3% reduction in rainfall during both 2050s and 2080s.

  14. CMIP5 ensemble-based spatial rainfall projection over homogeneous zones of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Javed; Das, Lalu; Deb, Argha

    2017-09-01

    Performances of the state-of-the-art CMIP5 models in reproducing the spatial rainfall patterns over seven homogeneous rainfall zones of India viz. North Mountainous India (NMI), Northwest India (NWI), North Central India (NCI), Northeast India (NEI), West Peninsular India (WPI), East Peninsular India (EPI) and South Peninsular India (SPI) have been assessed using different conventional performance metrics namely spatial correlation (R), index of agreement (d-index), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), Ratio of RMSE to the standard deviation of the observations (RSR) and mean bias (MB). The results based on these indices revealed that majority of the models are unable to reproduce finer-scaled spatial patterns over most of the zones. Thereafter, four bias correction methods i.e. Scaling, Standardized Reconstruction, Empirical Quantile Mapping and Gamma Quantile Mapping have been applied on GCM simulations to enhance the skills of the GCM projections. It has been found that scaling method compared to other three methods shown its better skill in capturing mean spatial patterns. Multi-model ensemble (MME) comprising 25 numbers of better performing bias corrected (Scaled) GCMs, have been considered for developing future rainfall patterns over seven zones. Models' spread from ensemble mean (uncertainty) has been found to be larger in RCP 8.5 than RCP4.5 ensemble. In general, future rainfall projections from RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 revealed an increasing rainfall over seven zones during 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. The maximum increase has been found over southwestern part of NWI (12-30%), northwestern part of WPI (3-30%), southeastern part of NEI (5-18%) and northern and eastern part of SPI (6-24%). However, the contiguous region comprising by the southeastern part of NCI and northeastern part of EPI, may experience slight decreasing rainfall (about 3%) during 2020s whereas the western part of NMI may also receive around 3% reduction in rainfall during both 2050s and 2080s.

  15. Groundwater protection in fractured media: a vulnerability-based approach for delineating protection zones in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Alain; Tripet, Jean-Pierre; Kozel, Ronald; Meylan, Benjamin; Sinreich, Michael; Zwahlen, François

    2008-11-01

    A vulnerability-based approach for delineating groundwater protection zones around springs in fractured media has been developed to implement Swiss water-protection regulations. It takes into consideration the diversity of hydrogeological conditions observed in fractured aquifers and provides individual solutions for each type of setting. A decision process allows for selecting one of three methods, depending on the spring vulnerability and the heterogeneity of the aquifer. At the first stage, an evaluation of spring vulnerability is required, which is essentially based on spring hydrographs and groundwater quality monitoring. In case of a low vulnerability of the spring, a simplified method using a fixed radius approach (“distance method”) is applied. For vulnerable springs, additional investigations must be completed during a second stage to better characterize the aquifer properties, especially in terms of heterogeneity. This second stage includes a detailed hydrogeological survey and tracer testing. If the aquifer is assessed as slightly heterogeneous, the delineation of protection zones is performed using a calculated radius approach based on tracer test results (“isochrone method”). If the heterogeneity is high, a groundwater vulnerability mapping method is applied (“DISCO method”), based on evaluating discontinuities, protective cover and runoff parameters. Each method is illustrated by a case study.

  16. FE analysis of cruciform welded joints considering different mechanical properties for base material, heat affected zone and weld metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualino Corigliano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this scientific work was to investigate the behaviour of cruciform welded joints under static loading using a full-field technique: Digital Image Correlation. The material curves, relative to different zones (base material, heat affected zone, weld, were obtained by hardness measurements, which were done by means of a fully automated hardness scanner with high resolution. This innovative technique, based on the UCI method, allowed to identify the different zones and to assess their different mechanical properties, which were considered in the finite element model. Finally the finite element model was validated experimentally, comparing the results with the measurements obtained using the Digital Image Correlation technique.

  17. Community disruptions and business costs for distant tsunami evacuations using maximum versus scenario-based zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Wilson, Rick I.; Ratliff, Jamie L.; Peters, Jeff; MacMullan, Ed; Krebs, Tessa; Shoaf, Kimberley; Miller, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Well-executed evacuations are key to minimizing loss of life from tsunamis, yet they also disrupt communities and business productivity in the process. Most coastal communities implement evacuations based on a previously delineated maximum-inundation zone that integrates zones from multiple tsunami sources. To support consistent evacuation planning that protects lives but attempts to minimize community disruptions, we explore the implications of scenario-based evacuation procedures and use the California (USA) coastline as our case study. We focus on the land in coastal communities that is in maximum-evacuation zones, but is not expected to be flooded by a tsunami generated by a Chilean earthquake scenario. Results suggest that a scenario-based evacuation could greatly reduce the number of residents and employees that would be advised to evacuate for 24–36 h (178,646 and 159,271 fewer individuals, respectively) and these reductions are concentrated primarily in three counties for this scenario. Private evacuation spending is estimated to be greater than public expenditures for operating shelters in the area of potential over-evacuations ($13 million compared to $1 million for a 1.5-day evacuation). Short-term disruption costs for businesses in the area of potential over-evacuation are approximately $122 million for a 1.5-day evacuation, with one-third of this cost associated with manufacturing, suggesting that some disruption costs may be recouped over time with increased short-term production. There are many businesses and organizations in this area that contain individuals with limited mobility or access and functional needs that may have substantial evacuation challenges. This study demonstrates and discusses the difficulties of tsunami-evacuation decision-making for relatively small to moderate events faced by emergency managers, not only in California but in coastal communities throughout the world.

  18. A Tree-Based Model for Setting Optimal Train Fare Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alberto Conejero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a railway line with n stops and the number of travelers between each pair of stops, we show how to split these stops into k different fare zones in order to maximize the benefit obtained from the sale of tickets to the travelers. We present a method to obtain this solution that is based on finding the longest path in a weighted root tree. This method improves in terms of efficiency the combinatorial method, where all the possible distributions have to be considered for deciding which is the optimal one.

  19. Geographical distribution, socioeconomic status and health- related physical fitness in adolescents from a large population-based sample from Bogotá, Colombia: the ser study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues-Bezerra, Diogo

    2016-01-01

    Background: The negative gradient between socio-economic status and prevalence of non-communicable disease in adulthood has prompted investigation of potential foundations based in childhood. The objective of the present study is to examine the influence of socio-geographical variations and socioeconomic status on health-related physical fitness in adolescents from a large population-based sample of Colombian ninth graders. Methods: During the 2014–2015 school years, we examined a cross-secti...

  20. Risk assessment of urban flood disaster in Jingdezhen City based on analytic hierarchy process and geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, D. C.; Huang, J.; Wang, H. M.; Wang, Z. Q.; Wang, W. Q.

    2017-08-01

    The research of urban flood risk assessment and management are of great academic and practical importance, which has become a widespread concern throughout the world. It’s significant to understand the spatial-temporal distribution of the flood risk before making the risk response measures. In this study, the urban region of Jingdezhen City is selected as the study area. The assessment indicators are selected from four aspects: disaster-causing factors, disaster-pregnant environment, disaster-bearing body and the prevention and mitigation ability, by consideration of the formation process of urban flood risk. And then, a small-scale flood disaster risk assessment model is developed based on Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP) and Geographic Information System(GIS), and the spatial-temporal distribution of flood risk in Jingdezhen City is analysed. The results show that the risk decreases gradually from the centre line of Changjiang River to the surrounding, and the areas of high flood disaster risk is decreasing from 2010 to 2013 while the risk areas are more concentred. The flood risk of the areas along the Changjiang River is the largest, followed by the low-lying areas in Changjiang District. And the risk is also large in Zhushan District where the population, the industries and commerce are concentrated. The flood risk in the western part of Changjiang District and the north-eastern part of the study area is relatively low. The results can provide scientific support for flood control construction and land development planning in Jingdezhen City.

  1. Spatial distribution of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria using geographical information system and school based questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, H A; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Braide, E I; Ekpo, U F

    2013-10-15

    Urinary schistosomiasis is a serious disease in Cross River State, Nigeria. Dearth of information on its distribution has hampered the implementation of focused control of the disease. The availability of a rapid method for mapping the disease necessitated this research to provide data for control of Urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study used a rapid validated school-based questionnaire method in mapping schistosomiasis. Geographical information system (GIS) software tools were used to produce a spatial map for prevalence of infection and areas at risk for urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State. Data analysis with SPSS package revealed that 9,993 (10.2%) female and 10,328 (10.0%) male pupils in 218 schools passed blood in urine in one month out of 199,794 pupils interviewed. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence between male and female pupils with infection (p < 0.005). The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis using questionnaire method correlated positively with the filtration method used in determining the egg output (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). Endemic schools were distributed in thirteen Local Government Areas of Cross River State, Nigeria. Yala and Yakurr LGAs had the highest number of schools that reported schistosomiasis with 39 (59%) and 13 (59%), respectively. Odukpani LGA had the lowest prevalence of 1 (0.2%). The overall results showed a mean urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 10.2% for Cross River State, Nigeria. The findings of this study would guide Government and other relevant agencies in the implementation of control strategies for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria.

  2. Zoning of the Russian Federation territory based on forest management and forest use intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Маrtynyuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Over extended periods issues of forest management intensification are important in all aspects of Russian forest sector development. Sufficient research has been done in silviculture, forest planning and forest economics to address forest management intensification targets. Systems of our national territory forest management and forest economics zoning due to specifics of timber processing and forest area infrastructure have been developed. Despite sufficient available experience in sustainable forest management so far intensification issues were addressed due to development of new woodlands without proper consideration of forest regeneration and sustainable forest management operations. It resulted in forest resource depletion and unfavorable substitution of coniferous forests with less valuable softwood ones in considerable territories (especially accessible for transport. The situation is complicated since degree of forest ecosystem changes is higher in territories with high potential productivity. Ongoing changes combined with the present effective forest management system resulted in a situation where development of new woodlands is impossible without heavy investments in road construction; meanwhile road construction is unfeasible due to distances to timber processing facilities. In the meantime, changes in forest legislation, availability of forest lease holding, and promising post-logging forest regeneration technologies generate new opportunities to increase timber volumes due to application of other procedures practically excluding development of virgin woodlands. With regard to above, the Russian territory was zoned on a basis of key factors that define forest management and forest use intensification based on forest ecosystem potential productivity and area transport accessibility. Based on available data with GIS analysis approach (taking into consideration value of various factors the Russian Federation forest resources have been

  3. Assessing the applicability of template-based protein docking in the twilight zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, Jacopo; Mosca, Roberto; Aloy, Patrick

    2014-09-02

    The structural modeling of protein interactions in the absence of close homologous templates is a challenging task. Recently, template-based docking methods have emerged to exploit local structural similarities to help ab-initio protocols provide reliable 3D models for protein interactions. In this work, we critically assess the performance of template-based docking in the twilight zone. Our results show that, while it is possible to find templates for nearly all known interactions, the quality of the obtained models is rather limited. We can increase the precision of the models at expenses of coverage, but it drastically reduces the potential applicability of the method, as illustrated by the whole-interactome modeling of nine organisms. Template-based docking is likely to play an important role in the structural characterization of the interaction space, but we still need to improve the repertoire of structural templates onto which we can reliably model protein complexes.

  4. 面向网页文本的地理要素变化检测%Change Detection of Geographic Features Based on Web Pages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曙; 吉雷静; 张雪英; 赵仁亮; 陈晓丹; 余浩

    2013-01-01

    地理要素变化检测已成为国家地理信息“十二五”规划和全国地理国情普查的重要组成部分。网页文本中蕴含海量的地理要素信息,尤其是新闻、政府、社交平台等网站的网页文本更新频繁,可为地理要素变化检测提供现势性的数据源。本文针对网页文本中地理要素变化的语言描述特点,构建了表达地理要素变化的语义知识库,设计了搜索引擎和通用主题相结合的网页爬虫,实现了相关网页文本的高效获取;采用规则模型和条件随机场模型,分别进行网页文本中地理要素变化信息抽取,包括地理要素名称、位置(地名)、时间和属性等。实验结果显示,本文设计的网页爬虫具有较高的相关网页文本获取能力,地理要素变化信息抽取的准确率能够达到70%以上,但是,语义知识库的完备程度对于信息抽取性能具有较大影响。研究成果表明,以网页文本为数据源的地理要素变化信息获取方法,能提供一种快速检测地理要素变化的新途径,与实地调绘和遥感影像检测等方法结合应用具有较好的优势互补性,可作为有力的辅助手段解决地理要素的持续更新和实时更新问题。%Geographic features change detection has became a vital component of the national geographical in-formation 12th Five-Year-Plan and the national geographic general survey. In web pages, billions of geographic feature changes were contained, especially in government official websites, news homepages, social portals and etc. The web pages of these websites update frequently, which could provide the latest data for geographic infor-mation change detection. Considering the complex characteristics of the web geographic information description, this paper did some valuable achievements. First of all, the geographic information knowledge base was estab-lished by summarizing the geographic information words

  5. Measuring the knowledge-based economy of China in terms of synergy among technological, organizational, and geographic attributes of firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Zhou, P.

    2014-01-01

    Using the possible synergy among geographic, size, and technological distributions of firms in the Orbis database, we find the greatest reduction of uncertainty at the level of the 31 provinces of China, and an additional 18.0 % at the national level. Some of the coastal provinces stand out as expec

  6. Exploring the Characteristics of an Optimal Design for Inquiry-Based Geography Education with Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, Tim T.; van der Schee, Joop A.

    2012-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a kind of computer software that allows people to work with digital maps in a fast and flexible way. In the past decade, more and more geography teachers have become interested in the possibilities of using GIS in secondary education. However, teaching with GIS is complex, and little is known about how to do…

  7. GIS-based characterization of the geographic distributions of wild and cultivated populations of the Mesoamerican fruit tree Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Allison J; Knouft, Jason H

    2006-12-01

    Humans are having a profound impact on the geographic distributions of plant populations. In crop species, domestication has been accompanied by the geographic expansion of cultivated populations relative to their wild ancestors. We used a geographical information system (GIS)-based approach to investigate differences in the environmental factors characterizing the geographic distributions of cultivated and wild populations of the Mesoamerican fruit tree Spondias purpurea. Locality data for 86 cultivated and 28 wild S. purpurea populations were used in conjunction with environmental data layers and Maxent, a maximum entropy application for predicting species distributions. Interpredictivity analyses and principal components analysis revealed that the predicted distribution of wild S. purpurea is nested within the cultivated distribution and that the ecological niche (defined by environmental characteristics) of cultivated S. purpurea has expanded relative to that of wild populations. Significant differences between wild and cultivated populations were detected for five environmental variables, corresponding to the expansion of S. purpurea during the domestication process from its native habitat in the Mesoamerican tropical dry forests into less seasonal habitats. These data suggest that humans have altered the range of habitats occupied by cultivated S. purpurea populations relative to their wild progenitors.

  8. Conflict resolution in the zoning of eco-protected areas in fast-growing regions based on game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinyao; Li, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Zoning eco-protected areas is important for ecological conservation and environmental management. Rapid and continuous urban expansion, however, may exert negative effects on the performance of practical zoning designs. Various methods have been developed for protected area zoning, but most of them failed to consider the conflicts between urban development (for the benefit of land developers) and ecological protection (local government). Some real-world zoning schemes even have to be modified occasionally after the lengthy negotiations between the government and land developers. Therefore, our study has presented a game theory-based method to deal with this problem. Future urban expansion in the study area will be predicted by a logistic regression cellular automaton, while eco-protected areas will be delimitated using multi-objective optimization algorithm. Then, two types of conflicts between them can be resolved based on game theory, a theory of decision-making. We established a two-person dynamic game for each conflict zone. The ecological compensation mechanism was taken into account by simulating the negotiation processes between the government and land developers. A final zoning scheme can be obtained when the two sides reach agreements. The proposed method is applied to the eco-protected area zoning in Guangzhou, a fast-growing city in China. The experiments indicate that the conflicts between eco-protection and urban development will inevitably arise when using only traditional zoning methods. Based on game theory, our method can effectively resolve those conflicts, and can provide a relatively reasonable zoning scheme. This method is expected to support policy-making in environmental management and urban planning.

  9. Godunov-Based Model of Swash Zone Dynamics to Advance Coastal Flood Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri Majd, M.; Sanders, B. F.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanized lowlands in southern California are defended against coastal flooding by sandy beaches that dynamically adjust to changes in water level and wave conditions, particularly during storm events. Recent research has shown that coastal flood impacts are scaled by the volume of beach overtopping flows, and an improved characterization of dynamic overtopping rates is needed to improve coastal flood forecasting (Gallien et al. 2012). However, uncertainty in the beach slope and height makes it difficult to predict the onset of overtopping and the magnitude of resulting flooding. That is, beaches may evolve significantly over a storm event. Sallenger (Sallenger, 2000) describes Impact Levels to distinguish different impact regimes (swash, collision, overwash and inundation) on dunes and barrier islands. Our goal is to model processes in different regimes as was described by him. Godunov-based models adopt a depth-integrated, two-phase approach and the shallow-water hypothesis to resolve flow and sediment transport in a tightly coupled manner that resolves shocks in the air/fluid and fluid/sediment interface. These models are best known in the context of debris flow modeling where the ability to predict the flow of highly concentrated sediment/fluid mixtures is required. Here, the approach is directed at the swash zone. Existing Godunov-based models are reviewed and shown to have drawbacks relative to wetting and drying and "avalanching"—important processes in the swash zone. This nonphysical erosion can be described as the natural tendency of the schemes to smear out steep bed slopes. To denote and reduce these numerical errors, new numerical methods are presented to address these limitations and the resulting model is applied to a set of laboratory-scale test problems. The shallow-water hypothesis limits the applicability of the model to the swash zone, so it is forced by a time series of water level and cross-shore velocity that accounts for surf zone wave

  10. Louisiana State Soil Geographic, General Soil Map, Geographic NAD83, NWRC (1998) [statsgo_soils_NWRC_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains vector line map information. The vector data contain selected base categories of geographic features, and characteristics of these features,...

  11. Geographical markers for Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with similar technological origins domesticated for rice-based ethnic fermented beverages production in North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Capece, Angela; Romano, Patrizia

    2011-11-01

    Autochthonous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from traditional starters used for the production of rice-based ethnic fermented beverage in North East India were examined for their genetic polymorphism using mitochondrial DNA-RFLP and electrophoretic karyotyping. Mitochondrial DNA-RFLP analysis of S. cerevisiae strains with similar technological origins from hamei starter of Manipur and marcha starter of Sikkim revealed widely separated clusters based on their geographical origin. Electrophoretic karyotyping showed high polymorphism amongst the hamei strains within similar mitochondrial DNA-RFLP cluster and one unique karyotype of marcha strain was widely distributed in the Sikkim-Himalayan region. We conceptualized the possibility of separate domestication events for hamei strains in Manipur (located in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot) and marcha strains in Sikkim (located in Himalayan biodiversity hotspot), as a consequence of less homogeneity in the genomic structure between these two groups, their clear separation being based on geographical origin, but not on technological origin and low strain level diversity within each group. The molecular markers developed based on HinfI-mtDNA-RFLP profile and the chromosomal doublets in chromosome VIII position of Sikkim-Himalayan strains could be effectively used as geographical markers for authenticating the above starter strains and differentiating them from other commercial strains.

  12. Water Partitioning at the Base of the Transition Zone: No Need for a Lower Mantle Water Filter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panero, W. R.; Pigott, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Recent measurements of water in ringwoodite inclusions found in a deep diamond suggests that the diamond formed in a part of the transition zone containing ~1 wt% water. Experimental and computational results consistently show a significantly lower water storage capacity in MgSiO3 perovskite, the dominant mineral of the Earth's lower mantle. This disparity in water solubility predicts widespread melting at the base of the transition zone in mantle downwellings or some other process to create a transition zone "water filter." We present the results of ab-initio calculations on the hydrogen incorporation in ringwoodite, majorite, ilmenite, calcium silicate perovskite, and magnesium silicate perovskite. We demonstrate a multiplicity of OH defect mechanisms at the base of the transition zone, including vacancies on the Mg and Si sites, as well as coupled substitutions with aluminum. We calculate the partitioning of water between each phase. While the partitioning of water between ringwoodite and MgSiO3 is >100, we find that partitioning of water between CaSiO3-perovskite and ringwoodite exceeds unity under the conditions of cold downwellings at the base of the transition zone, suggesting that a significant fraction of the water can be stored in minor phases of the lower mantle instead of requiring a filter at the base of the transition zone. This finding significantly relaxes the constraints on the Earth's total water budget and suggests a mechanism for sequestering deep water through subduction.

  13. Adapting a geographical information system-based water resource management to the needs of the Romanian water authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutter, Marc; Alexandrescu, Maria; Schenk, Colin; Drobot, Radu

    2009-08-01

    The need for global and integrated approaches to water resources management, both from the quantitative and the qualitative point of view, has long been recognized. Water quality management is a major issue for sustainable development and a mandatory task with respect to the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive as well as the Swiss legislation. However, data modelling to develop relational databases and subsequent geographic information system (GIS)-based water management instruments are a rather recent and not that widespread trend. The publication of overall guidelines for data modelling along with the EU Water Framework Directive is an important milestone in this area. Improving overall water quality requires better and more easily accessible data, but also the possibility to link data to simulation models. Models are to be used to derive indicators that will in turn support decision-making processes. For this whole chain to become effective at a river basin scale, all its components have to become part of the current daily practice of the local water administration. Any system, tool, or instrument that is not designed to meet, first of all, the fundamental needs of its primary end-users has almost no chance to be successful in the longer term. Although based on a pre-existing water resources management system developed in Switzerland, the methodological approach applied to develop a GIS-based water quality management system adapted to the Romanian context followed a set of well-defined steps: the first and very important step is the assessment of needs (on the basis of a careful analysis of the various activities and missions of the water administration and other relevant stakeholders in water management related issues). On that basis, a conceptual data model (CDM) can be developed, to be later on turned into a physical database. Finally, the specifically requested additional functionalities (i.e. functionalities not provided by classical

  14. AHP-based approach for optimization of waste disposal method in urban functional zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li-Jie; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Yu-Yan; Chen, De-Zhen; Xu, Ji-Fu; Liu, Juan

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the municipal solid waste (MSW) is considered as one kind of energy source in urban planning scheme instead of a trash stream. Considering the characteristics of MSW from different urban functional zones and the current energy supply modes, an evaluation model for waste-to-energy (WtE) method was set up based on the analytical hierarchy process technique. The model consists of three layers: 15 fundamental indices, 4 influencing factors based on fundamental indices and the target functions supported by influencing factors. Taking an urban functional region of a city in north China as the research object, 4 alternatives are compared according to their weights and the sensitivities of the influencing factors are analyzed. The result will provide guide for the disposal method of WtE in new urban district planning and old urban redevelopment.

  15. RESEARCH ON THE MINIMUM ZONE CYLINDRICITY EVALUATION BASED ON GENETIC ALGORITHMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA)-based method is proposed to solve the nonlinear optimization problem of minimum zone cylindricity evaluation.First, the background of the problem is introduced.Then the mathematical model and the fitness function are derived from the mathematical definition of dimensioning and tolerancing principles.Thirdly with the least squares solution as the initial values, the whole implementation process of the algorithm is realized in which some key techniques, for example, variables representing, population initializing and such basic operations as selection, crossover and mutation, are discussed in detail.Finally, examples are quoted to verify the proposed algorithm.The computation results indicate that the GA-based optimization method performs well on cylindricity evaluation.The outstanding advantages conclude high accuracy, high efficiency and capabilities of solving complicated nonlinear and large space problems.

  16. Chemometric Classification of Herb – Orthosiphon stamineus According to Its Geographical Origin Using Virtual Chemical Sensor Based Upon Fast GC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezrinda Mohd Zaihidee

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method using Electronic Nose (E-nose instrument for analysis of volatile organic compound from Orthosiphon stamineus raw samples have been developed. This instrument is a new chemical sensor based on Fast Gas Chromatography and Surface Acoustics Wave (SAW detector. Chromatographic fingerprint obtained from the headspace analysis of O. stamineus samples were used as a guideline for optimum selection of an array of sensor. Qualitative analysis was carried out based on the responses of each sensor array in order to distinguish the geographical origin of the cultivated sample. The results of the analysis showed variances of volatile chemical compound of the samples even though it is from the same species. However, similarities of main components from all five samples were observed. Usage of pattern recognition chemometric approaches such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Cluster Analysis (CA for processing instrumental data provided good classification of O. stamineus samples according to its geographical origin.

  17. Geographical networks: geographical effects on network properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong-qing YANG; Lei YANG; Bai-hua GONG; Zhong-cai LIN; Hong-sheng HE; Liang HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Complex networks describe a wide range of sys-tems in nature and society. Since most real systems exist in certain physical space and the distance between the nodes has influence on the connections, it is helpful to study geographi-cal complex networks and to investigate how the geographical constrains on the connections affect the network properties. In this paper, we briefly review our recent progress on geo-graphical complex networks with respect of statistics, mod-elling, robustness, and synchronizability. It has been shown that the geographical constrains tend to make the network less robust and less synchronizable. Synchronization on random networks and clustered networks is also studied.

  18. READY: a web-based geographical information system for enhanced flood resilience through raising awareness in citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, R.; Sole, A.; Adamowski, J.

    2015-07-01

    As evidenced by the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC), flood management strategies in Europe have undergone a shift in focus in recent years. The goal of flood prevention using structural measures has been replaced by an emphasis on the management of flood risks using non-structural measures. One implication of this is that public authorities alone not only take responsibility for flood management. A broader range of stakeholders, who may personally experience the negative effects of flooding, also take on responsibility for protecting themselves. Therefore, it is vital that information concerning flood risks is conveyed to those who may be affected in order to facilitate the self-protection of citizens. Experience shows that problems persist even where efforts have been made to communicate flood risks. There is a need for the development of new tools that are able to rapidly disseminate flood-risk information to the general public. To be useful these tools must be able to present information relevant to the location of the user. Moreover, the content and design of the tool need to be adjusted to laypeople's needs. Dissemination and communication influence both people's access to and understanding of natural risk information. Such a tool could be a useful aid to effective management of flood risks. To address this gap, a web-based geographical information system (WebGIS) has been developed through the collaborative efforts of a group of scientists, hazard and risk analysts and managers, GIS analysts, system developers and communication designers. This tool, called "READY: Risk, Extreme Events, Adaptation, Defend Yourself", aims to enhance the general public knowledge of flood risk, making citizens more capable of responding appropriately during a flood event. The READY WebGIS has allowed for the visualization and easy querying of a complex hazard and risk database thanks to a high degree of interactivity and easily read maps. In this way, READY has enabled fast

  19. Probing Magnetic Fields Near the Base of the Convection Zone with Meridional Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOU, DEAN-YI

    2017-08-01

    We study the solar-cycle variations of the meridional flows near the base of the convection zone to probe the solar-cycle variations of magnetic fields. Using SOHO/MDI data, we measure the acoustic travel-time difference on the meridional plane for different latitudes and different travel distances over 15 years, including two minima and one maximum. The measured travel-time differences averaged over two minima are similar, but significantlydifferent from that at the maximum. The measured travel-time difference is inverted to obtain the meridional flow at the minimum and maximum. The flow at the minimum has a two-cell pattern in the convection zone: poleward flow in the upper layer (above 0.86R), equator-ward flow in the mid-layer (0.74-0.86R), and poleward flow again in the lower layer (below 0.74R). The two-cell pattern is changed to a more complicated pattern at the maximum. The active latitudes appear to play a key role in the changes.

  20. Study of the permeability in melting zone of South China Sea based on percolation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ju-ying; Xu, He-hua; Li, Yan-zhen; Shu, Wei-bing

    2015-09-01

    Oceanic crust is formed at mid-ocean ridges. The melting zone extends up to several hundreds of km laterally, the upwelling area at the spreading axis is confined to a narrow belt of only 2-3 km width. Whereas the parameter of permeability that magma ascending from the mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges is still poorly understood, despite the important role of the process for the formation of crust. Based on continuum percolation, we build the random fracture network as magma migration channels of South China Sea; with momentum equation, we deduced the dynamic pressure distribution with passive corner flow. After which, the permeability of melting zone is calculated with finite element method. Numerical simulation results indicate that there exists a power law relationship between the permeability and magma migration channels. The simulated result is consistent with that calculated by fractal method. The discovery of the ruler provides sound theoretical basis for the formation and evolution of oceanic crust, and may help us better understanding the formation and evolution of South China Sea.

  1. Continent-sized anomalous zones with low seismic velocity at the base of Earth's mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnero, Edward J.; McNamara, Allen K.; Shim, Sang-Heon

    2016-07-01

    Seismic images of Earth's interior reveal two massive anomalous zones at the base of the mantle, above the core, where seismic waves travel slowly. The mantle materials that surround these anomalous regions are thought to be composed of cooler rocks associated with downward advection of former oceanic tectonic plates. However, the origin and composition of the anomalous provinces is uncertain. These zones have long been depicted as warmer-than-average mantle materials related to convective upwelling. Yet, they may also be chemically distinct from the surrounding mantle, and potentially partly composed of subducted or primordial material, and have therefore been termed thermochemical piles. From seismic, geochemical and mineral physics data, the emerging view is that these thermochemical piles appear denser than the surrounding mantle materials, are dynamically stable and long-lived, and are shaped by larger-scale mantle flow. Whether remnants of a primordial layer or later accumulations of more-dense materials, the composition of the piles is modified over time by stirring and by chemical reactions with material from the surrounding mantle, underlying core and potentially from volatile elements transported into the deep Earth by subducted plates. Upwelling mantle plumes may originate from the thermochemical piles, so the unusual chemical composition of the piles could be the source of distinct trace-element signatures observed in hotspot lavas.

  2. A protein block based fold recognition method for the annotation of twilight zone sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, V; Ganesan, K; Parthasarathy, S

    2013-03-01

    The description of protein backbone was recently improved with a group of structural fragments called Structural Alphabets instead of the regular three states (Helix, Sheet and Coil) secondary structure description. Protein Blocks is one of the Structural Alphabets used to describe each and every region of protein backbone including the coil. According to de Brevern (2000) the Protein Blocks has 16 structural fragments and each one has 5 residues in length. Protein Blocks fragments are highly informative among the available Structural Alphabets and it has been used for many applications. Here, we present a protein fold recognition method based on Protein Blocks for the annotation of twilight zone sequences. In our method, we align the predicted Protein Blocks of a query amino acid sequence with a library of assigned Protein Blocks of 953 known folds using the local pair-wise alignment. The alignment results with z-value ≥ 2.5 and P-value ≤ 0.08 are predicted as possible folds. Our method is able to recognize the possible folds for nearly 35.5% of the twilight zone sequences with their predicted Protein Block sequence obtained by pb_prediction, which is available at Protein Block Export server.

  3. The geographic distribution of strontium isotopes in Danish surface waters - A base for provenance studies in archaeology, hydrology and agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, Karin M., E-mail: kmfrei@hum.ku.dk [Danish National Research Foundation Centre for Textile Research, SAXO Institute, University of Copenhagen, Njalsgade 80, DK-2300 Copenhagen (Denmark); Frei, Robert [Institute of Geography and Geology and Nordic Center for Earth Evolution (NordCEE), University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Strontium isotope data of 192 surface waters from Denmark. {yields} Geographic baseline distribution of bio-available fractions. {yields} Applicable for provenance studies within archaeology, geology, agriculture and hydrology. {yields} Proposal of a band of strontium isotope values to characterize 'local' Danish signatures. - Abstract: In this paper Sr isotope signatures are reported for 192 surface water (lakes/ponds and rivers/creeks) samples from within Denmark and an isotope distribution map is presented that may serve as a base for provenance applications, including archaeological migration studies, ground water - surface water - seawater interaction/contamination monitoring, and potentially for agricultural applications, including cases of authenticity proof for particular food products. The Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters range from {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr = 0.7078 to 0.7125 (average 0.7096 {+-} 0.0016; 2{sigma}). This average value lies above the range of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values between 0.7078 and 0.7082 expected from Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (Oligocene) limestones which form the dominant bedrock type in a NW-SE trending belt in Denmark. The elevated {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr signatures >{approx}0.7095 are explained by additions to the surface waters of radiogenic Sr predominantly derived from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quarternary glaciogenic tills and soils deposited and formed during and after the last two ice age stages (Saale and Weichsel). The Sr isotopic compositions and concentrations of the surface waters can, therefore, best be modeled by a two-component mixing involving carbonaceous bedrock and glaciogenic cover sediments as the two predominant Sr sources. A feasibility study for using Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters as a proxy for bio-available Sr signatures was conducted in a representative test area on Zealand (Land of Legends, Lejre) where there is no use

  4. Dynamic analysis of eco-environmental changes based on remote sensing and geographic information system: an example in Longdong region of the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L. C.; Dong, X. F.; Wang, J. H.

    2007-11-01

    The Chinese Loess Plateau is suffering from severe soil erosion. The eco-environmental changes of the plateau are believed to have an important influence on global eco-environmental sustainability; hence, this problem has attracted considerable attention from scientists around the world. This study has two purposes; application of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in the dynamic analysis of eco-environmental changes in the semiarid zone; and using the Longdong region of the Chinese Loess Plateau as an example, to make dynamic analysis of the eco-environmental changes of the region during the 1986 2004 period and identify controlling factors. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data at a spatial resolution of 30 m were used for analysis. Two training areas were selected in Jingning and Qingcheng counties for analysis using 10-m resolution SPOT and Landsat TM data. The satellite RS images were obtained from the Institute of Remote Sensing Application (IRSA), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Each images was rectified by Albers Equal Area Conic projection based on 1:50,000 scale topographic maps after spectrum preparation of the images. To make the precision within 1 or 2 pixels, the accurate coordinative control points of the two systems were identified. Then the interpretation key was established based on the land use/cover survey in the study area. The images were classified into six primary environmental types (farmland, forest, grassland, water, construction area, and desert) and 25 sub-types using a visual image interactive interpretation method to obtain vector and attribute data. The resultant accuracy of the land use/cover classification reached 95%. Finally, the transformation areas and ratios of various eco-environmental types in the region were calculated to obtain the transition matrixes of eco-environmental types in the two training areas, Jingning and Qingcheng. This study demonstrates that satellite RS and GIS techniques

  5. Plant hybrid zones affect biodiversity: Tools for a genetic-based understanding of community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitham, T.G.; Martinsen, G.D.; Keim, P. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Floate, K.D. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, Alberta (Canada); Dungey, H.S. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)]|[Queensland Forest Research Inst., Gympie, Queensland (Australia); Potts, B.M. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)

    1999-03-01

    Plant hybrid zones are dynamic centers of ecological and evolutionary processes for plants and their associated communities. Studies in the wild and in gardens with synthetic crosses showed that hybrid eucalypts supports the greatest species richness and abundances of insect and fungal taxa. In an updated review of 152 case studies of taxa associated with diverse hybridizing systems, there were 43 (28%) cases of hybrids being more susceptible than their parent species, 7 (5%) resistant, 35 (23%) additive, 35 (23%) dominant, and 32 (21%) showed no response to hybridization. Thus, most taxa respond to hybrids in ways that result in equal or greater abundance, and hybrids tend to accumulate the taxa of their parent species. These studies suggest that genetic-based plant traits affect the distribution of many species and that the variation in hybrids can be used as tools to examine the genetic components of community structure and biodiversity.

  6. A recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based Lassa fever vaccine protects guinea pigs and macaques against challenge with geographically and genetically distinct Lassa viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Safronetz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lassa virus (LASV is endemic in several West African countries and is the etiological agent of Lassa fever. Despite the high annual incidence and significant morbidity and mortality rates, currently there are no approved vaccines to prevent infection or disease in humans. Genetically, LASV demonstrates a high degree of diversity that correlates with geographic distribution. The genetic heterogeneity observed between geographically distinct viruses raises concerns over the potential efficacy of a "universal" LASV vaccine. To date, several experimental LASV vaccines have been developed; however, few have been evaluated against challenge with various genetically unique Lassa virus isolates in relevant animal models.Here we demonstrate that a single, prophylactic immunization with a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV expressing the glycoproteins of LASV strain Josiah from Sierra Leone protects strain 13 guinea pigs from infection / disease following challenge with LASV isolates originating from Liberia, Mali and Nigeria. Similarly, the VSV-based LASV vaccine yields complete protection against a lethal challenge with the Liberian LASV isolate in the gold-standard macaque model of Lassa fever.Our results demonstrate the VSV-based LASV vaccine is capable of preventing morbidity and mortality associated with non-homologous LASV challenge in two animal models of Lassa fever. Additionally, this work highlights the need for the further development of disease models for geographical distinct LASV strains, particularly those from Nigeria, in order to comprehensively evaluate potential vaccines and therapies against this prominent agent of viral hemorrhagic fever.

  7. I-Min: An Intelligent Fermat Point Based Energy Efficient Geographic Packet Forwarding Technique for Wireless Sensor and Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Kaushik; Das, and Pradip K; 10.5121/jgraphoc.2010.2204

    2010-01-01

    Energy consumption and delay incurred in packet delivery are the two important metrics for measuring the performance of geographic routing protocols for Wireless Adhoc and Sensor Networks (WASN). A protocol capable of ensuring both lesser energy consumption and experiencing lesser delay in packet delivery is thus suitable for networks which are delay sensitive and energy hungry at the same time. Thus a smart packet forwarding technique addressing both the issues is thus the one looked for by any geographic routing protocol. In the present paper we have proposed a Fermat point based forwarding technique which reduces the delay experienced during packet delivery as well as the energy consumed for transmission and reception of data packets.

  8. Characterization and geographical discrimination of commercial Citrus spp. honeys produced in different Mediterranean countries based on minerals, volatile compounds and physicochemical parameters, using chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabagias, Ioannis K; Louppis, Artemis P; Karabournioti, Sofia; Kontakos, Stavros; Papastephanou, Chara; Kontominas, Michael G

    2017-02-15

    The objective of the present study was: i) to characterize Mediterranean citrus honeys based on conventional physicochemical parameter values, volatile compounds, and mineral content ii) to investigate the potential of above parameters to differentiate citrus honeys according to geographical origin using chemometrics. Thus, 37 citrus honey samples were collected during harvesting periods 2013 and 2014 from Greece, Egypt, Morocco, and Spain. Conventional physicochemical and CIELAB colour parameters were determined using official methods of analysis and the Commission Internationale de l' Eclairage recommendations, respectively. Minerals were determined using ICP-OES and volatiles using SPME-GC/MS. Results showed that honey samples analyzed, met the standard quality criteria set by the EU and were successfully classified according to geographical origin. Correct classification rates were 97.3% using 8 physicochemical parameter values, 86.5% using 15 volatile compound data and 83.8% using 13 minerals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...... inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  10. People living with HIV travel farther to access healthcare: a population-based geographic analysis from rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam N Akullian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The availability of specialized HIV services is limited in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa where the need is the greatest. Where HIV services are available, people living with HIV (PLHIV must overcome large geographic, economic and social barriers to access healthcare. The objective of this study was to understand the unique barriers PLHIV face when accessing healthcare compared with those not living with HIV in a rural area of sub-Saharan Africa with limited availability of healthcare infrastructure. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 447 heads of household on Bugala Island, Uganda. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare travel time, cost and distance to access healthcare, and log binomial models were used to test for associations between HIV status and access to nearby health services. Results: PLHIV travelled an additional 1.9 km (95% CI (0.6, 3.2 km, p=0.004 to access healthcare compared with those not living with HIV, and they were 56% less likely to access healthcare at the nearest health facility to their residence, so long as that facility lacked antiretroviral therapy (ART services (aRR=0.44, 95% CI (0.24 to 0.83, p=0.011. We found no evidence that PLHIV travelled further for care if the nearest facility supplies ART services (aRR=0.95, 95% CI (0.86 to 1.05, p=0.328. Among those who reported uptake of care at one of two facilities on the island that provides ART (81% of PLHIV and 68% of HIV-negative individuals, PLHIV tended to seek care at a higher tiered facility that provides ART, even when this facility was not their closest facility (30% of PLHIV travelled further than the closest ART facility compared with 16% of HIV-negative individuals, and travelled an additional 2.2 km (p=0.001 to access that facility, relative to HIV-negative individuals (aRR=1.91, 95% CI (1.00 to 3.65, p=0.05. Among PLHIV, residential distance was associated with access to facilities providing

  11. Trend and geographic analysis for traumatic brain injury mortality and cost based on MarketScan database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiahui; Ugiliweneza, Beatrice; Meyer, Kimberly; Lad, Shivanand P; Boakye, Maxwell

    2013-10-15

    The objective of the current research was to examine the current epidemiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI); to determine the effects of geographic region, co-morbidities, year of injury, injury severity, and demographics on hospital costs, length of stay (LOS), and mortality. All subjects were drawn from the Thomason Reuters MarketScan(®) database. Statistical methods used included descriptive analysis, bivariate analysis, logistic regression, and the Geographic Information System (GIS) software, ArcMap. We studied 76,313 patients with TBI from 2004 to 2009 (52,721 with commercial insurance and 23,592 with Medicare) from the MarketScan database. As age increased, mortality rate and median LOS increased. The median hospital costs for adults were the highest ($13,000 for ages 18-64) compared with children ($8000 for age 0-14) and elderly persons ($9000 for age ≥ 65). The mortality rate for the elderly population has decreased slightly (11.1% in 2004 to 9.9% in 2009 for men, and 7.0% to 6.9% for women); however, their hospital costs have increased significantly ($6899 in 2004 to $11,567 in 2009 for men; $6784 to $9782 for women). Concerning the impact of geography, the western United States (e.g., Washington and California) had lower mortality rates and higher median costs while the southeast United States had the highest mortality and mixed median costs. Both overall mortality and median LOS have remained relatively stable over the years. Hospital cost, however, has increased for the elderly population even after accounting for the inflation. There is significant geographic variation for both mortality and hospital costs.

  12. Geographical information system (GIS) as a new tool to evaluate epidemiology based on spatial analysis and clinical outcomes in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, Luciana Ansaneli; Porto, Lara Benigno; Rosa, João Willy Corrêa; Casulari, Luiz Augusto; Rosa, José Wilson Corrêa

    2015-02-01

    Geographical information systems (GIS) have emerged as a group of innovative software components useful for projects in epidemiology and planning in Health Care System. This is an original study to investigate environmental and geographical influences on epidemiology of acromegaly in Brazil. We aimed to validate a method to link an acromegaly registry with a GIS mapping program, to describe the spatial distribution of patients, to identify disease clusters and to evaluate if the access to Health Care could influence the outcome of the disease. Clinical data from 112 consecutive patients were collected and home addresses were plotted in the GIS software for spatial analysis. The buffer spatial distribution of patients living in Brasilia showed that 38.1% lived from 0.33 to 8.66 km, 17.7% from 8.67 to 18.06 km, 22.2% from 18.07 to 25.67 km and 22% from 25.68 to 36.70 km distant to the Reference Medical Center (RMC), and no unexpected clusters were identified. Migration of 26 patients from 11 others cities in different regions of the country was observed. Most of patients (64%) with adenomas bigger than 25 mm lived more than 20 km away from RMC, but no significant correlation between the distance from patient's home to the RMC and tumor diameter (r = 0.45 p = 0.20) nor for delay in diagnosis (r = 0.43 p = 0.30) was found. The geographical distribution of diagnosed cases did not impact in the latency of diagnosis or tumor size but the recognition of significant migration denotes that improvements in the medical assistance network are needed.

  13. 33 CFR 334.610 - Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone. 334.610 Section 334.610 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND... areas and danger zone. (a) The areas. (1) All waters within 100 yards of the south shoreline of...

  14. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with geographic constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jie; Wu Xuzhong; Tang Shengjing

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  15. Comparing the Gibraltar and Calabrian subduction zones (central western Mediterranean) based on seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argnani, Andrea; Battista Cimini, Giovanni; Frugoni, Francesco; Monna, Stephen; Montuori, Caterina

    2016-04-01

    The Central Western Mediterranean (CWM) was shaped by a complex tectonic and geodynamic evolution. Deep seismicity and tomographic studies point to the existence, under the Alboran and Tyrrhenian Seas, of lithospheric slabs extending down to the bottom of the mantle transition zone, at 660 km depth. Two narrow arcs correspond to the two slabs, the Gibraltar and Calabrian Arcs (e.g., Monna et al., 2013; Montuori et al., 2007). Similarities in the tectonic and mantle structure of the two areas have been explained by a common subduction and roll-back mechanism for the opening of the CWM, in which the two arcs are symmetrical end products. In spite of this unifying model, a wide amount of literature from different disciplines shows that many aspects of the two areas are still controversial. We present a new 3-D tomographic model at mantle scale for the Calabrian Arc and compare it with a recently published 3-D tomographic model for the Gibraltar Arc by Monna et al (2013). The two models are based on non-linear inversion of teleseismic phase arrivals, and have scale and parametrization that allow for a direct comparison. Unlike previous studies the tomographic models here presented include Ocean Bottom Seismometer broadband data, which improved the resolution of the mantle structures in the marine areas surrounding the arcs. We focus on key features of the two models that constrain reconstructions of the geodynamic evolution of the CWM (e.g., Monna et al., 2015). At Tortonian time the opening of the Tyrrhenian basin was in its initial stage, and the Calabrian arc formed subsequently; on the contrary, the Gibraltar arc was almost completely defined. We hypothesize that the complexity of the continental margin approaching the subduction zone played a key role during the final stages of the arc formation. References Monna, S., G. B. Cimini, C. Montuori, L. Matias, W. H. Geissler, and P. Favali (2013), New insights from seismic tomography on the complex geodynamic evolution

  16. An index-based method to assess risks of climate-related hazards in coastal zones: The case of Tetouan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, Alessio; Snoussi, Maria; Puddu, Manuela; Flayou, Latifa; Hout, Radouane

    2016-06-01

    The regional risk assessment carried out within the ClimVar & ICZM Project identified the coastal zone of Tetouan as a hotspot of the Mediterranean Moroccan coast and so it was chosen for the application of the Multi-Scale Coastal Risk Index for Local Scale (CRI-LS). The local scale approach provides a useful tool for local coastal planning and management by exploring the effects and the extensions of the hazards and combining hazard, vulnerability and exposure variables in order to identify areas where the risk is relatively high. The coast of Tetouan is one of the coastal areas that have been most rapidly and densely urbanized in Morocco and it is characterized by an erosive shoreline. Local authorities are facing the complex task of balancing development and managing coastal risks, especially coastal erosion and flooding, and then be prepared to the unavoidable impacts of climate change. The first phase of the application of the CRI-LS methodology to Tetouan consisted of defining the coastal hazard zone, which results from the overlaying of the erosion hazard zone and the flooding hazard zone. Nineteen variables were chosen to describe the Hazards, Vulnerability and Exposure factors. The scores corresponding to each variable were calculated and the weights assigned through an expert judgement elicitation. The resulting values are hosted in a geographic information system (GIS) platform that enables the individual variables and aggregated risk scores to be color-coded and mapped across the coastal hazard zone. The results indicated that 10% and 27% of investigated littoral fall under respectively very high and high vulnerability because of combination of high erosion rates with high capital land use. The risk map showed that some areas, especially the flood plains of Restinga, Smir and Martil-Alila, with distances over 5 km from the coast, are characterized by high levels of risk due to the low topography of the flood plains and to the high values of exposure

  17. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  18. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  19. A CDT-Based Heuristic Zone Design Approach for Economic Census Investigators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changixu Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a special zone design problem for economic census investigators that is motivated by a real-world application. This paper presented a heuristic multikernel growth approach via Constrained Delaunay Triangulation (CDT. This approach not only solved the barriers problem but also dealt with the polygon data in zoning procedure. In addition, it uses a new heuristic method to speed up the zoning process greatly on the premise of the required quality of zoning. At last, two special instances for economic census were performed, highlighting the performance of this approach.

  20. Nanoleakage in Hybrid Layer and Acid-Base Resistant Zone at the Adhesive/Dentin Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Toru; Nurrohman, Hamid; Takagaki, Tomohiro; Sadr, Alireza; Ichinose, Shizuko; Tagami, Junji

    2015-10-01

    The aim of interfacial nanoleakage evaluation is to gain a better understanding of degradation of the adhesive-dentin interface. The acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ) is recognized at the bonded interface under the hybrid layer (HL) in self-etch adhesive systems after an acid-base challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate nanoleakage in HL and ABRZ using three self-etch adhesives; Clearfil SE Bond (SEB), Clearfil SE One (SEO), and G-Bond Plus (GBP). One of the three adhesives was applied on the ground dentin surface and light cured. The specimens were longitudinally divided into two halves. One half remained as the control group. The others were immersed in ammoniacal silver nitrate solution, followed by photo developing solution under fluorescent light. Following this, the specimens were subjected to acid-base challenges with an artificial demineralization solution (pH4.5) and sodium hypochlorite, and prepared in accordance with common procedures for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination. The TEM images revealed silver depositions in HL and ABRZ due to nanoleakage in all the adhesives; however, the extent of nanoleakage was material dependent. Funnel-shaped erosion beneath the ABRZ was observed only in the all-in-one adhesive systems; SEO and GBP, but not in the two-step self-etch adhesive system; SEB.

  1. MAPPING LOCAL CLIMATE ZONES WITH A VECTOR-BASED GIS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lelovics

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we determined Local Climate Zones in a South-Hungarian city, using vector-based and raster-based databases. We calculated seven of the originally proposed ten physical (geometric, surface cover and radiative properties for areas which are based on the mobile temperature measurement campaigns earlier carried out in this city.As input data we applied 3D building database (earlier created with photogrammetric methods, 2D road database, topographic map, aerial photographs, remotely sensed reflectance information from RapidEye satellite image and our local knowledge about the area. The values of the properties were calculated by GIS methods developed for this purpose.We derived for the examined areas and applied for classification sky view factor, mean building height, terrain roughness class, building surface fraction, pervious surface fraction, impervious surface fraction and albedo.Six built and one land cover LCZ classes could be detected with this method on our study area. From each class one circle area was selected, which is representative for that class. Their thermal reactions were examined with the application of mobile temperature measurement dataset. The comparison was made in cases, when the weather was clear and calm and the surface was dry. We found that compact built-in types have more temperature surplus than open ones, and midrise types also have more than lowrise ones. According to our primary results, these categories provide a useful opportunity for intra- and inter-urban comparisons.

  2. Evaluation of site-specific lateral inclusion zone for vapor intrusion based on an analytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Wu, Yun; Tang, Mengling; Wang, Yue; Wang, Jianjin; Suuberg, Eric M; Jiang, Lin; Liu, Jing

    2015-11-15

    In 2002, U.S. EPA proposed a general buffer zone of approximately 100 feet (30 m) laterally to determine which buildings to include in vapor intrusion (VI) investigations. However, this screening distance can be threatened by factors such as extensive surface pavements. Under such circumstances, EPA recommended investigating soil vapor migration distance on a site-specific basis. To serve this purpose, we present an analytical model (AAMLPH) as an alternative to estimate lateral VI screening distances at chlorinated compound-contaminated sites. Based on a previously introduced model (AAML), AAMLPH is developed by considering the effects of impervious surface cover and soil geology heterogeneities, providing predictions consistent with the three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulated results. By employing risk-based and contribution-based screening levels of subslab concentrations (50 and 500 μg/m(3), respectively) and source-to-subslab attenuation factor (0.001 and 0.01, respectively), AAMLPH suggests that buildings greater than 30 m from a plume boundary can still be affected by VI in the presence of any two of the three factors, which are high source vapor concentration, shallow source and significant surface cover. This finding justifies the concern that EPA has expressed about the application of the 30 m lateral separation distance in the presence of physical barriers (e.g., asphalt covers or ice) at the ground surface.

  3. Chromatin-based epigenetics of adult subventricular zone neural stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel eGonzales-Roybal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In specific regions of the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs generate new neurons throughout life. Emerging evidence indicate that chromatin-based transcriptional regulation is a key epigenetic mechanism for the life-long function of adult NSCs. In the adult mouse brain, NSCs in the subventricular zone (SVZ retain the ability to produce both neurons and glia for the life of the animal. In this review, we discuss the origin and function of SVZ NSCs as they relate to key epigenetic concepts of development and potential underlying mechanism of chromatin-based transcriptional regulation. A central point of discussion is how SVZ NSCs – which possess many characteristics of mature, non-neurogenic astrocytes – maintain a youthful ability to produce both neuronal and glial lineages. In addition to reviewing data regarding the function of chromatin-modifying factors in SVZ neurogenesis, we incorporate our growing understanding that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs serve as an important element to chromatin-based transcriptional regulation, including that of SVZ NSCs. Discoveries regarding the epigenetic mechanisms of adult SVZ NSCs may provide key insights into fundamental principles of adult stem cell biology as well as the more complex and dynamic developmental environment of the embryonic brain.

  4. Numerical investigation into thermal effects of pre-cooling zone in vitrification-based cryopreservation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsun-Heng; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Wu, Wei-Te; Chen, Fu-Zen; Chiang, Pei-Ju

    2015-02-01

    Most studies on ultra-fast cryopreservation assume an immediate placement of the cryopreservation tube in the liquid nitrogen tank. However, in practice, before the tube is placed into the liquid nitrogen, it passes through a space containing gaseous nitrogen (pre-cooling zone) formed via the evaporation of the bulk liquid nitrogen. Comparing with ultra-fast cryopreservation, the cooling rate is insufficiently high during the falling transition to vitrify the liquid. As the tube passes through this region, its temperature may fall to the temperature required for the formation of ice crystals, and thus cell damage may occur. Consequently, in optimizing the cryopreservation process, the effects of this transition region should be properly understood. Accordingly, the present study utilizes a thermal model to investigate the temperature variation in the tube as it falls through the pre-cooling region. The simulation results show that the cooling rate within the tube increases with an increasing tube velocity. Furthermore, the results reveal that the cooling rate at the front end of the tube is higher than that at any other position of the tube. Thus, to prevent the formation of ice crystals, the material used to seal the front end of the tube should have a low thermal conductivity. In addition, a streamlined design of the front end of the tube is advised. Finally, the cooling rate within the tube depends on the tube material as well as the falling speed. The height of the pre-cooling zone needs to be carefully designed based on the tube material and falling speed, thus the ice crystal formation can be prevented.

  5. Hole detection and shape-free representation and double landmarks based geographic routing in wireless sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Yang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks, an important issue of geographic routing is “local minimum” problem, which is caused by a “hole” that blocks the greedy forwarding process. Existing geographic routing algorithms use perimeter routing strategies to find a long detour path when such a situation occurs. To avoid the long detour path, recent research focuses on detecting the hole in advance, then the nodes located on the boundary of the hole advertise the hole information to the nodes near the hole. Hence the long detour path can be avoided in future routing. We propose a heuristic hole detecting algorithm which identifies the hole easily and quickly and then propose a representation of hole no matter what the shape of the hole is. In addition, we quantitatively figure out the areas in the vicinity of the hole that need to be announced the hole information. With such information, a new routing scheme with two landmarks was developed. Simulation results illustrate that our approach can achieve better performance in terms of the average length and number of hops in routing paths. Simulation also shows that our approach introduces very small computational complexity.

  6. Admixture in Latin America: Geographic Structure, Phenotypic Diversity and Self-Perception of Ancestry Based on 7,342 Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Fuentes, Macarena; Pizarro, María; Everardo, Paola; de Avila, Francisco; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; León-Mimila, Paola; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C.; Burley, Mari-Wyn; Konca, Esra; de Oliveira, Marcelo Zagonel; Veronez, Mauricio Roberto; Rubio-Codina, Marta; Attanasio, Orazio; Gibbon, Sahra; Ray, Nicolas; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Rosique, Javier; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Balding, David; Gonzalez-José, Rolando

    2014-01-01

    The current genetic makeup of Latin America has been shaped by a history of extensive admixture between Africans, Europeans and Native Americans, a process taking place within the context of extensive geographic and social stratification. We estimated individual ancestry proportions in a sample of 7,342 subjects ascertained in five countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, México and Perú). These individuals were also characterized for a range of physical appearance traits and for self-perception of ancestry. The geographic distribution of admixture proportions in this sample reveals extensive population structure, illustrating the continuing impact of demographic history on the genetic diversity of Latin America. Significant ancestry effects were detected for most phenotypes studied. However, ancestry generally explains only a modest proportion of total phenotypic variation. Genetically estimated and self-perceived ancestry correlate significantly, but certain physical attributes have a strong impact on self-perception and bias self-perception of ancestry relative to genetically estimated ancestry. PMID:25254375

  7. Admixture in Latin America: geographic structure, phenotypic diversity and self-perception of ancestry based on 7,342 individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ruiz-Linares

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current genetic makeup of Latin America has been shaped by a history of extensive admixture between Africans, Europeans and Native Americans, a process taking place within the context of extensive geographic and social stratification. We estimated individual ancestry proportions in a sample of 7,342 subjects ascertained in five countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, México and Perú. These individuals were also characterized for a range of physical appearance traits and for self-perception of ancestry. The geographic distribution of admixture proportions in this sample reveals extensive population structure, illustrating the continuing impact of demographic history on the genetic diversity of Latin America. Significant ancestry effects were detected for most phenotypes studied. However, ancestry generally explains only a modest proportion of total phenotypic variation. Genetically estimated and self-perceived ancestry correlate significantly, but certain physical attributes have a strong impact on self-perception and bias self-perception of ancestry relative to genetically estimated ancestry.

  8. Geographic Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  9. Process-based and Surrogate Modelling of Fine Sediment Transport in the Dutch Coastal Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kai, C.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal zones which are known as the interface between continents and oceans are vital and important to human beings because a majority of the world's population live in such zones (Nelson, 2007). Coastal systems are among the most dynamic and energetic environments on earth and they are

  10. Process-based and Surrogate Modelling of Fine Sediment Transport in the Dutch Coastal Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kai, C.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal zones which are known as the interface between continents and oceans are vital and important to human beings because a majority of the world's population live in such zones (Nelson, 2007). Coastal systems are among the most dynamic and energetic environments on earth and they are continuousl

  11. Process-based and Surrogate Modelling of Fine Sediment Transport in the Dutch Coastal Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kai, C.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal zones which are known as the interface between continents and oceans are vital and important to human beings because a majority of the world's population live in such zones (Nelson, 2007). Coastal systems are among the most dynamic and energetic environments on earth and they are continuousl

  12. Dynamic Network Connectivity Analysis to Identify Epileptogenic Zones Based on Stereo-Electroencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jun-Wei; Ye, Xiao-Lai; Li, Yong-Hua; Liang, Pei-Ji; Xu, Ji-Wen; Zhang, Pu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Accurate localization of epileptogenic zones (EZs) is essential for successful surgical treatment of refractory focal epilepsy. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether a dynamic network connectivity analysis based on stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) signals is effective in localizing EZs. Methods: SEEG data were recorded from seven patients who underwent presurgical evaluation for the treatment of refractory focal epilepsy and for whom the subsequent resective surgery gave a good outcome. A time-variant multivariate autoregressive model was constructed using a Kalman filter, and the time-variant partial directed coherence was computed. This was then used to construct a dynamic directed network model of the epileptic brain. Three graph measures (in-degree, out-degree, and betweenness centrality) were used to analyze the characteristics of the dynamic network and to find the important nodes in it. Results: In all seven patients, the indicative EZs localized by the in-degree and the betweenness centrality were highly consistent with the clinically diagnosed EZs. However, the out-degree did not indicate any significant differences between nodes in the network. Conclusions: In this work, a method based on ictal SEEG signals and effective connectivity analysis localized EZs accurately. The results suggest that the in-degree and betweenness centrality may be better network characteristics to localize EZs than the out-degree. PMID:27833545

  13. Vygotskian-based grouping: Utilizing the zone of proximal development in a chemistry laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggle, Justin David

    A large portion of any science major's curriculum utilizes laboratories. Many of these laboratories now incorporate cooperative learning as a result of studies attesting to its beneficial effects. However, little attention has been given to the composition of those groups, specifically at post-secondary education institutes. We have therefore investigated the effectiveness of a grouping technique based on the theories of L. S. Vygotsky and his construct of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) in the context of an undergraduate general chemistry laboratory course at The University of Texas at Austin. All students were responsible for the completion of a short, 11 question, pre-quiz. Depending on their respective classes, students were grouped either according to the ZPD-scheme, based on pre-quiz scores, or randomly, regardless of pre-quiz score. Achievement of the students in each of the two groups was compared in order to determine grouping effectiveness. This study was carried out for 3 semesters (spring 2003, spring 2004, and fall 2004) under two different instructors. Overall, results indicate that grouping according to the ZPD-scheme revealed higher student achievement versus random grouping. Moreover, students scoring low and average on pre-quizzes benefited far more from this grouping method than higher scoring students. The protocol for implementing this grouping scheme is straightforward and is discussed in detail.

  14. Morphological categorization of acid-base resistant zones with self-etching primer adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Go; Nikaido, Toru; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the composition of self-etching primer adhesive systems on the morphology of acid-base resistant zones (ABRZs). One-step self-etching primer systems (Clearfil Tri-S Bond, G-Bond, and One-Up Bond F Plus) and two-step self-etching primer systems (Clearfil SE Bond, Clearfil Protect Bond, UniFil Bond, and Mac Bond II) were used in this study. Each adhesive was applied on prepared dentin disk surfaces, and a resin composite was placed between two dentin disks. All resin-bonded specimens were subjected to acid-base challenge. Observation under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed the creation of an ABRZ adjacent to the hybrid layer for all the self-etch primer adhesive systems, even when non-fluoride releasing adhesives were used. The presence of fluoride in two-step self-etching adhesive significantly increased the thickness of ABRZ created. Results suggested that an ABRZ was created with the use of self-etching primer adhesive systems, but its morphology differed between one-and two-step self-etching primer adhesive systems and was influenced by fluoride release activity.

  15. Use of geographic information system and water quality index to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of geographic information system and water quality index to assess ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... The study area Hewane is situated in the southern zone of Tigray Regional State, ... Article Metrics.

  16. Analysis of the Network of Protected Areas in China Based on a Geographic Perspective: Current Status, Issues and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengtian Cao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the continued growth of protected areas (PAs in China in terms of the number, coverage and varieties of protected objects, how to efficiently manage the protected areas to ensure both resource protection and environmental protection has become a crucial research question. By applying a geographic perspective in an analysis of the development and evolution of protected areas in China, this paper presents the results of an analysis focused on the status and the types of current approaches to the management of natural protected areas to reveal the problems that exist in their management and to further explore an integration strategy for the protected area network. It proposes that the future management of protected areas should prioritize their legal status, the sustainable livelihood of individuals living in close proximity to them, and the establishment of a unified database to achieve grid and information management of the protected areas.

  17. Geographic information system (GIS)-based image analysis for assessing growth of Physarum polycephalum on a solid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hanh T M; Stephenson, Steven L; Tullis, Jason A

    2015-01-01

    The conventional method used to assess growth of the plasmodium of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum in solid culture is to measure the extent of plasmodial expansion from the point of inoculation by using a ruler. However, plasmodial growth is usually rather irregular, so the values obtained are not especially accurate. Similar challenges exist in quantification of the growth of a fungal mycelium. In this paper, we describe a method that uses geographic information system software to obtain highly accurate estimates of plasmodial growth over time. This approach calculates plasmodial area from images obtained at particular intervals following inoculation. In addition, the correlation between plasmodial area and its dry cell weight value was determined. The correlation could be used for biomass estimation without the need of having to terminate the cultures in question. The method described herein is simple but effective and could also be used for growth measurements of other microorganisms such as fungi on solid media.

  18. Geographic information system documentation of watershed data for Direct/Delayed Response Project. Southern Blue Ridge Province data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortenson, D.C.

    1989-03-01

    The Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) was designed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency within the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program to predict the long-term response of watersheds and surface waters to acidic deposition. The purpose of the DDRP is to investigate and distinguish the time scales over which surface-water systems might change chemically under varying levels of acidic deposition. The DDRP is examining a subset of watersheds sampled as part of the National Surface Water Survey. In the Southern Blue Ridge Province Region of the United States, 35 watersheds are under study. The DDRP required detailed watershed information on those characteristics thought important relative to the effects of acid deposition. The information was then mapped, then entered into a Geographic Information System (GIS). The document discuss protocols, guidelines, and standards used to complete GIS entry of the mapping data, and quality-control procedures were used to ensure accuracy and consistency.

  19. Roman viticulture analysis based on Latin agronomists and the application of a geographic information system in lower Guadalquivir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Trapero Fernández

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in the historical research of business activities, such as ancient agriculture and specifically Roman viticulture, requires the knowledge of the productive sites. This research will propose a way to interconnect the information contained in Latin agronomic tradition, in order to choose the placement of a production unit, using a geographical information system (GIS. The Latin agronomist information, together with current agricultural knowledge, may lead to a set of measurable, georeferencing criteria for future prospecting, such as land orientation to the winds and insolation, the soil types and the slope. Also, the proximity to terrestrial, fluvial and maritime communication routes, as well as cities and water supply will be assessed. This methodology is applied in the territory of the lower Guadalquivir (southwest Spain achieving measurable criteria on a georeferenced map, being able to classify the data and create cartography that shows the best places for future archaeological prospecting.

  20. AN APPLICATION OF HYBRID CLUSTERING AND NEURAL BASED PREDICTION MODELLING FOR DELINEATION OF MANAGEMENT ZONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babankumar S. Bansod

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Starting from descriptive data on crop yield and various other properties, the aim of this study is to reveal the trends on soil behaviour, such as crop yield. This study has been carried out by developing web application that uses a well known technique- Cluster Analysis. The cluster analysis revealed linkages between soil classes for the same field as well as between different fields, which can be partly assigned to crops rotation and determination of variable soil input rates. A hybrid clustering algorithm has been developed taking into account the traits of two clustering technologies: i Hierarchical clustering, ii K-means clustering. This hybrid clustering algorithm is applied to sensor- gathered data about soil and analysed, resulting in the formation of well delineatedmanagement zones based on various properties of soil, such as, ECa , crop yield, etc. One of the purposes of the study was to identify the main factors affecting the crop yield and the results obtained were validated with existing techniques. To accomplish this purpose, geo-referenced soil information has been examined. Also, based on this data, statistical method has been used to classify and characterize the soil behaviour. This is done using a prediction model, developed to predict the unknown behaviour of clusters based on the known behaviour of other clusters. In predictive modeling, data has been collected for the relevant predictors, a statistical model has been formulated, predictions were made and the model can be validated (or revised as additional data becomes available. The model used in the web application has been formed taking into account neural network based minimum hamming distance criterion.

  1. Information system «History, geographical and social-economic parallel XIX–XXI age on archive information of the removal A. I. Mende» on base internet-technology as complex innovacionnyh educational resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekotilov V. G.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Information system «History, geographical and social-economic parallel XIX–XXI age on archive information of the removal A. I. Mende» on base internet-technology as complex innovacionnyh educational resource.

  2. Integrating indicator-based geostatistical estimation and aquifer vulnerability of nitrate-N for establishing groundwater protection zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Shih-Kai

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater nitrate-N contamination occurs frequently in agricultural regions, primarily resulting from surface agricultural activities. The focus of this study is to establish groundwater protection zones based on indicator-based geostatistical estimation and aquifer vulnerability of nitrate-N in the Choushui River alluvial fan in Taiwan. The groundwater protection zones are determined by univariate indicator kriging (IK) estimation, aquifer vulnerability assessment using logistic regression (LR), and integration of the IK estimation and aquifer vulnerability using simple IK with local prior means (sIKlpm). First, according to the statistical significance of source, transport, and attenuation factors dominating the occurrence of nitrate-N pollution, a LR model was adopted to evaluate aquifer vulnerability and to characterize occurrence probability of nitrate-N exceeding 0.5 mg/L. Moreover, the probabilities estimated using LR were regarded as local prior means. IK was then used to estimate the actual extent of nitrate-N pollution. The integration of the IK estimation and aquifer vulnerability was obtained using sIKlpm. Finally, groundwater protection zones were probabilistically determined using the three aforementioned methods, and the estimated accuracy of the delineated groundwater protection zones was gauged using a cross-validation procedure based on observed nitrate-N data. The results reveal that the integration of the IK estimation and aquifer vulnerability using sIKlpm is more robust than univariate IK estimation and aquifer vulnerability assessment using LR for establishing groundwater protection zones. Rigorous management practices for fertilizer use should be implemented in orchards situated in the determined groundwater protection zones.

  3. 33 CFR 165.776 - Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico 165.776 Section 165.776 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific...

  4. Review: Satellite-based remote sensing and geographic information systems and their application in the assessment of groundwater potential, with particular reference to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, Ismail; Mallikarjuna, P.

    2011-06-01

    Various hydrological, geological and geomorphological factors play a major role in the occurrence and movement of groundwater in different terrains. With advances in space technology and the advent of powerful personal computers, techniques for the assessment of groundwater potential have evolved, of which remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) are of great significance. The application of these methods is comprehensively reviewed with respect to the exploration and assessment of groundwater potential in consolidated and unconsolidated formations in semi-arid regions, and specifically in India. The process of such assessment includes the collection of remotely sensed data from suitable sensors and the selection of thematic maps on rainfall, geology, lithology, geomorphology, soil, land use/land cover, drainage patterns, slope and lineaments. The data are handled according to their significance with the assignment of appropriate weights and integrated into a sophisticated GIS environment. The requisite remote sensing and GIS data, in conjunction with necessary field investigations, help to identify the groundwater potential zones effectively.

  5. Indices based on silicoflagellate assemblages offer potential for paleo-reconstructions of the main oceanographic zones of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigual-Hernández, Andrés S.; Trull, Thomas W.; McCartney, Kevin; Ballegeer, Anne-Marie; Lawler, Kelly-Anne; Bray, Stephen G.; Armand, Leanne K.

    2016-08-01

    This study reports detailed silicoflagellate assemblage composition and annual seasonal flux from sediment traps at four locations along a transect across the Southern Ocean frontal systems. The four traps sampled the central Subantarctic Zone (SAZ, 47°S site), the Subantarctic Front (SAF, 51°S site), the Polar Frontal Zone (54°S site) and the Antarctic Zone (61°S site) across the 140°E longitude. Annual silicoflagellate fluxes to the deep ocean exhibited a similar latitudinal trend to those of diatom fluxes reported in previous work, with maxima in the Antarctic Zone and minima in the Subantarctic Zone. The data suggest that, along with diatoms, silicoflagellates are important contributors to biogenic silica export at all sites, particularly in the Subantarctic Zone. Two main silicoflagellate genera were observed, with Stephanocha sp. (previously known as Distephanus) dominating polar waters and Dictyocha sp. important in sub-polar waters. This is consistent with previous use of the Dictyocha / Stephanocha ratio to infer paleotemperatures and monitor shifts in the position of the Polar Frontal Zone in the sedimentary record. It appears possible to further refine the application of this approach by using the ratio between two Dictyocha species, because Dictyocha aculeata dominated at the Subantarctic Front, while Dictyocha stapedia dominated in the central Subantarctic Front. Given the well-defined environmental affinities of both species, a new SAF silicoflagellate index (SAF-SI) based on this ratio is proposed as a useful diagnostic for SAF and SAZ water mass signatures in the Plio-Pleistocene and Holocene sedimentary record.

  6. Ground-Based Lidar Measurements During the CALIPSO and Twilight Zone (CATZ) Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkoff, Timothy; Qian, Li; Kleidman, Richard; Stewart, Sebastian; Welton, Ellsworth; Li, Zhu; Holbem, Brent

    2008-01-01

    The CALIPSO and Twilight Zone (CATZ) field campaign was carried out between June 26th and August 29th of 2007 in the multi-state Maryland-Virginia-Pennsylvania region of the U.S. to study aerosol properties and cloud-aerosol interactions during overpasses of the CALIPSO satellite. Field work was conducted on selected days when CALIPSO ground tracks occurred in the region. Ground-based measurements included data from multiple Cimel sunphotometers that were placed at intervals along a segment of the CALIPSO ground-track. These measurements provided sky radiance and AOD measurements to enable joints inversions and comparisons with CALIPSO retrievals. As part of this activity, four ground-based lidars provided backscatter measurements (at 523 nm) in the region. Lidars at University of Maryland Baltimore County (Catonsville, MD) and Goddard Space Flight Center (Greenbelt, MD) provided continuous data during the campaign, while two micro-pulse lidar (MPL) systems were temporarily stationed at various field locations directly on CALIPSO ground-tracks. As a result, thirteen on-track ground-based lidar observations were obtained from eight different locations in the region. In some cases, nighttime CALIPSO coincident measurements were also obtained. In most studies reported to date, ground-based lidar validation efforts for CALIPSO rely on systems that are at fixed locations some distance away from the satellite ground-track. The CATZ ground-based lidar data provide an opportunity to examine vertical structure properties of aerosols and clouds both on and off-track simultaneously during a CALIPSO overpass. A table of available ground-based lidar measurements during this campaign will be presented, along with example backscatter imagery for a number of coincident cases with CALIPSO. Results indicate that even for a ground-based measurements directly on-track, comparisons can still pose a challenge due to the differing spatio-temporal properties of the ground and satellite

  7. Design of extended viewing zone at autostereoscopic 3D display based on diffusing optical element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Chang; Hwang, Yong Seok; Hong, Suk-Pyo; Kim, Eun Soo

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, to realize a non-glasses type 3D display as next step from the current glasses-typed 3D display, it is suggested that a viewing zone is designed for the 3D display using DOE (Diffusing Optical Element). Viewing zone of proposed method is larger than that of the current parallax barrier method or lenticular method. Through proposed method, it is shown to enable the expansion and adjustment of the area of viewing zone according to viewing distance.

  8. A Web-Based Environment for Modeling Deformation at Subduction Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutz, L. J.; Williams, C. A.; McCaffrey, R.; Spooner, D. L.

    2005-05-01

    Subduction zones compose a large percentage of the plate boundaries on earth, and are capable of producing the largest and most devastating earthquakes. One of the critical problems for these regions is the determination of the portions of the plate boundary along which stress is accumulating and earthquakes are likely to initiate. Surface geodetic data, in conjunction with a suitable forward model, can help to constrain these stress accumulation patterns. We have developed a web-based tool that attempts to provide a complete environment for such problems. Our modeling environment allows users to select geodetic data for a particular region from our database, filtered by user-specified criteria. It is also possible to contribute data to the database. Two types of forward models are available: an enhanced elastic half-space dislocation (EHSD) model or a finite elastic plate (FP) model, both with user-specified elastic properties. After selecting a fault geometry, an appropriate finite element mesh is used to generate Green's functions for use in an inversion. Parameters controlling an inversion are then specified, including the option to determine the rotation poles of blocks that rotate with respect to the overriding plate. Once the inversion has been performed, we provide visualization facilities for viewing the results, or the user can simply download the desired results. We provide an overview of the modeling environment and demonstrate its use.

  9. Understanding Stress and Strain Accumulation at Subduction Zones Using a Web-Based Modeling Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutz, L. J.; Williams, C. A.; McCaffrey, R.; Spooner, D. L.

    2005-12-01

    Surface geodetic data can provide significant insights into the patterns of stress and strain accumulation at subduction zones. There are presently two primary limitations on studies utilizing this data. The first is the relative difficulty of obtaining suitable data to be used in an investigation. The second is the limited number of forward models available for evaluating the data. We attempt to address both of these limitations by providing a web-based modeling environment that provides a database of available surface geodetic data as well as a selection of at least two forward models. Our modeling environment allows users to select geodetic data for a particular region from our database, filtered by user-specified criteria. It is also possible to contribute data to the database. Two types of forward models are available: an enhanced elastic half-space dislocation (EHSD) model or a finite elastic plate (FP) model, both with user-specified elastic properties. After selecting a fault geometry, an appropriate finite element mesh is used to generate Green's functions for use in an inversion. Parameters controlling an inversion are then specified, including the option to determine the rotation poles of blocks that rotate with respect to the overriding plate. Once the inversion has been performed, we provide visualization facilities for viewing the results, or the user can simply download the desired results. We provide an overview of the modeling environment and provide a demonstration using Cascadia as an example.

  10. [Tourism function zoning of Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province based on ecological sensitivity analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lin-sheng; Tang, Cheng-cai; Guo, Hua

    2010-07-01

    Based on the statistical data of natural ecology and social economy in Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province in 2008, an evaluation index system for the ecological sensitivity of this area was established from the aspects of protected area rank, vegetation type, slope, and land use type. The ecological sensitivity of the sub-areas with higher tourism value and ecological function in the area was evaluated, and the tourism function zoning of these sub-areas was made by the technology of GIS and according to the analysis of eco-environmental characteristics and ecological sensitivity of each sensitive sub-area. It was suggested that the Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area could be divided into three ecological sensitivity sub-areas (high, moderate, and low), three tourism functional sub-areas (restricted development ecotourism, moderate development ecotourism, and mass tourism), and six tourism functional sub-areas (wetland protection, primitive ecological sightseeing, agriculture and pasture tourism, grassland tourism, town tourism, and rural tourism).

  11. A WSN-Based Intrusion Alarm System to Improve Safety in Road Work Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. Workers responsible for maintaining and repairing roadways are especially prone to suffer these events, given their exceptional exposure to traffic. Since these actuations usually coexist with regular traffic, an errant driver can easily intrude the work area and provoke a collision. Some authors have proposed mechanisms aimed at detecting breaches in the work zone perimeter and alerting workers, which are collectively called intrusion alarm systems. However, they have several limitations and have not yet fulfilled the necessities of these scenarios. In this paper, we propose a new intrusion alarm system based on a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. Our system is comprised of two main elements: vehicle detectors that form a virtual barrier and detect perimeter breaches by means of an ultrasonic beam and individual warning devices that transmit alerts to the workers. All these elements have a wireless communication interface and form a network that covers the whole work area. This network is in charge of transmitting and routing the alarms and coordinates the behavior of the system. We have tested our solution under real conditions with satisfactory results.

  12. Acoustical dead zones and the spatial aggregation of whale strandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Bala; Poje, Andrew C; Veit, Richard R; Nganguia, Herve

    2006-02-21

    Cetacean strandings display a marked geographical clustering. We propose a simple, two-dimensional ray-dynamics model of cetacean echolocation to examine the role played by coastline topography in influencing the location and clustering of stranding sites. We find that a number of coastlines known to attract cetacean strandings produce acoustical "Dead Zones" where echolocation signals are severely distorted by purely geometric effects. Using available cetacean stranding data bases from four disparate areas, we show that the geographical clusters in the observations correlate strongly with the regions of distorted echolocation signals as predicted by the model.

  13. [Evaluation of sustainable development of Dalian Economic and Technological Development Zone based on MuSIASEM theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yong; Liu, Xiao-qing; Zhang, Pan; Liu, Ye

    2010-10-01

    Based on the theory of multiple-scale integrated assessment of societal and ecosystem metabolism (MuSIASEM), a comprehensive evaluation was made on the human activity time, exosomatic energy input, and added value of Dalian Economic and Technological Development Zone in 2000-2007. During the study period, the life quality of local citizens increased year after year, while the agricultural industry dwindled. Manufacturing industry was still the main pillar industry, but its energy consumption was greater. Service industry was at its early stage, falling behind manufacturing industry. The exosomatic metabolic level of the whole zone and its various industries had an obvious increase, and the energy intensity decreased continuously. With the fact that both the human activity time and the exosomatic energy input had a ceaseless decrease, the economic added value increased steadily, and the zone was under its way towards sustainable development.

  14. Geographic variation of gallbladder cancer mortality and risk factors in Chile: a population-based ecologic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andia, Marcelo E.; Hsing, Ann W.; Andreotti, Gabriella; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2010-01-01

    Chile’s gallbladder cancer rates are among the highest in the world, being the first cancer killer among Chilean women. To provide insights into the etiology of gallbladder cancer, we conducted an ecologic study examining the geographical variation of gallbladder cancer and several putative risk factors. The relative risk of dying from gallbladder cancer (relative to the national average mortality rate) between 1985 and 2003 was estimated for each of the 333 Chilean counties, using a hierarchical Poisson regression model, adjusting for age, sex, and geographical location. The risk of gallbladder cancer mortality was analyzed in relation to region (costal, inland, northern, and southern), poverty, Amerindian (Mapuche) population, typhoid fever, and access to cholecystectomy, using logistic regression analysis. There were 27,183 gallbladder cancer deaths, age-sex-adjusted county mortality rates ranging from 8.2 to 12.4 per 100,000 inhabitants, being higher in inland and southern regions; compare to the north-coastal, the northern-inland region had a 10-fold risk odds ratio (OR) (95% of confidence interval (95% CI): 2.4–42.2) and the southern-inland region had a 26-fold risk (OR 95%CI: 6.0–114.2). Independent risk factors for gallbladder cancer were: ethnicity (Mapuche) OR:3.9 (95%CI 1.8–8.7), typhoid fever OR:2.9 (95%CI 1.2–6.9), poverty OR:5.1 (95%CI 1.6–15.9), low access to cholecystectomy OR:3.9 (95%CI 1.5–10.1), low access to hospital care OR:14.2 (95%CI 4.2–48.7) and high urbanization OR:8.0 (95%CI 3.4–18.7). Our results suggest that gallbladder cancer in Chile may be related to both genetic factors and poor living conditions. Future analytic studies are needed to further clarify the role of these factors in gallbladder cancer etiology. PMID:18566990

  15. Model and Method of Debris Flow Risk Zoning Based on Momentum Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Fangqiang; ZHANG Yu; HU Kaiheng; GAO Kechang

    2006-01-01

    A model of debris flow risk zoning is carried out with momentum analysis of debris flow. This model zones the debris flow inundation fan with density and velocity calculated by numerical simulation. The risk classification standard is determined according to the ultimate bearing capacities of different structures under impacting. And the ultimate bearing capacities are tested by impact failure experiment of destruction. Two structures typical in Chinese mountain towns, reinforced concrete frame construction and brickwork with concrete, are chosen in the experiment. The model makes debris flow risk zoning quantitative and the results comparable widely. The results differ much from that of other methods especially in the identification of medium and low risk zones.

  16. Capture zone delineation methodology based on the maximum concentration: Preventative groundwater well protection areas for heat exchange fluid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkonen, Jarkko; Neupauer, Roseanna M.

    2016-05-01

    Capture zones of water supply wells are most often delineated based on travel times of water or solute to the well, with the assumption that if the travel time is sufficiently large, the concentration of chemical at the well will not exceed the drinking water standards. In many situations, the likely source concentrations or release masses of contamination from the potential sources are unknown; therefore, the exact concentration at the well cannot be determined. In situations in which the source mass can be estimated with some accuracy, the delineation of the capture zone should be based on the maximum chemical concentration that can be expected at the well, rather than on an arbitrary travel time. We present a new capture zone delineation methodology that is based on this maximum chemical concentration. The method delineates capture zones by solving the adjoint of the advection-dispersion-reaction equation and relating the adjoint state and the known release mass to the expected chemical concentration at the well. We demonstrate the use of this method through a case study in which soil heat exchange systems are potential sources of contamination. The heat exchange fluid mixtures contain known fluid volumes and chemical concentrations; thus, in the event of a release, the release mass of the chemical is known. We also demonstrate the use of a concentration basis in quantifying other measures of well vulnerability including exposure time and time to exceed a predefined threshold concentration at the well.

  17. Analyzing geographic clustered response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Use of topographic and climatological models in a geographical data base to improve Landsat MSS classification for Olympic National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibula, William G.; Nyquist, Maurice O.

    1987-01-01

    An unsupervised computer classification of vegetation/landcover of Olympic National Park and surrounding environs was initially carried out using four bands of Landsat MSS data. The primary objective of the project was to derive a level of landcover classifications useful for park management applications while maintaining an acceptably high level of classification accuracy. Initially, nine generalized vegetation/landcover classes were derived. Overall classification accuracy was 91.7 percent. In an attempt to refine the level of classification, a geographic information system (GIS) approach was employed. Topographic data and watershed boundaries (inferred precipitation/temperature) data were registered with the Landsat MSS data. The resultant boolean operations yielded 21 vegetation/landcover classes while maintaining the same level of classification accuracy. The final classification provided much better identification and location of the major forest types within the park at the same high level of accuracy, and these met the project objective. This classification could now become inputs into a GIS system to help provide answers to park management coupled with other ancillary data programs such as fire management.

  19. A Geographic Information System (GIS-Based Analysis of Social Capital Data: Landscape Factors That Correlate with Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Rahimi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The field of community sociology has yielded rich insights on how neighborhoods and individuals foster social capital and reap the benefits of interpersonal relationships and institutions alike. Traditionally, institutions and cultural factors have been lauded as catalysts of community social life and cohesion. Yet, the built environment and configuration of the landscape, including infrastructure, amenities and population density, may also contribute to community social capital. In this article, we embedded zip code-level responses from Harvard University’s Saguaro Seminar’s 2006 Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey with a geographic information system. Specifically, we correlated responses on residents’ general trust, trust of one’s neighbors, and trust of members of other racial groups with local urban environmental factors and infrastructural indicators such as housing and street conditions, land use, city form, amenity access (e.g., libraries and schools, home vacancy rates, and home value. We conducted these tests at the national level and for Rochester, NY, due to its many survey responses. We found that housing vacancies drive down levels of social trust, as captured by homeownership rates and tenure, yielding higher levels of social trust, and that certain urban facilities correlate with high trust among neighbors. Results can inform urban planners on the amenities that support sustainable community ties.

  20. Analysis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and its pathogenic gene sequence based on geographic information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Z; Xu, X J; He, X J; Liang, Z S; Liang, W B; Li, Y; Gao, K

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the temporal-spatial distribution characteristics, epidemiological characteristics and gene sequences of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Guangxi, with the intention of providing a theoretical and technical support for the prevention of HFRS. A map of the incidence of HFRS of different cities in Guangxi was drawn up using the Geographic Information System (GIS) to investigate the epidemiological characteristics and infection source of HFRS between 2013 and 2016. Guangxi has a low incidence of HFRS, and autumn and winter are the main high-incidence seasons. Cases of HFRS were reported in all regions in Guangxi except Laibin city between 2013 and 2016. The distribution of cases in the four years suggested that Guilin, Nanning, Hechi and Wuzhou were the main infected regions, especially the local areas in the north of Guilin. The nucleotide and amino acid of S fragment and M fragment of Hantaviruses (HV) detected were highly homologous, and no obvious variation was found. Through analyzing the space-time characteristics, epidemiological characteristics and gene sequence of HFRS in Guangxi, it was found that areas rich in water, grass and moisture, such as paddy fields, are the main active areas for the host of HFRS.

  1. Association between Floods and Acute Cardiovascular Diseases: A Population-Based Cohort Study Using a Geographic Information System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Vanasse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Floods represent a serious threat to human health beyond the immediate risk of drowning. There is few data on the potential link between floods and direct consequences on health such as on cardiovascular health. This study aimed to explore the impact of one of the worst floods in the history of Quebec, Canada on acute cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Methods: A cohort study with a time series design with multiple control groups was built with the adult population identified in the Quebec Integrated Chronic Disease Surveillance System. A geographic information system approach was used to define the study areas. Logistic regressions were performed to compare the occurrence of CVD between groups. Results: The results showed a 25%–27% increase in the odds in the flooded population in spring 2011 when compared with the population in the same area in springs 2010 and 2012. Besides, an increase up to 69% was observed in individuals with a medical history of CVD. Conclusion: Despite interesting results, the association was not statistically significant. A possible explanation to this result can be that the population affected by the flood was probably too small to provide the statistical power to answer the question, and leaves open a substantial possibility for a real and large effect.

  2. Association between Floods and Acute Cardiovascular Diseases: A Population-Based Cohort Study Using a Geographic Information System Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, Alain; Cohen, Alan; Courteau, Josiane; Bergeron, Patrick; Dault, Roxanne; Gosselin, Pierre; Blais, Claudia; Bélanger, Diane; Rochette, Louis; Chebana, Fateh

    2016-01-28

    Floods represent a serious threat to human health beyond the immediate risk of drowning. There is few data on the potential link between floods and direct consequences on health such as on cardiovascular health. This study aimed to explore the impact of one of the worst floods in the history of Quebec, Canada on acute cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A cohort study with a time series design with multiple control groups was built with the adult population identified in the Quebec Integrated Chronic Disease Surveillance System. A geographic information system approach was used to define the study areas. Logistic regressions were performed to compare the occurrence of CVD between groups. The results showed a 25%-27% increase in the odds in the flooded population in spring 2011 when compared with the population in the same area in springs 2010 and 2012. Besides, an increase up to 69% was observed in individuals with a medical history of CVD. Despite interesting results, the association was not statistically significant. A possible explanation to this result can be that the population affected by the flood was probably too small to provide the statistical power to answer the question, and leaves open a substantial possibility for a real and large effect.

  3. Research on Internal Layout Optimization of Logistics Node under the Conditions of Complex Terrain Based on Computer Vision and Geographical Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper solves the problem of logistics node space relationship beyond expression based on computer vision technology, proposes internal layout optimization mathematical model of logistics node on the basis of overall consideration of function zone geometry shape, the optimal area utilization rate, and the minimum material handling cost, and then designs a highly mixed genetic simulated annealing algorithm based on multiagent to get layout solution. Through contrasting, the result has shown that the model and algorithms put forward in this paper can realize large-scale internal layout optimization of logistics node under the conditions of complex terrain and multiple constraints.

  4. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  5. Cacao Crop Management Zones Determination Based on Soil Properties and Crop Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Silva Matos de Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The use of management zones has ensured yield success for numerous agricultural crops. In spite of this potential, studies applying precision agricultural techniques to cacao plantations are scarce or almost nonexistent. The aim of the present study was to delineate management zones for cacao crop, create maps combining soil physical properties and cacao tree yield, and identify what combinations best fit within the soil chemical properties. The study was conducted in 2014 on a cacao plantation in a Nitossolo Háplico Eutrófico (Rhodic Paleudult in Bahia, Brazil. Soil samples were collected in a regular sampling grid with 120 sampling points in the 0.00-0.20 m soil layer, and pH(H2O, P, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, H+Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, SB, V, TOC, effective CEC, CEC at pH 7.0, coarse sand, fine sand, clay, and silt were determined. Yield was measured in all the 120 points every month and stratified into annual, harvest, and early-harvest cacao yields. Data were subjected to geostatistical analysis, followed by ordinary kriging interpolation. The management zones were defined through a Fuzzy K-Means algorithm for combinations between soil physical properties and cacao tree yield. Concordance analysis was carried out between the delineated zones and soil chemical properties using Kappa coefficients. The zones that best classified the soil chemical properties were defined from the early-harvest cacao yield map associated with the clay or sand fractions. Silt content proved to be an inadequate variable for defining management zones for cacao production. The delineated management zones described the spatial variability of the soil chemical properties, and are therefore important for site-specific management in the cacao crop.

  6. Determining Potential Sites for Runoff Water Harvesting using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems-Based Modeling in Sinai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam H. Elewa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sinai is increasingly suffering from an overwhelming water crisis. Runoff Water Harvesting (RWH could be a solution for this problem. The determined promising drainage basins for RWH could be used by the decision makers to propose appropriate controlling systems to overcome the problem of water scarcity and for implementing runoff farming and rain-fed agriculture. Approach: Remote sensing, geographic information systems, watershed modeling system were integrated to extract a multi-criteria-decision support system of nine thematic layers, namely; volume of annual flood, lineaments frequency density, drainage frequency density, maximum flow distance, basin area, basin slope, basin length, average overland flow distance and soil infiltration. These criteria were used for conducting a Weighted Spatial Probability Modeling (WSPM to determine the potential areas for the RWH. The potential runoff available for harvesting was estimated by applying Finkel-SCS rainfall-runoff methods. Results: The WSPM classified Sinai into four classes that graded from high (3,201-6,695 km2, moderate (35,923-35,896 km2, low (13,185-16,652 km2, very low (1.38-5.57 km2 for RWH. Promising watersheds like those of Abu Taryfya, Hamma El Hassana, Gerafi, Watir, Geraia, Heridien, Sidri, Feiran and Alaawag, are categorized as high-moderate RWH potential basins. Conclusion: These basins could be investigated in detail with larger scale to determine the appropriate locations for implementing the RWH structures and techniques. Implementing systems and techniques of RWH in the potential watersheds could open new opportunities for sustainable development in the area.

  7. Effect of geographical access to health facilities on child mortality in rural Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemisrach B Okwaraji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There have been few studies that have examined associations between access to health care and child health outcomes in remote populations most in need of health services. This study assessed the effect of travel time and distance to health facilities on mortality in children under five years in a remote area of rural north-western Ethiopia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study involved a randomly selected cross sectional survey of 2,058 households. Data were collected during home visits to all resident women of reproductive age (15-49 years. A geographic information system (GIS was used to map all households and the only health centre in the district. The analysis was restricted to 2,206 rural children who were under the age of five years during the five years before the survey. Data were analysed using random effects Poisson regression. 90.4% (1,996/2,206 of children lived more than 1.5 hours walk from the health centre. Children who lived ≥1.5 hrs from the health centre had a two to three fold greater risk of death than children who lived <1.5 hours from the health centre (children with travel time 1.5-<2.5 hrs adjusted relative risk [adjRR] 2.3[0.95-5.6], travel time 2.5-<3.5 hrs adjRR 3.1[1.3-7.4] and travel time 3.5-<6.5 hrs adjRR 2.5[1.1-6.2]. CONCLUSION: Distance to a health centre had a marked influence on under five mortality in a poor, rural, remote area of Ethiopia. This study provides important information for policy makers on the likely impact of new health centres and their most effective location in remote areas.

  8. Emergy-based assessment on industrial symbiosis: a case of Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yong; Liu, Zuoxi; Xue, Bing; Dong, Huijuan; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Chiu, Anthony

    2014-12-01

    Industrial symbiosis is the sharing of services, utility, and by-product resources among industries. This is usually made in order to add value, reduce costs, and improve the environment, and therefore has been taken as an effective approach for developing an eco-industrial park, improving resource efficiency, and reducing pollutant emission. Most conventional evaluation approaches ignored the contribution of natural ecosystem to the development of industrial symbiosis and cannot reveal the interrelations between economic development and environmental protection, leading to a need of an innovative evaluation method. Under such a circumstance, we present an emergy analysis-based evaluation method by employing a case study at Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone (SETDZ). Specific emergy indicators on industrial symbiosis, including emergy savings and emdollar value of total emergy savings, were developed so that the holistic picture of industrial symbiosis can be presented. Research results show that nonrenewable inputs, imported resource inputs, and associated services could be saved by 89.3, 32.51, and 15.7 %, and the ratio of emergy savings to emergy of the total energy used would be about 25.58 %, and the ratio of the emdollar value of total emergy savings to the total gross regional product (GRP) of SETDZ would be 34.38 % through the implementation of industrial symbiosis. In general, research results indicate that industrial symbiosis could effectively reduce material and energy consumption and improve the overall eco-efficiency. Such a method can provide policy insights to industrial park managers so that they can raise appropriate strategies on developing eco-industrial parks. Useful strategies include identifying more potential industrial symbiosis opportunities, optimizing energy structure, increasing industrial efficiency, recovering local ecosystems, and improving public and industrial awareness of eco-industrial park policies.

  9. Experimental Validation of Modeled Fe Opacities at Conditions Approaching the Base of the Solar Convection Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Taisuke

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge of the Sun is a foundation for other stars. However, after the solar abundance revision in 2005, standard solar models disagree with helioseismic measurements particularly at the solar convection zone base (CZB, r ~ 0 . 7 ×RSun) [Basu, et al., Physics Reports 457, 217 (2008)]. One possible explanation is an underestimate in the Fe opacity at the CZB [Bailey et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 058101 (2009)]. Modeled opacities are important physics inputs for plasma simulations (e.g. standard solar models). However, modeled opacities are not experimentally validated at high temperatures because of three challenging criteria required for reliable opacity measurements: 1) smooth and strong backlighter, 2) plasma condition uniformity, and 3) simultaneous measurements of plasma condition and transmission. Fe opacity experiments are performed at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Z-machine aiming at conditions close to those at the CZB (i.e. Te = 190 eV, ne = 1 ×1023 cm-3). To verify the quality of the experiments, it is critical to investigate how well the three requirements are satisfied. The smooth and strong backlighter is provided by the SNL Z-pinch dynamic hohlraum. Fe plasma condition is measured by mixing Mg into the Fe sample and employing Mg K-shell line transmission spectroscopy. Also, an experiment is designed and performed to measure the level of non-uniformity in the Fe plasma by mixing Al and Mg dopants on the opposite side of the Fe sample and analyzing their spectra. We will present quantitative results on these investigations as well as the comparison of the measured opacity to modeled opacities. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Developments in the relationship between large cities - the suburban zone and the rural/urban hinterland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder

    2006-01-01

    at the developments in the relationship between the urban core, its suburban areas and the rural/urban hinterland. The analysis uses data on commuting between small geographical zones to perform the analysis as “realistically” as possible. The paper combines a GIS-based approach (with maps of commuter...

  11. Informed Markets as Policy Instrument for Environmental Governance of Buffer Zones around Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    of National Parks in Scandinavia (Denmark), this paper sets out to explore the theoretical rationale and record of using market based environmental governance in the form of Geographical Indications (GI´s) and organic agriculture certification (OAC), respectively, in buffer zones, to potentially serve...

  12. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in the Musi basin using remote sensing data and GIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganapuram, Sreedhar; Vijaya Kumar, G.T.; Murali Krishna, I.V.; Kahya, Ercan; Demirel, M. Cüneyd

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the groundwater availability for agriculture in the Musi basin. Remote sensing data and geographic information system were used to locate potential zones for groundwater in the Musi basin. Various maps (i.e., base, hydrogeomorphological, geological, structur

  13. Ecotype Zones for Minnesota and Iowa Prairie Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a map of local ecotype seed harvest zones for Iowa and Minnesota. A local ecotype zone is defined as a geographic area with generally similar...

  14. Diagnostic description and geographic distribution of four new cryptic species of the blue-spotted maskray species complex (Myliobatoidei: Dasyatidae; Neotrygon spp.) based on DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, Philippe; Arlyza, Irma S.; Hoareau, Thierry B.; Shen, Kang-Ning

    2017-08-01

    Nine morphologically similar but genetically distinct lineages in the blue-spotted maskray species complex, previously Neotrygon kuhlii (Müller and Henle) qualify as cryptic species. Four of these lineages have been previously described as Neotrygon australiae Last, White and Séret, Neotrygon caeruleopunctata Last, White and Séret, Neotrygon orientale Last, White and Séret, and Neotrygon varidens (Garman), but the morphological characters used in the descriptions offered poor diagnoses and their geographic distributions were not delineated precisely. The objective of the present work is to complete the description of the cryptic species in the complex. Here, an additional four lineages are described as new species on the basis of their mitochondrial DNA sequences: Neotrygon bobwardi, whose distribution extends from the northern tip of Aceh to the western coast of Sumatera; Neotrygon malaccensis, sampled from the eastern part of the Andaman Sea and from the Malacca Strait; Neotrygon moluccensis, from the eastern half of the Banda Sea; and Neotrygon westpapuensis from the central portion of northern West Papua. The geographic distributions of N. australiae, N. coeruleopunctata, N. orientale, and N. varidens are updated. For each species, a diagnosis is provided in the form of a combination of private or partly-private nucleotides at 2-4 nucleotide sites along a 519-base pair fragment of the CO1 gene. We believe that the present taxonomic revision will provide information relevant to the sound management and conservation of cryptic species of the blue-spotted maskray in the Coral Triangle region.

  15. Fast mapping study based on fundamental geographic information database%基础地理信息数据库的快速出图技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷勇; 印洁; 丁圣陶; 叶关根

    2012-01-01

    针对当前地图制图自动化程度较低以及工作强度大的特点,通过分析国家基础地理信息数据编码特征以及制图工艺流程,依托基础地理信息数据库,本文提出基于地图专家知识模板的快速制图解决方案,解决注记自动配置以及符号复用等快速制图关键技术,最终服务于应急出图以及大批量的工程化出图,并在1∶250000公众版地图出图中得到了推广应用.%For these current characteristics of inefficent automatic mapping and intense work power intensity, by analyzing the mapping process and coding features of National Foundation Geographic Information data, based on foundation geographic information database t the paper proposed fast mapping solution on map expert knowledge template, solved fast mapping key technology of automatic labelling and symbol sharing, eventually serving for emergency mapping and large volume of engineering series mapping, and used widely in 1:250 000 public version mapping.

  16. A real-time platform for monitoring schistosomiasis transmission supported by Google Earth and a web-based geographical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Sun, Le-Ping; Huang, Yi-Xin; Yang, Guo-Jing; Wu, Feng; Hang, De-Rong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Jian-Feng; Liang, Yong-Sheng; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2012-05-01

    A basic framework for the rapid assessment of the risk for schistosomiasis was developed by combining spatial data from Google Earth® with a geographical information system (GIS) package, bundling the modules together with an Internet connection into a WebGIS platform. It operates through functions such as "search", "evaluation", "risk analysis" and "prediction" and is primarily aimed to be a dynamic, early-warning system (EWS) providing user-friendly, evidence-based, near real-time awareness of the status of an important endemic disease. It contributes to rapid information-sharing at all levels of decision-making, facilitating "point-of-care" response, i.e. treatment provided at newly discovered transmission sites. The experience using the platform is encouraging and it has the potential to improve support systems and strengthen schistosomiasis control activities, in particular with regard to surveillance and EWS. It can quickly and intuitively locate early, high-risk areas, retrieve all important data needed as well as provide detailed, up-to-date information on the performance of the control programme. This WebGIS, the first of its kind in the People's Republic of China, is not only applicable for schistosomiasis but can easily be adapted for improving control of any endemic disease in any geographical area.

  17. Modeling of groundwater potential of the sub-basin of Siriri river, Sergipe state, Brazil, based on Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Franca Rocha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of Geographic Information System (GIS and Remote Sensing for modeling groundwater potential give support for the analysis and decision-making processes about water resource management in watersheds. The objective of this work consisted in modeling the groundwater water potential of Siriri river sub-basin, Sergipe state, based on its natural environment (soil, land use, slope, drainage density, lineament density, rainfall and geology using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System as an integration environment. The groundwater potential map was done using digital image processing procedures of ENVI 4.4 software and map algebra of ArcGIS 9.3®. The Analytical Hierarchy Method was used for modeling the weights definition of the different criteria (maps. Loads and weights of the different classes were assigned to each map according to their influence on the overall objective of the work. The integration of these maps in a GIS environment and the AHP technique application allowed the development of the groundwater potential map in five classes: very low, low, moderate, high, very high. The average flow rates of wells confirm the potential of aquifers Sapucari, Barriers and Maruim since they are the most exploited in this sub-basin, with average flows of 78,113 L/h, 19,332 L/h and 12,085 L/h, respectively.

  18. Field-Based Evidence for Devolatilization in Subduction Zones: Implications for Arc Magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Gray E.

    1991-01-01

    Metamorphic rocks on Santa Catalina Island, California, afford examination of fluid-related processes at depths of 15 to 45 kilometers in an Early Cretaceous subduction zone. A combination of field, stable isotope, and volatile content data for the Catalina Schist indicates kilometer-scale transport of large amounts of water-rich fluid with uniform oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions. The fluids were liberated in devolatilizing, relatively low-temperature (400^circ to 600^circC) parts of the subduction zone, primarily by chlorite-breakdown reactions. An evaluation of pertinent phase equilibria indicates that chlorite in mafic and sedimentary rocks and melange may stabilize a large volatile component to great depths (perhaps >100 kilometers), depending on the thermal structure of the subduction zone. This evidence for deep volatile subduction and large-scale flow of slab-derived, water-rich fluids lends credence to models that invoke fluid addition to sites of arc magma genesis.

  19. Assessing Geographic Information Enhancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loenen, B.; Zevenbergen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of geographic information infrastructures (or spatial data infrastructures) is increasingly attracting the attention of researchers in the Geographic information (GI) domain. Especially the assessment of value added GI appears to be complex. By applying the concept of value chain analysis

  20. Environmental geographic information system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W; Helfrich, Donald Alan; Gorman, Susan

    2010-08-01

    This document describes how the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) was used, along with externally received data, to create maps for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) Source Document project. Data quality among the various classes of geographic information system (GIS) data is addressed. A complete listing of map layers used is provided.

  1. Community-Based Learning Environments: Looking Back on Five Years in the OCAD University Learning Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Chudolinska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Now that constantly-evolving technology systems fulfill many of the tasks that used to occupy library staff, many academic and research libraries are exploring new ways to contribute to their institutions’ learning communities. The OCAD University Library’s Learning Zone is one of these experiments: an inclusive, open, creative space with the mission of enriching the student experience through collaborative, hands-on learning, meaningful extra-curricular programming, and useful training opportunities. This article examines the best practices and approaches Learning Zone staff have developed in the five years since the space launched.

  2. Helioseismic Constraints on the Gradient of Angular Velocity at the Base of the Solar Convection Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovichev, A. G.

    1996-01-01

    The layer of transition from the nearly rigid rotation of the radiative interior to the latitudinal differential rotation of the convection zone plays a significant role in the internal dynamics of the Sun. Using rotational splitting coefficients of the p-mode frequencies, obtained during 1986-1990 at the Big Bear Solar Observatory, we have found that the thickness of the transitional layer is 0.09 +/- 0.04 solar radii (63 +/- 28 Mm), and that most of the transition occurs beneath the adiabatically stratified part of the convection zone, as suggested by the dynamo theories of the 22 yr solar activity cycle.

  3. Geographical National Condition and Complex System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jiayao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of studying the complex system of geographical national conditions lies in rationally expressing the complex relationships of the “resources-environment-ecology-economy-society” system. Aiming to the problems faced by the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions, including the disunity of research contents, the inconsistency of range, the uncertainty of goals, etc.the present paper conducted a range of discussions from the perspectives of concept, theory and method, and designed some solutions based on the complex system theory and coordination degree analysis methods.By analyzing the concepts of geographical national conditions, geographical national conditions survey and geographical national conditions statistical analysis, as well as investigating the relationships between theirs, the statistical contents and the analytical range of geographical national conditions are clarified and defined. This investigation also clarifies the goals of the statistical analysis by analyzing the basic characteristics of the geographical national conditions and the complex system, and the consistency between the analysis of the degree of coordination and statistical analyses. It outlines their goals, proposes a concept for the complex system of geographical national conditions, and it describes the concept. The complex system theory provides new theoretical guidance for the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions. The degree of coordination offers new approaches on how to undertake the analysis based on the measurement method and decision-making analysis scheme upon which the complex system of geographical national conditions is based. It analyzes the overall trend via the degree of coordination of the complex system on a macro level, and it determines the direction of remediation on a micro level based on the degree of coordination among various subsystems and of single systems. These results establish

  4. Deciphering diversity in populations of various linguistic and ethnic affiliations of different geographical regions of India: analysis based on 15 microsatellite markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. K. Kashyap; Richa Ashma; Sonali Gaikwad; B. N. Sarkar; R. Trivedi

    2004-04-01

    The extent of genetic polymorphism at fifteen autosomal microsatellite markers in 54 ethnically, linguistically and geographically diverse human populations of India was studied to decipher intrapopulation diversity. The parameters used to quantify intrapopulation diversity were average allele diversity, average heterozygosity, allele range (base pairs), and number of alleles. Multilocus genotype frequencies calculated for selected populations were utilized for testing conformity with the assumption of Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. The exact test values, after Bonferroni correction, showed significant deviation amongst Gowda (vWA, Penta E); Dhangar, Satnami and Gounder (D8S1179); Hmar (FGA); Kuki and Balti (vWA) groups. Relatively low number of alleles and allelic diversity (base-pairs size) had been observed in populations of central India as compared with southern and northern regions of the country. The communities of Indo-Caucasoid ethnic origin and Indo-European linguistic family (Kshatriya of Uttar Pradesh) showed highest allelic diversity, as well as rare alleles, not reported in any other Indian populations. Analysis based on average heterozygosity was also found to be lowest among the populations of central India (0.729) and highest among the populations from north (0.777) and west (0.784) regions of the country, having Indo-Caucasoid ethnic origin and Austro-Asiatic linguistic affiliation. The maximum power of discrimination (85%–89%) had been observed at loci FGA, Penta E, D18S51 and D21S11, suggested high intrapopulation diversity in India. Genetic diversity revealed by STR markers was consistent with the known demographic histories of populations. Thus, the present study clearly demonstrated that the intrapopulation diversity is not only present at the national level, but also within smaller geographical regions of the country. This is the first attempt to understand the extent of diversity within populations of India at such a large scale at genomic

  5. 中国生态地理区域系统区划%Delineation of eco-geographic regional system of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴绍洪; 杨勤业; 郑度

    2003-01-01

    Eco-geographic regionalization has been one of the most important topics in China'sregionalization researches since the end of the 20th century. It is a major ecosystem in geographiczonality. A hierarchical system, which is formed by division or combination of natural features basedon geographic relativity and comparison of major ecosystem factors (including biological andnon-biological) and geographic zonality, is called eco-geographic regional system. This paperintroduces process of China's regionalization development. The first level unit, temperature zone, isdelineated with main criteria of temperature. The second level unit, humidity region, is based oncriteria of water/moisture states. The third level unit, natural region, is divided according to mediumgeomorphologic units. Vegetation types and soils are applied as supplementary criteria to indicatetemperature and water/moisture states. Mapping process from qualitative to quantitative and China'seco-geographic regional system are also explained in this paper.

  6. Asset Allocation in the Euro-Zone : Industry or Country Based?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiling, E.; Gerard, B.; de Roon, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the relative importance of country and industry factors as determinants of international equity returns in the Euro-zone over the period 1990 to 2003.We conduct our analysis from a portfolio performance perspective, using mean-variance spanning and efficiency tests as well as style

  7. 75 FR 26100 - Danger Zone, Pacific Ocean, Naval Base Coronado, Coronado, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... exit from it. To assist mariners, updated nautical charts will be published by the National Oceanic and.... These nautical charts are used by mariners internationally and should provide danger zone awareness... locations of the SAR's flag poles and flashing red lights will be mapped on the nautical charts. The...

  8. Asset Allocation in the Euro-Zone : Industry or Country Based?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiling, E.; Gerard, B.; de Roon, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the relative importance of country and industry factors as determinants of international equity returns in the Euro-zone over the period 1990 to 2003.We conduct our analysis from a portfolio performance perspective, using mean-variance spanning and efficiency tests as well as style an

  9. Zoning Districts, Current Zoning Districts; boundaries based on parcel edge or street centerlines, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, City of Benson, Arizona.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zoning Districts dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2010. It is described as 'Current...

  10. Molecular-dynamics Simulation-based Cohesive Zone Representation of Intergranular Fracture Processes in Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakov, Vesselin I.; Saether, Erik; Phillips, Dawn R.; Glaessgen, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    A traction-displacement relationship that may be embedded into a cohesive zone model for microscale problems of intergranular fracture is extracted from atomistic molecular-dynamics simulations. A molecular-dynamics model for crack propagation under steady-state conditions is developed to analyze intergranular fracture along a flat 99 [1 1 0] symmetric tilt grain boundary in aluminum. Under hydrostatic tensile load, the simulation reveals asymmetric crack propagation in the two opposite directions along the grain boundary. In one direction, the crack propagates in a brittle manner by cleavage with very little or no dislocation emission, and in the other direction, the propagation is ductile through the mechanism of deformation twinning. This behavior is consistent with the Rice criterion for cleavage vs. dislocation blunting transition at the crack tip. The preference for twinning to dislocation slip is in agreement with the predictions of the Tadmor and Hai criterion. A comparison with finite element calculations shows that while the stress field around the brittle crack tip follows the expected elastic solution for the given boundary conditions of the model, the stress field around the twinning crack tip has a strong plastic contribution. Through the definition of a Cohesive-Zone-Volume-Element an atomistic analog to a continuum cohesive zone model element - the results from the molecular-dynamics simulation are recast to obtain an average continuum traction-displacement relationship to represent cohesive zone interaction along a characteristic length of the grain boundary interface for the cases of ductile and brittle decohesion. Keywords: Crack-tip plasticity; Cohesive zone model; Grain boundary decohesion; Intergranular fracture; Molecular-dynamics simulation

  11. 基于 GATE 框架的地理事件信息抽取设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Geographical Event Information Extraction based on Gate Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 陈晓慧; 岳耀; 李海岗

    2015-01-01

    对地理事件的本体模型进行研究,基于 Gate 自然语言处理框架对地理事件进行信息抽取。通过中文分词、词表构建、规则制定、命名实体识别等关键技术获取地理事件的描述信息,为进一步的地理事件分析和可视化提供支撑。%This paper studied the ontology model of geographical events,extracted information from geographical events based on natural language processing framework of Gate.Through some key technologies such as Chinese word segmentation, vocabulary building,rules making and recognition of named entries,we got description information of geographical events to support further analysis and visualization of geographical events.

  12. Breathing zone particle size and lead concentration from sanding operations to remove lead based paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, W K; Carpenter, R L; Kimmel, E C

    1999-02-01

    The relationship between lead concentration in the dry film of lead based paints applied to steel bulkheads aboard ship, the lead concentration found in the air when the paint is removed by mechanical means, and blood lead concentrations of workers involved in lead based paint removal has not been well characterized. Intuitively a direct relationship must exist but confounding factors confuse the issue. Simultaneous sampling procedures from the same paint removal operation may differ by several orders of magnitude. The process from dried film to aerosol (airborne dust) exposure, and on to dose can be separated into two major phases; (1) generation of the dust and its transport through the air to the worker and (2) uptake and dose related factors within the body. Both phases involve complex interactions and there are a number of factors within each phase that significantly affect the potential lead dose for the worker. This study attempts to clarify the mechanisms involved in the generation and transportation of the dust to the worker by evaluating the relationship of a number of key factors on particle size and lead distribution within the aerosol dust generated when lead based paint is removed by sanding. The study examined the relationship between particle size in the dust and grit size of the abrasive. It also examined the distribution of lead within selected particle sizes. The Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) was used as an indicator of change in the particle size distribution. Particle size distributions were evaluated using a TSI Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, a five stage cyclone and scanning electron microscopy. Lead distribution was determined using the five stage cyclone, and personal or area samples analyzed using inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Mass concentrations were evaluated using a MIE Mass Concentration Analyzer and gravimetric analysis of filter samples collected in the breathing zone. Student's t-tests were used to evaluate changes in

  13. Delineation of seismic source zones based on seismicity parameters and probabilistic evaluation of seismic hazard using logic tree approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Vipin; T G Sitharam

    2013-06-01

    The delineation of seismic source zones plays an important role in the evaluation of seismic hazard. In most of the studies the seismic source delineation is done based on geological features. In the present study, an attempt has been made to delineate seismic source zones in the study area (south India) based on the seismicity parameters. Seismicity parameters and the maximum probable earthquake for these source zones were evaluated and were used in the hazard evaluation. The probabilistic evaluation of seismic hazard for south India was carried out using a logic tree approach. Two different types of seismic sources, linear and areal, were considered in the present study to model the seismic sources in the region more precisely. In order to properly account for the attenuation characteristics of the region, three different attenuation relations were used with different weightage factors. Seismic hazard evaluation was done for the probability of exceedance (PE) of 10% and 2% in 50 years. The spatial variation of rock level peak horizontal acceleration (PHA) and spectral acceleration (Sa) values corresponding to return periods of 475 and 2500 years for the entire study area are presented in this work. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) values at ground surface level were estimated based on different NEHRP site classes by considering local site effects.

  14. Predictive zoning of rice stem borer damage in southern India through spatial interpolation of weather-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reji, G; Chander, Subhash; Kamble, Kalpana

    2014-09-01

    Rice stem borer is an important insect pest causing severe damage to rice crop in India. The relationship between weather parameters such as maximum (T(max)) and minimum temperature (T(min)), morning (RH1) and afternoon relative humidity (RH2) and the severity of stem borer damage (SB) were studied. Multiple linear regression analysis was used for formulating pest-weather models at three sites in southern India namely, Warangal, Coimbatore and Pattambi as SB = -66.849 + 2.102 T(max) + 0.095 RH1, SB = 156.518 - 3.509 T(min) - 0.785 RH1 and SB = 43.483 - 0.418 T(min) - 0.283 RH1 respectively. The pest damage predicted using the model at three sites did not significantly differ from the observed damage (t = 0.442; p > 0.05). The range of weather parameters favourable for stem borer damage at each site were also predicted using the models. Geospatial interpolation (kriging) of the pest-weather models were carried out to predict the zones of stem borer damage in southern India. Maps showing areas with high, medium and low risk of stem borer damage were prepared using geographical information system. The risk maps of rice stem borer would be useful in devising management strategies for the pest in the region.

  15. A geographical assessment of vegetation carbon stocks and greenhouse gas emissions on potential microalgae-based biofuel facilities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz Arita, Carlos; Yilmaz, Özge; Barlak, Semin; Catton, Kimberly B; Quinn, Jason C; Bradley, Thomas H

    2016-12-01

    The microalgae biofuels life cycle assessments (LCA) present in the literature have excluded the effects of direct land use change (DLUC) from facility construction under the assumption that DLUC effects are negligible. This study seeks to model the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of microalgae biofuels including DLUC by quantifying the CO2 equivalence of carbon released to the atmosphere through the construction of microalgae facilities. The locations and types of biomass and Soil Organic Carbon that are disturbed through microalgae cultivation facility construction are quantified using geographical models of microalgae productivity potential including consideration of land availability. The results of this study demonstrate that previous LCA of microalgae to biofuel processes have overestimated GHG benefits of microalgae-based biofuels production by failing to include the effect of DLUC. Previous estimations of microalgae biofuel production potential have correspondingly overestimated the volume of biofuels that can be produced in compliance with U.S. environmental goals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. VT Data - Zoning 20100823, Buel's Gore

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning districts for Buel's Gore, Vermont. Data corresponds to the regulations adopted by Chittenden County Regional Planning Commission on August 23, 2010. To read...

  17. VT New Market Tax Credit - Hot Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EconOther_NMTC layer delineates New Market Tax Credit (NMTC) "hot zones" and qualified counties and census tracts. This dataset is designed to...

  18. Geographic variation in the age- and gender-specific prevalence and incidence of epilepsy: analysis of Taiwanese National Health Insurance-based data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chuan; Chen, Li-Sheng; Yen, Ming-Fang; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Liou, Horng-Huei

    2012-02-01

    We studied geographic variation in age- and gender-specific prevalence and incidence of epilepsy in four different areas of Taiwan. By using large-scale, National Health Insurance (NHI)-based data from 2000-2003 in Taiwan, we identified 131,287 patients diagnosed with epilepsy (ICD code 345) receiving at least of one of 11 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Information on age, gender, and location were also collected. The multivariable Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the heterogeneity of the morbidity of epilepsy in different regions. External data validation was also performed to assess the accuracy of capturing epilepsy cases through our NHI data set. The age-adjusted prevalence and incidence of epilepsy were 5.85 (per 1,000) between 2000 and 2003 and 97 (per 100,000 person-years) during the follow-up time from 2001 to 2003 in Taiwan. The sensitivity and specificity of ICD-9 coding for epilepsy in the NHI data set were 83.91% and 99.83%, respectively, resulting in a slight overestimation. Male patients had a higher probability of having epilepsy than did females. East Taiwan had significantly higher prevalence and incidence than did other areas. The age-specific incidence pattern in east Taiwan was atypical in that it revealed clustering in young and middle-aged groups. Our study demonstrated geographic variation in epidemiologic patterns of epilepsy within Taiwan. The findings are informative and provide insight into the clinical management of epilepsy based on consideration of different target groups in different areas. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. A geographical information system-based multicriteria evaluation to map areas at risk for Rift Valley fever vector-borne transmission in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, A; Ippoliti, C; Balenghien, T; Conte, A; Gely, M; Calistri, P; Goffredo, M; Baldet, T; Chevalier, V

    2013-11-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease that is caused by a Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) and affects domestic ruminants and humans. Recently, its distribution widened, threatening Europe. The probability of the introduction and large-scale spread of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in Europe is low, but localized RVF outbreaks may occur in areas where populations of ruminants and potential vectors are present. In this study, we assumed the introduction of the virus into Italy and focused on the risk of vector-borne transmission of RVFV to three main European potential hosts (cattle, sheep and goats). Five main potential mosquito vectors belonging to the Culex and Aedes genera that are present in Italy were identified in a literature review. We first modelled the geographical distribution of these five species based on expert knowledge and using land cover as a proxy of mosquito presence. The mosquito distribution maps were compared with field mosquito collections from Italy to validate the model. Next, the risk of RVFV transmission was modelled using a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) approach, integrating expert knowledge and the results of a literature review on host sensitivity and vector competence, feeding behaviour and abundance. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the robustness of the results with respect to expert choices. The resulting maps include (i) five maps of the vector distribution, (ii) a map of suitable areas for vector-borne transmission of RVFV and (iii) a map of the risk of RVFV vector-borne transmission to sensitive hosts given a viral introduction. Good agreement was found between the modelled presence probability and the observed presence or absence of each vector species. The resulting RVF risk map highlighted strong spatial heterogeneity and could be used to target surveillance. In conclusion, the geographical information system (GIS)-based MCE served as a valuable framework and a flexible tool for mapping the

  20. Spatial distribution and deployment of community-based distributors implementing integrated community case management (iCCM): Geographic information system (GIS) mapping study in three South Sudan states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Abigail; Dale, Martin; Olivi, Elena; Miller, Jane

    2014-12-01

    In late 2012 and in conjunction with South Sudan's Ministry of Health - National Malaria Control Program, PSI (Population Services International) conducted a comprehensive mapping exercise to assess geographical coverage of its integrated community case management (iCCM) program and consider scope for expansion. The operational research was designed to provide evidence and support for low-cost mapping and monitoring systems, demonstrating the use of technology to enhance the quality of programming and to allow for the improved allocation of resources through appropriate and need-based deployment of community-based distributors (CBDs). The survey took place over the course of three months and program staff gathered GPS (global positioning system) data, along with demographic data, for over 1200 CBDs and 111 CBD supervisors operating in six counties in South Sudan. Data was collated, cleaned and quality assured, input into an Excel database, and subsequently uploaded to geographic information system (GIS) for spatial analysis and map production. The mapping results showed that over three-quarters of CBDs were deployed within a five kilometer radius of a health facility or another CBD, contrary to program planning and design. Other characteristics of the CBD and CBD supervisor profiles (age, gender, literacy) were more closely matched with other regional programs. The results of this mapping exercise provided a valuable insight into the contradictions found between a program "deployment plan" and the realities observed during field implementation. It also highlighted an important need for program implementers and national-level strategy makers to consider the natural and community-driven diffusion of CBDs, and take into consideration the strength of the local health facilities when developing a deployment plan.

  1. Geographical and Statistical Analysis on the Relationship between Land-Use Mixture and Home-Based Trip Making and More: Case of Richmond, Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin - Shan MA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Richmond, Virginia has implemented numerous mixed land-use policies to encourage non-private-vehicle commuting for decades based on the best practices of other cities and the assumption that land-use mixture would positively lead to trip reduction. This paper uses both Geographical Information Systems (GIS and statistical tools to empirically test this hypothesis. With local land use and trip making data as inputs, it first calculates two common indices of land-use mixture - entropy and dissimilarity indices, using GIS tool, supplemented by Microsoft Excel. Afterwards, it uses Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS to calculate the correlation matrices among land-use mixture indices, socioeconomic variables, and home-based work/other trip rates, followed by a series of regression model runs on these variables. Through this study, it has been found that land-use mixture has some but weak effects on home-based work trip rate, and virtually no effects on home-based other trip rate. In contrast, socioeconomic variables, especially auto ownership, have larger effects on home-based trip making.

  2. Training set size, scale, and features in Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis of very high resolution unmanned aerial vehicle imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Cheng, Liang; Li, Manchun; Liu, Yongxue; Ma, Xiaoxue

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has been used increasingly for natural resource applications in recent years due to their greater availability and the miniaturization of sensors. In addition, Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) has received more attention as a novel paradigm for remote sensing earth observation data. However, GEOBIA generates some new problems compared with pixel-based methods. In this study, we developed a strategy for the semi-automatic optimization of object-based classification, which involves an area-based accuracy assessment that analyzes the relationship between scale and the training set size. We found that the Overall Accuracy (OA) increased as the training set ratio (proportion of the segmented objects used for training) increased when the Segmentation Scale Parameter (SSP) was fixed. The OA increased more slowly as the training set ratio became larger and a similar rule was obtained according to the pixel-based image analysis. The OA decreased as the SSP increased when the training set ratio was fixed. Consequently, the SSP should not be too large during classification using a small training set ratio. By contrast, a large training set ratio is required if classification is performed using a high SSP. In addition, we suggest that the optimal SSP for each class has a high positive correlation with the mean area obtained by manual interpretation, which can be summarized by a linear correlation equation. We expect that these results will be applicable to UAV imagery classification to determine the optimal SSP for each class.

  3. MULTIMEDIA ON GEOGRAPHIC NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Merlanti, Danilo

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the topic of the multimedia contents distribution on a geo- graphic network which is a rarefied and huge field. First of all we have to classify the main parts necessary in the multimedia distribution on a geographic network. The main aspects of a geographic network that will be highlighted in this thesis are: the mechanism used to retrieve the sources of the multimedia content; in the case of the peer-to-peer network on geographic network one of t...

  4. Flood-threat zoning map of the urban area of Chocó (Quibdó. A study based on interpreting radar, satellite and aerial photograph images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamir Maturana Córdoba

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A zoning map of areas which flood due to the Atrato River and its tributaries (the Cabí, Caraño and Yesca over-flowing in the urban area of Chocó (Quibdo was drawn up to be used by aid authorities and Quibdó city as a planning and control tool. This research relied on CIAF (Centro Interamericano de Fotointerpretación support and assessment. This entity is a subsidiary institution of the Instituto Geográfico Agustín Codazzi which provided their installations and the required geographical material. This research was initially based on interpreting radar (INTERA, satellite (LANDSAT and aerial photographic images; this was verified by field verification of the in-terpreted data. Other variables such as climatic, geological, temperature, topographic conditions, historic and hydrological series and facts regarding the region were studied as additional information required for drawing conclusions. Aerial photographs provided the most reliable images due to their scales, quantity and quality and the date of when they were taken. Radar images (INTERA were also important when visually analysing a sector’s topography as they were produced by an active microwave sensor (totally eliminating climatic obstacles. On the contrary, satellite images did not have great relevance due to the amount of clouds hampering any kind of analysis. Complementing these results, a calibration curve for analysing this section’s maximum flow values was based on historical series data regarding the Atrato River’s flows and maximum levels recorded at the Quibdo hydrographical station and the river-bed’s cross-section. Implications that the river would overflow or has over-flowed were statistically estimated on these results, thereby setting the limits (supported by cartographic data for the corresponding areas at risk of flooding. A map marking areas at risk of flooding in the urban zone of Quibdó was then designed and a document prepared concluding that

  5. Identifying Distinct Geographic Health Service Environments in British Columbia, Canada: Cluster Analysis of Population-Based Administrative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, M Ruth

    2016-08-01

    Definitions of "urban" and "rural" developed for general purposes may not reflect the organization and delivery of healthcare. This research used cluster analysis to group Local Health Areas based on the distribution of healthcare spending across service categories. Though total spending was similar, the metropolitan areas of Vancouver and Victoria were identified as distinct from non-metropolitan and remote communities, based on the distribution of healthcare spending alone. Non-metropolitan communities with large community hospitals and greater physician supply were further distinguished from those with fewer healthcare resources. This approach may be useful to other researchers and service planners.

  6. Geographic profiling and animal foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Comber, Steven C; Nicholls, Barry; Rossmo, D Kim; Racey, Paul A

    2006-05-21

    Geographic profiling was originally developed as a statistical tool for use in criminal cases, particularly those involving serial killers and rapists. It is designed to help police forces prioritize lists of suspects by using the location of crime scenes to identify the areas in which the criminal is most likely to live. Two important concepts are the buffer zone (criminals are less likely to commit crimes in the immediate vicinity of their home) and distance decay (criminals commit fewer crimes as the distance from their home increases). In this study, we show how the techniques of geographic profiling may be applied to animal data, using as an example foraging patterns in two sympatric colonies of pipistrelle bats, Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus, in the northeast of Scotland. We show that if model variables are fitted to known roost locations, these variables may be used as numerical descriptors of foraging patterns. We go on to show that these variables can be used to differentiate patterns of foraging in these two species.

  7. The geographic distribution of strontium isotopes in Danish surface waters - A base for provenance studies in archaeology, hydrology and agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Karin Margarita; Frei, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Sr isotope signatures are reported for 192 surface water (lakes/ponds and rivers/creeks) samples from within Denmark and an isotope distribution map is presented that may serve as a base for provenance applications, including archaeological migration studies, ground water – surface ...

  8. Informed Markets as Policy Instrument for Environmental Governance of Buffer Zones around Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    ”. In contrast, the human economic sphere is a space where “the market” rules. Buffer zones exist to help separate and shield “nature” from the human economy and yet establish a link or corridor between society and nature. Therefore buffer zones are expected to combine, embody and fulfill policy objectives...... of National Parks in Scandinavia (Denmark), this paper sets out to explore the theoretical rationale and record of using market based environmental governance in the form of Geographical Indications (GI´s) and organic agriculture certification (OAC), respectively, in buffer zones, to potentially serve...

  9. Sequential quadratic programming-based fast path planning algorithm subject to no-fly zone constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ma, Shunjian; Sun, Mingwei; Yi, Haidong; Wang, Zenghui; Chen, Zengqiang

    2016-08-01

    Path planning plays an important role in aircraft guided systems. Multiple no-fly zones in the flight area make path planning a constrained nonlinear optimization problem. It is necessary to obtain a feasible optimal solution in real time. In this article, the flight path is specified to be composed of alternate line segments and circular arcs, in order to reformulate the problem into a static optimization one in terms of the waypoints. For the commonly used circular and polygonal no-fly zones, geometric conditions are established to determine whether or not the path intersects with them, and these can be readily programmed. Then, the original problem is transformed into a form that can be solved by the sequential quadratic programming method. The solution can be obtained quickly using the Sparse Nonlinear OPTimizer (SNOPT) package. Mathematical simulations are used to verify the effectiveness and rapidity of the proposed algorithm.

  10. PERFORMANCE OF A SOLID DESICCANT BASED EVAPORATIVE COOLING SYSTEM IN WARM AND HUMID CLIMATIC ZONE OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEMANT PARMAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Vapour compression based air conditioners are being used for comfort cooling in residences, offices and commercial buildings in many countries throughout the world. Several issues arise seriously challenge the conventional technology which include harmful impact of CFCs and HCFCs on environment, energy and cost problems etc. However use of low energy and eco friendly techniques may be helpful to overcome these problems up to some extent. The evaporative cooling may be considered as one of such eco friendly methods of achieving comfortable conditions in buildings during summer. These systems have great potential to provide thermal comfort in places where ambient air humidity is low. Such systems alone are not efficient for humidclimatic conditions. However such systems can be used if combined with desiccant based dehumidifier. India with its widely different climates has been divided into six climatic zones viz. Hot and Dry, Moderate, Warm and Humid, Composite, Cold and Cloudy and Cold and Sunny. This paper examines the potential of a simple desiccant evaporative cooling cycle in five selected cities in Warm and Humid climatic zone of India. The coefficient of performance (COP has been computed for each location and compared. It has been found that COP for different cities varies in the range of 0.14 to 0.21. Mumbai (coastal city has been identified as the city where desiccant evaporative cooling system can be operated with higher COP compared to that of other cities in the same climatic zone.

  11. 3DMRP: 3-Directional Zone-Disjoint Multipath Routing Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongseung; Kim, Dongkyun

    In static wireless ad hoc networks such as wireless mesh networks and wireless sensor networks, multipath routing techniques are very useful for improving end-to-end delay, throughput, and load balancing, as compared to single-path routing techniques. When determining multiple paths, however, multipath routing protocols should address the well-known route coupling problem that results from a geographic proximity of adjacent routes and that hampers performance gain. Although a lot of multipath routing protocols have been proposed, most of them focused on obtaining node or link-disjoint multipaths. In order to address the route coupling problem, some multipath routing protocols utilizing zone-disjointness property were proposed. However, they suffer from an overhead of control traffic or require additional equipment such as directional antenna. This paper therefore proposes a novel multipath routing protocol, based on geographical information with low overhead, called 3-directional zone-disjoint multipath routing protocol (3DMRP). 3DMRP searches up to three zone-disjoint paths by using two techniques: 1) greedy forwarding, and 2) RREP-overhearing. One primary and two secondary paths are obtained via greedy forwarding in order to reduce control overhead, and these secondary paths are found by avoiding the RREP overhearing zone created during the primary path acquisition. In particular, two versions of 3DMRP are introduced in order to avoid the RREQ-overhearing zone. Through ns-2 simulations, 3DMRP is evaluated to verify that it achieves performance improvements in terms of throughput and control overhead.

  12. Comprehensive Evaluation of Economic Indicators in Guangxi Economic Zone Based on Parallel Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangdong; ZENG; Chunxiang; ZHAO

    2015-01-01

    When making comprehensive evaluation on economy of an area,it is always hard to choose evaluation indicator system and composite indicators reasonably. This article uses parallel analysis to choose the number of principal component and classify indicators by R clustering and load rotation matrix to assess the economy of various cities in the economic zone and analyze economic status of each city,to provide a scientific basis for the government functional department to make correct decisions.

  13. Spatial analysis of fractured rock around fault zones based on photogrammetric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, H.; Gessner, K.; Drews, M.; Wellmann, J. F.

    2009-04-01

    The location of hydrocarbon, geothermal or hydrothermal fluids is often bound to fault zones. The fracture systems along these faults play an important role in providing pathways to fluids in the Earth's crust. Thus an evaluation of the change in permeability due to rock deformation is of particular interest in these zones. Recent advances in digital imaging using modern techniques like photogrammetry provide new opportunities to view, analyze and present high resolution geological data in three dimensions. Our method is an extension of the one-dimensional scan-line approach to quantify discontinuities in rock outcrops. It has the advantage to take into account a larger amount of spatial data than conventional manual measurement methods. It enables to recover the entity of spatial information of a 3D fracture pattern, i.e. position, orientation, extent and frequency of fractures. We present examples of outcrop scale datasets in granitic and sedimentary rocks and analyse changes in fracture patterns across fault zones from the host rock to the damage zone. We also present a method to generate discontinuity density maps from 3D surface models generated by digital photogrammetry methods. This methodology has potential for application in rock mass characterization, structural and tectonic studies, the formation of hydrothermal mineral deposits, oil and gas migration, and hydrogeology. Our analysis methods represent important steps towards developing a toolkit to automatically detect and interpret spatial rock characteristics, by taking advantage of the large amount of data that can be collected by photogrammetric methods. This acquisition of parameters defining a 3D fracture pattern allows the creation of synthetic fracture networks following these constraints. The mathematical description of such a synethtical network can be implemented into numerical simulation tools for modeling fluid flow in fracture media. We give an outline of current and future applications of

  14. Multi-Temperature Zone, Droplet-based Microreactor for Increased Temperature Control in Nanoparticle Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Erdem, E. Yegân

    2013-12-12

    Microreactors are an emerging technology for the controlled synthesis of nanoparticles. The Multi-Temperature zone Microreactor (MTM) described in this work utilizes thermally isolated heated and cooled regions for the purpose of separating nucleation and growth processes as well as to provide a platform for a systematic study on the effect of reaction conditions on nanoparticle synthesis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Development and Application of a Planning Support System for Regional Spatial Functional Zoning Based on GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regional spatial functional zoning in China is a large-scale strategic planning and requires very advanced planning decision support technology. With respect to spatial functional zoning, the planning support system (PSS is introduced as one of the most popular computer aided planning systems at the present time in this paper, and is further explained with the example of the latest regional main functional area (RMFA planning in China. On the Visual Studio.NET visualization development platform, the planning decision model, planning decision method, and GIS are organically integrated and customized by using the component-type secondary development technology of the ArcGIS Engine with the development language VB.NET. Hence, a highly efficient and flexible planning support system of regional main functional areas (RMFA-PSS is established. It was adopted in the research of the Beijing–Tianjin area in China and accordingly two types of main functional area planning are acquired. The RMFA-PSS offers an efficient and flexible decision support with regard to RMFA planning. The research can provide a reference for further PSS development and applications related to other types of spatial functional zoning.

  16. Cohesive Zone Model Based Numerical Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Structure Push-Out Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Push-out tests were widely used to determine the shear bearing capacity and shear stiffness of shear connectors in steel-concrete composite structures. The finite element method was one efficient alternative to push-out testing. This paper focused on a simulation analysis of the interface between concrete slabs and steel girder flanges as well as the interface of the shear connectors and the surrounding concrete. A cohesive zone model was used to simulate the tangential sliding and normal separation of the interfaces. Then, a zero-thickness cohesive element was implemented via the user-defined element subroutine UEL in the software ABAQUS, and a multiple broken line mode was used to define the constitutive relations of the cohesive zone. A three-dimensional numerical analysis model was established for push-out testing to analyze the load-displacement curves of the push-out test process, interface relative displacement, and interface stress distribution. This method was found to accurately calculate the shear capacity and shear stiffness of shear connectors. The numerical results showed that the multiple broken lines mode cohesive zone model could describe the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the interface between steel and concrete and that a discontinuous deformation numerical simulation could be implemented.

  17. Operational Automatic Remote Sensing Image Understanding Systems: Beyond Geographic Object-Based and Object-Oriented Image Analysis (GEOBIA/GEOOIA. Part 1: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Baraldi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to existing literature and despite their commercial success, state-of-the-art two-stage non-iterative geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA systems and three-stage iterative geographic object-oriented image analysis (GEOOIA systems, where GEOOIA/GEOBIA, remain affected by a lack of productivity, general consensus and research. To outperform the degree of automation, accuracy, efficiency, robustness, scalability and timeliness of existing GEOBIA/GEOOIA systems in compliance with the Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO guidelines, this methodological work is split into two parts. The present first paper provides a multi-disciplinary Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT analysis of the GEOBIA/GEOOIA approaches that augments similar analyses proposed in recent years. In line with constraints stemming from human vision, this SWOT analysis promotes a shift of learning paradigm in the pre-attentive vision first stage of a remote sensing (RS image understanding system (RS-IUS, from sub-symbolic statistical model-based (inductive image segmentation to symbolic physical model-based (deductive image preliminary classification. Hence, a symbolic deductive pre-attentive vision first stage accomplishes image sub-symbolic segmentation and image symbolic pre-classification simultaneously. In the second part of this work a novel hybrid (combined deductive and inductive RS-IUS architecture featuring a symbolic deductive pre-attentive vision first stage is proposed and discussed in terms of: (a computational theory (system design; (b information/knowledge representation; (c algorithm design; and (d implementation. As proof-of-concept of symbolic physical model-based pre-attentive vision first stage, the spectral knowledge-based, operational, near real-time Satellite Image Automatic Mapper™ (SIAM™ is selected from existing literature. To the best of these authors’ knowledge, this is the first time a

  18. The Potential Geographical Distribution of bactrocera Dorsalis (Diptera: Tephrididae) in China Based on Emergence Rate Model and Arcgis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningbo; Li, Zhihong; Wu, Jiajiao; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Wan, Fanghao; Wang, Zhiling

    Precision agriculture is an important choice for the future agriculture. It is the base for precision agriculture development to change the state of small-scale farmland production and weak agricultural foundation in China gradually. Combined with the poorness of village in China, the variation of farmland and the dominance of small-scale peasant economy, this paper analyzed the adaptability of farmland landscape pattern to precision agriculture based on literatures and farmland landscape survey. With the requirements of precision agricultural production, this paper put forward the standards on cultivated field scale and shape, farmland corridor structure, cultivated field matrix and farmland landscape protection in order to make farmland landscape suitable for precision agriculture and to provide references for the sustainable development of precision agriculture in China.

  19. GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF FOREST FLORA OF THE CENTRAL CISCAUCASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Forest flora of the Central Ciscaucasia in General is a relict, geographically situated in the steppe zone. Composing flora elements have different types of habitats, concentrated in the natural physical-geographical unit where isolated from the main habitats. Comparative analysis of the geographic, ecological and systematic components of forest flora will provide data about the correlation of these parameters identify the leading group. Location. The Central CiscaucasiaMethods. We made the geographical and systematic ranges of forest flora of the Central Ciscaucasia and their comparative analysis is conducted.Results. Geographical analysis of forest flora of the Central Ciscaucasia revealed 16 geographical elements, grouped in 6 categories, among which is the predominant group of boreal geographical elements. It is established that the leading geographical elements are Euro-Caucasian, Caucasian and Sub-Caucasian, numbering 189 species, and are half of the flora. Comparison with ecological spectrum showed that the sequence geographical elements completely different, here leading positions are occupied Northern species as ecologically more conservative, and the Caucasian demonstrate ecological plasticity. In a systematic relation matched warheads geographical and systematic spectra. The scope of the results. The results may be used in comparative Floristics, in its theoretical part in adjusting themodels of the Genesis of the flora.Conclusions. Thus, half of the geographical elements of the forest flora of the Central Ciscaucasia are linked in their distribution of Caucasian floristic province (Euro-Caucasian, Caucasian and Sub-Caucasian. These same geographical elements to predominate in the head part of the spectrum families. Most geographical elements have low ecological plasticity species, their components, do not go beyond the forest plant association, but geographical elements head part of the geographical range

  20. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality rates are high in West Virginia compared to the rest of the United States of America. Previous research has suggested that exposure to activities of the coal mining industry may contribute to elevated cancer mortality, although exposure measures have been limited. This study tests alternative specifications of exposure to mining activity to determine whether a measure based on location of mines, processing plants, coal slurry impoundments and underground slurry injection sites relative to population levels is superior to a previously-reported measure of exposure based on tons mined at the county level, in the prediction of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. To this end, we utilize two geographical information system (GIS) techniques--exploratory spatial data analysis and inverse distance mapping--to construct new statistical analyses. Total, respiratory and "other" age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in West Virginia were found to be more highly associated with the GIS-exposure measure than the tonnage measure, before and after statistical control for smoking rates. The superior performance of the GIS measure, based on where people in the state live relative to mining activity, suggests that activities of the industry contribute to cancer mortality. Further confirmation of observed phenomena is necessary with person-level studies, but the results add to the body of evidence that coal mining poses environmental risks to population health in West Virginia.

  1. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hendryx

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence and mortality rates are high in West Virginia compared to the rest of the United States of America. Previous research has suggested that exposure to activities of the coal mining industry may contribute to elevated cancer mortality, although exposure measures have been limited. This study tests alternative specifications of exposure to mining activity to determine whether a measure based on location of mines, processing plants, coal slurry impoundments and underground slurry injection sites relative to population levels is superior to a previously-reported measure of exposure based on tons mined at the county level, in the prediction of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. To this end, we utilize two geographical information system (GIS techniques – exploratory spatial data analysis and inverse distance mapping – to construct new statistical analyses. Total, respiratory and “other” age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in West Virginia were found to be more highly associated with the GIS-exposure measure than the tonnage measure, before and after statistical control for smoking rates. The superior performance of the GIS measure, based on where people in the state live relative to mining activity, suggests that activities of the industry contribute to cancer mortality. Further confirmation of observed phenomena is necessary with person-level studies, but the results add to the body of evidence that coal mining poses environmental risks to population health in West Virginia.

  2. TECTONIC ZONING OF THE SEDIMENTARY COVER OF THE SEA OF OKHOTSK BASED ON LITHOPHYSICAL, STRUCTURAL AND STRUCTURAL-LITHOPHYSICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Semakin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In terms of tectonics, the Sea of Okhotsk (Fig.1 is the epi-Mesozoic Okhotsk plate comprising the heterogeneous basement that is mainly pre-Cenozoic (the lower structural stage and the sedimentary cover that is mainly represented by the Paleogenic-Neogenic-Quaternary deposits with the Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks observed locally without a visible hiatus (the upper structural stage.Results of tectonic zoning of the sedimentary cover based on  lithophysical indicators (Fig. 2 are represented in the format of maps showing lithophysical complexes (LC within the limits of four regional seismo-stratigraphic complexes/structural layers (RSSC I-IV corresponding to the following time intervals: the pre-Oligocene К2-P1-2 (RSSC I, the Oligocene – Lower Miocene P3-N11 (RSSC II, the Lower-Mid Miocene N11-2 (RSSC III, and the Upper Miocene – Pliocene N13-N2 (RSSC IV. Diverse lithological-facies associations composing the RSSCs are grouped into the following lithophysical complexes (LC: 1 - coal-bearing silty-clayey-sandy terrigenous, 2 - sandy-silty-clayey terrigenous, 3 - silty-clayey-siliceous, and 4 - sandy-silty-clayey volcanic [Sergeyev, 2006].Tectonic zoning of the sedimentary cover based on structural indicators is carried out with reference to the sediment-thickness map [Sergeyev, 2006], including a significantly revised segment showing the area of the Deryugin basin [Semakin, Kochergin, 2013]. Results of such zoning are represented in the format of a structural-tectonic map (Fig. 3 showing orientations and morphology of the structural elements of the sedimentary cover, the thickness of the sedimentary cover, and amplitudes of relative uplifts and troughs.With reference to the structural-tectonic map (see Fig 3, the structural elements of different orders are grouped by their sizes, spatial positions and orientations and thus comprise tectonic sistems (Fig. 4, structural zones (Fig. 5 that unclude relative uplifts and troughs that are

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE TECHNIQUE IN WEB-BASED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT USING OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Mohd Ramli Nik Yusoff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The shortest path routing is one of the well-known network analysis techniques implemented in road management systems. Pg Routing as an extension of Postgre SQL/Post GIS database is an open source library that implements the Dijkstra shortest path algorithm. However, the functionality to avoid obstacles in that analysis is still limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to enable obstacle avoidance function in the existing pgRouting algorithm using OpenStreetMap road network. By implementing this function, it enhances the Dijkstra algorithm ability in network analysis. In this study a dynamic restriction feature is added at the program level to represent the obstacles on the road. With this modification the algorithm is now able to generate an alternative route by avoiding the existence of obstacles on the roads. By using OpenLayers and PHP a web-based GIS platform was developed to ease the system’s usability.

  4. A geographical information system-based web model of arbovirus transmission risk in the continental United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Sarah K; Zou, Li; Miller, Scott N

    2012-11-01

    A degree-day (DD) model of West Nile virus capable of forecasting real-time transmission risk in the continental United States of America up to one week in advance using a 50-km grid is available online at https://sites. google.com/site/arbovirusmap/. Daily averages of historical risk based on temperatures for 1994-2003 are available at 10km resolution. Transmission risk maps can be downloaded from 2010 to the present. The model can be adapted to work with any arbovirus for which the temperature-related parameters are known, e.g. Rift Valley fever virus. To more effectively assess virus establishment and transmission, the model incorporates "compound risk" maps and forecasts, which includes livestock density as a parameter.

  5. A geographical information system-based web model of arbovirus transmission risk in the continental United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Konrad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A degree-day (DD model of West Nile virus capable of forecasting real-time transmission risk in the continental United States of America up to one week in advance using a 50-km grid is available online at https://sites. google.com/site/arbovirusmap/. Daily averages of historical risk based on temperatures for 1994-2003 are available at 10- km resolution. Transmission risk maps can be downloaded from 2010 to the present. The model can be adapted to work with any arbovirus for which the temperature-related parameters are known, e.g. Rift Valley fever virus. To more effectively assess virus establishment and transmission, the model incorporates “compound risk” maps and forecasts, which includes livestock density as a parameter.

  6. Spatio-temporal characteristics of livestock and their effects on pollution in China based on geographic information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Xu, Fei; Liu, Yongyan; Wang, Jiawei; Yu, Wenwen

    2016-07-01

    Livestock pollution, caused by rural household's scatter breeding mainly, is one of the major non-point sources. Different animal manures are abundant with different nutrients. Adopting the policies, management practices, and technologies related to livestock production based on livestock structure analysis can improve the efficiency on preventing pollution. Based on statistical data, the component structure of livestock was analyzed and corresponding effect on pollution was evaluated during the period of 1992-2012 in China. The results showed that the average annual growth rate (AAGR) of total China was 1.58 % during the 20 years. Larger amounts of livestock were concentrated in Southwest China and East China. In the view of component structure, each type of livestock had different distribution characteristics and constant increasing amounts were presented during the 20 years. Cattle took the largest proportion in almost every province, and the number of heads was over 40 % of all the livestock quantity for most provinces. Pollution of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) caused by livestock excretion in East and Southeast China was much more serious than that in other regions. However, the load of COD was far less than that of TN and TP. Cattle accounted most for the livestock pollution, and swine was the second one. The intensity characteristics of TN, TP, and COD were different from that of total pollution loads. The spatio-temporal characteristics of amounts and component structure of livestock were influenced by three kinds of factors (natural, economic, and social), such as climate, topography, modes of production, feed grain sector, related policies, and area of the study regions. Different livestock excrements had different impacts on environment. According to various livestock structures and economy conditions, different disposal methods should be adopted.

  7. Delineation of Site-Specific Management Zones Based on Temporal and Spatial Variability of Soil Electrical Conductivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; SHI Zhou; LI Feng

    2007-01-01

    A coastal saline field of 10.5 ha was selected as the study site and 122 bulk electrical conductivity(ECb)measurements were performed thrice in situ in the topsoil(0-20 cm)across the field using a hand held device to assess the spatial variability and temporal stability of the distribution of soil electrical conductivity(EC),to identify the management zones using cluster analysis based on the spatiotemporal variability of soil EC,and to evaluate the probable potential for sitespecific management in coastal regions with conventional statistics and geostatistical techniques.The results indicated high coefficients of variation for topsoil salinity over all the three samplings.The spatial structure of the salinity variability remained relatively stable with time.Kriged contour maps,drawn on the basis of spatial variance structure of the data.showed the spatial trend of the salinity distribution and revealed areas of consistently high or consistently low salinity,while a temporal stability map indicated stable and unstable regions.On the basis of the spatiotemporal characteristics.cluster analysis divided the site into three potential management zones.each with difierent characteristics that could have an impact on the way the field was managed.On the basis of the clearly defined management zones it was concluded that coastal saline land could be managed in a site-specific way.

  8. FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION BASED ON MACROSCOPIC PLASTIC ZONE ON FRACTURE SURFACE OF AISI-SAE 1018 STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Domínguez Almaraz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with rotating bending fatigue tests at high speed (150 Hz carried out on AISI-SAE 1018 steel with a high content of impurities (non metallic inclusions, for which the high experimental stress inside the specimen is close to the elastic limit of the material. Simulations of rotating loading are obtained by Visual NASTRAN software in order to determine the numerical stresse and strain distributions inside a hypothetical homogeneous specimen; later, this information is used for the experimental set up. A general description of experimental test machine and experimental conditions are developed and then, the experimental results are presented and discussed according the observed failure origin related to the non metallic inclusions and the associated high stress zones. Finally, a simple model is proposed to predict the fatigue life for this non homogeneous steel under high speed rotating bending fatigue tests close to the elastic limit, based on the rate between the visual macro-plastic deformation zone at fracture surface and the total fracture surface, together with the crack initiation inclusion (or inclusions located at this zone.

  9. Formulation and Application of a Physically-Based Rupture Probability Model for Large Earthquakes on Subduction Zones: A Case Study of Earthquakes on Nazca Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdyiar, M.; Galgana, G.; Shen-Tu, B.; Klein, E.; Pontbriand, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    Most time dependent rupture probability (TDRP) models are basically designed for a single-mode rupture, i.e. a single characteristic earthquake on a fault. However, most subduction zones rupture in complex patterns that create overlapping earthquakes of different magnitudes. Additionally, the limited historic earthquake data does not provide sufficient information to estimate reliable mean recurrence intervals for earthquakes. This makes it difficult to identify a single characteristic earthquake for TDRP analysis. Physical models based on geodetic data have been successfully used to obtain information on the state of coupling and slip deficit rates for subduction zones. Coupling information provides valuable insight into the complexity of subduction zone rupture processes. In this study we present a TDRP model that is formulated based on subduction zone slip deficit rate distribution. A subduction zone is represented by an integrated network of cells. Each cell ruptures multiple times from numerous earthquakes that have overlapping rupture areas. The rate of rupture for each cell is calculated using a moment balance concept that is calibrated based on historic earthquake data. The information in conjunction with estimates of coseismic slip from past earthquakes is used to formulate time dependent rupture probability models for cells. Earthquakes on the subduction zone and their rupture probabilities are calculated by integrating different combinations of cells. The resulting rupture probability estimates are fully consistent with the state of coupling of the subduction zone and the regional and local earthquake history as the model takes into account the impact of all large (M>7.5) earthquakes on the subduction zone. The granular rupture model as developed in this study allows estimating rupture probabilities for large earthquakes other than just a single characteristic magnitude earthquake. This provides a general framework for formulating physically-based

  10. Geographic Determinants of Healthy Lifestyle Change in a Community-Based Exercise Prescription Delivered in Family Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Petrella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence is unequivocal that exercise training can improve health outcomes. However, despite this evidence, adoption of healthy lifestyles is poor. The physical environment is one possible determinant of successful adoption of healthy lifestyles that could influence outcomes in community-based intervention strategies. We developed a novel exercise prescription delivered in two different cohorts of older sedentary adults—one delivered by family physicians to patients with identified cardiovascular risk factors (CRF and the other delivered at a community exercise facility to a larger cohort of healthy sedentary adults (HSA. We then determined whether the place of residence and proximity to facilities promoting physical activity and healthy or unhealthy eating could influence clinical changes related to these community-based exercise prescriptions.Methods: Two different cohorts of older patients were administered similar exercise prescriptions. The CRF cohort was a sedentary group of 41 older adults with either high-normal blood pressure (120–139 mmHg/85–89 mmHg or impaired glucose tolerance (fasting glucose 6.1–6.9 mmol/l who were prescribed exercise by their family physicians at baseline and followed over 12 months. The HSA cohort consisted of 159 sedentary older adults who were prescribed a similar exercise prescription and then participated in a chronic training program over 5 years at a community-based training facility. Out- comes of interest were change in fitness (VO2max, resting systolic blood pressure (rSBP and body mass index (BMI. GIS-determined shortest distance to local facilities promoting physical activity and healthy versus unhealthy were compared at baseline and follow up using simple logistic regression.Those subjects in CRF group were further identified as responders (exhibited an above average change in VO2max and were then compared to non-responders according to their patterns of proximity to physical

  11. Modeling Water Flux at the Base of the Rooting Zone for Soils with Varying Glacial Parent Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, S.; Ellett, K. M.; Ficklin, D. L.; Olyphant, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Soils of varying glacial parent materials in the Great Lakes Region (USA) are characterized by thin unsaturated zones and widespread use of agricultural pesticides and nutrients that affect shallow groundwater. To better our understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants, improved models of water fluxes through the vadose zones of various hydrogeologic settings are warranted. Furthermore, calibrated unsaturated zone models can be coupled with watershed models, providing a means for predicting the impact of varying climate scenarios on agriculture in the region. To address these issues, a network of monitoring sites was developed in Indiana that provides continuous measurements of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (PET), soil volumetric water content (VWC), and soil matric potential to parameterize and calibrate models. Flux at the base of the root zone is simulated using two models of varying complexity: 1) the HYDRUS model, which numerically solves the Richards equation, and 2) the soil-water-balance (SWB) model, which assumes vertical flow under a unit gradient with infiltration and evapotranspiration treated as separate, sequential processes. Soil hydraulic parameters are determined based on laboratory data, a pedo-transfer function (ROSETTA), field measurements (Guelph permeameter), and parameter optimization. Groundwater elevation data are available at three of six sites to establish the base of the unsaturated zone model domain. Initial modeling focused on the groundwater recharge season (Nov-Feb) when PET is limited and much of the annual vertical flux occurs. HYDRUS results indicate that base of root zone fluxes at a site underlain by glacial ice-contact parent materials are 48% of recharge season precipitation (VWC RMSE=8.2%), while SWB results indicate that fluxes are 43% (VWC RMSE=3.7%). Due in part to variations in surface boundary conditions, more variable fluxes were obtained for a site underlain by alluvium with the SWB model (68

  12. A structure zone diagram including plasma based deposition and ion etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2009-10-14

    An extended structure zone diagram is proposed that includes energetic deposition, characterized by a large flux of ions typical for deposition by filtered cathodic arcs and high power impulse magnetron sputtering. The axes are comprised of a generalized homologous temperature, the normalized kinetic energy flux, and the net film thickness, which can be negative due to ion etching. It is stressed that the number of primary physical parameters affecting growth by far exceeds the number of available axes in such a diagram and therefore it can only provide an approximate and simplified illustration of the growth condition?structure relationships.

  13. Assessing the risk for dengue fever based on socioeconomic and environmental variables in a geographical information system environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M. Khormi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An important option in preventing the spread of dengue fever (DF is to control and monitor its vector (Aedes aegypti as well as to locate and destroy suitable mosquito breeding environments. The aim of the present study was to use a combination of environmental and socioeconomic variables to model areas at risk of DF. These variables include clinically confirmed DF cases, mosquito counts, population density in inhabited areas, total populations per district, water access, neighbourhood quality and the spatio-temporal risk of DF based on the average, weekly frequency of DF incidence. Out of 111 districts investigated, 17 (15%, covering a total area of 121 km², were identified as of high risk, 25 (22%, covering 133 km², were identified as of medium risk, 18 (16%, covering 180 km², were identified as of low risk and 51 (46%, covering 726 km², were identified as of very low risk. The resultant model shows that most areas at risk of DF were concentrated in the central part of Jeddah county, Saudi Arabia. The methods used can be implemented as routine procedures for control and prevention. A concerted intervention in the medium- and high-risk level districts identified in this study could be highly effective in reducing transmission of DF in the area as a whole.

  14. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms based on RNA sequencing data of diverse bio-geographical accessions in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahagi, Kotaro; Uehara-Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Mochida, Keiichi; Saisho, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Barley is one of the founder crops of Old world agriculture and has become the fourth most important cereal worldwide. Information on genome-scale DNA polymorphisms allows elucidating the evolutionary history behind domestication, as well as discovering and isolating useful genes for molecular breeding. Deep transcriptome sequencing enables the exploration of sequence variations in transcribed sequences; such analysis is particularly useful for species with large and complex genomes, such as barley. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of 20 barley accessions, comprising representatives of several biogeographic regions and a wild ancestor. We identified 38,729 to 79,949 SNPs in the 19 domesticated accessions and 55,403 SNPs in the wild barley and revealed their genome-wide distribution using a reference genome. Genome-scale comparisons among accessions showed a clear differentiation between oriental and occidental barley populations. The results based on population structure analyses provide genome-scale properties of sub-populations grouped to oriental, occidental and marginal groups in barley. Our findings suggest that the oriental population of domesticated barley has genomic variations distinct from those in occidental groups, which might have contributed to barley’s domestication. PMID:27616653

  15. Be-safe travel, a web-based geographic application to explore safe-route in an area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utamima, Amalia; Djunaidy, Arif

    2017-08-01

    In large cities in developing countries, the various forms of criminality are often found. For instance, the most prominent crimes in Surabaya, Indonesia is 3C, that is theft with violence (curas), theft by weighting (curat), and motor vehicle theft (curanmor). 3C case most often occurs on the highway and residential areas. Therefore, new entrants in an area should be aware of these kind of crimes. Route Planners System or route planning system such as Google Maps only consider the shortest distance in the calculation of the optimal route. The selection of the optimal path in this study not only consider the shortest distance, but also involves other factors, namely the security level. This research considers at the need for an application to recommend the safest road to be passed by the vehicle passengers while drive an area. This research propose Be-Safe Travel, a web-based application using Google API that can be accessed by people who like to drive in an area, but still lack of knowledge of the pathways which are safe from crime. Be-Safe Travel is not only useful for the new entrants, but also useful for delivery courier of valuables goods to go through the safest streets.

  16. Geographical origin of Plasmodium vivax in the Republic of Korea: haplotype network analysis based on the parasite's mitochondrial genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwagami Moritoshi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Republic of Korea (South Korea is one of the countries where vivax malaria had been successfully eradicated by the late 1970s. However, re-emergence of vivax malaria in South Korea was reported in 1993. Several epidemiological studies and some genetic studies using antigenic molecules of Plasmodium vivax in the country have been reported, but the evolutionary history of P. vivax has not been fully understood. In this study, the origin of the South Korean P. vivax population was estimated by molecular phylogeographic analysis. Methods A haplotype network analysis based on P. vivax mitochondrial (mt DNA sequences was conducted on 11 P. vivax isolates from South Korea and another 282 P. vivax isolates collected worldwide. Results The network analysis of P. vivax mtDNA sequences showed that the coexistence of two different groups (A and B in South Korea. Groups A and B were identical or close to two different populations in southern China. Conclusions Although the direct introduction of the two P. vivax populations in South Korea were thought to have been from North Korea, the results of this analysis suggest the genealogical origin to be the two different populations in southern China.

  17. Assessing the risk for dengue fever based on socioeconomic and environmental variables in a geographical information system environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khormi, Hassan M; Kumar, Lalit

    2012-05-01

    An important option in preventing the spread of dengue fever (DF) is to control and monitor its vector (Aedes aegypti) as well as to locate and destroy suitable mosquito breeding environments. The aim of the present study was to use a combination of environmental and socioeconomic variables to model areas at risk of DF. These variables include clinically confirmed DF cases, mosquito counts, population density in inhabited areas, total populations per district, water access, neighbourhood quality and the spatio-temporal risk of DF based on the average, weekly frequency of DF incidence. Out of 111 districts investigated, 17 (15%), covering a total area of 121 km2, were identified as of high risk, 25 (22%), covering 133 km2, were identified as of medium risk, 18 (16%), covering 180 km2, were identified as of low risk and 51 (46%), covering 726 km2, were identified as of very low risk. The resultant model shows that most areas at risk of DF were concentrated in the central part of Jeddah county, Saudi Arabia. The methods used can be implemented as routine procedures for control and prevention. A concerted intervention in the medium- and high-risk level districts identified in this study could be highly effective in reducing transmission of DF in the area as a whole.

  18. Conceptual Model of Dynamic Geographic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Rosales Miguel Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In geographic environments, there are many and different types of geographic entities such as automobiles, trees, persons, buildings, storms, hurricanes, etc. These entities can be classified into two groups: geographic objects and geographic phenomena. By its nature, a geographic environment is dynamic, thus, it’s static modeling is not sufficient. Considering the dynamics of geographic environment, a new type of geographic entity called event is introduced. The primary target is a modeling of geographic environment as an event sequence, because in this case the semantic relations are much richer than in the case of static modeling. In this work, the conceptualization of this model is proposed. It is based on the idea to process each entity apart instead of processing the environment as a whole. After that, the so called history of each entity and its spatial relations to other entities are defined to describe the whole environment. The main goal is to model systems at a conceptual level that make use of spatial and temporal information, so that later it can serve as the semantic engine for such systems.

  19. The spatial analysis on hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Jiangsu province, China based on geographic information system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjun Bao

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is endemic in mainland China, accounting for 90% of total reported cases worldwide, and Jiangsu is one of the most severely affected provinces. In this study, the authors conducted GIS-based spatial analyses in order to determine the spatial distribution of the HFRS cases, identify key areas and explore risk factors for public health planning and resource allocation.Interpolation maps by inverse distance weighting were produced to detect the spatial distribution of HFRS cases in Jiangsu from 2001 to 2011. Spatio-temporal clustering was applied to identify clusters at the county level. Spatial correlation analysis was conducted to detect influencing factors of HFRS in Jiangsu.HFRS cases in Jiangsu from 2001 to 2011 were mapped and the results suggested that cases in Jiangsu were not distributed randomly. Cases were mainly distributed in northeastern and southwestern Jiangsu, especially in Dafeng and Sihong counties. It was notable that prior to this study, Sihong county had rarely been reported as a high-risk area of HFRS. With the maximum spatial size of 50% of the total population and the maximum temporal size of 50% of the total population, spatio-temporal clustering showed that there was one most likely cluster (LLR = 624.52, P<0.0001, RR = 8.19 and one second-most likely cluster (LLR = 553.97, P<0.0001, RR = 8.25, and both of these clusters appeared from 2001 to 2004. Spatial correlation analysis showed that the incidence of HFRS in Jiangsu was influenced by distances to highways, railways, rivers and lakes.The application of GIS together with spatial interpolation, spatio-temporal clustering and spatial correlation analysis can effectively identify high-risk areas and factors influencing HFRS incidence to lay a foundation for researching its pathogenesis.

  20. Real-Time Estimation of Satellite-Derived PM2.5 Based on a Semi-Physical Geographically Weighted Regression Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianhao; Liu, Gang; Zhu, Zhongmin; Gong, Wei; Ji, Yuxi; Huang, Yusi

    2016-01-01

    The real-time estimation of ambient particulate matter with diameter no greater than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is currently quite limited in China. A semi-physical geographically weighted regression (GWR) model was adopted to estimate PM2.5 mass concentrations at national scale using the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Depth product fused by the Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB) algorithms, combined with meteorological parameters. The fitting results could explain over 80% of the variability in the corresponding PM2.5 mass concentrations, and the estimation tends to overestimate when measurement is low and tends to underestimate when measurement is high. Based on World Health Organization standards, results indicate that most regions in China suffered severe PM2.5 pollution during winter. Seasonal average mass concentrations of PM2.5 predicted by the model indicate that residential regions, namely Jing-Jin-Ji Region and Central China, were faced with challenge from fine particles. Moreover, estimation deviation caused primarily by the spatially uneven distribution of monitoring sites and the changes of elevation in a relatively small region has been discussed. In summary, real-time PM2.5 was estimated effectively by the satellite-based semi-physical GWR model, and the results could provide reasonable references for assessing health impacts and offer guidance on air quality management in China. PMID:27706054

  1. Spatial-temporal characteristics of phosphorus in non-point source pollution with grid-based export coefficient model and geographical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Dong, Guangxia; Xu, Fei; Wang, Xiujuan; He, Mengchang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the spatial changes and trends in non-point source (NPS) total phosphorus (TP) pollution were analyzed by land and non-land uses in the Songliao River Basin from 1986 to 2000 (14 years). A grid-based export coefficient model was used in the process of analysis based on to a geographic information system. The Songliao Basin is divided in four regions: Liaoning province, Jilin province (JL), Heilongjiang province and the eastern part of the Inner Mongolia (IM) Autonomous Region. Results indicated that the NPS phosphorus load caused by land use and non-land use increased steadily from 3.11×10(4) tons in 1986 to 3.49×10(4) tons in 2000. The southeastern region of the Songliao Plain was the most important NPS pollution contributor of all the districts. Although the TP load caused by land use decreased during the studied period in the Songliao River Basin, the contribution of land use to the TP load was dominant compared to non-land uses. The NPS pollution caused by non-land use steadily increased over the studied period. The IM Autonomous Region and JL province had the largest mean annual rate of change among all districts (more than 30%). In this area, livestock and poultry breeding had become one of the most important NPS pollution sources. These areas will need close attention in the future.

  2. Solar Sail - Fresnel Zone Plate Lens for a Large Space Based Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J T

    2002-02-13

    A Fresnel zone plate lens made with solar sail material could be used as the primary optic for a very large aperture telescope on deep space probes propelled by solar sails. The large aperture telescope capability could enable significant science on fly-by missions to the asteroids, Pluto, Kuiper belt or the tort cloud and could also enable meaningful interstellar fly-by missions for laser propelled sails. This type of lens may also have some potential for laser communications and as a solar concentrator. The techniques for fabrication of meter size and larger Fresnel phase plate optics are under development at LLNL, and we are extending this technology to amplitude zone plates made from sail materials. Corrector optics to greatly extend the bandwidth of these Fresnel optics will be demonstrated in the future. This novel telescope concept will require new understanding of the fabrication, deployment and control of gossamer space structures. It will also require new materials technology for fabricating these optics and understanding their long term stability in a space environment.

  3. LiDAR-based predictions of flow channels through riparian buffer zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Solomons

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Riparian buffer zones (RBZs are critical for protecting stream water quality. High Resolution Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data provides a way to locate channels where water can flow through a RBZ and into a stream. The objectives of this study were to characterize flow channels through riparian buffer zones around Lake Issaqueena, SC, USA, using LiDAR topography models and to validate these predictions using field observations of channel presence, soil moisture content and soil temperature. A LiDAR derived digital elevation model (DEM was utilized to define flow channels and determine forty sample locations. Analysis indicated channel locations and the presence of large forested buffers generally 10 m or greater in the study area. High flow accumulation channels can be accurately predicted by LiDAR data, but lower flow channels were less accurately estimated. Surface soil temperature measurements were relatively uniform showing no difference between predicted channel and control locations. Presented methodologies can serve as a template for future efforts to quantify riparian buffers and their effects on protecting water quality.

  4. Longshore sediment transport in the surf zone based on different formulae: A case study along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.; Dora, G.U.; Johnson, G.; Philip, C.S.

    Understanding longshore sediment transport (LST) is a prerequisite for designing an effective coastal zone management strategy. The present study estimates the LST along the central west coast of India based on four bulk LST formulae: (1...

  5. Determination of the Acid-Base Dissociation Constant of Acid-Degradable Hexamethylenetetramine by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Toshio; Shimakami, Natsumi; Kurashina, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Hitoshi; Yabutani, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    The acid-base equilibrium of hexamethylenetetramine (hexamine) was analyzed with its effective electrophoretic mobility by capillary zone electrophoresis. Although hexamine is degradable in a weakly acidic aqueous solution, and the degraded products of ammonia and formaldehyde can be formed, the effective electrophoretic mobility of hexamine was measured in the pH range between 2.8 and 6.9. An acid-base dissociation equilibrium of the protonated hexamine was analyzed based on the mobility change, and an acid dissociation constant of pKa = 4.93 ± 0.01 (mean ± standard error, ionic strength: 0.020 mol dm(-3)) was determined. The monoprotic acid-base equilibrium of hexamine was confirmed through comparisons of its electrophoretic mobility with the N-ethylquinolinium ion and with the monocationic N-ethyl derivative of hexamine, as well as a slope analysis of the dissociation equilibrium.

  6. 基于税收政策提高开发区经济收入的创新性研究--以南宁-东盟经济开发区为例%Innovative Research on Increasing Economic Revenues in the Development Zone Based on Tax Policy---A Case Study of Nanning-ASEAN Economic Development Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天姝; 周玉伟

    2014-01-01

    发展新型开发区经济,在不同程度上带动着广西区内的整体经济势力。为了能够有效提高经济开发区的经济力量,基于经济、税收、产业、行业等的利益关系,通过以下几方面进行研究:第一,通过国内外的税收政策理论进行比较,从法制方面衡量税收的重要性;第二,结合南宁-东盟经济开发区的具体情况,展开园区内税收优惠政策分析;第三,针对开发区内的状况提出发展措施。最终得出采取增强区位优势,寻找差异化进行科学有效管理,提高信息化、智能化手段,加强税收制度建设等办法,将是提高开发区经济收入的最佳捷径。%Development of new-type development zone economy, to various degrees, boosts the overall economic power of Guangxi. To increase the economic power of the economic development zone, and based on the interests relations between economy, revenues and industries, the article carries on research on the aspects as follows: (ⅰ) Make measurement of the importance of tax revenue from the perspective of legal system through comparisons of the domestic and foreign tax policy theories; (ⅱ) Make an analysis of preferential tax policies in the economic park by combining the specific cases in Nanning-ASEAN Economic Development Zone; (ⅲ) Present the devel-opment measures in light of the specific cases in the Economic Development Zone. The research findings reveal that we should fully utilize geographical advantages and track out differentiations in an effort to carry on effective scientific management, enhance informatization and intellectualization and strengthen the construction of the tax system, which would be the most effective shortcut to increase economic revenues in the development zone.

  7. Louisiana Geology, Geographic NAD83, NWRC (1998) [geology_NWRC_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains vector line map information. The vector data contain selected base categories of geographic features, and characteristics of these features,...

  8. Louisiana Parishes, Geographic NAD83, USGS (1998) [parishes_USGS_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains vector line map information. The vector data contain selected base categories of geographic features, and characteristics of these features,...

  9. Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, William F; Delmerico, Alan M

    2009-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the development, capabilities, and utilization of geographic information systems (GIS). There are nearly an unlimited number of applications that are relevant to GIS because virtually all human interactions, natural and man-made features, resources, and populations have a geographic component. Everything happens somewhere and the location often has a role that affects what occurs. This role is often called spatial dependence or spatial autocorrelation, which exists when a phenomenon is not randomly geographically distributed. GIS has a number of key capabilities that are needed to conduct a spatial analysis to assess this spatial dependence. This chapter presents these capabilities (e.g., georeferencing, adjacency/distance measures, overlays) and provides a case study to illustrate how GIS can be used for both research and planning. Although GIS has developed into a relatively mature application for basic functions, development is needed to more seamlessly integrate spatial statistics and models.The issue of location, especially the geography of human activities, interactions between humanity and nature, and the distribution and location of natural resources and features, is one of the most basic elements of scientific inquiry. Conceptualizations and physical maps of geographic space have existed since the beginning of time because all human activity takes place in a geographic context. Representing objects in space, basically where things are located, is a critical aspect of the natural, social, and applied sciences. Throughout history there have been many methods of characterizing geographic space, especially maps created by artists, mariners, and others eventually leading to the development of the field of cartography. It is no surprise that the digital age has launched a major effort to utilize geographic data, but not just as maps. A geographic information system (GIS) facilitates the collection, analysis, and reporting of

  10. Standardized precipitation index zones for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giddings, L.; Soto, M. [Instituto de Ecologia, A.C., Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Rutherford, B.M.; Maarouf, A. [Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-01-01

    Precipitation zone systems exists for Mexico based on seasonality, quantity of precipitation, climates and geographical divisions, but none are convenient for the study of the relation of precipitation with phenomena such as El nino. An empirical set of seven exclusively Mexican and six shared zones was derived from three series of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) images, from 1940 through 1989: a whole year series (SPI-12) of 582 monthly images, a six month series (SPI-6) of 50 images for winter months (November through April), and a six month series (SPI-6) of 50 images for summer months (May through October). By examination of principal component and unsupervised classification images, it was found that all three series had similar zones. A set of basic training fields chosen from the principal component images was used to classify all three series. The resulting thirteen zones, presented in this article, were found to be approximately similar, varying principally at zones edges. A set of simple zones defined by just a few vertices can be used for practical operations. In general the SPI zones are homogeneous, with almost no mixture of zones and few outliers of one zone in the area of others. They are compared with a previously published map of climatic regions. Potential applications for SPI zones are discussed. [Spanish] Existen varios sistemas de zonificacion de Mexico basados en la estacionalidad, cantidad de precipitacion, climas y divisiones geograficas, pero ninguno es conveniente para el estudio de la relacion de la precipitacion con fenomenos tales como El Nino. En este trabajo se presenta un conjunto de siete zonas empiricas exclusivamente mexicanas y seis compartidas, derivadas de tres series de imagenes de SPI (Indice Estandarizado de la Precipitacion), desde 1940 a 1989: una serie de 582 imagenes mensuales (SPI-12), una series de 50 imagenes (SPI-6) de meses de invierno (noviembre a abril), y otra de 50 imagenes (SPI-6) de meses de verano

  11. Geographical Mobility of Danish Dual-Earner Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Filges, Trine

    In this paper, we analyse the empirical relationship between geographical residence mobility and geographical job mobility for Danish dual-earner couples. Based on register data from Statistics Denmark from 1999 and 2000, we estimate three probabilities, taking the interdependence between...... in determining geographical mobility....

  12. A VOF-based numerical model for breaking waves in surf zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a numerical model for studying the evolution of a periodic wave train,shoaling, and breaking in surf zone. The model can solve the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for a mean flow, and the k-ε equations for turbulence kinetic energy k and turbulence dissipation rate ε. To track a free surface, the volume of fluid (VOF) function, satisfying the advection equation was introduced. In the numerical treatment, third-order upwind difference scheme was applied to the convection terms of the RANS equations in order to reduce the effect of numerical viscosity. The shoaling and breaking processes of a periodic wave train on gently sloping beaches were modeled. The computed wave heights of a sloping beach and the distribution of breaking wave pressure on a vertical wall were compared with laboratory data.

  13. Observed-Based Adaptive Fuzzy Tracking Control for Switched Nonlinear Systems With Dead-Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shaocheng; Sui, Shuai; Li, Yongming

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the problem of adaptive fuzzy output-feedback control is investigated for a class of uncertain switched nonlinear systems in strict-feedback form. The considered switched systems contain unknown nonlinearities, dead-zone, and immeasurable states. Fuzzy logic systems are utilized to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, a switched fuzzy state observer is designed and thus the immeasurable states are obtained by it. By applying the adaptive backstepping design principle and the average dwell time method, an adaptive fuzzy output-feedback tracking control approach is developed. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee that all the variables in the closed-loop system are bounded under a class of switching signals with average dwell time, and also that the system output can track a given reference signal as closely as possible. The simulation results are given to check the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  14. Land use zoning at the county level based on a multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm: a case study from Yicheng, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Hua; Ji, Yingli; Liu, Zhongqiu; Zhao, Xiang

    2012-08-01

    Comprehensive land-use planning (CLUP) at the county level in China must include land-use zoning. This is specifically stipulated by the China Land Management Law and aims to achieve strict control on the usages of land. The land-use zoning problem is treated as a multi-objective optimization problem (MOOP) in this article, which is different from the traditional treatment. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) based model is applied to the problem and is developed to maximize the attribute differences between land-use zones, the spatial compactness, the degree of spatial harmony and the ecological benefits of the land-use zones. This is subject to some constraints such as: the quantity limitations for varying land-use zones, regulations assigning land units to a certain land-use zone, and the stipulation of a minimum parcel area in a land-use zoning map. In addition, a crossover and mutation operator from a genetic algorithm is adopted to avoid the prematurity of PSO. The results obtained for Yicheng, a county in central China, using different objective weighting schemes, are compared and suggest that: (1) the fundamental demand for attribute difference between land-use zones leads to a mass of fragmentary land-use zones; (2) the spatial pattern of land-use zones is remarkably optimized when a weight is given to the sub-objectives of spatial compactness and the degree of spatial harmony, simultaneously, with a reduction of attribute difference between land-use zones; (3) when a weight is given to the sub-objective of ecological benefits of the land-use zones, the ecological benefits get a slight increase also at the expense of a reduction in attribute difference between land-use zones; (4) the pursuit of spatial harmony or spatial compactness may have a negative effect on each other; (5) an increase in the ecological benefits may improve the spatial compactness and spatial harmony of the land-use zones; (6) adjusting the weights assigned to each sub-objective can

  15. Symposium on Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felleman, John, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Six papers on geographic information systems cover the future of geographic information systems, land information systems modernization in Wisconsin, the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) System of the U.S. Bureau of the Census, satellite remote sensing, geographic information systems and sustainable development,…

  16. Guinier-Preston Zone, Quasicrystal and Long-period Stacking Ordered Structure in Mg-based Alloys, A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongbo XU; Daokui XU; Xiaohong SHAO; En-hou HAN

    2013-01-01

    Both the solid solution and precipitation are mainly strengthening mechanism for the magnesium-based alloys.A great number of alloying elements can be dissolved into the Mg matrix to form the solutes and precipitates.Moreover,the type of precipitates varies with different alloying elements and heat treatments,which makes it quite difficult to understand the formation mechanism of the precipitates in Mg-based alloys in depth.Thus,it is very hard to give a systematical regularity in precipitation process for the Mg-based alloys.This review is mainly focused on the formation and microstructural evolution of the precipitates,as a hot topic for the past few years,including Guinier-Preston Zones,quasicrystals and long-period stacking ordered phases formed in a number of Mg-TM-RE alloy systems,where TM =AI,Zn,Zr and RE =Y,Gd,Hd,Ce and La.

  17. Quantification of Deltaic Coastal Zone Change Based on Multi-Temporal High Resolution Earth Observation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Vassilakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of methodologies are described in this paper aiming to quantify the natural hazard due to the coastal changes at a deltaic fan. The coastline of Istiaia (North Evia, Greece has been chosen for this study as several areas of accretion and erosion have been identified during the past few decades. We combined different types of datasets, extracted from high resolution panchromatic aerial photographs and traced the contemporary shoreline by high accuracy surveying with Real Time Kinematics (RTK GPS equipment. The interpretation of all shorelines required geo-statistical analysis in a Geographical Information System. A large number of high resolution morphological sections were constructed normally to the coast, revealing erosional and depositional parts of the beach. Retreating and extension rates were calculated for each section reaching the values of 0.98 m/yr and 1.36 m/yr, respectively. The results proved to be very accurate, allowing us to expand the developed methodology by using more complete time-series of remote sensing datasets along with more frequent RTK-GPS surveying.

  18. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis Using Optical Satellite Imagery and GIS Data for the Detection of Mining Sites in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritjof Luethje

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Earth observation is an important source of information in areas that are too remote, too insecure or even both for traditional field surveys. A multi-scale analysis approach is developed to monitor the Kivu provinces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC to identify hot spots of mining activities and provide reliable information about the situation in and around two selected mining sites, Mumba-Bibatama and Bisie. The first is the test case for the approach and the detection of unknown mining sites, whereas the second acts as reference case since it is the largest and most well-known location for cassiterite extraction in eastern Congo. Thus it plays a key-role within the context of the conflicts in this region. Detailed multi-temporal analyses of very high-resolution (VHR satellite data demonstrates the capabilities of Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA techniques for providing information about the situation during a mining ban announced by the Congolese President between September 2010 and March 2011. Although the opening of new surface patches can serve as an indication for activities in the area, the pure change between the two satellite images does not in itself produce confirming evidence. However, in combination with observations on the ground, it becomes evident that mining activities continued in Bisie during the ban, even though the production volume went down considerably.

  19. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM-BASED MODELING AND ANALYSIS FOR SITE SELECTION OF GREEN MUSSEL, Perna viridis, MARICULTURE IN LADA BAY, PANDEGLANG, BANTEN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Radiarta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Green mussel is one of important species cultured in Lada Bay, Pandeglang. To provide a necessary guidance regarding green mussel mariculture development, finding suitable site is an important step. This study was conducted to identify suitable site for green mussel mariculture development using geographic information system (GIS based models. Seven important parameters were grouped into two submodels, namely environmental (water temperature, salinity, suspended solid, dissolve oxygen, and bathymetry and infrastructural (distance to settlement and pond aquaculture. A constraint data was used to exclude the area from suitability maps that cannot be allowed to develop green mussel mariculture, including area of floating net fishing activity and area near electricity station. Analyses of factors and constraints indicated that about 31% of potential area with bottom depth less than 25 m had the most suitable area. This area was shown to have an ideal condition for green mussel mariculture in this study region. This study shows that GIS model is a powerful tool for site selection decision making. The tool can be a valuable tool in solving problems in local, regional, and/or continent areas.

  20. Geographical traceability of wild Boletus edulis based on data fusion of FT-MIR and ICP-AES coupled with data mining methods (SVM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Liu, Honggao; Li, Jieqing; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2017-04-15

    In this work, the data fusion strategy of Fourier transform mid infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used in combination with Support Vector Machine (SVM) to determine the geographic origin of Boletus edulis collected from nine regions of Yunnan Province in China. Firstly, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) was used for selecting an optimal combination of key wavenumbers of second derivative FT-MIR spectra, and thirteen elements were sorted with variable importance in projection (VIP) scores. Secondly, thirteen subsets of multi-elements with the best VIP score were generated and each subset was used to fuse with FT-MIR. Finally, the classification models were established by SVM, and the combination of parameter C and γ (gamma) of SVM models was calculated by the approaches of grid search (GS) and genetic algorithm (GA). The results showed that both GS-SVM and GA-SVM models achieved good performances based on the #9 subset and the prediction accuracy in calibration and validation sets of the two models were 81.40% and 90.91%, correspondingly. In conclusion, it indicated that the data fusion strategy of FT-MIR and ICP-AES coupled with the algorithm of SVM can be used as a reliable tool for accurate identification of B. edulis, and it can provide a useful way of thinking for the quality control of edible mushrooms.