WorldWideScience

Sample records for geographic social economic

  1. Social-geographical essence and content of the competitiveness of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gryniuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The current stage of market transformations in Ukraine requires the changing of existing stereotypes and management. Expecting for administrative reform and economic regionalization of the state requires detailed attention to the scientific concept of "competitiveness of the region." Being economical in nature this concept requires social and geographical understanding. The paper traced the content and nature of the economic competitiveness of the region in social and geographical interpretation. Author presents the fragments of research model components of regional competitiveness. The effective influence of socio-geographical laws, patterns, factors and competitive advantages that determine the strategic potential of the region is figured on. The importance of individual studies of functional subsystems, industrial, social, recreation and tourism, natural resources, administrative and management, investment and innovation under the influence of social transformation is noted. Based on scientific generalizations, the author's definition of region competitiveness was suggested. It is defined by the author as an integrated concept that reveals the state, the process and the outcome of the territory as a socio-economic system. The basis of regional competitiveness is the potential of the territory able to function effectively on the basis of competition (social and geographical advantages. The main goal here should be improvement of the region population quality of life. The work reveals the contribution of individual schools and social geographers’ studies to the development of regional competitiveness. The importance of further development of the theory and methodology of social and geographical research competitiveness of the region is stressed.

  2. Geographic Differences in the Earnings of Economics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, John V.; Xu, Weineng

    2014-01-01

    Economics has been shown to be a relatively high-earning college major, but geographic differences in earnings have been largely overlooked. The authors of this article use the American Community Survey to examine geographic differences in both absolute earnings and relative earnings for economics majors. They find that there are substantial…

  3. New market actors: economic social movements and politicized consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Portilho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents reflections on new market actors, and economic social movements in particular - that is, those in which actors build a new culture of political action that seeks to reappropriate the economy through their own values. Some examples of this are the movements organized around “solidarity economics”, fair trade, geographic indications, “slow food” and consumer organization. This interface of social movements and the market may be the most marked, differentiated and polemic trait of contemporary political mobilizations. Nonetheless, beyond economic social movements, this article simultaneously emphasizes and problematizes political action within the sphere of individual consumption, that is, that which has been referred to as “political consumption”. Keywords: economic social movements, consumer movements, political consumption.

  4. Measuring Geographic Distribution of Economic Activity in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring Geographic Distribution of Economic Activity in Nigeria Using Gross Domestic Product. ... and environmental factors in planning. There is need for adequate understanding of spatial pattern and centrographic analysis of economic activity to support evidence based economic and regional development policies.

  5. Role of satellite remote sensing in the geographic information economics in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denégre, Jean

    In national and international economics, geographic information plays a role which is generally acknowledged to be important but which is however, difficult to assess quantitatively, its applications being rather miscellaneous and indirect. Computer graphics and telecommunications increae that importance still more and justify many investments and research into new cartographic forms. As part of its responsibility for participating in the promotion of those developments, by taking into account needs expressed by public or private users, the National Council for Geographic Information (C.N.I.G.) has undertaken a general evaluation of the economic and social utility of geographic information in France. The study involves an estimation of the cost of production and research activities, which are probably about 0.1% of the Cross National Product—similar to many other countries. It also devised a method of estimating "cost/advantage" ratios applicable to these "intangible" benefits. Within that framework, remote sensing emphasizes particular aspects related both to the increase of economic performances in cartographic production and to the advent of new products and new ways of utilization. A review of some significant sectors shows effective earnings of about 10-20%, or even 50% or 100% of the costs, and these are doubtless much greater for the efficacy in the exploitation of products. Finally, many applications, entirely new result from extensions in various fields which would have been impossible without remote sensing: here the "cost advantage" ratio cannot even be compared with previous processes. Studies were undertaken in parallel for defining different types of products derived from satellite imagery, as well as those domains where development effort is required in order to make new advances.

  6. Quantitative Social Dialectology : Explaining Linguistic Variation Geographically and Socially

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, Martijn; Nerbonne, John; Baayen, R. Harald

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examine linguistic variation and its dependence on both social and geographic factors. We follow dialectometry in applying a quantitative methodology and focusing on dialect distances, and social dialectology in the choice of factors we examine in building a model to predict word

  7. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND APPLIED ECONOMICS: AN INITIAL DISCUSSION OF POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS AND CONTRIBUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Taupier, Richard; Willis, Cleve E.

    1994-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are becoming increasingly important to virtually all of the natural and social sciences. Applied economists will find that GIS can make valuable contributions to many of the problems with which they are concerned. Moreover, a great deal of the science behind GIS technology would benefit from the contributions of applied economists. This paper presents some initial suggestions for the ways in which GIS may be important to economics and the GIS related issue...

  8. Unity, Plurality and Explanation. The case of geographical economics and its neighbours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Marchionni (Caterina)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractGeographical economics (also known as the new economic geography) is a recent approach developed within economics. It aims to provide a unified framework for the study of spatial agglomeration: the spatial concentration of economic activity. This search for unity stands in

  9. The economic-geographical and environmental polarization as a factor of new functional relations between areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milinčić Miroljub A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographical clustering, in the way of economic-geographical polarization represents regular and positive process of development of human society. These processes are characterized by stressed intensity, together with relatively short time dimension at the territory of Serbia. Extreme recent ecological polarization is the main consequence of this type of recomposition of economic-geographical elements in the territory of Serbia. At the one hand, anthropogenic or socio-economic areas (locations, axis and crossroads of development are formed, together with the numerous ecological problems as developing barriers, while at the other hand are territories of economic-geographical stagnation also with satisfying quality of basic natural resources and environmental condition. These differences generates and permanently increases their spatial, resource and ecological interdependence.

  10. MONITORING AND ASSESSING THE RESEARCH ON CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PUBLISHED IN ROMANIAN ECONOMIC JOURNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana-Cristina GĂNESCU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to evaluate the interest of Romanian economic journals towards issues related to corporate social responsibility. The research began with drafting a list of Romanian economic journals, according to official classifications. We used content analysis to determine the characteristics of articles that address the issue of corporate social responsibility, based on the following criteria: number of articles whose titles include the term „corporate social responsibility”, ratio of pages devoted to CSR issues in the total number of pages, type of research, geographical area of research, authors’ affiliation, CSR issues being addressed. The research results helped create an indicator that measures the interest of Romanian economic journals towards issues related to CSR. According to the values of this indicator, we ranked the analysed publications.

  11. Social Capital, Trust, Economic Stress and Religion in a Cohort of 87,134 Thai Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Lim, Lynette; Sleigh, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Social capital includes collective features such as social trust, norms, and networks. This paper examines social capital-related variables against demographic, socioeconomic and geographic characteristics of 87,134 adult distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University. We have found economic stress to be higher in non-married groups, lower income groups, and those residing in rural areas. Social trust was higher among married, especially with higher income and those in rural areas. Those who were separated, divorced or widowed and those with lower socioeconomic status had the highest economic stress and the least social trust. These groups also reported high importance of religious belief, karma and spiritual belief, along with lower income groups. Despite having high economic stress, social interaction with and support from families were found to be high among those not-married, with lower income, and in rural areas. As Thailand urbanises and progresses economically, diverse patterns of social capital have emerged and some changes might have offset others. For example, we have shown that economic stress associated with low income tends to co-occur with high social interaction and family support. This observation should be reassuring to policymakers aiming to preserve and promote social capital as Thailand continues to urbanise and modernise. PMID:22003268

  12. The use of geographical information systems in socio-economic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Daplyn, P.; Cropley, J.; Treagust, S.; Gordon, A.

    1994-01-01

    Geographical information systems (GIS) have found wide and growing applications, as digital remote-sensing data and computer technology have become more sophisticated, more easily available and less expensive. NRI recently undertook preliminary research into potential socio-economic applications of GIS. The feasibility of utilizing spatial data, available in GIS, to model socio-economic relationships was examined. It included the following steps: (a) identification of hypothetical relationshi...

  13. Social and Economic Analysis Branch: integrating policy, social, economic, and natural science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rudy; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Social and Economic Analysis Branch provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and natural science in the context of human–natural resource interactions. Our research provides scientific understanding and support for the management and conservation of our natural resources in support of multiple agency missions. We focus on meeting the scientific needs of the Department of the Interior natural resource management bureaus in addition to fostering partnerships with other Federal and State managers to protect, restore, and enhance our environment. The Social and Economic Analysis Branch has an interdisciplinary group of scientists whose primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to support the development of skills in natural resource management activities. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context and require knowledge of both natural and social sciences, along with the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these challenging contexts, Social and Economic Analysis Branch researchers apply a wide variety of social science concepts and methods which complement our rangeland/agricultural, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of the Social and Economic Analysis Branch's research is to enhance natural-resource management, agency functions, policies, and decisionmaking.

  14. [Contextual indicators to assess social determinants of health and the Spanish economic recession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-León, Andrés; Daponte Codina, Antonio; Mateo, Inmaculada; Arroyo-Borrell, Elena; Bartoll, Xavier; Bravo, María José; Domínguez-Berjón, María Felicitas; Renart, Gemma; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Bolívar Muñoz, Julia; Saez, Marc; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Palència, Laia; López, María José; Saurina, Carme; Puig, Vanessa; Martín, Unai; Gotsens, Mercè; Borrell, Carme; Serra Saurina, Laura; Sordo, Luis; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Pérez, Glòria; Espelt, Albert; Ruiz, Miguel; Bernal, Mariola

    To provide indicators to assess the impact on health, its social determinants and health inequalities from a social context and the recent economic recession in Spain and its autonomous regions. Based on the Spanish conceptual framework for determinants of social inequalities in health, we identified indicators sequentially from key documents, Web of Science, and organisations with official statistics. The information collected resulted in a large directory of indicators which was reviewed by an expert panel. We then selected a set of these indicators according to geographical (availability of data according to autonomous regions) and temporal (from at least 2006 to 2012) criteria. We identified 203 contextual indicators related to social determinants of health and selected 96 (47%) based on the above criteria; 16% of the identified indicators did not satisfy the geographical criteria and 35% did not satisfy the temporal criteria. At least 80% of the indicators related to dependence and healthcare services were excluded. The final selection of indicators covered all areas for social determinants of health, and 62% of these were not available on the Internet. Around 40% of the indicators were extracted from sources related to the Spanish Statistics Institute. We have provided an extensive directory of contextual indicators on social determinants of health and a database to facilitate assessment of the impact of the economic recession on health and health inequalities in Spain and its autonomous regions. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  16. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix O, economic and social impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included

  17. Soil-transmitted helminth prevalence and infection intensity among geographically and economically distinct Shuar communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Liebert, Melissa A; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Colehour, Alese M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Madimenos, Felicia C; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2014-10-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections can result in a variety of negative health outcomes (e.g., diarrhea, nutritional deficiencies). Market integration (MI; participation in market-based economies) has been suggested to alter levels of STH exposure due to associated changes in diet, sanitation, and behavior, but the effects are complicated and not well understood. Some effects of economic development result in decreased exposure to certain pathogens, and other factors can lead to higher pathogen exposure. With geographic location used as a proxy, the present study investigates the effects of economic development on parasite load among an indigenous population at multiple points along the spectrum of MI. This research has many implications for public health, including an increased understanding of how social and economic changes alter disease risk around the world and how changing parasite load affects other health outcomes (i.e., allergy, autoimmunity). Specifically, this study examines the prevalence of intestinal helminths among the Shuar, an indigenous group in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, from 2 geographically/economically separated areas, with the following objectives: (1) report STH infection prevalence and intensity among Shuar; (2) explore STH infection prevalence and intensity as it relates to age distribution in the Shuar population; (3) compare STH infection patterns in geographically and economically separated Shuar communities at different levels of MI. Kato-Katz thick smears were made from fresh stool samples and examined to determine STH presence/intensity. Results indicate that 65% of the 211 participants were infected with at least 1 STH. Twenty-five percent of the sample had coinfections with at least 2 species of helminth. Infection was more common among juveniles (<15 yr) than adults. Infection prevalence and intensity was highest among more isolated communities with less market access. This study documents preliminary

  18. Economic inequality and economic crisis: a challenge for social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

    2012-07-01

    To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The article identifies interrelated changes in ideology, the market economy, and government policies since the mid-1970s; contrasts the political economy of this period with the preceding post-World War II decades when the trend was toward a "shared prosperity"; and shows how increased economic inequality and political consequences that undermined democracy itself contributed to the economic meltdown. The analysis has implications for the direction of social reform and for broadening the constituency of social movements in pursuit of the social work mission of social justice. How social workers can contribute to such movements and to a reduction of economic and political inequality is explored.

  19. Utilisation of general practitioner services by socio-economic disadvantage and geographic remoteness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, Gavin; Oldenburg, Brian F; Harris, Elizabeth; Jolley, Damien

    2004-04-01

    To examine the association between socio-economic status (SES) and GP utilisation across Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) that differed in their geographic remoteness, and to assess whether Indigenous status and GP availability modified the association. Retrospective analysis of Medicare data for all unreferred GP consultations (1996/97) for 952 SLAs comprising the six Australian States. Geographic remoteness was ascertained using the Area Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA), and SES was measured by grouping SLAs into tertiles based on their Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage score. Age/sex standardised rates of GP utilisation for each SLA. In SLAs classified as 'highly accessible', rates of GP use were 10.8% higher (95% CI 5.7-16.0) in the most socio-economically disadvantaged tertile after adjustment for Indigenous status and GP availability. A very different pattern of GP utilsation was found in 'remote/very remote' SLAs. After adjustment, rates of GP use in the most socio-economically disadvantaged tertile were 25.3% lower (95% CI 5.9-40.7) than in the most advantaged tertile. People in socio-economically disadvantaged metropolitan SLAs have higher rates of GP utilisation, as would be expected due to their poorer health. This is not true for people living in disadvantaged remote/very remote SLAs: in these areas, those most in need of GP services are least likely to receive them. Australia may lay claim to having a primary health care system that provides universal coverage, but we are still some way from having a system that is economically and geographically accessible to all.

  20. Natural and Social Conditions for Economic Development: Case Study Northeastern Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Rajovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the natural and social conditions for the development economy in northeastern Montenegro, in the example municipalities Berane, Andrejevica and Plav in the geographical context of its utilization and use. Spatial distribution of the economy is determined by the natural and social conditions. The natural conditions in terms of the economy are of particular significance relief, climatic and hydrographic conditions, soil... According to degree benefits of natural conditions extracted are three relatively homogeneous regions. That is, which rational production of this part of north-eastern Montenegro, can be organized taking into account the natural conditions and the level of socio-economic development. For collocation and the structure of the economy have an important role in the social conditions which the economy is formed. Our research the records clearly pointed to the forefront some very obvious problems: first, is related to the population, especially in workforce, respectively, for the aging; second, that there is a strong migration of people whose intensive processes of differentiation and left behind an unfavorable structure of the population - age and education what the any negative impact on economic development; third, the characteristics of land area, its small size, inadequate and outdated processing, low technical capacity. The natural resources of this part of north-eastern Montenegro, as well as the population as a factor of economic development need to have met: economic, social, developmental organizational and management dimension to be on benefit the present, but also future generations

  1. Geographic and socio-economic barriers to rural electrification: New evidence from Indian villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugoua, Eugenie; Liu, Ruinan; Urpelainen, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The International Energy Agency estimates that more than a billion people remain without household electricity access. However, countries such as India have recently made major progress in rural electrification. Who has benefited from these achievements? We focus on 714 villages in six energy-poor states of northern and eastern India to investigate trends in electricity access. We use data both from the 2011 Census of India and an original energy access survey conducted in 2014 and 2015. During the three years that separated the surveys, distance to the nearest town and land area lose their power as predictors of the percentage of households in the village that has access to electricity. In this regard, the Indian government's flagship rural electrification program seems to have managed to overcome a major obstacle to grid extension. On the other hand, socio-economic inequalities between villages related to caste status and household expenditure remain strong predictors. These findings highlight the importance of socio-economic barriers to rural electricity access and alleviate concerns about remoteness and population density as obstacles to grid extension. - Highlights: • Empirical analysis of rural electrification progress in India. • Geographic differences across villages no longer explain electricity access. • Social and economic inequities remain stark. • Future policy should focus on household electrification within villages.

  2. Social surplus approach and heterodox economics

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Frederic; Jo, Tae-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Given the emphasis on social provisioning in heterodox economics, two of its central theoretical organizing principles are the concepts of the total social product and the social surplus. This appears to link heterodox economics to the social surplus approach associated with the classical economists and currently with Sraffian economists. However, heterodox economics connects agency with the social surplus and the social product, which the Sraffians reject as they take the level and composit...

  3. SCHOOL LINGUISTIC CREATIVITY BASED ON SCIENTIFIC GEOGRAPHICAL TEXTS

    OpenAIRE

    VIORICA BLÎNDĂ

    2012-01-01

    The analysis and observation of the natural environment and of the social and economic one, observing phenomena, objects, beings, and geographical events are at the basis of producing geographical scientific texts. The symbols of iconotexts and cartotexts are another source of inspiration for linguistic interpretation. The linguistic creations that we selected for our study are the scientific analysis, the commentary, the characteriz...

  4. Economic Inequality and Economic Crisis: A Challenge for Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

    2012-01-01

    To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The…

  5. Did American social and economic events from 1865 to 1898 influence D.D. Palmer the chiropractor and entrepreneur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batinić, Josip; Skowron, Mirek; Hammerich, Karin

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores how the social landscape of the latter half of the nineteenth century influenced D. D. Palmer and the many occupations he pursued. It focuses on the geographical area where D. D. lived from 1865 to 1898. This paper will show how the American social and economic events of the time provided favourable circumstances for D.D.'s entrepreneurial successes.

  6. International Voluntary Health Networks (IVHNs). A social-geographical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Benet; Laurie, Nina; Smith, Matt Baillie

    2018-03-01

    Trans-national medicine, historically associated with colonial politics, is now central to discourses of global health and development, thrust into mainstream media by catastrophic events (earthquakes, disease epidemics), and enshrined in the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals. Volunteer human-resource is an important contributor to international health-development work. International Voluntary Health Networks (IVHNs, that connect richer and poorer countries through healthcare) are situated at a meeting-point between geographies and sociologies of health. More fully developed social-geographic understandings will illuminate this area, currently dominated by instrumental health-professional perspectives. The challenge we address is to produce a geographically and sociologically-robust conceptual framework that appropriately recognises IVHNs' potentials for valuable impacts, while also unlocking spaces of constructive critique. We examine the importance of the social in health geography, and geographical potentials in health sociology (focusing on professional knowledge construction, inequality and capital, and power), to highlight the mutual interests of these two fields in relation to IVHNs. We propose some socio-geographical theories of IVHNs that do not naturalise inequality, that understand health as a form of capital, prioritise explorations of power and ethical practice, and acknowledge the more-than-human properties of place. This sets an agenda for theoretically-supported empirical work on IVHNs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Territory development as economic and geographical activity (theory, methodology, practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Nikolaevich Lazhentsev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Accents in a description of theory and methodology of territory development are displaced from distribution of the national benefits on formation of territorial natural and economic systems and organization of economical and geographical activity. The author reveals theconcept of «territory development» and reviews its placein thetheory and methodology of human geography and regionaleconomy. In the articletheindividual directions ofeconomic activity areconsidered. The author has made an attempt to definethesubject matter of five levels of «ideal» territorial and economic systems as a part of objects of the nature, societies, population settlement, production, infrastructure and management. The author’s position of interpretation of sequences of mechanisms of territory development working according to a Nested Doll principle (mechanism of economy, economic management mechanism, controlling mechanism of economy is presented. The author shows the indicators, which authentically define territory development

  8. Geographic Disparities in Access to Agencies Providing Income-Related Social Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Scott R; Monuteaux, Michael C; Fleegler, Eric W

    2015-10-01

    Geographic location is an important factor in understanding disparities in access to health-care and social services. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to evaluate disparities in the geographic distribution of income-related social service agencies relative to populations in need within Boston. Agency locations were obtained from a comprehensive database of social services in Boston. Geographic information systems mapped the spatial relationship of the agencies to the population using point density estimation and was compared to census population data. A multivariate logistic regression was conducted to evaluate factors associated with categories of income-related agency density. Median agency density within census block groups ranged from 0 to 8 agencies per square mile per 100 population below the federal poverty level (FPL). Thirty percent (n = 31,810) of persons living below the FPL have no access to income-related social services within 0.5 miles, and 77 % of persons living below FPL (n = 83,022) have access to 2 or fewer agencies. 27.0 % of Blacks, 30.1 % of Hispanics, and 41.0 % of non-Hispanic Whites with incomes below FPL have zero access. In conclusion, some neighborhoods in Boston with a high concentration of low-income populations have limited access to income-related social service agencies.

  9. Did American social and economic events from 1865 to 1898 influence D.D. Palmer the chiropractor and entrepreneur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batinić, Josip; Skowron, Mirek; Hammerich, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how the social landscape of the latter half of the nineteenth century influenced D. D. Palmer and the many occupations he pursued. It focuses on the geographical area where D. D. lived from 1865 to 1898. This paper will show how the American social and economic events of the time provided favourable circumstances for D.D.’s entrepreneurial successes. PMID:23997248

  10. The Effects of Geographic Isolation and Social Support on the Health of Wisconsin Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittman, Sarah M; Harteau, Christy; Beyer, Kirsten M M

    2016-04-01

    Rural residents are less likely to receive preventive health screening, more likely to be uninsured, and more likely to report fair to poor health than urban residents. Social disconnectedness and perceived isolation are known to be negative predictors of self-rated physical health; however, the direct effects of geographic isolation and social support on overall health have not been well elucidated. A cross-sectional survey of women (n = 113) participating in Wisconsin Rural Women's initiative programming was conducted, which included measures of geographic isolation, an assessment of overall health, and social support using the validated Interpersonal Support Evaluation List with 3 subscales, including belonging support, tangible support, and appraisal support. Geographic isolation was shown to be a negative predictor of belonging support (P = .0064) and tangible support (P = .0349); however, geographic isolation was not a statistically significant predictor of appraisal support. A strong and direct relationship was observed between social support and self-perceived health status among this population of Wisconsin women, and hospital access based on geographic proximity was positively correlated (P = .028) with overall health status. The direct relationship between social support and overall health demonstrated here stresses the importance of developing and maintaining strong social support networks, which can be improved through rural support groups that have the unique ability to assist rural residents in fostering social support systems, advocating stress management techniques, and achieving a greater sense of well-being.

  11. Real-geographic-scenario-based virtual social environments: integrating geography with social research

    OpenAIRE

    Min Chen; Li He; Hui Lin; Chunxiao Zhang; Mingyuan Hu

    2013-01-01

    Existing online virtual worlds, or electronic environments, are of great significance to social science research, but are somewhat lacking in rigour. One reason is that users might not participate in those virtual worlds in the way they act in real daily life, communicating with each other in familiar environments and interacting with natural phenomena under the constraints of the human–land relationship. To help solve this problem we propose the real-geographic-scenario-based virtual social ...

  12. Chinese imperative: nuclear energy to bridge geographic and economic gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tson'yu, T.

    1995-01-01

    Strategic aims and macroeconomical indices on nuclear power engineering are briefly considered. Forecasts on growth of indices for NPP electrical power production are presented. The social-geographical causes and specificity of China stimulating the broad-scale development of nuclear power engineering in China are emphasized. 2 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Cooperation, social capital and economic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Fernandes Gonçalves da Silva

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to define social capital as social infrastructure and to try to include this variable in an economic growth model. Considering social capital in such a way could have an impact on the productivity of production factors. Firstly, I will discuss how institutional variables can affect growth. Secondly, after analyzing several definitions of social capital, I will point out the benefits and problems of each one and will define social capital as social infrastructure, aiming to introduce this variable into an economic growth model. Finally, I will try to open the way for subsequent empirical studies, both in the area of measuring the stock of social infrastructure as well as those comparing economies, with the idea of showing the impact of social infrastructure on economic growth.

  14. Online social activity reflects economic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Wang, Jun; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao

    2016-09-01

    To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.

  15. On economic inequality and social welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begović Boris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to explore the relations between economic inequality and social welfare staring from the assumption that causality goes from economic inequality to social welfare. Standard methodological framework of economic science was enhanced with interpersonal function of individual welfare so the effects of economic inequality of the level of social welfare can be considered. It was demonstrated that there is no unequivocal theoretical conclusion and that differences in the preferences among people should be empirical considered for more insights. The analysis of the consequences of economic inequality to economic growth, i.e. dynamics of social welfare, demonstrated that there are numerous mechanisms of causality with the countervailing effects. The most important mechanism by which inequality speeds-up economic growth is based on the increased saving and invents rates, and the most important mechanism by which it slows-down growth is based on decreasing investments in human capital. Accordingly, there is no unequivocal theoretical conclusion also in this case. Nonetheless, modern growth theory has demonstrated that that the most dangerous economic growth is inequality of the treatment of economic agents, i.e. discrimination and exclusion, as that kind of inequality creates substantial allocative inefficiency.

  16. Social Media Geographic Information: Recent Findings and Opportunities for Smart Spatial Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Massa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the opportunities of Social Media Geographic Information (SMGI as valuable support for analysis, design and decision-making in urban and regional planning. In the light of the recent advances in digital geographic information, such as Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI and Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI which are fostering innovation in urban and regional planning, the authors focus on the potentialities of Social Media as source of knowledge for the planning practices. The authors argue SMGI may play an important role to inform 'smart city' strategies extending authoritative and sensor data infrastructure with experiential and pluralist citizens knowledge. To support this thesis, an innovative methodology for the advance of Social Media Geographic Information (SMGI Analytics is proposed. To this end, the authors present an original user-friendly tool able to extract information from popular Social Media such as Twitter.com and Youtube.com and to apply Spatial-Temporal Textual (STTx analysis . Some examples are provided at the regional and at the local scale in order to demonstrate the potential of SMGI analytics in regional and urban planning. The results show how SMGI analytics can support design, analysis and decision making in planning, and add the value of pluralism to inform smart city initiatives. The paper ends with some brief conclusions on the opportunities of SMGI analytics for possibly affecting decision-making dynamics and urban and regional planning processes, through citizens’ dialogue and integration of experiential and professional knowledge.

  17. Social networks, geographic proximity, and firm performance in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Emma

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses panel data to assess the relative importance of social networks and geographic proximity to micro, small, and medium enterprises in Viet Nam. The results suggest that a larger social network, and hiring employees mainly through social networks, are both correlated with higher value added per worker. The number of government officials and civil servants in a firm's network emerges as particularly important. When the quality of contacts is controlled for, firms with tighter soci...

  18. Social memory, social stress, and economic behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Taiki Takahashi

    2005-01-01

    Social memory plays a pivotal role in social behaviors, from mating behaviors to cooperative behaviors based on reciprocal altruism. More specifically, social/person recognition memory is supposed, by behavioral-economic and game-theoretic analysis, to be required for tit- for-tat like cooperative behaviors to evolve under the N-person iterated prisoner fs dilemma game condition. Meanwhile, humans are known to show a social stress response during face-to-face social interactions, which might ...

  19. Some thoughts on cartographic and geographic information systems for the 1980's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, L.E.; Anderson, Kirk E.

    1981-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is adopting computer techniques to meet the expanding need for cartographic base category data. Digital methods are becoming increasingly important in the mapmaking process, and the demand is growing for physical, social, and economic data. Recognizing these emerging needs, the National Mapping Division began, several years ago, an active program to develop advanced digital methods to support cartographic and geographic data processing. An integrated digital cartographic database would meet the anticipated needs. Such a database would contain data from various sources, and could provide a variety of standard and customized map and digital data file products. This cartographic database soon will be technologically feasible. The present trends in the economics of cartographic and geographic data handling and the growing needs for integrated physical, social, and economic data make such a database virtually mandatory.

  20. Geographical imbalances and divides in the scientific production of climate change knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya; Dalsgaard, Bo; Maruyama, Pietro K.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on scientific production of climate change knowledge show a geographical bias against the developing and more vulnerable regions of the world. If there is limited knowledge exchange between regions, this may deepen global knowledge divides and, thus, potentially hamper adaptive capacities....... Consequently, there is a need to further understand this bias, and, particularly, link it with the exchange of knowledge across borders. We use a world-wide geographical distribution of author affiliations in > 15,000 scientific climate change publications to show that (1) research production mainly takes...... are determined mainly by geographical proximity, common climates, and similar political and economic characteristics. This indicates that political-economic, social and educational-scientific initiatives targeted to enhance local research production and collaborations across geographical-climate module borders...

  1. Geographical Labor Market Imbalances by Chiara Mussida and Francesco Pastore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PASNICU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The book, entitled Geographical Labor Market Imbalances represents a collective volume of outstanding scientific papers concerning regional issues, which were presented at the XXVII National Conference of Labour Economics organized by AIEL (Italian Association of Labor Economics, the Department of Law of SecundaUniversità di Napoli and the Departments of Economic and Social Sciences of the UniversitàCattolica del SacroCuore (Piacenza, 27-28 September 2012.

  2. Economic Constitution, social democracy, innovation and economic culture of Basque Cooperativism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Larrazabal Basañez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study of Constitutional Law, the author calls for more attention to be paid to the part in which almost all Constitutions set down economic models, the guiding principles of social and economic policy and economic and social rights. He makes this suggestion with a view to going beyond a formal democracy and moving towards a material democracy. For this purpose, he focuses on the values and economic culture of the cooperative movement and advocates inspiration in these values to innovate and search for a fairer economic and social model which will enable us to overcome the present crisis. Lastly, he poses some issues related to innovation in the specific contextof Basque cooperativism.Received: 06.07.2009Accepted: 08.07.2009

  3. Economic, Demographic, and Sociological Factors Influencing the Geographic Mobility of Young Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lewis H.

    Geographic mobility of the labor force is an adjustment mechanism essential to the maintenance of a growing economy which is undergoing technological change and a rising educational level. This study analyzes the factors which influence mobility decisions to determine whether these choices are made on the basis of rational economic motives. To…

  4. SOCIALISM FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klistorin V. I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article is to discuss the role the socialist ideas played in the development of economic thoughts. The paper considers a brief history of socialist thought, fundamental ideas of the scientists and publicists who made the greatest contribution to development of socialist concepts; common principles at a huge variety of such concepts; and criticism of socialist ideas made by representatives of alternative schools. A special focus of the paper is the discussion held in the period between the world wars on whether socialism could take place. In the critics’ opinion, socialization of the economy resulted in corrupted economic information which made economic calculations impossible in socialism and abolition of private ownership - in both eliminated freedom of choice and lower economic growth. In response, economists-socialists insisted on positive impacts through lower transactional costs and they proposed different types of market socialism. The author also makes an attempt to formulate what the socialist theories contributed to modern economics from the viewpoint of its research subject and definitions.

  5. Social-geographic approaches to application of economic-mathematical modeling in predicting the place of Ukrainian farming economies in food market commoditization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Rudenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Social-geographic analysis of farmery with application of economic-mathematical modeling allowed for prediction of farming economies’ role in food market commoditization. The equation of potential demand was suggested. Actual consumption and its recommended rates with respect to meat and meat products, milk and milk products, eggs, fish and fish products, bread and cereal products, potatoes, vegetables, fruits and berries, etc, were compared. Cartographic model of Ukrainian domestic food market’s potential capacity (within good-money relations was developed. The low level of purchasing power, especially in rural population, makes a high percentage of foodstuffs be beyond the goods-money relations. In rural areas, they (inclusive of farmers produce and consume a significant portion of foodstuffs that escaped the goods-money relations, or such foodstuffs were given to them by the relatives. We regard that in the process of assessment of the capacity of domestic food market, this share of products should also be taken into account. The assessment also necessitates consideration of the number of urban and rural population in Ukrainian regions; manufacturing of certain types of agricultural production; needs in this or that type of product as prescribed by minimal and rational consumption rates. When predicting, with the use of economic-mathematical modeling, the places of farming economies in commoditization of food market, it is reasonable to apply the parameters of time series of the number of farming economies and the areas of lands used by them with consideration of the dynamics of population number and the level of its (population self-provision with agricultural production. Application of predictive linear models shows that the share of production manufactured by farming economies will be most essential before 2020 on the market of potatoes and vegetables (reaching 15 %. Despite the predicted double increase in animal production, its share

  6. Social Planning and Economic Coercion

    OpenAIRE

    Hintermann, Beat; Rutherford, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of social planning with a concern for economic coercion, which we define as the difference between consumers’ actual utility, and the "counterfactual" utility they expect to obtain if they were able to set policy themselves. Reasons to limit economic coercion include protecting minorities, preventing disenfranchised groups from engaging in socially costly behavior, or political economy considerations. As long as consumers are fully rational, limiting coercion is equivale...

  7. The Elgar companion to social economics : Second edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, John B.; Dolfsma, Wilfred

    2015-01-01

    Social economics is a dynamic and growing field that emphasizes the key roles social values play in the economy and economic life. This second edition of the Elgar Companion to Social Economics revises all chapters from the first edition, and adds important new chapters to reflect the expansion and

  8. 36 CFR 219.19 - Ecological, social, and economic sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economic sustainability. 219.19 Section 219.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE..., Social, and Economic Sustainability § 219.19 Ecological, social, and economic sustainability. Sustainability, composed of interdependent ecological, social, and economic elements, embodies the Multiple-Use...

  9. Socially just publishing: implications for geographers and their journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Batterbury

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been a range of protests against the high journal subscription costs, and author processing charges (APCs levied for publishing in the more prestigious and commercially run journals that are favoured by geographers. But open protests across the sector like the ‘Academic Spring’ of 2012, and challenges to commercial copyright agreements, have been fragmented and less than successful. I renew the argument for ‘socially just’ publishing in geography. For geographers this is not limited to choosing alternative publication venues. It also involves a considerable effort by senior faculty members that are assessing hiring and promotion cases, to read and assess scholarship independently of its place of publication, and to reward the efforts of colleagues that offer their work as a public good. Criteria other than the citation index and prestige of a journal need to be foregrounded. Geographers can also be publishers, and I offer my experience editing the free online Journal of Political Ecology.

  10. Social and economic growth of developing nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregersen, H.M.; Laarman, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on social and economic growth of developing nations. Trees and forests are often of immeasurable importance to developing countries of the world. To be of value, however, effective and efficient institutions, programs, and policies must be designed and focused on such resources. Forest economics and policy researchers can contribute much to such activities. To be most effective, forest economics research should be designed to improve understanding of social forestry, watershed management, and nontimber forest outputs; enhance ability to effectively address environmental consequences of forestry development; heighten skill in guiding development of industrial forestry enterprises; and improve effectiveness of international aid for forestry development. Guided by such strategic directions, forest economics research can contribute much to the economic and social well-being of developing nations

  11. About the Geographic Distribution of Economic Science in Asian Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Nikolaevich Demyanenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of empirical studies of modern geographic distribution of economic science in Asian Russia (i. e. three macro-regions of Russia: Far East, Siberia and the Urals Region. The study is based on an original database of articles on Economics and related disciplines which arearranged within the Elibrary platformfor 2005-2013. These articles arewritten by fellows of research organizations that are located in the Asian part of Russia.Statistical analysis of the main indicators of publication activity shows that there are significant differences in the scope, dynamics, and quality of the results of this activity among the research organizations of various types.The authors focused on the territorial structure of the study of the economy defined as a set of scientific centers of varying scale and type, as well as networks of scientific communication.It is revealed that publication activity of economic research institutions in Asian Russia has a high level of spatial concentration and the system of scientific communication, formed by the scientific journals of the region, has a high level of fragmentation

  12. National IQs: A Review of Their Educational, Cognitive, Economic, Political, Demographic, Sociological, Epidemiological, Geographic and Climatic Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard; Vanhanen, Tatu

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of 244 correlates of national IQs that have been published from 2002 through 2012 and include educational attainment, cognitive output, educational input, per capita income, economic growth, other economic variables, crime, political institutions, health, fertility, sociological variables, and geographic and…

  13. Ensuring economic, health, and social well-being for Papua New Guinea through trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa'alili-Fidow, Jacinta

    2011-01-01

    The impacts of trade liberalization and open markets on global, regional, and local economies are a key consideration for those involved in government, business, and financial sectors. However, their impacts on health and social well-being of populations are not well-evidenced acknowledged within the health sector, let alone the impact on developing countries. As free trade becomes an inevitable outcome for many developing nations, the full implications of trade on economies, environments, and population health needs to be better articulated in order to ensure fully informed trade negotiations that support equitable outcomes. This article takes a broad look at the key issues for Papua New Guinea (PNG) in trade and how these translate to discrepancies in economic, health, and social benefits for its population. Despite its active trading and high GDP, only 10% of the population experience better economic and social outcomes. The bulk of PNG's population lives in poverty, challenged by geographical, cultural, and political barriers to better income, education, and health. Progress needs to be made to minimize these barriers and to allow more of PNG's population to experience the economic benefits generated through trade activities. A balance needs to be maintained between the desire of developed countries to broaden their markets, and the efforts of developing countries to promote and protect the health and well-being of their populations through increasing participation in global markets. PACER Plus presents an opportunity for pursuing alternative models of trade agreements that support and develop Pacific health.

  14. Diets and Health: How Food Decisions Are Shaped by Biology, Economics, Geography, and Social Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    Health is shaped by both personal choices and features of the food environment. Food-choice decisions depend on complex interactions between biology and behavior, and are further modulated by the built environment and community structure. That lower-income families have lower-quality diets is well established. Yet, diet quality also varies across small geographic neighborhoods and can be influenced by transportation, retail, and ease of access to healthy foods, as well as by attitudes, beliefs, and social interactions. The learnings from the Seattle Obesity Study (SOS II) can be usefully applied to the much larger, more complex, and far more socially and ethnically diverse urban environment of New York City. The Kavli HUMAN Project (KHP) is ideally positioned to advance the understanding of health disparities by exploring the multiple underpinnings of food decision making. By combining geo-localized food shopping and consumption data with health behaviors, diet quality measures, and biomarkers, also coded by geographic location, the KHP will create the first-of-its-kind bio-behavioral, economic, and cultural atlas of diet quality and health for New York City.

  15. Social Capital and Economic Development: A Neighborhood Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Hanka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sean Safford’s 2009 book Why the Garden Club Couldn’t Save Youngstown introduces a revolutionary idea that much of a community’s economic resilience is tied to the social capital that exists within it. Recent research suggests that social capital not only benefits those who develop it, but it can serve as a source of economic development in the communities in which it arises. Past quantitative research on the economic benefit of social capital has only examined the city or higher levels of aggregation. This study measures social capital in three diverse socioeconomic neighborhoods to better understand how social capital can serve as a tool for economic development. An ordered probit regression model was developed to examine how individual and neighborhood levels of social capital benefit households within these communities. Moreover, this study addresses how differences in social capital across neighborhoods are explained by both individual and neighborhood characteristics.

  16. GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION MEDIATIZATION AND MEDIASECURITY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Arpentieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the interaction of legal and moral development of media technologies in the context of geographical education. The article summarizes the experience of the theoretical analysis of mediatization in geographic education, the legal and moral aspects of the disorders and ways of their prevention and correction in the process of educational interaction between teacher and student, between student and teacher, mediated mediatechnologies. It is noted that geographical education in the modern world is education, which is closely associated with the use of media technologies. In other types of education the role of media technologies in improving the quality of education is less obvious, in the field of teaching and learning geography, it speaks very clearly. Therefore, the problems associated with its mediatization, are very important and their solution is particularly compelling. These issues are primarily associated with actively flowing social, economic, political and ideological crisis in many communities and countries of the Earth. Many of them as in the “mirror” are reflected in the sphere of high technologies, including media technologies. The article provides guidance and direction to the correction of violations at the individual and social levels.

  17. Inferring personal economic status from social network location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shaojun; Morone, Flaviano; Sarraute, Carlos; Travizano, Matías; Makse, Hernán A.

    2017-05-01

    It is commonly believed that patterns of social ties affect individuals' economic status. Here we translate this concept into an operational definition at the network level, which allows us to infer the economic well-being of individuals through a measure of their location and influence in the social network. We analyse two large-scale sources: telecommunications and financial data of a whole country's population. Our results show that an individual's location, measured as the optimal collective influence to the structural integrity of the social network, is highly correlated with personal economic status. The observed social network patterns of influence mimic the patterns of economic inequality. For pragmatic use and validation, we carry out a marketing campaign that shows a threefold increase in response rate by targeting individuals identified by our social network metrics as compared to random targeting. Our strategy can also be useful in maximizing the effects of large-scale economic stimulus policies.

  18. How Do Social Capital and HIV/AIDS Outcomes Geographically Cluster and Which Sociocontextual Mechanisms Predict Differences Across Clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransome, Yusuf; Dean, Lorraine T; Crawford, Natalie D; Metzger, David S; Blank, Michael B; Nunn, Amy S

    2017-09-01

    Place of residence has been associated with HIV transmission risks. Social capital, defined as features of social organization that improve efficiency of society by facilitating coordinated actions, often varies by neighborhood, and hypothesized to have protective effects on HIV care continuum outcomes. We examined whether the association between social capital and 2 HIV care continuum outcomes clustered geographically and whether sociocontextual mechanisms predict differences across clusters. Bivariate Local Moran's I evaluated geographical clustering in the association between social capital (participation in civic and social organizations, 2006, 2008, 2010) and [5-year (2007-2011) prevalence of late HIV diagnosis and linkage to HIV care] across Philadelphia, PA, census tracts (N = 378). Maps documented the clusters and multinomial regression assessed which sociocontextual mechanisms (eg, racial composition) predict differences across clusters. We identified 4 significant clusters (high social capital-high HIV/AIDS, low social capital-low HIV/AIDS, low social capital-high HIV/AIDS, and high social capital-low HIV/AIDS). Moran's I between social capital and late HIV diagnosis was (I = 0.19, z = 9.54, P social capital was lowest and HIV burden the highest, compared with clusters with high social capital and lowest HIV burden. The association between social participation and HIV care continuum outcomes cluster geographically in Philadelphia, PA. HIV prevention interventions should account for this phenomenon. Reducing geographic disparities will require interventions tailored to each continuum step and that address socioeconomic factors such as neighborhood median income.

  19. EUROPEAN SOCIAL MODEL.COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OR ECONOMIC HANDICAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovitu Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available “Corporative social responsibility” (CSR represents equally a very actual debate, but also an appraisal criteria of the dynamic of eco-social integration quality process at European level. Especially that the protection need is demanded by the current economic crisis. This concept is meant to combine the position, attitude and behaviour of the trade-unions with the interests of employer’s organisations in search of possible influential mechanisms of the competitive advantage at European level. Due to the current economic crisis, the implications on the labour force market are causing an explainable anxiety. The attention of the decision takers is oriented towards joining the objectives “social well being with economic well being” in view of an expected economic come back. This approach proves a significant change at the level of economic and social policies within the European Union.

  20. Hierarchically sinergistical integration of Social Media Analytics/Social CRM with Business Intelligence and with the Geographic Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Круковський, Ігор Анатолійович; Хомів, Богдан Арсенович; Гаврилюк, Всеволод Леонідович

    2014-01-01

    The actuality of integration of Social Media Analytics/Social CRM with Decision Support Systems on the basis of Business Intelligence 2.0 (DSS/BI 2.0) and with the Geographic Information System is presented. On the basis of their integration a new type of DSS is offered - Social Media Spatial DSS/BI. The variant is shown of this system realization on the programmatic platform of Social Media Analytics of the SemanticForce Company, which has its own semantic analyzer Blueberry. The suitability...

  1. Big Social Network Data and Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Can

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available New information technologies have led to the rapid and effective growth of social networks. The amount of data produced by social networks has increased the value of the big data concept, which is one of the popular current phenomena. The immediate or unpredictable effects of a wide array of economic activities on large masses and the reactions to them can be measured by using social media platforms and big data methods. Thus, it would be extremely beneficial to analyze the harmful environmental and social impacts that are caused by unsustainable business applications. As social networks and big data are popular realms currently, their efficient use would be an important factor in sustainable economic development. Accurate analysis of people’s consumption habits and economic tendencies would provide significant advantages to companies. Moreover, unknown consumption factors that affect the economic preferences of individuals can be discovered and economic efficiency can be increased. This study shows that the numerous solution opportunities that are provided by social networks and big data have become significant tools in dynamic policy creation by companies and states, in solving problems related to women’s rights, the environment, and health.

  2. Corporate sustainability: environmental, social, economic and corporate performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Kocmanová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with corporate sustainability and environmental and social issues of the integration of corporate performance measurement that may lead to sustainable economic success. Sustainability is a strategy of the process of sustainable development. Sustainability of businesses and sustainable performance can be defined as an integration of environmental, social and economic performance. First and foremost, businesses will want to know what indicators can be used to measure environmental, social and economic performance. What is the mutual relationship between environmental, social and economic performance? How can firms arrive at a comprehensive assessment of their performance in relation to sustainability? The aim of this paper is to analyze corporate environmental, social and economic performance and to analyze their mutual relationships. The final part of the article is an assessment of the contemporary situation and draft Key Performance Indicators (KPI for assessment of corporate sustainability that will be the subject of further research in a selected NACE-CZ sector and in accordance with Corporate Sustainability Reporting. KPI provide businesses with a means of measuring progress toward achieving objectives.

  3. The Institutional System of Economic Agents’ Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolova Elena, A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it was made an attempt to analyse the main characteristics of the institutional system of economic agents social responsibility. The institutional system can be described as a complex of norms, rules, regulations and enforcement mechanisms in the context of interactions and communications of economic agents. The institutional nature of social responsibility allow to solve social dilemmas through the internalization of social responsibility norms and creating social value orientations, which are determine the prosocial behaviour of economic agents. The institutional system of social responsibility was described from the methodological institutionalism point of view. Analysing this phenomenon we are required to develop research on the objects of this system (norms, regulations, behaviour, on the subjects of this system (persons, business, government and on the institutional mechanisms (internalization of social responsibility norms, promoting prosocial behaviour, adaptation and transformation of the social responsibility norms aimed to ensure the understanding of origin and significance of social responsibility for modern society.

  4. Economic Analysis of Social Common Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzawa, Hirofumi

    2005-06-01

    Social common capital provides members of society with those services and institutional arrangements that are crucial in maintaining human and cultural life. The term æsocial common capital' is comprised of three categories: natural capital, social infrastructure, and institutional capital. Natural capital consists of all natural environment and natural resources including the earth's atmosphere. Social infrastructure consists of roads, bridges, public transportation systems, electricity, and other public utilities. Institutional capital includes hospitals, educational institutions, judicial and police systems, public administrative services, financial and monetary institutions, and cultural capital. This book attempts to modify and extend the theoretical premises of orthodox economic theory to make them broad enough to analyze the economic implications of social common capital. It further aims to find the institutional arrangements and policy measures that will bring about the optimal state of affairs.

  5. Social and geographical inequalities in suicide in Japan from 1975 through 2005: a census-based longitudinal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuji Suzuki

    Full Text Available Despite advances in our understanding of the countercyclical association between economic contraction and suicide, less is known about the levels of and changes in inequalities in suicide. The authors examined social and geographical inequalities in suicide in Japan from 1975 through 2005.Based on quinquennial vital statistics and census data, the authors analyzed the entire population aged 25-64 years. The total number of suicides was 75,840 men and 30,487 women. For each sex, the authors estimated odds ratios (ORs and 95% credible intervals (CIs for suicide using multilevel logistic regression models with "cells" (cross-tabulated by age and occupation at level 1, seven different years at level 2, and 47 prefectures at level 3. Prefecture-level variance was used as an estimate of geographical inequalities in suicide.Adjusting for age and time-trends, the lowest odds for suicide was observed among production process and related workers (the reference group in both sexes. The highest OR for men was 2.52 (95% CI: 2.43, 2.61 among service workers, whereas the highest OR for women was 9.24 (95% CI: 7.03, 12.13 among security workers. The degree of occupational inequalities increased among men with a striking change in the pattern. Among women, we observed a steady decline in suicide risk across all occupations, except for administrative and managerial workers and transport and communication workers. After adjusting for individual age, occupation, and time-trends, prefecture-specific ORs ranged from 0.76 (Nara Prefecture to 1.36 (Akita Prefecture for men and from 0.79 (Kanagawa Prefecture to 1.22 (Akita Prefecture for women. Geographical inequalities have increased primarily among men since 1995.The present findings demonstrate a striking temporal change in the pattern of social inequalities in suicide among men. Further, geographical inequalities in suicide have considerably increased across 47 prefectures, primarily among men, since 1995.

  6. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    Ștefan-Dragoș CÎRSTEA; Andreea CÎRSTEA

    2015-01-01

    Tourism is a sector with a significant share in the economies of many countries. There are nations whose GDP consists of 40% of the total contribution of tourism to this indicator. One such segment requires permanent research of its economic, social and sustainability dimensions and their importance. This study outlines an overview of the main aspects related to economic and social importance of tourism and how tourism relates to the concept of sustainable development. The total contribution ...

  7. The double burden of malnutrition in Indonesia: Social determinants and geographical variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanandita, Wulung; Tampubolon, Gindo

    2015-12-01

    The presence of simultaneous under- and over-nutrition has been widely documented in low- and middle-income countries, but global nutritional research has seen only a few large-scale population studies from Indonesia. We investigate the social determinants as well as the geographical variations of under- and over-nutrition in Indonesia using the largest public health study ever conducted in the country, the National Basic Health Research 2007 (N=645,032). Multilevel multinomial logistic regression and quantile regression models are fitted to estimate the association between nutritional status and a number of socio-economic indicators at both the individual and district levels. We find that: (1) education and income reduce the odds of being underweight by 10-30% but at the same time increase those of overweight by 10-40%; (2) independent from the compositional effect of poverty, income inequality is detrimental to population health: a 0.1 increase in the Gini coefficient is associated with an 8-12% increase in the odds of an individual׳s being both under- and overweight; and (3) the effects that these determinants have upon nutritional status are not necessarily homogeneous along the continuum of body mass index. Equally important, our analysis reveals that there is substantial spatial clustering of areas with elevated risk of under- or over-nutrition across the 17,000-island archipelago. As of 2007, under-nutrition in Indonesia remains a 'disease of poverty', while over-nutrition is one of affluence. The income inequality accompanying Indonesia׳s economic growth may aggravate the dual burden of under- and over-nutrition. A more equitable economic policy and a policy that improves living standards may be effective for addressing the double burden.

  8. SOCIAL BALANCE - SUMMARY DOCUMENT AND REPORTING ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available General research area of this article is the annual social reports that have as main objective the good information of users of both the internal and external users of accounting information reported. In economic, financial reports along with reports of social attract itself an end, equally profitable and moral, individual and social welfare bringing. Social Balance is an instrument of human resource management information, retrospective summary that aims to satisfy the social information of employees and highlight the social resources of the economic entity and use, in order to know the case where the entity is economic profit or loss realized.

  9. Judicial Enforcement of Economic, Social and Cultural Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulona Haxhiraj

    2013-07-01

    In every society there is violation which implies its citizen not get proper social right, economical right and cultural right. Proper implementation and adoption of judicial enforcement can reduce this violation rate and established social peace. Step mentioned in the above might not perfect but it might be small starting and ensure social, culture & economical right for the people living in the society.

  10. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ștefan-Dragoș CÎRSTEA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a sector with a significant share in the economies of many countries. There are nations whose GDP consists of 40% of the total contribution of tourism to this indicator. One such segment requires permanent research of its economic, social and sustainability dimensions and their importance. This study outlines an overview of the main aspects related to economic and social importance of tourism and how tourism relates to the concept of sustainable development. The total contribution and the direct contribution of tourism to GDP are elements studied within this research. It is also studied the direct contribution of tourism to employment, and the main positive and negative effects of tourism on social life.

  11. Social interactions for economic value? A marketing perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vock, M.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores emerging social interactions in relation to economic value, more specifically how social interactions at the organizational and individual levels may affect individual consumers and companies economically as well. To help shed light on this broad theme, it focuses on two

  12. Economic principles motivating social attention in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Benjamin Y; Parikh, Purak C; Deaner, Robert O; Platt, Michael L

    2007-07-22

    We know little about the processes by which we evaluate the opportunity to look at another person. We propose that behavioural economics provides a powerful approach to understanding this basic aspect of social attention. We hypothesized that the decision process culminating in attention to another person follows the same economic principles that govern choices about rewards such as food, drinks and money. Specifically, such rewards are discounted as a function of time, are tradable for other rewards, and reinforce work. Behavioural and neurobiological evidence suggests that looking at other people can also be described as rewarding, but to what extent these economic principles apply to social orienting remains unknown. Here, we show that the opportunity to view pictures of the opposite sex is discounted by delay to viewing, substitutes for money and reinforces work. The reward value of photos of the opposite sex varied with physical attractiveness and was greater in men, suggesting differential utility of acquiring visual information about the opposite sex in men and women. Together, these results demonstrate that choosing whom to look at follows a general set of economic principles, implicating shared neural mechanisms in both social and non-social decision making.

  13. DETERMINATION OF SOCIAL ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUCCESS OF PRODUCTS:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESEN GÜRBÜZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An Empirical Investigation on the Turkish Food Industry Altough there are studies which evaulate and explain the importance of environmental, social and economic success of a product, it is important to evaluate the considerable success of these three variables together. This paper aims to evaluate economic, social and environmental success of a product all together (but not seperatly by conducting a research.  In this paper for some sample firms operating in the Turkish Food Industry, the variables, which effect the products’ economic, social and enviromental successes, are defined theoretically and the research results are explained investigating if there is a relationship between enviromental, social, economic success criteria and firm size, export, import use of intermediary.

  14. Freedom Riders: A National Geographic Journey in Social Justice through Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Deborah A.; Clabough, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Ann Bausum is an award-winning author who has published more than eight books with National Geographic Society. Passionate about the pursuit of social justice, Bausum channels much of her energy into researching and writing books that help educate young readers about injustices and corruptions that have plagued the country. Her book, "Freedom…

  15. Social learning research in ecological economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebenhüner, Bernd; Rodela, Romina; Ecker, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Social learning studies emerged as part of the ecological economics research agenda rather recently. Questions of how human societies and organisations learn and transition on the basis of environmental knowledge relate to the core ideas of ecological economics with its pluralistic understanding

  16. Economic costs of social phobia: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acarturk, C.; Smit, H.F.E.; de Graaf, R.; van Straten, A.; ten Have, M.; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based

  17. Cultural Challenges of Social-Economic Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen; Ottlewski, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We introduce the concept of social-economic innovation (SEI) and point to cultural challenges involved in instituting SEI. In the second part of the paper, we delve into the alternative exchange system of “Housing for help” (HFH) to explore the challenging negotiation of roles and relations...... of the cultural processes and challenges involved in instituting unconventional social-economic systems. The paucity of existent research and the preliminary nature of our study call for further investigation. Practical implications The study informs individual and institutional efforts to negotiate...

  18. SOCIAL PROGRESS AND ECONOMIC PROJECTS FOR DISADVANTAGED GROUPS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Virgil BALUTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyse the social progress, social politics, social law and successful projects applicable to the some disadvantaged groups: Roma people and woman. Inclusion of Roma people is analysed from economic point of view. The economic problems of equality by gender is presented in terms of labour rate and other relevant ratio. For Roma people the focus of analyse is also on labour involvement. The chapters of the communication are: introduction, literature review ( state of art in the field of social progress, theoretical background, tools for social progress in EU, economic inclusion of Roma population, economic equality by gender, conclusions.

  19. The impact of the neighborhood on the economic mobility, examining the social networks of inhabitants of three segregated neighborhoods from Salvador de Bahia (Brazil, from the social concept isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Treuke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study examines the neighborhood effects on the economic mobility of the inhabitants of three segregated neighborhoods in Salvador (Brazil, in other words the socio-economic advantages and disadvantages affecting the lifes of poor people due to their embeddedness in specific socio-residential contexts. According to the hypothesis of social isolation, the missing articulation with social networks and institutions representing mainstream society and the insufficient exposition to middle class role models foster the reproduction of poverty. However, major disagreement remains whether the contiguity between residents of poor neighborhoods and higherclass condominio-dwellers provides structures of opportunities. Based on a survey analyzing the inhabitants’ egocentric networks, the study confirms that the proximity of Nordeste de Amaralina to middle-/upper-class communities improves the access to labour opportunities. Nevertheless, mechanisms of social segmentation annihilate these potentials. The residents´ networks reveal a high degree of homophily and localism. Segregational structures and the scarcity of economic opportunities in Plataforma foster the networks’ fragmentation whereas the social heterogeneity of Fazenda Grande II interviewees and the socialising effects of public institutions mitigate the impact of segregation. The networks’ composition admits a greater proportion of bridging ties. The study concludes emphasizing the relevance of the social isolation hypothesis in Urban Sociology whenever the process of social network building operates in contexts of segregation where social space appears to be highly congruent with the geographical environment. Whereas Nordeste de Amaralina and Plataforma risk to become socially isolated, the Fazenda Grande II case demonstrates that public investments in social infrastructure stimulate interclass interactions.

  20. Traditional, modern or mixed? Perspectives on social, economic, and health impacts of evolving food retail in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Sleigh, Adrian

    Transnational food retailers expanded to middle-income countries over recent decades responding to supply (liberalized foreign investment) and demand (rising incomes, urbanization, female workforce participation, and time poverty). Control in new markets diffuses along three axes: socio-economic (rich to poor), geographic (urban to rural), and product category (processed foods to fresh foods). We used a mixed method approach to study the progression of modern retail in Thailand on these three axes and consumer preferences for food retailing. In Thailand modern retail controls half the food sales but traditional fresh markets remain important. Quantitative questionnaires administered to members of a large national cohort study revealed around half of respondents were primarily traditional shoppers and half either utilized modern and traditional formats equally or primarily shopped at supermarkets. Fresh foods were mainly purchased at traditional retail formats and dry packaged foods at supermarkets. Qualitative interviews found price and quality of produce and availability of culturally important products to be significant reasons for continued support of fresh markets. Our results show socio-economic and geographic diffusion is already advanced with most respondents having access to and utilizing modern retail. Control of the fresh food sector by transnationals faces barriers in Thailand and may remain elusive. The short to mid-term outcome may be a bifurcated food system with modern and traditional retail each retaining market share, but fresh markets longer term survival may require government assistance as supermarkets become more established. Fresh markets supply affordable, healthy foods, and livelihoods for poorer Thais and are repositories of Thai food culture and social networks. If they survive they will confer cultural, social, economic, and health benefits.

  1. Trust, Social Capital and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, P.; Zabojnik, J.

    2003-01-01

    Many argue that elements of a society s norms, culture or social capital are central to understanding its development.However, these notions have been difficult to capture in economic models.Here we argue that trustworthiness is the economically relevant component of a society s culture and hence

  2. Economic Socialization, Saving and Assets in European Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…

  3. The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfa, Theresa L; Goe, Richard; Kulcsar, Laszlo; Middendorf, Gerad; Bain, Carmen

    2013-02-11

    The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producers attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A multi-method or mixed method research methodology was employed for each case study.

  4. Biosecurity and globalising economic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mather

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter is concerned with the global regulation of animal health. Our case is a recent outbreak of avian influenza in South Africa’s ostrich industry. The analysis confirms an important theme in the emerging social sciences literature on biosecurity, i.e. the paradox of control methods that are rigid and inflexible, and diseases that are indeterminate. We also examine a second approach to the outbreak that relied on local experience and knowledge. Our chapter explores the complex ways in which globalizing economic spaces are integrated into new global regulatory regimes, with important implications for economic, social and geographical processes.

  5. Social and economic ideologies differentially predict prejudice across the political spectrum, but social issues are most divisive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jarret T; Brandt, Mark J; Inbar, Yoel; Chambers, John R; Motyl, Matt

    2017-03-01

    Liberals and conservatives both express prejudice toward ideologically dissimilar others (Brandt et al., 2014). Previous work on ideological prejudice did not take advantage of evidence showing that ideology is multidimensional, with social and economic ideologies representing related but separable belief systems. In 5 studies (total N = 4912), we test 3 competing hypotheses of a multidimensional account of ideological prejudice. The dimension-specific symmetry hypothesis predicts that social and economic ideologies differentially predict prejudice against targets who are perceived to vary on the social and economic political dimensions, respectively. The social primacy hypothesis predicts that such ideological worldview conflict is experienced more strongly along the social than economic dimension. The social-specific asymmetry hypothesis predicts that social conservatives will be more prejudiced than social liberals, with no specific hypotheses for the economic dimension. Using multiple target groups, multiple prejudice measures (e.g., global evaluations, behavior), and multiple social and economic ideology measures (self-placement, issue positions), we found relatively consistent support for the dimension-specific symmetry and social primacy hypotheses, and no support for the social-specific asymmetry hypothesis. These results suggest that worldview conflict and negative intergroup attitudes and behaviors are dimension-specific, but that the social dimension appears to inspire more political conflict than the economic dimension. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The impact of Ignalina NPP and Visaginas town on the social territorial processes in the region: the peculiarities of geographical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baubinas, R.

    1998-01-01

    The present work is a discussion of some aspects of organization and methodological substantiation of the state research programme T he Atomic Energetic and Environment . It contains the material of complex social geographical investigations in the Ignalina NPP region carried out in 1995 -1997. The discussed theme is of topical importance because the NPP infrastructure effects all spheres of environment, i. e. not only the nature but the society, way of thinking and integrated formations, occurring as a result of their interaction, as well. The main aim of investigation is to determine the impact of the functioning Ignalina NPP and its infrastructure (including the Visaginas town) on the social environment emphasizing the effect on the social territorial processes. The main tasks are - to reveal the impact of NPP on the regional economic, social, demographic, political and cultural processes in the context of ecological and psychological impact. The Ignalina NPP and Visaginas region is in the state of formation. This process is going on in a very controversial environment, under the conditions of social and cultural isolation. For the geographical situation, functional peculiarities and history this region cannot be attributed to any usual types of region. The social relations of Visaginas with the environment are poor as a result of the ex centric situation of the town, lack communication and mentioned cultural self isolation. Notwithstanding the large social potential of Visaginas it is unable to carry out the functions of regional center. In the international relation of the region the social psychological constituent prevails. For lack of ecological, cultural and, particularly, social relations the political problems of this trans national region are likely to become more acute in the future. Therefore, conditions for rational development of the region will be more difficult. Taking into account the character and development of social territorial processes it

  7. The double burden of malnutrition in Indonesia: Social determinants and geographical variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulung Hanandita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of simultaneous under- and over-nutrition has been widely documented in low- and middle-income countries, but global nutritional research has seen only a few large-scale population studies from Indonesia. We investigate the social determinants as well as the geographical variations of under- and over-nutrition in Indonesia using the largest public health study ever conducted in the country, the National Basic Health Research 2007 (N=645,032. Multilevel multinomial logistic regression and quantile regression models are fitted to estimate the association between nutritional status and a number of socio-economic indicators at both the individual and district levels. We find that: (1 education and income reduce the odds of being underweight by 10–30% but at the same time increase those of overweight by 10–40%; (2 independent from the compositional effect of poverty, income inequality is detrimental to population health: a 0.1 increase in the Gini coefficient is associated with an 8–12% increase in the odds of an individual׳s being both under- and overweight; and (3 the effects that these determinants have upon nutritional status are not necessarily homogeneous along the continuum of body mass index. Equally important, our analysis reveals that there is substantial spatial clustering of areas with elevated risk of under- or over-nutrition across the 17,000-island archipelago. As of 2007, under-nutrition in Indonesia remains a ‘disease of poverty’, while over-nutrition is one of affluence. The income inequality accompanying Indonesia׳s economic growth may aggravate the dual burden of under- and over-nutrition. A more equitable economic policy and a policy that improves living standards may be effective for addressing the double burden.

  8. Economical modelling of social and moral norms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyborg, Karine

    2001-01-01

    Social norms and moral motivations are often ignored in economic models. It is possible, however, to model social and moral norms within the framework of economical theory. This may be useful even if the exposition is necessarily simplified. The article gives some examples. An analysis shows how the ''No Smoking Act'' may have led to a change in social norms in Norway and indirectly changed the behaviour of smokers in places where this act does not apply. Behaviour with moral motivation may also be affected by changes in regulations, economic incentives or other external conditions. For example, a more efficient collection system for source-separated waste may induce people to sharpen the moral claim on their own efforts. Indeed, interviews show that imposing a fee upon people not volunteering in communal work may cause the attendance to drop further

  9. Basic Social-Economic Factors Modelling Customer’s Psychological Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Krastev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with some social and economic factors influencing on customer’s behaviour – such as social class, social-economic status,occupation, education, income, referent groups, family, gender roles and marketing. Some comparisons are made between some factorsinfluencing on customer’s behaviour in the U.S. and in Bulgaria.

  10. Roadmap to a Caring Economics: Beyond Capitalism and Socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riane Eisler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our unprecedented technological, economic, and environmental challenges call for thinking that goes beyond capitalism and socialism, both of which were developed in early industrial times. This article outlines a caring economics or partnerism that supports not only human survival but also human development. It proposes a full-spectrum economic map and economic policies needed at this time when many jobs are being replaced by automation. It looks at issues generally ignored in the conversation about a new economics, such as intra-household resource allocation, the devaluation of women and the ‘feminine,’ and the view that caring for people, starting in early childhood, is merely reproductive rather than productive work. It examines economic systems in the larger context of societies orienting to either end of the domination-partnership social scale, showing the interaction between social values and economic priorities. It describes new metrics that, unlike GDP and GNP, demonstrate the economic value of caring for people and nature, and proposes other steps toward a caring economics as the basis for a more humane and sustainable future.

  11. Petroleum: Social and economic effect in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Aguas Pután

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents the results of the research work related to the social and economic impact of the exploitation of oil in Ecuador, presents the reader with the methodologies that allowed obtaining the results and the most viable solution to the economic problems facing the country . The purpose of the investigative work is to propose a practical solution to the economic and social situation in the country, especially in the last years when the business started with the international oil companies which did not respect the agreement made by both parties that produced Negative consequences for the land, such as damages, contamination of the rivers, damage of the flora and fauna of the surroundings, it is considered that there were and there are economic fluctuations that have varied the economy and development of the fulfillment of the state budget and the breach of the same Towards social promises to the people of Ecuador, for not having the necessary provisions in the fall of the price of oil and this has its effect on the national budget.

  12. History Shaped the Geographic Distribution of Genomic Admixture on the Island of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Marc; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Fejerman, Laura; Galanter, Joshua; Choudhry, Shweta; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Viera-Vera, Jorge; Oleksyk, Taras K.; Beckman, Kenneth; Ziv, Elad; Risch, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary genetic variation among Latin Americans human groups reflects population migrations shaped by complex historical, social and economic factors. Consequently, admixture patterns may vary by geographic regions ranging from countries to neighborhoods. We examined the geographic variation of admixture across the island of Puerto Rico and the degree to which it could be explained by historic and social events. We analyzed a census-based sample of 642 Puerto Rican individuals that were genotyped for 93 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate African, European and Native American ancestry. Socioeconomic status (SES) data and geographic location were obtained for each individual. There was significant geographic variation of ancestry across the island. In particular, African ancestry demonstrated a decreasing East to West gradient that was partially explained by historical factors linked to the colonial sugar plantation system. SES also demonstrated a parallel decreasing cline from East to West. However, at a local level, SES and African ancestry were negatively correlated. European ancestry was strongly negatively correlated with African ancestry and therefore showed patterns complementary to African ancestry. By contrast, Native American ancestry showed little variation across the island and across individuals and appears to have played little social role historically. The observed geographic distributions of SES and genetic variation relate to historical social events and mating patterns, and have substantial implications for the design of studies in the recently admixed Puerto Rican population. More generally, our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating social and geographic data with genetics when studying contemporary admixed populations. PMID:21304981

  13. Teaching about the "Economic Crisis" Today. The Example of French "Economic and Social Sciences"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coléno, Yves-Patrick; Blanchard, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In France at the high school the subject matter "Sciences Économiques et Sociales" (economic and social sciences) deals with the present economic crisis. We study the ways it is taught about: words, and explanatory patterns. Design/methodology/approach: We use a specific approach, that we call "semantic holism",…

  14. Socioeconomic Development Inequalities among Geographic Units ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic development inequality among geographic units is a phenomenon common in both the developed and developing countries. Regional inequality may result in dissension among geographic units of the same state due to the imbalance in socio-economic development. This study examines the inequality ...

  15. REINVENTING THE GEOGRAPHIC EDUCATION IN TIMES OF CRISIS: ICT IN THE UNIVERSITY CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Peinado Rodríguez

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCTION: The objective of this work is to carry out a reflection on the changes that we have been forced to address from the teaching of the social sciences, and in particular, in the course “Didactics of Social Sciences: geographical space and its didactic treatment”, a subject which is greatly enriched with school trips and educational itineraries for which we lack economic funding, although new technologies are erected in an indispensable resource to offset, at least in part, these deficiencies. We propose to use ICT resources to bring the environment into the classroom, natural and virtual, to have their space in the process of teaching and learning in geographical discipline.

  16. Book Notes “Economics and Social Sciences” 1/2018

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.

    2018-01-01

    Short notes on 10 different book and anthology publications from 2016 and 2017 in the fields of economics and social science.......Short notes on 10 different book and anthology publications from 2016 and 2017 in the fields of economics and social science....

  17. Social Policy and Economic Development in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kangas, Olli; Palme, Joakim

    between democratization and social policy, drawing attention to the role of the state and non-governmental organizations. Social Policy and Economic Development in Nordic Countries examines Nordic social policies on unemployment, social care, family, education and health care policies, and reviews future......This volume examines the relationship between Nordic social policy and economic development from a comparative perspective. It identifies the driving forces behind the development of the Nordic welfare model and the problems and dilemmas the model is facing at present. The book also traces the link...

  18. Criterion IV: Social and economic indicators of rangeland sustainability (Chapter 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. McCollum; Louis E. Swanson; John A. Tanaka; Mark W. Brunson; Aaron J. Harp; L. Allen Torell; H. Theodore Heintz

    2010-01-01

    Social and economic systems provide the context and rationale for rangeland management. Sustaining rangeland ecosystems requires attention to the social and economic conditions that accompany the functioning of those systems. We present and discuss economic and social indicators for rangeland sustainability. A brief conceptual basis for each indicator is offered,...

  19. Economic growth and mortality: do social protection policies matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Usama; Cooper, Richard; Abreu, Francis; Nau, Claudia; Franco, Manuel; Glass, Thomas A

    2017-08-01

    In the 20th century, periods of macroeconomic growth have been associated with increases in population mortality. Factors that cause or mitigate this association are not well understood. Evidence suggests that social policy may buffer the deleterious impact of economic growth. We sought to explore associations between changing unemployment (as a proxy for economic change) and trends in mortality over 30 years in the context of varying social protection expenditures. We model change in all-cause mortality in 21 OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries from 1980 to 2010. Data from the Comparative Welfare States Data Set and the WHO Mortality Database were used. A decrease in the unemployment rate was used as a proxy for economic growth and age-adjusted mortality rates as the outcome. Social protection expenditure was measured as percentage of gross domestic product expended. A 1% decrease in unemployment (i.e. the proxy for economic growth) was associated with a 0.24% increase in the overall mortality rate (95% confidence interval: 0.07;0.42) in countries with no changes in social protection. Reductions in social protection expenditure strengthened this association between unemployment and mortality. The magnitude of the association was diminished over time. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that social protection policies that accompany economic growth can mitigate its potential deleterious effects on health. Further research should identify specific policies that are most effective. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  20. Problems of social and economic growth in the Kyrgyz Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guseva Valentina Ivanovna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article author explores the indirect influence of non-economic factors on the growth dynamics of the volume of GDP, including shows the effect of social problems on economic growth. It is proved that the existence of social problems have a negative impact on the pace of the economic dynamics of the country, due to the mutual dependence of key economic and non-economic factors of growth. On the one hand, the level of income of the population affects the purchasing power, which leads to the increase of the acceleration in economic growth. On the other hand, high levels of poverty and a deepening income inequality dictate political and social instability in society, which negatively affects the dynamics of economic growth. It was revealed that the feature of economic growth in the transitional economy is the negative impact of inflation and unemployment rates of economic dynamics, despite the fact that in most Western models, they are not considered as limiting growth factors.

  1. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Socio-Economic Features, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_socecon_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains socio-economic features in coastal Louisiana. Feature-specific contact, type, and source information are stored in relational data tables...

  2. Social capital calculations in economic systems: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepurov, E. G.; Berg, D. B.; Zvereva, O. M.; Nazarova, Yu. Yu.; Chekmarev, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The paper describes the social capital study for a system where actors are engaged in an economic activity. The focus is on the analysis of communications structural parameters (transactions) between the actors. Comparison between transaction network graph structure and the structure of a random Bernoulli graph of the same dimension and density allows revealing specific structural features of the economic system under study. Structural analysis is based on SNA-methodology (SNA - Social Network Analysis). It is shown that structural parameter values of the graph formed by agent relationship links may well characterize different aspects of the social capital structure. The research advocates that it is useful to distinguish the difference between each agent social capital and the whole system social capital.

  3. Adolescent behavior and achievement, social capital, and the timing of geographic mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Brian Joseph

    2013-09-01

    This paper examines the relationship between geographic mobility and adolescent academic achievement and behavior problems. Specifically, it addresses how the effects of moving differ by age and how social capital moderates the impact of moving on children (aged 6 to 15). Children's behavior problems and academic achievement test scores were compared across four survey waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006) and matched to data from their mothers' reports from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. The findings indicate that the negative behavioral effects of geographic mobility on adolescents are most pronounced for individuals relocating to a new city, county, or state as opposed to those moving locally (i.e., within the same city). Furthermore, as suggested by a life-course perspective, the negative effects of moving on behavior problems decrease as children get older. The results also show that several social capital factors moderate the effects of moving on behavior but not achievement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ecuadorian youth, social and geographic mobility and higher education in Spain and Ecuador. Unequal educational trajectories in times of crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vega Solís

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we analyze the inequalities that emerge from and are reproduced in Ecuadorian’s higher education trajectories in the context of economic crises. We focus on the strategies that these youth and their families employ for social mobility as well as the role of public policy in these processes. We examine the trajectories of three groups: sons and daughters of the 2000 migration wave from Ecuador to Spain who study at universities in Spain, those who have returned to Ecuador for their studies, and Ecuadorians who move to Spain in order to carry out postgraduate studies, some of them funded by scholarships from the Ecuadorian government. The research project employed a qualitative methodology based on interviews, focus groups and a survey with Ecuadorians in Spain who took the entrance exam for admittance into Ecuador’s public university system. Our findings highlight the varied forms of capitals that these diverse students employ, as well as the social and economic constraints that they encounter. In a period of economic crisis in Spain, the first group of students must often downgrade their expectations in order to continue their studies. Their experience contrasts starkly with Ecuadorians undertaking postgraduate studies in Spain, whose heterogenous trajectories are upwardly and geographically mobile. The case of the return university students to Ecuador shows us that education is inserted into a broader strategy that depends on transnational networks shaped over more than a decade of Ecuador-Spain migration.

  5. EPA's Role in the United Nations Economic and Social Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) considers the world’s economic, social, and environmental challenges. ECOSOC is composed of subsidiary bodies, including the recently concluded Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD).

  6. Economic and social rights in the Constitution of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapajić Milan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is an attempt of the author to, in a relatively systematic way, presents the norms of Economic and Social Rights in the Constitution of Serbia from 2006. Before that, in the introduction the author refers to the commonplace with regard to human rights and their institutionalization, constitutionalization and internationalization. The process of institutionalization of human rights was started in England by adoption of the Great Charter of Freedoms (Magna Carta Libertatum in 1215. Constitutionalization of human rights begins with the adoption of the first ten amendments to the US Constitution in 1791. French writers of the Constitution unlike the American in Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen proclaimed certain new rights such as freedom of movement, freedom of assembly, the right to free expression of thought, right to petition or freedom of culture. At first human rights were an asset to limit state power, but with new theories by which the state can not be seen only as a political organization, but as a community that has a socio-economic content, the state must guarantee to the citizens a certain corpus of economic and social rights by Constitution. Economic, social and cultural rights are classified as second generation of rights. Economic and social rights are directed to the fact that individuals are brought to the position that they can enjoy their civil and political rights. These rights, known as social welfare, are rights based on the principles of equality and solidarity, and their purpose is, inter alia, to help to the socially vulnerable members of the community. Constitutional act, which is important for the world the constitutional recognition of these rights is the Weimar Constitution from 1919. which predicted legislative measures to implement these rights. For the internationalization of these rights very important is Universal Declaration of Human Rights from 1948 and the International Covenant on

  7. ROLE OF THE TOURISM SECTOR IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CARPATHIAN REGION: SOCIAL, EDUCATIONAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Kondur

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources in the Carpathian region, favorable natural and geographical conditions give preference to the development of recreational industry over other types of industrial activity that provides: employment of people in recreational region, development of Ukraine and the recognition of its economy internationally, positive impact on the formation of individual. This necessitates a systematic study of a wide range of organizational problems, recreational planning and creation of new management models for tourist activities. Modern development of the tourism industry is associated with such socio-economic factors: the growth of social welfare and the effective demand for tourist services; increasing demand for vacation and recreation; urbanization and globalization; communicational and humanitarian factors; transformation of traditions, cultures and social consciousness; changes in the structure of spiritual values; increased leisure time etc.

  8. ESTIMATING FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF REGIONAL PROGRAMS OF SOCIAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kokhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The given article presents the analysis of the experience of the financial support of the regional programs of social economic development and the areas of usage of internal and external resources of the area. Dynamic and balanced development of regions is one of the most important issues for further establishment of marketing relations and social transformations in Ukraine. The Aim lies in the evaluation of financial support of the approved regional programs and launching the amount of their financing. The assessment of social economic situation in Ivano-Frankivsk region in terms of nationwide tendencies allows asserting that economic growth depends on the amounts and sources provided by the state. To determine close connection between  the amount of financing  for the programs  and  gross domestic product, the coefficient of correlation was calculated according to Pierson. It was proved that the amount of financing regional programs of social economic development influences the growth rate of gross domestic product. During research period the activation of regional authority institutions is being surveyed regarding the adoption and financing target regional programs. It was determined that the dynamic activity of the regional community and its territorial units on realization in terms of defined strategic priorities for programs of social economic development will facilitate disproportion reduction and differences in the development of territory units in the region, as well as positively influences the growth of gross domestic product providing steady increase of social welfare. Keywords: social economic regional development, ecology programs, social programs, gross regional domestic product, Pierson’s correlation coefficient. JEL: R 58

  9. Social-Economic Foundation for Smooth Changes in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zaibang

    2012-01-01

    Chairman Kim Jong-il's death has sparked worldwide interest in the 'future direction of the D.P.R.K. political, economic, social and diplomatic policies. After all, as the youngest national leader in the world, Kim Jong-un has little experience, especially as he has been involved in national governance for such a very short time. Whether he earl unite all the high-level leaders of the ruling party, government and military and achieve a smooth transition in national political, economic and social life will affect the well-being of all Korean people, and the security and stability in the whole of Northeast Asia. However, a dispassionate analysis of North Korea's recent economic and social development may show that North Korea's future prospects may not be as gloomy as some people predict.

  10. Studying the making of geographical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2009-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of being a ‘double' insider when conducting interviews. Double insider means being an insider both in relation to one's research matter - in the authors' case the making of geographical knowledge - and in relation to one's interviewees - our colleagues. The article...... is a reflection paper in the sense that we reflect upon experiences drawn from a previous research project carried out in Danish academia. It is important that the project was situated in a Scandinavian workplace culture because this has bearings for the social, cultural, and economic situation in which knowledge...

  11. Social Wealth Economic Indicators for a Caring Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indradeep Ghosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay introduces the reader to an entirely new set of measures that are urgently needed by policymakers and business leaders to foster personal, business, and national economic success. Social Wealth Economic Indicators are measures suggested by a partnership model of society, and they inform us that care work matters tremendously but is grossly undervalued. In our contemporary knowledge-service economy, the essential ingredient for social and economic progress is high-quality human capital, and the way to build such human capital is to support the work of caring and caregiving, traditionally considered “women’s work.” The data presented in this essay clearly show that early childhood care and education, family-friendly workplace practices, and the status of women are key determinants of economic success. But they are also necessary for healthy, creative, and cohesive societies in which members work in partnership with each other and with the natural environment to improve living conditions for all. This is the true meaning of social wealth.

  12. Social and economic implications of the installation of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivetti, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the Italian experience with the evaluation, control, and containment of the social and economic impacts of nuclear power plant installations. Social and economic impact is defined as a set of causal relationships, direct and indirect, which are established between a nuclear plant and a surrounding territory. A nuclear plant imposes certain permanent restrictions in the use of the surrounding territory. The utilization of particularly dangerous substances requires that the plants be sited at a due distance from large urban centers and industrial areas. Therefore they are located in rural areas where the social and economic equilibria are less stable and more easily subjected to disturbances from outside factors. Essential services which must be provided for nonresident workers during the construction phase result in massive impacts which are compensated by the inflow of economic resources into the community. Social tension is also a likely consequence of importing workers into a community. There are disruptive effects induced by the high salaries paid to the construction workers such as local inflation. During the operating phase, the impacts will be smaller in proportion to the construction phase. Examples of social and economic impacts of nuclear plants in Italy are cited

  13. Noblesse oblige? Social status and economic inequality maintenance among politicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Callaghan, Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Economic inequality is at historically high levels in the United States and is among the most pressing issues facing society. And yet, predicting the behavior of politicians with respect to their support of economic inequality remains a significant challenge. Given that high status individuals tend to conceive of the current structure of society as fair and just, we expected that high status members of the U.S. House of Representatives would be more likely to support economic inequality in their legislative behavior than would their low status counterparts. Results supported this prediction particularly among Democratic members of Congress: Whereas Republicans tended to support legislation increasing economic inequality regardless of their social status, the social status of Democrats - measured in terms of average wealth, race, or gender - was a significant predictor of support for economic inequality. Policy implications of the observed relationship between social status and support for economic inequality are considered.

  14. Bonding and Bridging Social Capital and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, S.; Smulders, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we develop a formal model of economic growth and two types of social capital. Following extant literature, we model social capital as participation in two types of social networks: first, closed networks of family and friends, and, second, open networks that bridge different

  15. The Impact of Social Media on Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Anno, Roberto; Rayna, Thierry; Solomon, O. Helen

    2015-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. This article attempts to investigate the impact of social media (SM) on economic growth. Using information obtained from memberships to social networks, we find that SM has a negative and significant impact on economic growth. This provides evidence in favour of our hypothesis that SM increases the search costs for information and also increase...

  16. Social murder: the long-term effects of conservative economic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomas, Robert; Hudson, Ian

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors take inspiration from Engels's 1845 account of the social murder committed by British capitalists to assess the contemporary impact of conservative economic policy, which they define as policies designed to maximize the accumulation of profit while socializing the associated risks and costs. Conservative economists argue that if their policy prescription is followed, it will produce broad-based economic benefits including more rapid growth, higher incomes, less illness, and, even, more democracy. The authors contrast the myth of conservative economic policy with the reality. What conservative economic policy has actually accomplished is a redistribution of wealth and power away from the vast majority of the population to firms and their owners. The effects of these policies on citizens and workers have been socially determined economic instability, unemployment, poverty, inequality, dangerous products, and infectious and chronic disease.

  17. Economics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bupp, I.C.; Derian, J.C.; Donsimoni, M.P.; Treitel, R.

    1975-01-01

    Present trends in nuclear reactor costs are interpreted as the economic result of a fundamental debate regarding the social acceptability of nuclear power. Rising capital costs for nuclear power plants are evaluated through statistical analysis of time-related factors, characteristics of licensing and construction costs, physical characteristics of reactors, and geographic and site-related factors. Conclusions are drawn regarding the impact of social acceptability on reactor costs, engineering estimates of future costs, and the possibility of increased potential relative competitiveness for coal-fueled plants. 7 references. (U.S.)

  18. GLOBALIZATION AS A POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Flores Trujillo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is defined as a process that integrates knowledge worldwide, has its historical reference on changes in the ways processes, methods and information are addressed; documented its inception in the late twentieth century, Castells, M. (2001 beyond the discrepancy about whether it is a product of technological development or an inevitable evolution of capitalism, research arises from the formulation of the following questions: How important is the study of globalization ?, What has produced important contributions in the scientific community about globalization? And What are the perspectives or approaches addressed? . This work aims to show how the scientific community has produced knowledge about this phenomenon addressing the political, economic and social approaches: From the economic point of view reconfigures how to address the processes of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in the world, permeating this way all international economic events. From the political point of view, besides the redistribution of emerging geopolitical blocs, it establishes a new category of state, transnational state. From the social point of view, it shows evidence of the negative effects of globalization on resizing the category personal, local or regional or even in global risk-Global group. The research is documentary literature, their contribution to social science evidence to characterize globalization as political, economic and social phenomenon of the century that permeates all areas of study applied.

  19. Economic aspects of the social rehabilitation of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitel'man, L.D.; Ratnikov, B.E.

    1992-01-01

    This article highlights the state of affairs regarding nuclear power in Russia at this time in the post-Chernobyl era. environmentalists and others are leveling criticisms at nuclear power stating that nuclear plants should be shutdown and preservation can offset the demands for electricity. The authors are advised to examine a new consensus for developing nuclear power, which could form the basis of a new program of social rehabilitation, and not a singular rejection of constructing new nuclear power plants. Public acceptance of nuclear power can be obtained only by resolving contradictions and by harmonizing the interests of all social groups and of all subjects of economic relationships, which in one way or another are connected to the financing and functioning of nuclear power plants (the local population, personnel, energy users, regional energy organizations, and local government). A strategy oriented to overall acceptance of nuclear power should consider intra area factors and also external economic environments: the choice of nuclear power plant location on the basis of careful and independent expertise with the use of rigid social-economic criteria and a sharp increase in the attention to human factors. Important features in changes in the economic environments are the transition to a marketplace economy, the reorientation of budget expenditures to social goals, and the expansion of regional economic independence. This requires a significant strengthening of the regional control of electrification and the creation of corresponding economic mechanisms

  20. Glastonbury Festival 2007: The Socio-Economic Impacts on the Host Community

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    Event tourism, particularly festival tourism, is increasingly becoming a focus for tourism research. There are numerous impacts of festival tourism to the tourism industry and they often have numerous effects upon the host community. This research investigates the economic and social impacts of Glastonbury Festival 2007 on the host community. The research estimates a total economic impact on the immediate and the wider geographical area and gains an insight into the social impacts of the F...

  1. LEGAL INSTRUMENT FOR PROTECTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION PRODUCT IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almusawir Nansa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As an archipelago country, Indonesia comprises of a large territory where every region is capable of producing distinctive and characterized products due to its geographical, social, and cultural factors, in addition to its higher quality compared to imported products. In the market, goods with distinct characterization as a result of various geographical locations of production regions is known as Geographical Indication Products. Geographical Indication defines as a characterization that indicates the origin of a product, which includes several influencing factors such as geographical factor, natural factor, human factor or the combination of both factors which eventually contribute to establish a certain distinction and quality upon a product. Several geographical indicated products in Indonesia are widely known to have excellent reputation on the market, namely Delinese tobacco, Temanggung tobacco, Ciancur rice, Muntok white pepper, Lampung black pepper, Kerinci cinnamon, Cilembu cassava, Bandanese nutmeg, Proboliggo sweet mango, Balinese Kintamani coffee, Kalosi coffee, Papuan matoa, etc. Those are several richness of goods from certain regions in Indonesia widely known for their characterization. Characterization of goods are resulted by variation of geographic locations of producing regions in Indonesia. These goods possess high quality and high economic value. Consequently, certain instruments are required to provide protection upon the regions producing those goods against the act of counterfeiting.

  2. EU governance of economic and social policies : Chances and challenges for social Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, S.; Klosse, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at establishing to what extent the renewed EU economic and social policy coordination cycles offer opportunities to uphold and further develop the Union’s social objectives. First, it seeks to examine to what extent the legal frameworks in which macroeconomic and social policies

  3. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... disadvantage. 1400.4 Section 1400.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The representatives of the group requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a preponderance of the...

  4. Economic Stress, Social Support, and Maternal Depression: Is Social Support Deterioration Occurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Kim, Kevin H.; Anderson, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal depression in low-income women is a significant problem because of its negative consequences for both mothers and their children. Economic stress increases risk for depression; however, mechanisms linking economic stress and depression are not well understood. The social support deterioration model suggests that chronic stressors can…

  5. Effects of Age-related Differences in Empathy on Social Economic Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Beadle, Janelle N.; Paradiso, Sergio; Kovach, Christopher; Polgreen, Linnea; Denburg, Natalie; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background: The ways in which aging affects social economic decision-making is a central issue in the psychology of aging. To examine age-related differences in social economic decision-making as a function of empathy, 80 healthy volunteers participated in the Repeated Fixed Opponent Ultimatum Game (UG-R). Previous economic decision-making research has shown that in younger adults empathy is associated with prosocial behavior. The effects of empathy on older adult social economic decision-mak...

  6. The Economic Causes and Consequences of Social Instability in China

    OpenAIRE

    John Knight

    2012-01-01

    Social instability is a concept that economists rarely analyse, and yet it can lurk behind much economic policy-making. China’s leadership has often publicly expressed its concerns to avoid ‘social instability’. It is viewed as a threat both to the political order and to the continued rapid growth of the economy. This threat to growth in turn endangers the maintenance of social stability. This paper examines the likely economic determinants of social instability, using both surveys and ...

  7. Economic Perspectives on Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    KITZMUELLER, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Defense date: 16/04/2010 Examining Board: Professor Pascal Courty, University of Victoria, Canada, Supervisor Professor Luigi Guiso, EUI Professor Franklin Allen, University of Pennsylvania Professor Benjamin Lockwood, University of Warwick What is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and how can we explain the phenomenon from an economic perspective? Is there a business case for CSR and was Milton Friedman right when writing in the New York Times in 1970 that "the social r...

  8. THE ENTREPRENEURIAL START-UP PROCESS: THE ROLE OF SOCIAL CAPITAL AND THE SOCIAL ECONOMIC CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkhbold Chuluunbaatar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is a complex phenomenon that involves not only economic activity but also social mechanisms. The intention to become an entrepreneur is a matter not only of one’s individual personality but also of one's interaction with the social environment. This study has three main objectives: predicting the existence of entrepreneurial behavioural intentions in different socio-economic conditions; examining how entrepreneurial behavioural intentions formulate entrepreneurial behaviour; and identifying how social capital influences this relationship. It also aims to reveal the differences between entrepreneurs in a relatively mature free market economy (Taiwan and a newly emerging free market economy (Mongolia. The analysis shows that socio-economic conditions affect the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. There are different approaches to building social capital in a relatively mature market and its newly emerging counterpart. The tendency of having high trust and social ties was found in Taiwanese entrepreneurs, while monitoring is commonly found among Mongolian entrepreneurs.

  9. The crisis of the economic model, overview of the social state: cooperative societies as the key solution “Socially Intellegent Restructuring” in the European Union, towards a new vision of the economic and social order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pastor Sempere

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the European Economic and Social Committee: “We are witnessing a large-scale restructuring as a consequence of the crisis in the European economy. Socially responsible restructuring strategies are essential in order to avoid additional enterprise closures and failures, to preserve and create employment and organize social welfare by boosting competitiveness and local development.” (Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee on “Cooperatives and restructuring”, (2012/C 91/05:eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2012:191:0024:0029:ES:PDF In view of an endless economic recession, co-operative societies can play a key role in the entrepreneurial and social recovery and restructuring. This paper shows that this is likely to happen if we create a cooperative model in accordance with the principles of the socially intelligent restructuring processes proposed by the European Economic and Social Committee on «Cooperatives and Restructuring.

  10. BERCENI VILLAGE - A SOCIAL-ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina IORGA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural modernization aims at maintaining rural societies through occupational diversification that will improvequality of life and avoid rural exodus. It aims to acquire some features of the modern world such as those related totechnical, increased productivity, infrastructure, whereby rural community enriches its identity, acquiring newmeanings.This study is a close social-economical analysis of the countryside households of Berceni village. Berceniis in the southern county of Ilfov near Bucharest. It is based on the statistical data provided by National Institute ofStatistics. The data have been processed into the following indicators:age structure and gender, births and deaths,feminization, migration .Considering that human resources is the main factor in developing and moderinization ofrural space, this study is aimed to investigate as well, the posibility of diversifying inhabitants’ occupationsaccording to pshicologycal, social and economical resources.

  11. developing world poverty, inequality, violence and social

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (DOSMeD) or Ten-Country Study)2 and the International. Study of ... rates in relation to variables such as geographical site, urban. Dispelling a myth: ... violence and social fragmentation ... However, the reality is that significant political, social and economic ills that ... schizophrenia “is fertile ground for the generation of new.

  12. The impact of macro-economic circumstances and social protection expenditure on economic deprivation in 25 European countries, 2007-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Mark; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigate to what extent macro-economic circumstances and social protection expenditure affect economic deprivation. We use three items from round five of the European Social Survey (2010-2011) to construct our latent outcome variable, which we label economic deprivation in the 3

  13. Mathematical-statistical models and qualitative theories for economic and social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Maturo, Fabrizio; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad spectrum of problems related to statistics, mathematics, teaching, social science, and economics as well as a range of tools and techniques that can be used to solve these problems. It is the result of a scientific collaboration between experts in the field of economic and social systems from the University of Defence in Brno (Czech Republic), G. d’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara (Italy), Pablo de Olavid eUniversity of Sevilla (Spain), and Ovidius University in Constanţa, (Romania). The studies included were selected using a peer-review process and reflect heterogeneity and complexity of economic and social phenomena. They and present interesting empirical research from around the globe and from several research fields, such as statistics, decision making, mathematics, complexity, psychology, sociology and economics. The volume is divided into two parts. The first part, “Recent trends in mathematical and statistical models for economic and social sciences”, collects pap...

  14. Areva 2006 figures - Economic, social, societal and environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the 2006 economic, social, societal and environmental data of the Areva Group. Content: 1 - Improvement initiative: Continuous improvement, Innovation, stakeholder relations, local economic development, Financial performance; 2 - Commitment to employees: Health and safety, Radiation protection, Radiological impacts, Technological risks, employees and training; 3 - Environment: Water, Energy, Gaseous releases, Liquid releases, Conventional waste, Radioactive waste; 4 - Reporting and performance indicators: Reporting methodology, Auditors' report, Social indicators, Environmental indicators

  15. Economics, Corporate Sustainability and Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2008-01-01

    It is often argued that corporate sustainability requires a corporation to make a profit, to act in a socially responsible manner and to engage in policies that are environmentally sustainable. This is sometimes called the corporation’s triple bottom line. In this paper it is argued that in practice profitability or more general maintaining economic variability constitutes a corporation’s bottom line and that it is limited by this consideration in showing social responsibility and in acting w...

  16. Economic costs of social phobia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acarturk, C; Smit, Filip; de Graaf, R; van Straten, A; Ten Have, M; Cuijpers, P

    2009-06-01

    Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based prospective study (n=4,789). Costs related to health service uptake, patients' out-of-pocket expenses, and costs arising from production losses were calculated for the reference year 2003. The costs for people with social phobia were compared with the costs for people with no mental disorder. The annual per capita total costs of social phobia were euro 11,952 (95% CI=7,891-16,013) which is significantly higher than the total costs for people with no mental disorder, euro 2957 (95% CI=2690-3224). When adjusting for mental and somatic co-morbidity, the costs decreased to euro 6,100 (95% CI=2681-9519), or 136 million euro per year per 1 million inhabitants, which was still significantly higher than the costs for people with no mental disorder. The costs of subthreshold social phobia were also significantly higher than the costs for people without any mental disorder, at euro 4,687 (95% CI=2557-6816). The costs presented here are conservative lower estimates because we only included costs related to mental health services. The economic costs associated with social phobia are substantial, and those of subthreshold social phobia approach those of the full-blown disorder.

  17. Indigenous social and economic structure in precolonial Idanreland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-colonial Idanre was built on household farming, and reciprocal economic system among family members, age group and joint communal mode of production. Economic system in precolonial Idanre was therefore, conducted with an eye on widening social af nity, inclusive development and tightening cultural bond ...

  18. Economic Screening of Geologic Sequestration Options in the United States with a Carbon Management Geographic Information System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahowski, Robert T.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Dooley, James J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Brown, Daryl R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Stephan, Alex J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Badie I. Morsi

    2001-10-19

    Developing a carbon management strategy is a formidable task for nations as well as individual companies. It is often difficult to understand what options are available, let alone determine which may be optimal. In response to the need for a better understanding of complex carbon management options, Battelle has developed a state-of-the-art Geographic Information System (GIS) model with economic screening capability focused on carbon capture and geologic sequestration opportunities in the United States. This paper describes the development of this GIS-based economic screening model and demonstrates its use for carbon management analysis.

  19. The current Russian model of social development, and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Paramonov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the Article 7 of the Constitution of Russia adopted in 1993 defines the country as a social state, the contemporary social and economic situation is significantly different from this declaration. The author considers the current situation focusing on the foundations of the welfare state. The indicators of social inequality and stratification that allow to identify the country as a social state prove the widening gap between the rich and poor. In recent years, nothing has been done to achieve the more equitable distribution of income and national wealth, which led to the further growth of social inequality exceeding the global indices. The author believes that the high level of social inequality negatively affects the economic growth. Based on the studies of Russian scientists he concludes that equal distribution of income provides higher rates of economic growth and prosperity of the country. The modified theory of the factors of production explains this interconnection, and adds a few more factors, including such a specific resource as sales market, to three factors introduced by J.B. Say at the beginning of the XIX century. The huge social inequality and, consequently, a significant number of the poor deprive the country of such an important resource. To change the situation, the author proposes to return to the progressive tax scale and introduce the zero rate of income tax for the poorest groups in order to create prerequisites for the growth of consumer demand under the economic crisis.

  20. Socializing the European Semester? Economic governance and social policy coordination in Europe 2020

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, J.; Vanhercke, B.

    2014-01-01

    The European Semester of policy coordination, which is the core of EU’s new institutional architecture for economic and social governance, introduced since the beginning of the Euro crisis, has prompted questions about the nature and dynamics of the EU’s emerging socio-economic governance

  1. SCHOOL LINGUISTIC CREATIVITY BASED ON SCIENTIFIC GEOGRAPHICAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA BLÎNDĂ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and observation of the natural environment and of the social and economic one, observing phenomena, objects, beings, and geographical events are at the basis of producing geographical scientific texts. The symbols of iconotexts and cartotexts are another source of inspiration for linguistic interpretation. The linguistic creations that we selected for our study are the scientific analysis, the commentary, the characterization, the parallel, the synthesis, epitomizing and abstracting, the scientific communication, the essay, and the scientific description. The representations on maps, photos, graphics and profiles are translated into verbal or written expression in order to render geographical scientific information from diagrams and images through diverse discursive procedures. Through school linguistic creations, teachers develop their students’ observation spirit, in a written and oral form, their geographical thinking through metaphors, they develop and stimulate their students’ imagination and fantasy, their cognitive, reflexive and affective sensitivity, their abilities to express themselves, to present and argument in a scientific way according to different criteria (sufficiency, demonstrative reasoning, lineal reasoning, pros and cons, giving examples, inferential deduction through using truth tables, etc.. Trough description, students give names and define geographical objects and beings (plants, animals, and people according to their form and aspect, they explain toponyms and appellatives, they classify and make hierarchies, they define their identity through processes of differentiation, emblematizing, personification, location in time and space.

  2. Have Economic Educators Embraced Social Media as a Teaching Tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahrani, Abdullah; Patel, Darshak; Sheridan, Brandon J.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the results of a study of the perceptions of a national sample of economics faculty members from various institutions regarding the use of social media as a teaching tool in and out of the economics classroom. In the past few years, social media has become globally popular, and its use is ubiquitous among…

  3. Solar energy's economic and social benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, H.

    1995-01-01

    There are numerous indications that solar energy is far more than a mere stopgap measure to escape from the present environmental crisis. These include the natural as well as the developed, and still developing, technological potential of solar energy; the vast opportunities offered by abandoning destructive energy sources; and, not least, the new industrial perspectives arising from the conversion of our energy system. In addition to the environmental benefits, solar energy will bring about major economic and social gains. The creation of a solar energy system offers an unexpected and unique chance to release industrial society from the harmful consequences of the Industrial Revolution and to make available its positive accomplishments - particularly the social, democratic and cultural opportunities made possible by freeing mankind from slave labour - to all of mankind. Destruction of the environment is the greatest danger for industrialized societies pursuing economic growth, but it is not the only one. The Western high culture of welfare states is evidently a thing of the past. Created by the pressure of social movements that emerged in the Industrial Revolution, they stabilized capitalism by making it more responsive to the social needs in its strongholds. But both old and new contradictions, as well as the growth of welfare costs, lead to the conclusion that the future of the industrial system is increasingly seen only in terms of jettisoning its social obligations. Political democracy will then once more be in danger. Modern history is unable to provide an example of a stable democracy based on permanent mass misery

  4. Systematization of Instruments of Social and Economic Responsibility of Enterprises: Theoretical Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dielini Maryna M.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is systematization of instruments for implementation of social and economic responsibility of enterprises in Ukraine and theoretical consideration of the presented instruments. The article studies basic views on instruments of social responsibility of business. It is determined which of them are more traditional, and which ones are the latest, that is up to date. Thus, the traditional ones include: philanthropy, charity, sponsorship, volunteering, patronship, monetary grants, equivalent financing. Based on the understanding of the nature of social and economic responsibility of business proposed by the author, to its instruments there can be attributed all traditional instruments, except for volunteering that does not imply obtaining funds for its activities and has only a social effect. There studied modern instruments of business social responsibility, such as social investments, socially responsible investments, social marketing, charity marketing, social programs, social entrepreneurship, social reporting and social expertise, fundraising, socially responsible approaches to doing business and supply chain management. All of them can be regarded as instruments of social and economic responsibility of business.

  5. Effects of Economic and Social Implications of Tourism on Economic Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Șerban Comănescu Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of tourism at national level can also be influenced by the policies of other economic sectors or activities with which tourism interacts to a greater or lesser extent, such as: transport infrastructure, environmental protection, educational programs, land use planning, regional plan. The objective of this paper is to analyze the effects of economic and social implications of Romanian tourism on economic flows and tourism in balance of payments and investment position of Romania. Romania's receiving tourism is little represented in the tourist traffic, and the receipts in the field relative to GDP represent a smaller share even than the traditional EU tourist-issuing countries such as the UK, Germany or the Scandinavian countries.

  6. Geographical differences in blood donation and philanthropy in the Netherlands : what role for social capital?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René; Veldhuizen, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    The key question addressed in this paper is whether geographical differences in blood donation and philanthropy reflect differences in social capital. We do find considerable spatial variation in blood donation and philanthropy between municipalities in the Netherlands. But we do not find that blood

  7. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN THE REPUBLIC OF KALMYKIA

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Borlikov; T. I. Bakinova; A. G. Zelensky

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim is to analyze the ecological, economic and social issues of land use and to define organizational and economic measures to improve its effectiveness. Methods. We used scientific methods: comparison, generalization, analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, system methods etc., as well as specific scientific methods: economic and mathematical, statistical, expert assessments, and others. On the basis of these methods we have carried out ecological and geographical, ecological and ...

  8. 77 FR 24227 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of... Engineering Center (NSEC) at Arizona State University by the Division Social and Economic Sciences ( 10748... Kronz, Program Director; Science, Technology and Society Program; Division of Social and Economic...

  9. Do Corruption and Social Trust affect Economic Growth? A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serritzlew, Søren; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    Two separate literatures suggest that corruption and social trust, respectively, are related to economic growth, although the strengths of the relationships, and the direction of causality, are still debated. In this paper, we review these literatures and evaluate the evidence for causal effects...... of corruption and trust on economic growth, and discuss how corruption and trust are interrelated. The reviews show that absence of corruption and high levels of social trust foster economic growth. The literatures also indicate that corruption has a causal effect on social trust, while the opposite effect...... is more uncertain. In the conclusion, we offer the suggestion that fighting corruption may yield a “double dividend”, as reduced corruption is likely to have both direct and indirect effects on growth....

  10. Social Capital and Economic Integration of Migrants in Urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Ruan, Danching; Lai, Gina

    2013-07-01

    Based on data from a 2005 survey conducted in Shanghai, China, this research examines the role of social capital in income inequality between rural migrants and urbanites. We find strong income return on social capital, in particular on social capital from strong ties. We also observe a great disparity in social capital possession between rural migrants and urban local residents. Although social capital from strong ties seems to be more important for rural migrants than for urbanites, local ties and high-status ties do not seem to benefit rural migrants. Hence, migrants not only suffer severe social capital deficits but also capital return deficits. Given the strong income returns on social capital and the substantial differences in access to and return on social capital between migrants and urban residents, social capital is consequently found to explain a large part of the income inequality between the two groups. Overall, our findings reveal macro-structural effects on the role of social capital in labor market stratification. In China, the lack of formal labor market mechanisms continues to create both a strong need for and opportunities for economic actions to be organized around informal channels via social relations. Yet, the long-standing institutional exclusion of migrants caused by the household registration system has resulted in pervasive social exclusion and discrimination which have substantially limited rural migrants' accumulation and mobilization of social capital. Under these conditions, social capital reinforces the economic inequality between migrants and urban residents in China. Such empirical evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social capital in the economic integration of migrants and in shaping intergroup inequality in general.

  11. Interrelations between Energy Security Economics and Social Cohesion: Analysis of a Lithuanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainius Genys

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing attention to sustainable development in academic discourse fosters discussions on how energy security affects society. In most cases the discussions consider the political and economic consequences, which affect or may affect the society. The aim of the article is to assess the impact of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania. To achieve this aim the interrelations between energy security, energy economics and social cohesion are discussed. The theoretical framework of social cohesion (introduced by J. Jenson and P. Bernard is presented and applied in empirical analysis. The operationalization of empirical variables is based on economic, political and socio-cultural - activity areas, which are analyzed to verify the dichotomies between public attitudes and the actual behavior of society. These dichotomies help to distinguish six analytical dimensions, on the basis of which we created 17 empirical indicators, which analysis allows for describing the impact of Lithuanian energy security economics on social cohesion in quantitative data. The statistical analyses showed that the impact of attitudinal dimensions of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania has an almost neutral effect: 3.05 (1-very negative; 3-neutral, 5-very positive. Whereas, the impact of behavioural dimensions of energy security economics on social cohesion has a negative effect: 2.47. The aggregated average of the overall impact of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania has a negative effect: 2.76.

  12. The importance of counting cows: Social and economic effects of a high-level nuclear waste repository in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleishman, J.; Brody, J.; Galavotti, C.

    1987-01-01

    Impact assessments that rely on existing records and extrapolation from broad geographic areas provide inadequate information about social and economic conditions important in siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Texas has used an alternative approach, involving systematic surveys of representative samples of local residents, farm operators and businesses in the proposed site counties and comparison areas. Results show that this technique is useful in describing current economic conditions, including characteristics of key sectors of the economy, changes related to the siting process, and expectations that may influence investment. In addition, the surveys are useful in assessing the degree of consensus in local communities and in identifying possible differential effects of a repository on particular groups. They also provide a baseline for long-term monitoring of repository effects and contribute to their understanding of the underlying processes that shape public response to the nuclear waste program

  13. Identity economics and the brain: uncovering the mechanisms of social conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettel, Scott A.; Kranton, Rachel E.

    2012-01-01

    Social contexts can have dramatic effects on decisions. When individuals recognize each other as coming from the same social group, they can coordinate their actions towards a common goal. Conversely, information about group differences can lead to conflicts both economic and physical. Understanding how social information shapes decision processes is now a core goal both of behavioural economics and neuroeconomics. Here, we describe the foundations for research that combines the theoretical framework from identity economics with the experimental methods of neuroscience. Research at this intersection would fill important gaps in the literature not addressed by current approaches in either of these disciplines, nor within social neuroscience, psychology or other fields. We set forth a simple taxonomy of social contexts based on the information content they provide. And, we highlight the key questions that would be addressed by a new ‘identity neuroeconomics’. Such research could serve as an important and novel link between the social and natural sciences. PMID:22271784

  14. Impact of Globalisation On Economic Growth in Romania: An Empirical Analysis of Its Economic, Social and Political Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Neagu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the link between globalisation and economic growth in Romania for a time span of 24 years. Data from World Bank were used in an econometrical model in order to highlight the impact of globalisation, expressed by the KOF globalisation index and its components (economic, social and political globalisation indices on economic growth rate. A statistical strong and positive link is found between GDP per capita dynamics and overall globalisation index as well as between GDP growth rate and economic and political globalisation, except the social dimension of globalisation which has a negative impact on economic growth in Romania for the time span 1990-2013.

  15. ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL FACTS AND PERSPECTIVES OF 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu RADU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the turbulent year of 2016, with deep geopolitical changes, the new year of 2017 promises to be full of challenges in what concerns the economic, social, political and geostrategic area. The key events of the last year (the Brexit, the elections in the USA, the events in Turkey, the force demonstrations of Russia, the situation of the migration wave etc. shall have an impact on the global economic development and on the repositioning of its main actors. This paperwork intends to analyze the main consequences of the recent events on the short term progress in what concerns the economic, social, political and geostrategic area. We hereby intend to review the facts and the main potential progress on the economic status of this year which was so complicated, both for the European Union and for every member of it.

  16. Social vaccines to resist and change unhealthy social and economic structures: a useful metaphor for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Fran; Narayan, Ravi; Sanders, David; Patel, Vikram; Quizhpe, Arturo

    2009-12-01

    The term 'social vaccine' is designed to encourage the biomedically orientated health sector to recognize the legitimacy of action on the distal social and economic determinants of health. It is proposed as a term to assist the health promotion movement in arguing for a social view of health which is so often counter to medical and popular conceptions of health. The idea of a social vaccine builds on a long tradition in social medicine as well as on a biomedical tradition of preventing illness through vaccines that protect against disease. Social vaccines would be promoted as a means to encourage popular mobilization and advocacy to change the social and economic structural conditions that render people and communities vulnerable to disease. They would facilitate social and political processes that develop popular and political will to protect and promote health through action (especially governments prepared to intervene and regulate to protect community health) on the social and economic determinants. Examples provided for the effects of social vaccines are: restoring land ownership to Indigenous peoples, regulating the advertising of harmful products and progressive taxation for universal social protection. Social vaccines require more research to improve understanding of social and political processes that are likely to improve health equity worldwide. The vaccine metaphor should be helpful in arguing for increased action on the social determinants of health.

  17. [The economic-industrial health care complex and the social and economic dimension of development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Costa, Laís Silveira; Maldonado, José

    2012-12-01

    The strategic role of health care in the national development agenda has been increasingly recognized and institutionalized. In addition to its importance as a structuring element of the Social Welfare State, health care plays a leading role in the generation of innovation - an essential element for competitiveness in knowledge society. However, health care's productive basis is still fragile, and this negatively affects both the universal provision of health care services and Brazil's competitive inclusion in the globalized environment. This situation suggests the need of a more systematic analysis of the complex relationships among productive, technological and social interests in the scope of health care. Consequently, it is necessary to produce further knowledge about the Economic-Industrial Health Care Complex due to its potential for contributing to a socially inclusive development model. This means reversing the hierarchy between economic and social interests in the sanitary field, thus minimizing the vulnerability of the Brazilian health care policy.

  18. Social Responsibility and Economic Efficiency: aspects of estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Filippova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the concept of social responsibility of state and business in terms of effectiveness of social production system. In this perspective the traditional approaches to determining the effectiveness of the economic system were critically reviewed. Not only new approach to assessing the effectiveness being proposed in this paper, but also the link between effectiveness of public production system and social responsibility of core subjects is substantiated. Conventional approac...

  19. Trends and Issues: Social and Economic Context. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Chris, Comp.

    This document presents an outline of a number of social, economic, and demographic trends that influence the effectiveness of instruction and the social development of youth across the country. It contains numbers and statistics, recommendations, and implications, along with 30 references. The document covers trends in the following areas: (1)…

  20. Broader context for social, economic, and cultural components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; Jonathan W. Long; Frank K. Lake; Susan. Charnley

    2014-01-01

    This chapter sets the context for the following sociocultural sections of the synthesis by providing information on the broader social, cultural, and economic patterns in the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade Range. Demographic influences surrounding population change, including those accounted for through amenity migration, are examined. Social and cultural concerns...

  1. Health, social and economic consequences of dementias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frahm-Falkenberg, S.; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Dementia causes morbidity, disability and mortality, and as the population ages the societal burden will grow. The direct health costs and indirect costs of lost productivity and social welfare of dementia were estimated compared with matched controls in a national register......, gender, geographical area and civil status. Direct health costs included primary and secondary sector contacts, medical procedures and medication. Indirect costs included the effect on labor supply. All cost data were extracted from national databases. The entire cohort was followed for the entire period...... – before and after diagnosis. Results: In all, 78 715 patients were identified and compared with 312 813 matched controls. Patients' partners were also identified and matched with a control group. Patients had lower income and higher mortality and morbidity rates and greater use of medication. Social...

  2. Greece’s Economic and Social Transformation 2008–2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symeon Mavridis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Greece has confronted serious financial problems since 2008 when the global financial crisis reached its peak. The disturbance in the markets led to an unprecedented local debt crisis, which has lasted till now. The scope of this research is to examine how the crisis affected the local transformation of the society from 2008 to 2017. For this purpose, the paper made secondary analysis of previous data, reports, articles, as well as other relevant information on basic economic and social factors such as GDP, income per capita, unemployment, social exclusion, poverty and homelessness. Despite the fact that three International Economic Programmes have been adopted by the Greek governments, the country still fights for its financial stability. Furthermore, the consequences of crisis were devastating in society. The state countermeasures have triggered a surge in unemployment, emigration, poverty and exclusion, especially among youngsters. In addition, major national economic and social indicators have significantly worsened.

  3. SOCIAL EXCLUSION AS AN OBJECT OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Halushka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article essence and forms of display of social exception of separate citizens and certain layers of population are certain as the socioeconomic phenomenon. Theoretical principles and methodology of estimation of the phenomenon of social exception are analyzed. Certain characteristic lines of social exception: subzero even consumptions and profit of individuals or groups; a limit access is to the public mechanisms of increase of welfare; a mainly passive type of cooperating is with society. Attention is accented on a defect for the individuals of row of rights, limit nature of access to the institutes that distribute resources, to the labor-market. Poverty is certain the main category of social exception. A concept "circles of poverty" and mechanisms of its existence are reasonable. Other displays of social exception-direct violation of base human rights are examined on quality education, on medical services and kind health, on the acceptable standard of living, on access to cultural acquisition, on defense of the interests and on the whole on participating in economic, social, in a civilized manner, political life of country. Cited data about part of torn away housekeeping of Ukraine on separate signs. The analysis of distribution of housekeeping after the amount of the accumulated signs of the social tearing away gave an opportunity to set a limit after that the social tearing away begins brightly to show up, at the level of 5 signs. It is certain the limit of the sharp tearing away. The second degree of tearing away – critical – answers a presence 7thsigns. At this level in Ukraine there are 37,7. That's far more than those, who are considered poor on a relative national criterion (24,0. It is set that conception of social exception shows the "horizontal cut" of the system of social relations and place of individual, layer, group and others like that in this system, certain on certain signs. The necessity of the use of

  4. Fairness requires deliberation: the primacy of economic over social considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Guy; Ayal, Shahar; Ariely, Dan

    2015-01-01

    While both economic and social considerations of fairness and equity play an important role in financial decision-making, it is not clear which of these two motives is more primal and immediate and which one is secondary and slow. Here we used variants of the ultimatum game to examine this question. Experiment 1 shows that acceptance rate of unfair offers increases when participants are asked to base their choice on their gut-feelings, as compared to when they thoroughly consider the available information. In line with these results, Experiments 2 and 3 provide process evidence that individuals prefer to first examine economic information about their own utility rather than social information about equity and fairness, even at the price of foregoing such social information. Our results suggest that people are more economically rational at the core, but social considerations (e.g., inequality aversion) require deliberation, which under certain conditions override their self-interested impulses. PMID:26106342

  5. Fairness requires deliberation: the primacy of economic over social considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Guy; Ayal, Shahar; Ariely, Dan

    2015-01-01

    While both economic and social considerations of fairness and equity play an important role in financial decision-making, it is not clear which of these two motives is more primal and immediate and which one is secondary and slow. Here we used variants of the ultimatum game to examine this question. Experiment 1 shows that acceptance rate of unfair offers increases when participants are asked to base their choice on their gut-feelings, as compared to when they thoroughly consider the available information. In line with these results, Experiments 2 and 3 provide process evidence that individuals prefer to first examine economic information about their own utility rather than social information about equity and fairness, even at the price of foregoing such social information. Our results suggest that people are more economically rational at the core, but social considerations (e.g., inequality aversion) require deliberation, which under certain conditions override their self-interested impulses.

  6. Fairness requires deliberation: The primacy of economic over social considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eHochman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available While both economic and social considerations of fairness and equity play an important role in financial decision-making, it is not clear which of these two motives is more primal and immediate and which one is secondary and slow. Here we used variants of the ultimatum game to examine this question. Experiment 1 shows that acceptance rate of unfair offers increases when participants are asked to base their choice on their gut-feelings, as compared to when they thoroughly consider the available information. In line with these results, Experiments 2 and 3 provide process evidence that individuals prefer to first examine economic information about their own utility rather than social information about equity and fairness, even at the price of foregoing such social information. Our results suggest that people are more economically rational at the core, but social considerations (e.g., inequality aversion require deliberation, which under certain conditions override their self-interested impulses.

  7. The Social Epistemology of Experimental Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Cordeiro dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAna Cristina Cordeiro dos Santos was born in Lisbon, Portugal, in 1971. She received her B.Sc. degree in Economics from Technical University of Lisbon, in Portugal, in 1994, and a MA degree in Social Policy from Roskilde University, in Denmark, in 1995. Since 1996 she has been a

  8. Social inequality in adolescents' healthy food intake: the interplay between economic, social and cultural capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Bart; Abel, Thomas; Moor, Irene; Elgar, Frank J; Lievens, John; Sioen, Isabelle; Braeckman, Lutgart; Deforche, Benedicte

    2017-04-01

    Current explanations of health inequalities in adolescents focus on behavourial and economic determinants and rarely include more meaningful forms of economic, cultural, and social capital. The aim of the study was to investigate how the interplay between capitals constitutes social inequalities in adolescent healthy food intake. Data were collected in the 2013/14 Flemish Health Behavior among School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, which is part of the international WHO HBSC survey. The total sample included 7266 adolescents aged 12-18. A comprehensive set of 58 capital indicators was used to measure economic, cultural and social capital and a healthy food index was computed from a 17-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess the consumption frequency of healthy food within the overall food intake. The different forms of capital were unequally distributed in accordance with the subdivisions within the education system. Only half of the capital indicators positively related to healthy food intake, and instead 17 interactions were found that both increased or reduced inequalities. Cultural capital was a crucial component for explaining inequalities such that social gradients in healthy food intake increased when adolescents participated in elite cultural practices ( P economic, cultural and social capital may both increase or reduce healthy food intake inequalities in adolescents. Policy action needs to take into account the unequal distribution of these resources within the education system. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemphill, R.C.; Bassett, G.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk as a dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area

  10. Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemphill, R.C.; Bassett, G.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area

  11. Aging and Wisdom: Age-related changes in economic and social decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth eLim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available World life expectancy is increasing and many populations will begin to age rapidly. The impeding prevalence of a greater number of older people living longer lives will have significant social and economic implications. It is important to understand how older people make economic and social decisions. Aging can be associated with a ‘phenomenon of decline’ and also greater wisdom. This paper seeks to examine the relationship between wisdom and aging. It reviews and connects the behavioral sciences and neuroscience literature on age differences in the following social and economic decision making domains that represent subcomponents of wisdom: 1 prosocial behavior in experimental economic games and competitive situations, 2 resolving social conflicts, 3 emotional homeostasis, 4 self-reflection, 5 dealing effectively with uncertainty in the domains of risk, ambiguity and intertemporal choice. Overall, we find a lack of research into how older people make economic and social decisions. There is, however, some evidence that older adults outperform young adults on certain subcomponents of wisdom, but the exact relationship between old age and each subcomponent remains unclear. A better understanding of these relationships holds the potential to alleviate a wide range of mental health problems, and has broad implications for social policies aimed at the elderly.

  12. Economics through Inquiry: Creating Social Businesses in Fifth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Annie McMahon

    2015-01-01

    The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework from the National Council for Social Studies (NCSS) features an inquiry approach to teaching K-12 social studies in which social studies standards are organized into an "inquiry arc." Inquiry in elementary economics is often underused in practice (Laney 2001). This study describes how a…

  13. 75 FR 50783 - Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ADVISORY Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral, and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time: September 7, 2010; 8:30 a.m. to 6 p.m. September 8... Assistant Director, Directorate for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation...

  14. Does social diversity impede sound economic management? An empirical analysis, 1980-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Soysa, Indra; Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya

    2017-02-01

    Several celebrated scholars argue that diverse preferences and coordination failure due to ethnic and cultural diversity hamper the social cohesion necessary for good economic management, leading to development failure. Using several measures of diversity, we find that higher levels of ethno-linguistic and cultural fractionalization are conditioned positively on higher economic growth by an index of economic freedom, which is often heralded as a good measure of sound economic management. High diversity in turn is associated with higher levels of economic freedom. We do not find any evidence to suggest that high diversity hampers change towards greater economic freedom and institutions supporting liberal policies. The effect of diversity, moreover, is conditioned positively by higher democracy. Our results raise serious doubt about the centrality of social diversity for explaining economic failure, nor is there evidence to suggest that autocratic measures are required under conditions of social diversity to implement growth-promoting policies. This is good news because history and culture seem to matter less than rational agency for ensuring sound economic management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. PRODUCERS’ PERCEPTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS AS A PRODUCT DIVERSIFICATION TOOL FOR AGRIFOOD PRODUCTS IN SEMI-ARID REGIONS OF KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredah Wangui Maina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed producers’ awareness and perceptions of territorial-based qualities and the economic potential of two potential origin-based geographical indications in two semi-arid counties in Kenya. Protection of the origin products as geographical indications is presented as an option for ecosystem approach in managing fragile semi-arid regions while providing producers economic incentives and social inclusion; key components of green growth. Factor analysis was conducted on Likert scale perception questions administered to producers of goats (Baringo and mangoes (Makueni. The producers were aware of the uniqueness of their products and its geographical source. The resultant factors reveal the importance of public policies, institutions, market access and public sector actors as important to producers’ perception of the success of protecting their products as geographical indications. Clustering revealed producer heterogeneity in their perceptions of protecting their respective products as geographical indications. The constitution of the clusters was significantly different based on the number of years the producers had practiced farming in the region, their awareness of the uniqueness of their goats, income received from goat production and institutional factors. Enhanced collective action for both goats and mangoes in the semi-arid regions would ensure collective reputation in the product presented to the market. The producers’ perceptions emphasise geographical indications as a marketing tool rather than an environmental tool, agreeing with Principle 4 of the ecosystem approach on managing ecosystem in an economic context.

  16. The Impact of Depression on Social Economic Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlé, K.M.; Allen, J.J.B.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Although the role of emotion in social economic decision making has been increasingly recognized, the impact of mood disorders, such as depression, on such decisions has been surprisingly neglected. To address this gap, 15 depressed and 23 nondepressed individuals completed a well-known economic

  17. La economía social: crisis y recuperación económica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Algora Jiménez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el concepto de economía social en la actualidad como alternativa de recuperación económica. En este sentido, la falta de respuesta desde las instituciones económicas y políticas tradicionales a la crisis hace que se planteen nuevas soluciones y posturas.Palabras clave: economía social, crisis, recuperación. ________________Abstract:This article analyze the concept of social economy in our days like an alternative of  economic recovery. So, there isn´t any answer from traditional economic and political institutions about the crisis, and, for that, the people think about news solutions and stances.Keywords: social economy, crisis, recovery.

  18. Wilderness values: Perspectives from non-economic social science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams; Alan E. Watson

    2007-01-01

    The concept of “values” is one of the most widely used to characterize the human dimensions of natural resources. Yet, clearly it means many different things in different disciplines and in everyday discourse. Background information regarding values from a non-economic social science perspective is provided, with an aim towards stretching the dominant economic paradigm...

  19. Adaptive behavior in economic and social environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droste, E.J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Various economic and social environments feature repeated interaction of decision-makers. Firms compete for market shares continually, politicians enter into debates almost every day, and friends communicate regularly. When decision-makers accumulate experience and collect new information each time

  20. Modeling human behavior in economics and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolfin, M; Leonida, L; Outada, N

    2017-12-01

    The complex interactions between human behaviors and social economic sciences is critically analyzed in this paper in view of possible applications of mathematical modeling as an attainable interdisciplinary approach to understand and simulate the aforementioned dynamics. The quest is developed along three steps: Firstly an overall analysis of social and economic sciences indicates the main requirements that a contribution of mathematical modeling should bring to these sciences; subsequently the focus moves to an overview of mathematical tools and to the selection of those which appear, according to the authors bias, appropriate to the modeling; finally, a survey of applications is presented looking ahead to research perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Economic and social distance: Perceived income inequality negatively predicts an interdependent self-construal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Ángel; Willis, Guillermo B; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa

    2017-07-03

    Previous research has shown that economic inequality influences how people are related with others. In this article, we suggest that perceived economic inequality influences self-construal. Specifically, we propose that higher economic inequality leads to an independent self-construal, whereas lower economic inequality leads to an interdependent self-construal. Correlational data from Studies 1a and 1b revealed that people who perceive lower levels of economic inequality tend to show higher levels of interdependent self-construal, even after controlling for social class. In Study 2, using an experimental design, we found that perceived high economic inequality leads to a more independent and less interdependent self-construal compared to the low economic inequality condition. These results expand the literature bridging the gap between a macro-social factor, such as economic inequality, and a micro-social factor, such as self-construal. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. Measuring the economic performance of socially responsible companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Fernández-Guadaño

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to use different economic variables to establish whether there are differences in economic performance between companies as a result of their inclusion in the sustainability index. This paper presents a one-dimensional exploratory study which compares the socially responsible companies included in the Spanish sustainability index, FTSE4Good Ibex, with the rest of the indices in the IBEX family. Parametric testing was used to study whether there are differences between the two types of companies. The results demonstrate that there are no statistically significant differences in economic performance between the two groups. Morover, it is confirmed that companies with good practices are as profitable as the rest, but it also demonstrates that the economic-financial behaviour is not better as a result of being in the sustainability index. The basic conclusion is that adhering to social and environmental standards does not harm a firm’s competitive position and, therefore, provide support for the development policy of responsible practices so that they become a tool to help improve the resilience of the economy and investor trust.

  3. Investigation of Spatial Data with Open Source Social Network Analysis and Geographic Information Systems Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabah, L.; Şimşek, M.

    2017-11-01

    Social networks are the real social experience of individuals in the online environment. In this environment, people use symbolic gestures and mimics, sharing thoughts and content. Social network analysis is the visualization of complex and large quantities of data to ensure that the overall picture appears. It is the understanding, development, quantitative and qualitative analysis of the relations in the social networks of Graph theory. Social networks are expressed in the form of nodes and edges. Nodes are people/organizations, and edges are relationships between nodes. Relations are directional, non-directional, weighted, and weightless. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of social networks on the evaluation of person data with spatial coordinates. For this, the cluster size and the effect on the geographical area of the circle where the placements of the individual are influenced by the frequently used placeholder feature in the social networks have been studied.

  4. The Economic and Social Impact of Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Gloria M; San Buenaventura, Mariano

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and social impact of tourism in Pagsanjan in which tourism development project is located. Results show that the project’s various significant impacts include increases in employment and income and stimulation of political and women’s participation. While its impact on environment and on the people’s social life has been a mixture of positive and negative results, its impact on income distribution has been trifling. To maximize the tourism multiplier, the pape...

  5. Preference of Social Choice in Mathematical Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Jamal; Mohajan, Haradhan; Moolio, Pahlaj

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical Economics is closely related with Social Choice Theory. In this paper, an attempt has been made to show this relation by introducing utility functions, preference relations and Arrow’s impossibility theorem with easier mathematical calculations. The paper begins with some definitions which are easy but will be helpful to those who are new in this field. The preference relations will give idea in individual’s and social choices according to their budget. Economists want to create ...

  6. Social and economic value of Portuguese community pharmacies in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Jorge; Ferreira, Diana; Afonso-Silva, Marta; Gomes, Marta Vargas; Ferreira, César; Vandewalle, Björn; Marques, Sara; Mota, Melina; Costa, Suzete; Cary, Maria; Teixeira, Inês; Paulino, Ema; Macedo, Bruno; Barbosa, Carlos Maurício

    2017-08-29

    Community pharmacies are major contributors to health care systems across the world. Several studies have been conducted to evaluate community pharmacies services in health care. The purpose of this study was to estimate the social and economic benefits of current and potential future community pharmacies services provided by pharmacists in health care in Portugal. The social and economic value of community pharmacies services was estimated through a decision-model. Model inputs included effectiveness data, quality of life (QoL) and health resource consumption, obtained though literature review and adapted to Portuguese reality by an expert panel. The estimated economic value was the result of non-remunerated pharmaceutical services plus health resource consumption potentially avoided. Social and economic value of community pharmacies services derives from the comparison of two scenarios: "with service" versus "without service". It is estimated that current community pharmacies services in Portugal provide a gain in QoL of 8.3% and an economic value of 879.6 million euros (M€), including 342.1 M€ in non-remunerated pharmaceutical services and 448.1 M€ in avoided expense with health resource consumption. Potential future community pharmacies services may provide an additional increase of 6.9% in QoL and be associated with an economic value of 144.8 M€: 120.3 M€ in non-remunerated services and 24.5 M€ in potential savings with health resource consumption. Community pharmacies services provide considerable benefit in QoL and economic value. An increase range of services including a greater integration in primary and secondary care, among other transversal services, may add further social and economic value to the society.

  7. Unique Nature of the Quality of Life in the Context of Extreme Climatic, Geographical and Specific Socio-Cultural Living Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Anastasia; Neyaskina, Yuliya; Frizen, Marina; Shiryaeva, Olga; Surikova, Yana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a detailed empirical research, aimed at studying the quality of life in the context of extreme climatic, geographical and specific sociocultural living conditions. Our research is based on the methodological approach including social, economical, ecological and psychological characteristics and reflecting…

  8. The social and economic impacts of epilepsy on women in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolafe, Morenikeji A; Sunmonu, Taofiki A; Afolabi, Olusegun T; Komolafe, Edward O; Fabusiwa, Festus O; Groce, Nora; Kett, Maria; Disu, Jimoh O; Ajiboye, John K; Olaniyan, Stephen O

    2012-05-01

    Persons with epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa experience stigma and social marginalization. There is paucity of data on the social and economic impacts of epilepsy in these patients and in particular, groups like women. We sought to determine the social and economic impacts of epilepsy on Nigerian women and especially how it affects their treatment and outcomes. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of 63 women with epilepsy (WWE) and 69 controls matched for age, social status and site of care. A structured questionnaire was used to document information on demographic characteristics, education, employment status, economic status, health care use, personal safety and perceived stigma. The data were collated and analyzed with SPSS version 15. Unemployment, fewer years of formal education, lower marriage rates and higher stigma scores were more frequent among WWE than controls. Physical and sexual abuse with transactional sex was also reported among WWE. We also noted poorer environmental and housing conditions and lower mean personal and household incomes among WWE compared to the control group. WWE in this sample from Nigeria have worse social and economic status when compared with women with other non-stigmatized chronic medical conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Social and economic impact of nuclear electricity in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns a study of the social and economic impact of nuclear energy in the U.K., undertaken by an independent writer. Fears and risks; nuclear power is proven; cost comparisons; the nuclear industry; social impact and public relations; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Applied evolutionary economics and economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.

    2007-01-01

    Applied Evolutionary Economics and Economic Geography" aims to further advance empirical methodologies in evolutionary economics, with a special emphasis on geography and firm location. It does so by bringing together a select group of leading scholars including economists, geographers and

  11. ECONOMIC DESIGN IN SOCIALISM: MODERN UNDERSTANDING OF DISCUSSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kovalev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Necessity of improvement of the system pertaining to distribution of limited resources obligatory leads to reduction of state interference in these processes. While discussing the economic design in socialism in the period of 1920–1930 the Austrian school presented significant arguments against any interference in resource distribution. Socialists’ objections (initial idea of socialism as money-free economy; possibility to determine price structure that excludes deficit and glut in the market fail to pass theoretical and time testing. The existing opinion that the Austrians are losers in this discussion is related to their permanent additional arguments without acknowledging their own mistakes that had been made in their previous discussions and declaring that their opponents occupy positions at the second line of the defense. Last works of Austrian representatives re-consider final results of the discussion about the possibility of economic design in socialism taking into account changes in general approach to evaluation of the results of scientific discussion. 

  12. Implications of China's future bride shortage for the geographical distribution and social protection needs of never-married men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharygin, Ethan; Ebenstein, Avraham; Das Gupta, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Because sex ratios at birth have risen sharply in China in recent decades, an increasing proportion of men will be unable to find a bride, and will face old age without the support of a wife and children. We project the proportions of never-married men and their geographical distribution in China in the coming decades. Our projections assume that two tendencies in current marriage patterns will persist: that women will continue to migrate to wealthier areas and to prefer men with better prospects. We find that, by 2030, more than 20 per cent of men in China aged 30-39 will never have married, and that the proportion will be especially high among poor men in low-income provinces that are least able to provide social protection programmes. The projected geographic concentration of bachelors could be socially disruptive, and the results suggest a need to expand the coverage and central financing of social protection programmes.

  13. Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

  14. The 12 item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Jim A C

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge in psychological research on the relationship between political ideology (particularly conservatism) and cognition, affect, behaviour, and even biology. Despite this flurry of investigation, however, there is as yet no accepted, validated, and widely used multi-item scale of conservatism that is concise, that is modern in its conceptualisation, and that includes both social and economic conservatism subscales. In this paper the 12-Item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS) is proposed and validated to help fill this gap. The SECS is suggested to be an important and useful tool for researchers working in political psychology.

  15. Social Capital And Economic Behavior Of Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliawaty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrac The purpose of this study to analyze the relationship between social capital affects economic behavior in producing coffee plants in improving coffee farmers income. This study was conducted in the district of Bantaeng South Sulawesi. Subdistrict Tampobulu selected purposively. The study lasted for four months of April to July 2014. The data used in this study consist of primary data and secondary data. It can be concluded that social capital is trust networking and institutions affect economic behavior namely the production of coffee plants. Trust improving technology adoption Robusta and Arabica coffee cuttings while distrust led to rampant theft of coffee is still green. Networking affect the price of coffee and institutions influence the behavior of farmers in obtaining venture capital through middlemen. It is expected that future studies should be focused on the factors that influence the innovative behavior in increasing the production of coffee plants.

  16. Influence of perceived social support on health and socio-economic differences in social support in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gecková, A.; Pudelsky, M.; van Dijk, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of perceived social support on health and socio-economic differences in social support were investigated in sample of adolescents (n = 2616, including 1370 boys, mean age 15 years). The perceived social support was studied in five spheres: school, interpersonal relations, serious

  17. Reforms in the Slovakia 2005. Evaluation of economical and social measures (The HESO Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachar, D.

    2006-07-01

    The Slovak Republic faces the task to secure conditions for a long-term economic growth. A crucial precondition for an efficient implementation of economic and social measures is the knowledge of the status quo and of the impacts on the economy and the society as a whole, to be expected from the relevant measures and it is important to focus on short-term as well as on long-term goals. For a successful implementation of many economic and social measures citizens' acceptance is needed. Therefore, the non-governmental, non-profit organisation Institute for Economic and Social Reforms INEKO aims to make the public more familiar with the nature of economic and social processes in the country and abroad, and to eliminate, through economic research and educational activities, hindrances to a long-term positive development of the Slovak economy and society. (authors)

  18. Personality Homophily and Geographic Distance in Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noë, Nyala; Whitaker, Roger M; Allen, Stuart M

    2018-05-24

    Personality homophily remains an understudied aspect of social networks, with the traditional focus concerning sociodemographic variables as the basis for assortativity, rather than psychological dispositions. We consider the effect of personality homophily on one of the biggest constraints to human social networks: geographic distance. We use the Big five model of personality to make predictions for each of the five facets: Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. Using a network of 313,669 Facebook users, we investigate the difference in geographic distance between homophilous pairs, in which both users scored similarly on a particular facet, and mixed pairs. In accordance with our hypotheses, we find that pairs of open and conscientious users are geographically further apart than mixed pairs. Pairs of extraverts, on the other hand, tend to be geographically closer together. We find mixed results for the Neuroticism facet, and no significant effects for the Agreeableness facet. The results are discussed in the context of personality homophily and the impact of geographic distance on social connections.

  19. Implications of doing insider interviews: studying geography and geographers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2009-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of being a ‘double' insider when conducting interviews. Double insider means being an insider both in relation to one's research matter - in the authors' case the making of geographical knowledge - and in relation to one's interviewees - our colleagues. The article...... is a reflection paper in the sense that we reflect upon experiences drawn from a previous research project carried out in Danish academia. It is important that the project was situated in a Scandinavian workplace culture because this has bearings for the social, cultural, and economic situation in which knowledge...

  20. Análisis de la economía social asturiana (2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado Garcés, Aydee

    2013-01-01

    El término "economía social" es un concepto ampliamente discutido; en general se utiliza para describir aquella parte de la economía que no está incluida ni en el sector público ni en el sector privado. Compuesto principalmente por cooperativas, mutualidades, asociaciones y fundaciones. Después de una amplia revisión bibliográfica se encontró que el sector de la economía social (SES en adelante) juega un papel fundamental en el desarrollo socioeconómico de las regiones, en parte por la amp...

  1. Análisis de la economía social asturiana (2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado Garcés, Aydee

    2015-01-01

    El término "economía social" es un concepto ampliamente discutido; en general se utiliza para describir aquella parte de la economía que no está incluida ni en el sector público ni en el sector privado. Compuesto principalmente por cooperativas, mutualidades, asociaciones y fundaciones. Después de una amplia revisión bibliográfica se encontró que el sector de la economía social (SES en adelante) juega un papel fundamental en el desarrollo socioeconómico de las regiones, en parte por la amp...

  2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN AZERBAIJAN REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. Imrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to determine the socio-economic aspects of sustainable development of the Republic of Azerbaijan taking into account economic, environmental, social and environmental opportunities of the country; to find the rationale for the concept of sustainable development to eliminate major differences specific to regional economic development, management of economic and social development of the regions.Methods. Historical and comparative analysis, system approach, analysis of statistical and mathematical materials.Findings. We identified the advantages of the concept of sustainable development; cunducted the analysis of the dynamics of development of the leading industries in the region; studied the most promising sectors of the regions from the economic and geographic point of view.Conclusion. We identified socio-economic aspects of sustainable development of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

  3. Multicriteria and multiagent decision making with applications to economics and social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Maturo, Antonio; Hošková-Mayerová, Šárka; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive and timely report on the topic of decision making and decision analysis in economics and the social sciences. The various contributions included in the book, selected using a peer review process, present important studies and research conducted in various countries around the globe. The majority of these studies are concerned with the analysis, modeling and formalization of the behavior of groups or committees that are in charge of making decisions of social and economic importance. Decisions in these contexts have to meet precise coherence standards and achieve a significant degree of sharing, consensus and acceptance, even in uncertain and fuzzy environments. This necessitates the confluence of several research fields, such as foundations of social choice and decision making, mathematics, complexity, psychology, sociology and economics. A large spectrum of problems that may be encountered during decision making and decision analysis in the areas of economics and the social ...

  4. YOUNGER PUPILS ATTITUDE TO MONEY AS A FACTOR OF THEIR SPIRITUAL AND ECONOMIC SOCIALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Varetska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the urgency of attitude of primary school children to money as a factor of spiritual and economic socialization is grounded, the analysis of scientific sources, which should be initiated is given and definitions of the issues of some interpretations of the concepts of “socialization”, “economic socialization” are developed, some synonymy meaning of “socialization” and “social competence”, “economic education” and “economic socialization” that reasonably change emphasis on business formation and entrepreneurship initiative are found, goals; objectives and factors, meaning of spiritual and economic socialization are determined. Attention is paid to the factor of money. To investigate the opportunities of elective courses in Economics “Starts of Economy” in the educational progress of the attitude to money, condition of the described problem and its individual aspects, systematization of data, the analysis and synthesis, comparison, generalization of scientific and technical literature, government documents, concepts, periodicals, educational publications, reference books are applied; terminological analysis is used in order to improve conceptual and terminological framework specifying on the nature and definition of concepts; system-activity approach to determine the activity of components forming the spiritual and economic needs of socialization to the result. Detailed description of elective courses in Economics “Starts of Economy”, description of its influence on young learners’ attitude to money, experimental results confirm the significant changes that have taken place in the minds of young learners, led transformation of spiritually enriched economic knowledge in a conscious moral values, attitudes, their quality and socially significant economic actions. Using the developed theoretical positions, methodological support, the original author’s methodology findings will facilitate the

  5. Solar energy`s economic and social benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, H. [Bundeshaus, Bonn (Germany)

    1995-08-01

    There are numerous indications that solar energy is far more than a mere stopgap measure to escape from the present environmental crisis. These include the natural as well as the developed, and still developing, technological potential of solar energy; the vast opportunities offered by abandoning destructive energy sources; and, not least, the new industrial perspectives arising from the conversion of our energy system. In addition to the environmental benefits, solar energy will bring about major economic and social gains. The creation of a solar energy system offers an unexpected and unique chance to release industrial society from the harmful consequences of the Industrial Revolution and to make available its positive accomplishments - particularly the social, democratic and cultural opportunities made possible by freeing mankind from slave labour - to all of mankind. Destruction of the environment is the greatest danger for industrialized societies pursuing economic growth, but it is not the only one. The Western high culture of welfare states is evidently a thing of the past. Created by the pressure of social movements that emerged in the Industrial Revolution, they stabilized capitalism by making it more responsive to the social needs in its strongholds. But both old and new contradictions, as well as the growth of welfare costs, lead to the conclusion that the future of the industrial system is increasingly seen only in terms of jettisoning its social obligations. Political democracy will then once more be in danger. Modern history is unable to provide an example of a stable democracy based on permanent mass misery

  6. GLOBALIZATION AND ECONOMICAL-SOCIAL INFLUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Globalization represents a myriad of processes of undeniable complexity and variable dynamics, which cover various society areas. It can depict various aspects of phenomenon, ideology, strategy, or all in one place. Globalization is with no doubt a complex concept that bears diverse significations which refer to many sides: the economical, the political, the cultural one etc. Most authors view as particularly important the economic side of globalization, while they seem to be looking over the political, social or cultural aspects of this phenomenon. Thus the optimists view contemporary globalization as a new phase in which all the world’s states are subjected to sanctions from the global market, while skeptics argue that the globalization phenomenon determines chain reactions, incontrollable here and there, in conditions of a present crisis, precisely through the interdependency between states.

  7. Health resorts as a social enterprise in Ukraine’s economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliia Kleban

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern economic development is highly dependent on sustainable community development. In Ukraine, the tourism sector is one of the driving forces of economic development. The main aim of the paper is to study health recovery tourism in Ukraine, on the case of creating social enterprises in a health resort network. The paper is oriented on the managerial and value creation issues. The aim is to describe the business idea of a health resort (Lviv region of Ukraine as an innovative economic agent with social goals and value added to the local community in general and on the example of three existing spas. Taking into consideration the amount of tourists in Lviv region and the key indicators of small businesses in the sector, the social enterprise is an alternative to the for-profit entities. The study findings suggest that starting the social enterprise in health resort services may become a good practice for the local development strategies. The health resort social enterprise may add value to the Lviv region by supporting the employment of local population and social value provision to groups of the society. The main contribution of the paper is in applying the social entrepreneurship model in the sector of health resort services. As the current political and social issues and problems in Ukraine are concerned, the non-profit entity project has potential for implementation.

  8. Economic Cognitions Among Older Adults: Parental Socialization Predicts Financial Planning for Retirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palaci

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the model on financial planning for retirement (FPR, the aim of this work is to explore how parental economic socialization both directly and indirectly affects FPR through the mediation of financial literacy, financial planning decisions and financial management. Data from a sample of 280 participants aged between 45 and 63 years were used. The results show that parental economic socialization directly and indirectly influences FPR. Moreover, parental economic behavior acts as a positive model for the development of financial literacy and skills and for decisions about FPR. All the variables increased the explained variance of FPR. Lastly, we discuss the process by which parental economic socialization is positively related to financial literacy and skills that impact on FPR, indicating some implications and future lines of research.

  9. Economic Cognitions Among Older Adults: Parental Socialization Predicts Financial Planning for Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaci, Francisco; Jiménez, Irene; Topa, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the model on financial planning for retirement (FPR), the aim of this work is to explore how parental economic socialization both directly and indirectly affects FPR through the mediation of financial literacy, financial planning decisions and financial management. Data from a sample of 280 participants aged between 45 and 63 years were used. The results show that parental economic socialization directly and indirectly influences FPR. Moreover, parental economic behavior acts as a positive model for the development of financial literacy and skills and for decisions about FPR. All the variables increased the explained variance of FPR. Lastly, we discuss the process by which parental economic socialization is positively related to financial literacy and skills that impact on FPR, indicating some implications and future lines of research.

  10. How dentists account for social responsibility: economic imperatives and professional obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharamsi, Shafik; Pratt, Daniel D; MacEntee, Michael I

    2007-12-01

    This study explores how dentists explain the concept of social responsibility and its relationship to issues affecting access to oral health care by vulnerable segments of the population. Analysis of open-ended interviews with thirty-four dentists, including dental educators, and administrators and officials of dental public health programs in Canada and the United States revealed that four main themes-economics, professionalism, individual choice, and politics-influenced the respondents' sense of social responsibility in dentistry. There was a belief that social responsibility in dentistry is dominated by economic imperatives that impact negatively on the policies and practices directing access to care. Yet, despite the highly critical stance on dentistry as a business, there was practical recognition of the economic realities of dental practice. Nevertheless, those who focused on social responsibility as a professional obligation highlighted the privileges of self-governance along with the accompanying duty to serve the welfare of everyone and not just those who are socioeconomically advantaged.

  11. SOCIAL CAPITAL AS THE BASIS FOR THE FORMATION OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC SECURITY IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Sukhostavets

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Social capital is the basis for the definition of the future concept of rural areas management. Therefore, one of the most important tasks is to determine the various factors of existence, development, and formation of social capital. One of these factors is the security of rural areas and the definition of how social capital affects it. The analysis of the available scientific works in various areas reveals the lack of consensus in the definition of the category “socio-economic security of rural areas”. This is due to the fact that the definition of social and economic security of rural areas is identified with such concepts as the ability to provide resistance to various internal and external environmental influences. The purpose of the study is to determine the nature of social capital, as well as to study its impact on the socio-economic security of the state. The methodology of the research is based on the monographic method, the method of dialectic cognition, the scenario methods used to find the optimal scenario implementation option; SWOT-analysis is used to assess the positive or negative impact of social capital on the socio-economic security of rural areas. Understanding the essence of socio-economic security has led to the conclusion that it consists of economic, social, environmental and other types of security. The term “social security” in the understanding of researchers usually has two interpretations: traditional (absence of threats to the society and alternative (absence of threats from the society. It is proved that the social security of the region should be focused on ensuring primarily human rights and freedoms, namely, personal, political, social, economic, cultural, environmental, and family ones. Social and economic security should also provide social standards and guarantees, as well as norms. The economic basis of the security of rural areas is manifested in the development of market relations, infrastructure

  12. Does parents' economic, cultural, and social capital explain the social class effect on educational attainment in the Scandinavian mobility regime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads Meier

    2007-01-01

    for the statistical analysis. Our results are, first, that controlling for the three types of capital we explain a considerable part of the social class effect on educational attainment, and, second, that cultural and social capital are the key predictors of educational attainment.......This paper analyzes how much of the effect of social class on children’s choice of secondary education in Denmark can be decomposed into the influence of parental economic, cultural, and social capital. Following mobility regime theory, we propose that in the Scandinavian mobility regime to which...... Denmark belongs, the effect of social class on educational attainment should be explained primarily by non-economic forms of capital. We use an extremely rich Danish longitudinal survey to construct empirical measures of economic, cultural, and social capital and an extended random effect framework...

  13. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PAY SYSTEM AND SOCIAL SECURITY IN SPAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela – Andreea Nastasie

    2012-01-01

    In the current context of economic crisis which manifests the world can see a very important role of the pay systems and social security in economic and social life. Staff wages means establishing a salary entitlements owed to employees and their payment, as established at the end of collective or individual employment contracts. In Spain there are various collective agreements according to geographical areas and activities. A fair and balanced wage was and will remain a core area of human re...

  14. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF CYBERCRIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Ilievski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to highlight the main issues of developing countries regarding cybercrime and examine the possible link between weak economic development and escalating levels of cybercrime. The findings were established on the basis of literature review, comparative studies and the synthesis of findings. The existing sociological theories of crime are not limited to traditional crime and may be used for the interpretation of its cyber version. By analysing individual sociological theories and the results of empirical research, we found that social-economic factors, such as GDP per capita, unemployment and education, are closely related to the incidence of cybercrime in different countries. This enables us to conclude that the relatively poor economic development is one of the reasons contributing to a higher incidence of cybercrime in Eastern European countries. By taking into account factors of different nature, one could increase the understanding of cybercrime and the possibility of adopting and implementing reliable preventive measures. However, this paper strives not only to understand the factors related to cybercrime, but also to raise awareness, stimulate a proactive approach and develop preventive actions in the fight against cybercrime.

  15. Economic and social impact of modernization on cultural values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andreeva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the relevant theoretical economic approaches that allow us to understand the key elements of cultural values. The paper presents a model envisaged to estimate economic and social impact of modernization on cultural values in modern societies. We employ three indices of social and economic development for each level in Russian Federal districts of Moscow and St. Petersburg in order to reveal their impacts on modernization processes. Our data has been collected via the means of a questionnaire and an opinion poll with the purpose of revealing the value guidelines of society in terms of its modernization. Our results reveal the presence of four relevant levels of value orientations: family orientations, global, work, and personal orientations. Our results demonstrate how modernization is perceived in modern societies, in which spheres it is mostly expressed, and how it influences the society. Moreover, we show the determinants of values within four levels of value orientations. Our findings provide estimations of modern attitudes towards social consciousness in the processes of modernization and reveal basic moral principles that could become a background of new system of values used in modernizing modern societies.

  16. 76 FR 32950 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 Economic Census of Island Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... data at a geographic level equivalent to U.S. counties. Economic Census statistics for the island areas... System (NAICS)): Mining, Utilities, Construction, Manufacturing; Wholesale and Retail Trades... Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services; Educational Services; Health Care and Social...

  17. Complex Comparison of Bavarian and Bohemian Forest National Parks from Geographical Perspective: Is there More Similarity or Difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janík Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on comparison of the landscape of two National Parks (Bavarian and Bohemian Forest, which together create the largest area of wilderness in Central Europe. The article shows how different they are in social-economic and physical-geographical perspective. Social and economic conditions were introduced from perspective of path dependency and recent situation and its perception. Furthermore, we integrated social-economic and environmental perspective in the ecosystem services concept. Despite the lesser number tourists arriving to the Bavarian part of the area, perception is better than among mayors of municipalities on the Czech side. Different history, management and top-down and bottom-up approaches usage can explain these differences. The typologies of environmental conditions help us to distinguish differences between both National Parks. In the Bavarian Forest we can find more equal share of forests (coniferous, broad-leaved, mixed and surprisingly, thanks to large unmanaged part bigger relative share of regenerating forest landscapes than in the Bohemian Forest. Physical-geographical typology distinguishes five classes. Relative distribution of the classes is similar, but we can determine area of high plateau mainly on Czech side and on the other hand class of steeper terrain is located mainly in Bavarian Forest. Ecosystem services was presented by integrating landscape capacity analysis showing small differences between both National Parks in this case and no relation between land cover and attractiveness for tourism.

  18. The 12 item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim A C Everett

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a surge in psychological research on the relationship between political ideology (particularly conservatism and cognition, affect, behaviour, and even biology. Despite this flurry of investigation, however, there is as yet no accepted, validated, and widely used multi-item scale of conservatism that is concise, that is modern in its conceptualisation, and that includes both social and economic conservatism subscales. In this paper the 12-Item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS is proposed and validated to help fill this gap. The SECS is suggested to be an important and useful tool for researchers working in political psychology.

  19. Meta-analysis Number of Plants Drugs Used by Characteristics Socioeconomic Factors, Environmental and Geographic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febiola Diah Pratiwi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotany is the study of public relations with the use of plants. Use of plants by people influenced by several factors, such as social, cultural, socioeconomic, and geographic. Most of the ethnicities in Indonesia has a high dependence on plants medicine for survival. However, the factors that influence the use of medicinal plants by people in Indonesia have not been studied, so that research is needed to optimize the use of medicinal plants to sustainability benefits. The purpose of this study is to analyze the number of species of plants medicine used by the influence of socio-economic, environmental, and geographic factors using principal component analysis and analyzing patterns of use of plants medicine. The results showed that the economy and infrastructure components (access to electricity, means of education, income level, health facilities, distance from the highway, remoteness, and the fastest time toward the road and the number of people graduating from elementary school affect the number of medicinal plant species used. Based on the results of the study of literature and field observations, the pattern of use of plants medicine in addition to be used as medicine, the plant is used for food, building materials, plant ornamental, ceremonial, wood, wicker and crafts, coloring agents, animal feed, ingredients aromatic, and pesticide. The usage patterns in each region or village has the distinction of which is influenced by the remoteness factor due to the differences in the social, economic, environmental, and geographic.  Keywords: ethnobotany, plants medicine, principal component analysis

  20. Technical change and economic policy: science and technology in the new economic and social context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Links between scientific research, technological development, and economic growth by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development are analyzed. The analysis is broken into four parts: (1) The New Economic and Social Context; (2) Trends in R and D and Innovation; (3) Technological Change and the Economy; and (4) Conclusions and Recommendations. The long-term structural nature of many of the problems facing western Europe are emphasized, and the limitations of short-term-demand management strategies in solving them.

  1. 76 FR 65219 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time: November 3, 2011; 1 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. November 4, 2011; 8..., Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...

  2. The effect of grandparents’ economic, cultural, and social capital on grandchildren's educational success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Møllegaard; Jæger, Mads Meier

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of grandparents’ economic, cultural, and social capital on grandchildren's educational success. We analyze data from Denmark and hypothesize that grandparents’ economic capital should be of little importance in the Scandinavian context, while their cultural...... and social capital should be relatively more important. Our results partly confirm these hypotheses since, after controlling for parents’ capital, we find that grandparents’ cultural capital (but not their economic and social capital) has a positive effect on the likelihood that grandchildren choose...... the academic track in upper secondary education over all other tracks. These results suggest, at least in the Scandinavian context, that the ways in which grandparents affect grandchildren's educational success is via transmission of non-economic resources....

  3. Neighborhood Economic Deprivation and Social Fragmentation: Associations With Children's Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Erika J; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Saini, Ekjyot K; Philbrook, Lauren E; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2016-12-09

    A growing body of work indicates that experiences of neighborhood disadvantage place children at risk for poor sleep. This study aimed to examine how both neighborhood economic deprivation (a measure of poverty) and social fragmentation (an index of instability) are associated with objective measures of the length and quality of children's sleep. Participants were 210 children (54.3% boys) living predominantly in small towns and semirural communities in Alabama. On average children were 11.3 years old (SD = .63); 66.7% of the children were European American and 33.3% were African American. The sample was socioeconomically diverse with 67.9% of the participants living at or below the poverty line and 32.1% from lower-middle-class or middle-class families. Indicators of neighborhood characteristics were derived from the 2012 American Community Survey and composited to create two variables representing neighborhood economic deprivation and social fragmentation. Child sleep period, actual sleep minutes, and efficiency were examined using actigraphy. Higher levels of neighborhood economic deprivation were associated with fewer sleep minutes and poorer sleep efficiency. More neighborhood social fragmentation was also linked with poorer sleep efficiency. Analyses controlled for demographic characteristics, child health, and family socioeconomic status. Findings indicate that living in economically and socially disadvantaged neighborhoods predicts risk for shorter and lower-quality sleep in children. Examination of community context in addition to family and individual characteristics may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the factors shaping child sleep.

  4. New Indicators of the Level of Social Dissatisfaction in the Planning of Social-Economic Development of the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Yurevich Dolomatov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the urgent problem related to the development of the region, namely, the creation of tools for the assessment of the level of social dissatisfaction in the region. The assessment of the level of social dissatisfaction is one of the most important tasks of state organizations in political and social spheres. The article considers the concept of "social dissatisfaction" and associated terms, it substantiates the author's position on the content of this notion. The authors have investigated the existing national and international approaches to the assessing of social tensions of the population. The system of socio-economic development indicators doesn’t contain indicators allowing to assess the level of social dissatisfaction without the results of public polls. We propose two models in the article. In the first model, the assessment is basedon the single factor (the index of social dissatisfaction based on income differentiation. The second complex model takes into account a number of factors (the index of social dissatisfaction based on complex assessment. For the calculation of the proposed indicators, the authors use the statistical data of the Federal State Statistics Service. The methodological research tools include the mathematical methods of statistical data processing. We have evaluated the methodological tools on the example of the Republic of Ingushetia. The assessment has showed the dynamics of a decline in the level of social-economic dissatisfaction in the region (1995–2011. The models of social dissatisfaction constitute a tool for rapid and up-to-date assessment of socio-economic system sustainability, and of the willingness of the population to participate in protests. The application of the results of this study is the support of decision-making regions and state structures in working out plans of the socio-economic development of the regions.

  5. 77 FR 25207 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time: May 17, 2012; 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.; May 18, 2012; 8:30..., Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...

  6. 75 FR 25886 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral, and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time: May 20, 2010; 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. May 21, 2010; 8:30..., Directorate for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...

  7. 78 FR 25309 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ADVISORY Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time: May 20, 2013; 9:00 a.m. to 5:15 p.m. May 21, 2013; 9:00 a..., Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...

  8. 76 FR 24062 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time: May 19, 2011; 9 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. May 20, 2011; 9 a.m. to..., Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...

  9. Economic and Social Models in Europe and the Importance of Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Heipertz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on European economic and social models. It provides a comparative assessment of fiscal and regulatory policies in 17 industrialised countries (the EU15, US and Japan and presents the records of these countries in attaining key economic and social objectives. Social and economic systems that feature efficient public sectors and flexible market structures tend to experience reasonably sustainable public finances, high economic growth, education standards and employment, and well-functioning markets. Anglo-Saxon countries broadly fit this mould, albeit, seemingly, at some cost of income equality. A more pronounced emphasis on welfare state policies and the corresponding relatively high levels of public spending bring benefit to income distribution in the Nordic countries while the resulting inefficiencies in their economies are counterbalanced by flexibility in labour and particularly product markets. Also, a number of reform-minded European countries have improved their fiscal and regulatory policies while significantly enhancing the functioning of markets, fiscal sustainability and economic performance. This was generally attained without jeopardising social objectives. On the other hand, those continental and Mediterranean countries that maintain market inefficiencies and at the same time sustain expensive and inefficient welfare states generally suffer from low growth and employment and less well-functioning markets and face serious risks to their economies’ fiscal sustainability. The findings of this note support calls for the comprehensive reform of fiscal policies, as well as of product and labour markets.

  10. Social Capital, Economic Growth and Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    transactions to take place without third-party enforcement. Theory and lessons from empirical evidence lead to three general recommendations for building social capital in the future: First, the state must withdraw and minimize its role in the economy so to leave room for voluntary organization and free......Summary: What does social capital mean and how can it be built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society and allows more......-trade. Second, state withdrawal should be combined with efforts to increase economic growth and gain popular support for the implementation of reforms. Third, voluntary groups, beneficial to the economy, should not be institutionalized to prevent them from turning into harmful rent-seeking groups....

  11. Effects of age-related differences in empathy on social economic decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadle, Janelle N; Paradiso, Sergio; Kovach, Christopher; Polgreen, Linnea; Denburg, Natalie L; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The ways in which aging affects social economic decision-making is a central issue in the psychology of aging. To examine age-related differences in social economic decision-making as a function of empathy, 80 healthy volunteers participated in the Repeated Fixed Opponent Ultimatum Game (UG-R). Previous economic decision-making research has shown that in younger adults empathy is associated with prosocial behavior. The effects of empathy on older adult social economic decision-making are not well understood. On each of 20 consecutive trials in the UG-R, one player ("Proposer") splits $10 with another player ("Responder") who chooses either to accept (whereby both receive the proposed division) or reject (whereby neither receives anything). Trait cognitive and emotional empathy were measured using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. UG-R data were examined as a function of age and cognitive empathy. For "unfair" offers (i.e. offers less than $5), older Responders with high cognitive empathy showed less prosocial behavior and obtained greater payoffs than younger Responders with high cognitive empathy. High levels of cognitive empathy may differentially affect economic decision-making behavior in younger and older adults. For older adults, high cognitive empathy may play a role in obtaining high financial payoffs while for younger adults it may instead be involved in facilitating social relationships.

  12. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFICIENCY OF PROPERTY INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Investments play a key part within the goods and services industry, consumerism and community as well. The effects generated by any investment project substantiate this statement, regardless the sector of activity in which they are implemented. In the current market economy, economic efficiency indicators are playing an important role in assessing and analyzing an investment project since due to these indicators, the investor can become aware of the most important aspects they need to respond promptly. In this respect, we conducted a market analysis of real estate investments in Romania, highlighting economic and social efficiency of property investments.

  13. Social Determinants of Economic Behavior of Older Adults in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Youssim, Iaroslav

    2015-01-01

    This PhD thesis contributes to the growing economic literature which studies effects of social and cultural variables on economic behavior of older adults in Europe. Landes, cited in Guiso et al. (2006), states that "if we learn anything from the history of economic development, it is that culture makes all the difference” (p. 29). Indeed, in the recent years economists put an effort to apply their analytical frameworks and empirical tools to study the role of culture on economic outcomes (Gu...

  14. The Effect of Grandparents' Economic, Cultural and Social Capital on Grandchildren's Educational Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllegaard Pedersen, Stine; Jæger, Mads Meier

    This paper analyzes the effects of grandparents’ economic, cultural, and social capital on grandchildren’s educational success. We analyze data from Denmark and hypothesize that grandparents’ economic capital should be of little importance in the Scandinavian context, while their cultural...... and social capital should be relatively more important. Our results partly confirm these hypotheses since, after controlling for parents’ capital, we find that grandparents’ cultural capital (but not their economic and social capital) has a positive effect on the likelihood that grandchildren choose...... the academic track in upper secondary education over the vocational track or no education. These results suggest that, at least in the Scandinavian context, the ways in which grandparents affect grandchildren’s educational success is via transmission of non-economic resources....

  15. Theoretical background of healthcare management in the conditions of social and economic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuldyakov V.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop fundamental basis of science based healthcare management in social and economic instability. Public health state (1998-2008, selected region was characterized by cardiovascular health parameters (Code IX, ICD-10. Systematic review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. Dynamic characteristics of major cardiovascular diseases in social and economic instability considered as a cause of a population system destabilization were reconstructed. Conclusion. Fundamentals of science based healthcare management in social and economic instability include long- and short-term prognosis of public health characteristics as the result of multifactor external influences on cardiovascular diseases prevalence.

  16. The Impact of Social Factors on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence for Romania and European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Popa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between the social factors and the economic growth. A summary of social and economic environment is presented for Romania. As such, the paper analyzes the global evolution of social and economic environment over time and establishes a direct correlation between human development and economic welfare. An econometric model and a clustering model are tested for European Union countries. The results of the paper reveal the social factors that are positively correlated with the economic growth (i.e. the expected years of schooling and the life expectancy and, respectively, the factors that are negatively correlated with the economic growth (i.e. the population at risk of poverty and the unemployment rate.

  17. Signs of Social Class: The Experience of Economic Inequality in Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Park, Jun Won; Tan, Jacinth J X

    2017-05-01

    By some accounts, global economic inequality is at its highest point on record. The pernicious effects of this broad societal trend are striking: Rising inequality is linked to poorer health and well-being across countries, continents, and cultures. The economic and psychological forces that perpetuate inequality continue to be studied, and in this theoretical review, we examine the role of daily experiences of economic inequality-the communication of social class signals between interaction partners-in this process. We theorize that social class signals activate social comparison processes that strengthen group boundaries between the haves and have nots in society. In particular, we argue that class signals are a frequent, rapid, and accurate component of person perception, and we provide new data and analyses demonstrating the accuracy of class signaling in 60-s interactions, Facebook photographs, and isolated recordings of brief speech. We suggest that barriers to the reduction of economic inequality in society arise directly from this class signaling process through the augmentation of class boundaries and the elicitation of beliefs and behaviors that favor the economic status quo.

  18. Psycho-social and Economic Evaluation of Onchocerciasis: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moya Alonso

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onchocerciasis or river blindness is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca Volvulus. It occurs in 38 countries in the world, including Africa, Latin America and the Arabian Peninsula. The infection predominantly causes visual impairment and blindness and skin disease. Objectives: The aim of this project is to review the literature on the psycho-social and economic consequences of onchocerciasis in endemic areas. Economic evaluation studies on onchocerciasis and its control programmes were also reviewed. Methods: Electronic searches of PUBMED and Google were made. In addition, the Cochrane Library and WHO website were searched. Different types of economic analysis were reviewed to quantify the relationship between the programme costs and impacts. Results: Eighty papers were identified from different sources, most of which are quantitative studies or literature reviews, and only two were clinical trials. Onchocerciasis has severe socio-economic and psychological consequences. The stigma associated with the disease may reduce marital prospects among affected individuals, disrupt social relationships and cause loss of self-confidence. Also among agricultural workers onchocerciasis has been associated with increased time away from work and reduced productivity, leading to lower income. Discussion: Most of the papers analysed were cross-sectional studies based on data collection through questionnaires. Although there is an increasing number of published papers about the importance of the psycho-social and economic perspective of onchocerciasis, further research is still necessary to quantify and control its consequences. Conclusion: Onchocerciasis is still a serious problem in poor countries. Infected people face physical disability and social stigma that can dramatically reduce the quality of life and land productivity. Control programmes, though costly, have been very successful and cost

  19. Social responsibility of the state and business as a factor of competitiveness and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fylyppova Iryna H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of social factors in economic development of countries and nations cannot be ignored today. However, the goal of this article is not a proof of this already evident fact; the main hypothesis of the article is that the level of social responsibility of the state and business is directly reflected in competitiveness of the national economy and prospects of economic growth. The authors proceed from three quite evident assumptions: first – development of entrepreneurship is the basic factor of competitiveness in the market economy; second – competitiveness is a condition of export oriented economic growth; third – all the above listed “ingredients”, including economic growth, “close” on one key indicator – labour productivity, and the main problem lies in clear identification of the cause-effect relations between them. Thus, labour productivity is the nucleus of the “competitiveness – economic growth” system. The authors consider labour productivity as a function of three arguments: physical, human and social capital. Moreover, the first two arguments are a passive potential of the economic system and characterise the level of development of productive forces and only the social capital, which reflects the level of development of production relations, characterises real possibilities of the economic system with respect to realisation of its passive potential, that is, is the active potential of the system. The production function of social labour, identified in such a way, is, in fact, a characteristic of the social method of production. While studying influence of social factors upon development of entrepreneurship, competitiveness and economic growth, the authors reveal internal contradiction of the existing social method of production.

  20. Economic and Social Potential of Family-supporting Services, Limits and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increase of the economic pressure on households, it is increasingly more difficult to balance family life and economic activity. Reasons for this evolution can be the increased labour market participation of women, the ageing of the population to name a few. Within the EU, different systems to offer assistance in creating a balanced social and economically active life have been established in numerous countries. However, the aims, results and general scope of these national policies differ.The main focus of this paper will be the Belgian situation, i.e. the voucher system (services cheques. Starting with a general view of the reasons of existence of family-support services, followed by the different support services policies offered in various European countries, the Belgian situation will be discussed.The voucher system in Belgium has encountered an explosive boom which brings unexpected results and side effects. These affect the country’s social economical system. The paper discusses the evolution of the system. What are the reasons for the unexpected success? What are the economic and social consequences for a modern active welfare state, can growth be limitless? The paper will attempt to provide answers on these questions raised.

  1. GI+100: Long Term Preservation of Digital Geographic Information - 16 Fundamental Principles Agreed by National Mapping Agencies and State Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Carsten Rönsdorf

    2017-05-01

    There are many reasons why people wish to retain access to information, though the main drivers for archiving digital geographic information include meeting legislative requirements; the short and long term exploitation of archived data for analyzing social, environmental (e.g. global climate changes and economic changes over time; as well as efficiency savings in managing superseded datasets. This paper sets out the path and describes what needs to be done now to future-proof the investment government agencies around the world have made in creating digital geographic data.

  2. Social influences on risk attitudes : Applications in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, S.T.; Vieider, F.M.; Roeser, S.; Hillerbrand, R.; Sandin, P.; Peterson, M.

    2012-01-01

    Economic research on risk attitudes has traditionally focused on individual decision-making issues, without any consideration for potential social influences on preferences. This has been changing rapidly over the last years, with economists often taking inspiration from earlier psychological

  3. Gender Disparity in Third World Technological, Social, and Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akubue, Anthony I.

    2001-01-01

    Socialization of women in developing countries inhibits their education and employment in scientific and technical fields. This mindset perpetuates poverty and limits economic and social development. Solutions include elimination of gender bias, information dissemination, replication of successful development projects, use of role models, and…

  4. Social embeddedness and economic opportunism: a game situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalaki, Maria; Fousiani, Kyriaki

    2012-06-01

    According to Evolutionary Game Theory, multiple exchanges with partners are necessary to foster cooperation. Multiple exchanges with partners tend to enhance the good experience of the partners and the predictability of their behaviour and should therefore increase cooperativeness. This study explored whether social embeddedness, or the preference for close and stable social relationships, a variable which tends to increase multiple exchanges, is associated with more cooperative attitudes; and whether social embeddedness increases cooperative behavior towards unknown partners in a game situation. The first study, with 169 undergraduates, indicated that social embeddedness (preference for close and durable social relations) was negatively associated with opportunistic attitudes. The second study had a sample of 60 undergraduates playing a Trust Game with unknown partners and showed that self-reported social embeddedness was positively correlated with scores for cooperative economic behavior towards the partners. These results highlight the relationships of social embeddedness with cooperative attitudes and behaviour.

  5. Corruption as a social-economic phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejanović Radovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses corruption as a primarily socio-economic construction. This paper tests the hypothesis of corruption as a systemic problem. The system is (economic, political, legal the main source of corruption. There are, regarding to this, the system generators of corruption: state, property and market. They are the key institutions of society that are placed in a destructive political system, create corruption, which undermines the economic, political, legal and moral foundations of society. Corruption is the inevitable partner of administrative, bureaucratic, party, non-market societies, societies in which dominate monopoly on coercion and obligation (and the prohibition of coercion. Disorganized, monopolized markets and asymmetric information is also an important source of corruption. All this, in terms of the collective (public, government property, which is 'used as its own, and kept as others', on a system of vicious cycle, develop and rise corruption. Therefore, the system changes (reforms are necessary at all levels of government, and introduction of ethical standards in order to eradicate the causes of this social scourge.

  6. Effects of Age-related Differences in Empathy on Social Economic Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadle, Janelle N.; Paradiso, Sergio; Kovach, Christopher; Polgreen, Linnea; Denburg, Natalie; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background The ways in which aging affects social economic decision-making is a central issue in the psychology of aging. To examine age-related differences in social economic decision-making as a function of empathy, 80 healthy volunteers participated in the Repeated Fixed Opponent Ultimatum Game (UG-R). Previous economic decision making research has shown that in younger adults empathy is associated with prosocial behavior. The effects of empathy on older adult social economic decision-making are not well understood. Methods On each of 20 consecutive trials in the UG-R, one player (“Proposer”) splits ten dollars with another player (“Responder”) who chooses either to accept (whereby both receive the proposed division) or reject (whereby neither receives anything). Trait cognitive and emotional empathy were measured using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Results UG-R data were examined as a function of age and cognitive empathy. For unfair offers (i.e., offers less than $5), older Responders with high cognitive empathy showed less prosocial behavior and obtained greater payoffs than younger Responders with high cognitive empathy. Conclusions High levels of cognitive empathy may differentially affect economic decision making behavior in younger and older adults. For older adults, high cognitive empathy may be involved in obtaining high financial payoffs while for younger adults it may instead facilitate social relationships. PMID:22237008

  7. Applied evolutionary economics and economic geography

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Sunley

    2008-01-01

    Applied Evolutionary Economics and Economic Geography aims to further advance empirical methodologies in evolutionary economics, with a special emphasis on geography and firm location. It does so by bringing together a select group of leading scholars including economists, geographers and sociologists, all of whom share an interest in explaining the uneven distribution of economic activities in space and the historical processes that have produced these patterns.

  8. Obesity, social inequality and economic rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Thea; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Kærgård, Niels

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the economic literature related to obesity and consumer decisions, pursuing the overall question, whether the current obesity epidemic and its social bias can be viewed as a result of rational consumption behaviour. We address a number of potential explanations based on consumers......' utility maximisation behaviour, which all may contribute to explain the ongoing rise in obesity prevalence in many western countries. In addition to standard neoclassical explanations of obesity, we discuss moral hazard aspects, the role of network externalities, self-control problems and habitual...... behaviour. We include all of these aspects of the individual weight decision in a unified theoretical framework and present existing empirical evidence for each effect. Based on our analysis, we discuss the different economic explanations and give suggestions for future research....

  9. Household energy consumption in the UK: A highly geographically and socio-economically disaggregated model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druckman, A.; Jackson, T.

    2008-01-01

    Devising policies for a low carbon society requires a careful understanding of energy consumption in different types of households. In this paper, we explore patterns of UK household energy use and associated carbon emissions at national level and also at high levels of socio-economic and geographical disaggregation. In particular, we examine specific neighbourhoods with contrasting levels of deprivation, and typical 'types' (segments) of UK households based on socio-economic characteristics. Results support the hypothesis that different segments have widely differing patterns of consumption. We show that household energy use and associated carbon emissions are both strongly, but not solely, related to income levels. Other factors, such as the type of dwelling, tenure, household composition and rural/urban location are also extremely important. The methodology described in this paper can be used in various ways to inform policy-making. For example, results can help in targeting energy efficiency measures; trends from time series results will form a useful basis for scenario building; and the methodology may be used to model expected outcomes of possible policy options, such as personal carbon trading or a progressive tax regime on household energy consumption

  10. Should high-level nuclear waste be disposed of at geographically dispersed sites?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, G.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Consideration of the technical feasibility of Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the site for a high-level nuclear waste repository has led to an intense debate regarding the economic, social, and political impacts of the repository. Impediments to the siting process mean that the nuclear waste problem is being resolved by adhering to the status quo, in which nuclear waste is stored at scattered sites near major population centers. To assess the merits of alternative siting strategies--including both the permanent repository and the status quo- we consider the variables that would be included in a model designed to select (1) the optimal number of disposal facilities, (2) the types of facilities (e.g., permanent repository or monitored retrievable facility), and (3) the geographic location of storage sites. The objective function in the model is an all-inclusive measure of social cost. The intent of the exercise is not to demonstrate the superiority of any single disposal strategy; uncertainties preclude a conclusive proof of optimality for any of the disposal options. Instead, we want to assess the sensitivity of a variety of proposed solutions to variations in the physical, economic, political, and social variables that influence a siting strategy

  11. GIS in the Classroom: Using Geographic Information Systems in Social Studies and Environmental Science. [with CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibrandi, Marsha

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a computer application for urban planning, weather reporting, and geological and demographic studies. This book takes teachers and students to the cutting edge of teaching social studies and environmental education using GIS. Students can use GIS as a tool to explore, question, integrate, analyze, interpret,…

  12. Contributions of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex to Social Influence in Economic Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, M A J; Ramnani, N

    2017-09-01

    Economic decisions are guided by highly subjective reward valuations (SVs). Often these SVs are over-ridden when individuals conform to social norms. Yet, the neural mechanisms that underpin the distinct processing of such normative reward valuations (NVs) are poorly understood. The dorsomedial and ventromedial portions of the prefrontal cortex (dmPFC/vmPFC) are putatively key regions for processing social and economic information respectively. However, the contribution of these regions to economic decisions guided by social norms is unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and computational modeling we examine the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of SVs and NVs. Subjects (n = 15) indicated either their own economic preferences or made similar choices based on a social norm-learnt during a training session. We found that that the vmPFC and dmPFC make dissociable contributions to the processing of SV and NV. Regions of the dmPFC processed "only" the value of rewards when making normative choices. In contrast, we identify a novel mechanism in the vmPFC for the coding of value. This region signaled both subjective and normative valuations, but activity was scaled positively for SV and negatively for NV. These results highlight some of the key mechanisms that underpin conformity and social influence in economic decision-making. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Health capabilities and diabetes self-management: the impact of economic, social, and cultural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Robert R; Lemonde, Manon; Payman, Naghmeh; Goodman, William M

    2014-02-01

    While the "social determinants of health" view compels us to explore how social structures shape health outcomes, it often ignores the role individual agency plays. In contrast, approaches that focus on individual choice and personal responsibility for health often overlook the influence of social structures. Amartya Sen's "capabilities" framework and its derivative the "health capabilities" (HC) approach attempts to accommodate both points of view, acknowledging that individuals function under social conditions over which they have little control, while also acting as agents in their own health and well-being. This paper explores how economic, social, and cultural resources shape the health capability of people with diabetes, focusing specifically on dietary practices. Health capability and agency are central to dietary practices, while also being shaped by immediate and broader social conditions that can generate habits and a lifestyle that constrain dietary behaviors. From January 2011 to December 2012, we interviewed 45 people with diabetes from a primary care clinic in Ontario (Canada) to examine how their economic, social, and cultural resources combine to influence dietary practices relative to their condition. We classified respondents into low, medium, and high resource groups based on economic circumstances, and compared how economic resources, social relationships, health-related knowledge and values combine to enhance or weaken health capability and dietary management. Economic, social, and cultural resources conspired to undermine dietary management among most in the low resource group, whereas social influences significantly influenced diet among many in the medium group. High resource respondents appeared most motivated to maintain a healthy diet, and also had the social and cultural resources to enable them to do so. Understanding the influence of all three types of resources is critical for constructing ways to enhance health capability, chronic

  14. Economic and environmental efficiency using a social accounting matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilla, Carmen Rodriguez; Diaz-Salazar, Gaspar Llanes; Cardenete, M. Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to show the utility of the so-called Social Accounting Matrix and Environmental Accounts (SAMEA) for economic and environmental efficiency analysis. The article uses the SAMEA for Spain in 2000, applied to water resources and greenhouse gas emissions. This matrix is used as a central core of a multisectorial model of economic and environmental performance, and it calculates the denominated 'domestics SAMEA multipliers' and their decomposition into characteristic, direct, indirect and induced effects. These multipliers show some evaluation of economic and environmental efficiency. Also, we present an application of these multipliers that demonstrates that there is no causal interrelation between those sectors with higher economic backward linkages and those with higher environmental deterioration backward linkages. (author)

  15. Statistical Support for Analysis of the Social Stratification and Economic Inequality of the Country’s Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksyonova Irina V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to summarize the theoretical and methodological as well as information and analytical support for statistical research of economic and social stratification in society and conduct an analysis of the differentiation of the population of Ukraine in terms of the economic component of social inequality. The theoretical and methodological level of the research is studied, and criteria for social stratification and inequalities in society, systems, models and theories of social stratification of the population are singled out. The indicators of social and economic statistics regarding the differentiation of the population by income level are considered as the research tools. As a result of the analysis it was concluded that the economic inequality of the population leads to changes in the social structure, which requires formation of a new social stratification of society. The basis of social stratification is indicators of the population well-being, which require a comprehensive study. Prospects for further research in this area are the analysis of the components of economic inequality that determine and influence the social stratification of the population of the country, the formation of the middle class, and the study of the components of the human development index as a cross-currency indicator of the socio-economic inequality of the population.

  16. Institutional Support : Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER) is an established, semi-autonomous national policy research entity created in 1960. Affiliated with the National ... Eleven world-class research teams set to improve livestock vaccine development and production to benefit farmers across the Global South.

  17. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Economic and Social Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The foundation aims to build capacity in economic and social policy analysis and development management. Its work ... -increase research staff retention rates ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  18. Does engineering education need to engage more with the economic and social aspects of sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, John J.

    2017-11-01

    This paper questions if engineering educators are producing engineers that are accelerating humanity along an unsustainable path. Even though technology and engineering are important drivers in trying to move humanity towards an environmentally sustainable paradigm, the paper suggests that maybe the most important levers and challenges lie in the economic and social domains. Short case studies of energy efficiency, the experience of the industrialist Ray Anderson and the authors own reflection of teaching chemical engineering students are used to highlight this. Engineering/technological innovation may not be enough and is often counteracted by the rebound effect and the current dominant neoclassical economic paradigm. The paper discusses what engineering educators can do to produce sustainability informed engineers who are better able to engage with the economic and social dimensions of sustainability. Some suggestions for engaging engineering students with the economic and social dimensions of environmental sustainability are provided. Engineers must somehow find ways, not just to influence technological levers (which are very important) but also to influence economic and social levers so that changes in economic and social behaviours can complement and facilitate technological change in moving humanity to an environmentally sustainable paradigm.

  19. Modelling social vulnerability in sub-Saharan West Africa using a geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Lawal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, disasters and risk management have gained significant attention, especially with increasing awareness of the risks and increasing impact of natural and other hazards especially in the developing world. Vulnerability, the potential for loss of life or property from disaster, has biophysical or social dimensions. Social vulnerability relates to societal attributes which has negative impacts on disaster outcomes. This study sought to develop a spatially explicit index of social vulnerability, thus addressing the dearth of research in this area in sub-Saharan Africa. Nineteen variables were identified covering various aspects. Descriptive analysis of these variables revealed high heterogeneity across the South West region of Nigeria for both the state and the local government areas (LGAs. Feature identification using correlation analysis identified six important variables. Factor analysis identified two dimensions, namely accessibility and socioeconomic conditions, from this subset. A social vulnerability index (SoVI showed that Ondo and Ekiti have more vulnerable LGAs than other states in the region. About 50% of the LGAs in Osun and Ogun have a relatively low social vulnerability. Distribution of the SoVI shows that there are great differences within states as well as across regions. Scores of population density, disability and poverty have a high margin of error in relation to mean state scores. The study showed that with a geographical information system there are opportunities to model social vulnerability and monitor its evolution and dynamics across the continent.

  20. 77 FR 24228 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of...; Division of Social and Economic Sciences, Room 990, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard... Science Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Site visit review of the Nanoscale Science and...

  1. Quantifying Users' Interconnectedness in Online Social Networks - An Indispensible Step for Economic Valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gneiser, Martin; Heidemann, Julia; Klier, Mathias; Landherr, Andrea; Probst, Florian

    Online social networks have been gaining increasing economic importance in light of the rising number of their users. Numerous recent acquisitions priced at enormous amounts have illustrated this development and revealed the need for adequate business valuation models. The value of an online social network is largely determined by the value of its users, the relationships between these users, and the resulting network effects. Therefore, the interconnectedness of a user within the network has to be considered explicitly to get a reasonable estimate for the economic value. Established standard business valuation models, however, do not sufficiently take these aspects into account. Thus, we propose a measure based on the PageRank-algorithm to quantify users’ interconnectedness in an online social network. This is a first but indispensible step towards an adequate economic valuation of online social networks.

  2. Assessment of ecological, economic and social impacts of grain for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to noticeably and systematically assess ecological, economic and social effects of the grain for green project on county level, this study investigated the benefits of carbon sequestration to the soil of farmland-converted forestland (in 0 to 20 cm soil depth), the change in household income structure and social ...

  3. A pedagogical approach to socially just relations in a Grade 11 Economics class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayd Waghid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-apartheid schooling in South Africa is challenged with the task of contributing towards social justice, as has been evident from the emergence of a plethora of education policies following the promulgation of the South African Schools Act in 1996. One of the most significant ways in which social justice can be cultivated in schools, especially where exclusion and marginalisation have been in ascendancy for decades, is through improved pedagogical activities, which receive focus in this article. The article focuses on investigating how the learning goals for Grade 11 Economics with the aid of an educational technology, in particular Facebook, engender opportunities for socially just relations in the classroom. The researcher is concerned with how these learning goals are related to three underlying aspects of Economics education, namely sustainable development, equity (including equality and economic development, and how they may or may not engender opportunities for social justice. Critical discourse analysis is the research approach used to analyse learners' comments on Facebook in relation to their understandings of three films. It was found that it is possible to teach and learn education for social justice in the classroom. Learners treated one another equally; enacted their pedagogical relations equitably; and learnt to become economically aware of their society's developmental needs. Thus, it is recommended that education for social justice be cultivated in school classrooms through the use of Facebook.

  4. Institutional Support: Centre for Economic and Social Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Institutional Support: Centre for Economic and Social Research, Education and Documentation (Burkina Faso). The Centre d'études de documentation et de ... innovations to improve lives and livelihoods. Five world-class research teams are working to develop vaccines for neglected livestock diseases in the Global South.

  5. An Empirical Analysis of Social Capital and Economic Growth in Europe (1980-2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Isabel; Vazquez, Emilia; Portela, Marta

    2009-01-01

    It is of paramount concern for economists to uncover the factors that determine economic growth and social development. In recent years a new field of investigation has come to the fore in which social capital is analysed in order to determine its effect on economic growth. Along these lines the work presented here examines the relationships that…

  6. Trends and Perspectives of Social and Economic Development of the Perm region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliya Kh. Usmanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main purpose of the article is study the current prerequisites and trends of the economic development of the Perm Region to formulate proposals and recommendations within the framework of the program for the long-term development of regional social and economic systems. The main hypothesis of the article is that the social and economic development of the Perm Region requires the creation of innovative ways to develop promising areas of business based on relevant trends and assumptions.Methods: the methodology of solving the tasks is based on the use of the method of dialectical research, methods of economic analysis, forecasting, situational and system analysis, expert assessments and analysis of empirical data.Results: the results of the work are to study the economic processes in the region, including indicators and indicators of the region's social and economic development, and further develop recommendations and proposals for the development of priority areas in project management and selection of optimal project planning models to ensure sustainable development of the region and its competitiveness.Conclusions and Relevance: priority goals for solving the current economic problems of the Perm Region are to increase the income of the population and increase the revenue of the regional budget. To increase the pace and ensure the stability of economic growth, increase the real income of citizens, achieve technological leadership, a consistent solution to a number of specific tasks is necessary. It is important that the implementation of economic policy should be based on building partnerships between public authorities and entrepreneurship, aimed at increasing the efficiency of companies and the development of the economy of the region.

  7. Areva. 2007 figures economic, social, societal and environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document presents the 2007 economic, social, societal and environmental data of the Areva Group. Content: 1 - Improvement initiative: Continuous improvement, Innovation; 2 - Financial performance: 2007 results; 3 - Commitment to employees: Stakeholder relations, Health and safety, Radiation protection, Radiological impacts, Technological risks, Workforce, Workforce and training; 4 - Environment: Water, Energy, Gaseous releases, Liquid releases, Conventional waste, Radioactive waste; 5 - Reporting and performance indicators: Reporting methodology, Auditors' report, Social indicators, Environmental indicators

  8. MONEY ATTITUDES VS ECONOMIC SOCIALIZATION IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta KOWALCZYK

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the attitudes people have towards money, analysed from an economic and psychological point of view. The article presents an overview of current knowledge on the issues of money attitudes, as well as derived own research derived. This research was designed in order to identify different types of money attitudes as well as their determinants. The study identified five dominant profiles and showed that the most popular is a rational approach, and second – it’s opposite - improvidence. The results have been faced with the most important economic socialization determinants identified during the literature review. The comparison proved to be important, e.g. in the form of receiving pocket money.

  9. Cultural and economic determinants of geographical mortality patterns in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackenbach, J. P.; Kunst, A. E.; Looman, C. W.

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The geographical pattern of mortality in The Netherlands is dominated by an area of relatively high mortality in the southern part of the country. The aim was to analyse the background of this geographical mortality pattern in the early 1980s, and its evolution over time since the

  10. Economic and Social Satisfaction : Measurement and Relevance to Marketing Channel Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geyskens, I.; Steenkamp, J.E.B.M.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate the critical need to recognize the presence of two different types of satisfaction for effective channel governance—economic satisfaction, that is, a channel member’s evaluation of the economic outcomes that flow from the relationship with its partner, and social satisfaction, a

  11. Economic inequality, working-class power, social capital, and cause-specific mortality in wealthy countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Lynch, John W; Hillemeier, Marianne; Lee, Ju Hee; David, Richard; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme

    2002-01-01

    This study tests two propositions from Navarro's critique of the social capital literature: that social capital's importance has been exaggerated and that class-related political factors, absent from social epidemiology and public health, might be key determinants of population health. The authors estimate cross-sectional associations between economic inequality, working-class power, and social capital and life expectancy, self-rated health, low birth weight, and age- and cause-specific mortality in 16 wealthy countries. Of all the health outcomes, the five variables related to birth and infant survival and nonintentional injuries had the most consistent association with economic inequality and working-class power (in particular with strength of the welfare state) and, less so, with social capital indicators. Rates of low birth weight and infant deaths from all causes were lower in countries with more "left" (e.g., socialist, social democratic, labor) votes, more left members of parliament, more years of social democratic government, more women in government, and various indicators of strength of the welfare state, as well as low economic inequality, as measured in a variety of ways. Similar associations were observed for injury mortality, underscoring the crucial role of unions and labor parties in promoting workplace safety. Overall, social capital shows weaker associations with population health indicators than do economic inequality and working-class power. The popularity of social capital and exclusion of class-related political and welfare state indicators does not seem to be justified on empirical grounds.

  12. Social media fingerprints of unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Alejandro; Garcia-Herranz, Manuel; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets.

  13. Institutional Support : Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER) established in 1969 is a semi-autonomous university-based research centre located at the University of Ghana, Legon, Accra. ISSER has a strong track record of undertaking high-quality policy-relevant research. This grant - the largest being awarded under ...

  14. The innovative strategy of social and economic development of mining region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bereznev Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Depressed state of Russian economy in recent years, the unstable functioning of most regional social and economic systems in the conditions of increased uncertainty of the global economy makes strategizing of the development based on a new model of economic growth a highly important issue. It assumes the tasks of modernization and restructuring of the economy, as well as improving the quality of management. It is known that the solution of these conceptual target problems was suggested by the concept 2020, but the global crisis of 2007-2009 and other geopolitical factors in the post-crisis period pushed their implementation back. The results of 2016 show an adaptation of Russian economy to the difficult internal and external challenges. In this article, the authors analyze the strategizing process by the example of the “Strategy of social and economic development of the Kemerovo Region up to 2025”, as well as analysis comparatively the strategies for the development of the national economy, the Siberian Federal District and the region. Based on the study results the authors formulated and substantiated conclusions and recommendations to improve strategizing process and the effectiveness of strategic management of the development of social and economic systems.

  15. [Doctoral thesis: Demographic growth and economic and social development in Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabo, K

    1999-12-01

    A doctoral thesis is described analyzing the relationships between demographic growth and economic and social development in Mali. The hypothesis is stated that demographic growth impedes economic development and any improvement in populations¿ standards of living. The hypothesis was verified using data for the period from 1960 to the present. Over that period, Mali conducted two general population censuses in 1976 and 1987, as well as several demographic research studies. The thesis is comprised of 4 parts, of which the first generally describes Mali. The second part analyzes the relationship between population growth and economic and social development in Mali. Study results are presented, followed by an analysis of the effects of economic and social development upon population growth in Mali through factors such as urbanization, education level, literacy, income, employment, occupation, gross domestic or gross national product by inhabitant, infant mortality rate, life expectancy at birth, contraceptive practice, fertility opinions and desires, women¿s status, and migration in Mali. Analysis indicates that Mali has not completely begun its demographic transition, but that traditional pronatalist behaviors are changing. Population policies and programs are explored in the third part of the thesis, followed by the fourth part which focuses upon methodological questions.

  16. ROMANIA: GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOPOLITICAL POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Beniamin Benea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to bring to the reader’s attention the importance of understanding the role education plays in creating a good geopolitical position for a state which has a good geographical position, and which is well endowed in natural resources. The case of Romania is the main focus of the paper. There is presented a peculiar strange situation of a country (Romania which is very well located from geographical point of view but which is incapable to exploit its natural endowments and special location. One reason for this situation is the fact that most people living in present Romania belong to a category named in this paper ‘individuals’. Individuals are not aware of their country’s geography and history, let alone its possible future development possibilities. They do not know the role their country could play, and living in an atomized society, they choose emigration as the easiest way to escape harsh social and economic environment. Contrary to this attitude is that of a citizen, a man conscious about his country’s potential, and which is dedicated to work hardly together with his fellows in order to promote national interests in a peaceful manner. Even there was found remnants of an ancient city close to present day Romanian territory – proves of well endowed environment – moral and psychological factors have contributed after 1990 in an crucial manner to push Romania from its civilization path back to the archaic spirit, from active urban spirit to rural mentality. In such a situation it is not uncommon for a nation to lose its means for projecting power, which could promote the value and the importance of a geographical position – transportation; rural mentality has nothing to do with modern transportation as they are technical tools with geopolitical essence for controlling space. It is a well known fact that transportation and geopolitics are closely interrelated. Furthermore, social dissolution in post communist

  17. Social-and-economic mechanism of formation of favorable investment attractiveness of the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshkina, Tatiana; Mottaeva, Angela; Andreeva, Larisa; Larinina, Tatyana

    2017-10-01

    The article is devoted to the matters of investment attractiveness of regions. The factors making the regional investments possible. The authors argue, that social-and-economic development of regions is connected with the formation of the financial mechanism, representing the set of forms and methods of the organization, planning and stimulation of financial-and-economic activity in the certain social-and-economic space. The proper mechanism of formation of favorable investment attractiveness are offered. Besides, the ways of elimination of limiting factors in formation of favorable investment attractiveness are offered.

  18. Extension Implications Of The Social And Economic Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The social and economic characteristics of the human resources in the baking industry in south-eastern Nigeria were studied. The human resources used for the study were the managers, supervisors and factory floor workers. The study was done using an enterprise level interview schedule in Onitsha, Owerri, Aba and ...

  19. Social vulnerability and climate change: synthesis of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathy Lynn; Katharine MacKendrick; Ellen M. Donoghue

    2011-01-01

    The effects of climate change are expected to be more severe for some segments of society than others because of geographic location, the degree of association with climate-sensitive environments, and unique cultural, economic, or political characteristics of particular landscapes and human populations. Social vulnerability and equity in the context of climate change...

  20. Integral sustainable development: The example of local geographic milieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujadinović Snežana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The local geographic milieu plays a significant role in development of every man because of its orientation in space, a sense of security and belonging to the community and the place where he lives or who perform his activities. In other words, one needs to fall in a particular social group that inhabits an area or to perform some activities able in a space, because that is something that stands out from the rest of the world and marking his individuality. The main long-term goal of development of each local community is to increase the quality of life of all its members, job creation, integration of the local community in a wider social system through health, educational and cultural institutions, creating a network of relationships and connections and correlations of all the actors from the state and public sector up to private enterprise, local authorities and local associations. Of particular importance for Serbia, is a question of development of local rural communities, which is closely linked to issues of sustainable and balanced spatial, socio-economic and demographic development. This issue becomes more important in efforts to prevent existing urban-centric trends and highlighted the economic and demographic polarization of Serbia. .

  1. Social Network Analysis and Qualitative Interviews for Assessing Geographic Characteristics of Tourism Business Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, Ilan; Luthe, Tobias; Wyss, Romano; Tørnblad, Silje H; Evers, Yvette; Curran, Marina Martin; Williams, Richard J; Berlow, Eric L

    2016-01-01

    This study integrates quantitative social network analysis (SNA) and qualitative interviews for understanding tourism business links in isolated communities through analysing spatial characteristics. Two case studies are used, the Surselva-Gotthard region in the Swiss Alps and Longyearbyen in the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, to test the spatial characteristics of physical proximity, isolation, and smallness for understanding tourism business links. In the larger Surselva-Gotthard region, we found a strong relationship between geographic separation of the three communities on compartmentalization of the collaboration network. A small set of businesses played a central role in steering collaborative decisions for this community, while a group of structurally 'peripheral' actors were less influential. By contrast, the business community in Svalbard showed compartmentalization that was independent of geographic distance between actors. Within towns of similar size and governance scale, Svalbard is more compartmentalized, and those compartments are not driven by geographic separation of the collaboration clusters. This compartmentalization in Svalbard was reflected in a lower density of formal business collaboration ties compared to the communities of the Alps. We infer that the difference is due to Svalbard having higher cultural diversity and population turnover than the Alps communities. We propose that integrating quantitative network analysis from simple surveys with qualitative interviews targeted from the network results is an efficient general approach to identify regionally specific constraints and opportunities for effective governance.

  2. Social Network Analysis and Qualitative Interviews for Assessing Geographic Characteristics of Tourism Business Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Kelman

    Full Text Available This study integrates quantitative social network analysis (SNA and qualitative interviews for understanding tourism business links in isolated communities through analysing spatial characteristics. Two case studies are used, the Surselva-Gotthard region in the Swiss Alps and Longyearbyen in the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, to test the spatial characteristics of physical proximity, isolation, and smallness for understanding tourism business links. In the larger Surselva-Gotthard region, we found a strong relationship between geographic separation of the three communities on compartmentalization of the collaboration network. A small set of businesses played a central role in steering collaborative decisions for this community, while a group of structurally 'peripheral' actors were less influential. By contrast, the business community in Svalbard showed compartmentalization that was independent of geographic distance between actors. Within towns of similar size and governance scale, Svalbard is more compartmentalized, and those compartments are not driven by geographic separation of the collaboration clusters. This compartmentalization in Svalbard was reflected in a lower density of formal business collaboration ties compared to the communities of the Alps. We infer that the difference is due to Svalbard having higher cultural diversity and population turnover than the Alps communities. We propose that integrating quantitative network analysis from simple surveys with qualitative interviews targeted from the network results is an efficient general approach to identify regionally specific constraints and opportunities for effective governance.

  3. Social Network Analysis and Qualitative Interviews for Assessing Geographic Characteristics of Tourism Business Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthe, Tobias; Wyss, Romano; Tørnblad, Silje H.; Evers, Yvette; Curran, Marina Martin; Williams, Richard J.; Berlow, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    This study integrates quantitative social network analysis (SNA) and qualitative interviews for understanding tourism business links in isolated communities through analysing spatial characteristics. Two case studies are used, the Surselva-Gotthard region in the Swiss Alps and Longyearbyen in the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, to test the spatial characteristics of physical proximity, isolation, and smallness for understanding tourism business links. In the larger Surselva-Gotthard region, we found a strong relationship between geographic separation of the three communities on compartmentalization of the collaboration network. A small set of businesses played a central role in steering collaborative decisions for this community, while a group of structurally ‘peripheral’ actors were less influential. By contrast, the business community in Svalbard showed compartmentalization that was independent of geographic distance between actors. Within towns of similar size and governance scale, Svalbard is more compartmentalized, and those compartments are not driven by geographic separation of the collaboration clusters. This compartmentalization in Svalbard was reflected in a lower density of formal business collaboration ties compared to the communities of the Alps. We infer that the difference is due to Svalbard having higher cultural diversity and population turnover than the Alps communities. We propose that integrating quantitative network analysis from simple surveys with qualitative interviews targeted from the network results is an efficient general approach to identify regionally specific constraints and opportunities for effective governance. PMID:27258007

  4. Economic Discourse and Social Entrepreneurship. Transformation projects, media engagement and social mobilization in contemporary Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Casaqui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work approaches social entrepreneurship from the perspective of its discursive dimension and its relationship with different projects for the Brazilian nation, which were previously emerging from the economic field. The social entrepreneur is an agent that brings together two historical tendencies: the understanding that entrepreneurial practices rely on a "creative destruction" spirit (Schumpeter, 1942 and the belief on role of the third sector, the so-called non-profit organizations, acting for the "common good". From a critical perspective, we are to discuss this conjunction full of paradoxes and conflicts. We have witnessed, in the contemporary Brazilian context, the emergence of social entrepreneurship projects based on digital media, following the logic of the connectionist world brought by Boltanski and Chiapello (2009. We analyze social entrepreneurship projects that incite mobilization of young people through digital media, projecting a future under the leadership of that field (Bourdieu, 2009. Our theoretical framework recovers the entrepreneurial culture and the spirit of capitalism, the economic ideology based on the utopian vision of the "entrepreneurial society" (Drucker, 2011 and the concepts of economy and market (Karl Polanyi. Our method of analysis is based on Fairclough's approach to (2001 critical discourse.

  5. Geographic Mobility and Social Inequality among Peruvian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ryan; Cuenca, Ricardo; Blanco Ramirez, Gerardo; Aragón, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore geographic mobility among university students in Peru and to understand how mobility patterns differ by region and by demographic indicators of inequality. The ways that students may be able to move geographically in order to access quality higher education within the educational system can be a driver of…

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS ON THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Arakelova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of the issues aggravation concerning internally displaced persons and the disproportions in the social and economic development of regions as a result of the antiterrorist operation in Ukraine, an analysis of social and economic transformations in regional development under the migration processes influence and the search for their overcoming mechanisms becomes relevant. The purpose of the article is to analyse the impact of internally displaced persons flows on the social and economic development of regions in order to improve the regional development mechanisms in Ukraine. The research methodology includes a set of scientific research methods that provide a systematic approach to investigating the impact of internally displaced persons on the social and economic development of Ukrainian regions, theoretical approaches to state regulation of internal migration flows in conditions of decentralization of power and reform of public administration in the country. In the course of investigations, the following methods are used: statistical analysis and synthesis while determining the indicators of the IDPs burden on the regional social and economic systems of Ukraine; analysis while studying the main problems of internally displaced persons and their directions; logical synthesis and synthesis while drawing conclusions. The information base for the study consists of the legislative acts of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, the Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, statistical and reporting information of the Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine, development of the UN Agency for Refugees, the UN ReliefWeb Specialized Service for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Inter-Agency Standing Committee, PROMAN, NGO “Labor and Health Social Initiatives”, Ukrainian Helsinki Human Rights Union, research results of domestic and foreign scientists. Results. The article deals with the issues of effective reforming of regional development

  7. The Social Effects of the Economic Transformation in India (An Attempt at Measurement and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bywalec Grzegorz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of significant and, at the same time, challenging research problems in Economics is measuring the social effect of economic growth (development. Economic growth should never be treated a goal per se. It is rational provided that it brings effects such as, generally speaking, an improvement in the standard of living. However, this is not always the case. Social sciences, including Economics, have not developed any uniform methods of measuring and evaluating such effects yet.

  8. DISRUPTING SHOCKS IN POSTWAR GLOBAL ECONOMIC EXPANSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The coherence of the global economic system, created by its upswing in the first postwar decades, started to crumble in the ’70s. The destabilizing shocks affected the entire world, but in an uneven manner, in different geographical areas and at different times, being felt most acutely, with devastating economic and social effects, in Third World countries. Although the developed countries were affected as well, they always had means to combat or to diminish the adverse effects of the crises, leading to "gentler" consequences. This paper focuses on four main aspects in postwar global economic expansion, namely: the ’70s – the international monetary crisis and the oil shocks; the foreign debt crisis; the Latin American debt crisis, the Asian financial crises and the current global crisis.

  9. Improvement of social-economic partnership in the youth labor market segment: the institutional forms and implementation mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheleznyak Maria, I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper institutional features and forms of social-economic partnership as regulation institute of a youth segment of labor market are considered. Use of interdisciplinary approach in combination with methodology of institutionalism forms new opportunities for the solution of problems of youth employment through the directions of improvement of tools of social-economic partnership on a youth segment of labor market of the Rostov region. Classification offorms of social-economic partnership in its formal and informal aspects is considered, methods of realization of the mechanism of social- economic partnership at primary and secondary employment of youth are defined.

  10. Designing Economic Socialization System in the Educational Process of Technological University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaidullina, Rimma M.; Amirov, Artur F.; Muhametshin, Vyacheslav S.; Tyncherov, Kamil T.

    2017-01-01

    The relevance of this study is related to the fact that the necessity of compliance between the professional education system and progressive tendencies of world economy development demanded the formation of a new generation of economically socialized engineering and technical specialists, who own a sufficient level of economic competences, that…

  11. Social Hierarchies, Economic Inequalities and Interpersonal Relationships: An Overview from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sony Pellissery

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abject mass poverty is of the key feature of Indian subcontinent. The relationship question, in this paper, is viewed through the lenses of poverty. Thus, the spatial, political, societal and economic questions come to picture when relationships are examined through the eyes of the poor people. Face-to-face interaction, primarily, based on strong social group collective identity is the key hallmark of relationships in India. The social group identity brings hierarchy into the interaction patterns. Thus, even market relations are not merely based on the questions of economic incentives. Social identity deeply penetrates to the huge informal economy that permeates in India. Thus, caught in the web of relationships even at market sphere, the poor people come together to fight, protest and to collaborate for their own well-being.

  12. Social pathways to health: On the mediating role of the social network in the relation between socio-economic position and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, Marja; Veenstra, Marijke; Hansen, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Good health is one of the key qualities of life, but opportunities to be and remain healthy are unequally distributed across socio-economic groups. The beneficial health effects of the social network are well known. However, research on the social network as potential mediator in the pathway from socio-economic position (SEP) to health is scarce, while there are good reasons to expect a socio-economical patterning of networks. We aim to contribute to our understanding of socio-economic inequalities in health by examining the mediating role of structural and functional characteristics of the social network in the SEP-health relationship. Data were from the second wave of the Norwegian study on the life course, aging and generation study (NorLAG) and comprised 4534 men and 4690 women aged between 40 and 81. We applied multiple mediation models to evaluate the relative importance of each network characteristic, and multiple group analysis to examine differences between middle-aged and older men and women. Our results indicated a clear socio-economical patterning of the social network for men and women. People with higher SEP had social networks that better protect against loneliness, which in turn lead to better health outcomes. The explained variance in health in older people by the social network and SEP was only half of the explained variance observed in middle-aged people, suggesting that other factors than SEP were more important for health when people age. We conclude that it is the function of the network, rather than the structure, that counts for health.

  13. Social pathways to health: On the mediating role of the social network in the relation between socio-economic position and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Aartsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Good health is one of the key qualities of life, but opportunities to be and remain healthy are unequally distributed across socio-economic groups. The beneficial health effects of the social network are well known. However, research on the social network as potential mediator in the pathway from socio-economic position (SEP to health is scarce, while there are good reasons to expect a socio-economical patterning of networks. We aim to contribute to our understanding of socio-economic inequalities in health by examining the mediating role of structural and functional characteristics of the social network in the SEP-health relationship. Data were from the second wave of the Norwegian study on the life course, aging and generation study (NorLAG and comprised 4534 men and 4690 women aged between 40 and 81. We applied multiple mediation models to evaluate the relative importance of each network characteristic, and multiple group analysis to examine differences between middle-aged and older men and women. Our results indicated a clear socio-economical patterning of the social network for men and women. People with higher SEP had social networks that better protect against loneliness, which in turn lead to better health outcomes. The explained variance in health in older people by the social network and SEP was only half of the explained variance observed in middle-aged people, suggesting that other factors than SEP were more important for health when people age. We conclude that it is the function of the network, rather than the structure, that counts for health.

  14. JURIDICAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE BANKING MANAGEMENT FROM ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Muresan (Potincu) Laura; Potincu Cristian Romeo

    2015-01-01

    At present, the corporate social responsibility must be regarded from a complex perspective. We consider that the social responsibility of the banks is what the community expects from a bank ecologically, economically, juridically, ethically, and philanthropically. Thus, the banking corporate social responsibility includes all these types of responsibilities: the ecological responsibility, the economic responsibility, the juridical responsibility, the ethical responsibility, and the philanthr...

  15. COMMUNICATION AND FUNCTIONING OF THE TRIPARTIES SOCIAL DIALOGUE TROUGH THE ECONOMIC SOCIAL COUNCIL IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA IN THE PERIOD OF 1997-2012 YEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon Majhoshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this Paper we will try to analyze the communication and functioning of tripartities social dialogue, or Economic Social Council in Republic of Macedona in the period of 1997 – 2012 from practical aspect. Also, we would like to reserch the efects, functions and meaning of the tripartities social dilaogue between Government, Trade Union and Assotiation of Employer as a very important assumption for building of a social harmony and industrial peace in every democratic society. In this context, we will try to analyze the impact of internal and external factors of the efective functioning of the tripartities social dialogue, or Economic Social Council. The basic assumption from which we started in our reseraching was that the Economic Social Council can to contrbuted for social dialogue in Republic of Macedonia only if he produced according attitudes of the social parthners in the process of the making decision of Laws from economic-social spheres. As relevant assumptions which will be analized are: national legal framework, representation of the social partners, capacity of bargaining, organization and tehnical condition. As external assumption we will analized only ideology of the government (left or right ideology of the Government.

  16. Global climate change: Social and economic research issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H.

    1992-05-01

    This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available

  17. Аccounting and analytical support of social capital in modern economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.O. Osadcha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Social capital plays an important role in the profit formation of business entity in the context of the implementation of integrated reporting. The purpose of the research is to examine the problematic aspects of accounting and analytical support of social capital in the context of sustainable development which involves the study of «social capital» and «social networks» concepts, the definition of the functions of social capital in the structure of company’s capital, the disclosure of social capital assessment peculiarities. To achieve the goal of article the author uses the methods of induction, deduction, analogy, comparison, the systematic approach to the assessment of economic phenomena, the historical method, the data grouping method, and the process approach. The accounting tasks in the context of sustainable socio-economic and environmental development are identified. The essence of «social capital» concept, its importance in the formation of an integrated enterprise reporting, and its elements are characterized. The problematic issues of social capital assessment are analyzed and the possible solutions are discussed. The necessity of introduction of new facilities and new accounting approaches to the organization of accounting are proved.

  18. Memory, forgetting, and economic crisis: drug use and social fragmentation in an Argentine shantytown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epele, Maria E

    2010-03-01

    Closely linked to the increase in psychotropic pill consumption, forgetting and remembering emerged from devastated social scenarios as a new local idiom among poor youth in the late 1990s and the new millennium. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork carried out during the years of the deepest economic crisis in Argentina (2001-03), I argue that psychotropic pill consumption is associated with not only deteriorating economic conditions but also changes in the quality and price of cocaine, and in the scarcity and subsequent change of status of medications during the economic breakdown. Taking into account developments in the field of memory studies, I examine the relationship among political economy, social memory work, and changing drug-use practices. Regarding memory as a social practice, I argue that the growth of psychotropic pill consumption in the late 1990s can be understood through the interplay of Paul Ricoeur's notions regarding different kinds and levels of forgetting. By analyzing changing survival strategies, social network dismantlement, changing mortality patterns, and abusive police repression, I discuss how social fragmentation engendered by structural reforms has modified social memory work.

  19. The Social-Economic Impediments to Kidnapping Eradication in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of the security agencies investment in intelligence gathering to get advance information to nip their activities in the bud and also the formation of the various special Task Force on kidnapping, the business still strives. This paper examined the Social-economic factors hindering the abolition of this illicit business in the ...

  20. 78 FR 15745 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of... Science Foundation (NSF) announces the following Site Visit. Name: Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences, 10748. Date and Time: March 21, 2013 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., March 22, 2013 8:00 a.m. to...

  1. The social and economic challenges of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Stephen; Jones, Richard; Geldart, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Nanotechnology is being heralded as a new technological revolution, one so profound that it will touch all aspects of human society. Some believe that these influences will be overwhelmingly positive, while others see more sinister implications. This report assesses this debate in the light of our current knowledge of nanotechnology. Conceptions of nanotechnology are not always clear or indeed agreed upon. The domain of nanotechnology is defined in terms of a length scale - from one nanometre up to 100 nanometres, called the nanoscale - and by the appearance at these scales of novel physical properties. These derive from the importance at these scales of physical phenomena that are less obvious for larger objects, such as quantum mechanics, strong surface forces and Brownian motion. Nanotechnotogy will produce economic and social impacts on three broad timescales. Current applications are largely the result of incremental advances in already well-established branches of applied science, such as material science and colloid technology. Medium-term applications of nanotechnology will apply principles only now being established in the laboratory to overcome foreseeable barriers to continued technological progress. In the tong term, entirely new applications may emerge. Current applications for nanotechnology are dominated by tools for scientists, and by new materials that are structured on the nanoscale. Such materials are used in cosmetics, health and medicine and in a variety of manufactured goods. The electronics and information technology industries are also a prominent driver for these new technologies. Debate on the social implications of nanotechnotogy has largely focused not on the relatively mundane applications that have arrived so far, but on the longer-term possibilities of radical nanotechnology. This debate anticipates a degree of control over matter on the nanoscale that permits fabrication from a molecular level of virtually any material or structure

  2. The social and economic challenges of nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Stephen; Jones, Richard; Geldart, Alison

    2003-07-01

    Nanotechnology is being heralded as a new technological revolution, one so profound that it will touch all aspects of human society. Some believe that these influences will be overwhelmingly positive, while others see more sinister implications. This report assesses this debate in the light of our current knowledge of nanotechnology. Conceptions of nanotechnology are not always clear or indeed agreed upon. The domain of nanotechnology is defined in terms of a length scale - from one nanometre up to 100 nanometres, called the nanoscale - and by the appearance at these scales of novel physical properties. These derive from the importance at these scales of physical phenomena that are less obvious for larger objects, such as quantum mechanics, strong surface forces and Brownian motion. Nanotechnotogy will produce economic and social impacts on three broad timescales. Current applications are largely the result of incremental advances in already well-established branches of applied science, such as material science and colloid technology. Medium-term applications of nanotechnology will apply principles only now being established in the laboratory to overcome foreseeable barriers to continued technological progress. In the tong term, entirely new applications may emerge. Current applications for nanotechnology are dominated by tools for scientists, and by new materials that are structured on the nanoscale. Such materials are used in cosmetics, health and medicine and in a variety of manufactured goods. The electronics and information technology industries are also a prominent driver for these new technologies. Debate on the social implications of nanotechnotogy has largely focused not on the relatively mundane applications that have arrived so far, but on the longer-term possibilities of radical nanotechnology. This debate anticipates a degree of control over matter on the nanoscale that permits fabrication from a molecular level of virtually any material or structure

  3. SOCIAL PRACTICES OF UTILITY SPHERE: CONCERNING THE ISSUE OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC RESPONSIBILITIES IN THE CONTEXT OF CONTEMPORARY REFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Timofeevna Oboimova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers the issues of market members’ social responsibilities when a particular economic sector is being reformed, house and public utility sphere being an example of such sector. The author conceives both the prerequisites for sustainable development of an economic sector (utility sphere being an example and issues concerning consumer protection system that is to eliminate rendering of nonconforming services as well as supplier protection system aimed against non-payers. The paper considers social and economic practices that were systematized after their content had been modified in a way. The author analyzes the factors that are significant for both the process of building up an entity’s profile and employees, provided the specific characteristics of house and public utility sphere have been taken in consideration. The author’s conclusion is that in this case citizens become more aware of house and public utility sphere social practices. As a result, social awareness of such practices gets enhanced. The methodological method can be applied to study the issue.The scientific aim of the paper is to consider and establish grounds of social practices when a particular economic sector is being reformed and institutional relations are being transformed.The technique of the work performed is based criterion identification that might contribute to establishing a basis of various house and public utility services.In order to get the results a group of theoretical and empirical methods have been resorted to: analysis, synthesis, dialectical method that both showed inconsistency and variability of social and economic processes and juxtaposed the similarities and differences; comparative method, monitoring and method of diagrams.          The results of the work performed can be defined as the prerequisites for sustainable development of both house and public utility sphere and entities’ social and economic

  4. Economic and social activities on ancient Cypriot terraced landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridder, Elizabeth; Galletti, Christopher S; Fall, Patricia L; Falconer, Steven E

    2017-11-01

    We investigate ancient agricultural terraces and their associated social and economic activities across the site complex consisting of the village at Politiko-Troullia and its more extensive associated taskscape. Surface artifact distributions mapped over 12 ha are integrated with evidence excavated from this Bronze Age settlement in central Cyprus. Contrary to expectations, artifact densities do not diminish with distance from the village architecture. In particular, concentrations of Prehistoric Bronze Age ceramics and ground stone artifacts are most pronounced on nearby terraced hillsides. These terraces were not utilized for domestic structures, but for extensive processing of agricultural crops and copper ore. Bronze Age excavated plant remains indicate cultivation of olives, grapes and figs, with wood resources dominated by olive and pine. Larger, non-portable ground stones and gaming stones are associated with communal social and economic activities in open courtyard settings in Politiko-Troullia. This category of ground stone also is particularly common on the terraced hillsides around Troullia, suggesting that similar behaviors occurred beyond village structures. The terraced landscape of Politiko-Troullia exemplifies a multi-faceted taskscape with a range of agricultural, metallurgical and social activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Embodied economics: how bodily information shapes the social coordination dynamics of decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oullier, Olivier; Basso, Frédéric

    2010-01-27

    To date, experiments in economics are restricted to situations in which individuals are not influenced by the physical presence of other people. In such contexts, interactions remain at an abstract level, agents guessing what another person is thinking or is about to decide based on money exchange. Physical presence and bodily signals are therefore left out of the picture. However, in real life, social interactions (involving economic decisions or not) are not solely determined by a person's inference about someone else's state-of-mind. In this essay, we argue for embodied economics: an approach to neuroeconomics that takes into account how information provided by the entire body and its coordination dynamics influences the way we make economic decisions. Considering the role of embodiment in economics--movements, posture, sensitivity to mimicry and every kind of information the body conveys--makes sense. This is what we claim in this essay which, to some extent, constitutes a plea to consider bodily interactions between agents in social (neuro)economics.

  6. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY AND PRIORITY DIRECTIONS OF ACTIVIZATION OF SOCIAL INVESTMENTS OF THE ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Grishnova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the features of social investment and estimated impact of social investment on key financial and economic indicators of the breweries. Is proved priority areas in social investment and offered to recommendation to improve social investment in the enterprises of the brewing industry in Ukraine.

  7. Social and economic impacts of climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Tamma A; Hsiang, Solomon M

    2016-09-09

    For centuries, thinkers have considered whether and how climatic conditions-such as temperature, rainfall, and violent storms-influence the nature of societies and the performance of economies. A multidisciplinary renaissance of quantitative empirical research is illuminating important linkages in the coupled climate-human system. We highlight key methodological innovations and results describing effects of climate on health, economics, conflict, migration, and demographics. Because of persistent "adaptation gaps," current climate conditions continue to play a substantial role in shaping modern society, and future climate changes will likely have additional impact. For example, we compute that temperature depresses current U.S. maize yields by ~48%, warming since 1980 elevated conflict risk in Africa by ~11%, and future warming may slow global economic growth rates by ~0.28 percentage points per year. In general, we estimate that the economic and social burden of current climates tends to be comparable in magnitude to the additional projected impact caused by future anthropogenic climate changes. Overall, findings from this literature point to climate as an important influence on the historical evolution of the global economy, they should inform how we respond to modern climatic conditions, and they can guide how we predict the consequences of future climate changes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Empirical Bayesian Geographical Mapping of Occupational Accidents among Iranian Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Nasim; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Datta, Somnath

    2017-05-01

    Work-related accidents are believed to be a serious preventable cause of mortality and disability worldwide. This study aimed to provide Bayesian geographical maps of occupational injury rates among workers insured by the Iranian Social Security Organization. The participants included all insured workers in the Iranian Social Security Organization database in 2012. One of the applications of the Bayesian approach called the Poisson-Gamma model was applied to estimate the relative risk of occupational accidents. Data analysis and mapping were performed using R 3.0.3, Open-Bugs 3.2.3 rev 1012 and ArcMap9.3. The majority of all 21,484 investigated occupational injury victims were male (98.3%) including 16,443 (76.5%) single workers aged 20 - 29 years. The accidents were more frequent in basic metal, electric, and non-electric machining jobs. About 0.4% (96) of work-related accidents led to death, 2.2% (457) led to disability (partial and total), 4.6% (980) led to fixed compensation, and 92.8% (19,951) of the injured victims recovered completely. The geographical maps of estimated relative risk of occupational accidents were also provided. The results showed that the highest estimations pertained to provinces which were mostly located along mountain chains, some of which are categorized as deprived provinces in Iran. The study revealed the need for further investigation of the role of economic and climatic factors in high risk areas. The application of geographical mapping together with statistical approaches can provide more accurate tools for policy makers to make better decisions in order to prevent and reduce the risks and adverse outcomes of work-related accidents.

  9. Economic Literacy Levels of Social Studies Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhan, Nadire Emel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of economic literacy--an important component of being a good citizen--among seniors studying at social studies teacher program which aims at cultivating good citizens and to find out its relationships in terms of various variables. The quantitative sample of the study was comprised of 726 senior…

  10. Economic evaluation of the anti-stigma social marketing campaign in England 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, Sara; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham; McCrone, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Evidence on the economic impact of social marketing anti-stigma campaigns in relation to people with mental illness is limited. To describe the economic impact of the Time to Change (TTC) anti-stigma social marketing campaign, including the potential effects on the wider economy. Data collected for the evaluation of TTC were combined with the social marketing campaign expenditure data to investigate differences in knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in relation to campaign awareness. To evaluate the return on investment, we applied a decision model that estimated the impact on employment for people with depression. Based on average national social marketing campaign costs, the economic benefits outweighed costs even if the campaign resulted in only 1% more people with depression accessing services and gaining employment if they experienced a health improvement. The cost per person with improved intended behaviour was at most £ 4 if we assume the campaign was responsible for 50% of the change. Costs associated with improved knowledge and attitudes, however, were more variable. The findings suggest that the TTC anti-stigma social marketing campaign is a potentially cost-effective and low-cost intervention for reducing the impact of stigma on people with mental health problems.

  11. SOCIAL AND ECONOMICAL DIVERSIFICATION OF THE SPACE OF THE GLIWICE CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kozielska

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available City as a metaphor could be described as a living organism. It consists of many tissues with completely different functions. Cities are the sites of complex of social, cultural, politicaland economic spaces and forma. There are no cities with homogenous spatial structure. Distinct districts arise in the different parts of the city. Such process takes place in accordance with different spheres of life. Dwellings and users of the city perceive sectors indifferent ways giving them special meanings. Cities are the sites of complex global interconnections producing a multiplicity of social,cultural, political and economic spaces and forms. Over half of the world population now lives in cities and this proportion is predicted to grow significantly in coming years. We may call contemporary world as Globalopolis. The paper discusses distinct spaces and functions of different parts of the city of Gliwice. The author tries to point out multiplicity of spaces in the city. Gliwice is typical transforming city as many other in Poland during the period of economic and social transformation, which is also influented by processes of globalization. We may distinguish “good” and “bad” spaces in this transforming city.

  12. When does "economic man" dominate social behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerer, Colin F; Fehr, Ernst

    2006-01-06

    The canonical model in economics considers people to be rational and self-regarding. However, much evidence challenges this view, raising the question of when "Economic Man" dominates the outcome of social interactions, and when bounded rationality or other-regarding preferences dominate. Here we show that strategic incentives are the key to answering this question. A minority of self-regarding individuals can trigger a "noncooperative" aggregate outcome if their behavior generates incentives for the majority of other-regarding individuals to mimic the minority's behavior. Likewise, a minority of other-regarding individuals can generate a "cooperative" aggregate outcome if their behavior generates incentives for a majority of self-regarding people to behave cooperatively. Similarly, in strategic games, aggregate outcomes can be either far from or close to Nash equilibrium if players with high degrees of strategic thinking mimic or erase the effects of others who do very little strategic thinking. Recently developed theories of other-regarding preferences and bounded rationality explain these findings and provide better predictions of actual aggregate behavior than does traditional economic theory.

  13. A social identity analysis of responses to economic inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, Jolanda; Wang, Zhechen; Steffens, Niklas K.; Mols, Frank; Peters, Kim; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2017-01-01

    Even though there is growing awareness that economic inequality is harmful for people's health, the way that such inequality affects social behavior and political attitudes remains poorly understood. Moving beyond a focus on the health and well-being costs of income inequality, we review research

  14. Building social and economic capital: the family and medical savings accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Mark J

    2012-12-01

    Despite the well-documented social, economic, and adaptive advantages for young children, adolescents, and adults, the traditional family in the West is in decline. A growing percentage of men and women choose not to be bound by the traditional moral and social expectations of marriage and family life. Adults are much more likely than in the past to live as sexually active singles, with a concomitant increase in forms of social isolation as well as in the number of children born outside of marriage. These social shifts are also connected to public policies that provide incentives for individuals to exit the family, leaving behind its social, capital, and economic resources. The individualistic character of the social-democratic egalitarian ideology that underlies the current dominant approaches to health care financing in Western Europe and much of North America, for example, is associated with a decline in family stability. Welfare entitlements, including state-based health care, have made it easier to exit the family, undermining the centrality of the family's core human relationships. This essay argues for the importance of recognizing the cardinal role and reality of the family and for the importance of family-based health care savings accounts for preserving family integrity, while also providing for sustainable long-term health care reform.

  15. Money, Peers and Parents: Social and Economic Aspects of Inequality in Youth Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Plenty, Stephanie; Mood, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Indicators of social and economic status are important health determinants. However, evidence for the influence of family socioeconomic status in adolescent wellbeing is inconsistent and during this period of development youth may begin to develop their own status positions. This study examined social and economic health inequalities by applying a multidimensional and youth-orientated approach. Using a recent (2010?2011) and representative sample of Swedish 14-year olds (n?=?4456, 51?% female...

  16. Developing a Social, Cultural and Economic Report Card for a Regional Industrial Harbour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Pascoe

    Full Text Available Report cards are increasingly used to provide ongoing snap-shots of progress towards specific ecosystem health goals, particularly in coastal regions where planners need to balance competing demands for coastal resources from a range of industries. While most previous report cards focus on the biophysical components of the system, there is a growing interest in including the social and economic implications of ecosystem management to provide a greater social-ecological system understanding. Such a report card was requested on the Gladstone Harbour area in central Queensland, Australia. Gladstone Harbour adjoins the southern Great Barrier Reef, and is also a major industrial and shipping port. Balancing social, economic and environmental interests is therefore of great concern to the regional managers. While environmental benchmarking procedures are well established within Australia (and elsewhere, a method for assessing social and economic performance of coastal management is generally lacking. The key aim of this study was to develop and pilot a system for the development of a report card relating to appropriate cultural, social and economic objectives. The approach developed uses a range of multicriteria decision analysis methods to assess and combine different qualitative and quantitative measures, including the use of Bayesian Belief Networks to combine the different measures and provide an overall quantitative score for each of the key management objectives. The approach developed is readily transferable for purposes of similar assessments in other regions.

  17. Global climate change: Social and economic research issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H. [eds.

    1992-05-01

    This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available. Individual papers are processed separately for the database.

  18. WeChat impact on social and economic in China

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Mengmeng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to analyse WeChat in China. On the hand, this thesis analyses the impact of WeChat on social and economic based on its features. WeChat changes Chinese way of life. Customers are directly taken part in economic activities in WeChat. On the other hand, this thesis is intended to help entrepreneurs and organizations to know more about WeChat B2B and B2C model in China. The thesis will be helpful for those entrepreneurs who are going to enter Chinese market. Th...

  19. Economic and social survey of Asia and the Pacific, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    A general economic slowdown in the Asia-Pacific countries since 1981 has slowed development and increased unemployment and fiscal deficits. In preparation for the United Nations review of international development strategy, Part one of this volume examines economic, energy, and social developments under the current recession. Part two examines the role of fiscal policies as they relate to growth, employment, equity, stability, and development planning. 235 references, 23 figures, 64 tables. (DCK)

  20. Practical steps toward integrating economic, social and institutional elements in fisheries policy and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephenson, Robert L.; Benson, Ashleen J.; Brooks, Kate

    2017-01-01

    While international agreements and legislation call for incorporation of four pillars of sustainability, the social (including cultural), economic and institutional aspects (the ‘human dimension’) have been relatively neglected to date. Three key impediments have been identified: a relative lack...... of explicit social, economic and institutional objectives; a general lack of process (frameworks, governance) for routine integration of all four pillars of sustainability; and a bias towards biological considerations. Practical integration requires a ‘systems’ approach with explicit consideration...... in fisheries to immediately take five practical steps toward integrating ecological, economic, social and institutional aspects: (1) Adopt the perspective of the fishery as a ‘system’ with interacting natural, human and management elements; (2) Be aware of both strategic and operational aspects of fisheries...

  1. The influence of social capital and socio-economic conditions on self-rated health among residents of an economically and health-deprived South African township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramm Jane M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surprisingly few studies have investigated the interplay of multiple factors affecting self-rated health outcomes and the role of social capital on health in developing countries, a prerequisite to strengthening our understanding of the influence of social and economic conditions on health and the most effective aid. Our study aimed to identify social and economic conditions for health among residents of an economically and health-deprived community. Methods Data were gathered through a survey administered to respondents from 1,020 households in Grahamstown a suburb in the Eastern Cape, South Africa (response rate 97.9%. We investigated the influence of social and economic conditions (education, employment, income, social capital, housing quality and neighborhood quality on self-rated health. We used ordinal logistic regression analyses to identify the relationship of these conditions and self-rated health. Results Our study found that education and social capital positively correlated with health; unemployment, poor educational level and advanced age negatively correlated. We found no significant correlations between self-rated health and housing quality, neighbourhood quality, income, gender, or marital status. Conclusion We highlight the possible impacts of social capital, employment, and education on health, and suggest that health outcomes may be improved through interventions beyond the health system: creating job opportunities, strengthening social capital, bettering educational systems, and promoting educational access. Policymakers should consider the benefits of such programmes when addressing health outcomes in financially distressed districts.

  2. Converging biology, economics and social science in fisheries research –lessons learned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet; Kulmala, Soile; Kuikka, Sakari

    2011-01-01

    of the Baltic salmon stocks, using the Bayesian networks. It enabled the analysis of the outcomes of different management measures from biological, social and economic perspectives. The synthesis was the final output of a learning process of eight years. We reflect how and what kind of interdisciplinarity...... between natural scientists, economists and social scientists grew from the need to better understand complexity related to the salmon fisheries in the Baltic Sea, what we learned about the fishery, and what we learned about interdisciplinary collaboration.......It has been acknowledged that natural sciences cannot provide an adequate basis for the management of complex environmental problems. The scientific knowledge base has to be expanded towards a more holistic direction by incorporating social and economic issues. Besides this, the multifaceted...

  3. The Development Data Book: A Guide to Social and Economic Statistics. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheram, Katherine

    This data book presents satistics on countries with populations of more than one million. The statistics relate to economic development and the changes it is bringing about in the world. These statistics are measures of social and economic conditions in developing and industrial countries. Five indicators of economic development are presented,…

  4. Social media fingerprints of unemployment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Llorente

    Full Text Available Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets.

  5. Thinking and questioning the social construction of space: balances and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Nubia Moreno Lache; Alexander Cely Rodríguez; Liliana Rodríguez Pizzinato

    2013-01-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.38folios141.156 This paper offers an overview and reflections of the research done within the emphasis on “Social Construction of Space”, of the master’s program in Social Sciences at the National Pedagogical University in Bogota, Colombia. The goal is to examine two issues: the relationships that community establishes with the biophysical and social environment and also the cultural, economical and political impact on geographic places, such as th...

  6. ASSESSING ACCIDENT HOTSPOTS BY USING VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnoosh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ever-increasing number of vehicles, transportation issues, especially transportation safety have gained great importance. One of the social problems in the world, and particularly in developing countries, which each year imposes great casualties, and economic, social and cultural costs on society, is traffic accidents. Traffic accidents cause waste of time and assets and loss of human resources in society, therefore studies and measures to reduce accidents and damage caused by them, particularly in recent decades, has become important. One of the suggested ways to deal with the problem of car accidents is the modeling of accident-prone points, as by identifying these points, factors affecting accidents can be identified, and elimination of these factors leads to a reduction in accidents. Numerous studies have been conducted in this respect, using official police data to identify these points and performing necessary analysis on them. Official data has gaps and shortcomings. Using Volunteered Geographic Information to determine accident-prone venues can be a suitable answer to the problems of using official data. The aim of this study is the use of volunteered geographic information in relation to the accidents and their causes. By taking into account factors affecting traffic accidents in the study area, and determining the importance of each factor, as well as the severity-of-accidents parameter, and using the Expert Choice software, a decision-making software based on the hierarchical analysis, high-risk venues are determined, and the accident-prone points of the study area are specified.

  7. Economic performance and public concerns about social class in twentieth-century books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunsong; Yan, Fei

    2016-09-01

    What is the association between macroeconomic conditions and public perceptions of social class? Applying a novel approach based on the Google Books N-gram corpus, this study addresses the relationship between public concerns about social class and economic conditions throughout the twentieth century. The usage of class-related words/phrases, or "literary references to class," in American English-language books is related to US economic performance and income inequality. The findings of this study demonstrate that economic conditions play a significant role in literary references to class throughout the century, whereas income inequality does not. Similar results are obtained from further analyses using alternative measures of class concerns as well as different corpora of English Fiction and the New York Times. We add to the social class literature by showing that the long-term temporal dynamics of an economy can be exhibited by aggregate class concerns. The application of massive culture-wide content analysis using data of unprecedented size also represents a contribution to the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Social Media-Related Geographic Information in the Context of Strategic Environmental Assessment of Municipal Masterplans: A Case Study Concerning Sardinia (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Floris

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a discussion concerning the use of social media-related geographic information in the context of the strategic environmental assessment (SEA of Sardinian Municipal masterplans (MMPs. We show that this kind of information improves, substantially, the SEA process since it provides planners, evaluators, and the local communities with information retrieved from social media that would have not been available otherwise. This information integrates authoritative data collection, which comes from official sources, and enlightens tastes and preferences of the users of services and infrastructure, and their expectations concerning their spatial organization. A methodological approach related to the collection of social media-related geographic information is implemented and discussed with reference to the urban context of the city of Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy. The results are very effective in terms of provision of information, which may possibly increase the spatial knowledge available for planning policy definition and implementation. In this perspective, this kind of information discloses opportunities for building analytical scenarios related to urban and regional planning and it offers useful suggestions for sustainable development based on tourism strategies.

  9. Capacity Building for a New Social and Economic Policy Strategy in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Capacity Building for a New Social and Economic Policy Strategy in Paraguay. The elections of 20 April 2008 put an end to 61 years of single-party rule in Paraguay. With the arrival of the new administration, one of IDRC's long-time partners - the Centro de Análisis y Difusión de la Economía Paraguya-CADEP) - saw its ...

  10. A THEORETICAL APPROACH OF THE CONCEPT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL IN SUPPORTING ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldea Monica

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Any activity requires the presence of labor resources. If centuries ago the concept was that their presence was enough, now it takes a lot more. Moreover, since Aristotle the issue was taking into consideration all aspects of the community life that can lead to a "better life". In the current conditions we may consider resources in the broader context of the human factor and of the relations established within a society. Thus social capital was conceptualized. As opportunities of economic growth - based purely on the quantitative aspects of the determinants – were limited, the need occurred to reconsider the qualitative and structural components. Social capital considers a number of the integrative components of social life. These refer to the relations established at family level up to the level of societal institutions. It is necessary that these relationships be well established, and for the proper performance it is necessary that aspects of education and health should be properly valued and assessed. This helps setting up strong institutions. Developed countries have the ability to create a proper environment for the manifestations of social capital; in these countries one can observe the growing importance of formal and more impersonal relations. But this just reinforces the occurrence and development of economic activities based on efficiency criteria leading to the countries’ economic development. The interpretations of economic development issues have undergone changes in recent decades. If previously it was considered that the essential difference between rich and poor countries is reflected in the amount of physical capital per person, later on the concept of capital has been expanded to include as well human capital, the lack of which was considered a serious obstacle to development, particularly in the case of poor countries. And given the fact that the transactions within an economic system take place in an

  11. Economic efficiency versus social equality? The U.S. liberal model versus the European social model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente; Schmitt, John

    2005-01-01

    This article begins by challenging the widely held view in neoliberal discourse that there is a necessary trade-off between higher efficiency and lower reduction of inequalities: the article empirically shows that the liberal, U.S. model has been less efficient economically (slower economic growth, higher unemployment) than the social model in existence in the European Union and in the majority of its member states. Based on the data presented, the authors criticize the adoption of features of the liberal model (such as deregulation of their labor markets, reduction of public social expenditures) by some European governments. The second section analyzes the causes for the slowdown of economic growth and the increase of unemployment in the European Union--that is, the application of monetarist and neoliberal policies in the institutional frame of the European Union, including the Stability Pact, the objectives and modus operandi of the European Central Bank, and the very limited resources available to the European Commission for stimulating and distributive functions. The third section details the reasons for these developments, including (besides historical considerations) the enormous influence of financial capital in the E.U. institutions and the very limited democracy. Proposals for change are included.

  12. THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON PUBLIC SERVICES OF SOCIAL VALUE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Anda Ioana

    2013-07-01

    equal opportunities, financial security during illness not as simple care of the sick. The paper includes analysis related to: the structure of social protection in our country, the scope of these services, the relationship between social protection and poverty, the way and the degree to which social protection deepens or contribute to poverty reduction. The economic crisis triggered in Europe in 2008that also affects Romania, negatively influenced the evolution of social funds in key areas of public interest, education, health and social care. This results from: decreasing share of social spending in the state budget, decreasing share of these expenses in the total family budget due to lower purchasing power and thus the obligation of individual to reduce or waive some costs of this kind, central and local government bodies inability to meet certain service requirements such at the level of the population and especially low-income population groups. Located in the crisis situation the state must seek solutions to keep social services at an appropriate level because the quantity and quality of these services have an impact upon quality of life and standard of living of many individuals. The results of the analysis indicates us a reduced benefit for this type of service, in our country, with negative effects over the entire society. The conclusions aim to support the fact that social policy from our country is insufficient in relation to the real needs of the population, being strongly influenced by domestic economic situation and the size of the global economic crisis.

  13. Social-economic and environmental sustainability of short supply chains: opportunities for development rural territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Babych

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the expediency of developing short supply chains at the local level. The focus of this paper is to determine opportunities for developing rural territories in Ukraine on the basis of the development of short supply chains in terms of ensuring social, economic and environmental sustainability. It is established that such an approach provides stability of development of rural territory, in particular, it promotes: social interaction (trust, justice, solidarity and common values between consumers and producers, community development (just relationships, pride, social cohesion and community affiliation, strengthening local culture and identity, health and well-being of the population (healthy diet; access to healthy food, health improvement, which ensures social sustainability of the system; rural development and economic recovery (increase of workplaces, tourism development, increase of local incomes, development of small and medium-sized farms, achievement of economic benefits to farms (reduction of overheads, fixed margin and premium for quality, increase of competitiveness and economic viability, sustainable use resources, which ensures economic stability of the system; reducing energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions (reducing transport and storage time; using alternative technologies; maximizing manual labor; reducing the use of plastic packaging; reducing food losses; sustainability of agro-systems (promoting agro-biodiversity; using local varieties; highlighting ecological and organic production, which ensures the ecological stability of the system.

  14. A Study on improvement of environmental assessment system in social, economic, and environmental sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Young Sook; Koo, Doh Wan; Keum, Kee Yong [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The environmental assessment system is assessed as a mechanism that can achieve the goal for environmental policy in 21st century. As it can evaluate social and economic feasibility of large-scale development program, this system can achieve a sustainable society by mitigating social conflicts arising from environmental problems. For making the environmental assessment system substantial, this study was implemented by the need of improvement of the system, by analyzing problems of social, economic, and environmental evaluation, which is implemented under the present system. 44 refs., 1 fig., 25 tabs.

  15. Study on the social economic estimation of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagara, Aya; Fujimoto, Noboru; Morita, Koji; Fukuda, Kenji

    2000-01-01

    In order to estimate the external economic effect for the risk of the nuclear power plants, the document research has been carried out, which mainly deals with the economic influence of the Chernobyl accident that occurred on the 26th of April 1986. As a result, the direct and indirect total economic loss between 1986 and 1995 is about $ 80 billion in Belarus, $ 115 billion in Ukraine and 1.15 trillion in Russia. This value, however, is considered as an overestimation, since the environmental contamination with radioactive material and thyroid cancer in Russia is very much the same as in Belarus and Ukraine. Also, the total economic loss is about a billion dollars in west European countries. The total economic loss for the Chernobyl accident is estimated more than about $ 300 billion. On the other hand, the chance occurrence of this kind of major accident of the nuclear power plant is very small in terms of probabilities, and the product of economic loss and frequency is smaller than the cost benefit for the measure of global warming and the energy security in Japan. This kind of problem should be treated as a social problem and study on various external economic effect is necessary. (author)

  16. Embodied economics: how bodily information shapes the social coordination dynamics of decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oullier, Olivier; Basso, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    To date, experiments in economics are restricted to situations in which individuals are not influenced by the physical presence of other people. In such contexts, interactions remain at an abstract level, agents guessing what another person is thinking or is about to decide based on money exchange. Physical presence and bodily signals are therefore left out of the picture. However, in real life, social interactions (involving economic decisions or not) are not solely determined by a person's inference about someone else's state-of-mind. In this essay, we argue for embodied economics: an approach to neuroeconomics that takes into account how information provided by the entire body and its coordination dynamics influences the way we make economic decisions. Considering the role of embodiment in economics—movements, posture, sensitivity to mimicry and every kind of information the body conveys—makes sense. This is what we claim in this essay which, to some extent, constitutes a plea to consider bodily interactions between agents in social (neuro)economics. PMID:20026467

  17. Managing a monotown as a priority social and economic development area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, Vladimir; Loyko, Olga; Nesteruk, Dmitriy; Zhironkin, Sergey; Strekovtsova, Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the study is studying the specific features of organizing a priority social and economic development area (PSEDA) on the example of PSEDA "Yurga" in Kemerovo region (Russia). The problem is formulated as the question: which institutes, ideas, resources and management technologies may fuel transition to the new stage of the monotown development. The practical task is to determine the promising trends of development of single-industry municipalities on the example of the town of Yurga in Kemerovo region. In the paper we formulate the trends of developing sustainable urban environment of the monotown as of priority social and economic development area for further synergetic integration into higher order structures.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS IN THE ECONOMIC AND GEOGRAPHIC AREAS OF THE AZERBAIJAN PART OF THE GREATER CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Jafarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to study the political, economic and environmental aspects of food security, which is an important component of national security; to study the issues of the use of environmentally friendly agricultural products, as well as the environmental safety of livestock products.Methods. Determination of the dynamics of livestock production on the basis of the comparative statistical analysis, the study of animal breeding territorial organization through a systematic approach.Results. The region has favorable conditions for the production of ecologically clean agricultural products, using environmentally friendly feed. We should develop manufacturing industries to meet international standards and provide the population with healthy food.Conclusion. We revealed the ecological safety of livestock products in the economic and geographic regions of the Azerbaijan part of the Greater Caucasus.

  19. Políticas subnacionales de fomento a la economía social en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo López Carrasco

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La formulación de políticas públicas subnacionales (Estados y Municipios de apoyo a la economía social se inició en Venezuela con los procesos de descentralización y reestructuración neoliberal de la economía en los noventa. El propósito de este trabajo es explorar en varias gobernaciones las características de estas estrategias gubernamentales y las posibilidades que tienen las gobernaciones de insertarse en un proyecto alternativo de fomento a la economía social prevista en la nueva constitución. Todo esto plantea, para el proceso conocido como Revolución Bolivariana, un escenario de fuertes tensiones intergubernamentales y riesgos políticos para un proyecto transformador que toma expresión en: a diferencias conceptuales y referenciales del sector de la economía social hacia las microempresas en contraposición con las cooperativas, b obstáculos para lograr cooperación en las relaciones intergubernamentales necesarias para la puesta en práctica de la política, producto de condicionamientos de los modelos administrativos de las gobernaciones venezolanas, c duplicidad de funciones entre agencias nacionales y subnacionales de las políticas en el marco de serias restricciones fiscales y regulaciones constitucionales. Se concluye que las políticas subnacionales de fomento a la economía social se caracterizaron en la década de los noventa y siguen caracterizándose, por dar respuestas a los requerimientos de una economía de mercado con poco sentido social, lo que representa una importante contradicción para un proyecto alternativo de desarrollo que incluye estos ámbitos gubernamentales como espacios de actuación de los poderes públicos para el fortalecimiento de la democracia.

  20. Economía Social + Innovación Tecnológica: Experiencias de Éxito en Entornos de Precariedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Maria Irigoyen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Los modelos asociativos basados en los principios de la Economía Social, han mostrado que favorecen al reparto equitativo del ingreso, además que promueven la autogestión, la democracia interna, la solidaridad y el desarrollo local. El Proyecto Economía Social Idit Ibero tiene como objetivo es incubar, impulsar, y/o consolidar empresas de economía social, preferente ubicadas en zonas pobres o vulnerables, incorporando un “componente significativo” de desarrollo tecnológico e innovación. La innovación social, empresarial y tecnológica alineadas a los principios de la Economía Social, propician la formación y subsistencia de empresas y colectivos que resuelven sus necesidades individuales y de grupo.

  1. The economic efficiency of investment in the development of reserves of small groups of geographically contiguous gold deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokimov S.I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of the research is a group of geographically contiguous low volume gold deposits. The subject of the study is an economic justification for a way to involve economic turnover to get a positive commercial result on a specially formed group of gold deposits, in which individual field development is unprofitable. A small production volume, combined with high capital and operating costs are objective reasons for the reduction in investment attractiveness of the deposits which have reserves of gold of 50%, equipped with a mobile processing complex with deep processing technology on highly liquid commodity products on site. An economic-mathematical model was devised to determine the rational placement of the processing capacity of the group.A simulation was conducted and an economic evaluation was performed on the effectiveness of investments in individual and group mining projects. The simulation results show that the joint exploitation of the reserves of the group of deposits, the internal rate of return on investments exceed the rate of return of funds to the bank deposit, the return on investment is above the level of inflation. The group project complies with the strategic line of small mining companies in terms of cost recovery terms, availability of financial sources to cover expenses, provision of stable means of income and obtaining competitive advantage.

  2. The Economic and Social Consequences of Gambling on the Tourism Industry in Macau

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Weng U

    2007-01-01

    Macau is known as the Eastern Monte Carlo, her main industry of gambling makes Macau a rapid economic expansion and brings Macau a lot of job opportunities. However, in recent years, crime and negative social impacts have increased as a result of this industry. Gambling making Macau's economic structure lopsided and fragile as well as bring a series of social problems to Macau. This dissertation illustrates both the positive and negative impacts that Macau's gambling industry is having on int...

  3. 77 FR 62538 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time: November 15, 2012; 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Place..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Room 905, Arlington...

  4. Just a Facebook away: The use of social network sites for relationship maintenance in long-distance and geographically-close romantic relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billedo, C.J.; Kerkhof, P.; Finkenauer, C.

    2015-01-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) play an increasingly important role in maintaining geographically close romantic relationships (GCRR). However, knowledge about SNS use in long-distance romantic relationships (LDRR) is still lacking. The present study examined the relative importance of SNS in

  5. Ethics, Economic Organisation and the Social Contract

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Sacconi

    2012-01-01

    This chapter introduces a notion of social/ethical norm that integrates its description as a self- sustaining regularity of behavior with the normative meanings of the statements by which a norm is formulated in the moral language. This definition is applied to organizational ethics where the main problem Ð abuse of authority - is identified with the help of a critical reading of the new-institutional economic theory of the firm. Given a game theoretical definition of an institution, it is th...

  6. Relationships Affecting Enrollment Using Social, Economic, and Academic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, R. Jason

    2012-01-01

    The process of strategically planning enrollment in higher education, particularly at private institutions has seen tremendous changes in a short period of time. Changes in perspectives toward the value of a college degree, along with economic and social factors, have contributed to the difficulty of discovering relationships affecting enrollment.…

  7. ECONOMIC CONDITIONS AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE MARKET OF RESORT AND RECREATIONAL SERVICES OF THE SOUTHERN FDERAL DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oborin M. S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In article features of natural and medical potential, social and economic development of the Southern Federal District which are the main for development of medical and improving tourism are considered. The district borrows favorable natural and the economical geographical position influencing development of sanatorium activity. Positive dynamics of development of the market of sanatorium services of the Southern Federal District is based on the rich natural and medical capacity of the district, historical and social and economic features of development of this kind of activity in this region. Social and economic resources form possibility of development of the market of medical and improving and recreational services as such indicators of the population as mortality, birth rate and a natural increase, indicators of incidence of the population, its income and expenses have direct impact on formation of demand of the population on sanatorium services.

  8. Iranian Corporations and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Chapardar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies have demonstrated that the themes for corporate social responsibility (CSR initiatives are different among nations and geographic regions based on their cultural, political, legal, social, and economic contexts. In this research, which was conducted on 56 corporations from IMI100 (100 Iranian companies with highest annual sales, ranked by Industrial Management Institute or IMI, CSR themes in priority have been identified. Data collected from a semistructured questionnaire and some complementary interviews were analyzed against the results of a reference study over 100 companies from developed countries. The resulted themes, some of which may have several subthemes, were developed in three economic, environmental, and social categories. Beside these qualitative findings, two indices are constructed for indicating the “importance” of and “contribution” to each theme. The results and discussions are supposed to help business leaders, international companies inside Iran, governmental authorities, and researchers to improve CSR discussions and practices in the country where CSR undergoes a less structured platform.

  9. Social and economic behavior shift in the suburban society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harianto, S.; Imron, A.; Setiawan, K. G.; Sadewo, F. X. S.

    2018-01-01

    One of the changes in the suburban area is marked by changes in land conversion, from agriculture pattern to non-farming pattern, which also affects changes in people’s livelihoods and occupation such as a craftsman and shoe trader. Using a qualitative approach, this study focuses to examine how changes in social and economic behavior of suburban communities as a result of urban development. This study founded that there was a change of livelihood in village people occupation from farmers to craftsmen and slippers traders. These changes have an impact on changing patterns of social relationships such as social interaction, social awareness, and social solidarity. In addition, the increase in income of village residents also impact on lifestyle changes such as diet and entertainment. Thus it can be concluded that urban development has an impact on suburban societies in social relations and income generation. The results of this study can be used as a reference for the city government and district governments in arranging the layout and build prosperity of the community suburban.

  10. The Refund of Social Insurance Contributions of Disabled Persons Conducting Non-agricultural Economic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Marzena Szabłowska-Juckiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Disabled persons conducting non-agricultural economic activity may apply for the refund of social insurance contributions from the State Fund for Rehabilitation of the Disabled Persons. The exception to the general rule of financing social insurance contributions of persons conducting non-agricultural economic activity by the insured persons themselves, entirely from their own funds, constitutes one of the instruments introduced by the law-maker to enhance vocational activation of disabled pe...

  11. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  12. Micronutrient deficiencies and gender: social and economic costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnton-Hill, Ian; Webb, Patrick; Harvey, Philip W J; Hunt, Joseph M; Dalmiya, Nita; Chopra, Mickey; Ball, Madeleine J; Bloem, Martin W; de Benoist, Bruno

    2005-05-01

    Vitamin and mineral deficiencies adversely affect a third of the world's people. Consequently, a series of global goals and a serious amount of donor and national resources have been directed at such micronutrient deficiencies. Drawing on the extensive experience of the authors in a variety of institutional settings, the article used a computer search of the published scientific literature of the topic, supplemented by reports and published and unpublished work from the various agencies. In examining the effect of sex on the economic and social costs of micronutrient deficiencies, the paper found that: (1) micronutrient deficiencies affect global health outcomes; (2) micronutrient deficiencies incur substantial economic costs; (3) health and nutrition outcomes are affected by sex; (4) micronutrient deficiencies are affected by sex, but this is often culturally specific; and finally, (5) the social and economic costs of micronutrient deficiencies, with particular reference to women and female adolescents and children, are likely to be considerable but are not well quantified. Given the potential impact on reducing infant and child mortality, reducing maternal mortality, and enhancing neuro-intellectual development and growth, the right of women and children to adequate food and nutrition should more explicitly reflect their special requirements in terms of micronutrients. The positive impact of alleviating micronutrient malnutrition on physical activity, education and productivity, and hence on national economies suggests that there is also an urgent need for increased effort to demonstrate the cost of these deficiencies, as well as the benefits of addressing them, especially compared with other health and nutrition interventions.

  13. Do consumers' preferences for improved provision of malaria treatment services differ by their socio-economic status and geographic location? A study in southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasie Nnenna G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of utilization of malaria treatment services will depend on provision of treatment services that different population groups of consumers prefer and would want to use. Treatment of malaria in Nigeria is still problematic and this contributes to worsening burden of the disease in the country. Therefore this study explores the socio-economic and geographic differences in consumers' preferences for improved treatment of malaria in Southeast Nigeria and how the results can be used to improve the deployment of malaria treatment services. Methods This study was undertaken in Anambra state, Southeast Nigeria in three rural and three urban areas. A total of 2,250 randomly selected householders were interviewed using a pre tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Preferences were elicited using both a rating scale and ranking of different treatment provision sources by the respondents. A socio-economic status (SES index was used to examine for SES differences, whilst urban-rural comparison was used to examine for geographic differences, in preferences. Results The most preferred source of provision of malaria treatment services was public hospitals (30.5%, training of mothers (19% and treatment in Primary healthcare centres (18.1%. Traditional healers (4.8% and patent medicine dealers (4.2% were the least preferred strategies for improving malaria treatment. Some of the preferences differed by SES and by a lesser extent, the geographic location of the respondents. Conclusion Preferences for provision of improved malaria treatment services were influenced by SES and by geographic location. There should be re-invigoration of public facilities for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria, in addition to improving the financial and geographic accessibility of such facilities. Training of mothers should be encouraged but home management will not work if the quality of services of patent medicine dealers and pharmacy

  14. A SHORT ANALYSE OF THE DIALOGUE SOCIAL SYSTEMS AND THEIR ROLE IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUSESCU IONUT

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The trade unions are considered under the law of association, constitutionally guaranteed principle of all democratic regimes in the world. Moreover, freedom of expression and association is one of the fundamental principles underlying the activities of the International Labour principles set out both in the Treaty of Versailles (June 1919 [1] and the Declaration of Philadelphia (May 1944 regarding the goals and objectives of the ILO. Any of the 175 member states of this organization are obliged to provide the necessary legal framework establishment and operation of structures representing the interests of employees and employers (where employers' organizations. In turn, I.L.O. It adopted the Convention on Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise (June 1948 that workers and employers have the right to constitute organizations or to join them. Organizations have the right to draw up statutes and administrative regulations, to organize their administration and activities, to freely choose their representatives to formulate the action program, the condition is to respect the law. In turn, public authorities in each member country must refrain from any interference which would restrict this right or impede the lawful exercise them. Therefore, organizations representing and defending the rights of employees there and exercise their role for which they were created, changing a lesser or greater extent characteristics of different segments of the labor market in a country or another. Moreover, amid the internationalization of the labor market specific features, such as international migration of labor, multinational and transnational companies entering the domestic markets of the various countries, legislating the right to free movement of labor in different geographic areas - economic, etc. , the issue of the influence of trade unions can not be circumvented. In essence, this study develops the issue of social dialogue seen as a

  15. New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a policy journal analyzing social and economic issues in South Africa. We publish infomed articles by experts and decision makers. These articles are accessible to the ordinary reader. Other website associated with this journal: www.newagenda.org.za ...

  16. Analysis Of The Social-Economic Factors Affecting Output Of Nihort ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis Of The Social-Economic Factors Affecting Output Of Nihort Fruit Adoptors And ... A moderate family size of 6-7 family members are in adopters and ... Extension agents presence is necessary in the study area so as to organise training ...

  17. U.N. adopts historic declaration on economic, social and cultural rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    On International Human Rights Day, 10 December 2008, the U.N. General Assembly adopted a landmark document, the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

  18. Specificity of economic and social nature tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabanjuk Oleg Vasil'evich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a number of factors specific to the tourism industry: a multiplier effect, a kind of method of generating working capital, specific "invisible exports", the factor most risky activities, the principle of direct and inverse transformation, and others. The data of experts of the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO on tourism as an indicator of welfare. It is emphasized along with the economic function of tourism on the social dimension of tourism in its mass phenomenon. The paper highlights the main problems and shortcomings of tourism as a complex socio-economic system; analysis of theoretical approaches to periodization of tourism that reflects the genesis of approaches regarding the nature of tourism; The factors of external and internal tourism development, made their ranking to measure the relationship between the measurement periods allocated for tourism development using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient.

  19. Human Rights, Economic Liberalism and Social Affairs in Post-Pinochet Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Aranda Bustamante

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Chilean democratisation process sought the international rehabilitation of a country in the declarative triad of human rights, democratic representation and economic liberalism. Since 1994, the country has reached greater prominence through economic diplomacy and the strategy of open regionalism, and with it the influence of business interest groups. This article holds that, additionally, the human rights movement gave the civilian governments a stamp of symbolic commitment to this issue that, at the turn of the century, led to Chile's active participation in multilateral forums on social inclusion. Additionally, with the turn of the century, the State opened spaces for the interaction of border social groups, particularly the ethnic groups, with which they had cultivated strong transnational dynamics.

  20. Ecologic, Economic, and Social Considerations for Rangeland Sustainability: An Integrated Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. McCollum; H. Theodore Jr. Heintz; Aaron J. Harp; John A. Tanaka; Gary R. Evans; David Radloff; Louis E. Swanson; William E. III Fox; Michael G. Sherm Karl; John E. Mitchell

    2006-01-01

    Use and sustainability of rangelands are inherently linked to the health and sustainability of the land. They are also inherently linked to the social and economic infrastructures that complement and support those rangelands and rangeland uses. Ecological systems and processes provide the biological interactions underlying ecosystem health and viability. Social and...

  1. Economic and social development, energy and environment in Latin America and the West Indies - an ovierview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suding, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    After giving a short overview of the economic and social development of Latin America since 1980 the present article deals with the various problems relating to the energy supply of that region, namely economic growth, diversification, inefficiency, and environmental effects. If discusses the relationships that exist in Latin America between energy, environment, and the social situation and endeavours to outline possible approaches towards a socially and environmentally sustainable development. (UA) [de

  2. A Framework for Assessing the Social and Economic Impact of Sustainable Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Räikkönen Minna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Investments towards sustainable development are vital for the future and they must be carefully planned to deliver immediate and long-term benefits. Hence, the ability to communicate the forms of impact of sustainable investments to local societies, people, investors and other stakeholders can provide a competitive advantage. However, the assessments are often under pressure to demonstrate short-term effects rather than emphasise the long-term impact. In addition, indirect and intangible forms of impacts should not be measured solely in economic terms. This paper proposes an assessment framework to support the integrated economic and social impact assessment of sustainable investments aimed at improving physical and socio-economic wellbeing. The framework is demonstrated in two case studies: new construction and renovation investments in affordable housing and social impact investment in sustainable development. The investments in the case studies are evaluated, selected and prioritized not only in terms of money but also with regard to sustainability, social acceptability and their overall impact on society, as a whole. The results indicate that a systematic integrated assessment of monetary and non-monetary factors can be successfully combined with the sustainable development decisions.

  3. Ekonomiczne i spoleczne nastepstwa globalizacji/Economic and Social Consequences of Globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlomiej Kaczmarek

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this article in an analysis of the globalisation process in economic and social areas. The author describes the main spheres of globalisation such as economic and political integration, the declining role of nation states, cultural homogenisation and the increasing significance of transnational corporations. The advantages and disadvantages of globalisation are discussed. The author also indicates differences between regions that benefit from globalisation. The article tries to...

  4. The economic and social viability of Tanzanian Wildlife Management Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homewood, Katherine; Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Lund, Jens Friis

    This policy brief contributes to assessing the economic and social viability of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) through preliminary findings by the ‘Poverty and ecosystem Impacts of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas’ (PIMA) project, focusing on benefits, costs, and their distribution...

  5. Globalization in history : a geographical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Crafts, N. F. R.; Venables, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    This paper argues that a geographical perspectie is fundamental to understanding comparative economic development in the context of globalization. Central to this view is the role of agglomeration in productivity performance; size and location matter. The tools of the new economic geography are used to illuminate important epidsodes when the relative position of major eeconmies radically changed; the rise of the United States at the beginning and of East Asia at the end of the twentieth centu...

  6. Correlates of socio-economic inequalities in women's television viewing: a study of intrapersonal, social and environmental mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teychenne Megan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Socio-economically disadvantaged women are at a greater risk of spending excess time engaged in television viewing, a behavior linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, the factors which explain socio-economic differences in television viewing are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of intrapersonal, social and environmental factors to mediating socio-economic (educational inequalities in women's television viewing. Methods Cross-sectional data were provided by 1,554 women (aged 18-65 who participated in the 'Socio-economic Status and Activity in Women study' of 2004. Based on an ecological framework, women self-reported their socio-economic position (highest education level, television viewing, as well as a number of potential intrapersonal (enjoyment of television viewing, preference for leisure-time sedentary behavior, depression, stress, weight status, social (social participation, interpersonal trust, social cohesion, social support for physical activity from friends and from family and physical activity environmental factors (safety, aesthetics, distance to places of interest, and distance to physical activity facilities. Results Multiple mediating analyses showed that two intrapersonal factors (enjoyment of television viewing and weight status and two social factors (social cohesion and social support from friends for physical activity partly explained the educational inequalities in women's television viewing. No physical activity environmental factors mediated educational variations in television viewing. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional nature of this study, these findings suggest that health promotion interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in television viewing should focus on intrapersonal and social strategies, particularly providing enjoyable alternatives to television viewing, weight-loss/management information, increasing social cohesion in the

  7. Branding as an Element of the Strategy of Social and Economic Development of the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielikova Nadiia V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the evolutionary stages of the scientific and methodological support of the branding of cities is presented and the components of the city brand related to the basic indicators of its social and economic development are proposed. It is proved that under the current conditions of economic globalization and regional integration, the competition between territories is intensifying, which requires local authorities to develop new approaches to the branding of cities. The aim of the article is to substantiate the components of the city branding in the development of the strategy of social and economic development of the city. Analysis of the stages of evolution of scientific and methodological support for the branding of cities demonstrates the expansion of its tools and its inclusion in the strategies of social and economic development of cities. It is determined that the main constituents of the city brand are: importance of the city in the country and the region; human capital; economy, industry, innovations; ease of doing business; health protection; education, culture, sport, urban infrastructure. Methodical approach to the implementation of the city branding within the framework of its socio-economic development strategy involves the implementation of interrelated stages: SWOT analysis of the social and economic system of the city; formation of the list of competitive advantages of the city; determination of priority directions for the development of the city, etc.

  8. On the Question of Studying the Role of Social Capital under the Conditions of the Socio-Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrii Vladimirovich Afanas’ev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social capital has gained considerable popularity in the social sciences, as well as in practical politics on a national and international scale. Its heuristic potential is confirmed by numerous studies demonstrating the positive impact of the level and types of social capital on a wide range of economic, social and political phenomena, and especially the use of the concept of social capital to study economic growth and development issues. However, there is no universally accepted definition of social capital, and there is no unanimous opinion concerning the ways of measuring it. The paper contains a review of the current status of the theoretical field of the concept; it shows that researchers from different countries are interested in the impact of social capital on economic growth and development at the regional level. Specific comparative studies in different countries and regions strongly support the presence of a correlation that proves social capital is one of the powerful driving forces of development. However, since the majority of studies on the effects of social capital on economic development are concentrated in the developed countries of Western Europe and the USA, it is important to evaluate the potential of this approach in the countries of post-Communist development that have different experience, in particular, in Russia. In this regard, the article points out that there is a clear lack of such studies with regard to Russia’s regions, where there are only occasional fragmentary attempts to study social capital. The aim of the paper is to substantiate on the theoretical basis and to indicate the prerequisites for empirical studies on the effects of social capital of regions on their economic growth and development, especially under the conditions of the general economic and structural crisis

  9. When social actions get translated into spreadsheets: economics and social work with children and youth in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Ida Marie

    2013-01-01

    interventions to help children and young people. Inspired by the sociologist John Law, my preliminary study suggests that taking into account economy often becomes a question of translating social interventions into spreadsheets, rather than making economically-based decisions. I classify three kinds...... in order to strengthen collaborative knowledge of how to take into account public sector economy, and to reflect on how technologies can interfere with decision processes in social work.......As a means of reducing public spending, social workers in Danish municipalities are expected to take into account public sector economy when deciding on how to solve social problems. Researchers have previously investigated the impact of social work on the public sector economy, the cost...

  10. Socio-political, cultural and economic preferences and behaviour of the social and cultural specialists and the technocrats. Social class or education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güveli, A.; Need, A.; Graaf, N.D. de

    2007-01-01

    Do the social and cultural specialists differ from the technocrats and other social classes with respect to their socio-political, cultural and economic preferences and behaviour? If they do, is this attributable to their level and field of education? The social and cultural specialists are assumed

  11. Theory and methodology of social, political and economic processes risks determining in different countries of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashina Nadezhda, I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the problems of the theory and methodology of social, political and economic processes risks in different countries with relative indicators of the socio-economic development level, as well as the size and condition of the public debt. Developed by the authors the methodology of determining the risks of social, political and economic processes of public policy around the world revealed close relationship between socio-economic situation of the countries and their public debt. Within the framework of this methodology two groups of factors characterizing the socio-political and economic processes in the country are being developed. After that each exponent and indicator are being processed, using expert procedures. Maximum statutory values for tentatively referenced countries with effective and ineffective government policies are identified. Then standardization (specification and definition of integral (generalized indexes of socio-political and economic processes in the country are taking place. After that the ranking of countries by aggregated standardized ratio is arranged, taking into account the significance of the developed indicators. The final phase of implementation methodology is identifying risks of social, political and economic processes of public policy around the world. This is the ranking of countries by ratio of stability in public policy (stability of economic and socio-political processes in the country. As the result of implementation methodology the following output was received: what really makes a difference is not the amount of the country's debt, but how effectively it manages this debt, whether it has a goal to improve social and economic indicators. Practical testing methodology has proven that studied indicators fully characterize the development of the countries, their political, social and economic situation on the world stage.

  12. Combining individual and ecological data to determine compositional and contextual socio-economic risk factors for suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Sterne, J.A.; Gunnell, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    The social and economic characteristics of geographic areas are associated with their suicide rates. The extent to which these ecological associations are due to the characteristics of the people living in the areas (compositional effects) or the influence of the areas themselves on risk (context......The social and economic characteristics of geographic areas are associated with their suicide rates. The extent to which these ecological associations are due to the characteristics of the people living in the areas (compositional effects) or the influence of the areas themselves on risk...... (contextual effects) is uncertain. Denmark's Medical Register on Vital Statistics and its Integrated Database for Longitudinal Labour Market Research were used to identify suicides and 20 matched controls per case in 25-60-year-old men and women between 1982 and 1997. Individual and area (municipality...... area levels of employment and income and increasing proportions of people living alone were much attenuated after controlling for compositional effects. We found no consistent evidence that associations with individual-level risk factors differed depending on the areas' characteristics (cross...

  13. Social Activities And Socio-Economic Status Of Rural Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agent (at P=0.01) while contact with extension and age of farmer and social participation and access to radio (at P=0.05). And, results of stepwise regression showed that age, level of education and farm size of farmers were significantly related to adoption (at P=0.05). Keywords: Improved maize, socio-economic status, rural ...

  14. [Some sex-specific problem under especially consideration of demographic and social-economic aspects (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, M; Festbaum, G; Frille, D

    1981-01-01

    Demographic and social-economic trends are tightly linked together, the social-economic being the determinates of this trend. For that aim the direct pecuniary living conditions are analyzed more thoroughly than usual by means of a special demographic group. Now as before the mode of action and the accuracy of aim of social-politic measures are unclear. The downward trend of the degree of pensioner's employment is discussed in connection to concretly existing material living conditions with regard to better social security payment. Recommendations are given for elderly working people from the side of work hygiene, which will be planned and realized in our process of development.

  15. Money, Peers and Parents: Social and Economic Aspects of Inequality in Youth Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenty, Stephanie; Mood, Carina

    2016-07-01

    Indicators of social and economic status are important health determinants. However, evidence for the influence of family socioeconomic status in adolescent wellbeing is inconsistent and during this period of development youth may begin to develop their own status positions. This study examined social and economic health inequalities by applying a multidimensional and youth-orientated approach. Using a recent (2010-2011) and representative sample of Swedish 14-year olds (n = 4456, 51 % females), the impact of family socioeconomic status, youth economic resources and peer status on internalizing symptoms and self-rated health were examined. Data was based on population register, sociometric and self-report information. Aspects of family socioeconomic status, youth's own economy and peer status each showed independent associations, with poorer wellbeing observed with lower status. However, there were equally strong or even stronger effects of peer status and youth's own economy than family socioeconomic status. Lower household income and occupational status were more predictive of poor self-rated health than of internalizing symptoms. The findings suggest that youth's own economy and peer status are as important as family socioeconomic status for understanding inequalities in wellbeing. Thus, a focus on youth-orientated conceptualizations of social and economic disadvantage during adolescence is warranted.

  16. SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND ACCOUNTING SUMMARY OF THE GREEK AGRICULTURAL SECTOR 1950-2010: CENTRAL GREECE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Th. PAPAILIAS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Usually, the analysis of the economic and social development of a country or a region can be achieved either by using macroeconomic theories, or through a microeconomic approach (Sakellaropoulos, 1993. The innovation of this paper lies in the use of accounting techniques for capturing the relevant developments and in the fact that there are no similar studies in the Greek bibliography, except some fragmentary approaches of the 1950’s (Euelpides, 1953. Specifically, the objective of this article is the presentation of the social and economic development in a major region in Greece with the use of accounting statements. For this purpose the balance sheets and the income statements of the specific region were estimated per decade throughout the postwar period and the social-economic facts are tried to associate with the figures.The article is structured in three parts. The first refers to the methodology of the research. In the second, balance sheets and profit/loss accounts are presented in detail with the use of financial statement analysis methods and are attempted to correlate with the social-economic incidents. In the third the findings are evaluated.

  17. The local economic and social effects of power station siting: anticipated, demonstrated and perceived

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasson, J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses the economic and social effects of power station siting at a local level using material based on the interim research findings from a project commissioned by the Central Electricity Generating Board. The cases for and against power station development are outlined and a review of the actual economic and social effects is presented, drawn from a study of a conventional power station at Drax and a nuclear power station at Sizewell. (U.K.)

  18. Breaking out of the economic box: energy efficiency, social rationality and non-economic drivers of behavioral change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhardt-Martinez, Karen; Laitner, John A. ' Skip' (ACEEE, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C. (United States))

    2009-07-01

    Energy concerns are increasingly on people's minds. According to a recent Gallup poll, nearly 30 percent of American's reported that energy prices were the most important financial problem facing their families today. But are these new concerns likely to translate into long-term behavioral changes and more energy-efficient behavior? Research suggests that it will take more than high prices to achieve maximum energy savings. People may like to think of themselves as rational economic actors, but a variety of studies by social-psychologists and behavioral economists reveal that people often act in ways that may be better described as 'socially-rational' and 'predictably irrational'. Despite these findings, many residential energy programs and most policy assessments continue to model potential energy savings as a function of existing technologies and the cost of those energy resources. This paper explores the ways in which individual behavior is shaped by the social context within which people operate and presents an alternative framework for modeling efficiency behavior. The alternative model recognizes that while individuals may not always behave in economically-rational ways, their behavior may be entirely rational from other vantage points. In fact, individuals often behave as rational social actors, determining what is and isn't 'appropriate' behavior by gleaning information from their own observations, from their peers, and from interactions within their sphere of social influence. As such, this paper explores the ways in which social rules, resources and context shape individual patterns of energy consumption. This alternative approach has important implications for program designs and policy recommendations.

  19. Socio-cognitive Elaborations and Reactions to Economic Crisis: Insights from Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamos Papastamou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue dedicated to the social psychological study of the economic crisis in four European Union countries along the Mediterranean includes six empirical papers discussing different aspects of the phenomenon. Four papers are part of a larger project that started in 2011, aiming to compare the social representations of the economic crisis in France, Greece, Italy, and Portugal. Starting from the study of the social representations of the causes of the crisis and the measures to overcome it, various social psychological parameters that interfere are examined. Thus, the political, ideological, and social positioning, and the axiological universe of the participants are considered as important predictors and mediators in the different papers. Additionally, possible political participatory activities in reaction to the crisis are considered. The presentation of the outcome of this research project is completed by a paper analyzing the way the crisis was depicted in the Italian press and a paper looking at the impact of the financial threat to political participation in France. The research presented here reveals the ways social subjects give meaning to a situation of crisis and thus provides social and political insights into social thinking and behavior with important policy implications for individual nations as well as Europe at large. In this paper, we present the general framework of the studies carried out and we introduce the collection of empirical papers of the special issue.

  20. An Extension and Test of Sutherland's Concept of Differential Social Organization: The Geographic Clustering of Japanese Suicide and Homicide Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baller, Robert D.; Shin, Dong-Joon; Richardson, Kelly K.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to explain the spatial patterning of violence, we expanded Sutherland's (1947) concept of differential social organization to include the level of deviance exhibited by neighboring areas. To test the value of this extension, the geographic clustering of Japanese suicide and homicide rates is assessed using 1985 and 1995 data for…

  1. Social and Economic Policies Matter for Health Equity: Conclusions of the SOPHIE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmusi, Davide; Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme

    2018-01-01

    Since 2011, the SOPHIE project has accumulated evidence regarding the influence of social and economic policies on population health levels, as well as on health inequalities according to socioeconomic position, gender, and immigrant status. Through comparative analyses and evaluation case studies across Europe, SOPHIE has shown how these health inequalities vary according to contexts in macroeconomics, social protection, labor market, built environment, housing, gender equity, and immigrant integration and may be reduced by equity-oriented policies in these fields. These studies can help public health and social justice advocates to build a strong case for fairer social and economic policies that will lead to the reduction of health inequalities that most governments have included among their policy goals. In this article, we summarize the main findings and policy implications of the SOPHIE project and the lessons learned on civil society participation in research and results communication.

  2. Developing an agenda to guide forest social science, economics, and utilization research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Haynes

    2005-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service has had a longstanding presence in utilization, economics, and social sciences research and development activities. The magnitude and diversity of these activities have changed as the questions and the people asking them have changed over the past century. These changes challenge the social science and utilization research community to develop...

  3. Environmental and social risk evaluation of overseas investment under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruilian; Andam, Francis; Shi, Guoqing

    2017-06-01

    Along with the further implementation of the "One Belt, One Road" initiative and the promotion of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), the construction of the CPEC will likely face challenges owing to differences between China and Pakistan in politics, economics, culture, religion, language, customs, environmental management systems, environmental protection laws, social management systems, and social management regulations. To address potential environmental and social risks associated with Chinese enterprises as they invest in the CPEC region, this paper examines previous studies addressing topics such as the environmental and social safeguards of international institutions and Pakistan's domestic environmental and social management requirements. We then systematically identify the environmental and social risk factors involved in CPEC construction, which cover risks regarding water, air, soil, noise, biodiversity, politics, economics, culture, technology, and individuals. By establishing and calculating these risks and using a multi-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model, we found that noise and individual risks belong to a medium risk category, while others belong to a higher risk category. In view of these risks, the Chinese government must create a friendly and peaceful environment for Chinese enterprises to invest in the CPEC region, and Chinese enterprises must adopt a development strategy of strength and capacity building and establish enterprises capable of addressing environmental and social issues during the investment process. All stakeholders must understand that if no determined and diligent steps are taken, CPEC construction might be doomed for failure from the start.

  4. Social-economic Dimension of Globalisation and Income Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Špirková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a broad concept casually used to describe a variety of phenomena of countries. However, there is no universally accepted definition and neither standard measurement for globalization nor social dimension of globalization. Many attempts have been made to measure globalization. Authors introduce single indices – economic and social globalization index and index for progress in reducing income inequality as fuzzy membership functions. Authors analyse the dependence of the new indices. Authors create clusters of similar EU countries in the view of these two indices with the help of fuzzy c‑cluster analysis. The result is two clusters of states – original EU countries, newly associated and four states – Greece, Portugal, Slovenia a Malta turned out as not decided.

  5. Geographic thougth in Latin America: A retrospective and general balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Sergio Urquijo Torres

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report results of a thorough contemporary historiographic revision of published geographic research and geography research departments and centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG Geography. First we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we explain the nature of LA social processes that, in the 90s, triggered geographic change and subsequent theoretical reflection on this change in LAG and in other related social sciences. To this end, we describe how the major traditions in geographic research have influenced LAG thinking. To conclude, we suggest the major achievements that we think characterize the current situation of LAG.

  6. Cooperação econômica versus competitividade social Economic cooperation versus social competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cláudio Tupinambá Arroyo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As estratégias de cooperação econômica, presentes desde as sociedades primitivas, indicam que a presidência da lógica da 'competição' é uma importante distorção promovida pelo modo capitalista de produção e vivência que apartou o trabalhador do trabalho, desumanizando as relações sociais e políticas. Cooperação e competição possuem interações e complementaridades possíveis de potencializar um desenvolvimento humano desde que sob as premissas da economia solidária. Interação que traz efetiva agregação de valor ao processo econômico. A principal estratégia cooperativa está na lógica das teorias que fundamentam os aglomerados e arranjos econômicos. E a construção sociocultural capaz de tornar esta opção uma construção hegemônica se articula, hoje, em torno da economia solidária.The strategies of economic cooperation, found since primitive societies, indicate that the dominance of the logic of 'competition' is an important distortion promoted by the capitalist mode of production and the experience that separated the worker from work, dehumanizing social and political relations. Cooperation and competition interact and complement each other in ways that are capable of potentializing human development as long as they do so from the premises of solidarity economics. This interaction effectively aggregates value to the economic process. The principal cooperative strategy is in the logic of the theories that are at the foundation of the economic agglomerates and arrangements. The social-cultural construction capable of making this option a hegemonic construction is now articulated around solidarity economics.

  7. The Economic and Social Benefits of Air Transport

    OpenAIRE

    GHEORGHE Camelia; SEBEA Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Air transport is an innovative industry that drives economic and social progress. It connects people, countries and cultures; provides access to global markets and generates trade and tourism. It also forges links between developed and developing nations. Like most human activities, air transport has an impact on the environment, mainly through noise and emissions that affect local air quality and the climate. The industry fully recognises its responsibility in this regard and is determined t...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Disadvantage E Appendix E to Part 26 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY... Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following guidance... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged...

  9. Theory of social organisations as the methodological basis of economic management of an enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligonenko Larysa O.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the author’s interpretation of the “economic management of an enterprise” notion, which is offered to be considered as an integrating and co-ordinating type of management, the main goal of which is ensuring long-term viability of an enterprise. The article considers genesis of organisational theories with respect to necessity, principles, rules, recommendations and procedures of managerial activity. It justifies expediency of formation of the methodological base of economic management of an enterprise on the basis of use of the problem theory of social organisations of V. I. Franchuk. The article describes the author’s concept of the essential characteristics and the process of organisation of economic management of an enterprise. It justifies a necessity of replenishment of classical management functions with three new functions: problem management, development and economic security (risk tolerance. It characterises principles and organisation of functioning of the “social mechanism”, which should be envisaged in the system of economic management of an enterprise.

  10. On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare…

  11. ECONOMIC CONDITIONS AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE MARKET OF RESORT AND RECREATIONAL SERVICES OF THE SOUTHERN FDERAL DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Oborin M. S.

    2015-01-01

    In article features of natural and medical potential, social and economic development of the Southern Federal District which are the main for development of medical and improving tourism are considered. The district borrows favorable natural and the economical geographical position influencing development of sanatorium activity. Positive dynamics of development of the market of sanatorium services of the Southern Federal District is based on the rich natural and medical capacity of the distri...

  12. Emprendimientos Asociativos, Empresas Recuperadas y Economía Social en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Deux Marzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hacia fines de siglo XX Argentina atravesaba una crisis social, política y económica de dimensiones inéditas cuyos rasgos más significativos se tradujeron en el aumento de la pobreza y la desigualdad y en una crisis estructural del mercado de trabajo. En este contexto, han surgido numerosas estrategias de recuperación o generación de nuevas fuentes de trabajo, algunas de las cuales se las identifica como parte de un amplio y heterogéneo conjunto de experiencias de economía social. En particular, en este trabajo nos centraremos en el análisis de 611 emprendimientos Asociativos mercantiles y 50 empresas recuperadas de Argentina a fin de caracterizar estas experiencias y mostrar su desempeño en relación a la recuperación y creación de fuentes de trabajo. Para ello nos basaremos en los datos construidos en el estudio “Emprendimientos socioeconómicos asociativos: su vulnerabilidad y sostenibilidad” (ICO-UNGS, 2006.Towards the end of the twentieth century, Argentina faced a social, political and economic crisis of monumental dimensions. This emergency translated into increased poverty and inequality, and a structural crisis in the job market. In this context, a number of strategies arose, aimed at recuperating some of the loss, and generating new possibilities in the job market. Some of these strategies were identified as part of a wide-ranging and heterogeneous series of experiments in social economics. This work will focus on an analysis of 611 associate market initiatives and 50 recuperated companies in Argentina, for the purpose of characterizing these experiences and showing their drive to create and regenerate sources of employment. To achieve this, we will take as our starting point the data collected for the Study "Socio-Economic Associative Initiatives: Vulnerability and Sustainability" (ICO-UNGS, 2006.

  13. New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NEW AGENDA is peer-reviewed and listed in the department of education's Index of Approved South African Journals. The journal's focus encompasses South African, African and international developments in social and economic research and policy. We aim to provide high-quality pertinent information and analysis for ...

  14. The imperatives of economic, social and cultural rights in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic, social and cultural rights remain the bedrock of good governance, which is a prerequisite for sustainable democracy. The obligations of any democratic government are founded on this principle. The desideratum for the recognition of any government as civilized and responsive is its respect for the ...

  15. DECREASE IN SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT BASE INDUSTRIES BY FORMATION OF EFFECTIVE REGIONAL POLICY OF SUPPORT SMALL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Shelomentsev

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Clause is devoted to an actual problem of decrease in negative consequences of technological development of key economic branches of the industry at a regional level. During social and economic transformations to Russia to the beginning of 90th years XX of a century there has been begun complex process of re-structuring of key economic branches of the industry, including technological, social and economic transformations. During re-structuring by one of key directions of the decision of existing social problems there is a formation of effective policy of support of small business at a regional and local level. Creation of favorable conditions for development of small business allows for short time and at rather low expenses to smooth disproportions of social and economic development of territories arising at re-structuring. Flexibility inherent in small business, mobility and adaptibility to changeable market conditions can promote the decision of problems of social stability, maintenance of employment and saturation of the consumer market. Creation of the enterprises of small business on the basis of local natural-economic resources raises social and economic potential of industrial territories.

  16. THE SOCIAL-ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF THE CLIMATE CHANGES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ZAMAN

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The social-economic implication of climatic changes in Romania are analysed under the following viewpoints: causes and effects; prevention and abatement; adjustment; institutional aspects of environmental management. The main reason of climatic changes is generated by the greenhouse effect (GE that determines the heating of the terrestrial surface, melt-down of icebergs, tornados, draughts and flooding more frequently and of increasing intensity. These extreme meteorological phenomena determine, over time, increasing human and material losses, which imposes measures with effects on short-, medium- and long-term for diminishing the greenhouse effect in accordance with the commitments and provisions of the Kyoto Protocol and the requirements for the sustainable development of the country. Proposals are made with respect to integrating environmental issues into economic and social development strategies, emphasising the need for increasing environment financing and attaching more importance to the Ministry of Environment which must couple its policy with the acquis communautaire and the EU programme for combating and preventing GE impact.

  17. SOCIAL COSTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ECONOMIC-FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Gradinaru

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The start of the financial crisis in mid-2007 at a global scale had a major impact on the European Union’s economy. All member states have been economically affected, but the social effects were mainly of large amplitude. This paper focuses precisely on analysing the social costs which the economic-financial crisis has generated in the European Union. After finishing the study we have noticed that numerous social consequences of the recession have manifested intensely since the beginning of the crisis and continue to do so even today. These consist in the increase of poverty and social exclusion, rise in unemployment, decrease in birth rate, changes regarding the migration process, reduction in income, excessive indebtedness, the disparities between countries contributing to the augmentation of all these.

  18. RISKS AND RESPONSIBILITIES BETWEEN BUYER AND SELLER IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS IN CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC INTEGRATION. WAYS OF SHARING IN THE MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Gabriel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrating formal intergovernmental cooperation can be determined in order to adapt to economic change and social legislation and the need to replace national laws become obstacle to informal integration with a common permissive and favored the free movement of flows informal and proactive when political aims redirection informal flows to other structures (patterns than those created by market forces. In the literature, rich in delimitation of the concept of integration, different economists have distinguished reputation in the field, according to a series of economic criteria, political, social, geographical, structural, etc., following degrees of economic integration trends corresponding to more intense or smaller equalization coordinate economic, social and political - the degree of integration over time of economic integration theories have become independent. Is in fact the international development strategy choice determine segments we address (target segment in an overview of the markets. This choice goes beyond the country, and the notion of the target segment should not be confused with the country markets.

  19. Refugees Flexing Social Power as Agents of Stability: Creating Modes of Economic Livelihoods in Kenya’s Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-21

    Creating Modes of Economic Livelihoods in Kenya’s Camps Co ns tr uc tio n En gi ne er in g R es ea rc h La bo ra to ry Lance L. Larkin and Sarah A...November 2017 Refugees Flexing Social Power as Agents of Stability Creating Modes of Economic Livelihoods in Kenya’s Camps Lance L. Larkin and...understanding shows that refugee camp citizens harness their own social power, acting as agents of social and economic stability within the country

  20. Social, economic, and political forces affecting the future of occupational health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M A

    1989-09-01

    1. By monitoring the major social, economic, and political forces affecting health care, one can predict how these forces may impact the role of occupational health nurses. 2. Nursing can and must chart its own course in the midst of these social, economic, and political changes. 3. Changes which have major implications for occupational health nurses are: health care needs, cost containment, multi-hospital chains, alternative approaches to health care, the workplace, ethical concerns, biomedical technology, nursing shortage, and oversupply of physicians. 4. Nursing implications can also be drawn in the areas of autonomy, political skills, and education. Active involvement and a desire to shape professional change and the future of nursing are keys.

  1. A Geographic Information System (GIS-Based Analysis of Social Capital Data: Landscape Factors That Correlate with Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Rahimi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The field of community sociology has yielded rich insights on how neighborhoods and individuals foster social capital and reap the benefits of interpersonal relationships and institutions alike. Traditionally, institutions and cultural factors have been lauded as catalysts of community social life and cohesion. Yet, the built environment and configuration of the landscape, including infrastructure, amenities and population density, may also contribute to community social capital. In this article, we embedded zip code-level responses from Harvard University’s Saguaro Seminar’s 2006 Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey with a geographic information system. Specifically, we correlated responses on residents’ general trust, trust of one’s neighbors, and trust of members of other racial groups with local urban environmental factors and infrastructural indicators such as housing and street conditions, land use, city form, amenity access (e.g., libraries and schools, home vacancy rates, and home value. We conducted these tests at the national level and for Rochester, NY, due to its many survey responses. We found that housing vacancies drive down levels of social trust, as captured by homeownership rates and tenure, yielding higher levels of social trust, and that certain urban facilities correlate with high trust among neighbors. Results can inform urban planners on the amenities that support sustainable community ties.

  2. Mapping the Indonesian territory, based on pollution, social demography and geographical data, using self organizing feature map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernawati, Kuswari; Insani, Nur; Bambang S. H., M.; Nur Hadi, W.; Sahid

    2017-08-01

    This research aims to mapping the 33 (thirty-three) provinces in Indonesia, based on the data on air, water and soil pollution, as well as social demography and geography data, into a clustered model. The method used in this study was unsupervised method that combines the basic concept of Kohonen or Self-Organizing Feature Maps (SOFM). The method is done by providing the design parameters for the model based on data related directly/ indirectly to pollution, which are the demographic and social data, pollution levels of air, water and soil, as well as the geographical situation of each province. The parameters used consists of 19 features/characteristics, including the human development index, the number of vehicles, the availability of the plant's water absorption and flood prevention, as well as geographic and demographic situation. The data used were secondary data from the Central Statistics Agency (BPS), Indonesia. The data are mapped into SOFM from a high-dimensional vector space into two-dimensional vector space according to the closeness of location in term of Euclidean distance. The resulting outputs are represented in clustered grouping. Thirty-three provinces are grouped into five clusters, where each cluster has different features/characteristics and level of pollution. The result can used to help the efforts on prevention and resolution of pollution problems on each cluster in an effective and efficient way.

  3. Course of change in economic and social environment associated with energy. Population, life, industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimatsu, Michio

    1988-03-01

    As regards long-term forecast of economic and social environment in Japan, STANDARD economic and social vision based on the course of economical growth was adopted in the report of LONG-TERM VISION OF ENERGY INDUSTRY. The average annual economic growth rate is expected to be still a little higher than the average of that of the developed countries, being supported by the industiral activities by industries engaged in frontier science, manufacturing industries engaged in electrical processing and assembling, etc. In the primary and secondary industries, the number of employees may drop down to about one third. Tokyo may become the center of finance and information surpassing New York and London. The people may enjoy a rich, confortable and cultural life. Problems may arise from enhancement of individualism, increase in advanced aged population, acturization of regional differentials, etc. (3 figs, 3 tabs)

  4. Energy UK 1986. An economic, social and policy audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A; Gretton, J [eds.

    1986-01-01

    In a yearbook on energy in the UK with emphasis on economic, social and policy issues, eleven articles are presented of which nine were selected and indexed separately. The topics covered include energy forecasting, energy conservation, its balance with respect to supply investment, government relationships with fuel industries, fuel poverty, acid rain and efficiency studies of the electricity supply industry.

  5. Economics of climate change : sensitivity analysis of social cost of carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Torniainen, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Social cost of carbon (SCC) is the key concept in the economics of climate change. It measures the economic cost of climate impacts. SCC has influence on how beneficial it is to prevent climate change: if the value of SCC increases, investments to low-carbon technology become more attractive and profitable. This paper examines the sensitivity of two important assumptions that affect to SCC: the choice of a discount rate and time horizon. Using the integrated assessment model, ...

  6. Creating New Economic Incentives for Repurposing Generic Drugs for Unsolved Diseases Using Social Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Bruce E

    2015-12-01

    Repurposing research improves patient lives by taking drugs approved for one disease and clinically testing them to create a treatment for a different disease. Repurposing drugs that are generic, inexpensive, and widely available and that can be taken in their current dosage and formulation in the new indication provide a quick, affordable, and effective way to create "new" treatments. However, generic drug repurposing often provides no profit potential, and so there is no economic incentive for industry to pursue this, and philanthropy and government funds are often insufficient. One way to create new economic incentive for the repurposing of generic drugs is through social finance. This perspective describes how social finance can create a new economic incentive by using a social impact bond, or similar financial structure, to repay for-profit investors who fund the repurposing research from the proceeds of healthcare cost reductions generated when these affordable, effective, and widely available repurposed therapies improve healthcare outcomes.

  7. The Economics of "Private Politics": Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Brøns-Petersen

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, private corporations engage in “private politics”, or “corporate social responsibility” (CSR). In some cases, such as the infamous Enron affair, huge discrepancies between stated and actual policies have been revealed, while in others corporations seem to have been taken hostage by interest groups, even if stated and actual polices matched. The paper attempts to model the “private politics” of CSR in economic terms. On the one hand, it is assumed that corporations can generate e...

  8. SOCIAL-ECONOMICAL AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ISSUES OF RURAL POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRIY POPOVYCH

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study on the causes and consequences of rural poverty in connection with the main influencing factors. The paper suggests a conceptual framework for the investigation of complex relationship among economic growth, environmental degradation, climate change and rural poverty. The study highlights theoretical and empirical approaches to examination of potential relations among the well-being of rural population, the social-economic development of the agrarian sector of the economy and the state of ecology of countryside. The author introduces the practical instruments of filling the gap in current knowledge on links among economy, ecosystems, climate, and poverty, which provides implications for policy application and further research.

  9. Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavan, P.C.; Swaminathan, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Livestock are vital to subsistence farming and sustainable livelihood in most developing countries. Of India's population of one billion people, more than 70 percent live in the rural areas. India also has more than 30 percent of the world's bovine population. This has resulted in not only egalitarian ownership of cattle, but also in an almost inseparable cultural and symbiotic relationship between rural families and their farm animals, particularly large ruminants. It is against this scenario that the ethical, social and environmental issues of gene-based technologies need to be carefully evaluated. The use of transgenic cows with modified milk composition or for any other purpose has little economic benefit in a system of 'production by masses', as typifies India and a few other developing countries, compared with 'mass production' systems in developed countries. Rather, the use of rDNA technology for developing drought-resistant fodder and forage crops is likely to bring immediate relief to most regions. Cattle, particularly in India, have poor quality feeds and this results in poor nutrition, with production of large amounts of methane. Irnmunocastration -through biotechnological means would also be advantageous. Developing countries like India need sustainable livelihood security, and, in this regard, gene-based technologies in animal agriculture seem more to raise ethical, social and environmental concerns, rather than being likely to transform 'subsistence farming' into vibrant agribusiness. Ethical issues concerning animal welfare, rights and integrity are also discussed, in addition to social, environmental and economic issues. (author)

  10. Below Replacement-Level Fertility in Conditions of slow Social and Economic Development: A Review of the Evidence from South-India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Säävälä

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Demographic interest in the explanations of the first fertility transition has receded considerably during the last decade. Despite the empirical evidence of global convergence in fertility, there is still no consensus on the factors which explain the swiftness of the change in some contexts and its deceleration in some others. From the policy perspective, it remains pivotal to locate the factors that affect the momentum of fertility transition. In this essay the fast decline to below replacement-level period Total Fertility Rate in South India will be examined as an example of fertility transition despite slow social and/or economic development. The analysis is based on a literature review of empirical studies on the determinants of regional fertility differentials in India. Some southern states, most particularly Andhra Pradesh, manifest below replacement-level fertility (TFR 1.79 despite low average age at marriage even in Indian terms, the resilience of womens universal marriage, and heavy reliance on a terminal family planning method, female sterilization. The case of Andhra Pradesh shows that below-replacement level fertility can occur despite slow social development, widespread poverty and gender asymmetries. Geographical and social diffusion effects are partly responsible of the speed of the decline, although they are difficult to measure or test in the level of fertility decision-making.

  11. A Critical Examination of Geoengineering: Economic and Technological Rationality in Social Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Gunderson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Geoengineering—specifically stratospheric aerosol injection—is not only risky, but supports powerful economic interests, protects an inherently ecologically harmful social formation, relegates the fundamental social-structural changes needed to address climate change, and is rooted in a vision of a nature as a set of passive resources that can be fully controlled in line with the demands of capital. The case for geoengineering is incomprehensible without analyzing the social context that gave birth to it: capitalism’s inability to overcome a contradiction between the need to accumulate capital, on the one hand, and the need to maintain a stable climate system on the other. Substantial emissions reductions, unlike geoengineering, are costly, rely more on social-structural than technical changes, and are at odds with the current social order. Because of this, geoengineering will increasingly be considered a core response to climate change. In light of Herbert Marcuse’s critical theory, the promotion of geoengineering as a market-friendly and high-tech strategy is shown to reflect a society that cannot set substantive aims through reason and transforms what should be considered means (technology and economic production into ends themselves. Such a condition echoes the first-generation Frankfurt School’s central thesis: instrumental rationality remains irrational.

  12. Volunteered Geographic Information: Interpretation, Visualisation and Social Computing (VGIscience)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Dirk; Nejdl, Wolfgang; Schiewe, Jochen; Sester, Monika

    2018-05-01

    In the past years Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) has emerged as a novel form of user-generated content, which involves active generation of geo-data for example in citizen science projects or during crisis mapping as well as the passive collection of data via the user's location-enabled mobile devices. In addition there are more and more sensors available that detect our environment with ever greater detail and dynamics. These data can be used for a variety of applications, not only for the solution of societal tasks such as in environment, health or transport fields, but also for the development of commercial products and services. The interpretation, visualisation and usage of such multi-source data is challenging because of the large heterogeneity, the differences in quality, the high update frequencies, the varying spatial-temporal resolution, subjective characteristics and low semantic structuring. Therefore the German Research Foundation has launched a priority programme for the next 3-6 years which will support interdisciplinary research projects. This priority programme aims to provide a scientific basis for raising the potential of VGI- and sensor data. Research questions described more in detail in this short paper span from the extraction of spatial information, to the visual analysis and knowledge presentation, taking into account the social context while collecting and using VGI.

  13. URBAN TRAFFIC ACCIDENT ANALYSIS BY USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem SAPLIOĞLU

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, traffic accidents that cause more social and economic losses than that of natural disasters,have become a national problem in Turkey. To solve this problem and to reduce the casualties, road safety programs are tried to be developed. It is necessary to develop the most effective measures with low investment cost due to limited budgets allocated to such road safety programs. The most important program is to determine dangerous locations of traffic accidents and to improve these sections from the road safety view point. New Technologies are driving a cycle of continuous improvement that causes rapid changes in the traffic engineering and any engineering services within it. It is obvious that this developed services will be the potential for forward-thinking engineering studies to take a more influence role. In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS was used to identify the hazardous locations of traffic accidents in Isparta. Isparta city map was digitized by using Arcinfo 7.21. Traffic accident reports occurred between 1998-2002 were obtained from Directory of Isparta Traffic Region and had been used to form the database. Topology was set up by using Crash Diagrams and Geographic Position Reference Systems. Tables are formed according to the obtained results and interpreted.

  14. Social Class, Economic Inequality, and the Convergence of Policy Preferences: Evidence from 24 Modern Democracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Robert; Curtis, Josh

    2015-08-01

    Using data from the World Values Survey and national-level indicators for 24 modern democracies, we assess the influence of social class and economic inequality on preferences for government responsibility. We improve on previous research by using multilevel models that account for differences in attitudes both within (i.e., over time) and across countries. Our findings are consistent with the economic self-interest hypothesis. Specifically, working class individuals, who tend to gain the most from government intervention because of their low and often more precarious economic position, are more likely than others to support government intervention. We also find a positive relationship between national-level income inequality and support for government intervention. As income inequality rises, its social ills tend to be more pervasive, resulting in public opinion becoming more supportive of governments taking responsibility for their citizens. We further demonstrate that inequality moderates the relationship between social class and attitudes. Although the effect of income inequality is positive for all social classes, attitudes across social classes become more similar as inequality rises. © 2015 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  15. A preliminary social and economic assessment of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluett, C.; Bolton, P.; York, K.; Wood, M.; Radford, L.

    1981-07-01

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of the social and economic impacts that could be caused by the construction and operation of a nuclear waste repository on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This assessment involved assembling a comprehensive data base for the local Tri-Cities impact area and the surrounding region, establishing a network of local and regional contacts, making preliminary judgments about potential social impacts caused by the proposed repository, and recommending further research. This report concludes that growth effects under the anticipated work force scenario are expected to be relatively minor. With a strong public involvement program on the part of the project developers, including an ongoing dialogue with local and regional planners, potential socio-economic impacts can be anticipated and managed effectively. Specific recommendations are made for filling gaps in the available data, exploring key issues in more detail, and improving the analysis of social impacts. The report was prepared by the Battelle-Human Affairs Research Center in 1980 and 1981

  16. Social class and mental distress in Greek urban communities during the period of economic recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissi, Anastasia; Stalidis, George

    2017-08-01

    This study draws on old and well-established evidence that economic change, and especially recession, affects people's lives, behavior and mental health. Even though the literature is rich on the relationship between unemployment and mental distress, there is a renewed research interest on the link between socio-economic inequalities and psychological health. The study investigates the relationship of social class with mental distress during the hard times of persistent and severe economic crisis in Greece by conducting a comparative, community study in the country's second largest city, Thessaloniki. A face-to-face structured interview covering living conditions, life events, chronic stressors and coping strategies was employed to 300 residents of socio-economically contrasting neighborhood areas. Social class was operationalized by Erik Olin Wright's social class position typology, based on ownership and control over productive assets. The method of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was also applied to analyze the collected data. The results indicated that mental distress was significantly differentiated across social classes and in each residential area. Unemployed and unskilled workers were the most vulnerable groups in terms of psychological health. Chronic stress arose in this study as a risk factor for poor mental health outcomes and it was associated to low marital quality, intense economic burden and impoverished housing conditions. Those who face income loss, job loss and disability are at high risk for poverty and marginalization, suffering from greater psychological distress.

  17. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF FINANCIAL AUDIT - IN NEW DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szigeti Cecília

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We think that financial institutions have a greater social responsibility to develop theircustomers’ financial culture than to support a football team. We assert that nowadaysfinancial institutions have a responsibility to be able to continue to operate banks withoutauxiliary state support. We believe that auditors, who for decades certified the financialreports of banks whose balance sheets were fictitious and whose depositors’ andshareholders' money was not safe, played no small role in the development of the recentfinancial crisis. Consequently we hold that the auditors’ greater social responsibility isunavoidable. On the other hand, after the crisis, due to the fact that social responsibility hascome to the fore, auditors also have to prepare for the challenge that corporate reports areincreasingly integrated reports which, in addition to mandatory economic information, alsovoluntarily impart data on social and environmental impact and activities.

  18. How great is Latvia's success story? The economic, social and political consequences of the recent financial crisis in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Austers, Aldis

    2014-01-01

    The current state of Latvia can be best described in medical terms: the patient is pale, but alive. The financial woes have been successfully resolved, but economic, social and political challenges remain. The crisis is continuing to affect the fabric of social and political life in Latvia. This paper looks at the economic, social and political consequences of the recent financial crisis and the ensuing economic collapse in Latvia and suggests some remedial actions.

  19. A coregionalization model can assist specification of Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression: Application to an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Manuel Castro; Sousa, António Jorge; Pereira, Maria João

    2016-05-01

    The geographical distribution of health outcomes is influenced by socio-economic and environmental factors operating on different spatial scales. Geographical variations in relationships can be revealed with semi-parametric Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (sGWPR), a model that can combine both geographically varying and geographically constant parameters. To decide whether a parameter should vary geographically, two models are compared: one in which all parameters are allowed to vary geographically and one in which all except the parameter being evaluated are allowed to vary geographically. The model with the lower corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) is selected. Delivering model selection exclusively according to the AICc might hide important details in spatial variations of associations. We propose assisting the decision by using a Linear Model of Coregionalization (LMC). Here we show how LMC can refine sGWPR on ecological associations between socio-economic and environmental variables and low birth weight outcomes in the west-north-central region of Portugal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. How Does Social Trust Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Social capital in the form of generalized trust has been shown to be a determinant of economic growth in a number of studies. Other studies have explored other consequences of trust, such as its effects on governance, corruption, education and investment. This paper connects the two strands...... of literature by estimating the effects of trust on growth through a set of potential transmission mechanisms directly. It does so by modelling the process using a three-stage least squares estimator on a sample of countries for which a full data set is available. The results indicate that trust affects...

  1. Social and macro economic impact of closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeliene, D.

    1999-01-01

    The social consequences of closure of Ignalina NPP will largely depend on the actions the Government takes. If it puts in place the conditions which enable the International Financial Institutions to assist Lithuania, both in providing loans and grants for decommissioning and (in the case of the EU) providing Structural Adjustment Funds for the regional economic development of the Visaginas area, then solutions to the problems of closure can be found. But if the Government delays putting into place the necessary conditions, then Lithuania will be left to solve the problems of - inter alia necessary - closure of Ignalina NPP on its own. (author)

  2. Toward a theory of responsible investing : On the economic foundations of corporate social responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, Lammertjan; Scholtens, Lambertus

    Studies that link corporate social and financial performance usually find a positive association between the two. However, the literature does not establish a significant impact of socially responsible investing on stock market returns. We develop a coherent economic framework of responsible

  3. Socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic variables affecting the diverse degrees of consanguineous marriages in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, V; Colantonio, S E

    2004-02-01

    In a population the inbreeding coefficient alpha is determined by the relative incidence of the various degrees of consanguineous marriages--uncle-niece or aunt-nephew (C12), first cousin (C22), first cousin once removed (C23), second cousin (C33)--which may be related to temporal, geographic, demographic, and economic factors. Using published information from Spain corresponding to urban and rural areas, in this article we seek to establish how each specific relationship behaves with respect to geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic factors, to determine differential urban-rural patterns, and to study whether the diverse types of consanguineous matings relate homogeneously to these factors. For this purpose we performed multiple regressions in which the dependent variables were the different degrees of consanguinity previously selected and the independent variables were geographic, demographic, and economic factors. Our results indicate that the various types of consanguineous marriages in Spain are more conditioned by geographic, demographic, and economic variables than by the inbreeding level alpha (the coefficient of determination was between 0.22 and 0.72; the maximum for alpha was 0.35). A regional pattern exists in Spain and corresponds to close and to remote kinship, which may be mainly related to economic and family factors. Close relationships appear to be more associated with economic variables, whereas second-cousin marriages correspond largely to rural areas of the Spanish Central Plateau.

  4. Economic and Social Council ends meeting after considering poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    An overview is provided of the recent meetings of the UN Economic and Social Council (UNESC) in Geneva during July 1993. The issues of the meetings focused on poverty alleviation and population issues and plans for the International Conference on Population and Development. More than 100 resolutions and decisions were approved by the UNESC Commissions. In the meeting held on June 29-30, 1993, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Secretary General of the UN, addressed 15 ministers and 38 senior government officials and representatives of multilateral financial and trade institutions. He said that an unstable society undermines a stable economy and a stable political order. Social development must be the basis of all development. Social development has the goal of the alleviating poverty in the marginalization of populations, in discrimination in social relationship, in rootlessness of culture, and in vulnerability in ecology. The priority is in attacking poverty first. The World Summit to be held in March 1995 should enlist international cooperation in ending poverty. The UN marks its 50th anniversary also at that time, and the Summit would provide an opportunity to begin dealing with real and tangible issues such as poverty, social integration and employment. All countries are in need of formulating new directions in social policy and policies that accounting for the interrelationships globally in such a way as to put the best interests of all nations at the forefront. Development and international cooperation must "put people first." The meetings also addressed the issue of women's integration into society and the need to invest in women, as part of changing gender discrimination and contributing to their full participation in socioeconomic development. The Council requested an extension to meetings scheduled for April 1994 and the preparation of documentation by Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund that would include this Council meeting

  5. The Most Economic, Socially Viable, and Environmentally Sustainable Alternative Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2008-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of current energy planning can be attributed to the limited economic, social, and environmental contexts taken into account as a result of the current intellectual and professional division of labor. A preventive approach is developed by which the ratio of desired to undesired effects can be substantially improved. It…

  6. From Thaksin's Social Capitalism to Self-sufficiency Economics in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

      The intension of this paper is to scrutinize the evolution of economic policy under Thaksin's reign and asks the question whether it was a genuine response to the aftermath of the financial crisis and also whether it was a pro-active socially oriented policy towards the effects of the IMF's aus...

  7. Korea: Balancing Economic Growth and Social Protection for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system.…

  8. Social traditionalism and economic conservatism: two conservative political ideologies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S D; Tamney, J B

    2001-04-01

    The authors surveyed by telephone a random sample of voters in the 1996 presidential election from the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area of Muncie, IN ("Middletown"; R. Lynd & H. Lynd, 1929) to test a model describing the nature of 2 conservative political ideologies--social traditionalism and economic conservatism. The model, based on functions of attitudes theory, predicted (a) that the 2 political ideologies would appeal to 2 rather distinct constituency groups--the former, to conservative Protestants; the latter, to people of higher incomes--and (b) that social traditionalists would be more dogmatic and economic conservatives would be more open-minded in their respective views. The findings were consistent with those predictions.

  9. Geographic variation in health insurance benefits in Qianjiang District, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Xuejiao; Ye, Ting; Wang, Yongfei

    2018-02-05

    Health insurance contributes to reducing the economic burden of disease and improving access to healthcare. In 2016, the Chinese government announced the integration of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) and Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) to reduce system segmentation. Nevertheless, it was unclear whether there would be any geographic variation in health insurance benefits if the two types of insurance were integrated. The aim of this study was to identify the potential geographic variation in health insurance benefits and the related contributing factors. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Qianjiang District, where the NCMS and URBMI were integrated into Urban and Rural Resident Basic Medical Insurance Scheme (URRBMI) in 2010. All beneficiaries under the URRBMI were hospitalized at least once in 2013, totaling 445,254 persons and 65,877 person-times, were included in this study. Town-level data on health insurance benefits, healthcare utilization, and socioeconomic and geographical characteristics were collected through health insurance system, self-report questionnaires, and the 2014 Statistical Yearbook of Qianjiang District. A simplified Theil index at town level was calculated to measure geographic variation in health insurance benefits. Colored maps were created to visualize the variation in geographic distribution of benefits. The effects of healthcare utilization and socioeconomic and geographical characteristics on geographic variation in health insurance benefits were estimated with a multiple linear regression analysis. Different Theil index values were calculated for different towns, and the Theil index values for compensation by person-times and amount were 2.5028 and 1.8394 in primary healthcare institutions and 1.1466 and 0.9204 in secondary healthcare institutions. Healthcare-seeking behavior and economic factors were positively associated with health insurance benefits in compensation by person-times significantly

  10. Herding, social influence and economic decision-making: socio-psychological and neuroscientific analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Baddeley, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Typically, modern economics has steered away from the analysis of sociological and psychological factors and has focused on narrow behavioural assumptions in which expectations are formed on the basis of mathematical algorithms. Blending together ideas from the social and behavioural sciences, this paper argues that the behavioural approach adopted in most economic analysis, in its neglect of sociological and psychological forces and its simplistically dichotomous categorization of behaviour ...

  11. Geographical Detector Model for Influencing Factors of Industrial Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studying the influencing factors of carbon dioxide emissions is not only practically but also theoretically crucial for establishing regional carbon-reduction policies, developing low-carbon economy and solving the climate problems. Therefore, we used a geographical detector model which is consists of four parts, i.e., risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector and interaction detector to analyze the effect of these social economic factors, i.e., GDP, industrial structure, urbanization rate, economic growth rate, population and road density on the increase of energy consumption carbon dioxide emissions in industrial sector in Inner Mongolia northeast of China. Thus, combining with the result of four detectors, we found that GDP and population more influence than economic growth rate, industrial structure, urbanization rate and road density. The interactive effect of any two influencing factors enhances the increase of the carbon dioxide emissions. The findings of this research have significant policy implications for regions like Inner Mongolia.

  12. ENTREPRENEURSHIP, THE MAIN FACTOR OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUȘAN GABRIELA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic and social development depends on general business activity in any region. The public policies targeting the development of entrepreneurship in Romania must be addressed, as well as the European Union in the context of an ecosystem whose pillars are: entrepreneurship education at all levels, streamlined and predictable regulatory framework and access to finance oriented to the competitiveness. The entrepreneurial education is useful both for those who set up a start-up or already have a business and develop it and for individual unrelated businesses: the social entrepreneurs who leading nongovernmental organizations, the entrepreneurs who leading research laboratories or research projects, the political entrepreneurs, the cultural entrepreneurs, and others.

  13. Actionable Capability for Social and Economic Systems (ACSES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Steven J [ORNL; Brecke, Peter K [ORNL; Carmichael, Theodore D [ORNL; Eichelberger, Christopher N [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL; Hadzikadic, Mirsad [ORNL; Jiao, Yu [ORNL; Khouja, Moutaz J [ORNL; McLean, Angus L [ORNL; Middleton, Erin J [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Saric, Amar [University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Sun, Min [University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Whitmeyer, Joseph M [ORNL; Gilman, Paul [ORNL; O' Maonaigh, Heather C [ORNL

    2008-05-01

    The foundation of the Actionable Capability for Social and Economic Systems (ACSES) project is a useful regional-scale social-simulation system. This report is organized into five chapters that describe insights that were gained concerning the five key feasibility questions pertaining to such a system: (1) Should such a simulation system exist, would the current state of data sets or collectible data sets be adequate to support such a system? (2) By comparing different agent-based simulation systems, is it feasible to compare simulation systems and select one appropriate for a given application with agents behaving according to modern social theory rather than ad hoc rule sets? (3) Provided that a selected simulation system for a region of interest could be constructed, can the simulation system be updated with new and changing conditions so that the universe of potential outcomes are constrained by events on the ground as they evolve? (4) As these results are constrained by evolving events on the ground, is it feasible to still generate surprise and emerging behavior to suggest outcomes from novel courses of action? (5) As these systems may for the first time require large numbers (hundreds of millions) of agents operating with complexities demanded of modern social theories, can results still be generated within actionable decision cycles?

  14. Assessment of the impact of the social reproduction process on economic development of the region (case study of the Sverdlovsk Oblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Aleksandrovich Tatarkin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available When a human person is perceived not only as a key factor in social development, but also as its objective, there appears the understanding that the qualitative shifts in the reproductive process, most valuable for the society, occurs not in the material sphere, but in the sphere associated with the development of a person and satisfaction of his/her needs. This fundamental postulate helps to prioritize the goals of economic development. Economic growth without social reproduction defeats the purpose of economic development, as economic growth, which does not enhance the level and quality of life, contradicts its primary purpose. Financing of social reproduction of the population is not forced diversion of financial resources from the production process, but social investment that improves the quality of life and attracts skilled workforce to the region. The rise in salary of the economically active population has a positive effect on the formation of a profitable part of the budget, which is a prerequisite for its economic and social development on a more innovative base. It is of fundamental importance to identify the optimal ratio of financial resources allocated to social and production spheres. Social development in the Russian Federation is partly caused by the inability to assess financial implications of the increasing social sector. This occurs, in particular, due to the difficulty to measure socio-economic efficiency of investments. The impact on all sectors of production and social spheres is taken into account. The social sphere is embedded in the economic system of the country. Its development, like the development of any other manufacturing industry, directly affects the economy of the country and its regions. The methodology of the system of national accounts (SNA provides an opportunity for a comprehensive assessment of the impact of social budget expenditures on the regional economy. On the basis of SNA tools the financial

  15. Trawsfynydd NPS: the economic and social impact of closure without replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns a study of the economic and social effects of the closure of Trawsfynydd Nuclear Power Station without replacement, carried out by the University College of North Wales. Performance of Trawsfynydd, unemployment and demand for replacement, are all discussed. (UK)

  16. Effects of Social, Economic, and Labor Policies on Occupational Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo; Gaydos, Megan; Monforton, Celeste; Slatin, Craig; Borkowski, Liz; Dooley, Peter; Liebman, Amy; Rosenberg, Erica; Shor, Glenn; Keifer, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Background This article introduces some key labor, economic, and social policies that historically and currently impact occupational health disparities in the United States. Methods We conducted a broad review of the peer-reviewed and gray literature on the effects of social, economic, and labor policies on occupational health disparities. Results Many populations such as tipped workers, public employees, immigrant workers, and misclassified workers are not protected by current laws and policies, including worker’s compensation or Occupational Safety and Health Administration enforcement of standards. Local and state initiatives, such as living wage laws and community benefit agreements, as well as multiagency law enforcement contribute to reducing occupational health disparities. Conclusions There is a need to build coalitions and collaborations to command the resources necessary to identify, and then reduce and eliminate occupational disparities by establishing healthy, safe, and just work for all. PMID:23606055

  17. Influence of social support on health among gender and socio-economic groups of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, A; van Dijk, JP; Stewart, R; Groothoff, JW; Post, D

    Background: The influence of social support on health was explored among gender and socio-economic groups with the aim of contributing to the explanation of socio-economic health differences among Slovak adolescents. Methods: The sample consisted of 2616 Slovak adolescents (52.4% male, 47.6% female,

  18. The Impact of Depression on Social Economic Decision Making [correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlé, K.M.; Allen, J.J.B.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Reports an error in "The impact of depression on social economic decision making" by Katia M. Harlé, John J. B. Allen and Alan G. Sanfey (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2010[May], Vol 119[2], 440-446). In the article, the last revision received date printed on the final page of the article was

  19. Quantitative assessment of social and economic impact of African swine fever outbreaks in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenais, Erika; Boqvist, Sofia; Emanuelson, Ulf; von Brömssen, Claudia; Ouma, Emily; Aliro, Tonny; Masembe, Charles; Ståhl, Karl; Sternberg-Lewerin, Susanna

    2017-09-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important pig diseases, causing high case fatality rate and trade restrictions upon reported outbreaks. In Uganda, a low-income country with the largest pig population in East Africa, ASF is endemic. Animal disease impact is multidimensional and include social and economic impact along the value chain. In low-income settings, this impact keep people poor and push those that have managed to escape poverty back again. If the diseases can be controlled, their negative consequences can be mitigated. However, to successfully argue for investment in disease control, its cost-benefits need to be demonstrated. One part in the cost-benefit equations is disease impact quantification. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the socio-economic impact of ASF outbreaks at household level in northern Uganda. In a longitudinal study, structured interviews with two hundred, randomly selected, pig-keeping households were undertaken three times with a six month interval. Questions related to family and pig herd demographics, pig trade and pig business. Associations between ASF outbreaks and economic and social impact variables were evaluated using linear regression models. The study showed that pigs were kept in extreme low-input-low-output farming systems involving only small monetary investments. Yearly incidence of ASF on household level was 19%. Increasing herd size was positively associated with higher economic output. The interaction between ASF outbreaks and the herd size showed that ASF outbreaks were negatively associated with economic output at the second interview occasion and with one out of two economic impact variables at the third interview occasion. No significant associations between the social impact variables included in the study and ASF outbreaks could be established. Trade and consumption of sick and dead pigs were coping strategies used to minimize losses of capital and animal protein. The results

  20. The Economics of Human Development and Social Mobility *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J.; Mosso, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    This paper distills and extends recent research on the economics of human development and social mobility. It summarizes the evidence from diverse literatures on the importance of early life conditions in shaping multiple life skills and the evidence on critical and sensitive investment periods for shaping different skills. It presents economic models that rationalize the evidence and unify the treatment effect and family influence literatures. The evidence on the empirical and policy importance of credit constraints in forming skills is examined. There is little support for the claim that untargeted income transfer policies to poor families significantly boost child outcomes. Mentoring, parenting, and attachment are essential features of successful families and interventions to shape skills at all stages of childhood. The next wave of family studies will better capture the active role of the emerging autonomous child in learning and responding to the actions of parents, mentors and teachers. PMID:25346785

  1. GENDER FACTORS OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF A COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kochkina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the impact of gender asymmetry on the socio-economic development of the country. Authors detected factors that determine with high level of the probability social development of the society. Econometric relationship between the level of GDP per capita in comparative prices and the socio-cultural and gender factors are developed and estimated. The analysis showed that the level of individualism, indulgence, economic participation, and political empowerment of women in the society have direct linear correlation with GDP per capita. Power distance has opposite inverse correlation with the level of GDP. Application of regression analysis gave the possibility to divide all countries into 9 clusters with similar features. Two-dimensional matrix included GDP per capita and coefficient of implementation of a country gender and sociocultural potential. The recommendations for stimulating economic growth by smoothing gender gaps are proposed.

  2. Social and Economic Consequences of the 1987 Earthquakes in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Albornoz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El 5 de marzo de 1987, dos terremotos de 6,1 y 6,9 grados en la escala Richter sacudieron en noreste del Ecuador. Si bien el país había vivido terremotos más fuertes, el de 1987 representa uno de los que más golpearon su economía. Para entender la gravedad de las consecuencias económicas y sociales que este fenómeno natural tuvo, es necesario revisar la realidad ecuatoriana previa al desastre. En particular tres factores habrían hecho más vulnerable al país frente a los terremotos de ese año: condiciones climáticas desfavorables, infraestructura vulnerable y malas políticas económicas. El resultado de esta vulnerabilidad fue que un terremoto causó una crisis económica que duró alrededor de cinco años. Abstract On March 5, 1987, northeastern Ecuador was shaken by two earthquakes, which registered 6.1 and 6.9 degrees, respectively, on the Richter scale. Even though the country had experienced stronger earthquakes, the ones that occurred in 1987 hit the economy harder than most. In order to understand how serious the economic and social consequences of this natural disaster were, it is necessary to examine Ecuador’s reality prior to these events. Three factors in particular made the country more susceptible to repercussions from the 1987 earthquakes: unfavorable climatic conditions, vulnerable infrastructure and ill-conceived economic policies. This meant that the earthquakes gave rise to an economic crisis that lasted approximately five years.

  3. The Obstacles to Social-Economic Change in Post-Communist Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAGY EGON

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the macroeconomic phase which characterizes present-day Romania, 15 years after the regime- change, embedded into that regional context which Romania is part of. The regional importance of this paper is that Romania is the biggest state of the southeastern region as far as territory and population are concerned. For this reason the country’s economic development cannot be indifferent to the neighbouring states, as it can have positive or negative social effects on them. The Romanian society was passing through a slowly and difficult process of democratization and economic liberalization during the nineties and the turn of the millenium, which was a similar way to the other post-socialist East European countries. The NATO membership of Romania and the imminent EU membership in 2007 are important stimuli to make further progresses on the way to functional capitalism and welfare. As an express of the efficient economy policy at the end of the social-democratic administration the economical growth of Romania rose to the incredible rate of 8.1%, while the budget deficit was only 1.3%. In the autumn of 2004 was elected a right, liberal coalition-government, which began his activity with a radical fiscal reform introducing a unique rate of taxes (16%. In this circumstances the possibility of the avalanche of the FDIs is a real expectance, but Romania still have to fulfill some other requirements, such as the reducing of the almost generalized corruption and to maintain the balance of the budget according to the agreement with the IMF, in order to became a major economic competitor of the Central-Eastern European region.

  4. Social and economic influences on human behavioural response in an emerging epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, P.; Wiwatanapataphee, B.; Wu, Y. H.

    2017-10-01

    The human behavioural changes have been recognized as an important key in shaping the disease spreading and determining the success of control measures in the course of epidemic outbreaks. However, apart from cost-benefit considerations, in reality, people are heterogeneous in their preferences towards adopting certain protective actions to reduce their risk of infection, and social norms have a function in individuals’ decision making. Here, we studied the interplay between the epidemic dynamics, imitation dynamics and the heterogeneity of individual protective behavioural response under the considerations of both economic and social factors, with a simple mathematical compartmental model and multi-population game dynamical replicator equations. We assume that susceptibles in different subpopulations have different preferences in adopting either normal or altered behaviour. By incorporating both intra- and inter-group social pressure, the outcome of the strategy distribution depends on the initial proportion of susceptible with normal and altered strategies in both subpopulations. The increase of additional cost to susceptible with altered behaviour will discourage people to take up protective actions and hence results in higher epidemic final size. For a specific cost of altered behaviour, the social group pressure could be a “double edge sword”, though. We conclude that the interplays between individual protective behaviour adoption, imitation and epidemic dynamics are necessarily complex if both economic and social factors act on populations with existing preferences.

  5. Improvement vnutrifirmennogo planning social - an economic development of the building company

    OpenAIRE

    Idrisova, S.; Emirbekova, D.

    2009-01-01

    They Are Offered efficient ways of the decision of the main problems of the development внутрифирменного planning social-economic development of the building company in changing, underdetermined condition market.

  6. Migrants' capacity as actors of development : do skills matter for economic and social remittances?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturge, Georgina; Bilgili, Özge; Siegel, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Highly skilled migrants are presumably in a better position than less skilled ones to contribute to development in their countries of origin, largely by way of economic and social remittances. In this article, we use unique data on first-generation migrants in the Netherlands to test how economic

  7. The potential contributions of geographic information science to the study of social determinants of health in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei-Dastjerdi, Hamidreza; Matthews, Stephen A

    2018-01-01

    Recent interest in the social determinants of health (SDOH) and the effects of neighborhood contexts on individual health and well-being has grown exponentially. In this brief communication, we describe recent developments in both analytical perspectives and methods that have opened up new opportunities for researchers interested in exploring neighborhoods and health research within a SDOH framework. We focus specifically on recent advances in geographic information science, statistical methods, and spatial analytical tools. We close with a discussion of how these recent developments have the potential to enhance SDOH research in Iran.

  8. Areva. 2007 figures economic, social, societal and environmental data; Areva. Chiffres 2007 donnees economiques, sociales, societales et environnementales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document presents the 2007 economic, social, societal and environmental data of the Areva Group. Content: 1 - Improvement initiative: Continuous improvement, Innovation; 2 - Financial performance: 2007 results; 3 - Commitment to employees: Stakeholder relations, Health and safety, Radiation protection, Radiological impacts, Technological risks, Workforce, Workforce and training; 4 - Environment: Water, Energy, Gaseous releases, Liquid releases, Conventional waste, Radioactive waste; 5 - Reporting and performance indicators: Reporting methodology, Auditors' report, Social indicators, Environmental indicators.

  9. A Neural Marker for Social Bias Toward In-group Accents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Belin, Pascal; Ladd, D Robert

    2015-10-01

    Accents provide information about the speaker's geographical, socio-economic, and ethnic background. Research in applied psychology and sociolinguistics suggests that we generally prefer our own accent to other varieties of our native language and attribute more positive traits to it. Despite the widespread influence of accents on social interactions, educational and work settings the neural underpinnings of this social bias toward our own accent and, what may drive this bias, are unexplored. We measured brain activity while participants from two different geographical backgrounds listened passively to 3 English accent types embedded in an adaptation design. Cerebral activity in several regions, including bilateral amygdalae, revealed a significant interaction between the participants' own accent and the accent they listened to: while repetition of own accents elicited an enhanced neural response, repetition of the other group's accent resulted in reduced responses classically associated with adaptation. Our findings suggest that increased social relevance of, or greater emotional sensitivity to in-group accents, may underlie the own-accent bias. Our results provide a neural marker for the bias associated with accents, and show, for the first time, that the neural response to speech is partly shaped by the geographical background of the listener. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Parameter estimation and statistical test of geographically weighted bivariate Poisson inverse Gaussian regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, Junita; Purhadi, Otok, Bambang Widjanarko

    2017-11-01

    Poisson distribution is a discrete distribution with count data as the random variables and it has one parameter defines both mean and variance. Poisson regression assumes mean and variance should be same (equidispersion). Nonetheless, some case of the count data unsatisfied this assumption because variance exceeds mean (over-dispersion). The ignorance of over-dispersion causes underestimates in standard error. Furthermore, it causes incorrect decision in the statistical test. Previously, paired count data has a correlation and it has bivariate Poisson distribution. If there is over-dispersion, modeling paired count data is not sufficient with simple bivariate Poisson regression. Bivariate Poisson Inverse Gaussian Regression (BPIGR) model is mix Poisson regression for modeling paired count data within over-dispersion. BPIGR model produces a global model for all locations. In another hand, each location has different geographic conditions, social, cultural and economic so that Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is needed. The weighting function of each location in GWR generates a different local model. Geographically Weighted Bivariate Poisson Inverse Gaussian Regression (GWBPIGR) model is used to solve over-dispersion and to generate local models. Parameter estimation of GWBPIGR model obtained by Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method. Meanwhile, hypothesis testing of GWBPIGR model acquired by Maximum Likelihood Ratio Test (MLRT) method.

  11. OECD, EEC and French Economic and Social Council documents on the energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Documents on the energy policy until 1985, prepared by the OECD, the EEC and the French Economic and Social Council, are presented. They include: the main conclusions and a summary of the 1974 report by the General Secretary of the OECD on the energy prospects up to 1985; the communication presented by the Commission to the EEC Council on June 5th 1974 concerning the new strategy of energy management for the Community (the resolution on the aims for 1985 and the means necessary for their attainment were proposed and accepted on December 17th 1974); the medium- and long-term energy problems in France presented by the French Economic and Social Council in July 1974 [fr

  12. Better access to microcredits: does geographical proximity matter?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alimukhamedova, Nargiza

    -, 2013/2014 Winter (2014), s. 24-25 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : microcredits * geographical proximity Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.e-mfp.eu/sites/ default /files/resources/2014/02/e-MFP_Winter2013-2014_Newsletter%20.pdf

  13. The GeoGraph 3D Computational Laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dibble, Catherine; Feldman, Philip G

    2003-01-01

    .... Even recent progress in social network modeling has not yet offered us any capability to model dynamic processes among mobile agents who interact at all scales on small-world and scale-free geographic networks...

  14. Integrating social justice concerns into economic evaluation for healthcare and public health: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhanin, Vadim; Searle, Alexandra; Zwerling, Alice; Dowdy, David W; Taylor, Holly A; Merritt, Maria W

    2018-02-01

    Social justice is the moral imperative to avoid and remediate unfair distributions of societal disadvantage. In priority setting in healthcare and public health, social justice reaches beyond fairness in the distribution of health outcomes and economic impacts to encompass fairness in the distribution of policy impacts upon other dimensions of well-being. There is an emerging awareness of the need for economic evaluation to integrate all such concerns. We performed a systematic review (1) to describe methodological solutions suitable for integrating social justice concerns into economic evaluation, and (2) to describe the challenges that those solutions face. To be included, publications must have captured fairness considerations that (a) involve cross-dimensional subjective personal life experience and (b) can be manifested at the level of subpopulations. We identified relevant publications using an electronic search in EMBASE, PubMed, EconLit, PsycInfo, Philosopher's Index, and Scopus, including publications available in English in the past 20 years. Two reviewers independently appraised candidate publications, extracted data, and synthesized findings in narrative form. Out of 2388 publications reviewed, 26 were included. Solutions sought either to incorporate relevant fairness considerations directly into economic evaluation or to report them alongside cost-effectiveness measures. The majority of reviewed solutions, if adapted to integrate social justice concerns, would require their explicit quantification. Four broad challenges related to the implementation of these solutions were identified: clarifying the normative basis; measuring and determining the relative importance of criteria representing that basis; combining the criteria; and evaluating trade-offs. All included solutions must grapple with an inherent tension: they must either face the normative and operational challenges of quantifying social justice concerns or accede to offering incomplete policy

  15. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... disadvantage? 26.67 Section 26.67 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... presumption of disadvantage. (1) If the statement of personal net worth that an individual submits under...

  16. Modelling efficient innovative work: integration of economic and social psychological approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babanova Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the relevance of integration of economic and social psychological approaches to the solution of enhancing the efficiency of innovation management. The content, features and specifics of the modelling methods within each of approaches are unfolded and options of integration are considered. The economic approach lies in the generation of the integrated matrix concept of management of innovative development of an enterprise in line with the stages of innovative work and the use of the integrated vector method for the evaluation of the innovative enterprise development level. The social psychological approach lies in the development of a system of psychodiagnostic indexes of activity resources within the scope of psychological innovative audit of enterprise management and development of modelling methods for the balance of activity trends. Modelling the activity resources is based on the system of equations accounting for the interaction type of psychodiagnostic indexes. Integration of two approaches includes a methodological level, a level of empirical studies and modelling methods. There are suggested options of integrating the economic and psychological approaches to analyze available material and non-material resources of the enterprises’ innovative work and to forecast an optimal option of development based on the implemented modelling methods.

  17. Economic and Social Political Ideology and Homophobia: The Mediating Role of Binding and Individualizing Moral Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Öz, Haluk C M; Marsden, Arthur D

    2018-05-01

    Previous research has linked conservative political ideology with homophobia. Political ideology has also been linked to differences in moral decision-making, with research suggesting that conservatives and liberals may use different values in their moral decision-making processes. Moral foundations theory is a model of moral decision-making that proposes that individuals emphasize different domains in moral decision-making. Conservatives tend to emphasize binding foundations, while liberals tend to emphasize individualizing foundations. Utilizing large, ethnically diverse college samples, the purpose of these two cross-sectional studies (Study 1 N = 492; Study 2 N = 861) was to explore whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and homophobia. These studies explored economic and social political ideology separately and utilized a two-factor model of moral foundations theory (individualizing and binding foundations). Results of both studies found that conservative economic and social political ideology was positively associated with homophobia. Study 1 found that both conservative economic and social political ideology had an indirect effect on homophobia through binding foundations. Study 2 found that both economic and social political ideology had an indirect effect on homophobia through both binding and individualizing foundations. Overall, the results were consistent with the notion that moral foundations may explain the relationship between political ideology and homophobia.

  18. A participatory systems approach to modeling social, economic, and ecological components of bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Thomas S.; Volk, Timothy A.; Luzadis, Valerie A.

    2007-01-01

    Availability of and access to useful energy is a crucial factor for maintaining and improving human well-being. Looming scarcities and increasing awareness of environmental, economic, and social impacts of conventional sources of non-renewable energy have focused attention on renewable energy sources, including biomass. The complex interactions of social, economic, and ecological factors among the bioenergy system components of feedstock supply, conversion technology, and energy allocation have been a major obstacle to the broader development of bioenergy systems. For widespread implementation of bioenergy to occur there is a need for an integrated approach to model the social, economic, and ecological interactions associated with bioenergy. Such models can serve as a planning and evaluation tool to help decide when, where, and how bioenergy systems can contribute to development. One approach to integrated modeling is by assessing the sustainability of a bioenergy system. The evolving nature of sustainability can be described by an adaptive systems approach using general systems principles. Discussing these principles reveals that participation of stakeholders in all components of a bioenergy system is a crucial factor for sustainability. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is an effective tool to implement this approach. This approach would enable decision-makers to evaluate bioenergy systems for sustainability in a participatory, transparent, timely, and informed manner

  19. Social-psychological parameters of the Semipalatinsk region economical rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basybekova, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper is noted that global entropy processes that being generated by nuclear explosions on the Semipalatinsk region are leading not only to an environment change and disease incidence increase but also resulting the disturbances of human behavior regulatory mechanisms, and it consciousness degradation. In population of Semipalatinsk region we have observed a high psychical depressions, changes of perception coordinates, thought, motivational sphere, reduction of will energy potential, increase of suicides and other deviations in the mental health. Interpersonal and social relationships have become non-adequate. Mentioned factors and problems together with a set of technical and environmental aspects are exerting on an economic systems efficiency and State Programmes realization. Economical rehabilitation of the region and the country in total without system approach is not realistic, in which human factor should take proper place

  20. Math and science illiteracy: Social and economic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Today`s highly competitive global economy is being driven by increasingly rapid technological development. This paper explores the problems of math and science illiteracy in the United States and the potential impact on our economic survival in this environment during the next century. Established educational methods that reward task performance, emphasize passive lecture, and fail to demonstrate relevance to real life are partly to blame. Social norms, stereotypes, and race and gender bias also have an impact. To address this crisis, we need to question the philosophy of an educational system that values task over concept. Many schools have already initiated programs at all grade levels to make math and science learning more relevant, stimulating, and fun. Teaching methods that integrate math and science learning with teamwork, social context, and other academic subjects promote the development of higher-order thinking skills and help students see math and science as necessary skills.

  1. Sustainability of processed foods supply chain: Social, economic and territorial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beber Caetano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a global market, food companies engaged in sustainable development must now integrate the economic and social component. However the tools to assess it are lacking. Several theoretical frameworks have been developed to define social sustainability and its implementation. The attributional approaches, pathways or capabilities methods have emerged, based on a functional unit of a good or service along the supply chain. This paper proposes a new method to assess social economic and territorial performances of a food chain as a whole on a Territory. It is divided into four components: (i dignity and well-being of workers, (ii contribution to local life, (iii fairness and integrity of business practices, and (iv creation of material and intangible wealth. 50 criteria are used according to international, national or sectoral references. This generic method applicable to any sector of processed food products aims to identify where are the areas of improvement to qualify the sector as socially sustainable. An application to the wine Beaujolais and Burgundy wine was performed from surveys of 35 production and trade operators in 2014. The results show that the sector is particularly effective for the promotion of the territory, local life participation, loyalty and integrity of business practices; some improvement is still possible for the welfare of workers and the creation of material wealth. This method can be coupled with the environmental performance determined by the life cycle analysis in order to assess the sustainability in its entirety.

  2. Social and economic aspects of radioactive waste disposal: considerations for institutional management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of nuclear waste disposal has always been recognized as one that is as much political as it is technical. This could explain why the National Academy of Science is just now showing interest in the social and economic aspects of nuclear waste disposal. It has just now issued a report called Social Aspects of Radioactive Waste Disposal: Considerations for Industrial Management. This article is a critical review of the content of this report

  3. Social Capital, Perceived Economic Affluence, and Smoking During Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutra, Kleio; Kritsotakis, George; Linardakis, Manolis; Ratsika, Nikoleta; Kokkevi, Anna; Philalithis, Anastas

    2017-01-28

    Smoking is among the health risk behaviors taken up by many adolescents with lifelong consequences and associations with multiple health risk behaviors. Smoking and smoking initiation in adolescence involves an interaction between micro-, meso-, and macro systems, including neighborhoods and the greater community. To examine the associations of individual social and economic capital with self-reported health, life satisfaction, and smoking behavior in adolescents. Using a multistage random sampling of junior high school students (16-18 years old) in Crete, Greece, 703 adolescents (90.2% 16 years old; 55.6% girls, participation rate 84.2%) completed an anonymous questionnaire based on HBSC study and the Youth Social Capital Scale (YSCS) during April-June 2008. Multiple logistic regression models were performed adjusted for potential confounders. Adolescents with high participation in their neighborhoods and communities (higher structural social capital) displayed lower odds for daily smoking; those feeling unsafe (lower cognitive social capital) were at greater odds of daily smoking. Adolescents with less friends and acquaintances had lower odds of having tried tobacco products. Smoking was not related to any economic capital variables (perceived affluence, paternal and maternal employment status). Adolescents with low/medium versus high total social capital were at higher odds for low life satisfaction and fair/bad versus excellent self-rated health. Conclusions/Importance: Social capital theory may provide a better understanding in identifying the social context that is protective or harmful to adolescents' smoking. Public health organizations at all levels need to incorporate social capital theory in their interventions.

  4. Social Capital, Tourism and Socio-Economic Transformation of Rural Society: Evidence from Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shakya, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Tourism has a wide range of impacts on the economy, the natural environment and the people living in a destination. In the context of poor, rural societies, many scholars have emphasized the positive impacts of tourism on local economic growth. Concern has been voiced, however, about the social and cultural impacts of tourism due to observed changes in local norms, values and behaviour. This paper proposes the concept of social capital to analyze the social and cultural effects of tourism in ...

  5. assessment of the economic and social implications of the avian flu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    2006-01-22

    Jan 22, 2006 ... KEYWORDS: Assessment, Economic, Social Implications, Avian Flu, Nigerian Poultry. INTRODUCTION. Avian flu is a highly infectious, contagious and zoonotic disease of man, poultry and other birds caused by the avian influenza type A virus, Emmanuel et.al. (2006). The avian influenza virus belongs to ...

  6. Evolutionary-Simulative Methodology in the Management of Social and Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konyavskiy V.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the main provisions of the evolutionary-simulative methodology (ESM which is a methodology of mathematical modeling of equilibrium random processes (CPR, widely used in the economy. It discusses the basic directions of use of ESM solutions for social problems and economic management systems.

  7. Sexual harassment on the job: psychological, social and economic repercussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, H L

    1984-09-01

    This article is an effort to shed new light on what has been commonly termed sexual harassment, to identify its forms and, most importantly, to explore its effect upon those who have been subjected to it. The author's hypothesis is that sexual harassment in the workplace is more a social phenomenon than a personal problem, and that it is the cause of lasting psychological, social and economic after-effects among its victims. Combatting sexual harassment is only part of the solution; we must look beyond its legal aspects to find ways of changing male-female occupational relationships, and we must provide support to victims of sexual harassment.

  8. Beyond the Washington Consensus: Promoting Economic Growth and Minimizing the Threat of Violence in Latin America through Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    pp. 247–274. Mankiw , N. Gregory, David Romer, and David N. Weil. “A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth.” The Quarterly Journal...WASHINGTON CONSENSUS: PROMOTING ECONOMIC GROWTH AND MINIMIZING THE THREAT OF VIOLENCE IN LATIN AMERICA THROUGH SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT by Eric J. Blomberg...Washington Consensus: Promoting Economic Growth and Minimizing the Threat of Violence in Latin America through Social Development 5. FUNDING NUMBERS

  9. La “Economía Social y Solidaria”: ¿mito o realidad?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Martínez Valle

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca abrir la discusión sobre el tema de la economía social y solidaria, precisar algunos equívocos y esbozar algunas de las limitaciones y potencialidades que tiene esta propuesta. Se analizan las contradicciones o dificultades presentes en el concepto para finalmente cuestionar algunos de los aspectos de su teoría: su utopismo, la heterogeneidad productiva que encierra, los distintos objetivos desde donde se piensa y hacia dónde se dirige esta otra economía, así como su relación con la economía mercantil y la pública. Finalmente se discute las dificultades que se desprenden de las experiencias concretas analizadas en los artículos presentados en el dossier anterior de esta revista (Íconos Nº 33. This article examines the social and solidary economy with a view to clarifying misunderstandings and outlining some of its limitations. The article begins by analysing the contradictions and difficulties included in the term “solidary economy” itself. Then it questions some of the elements presents in this theory: its utopianism, productive heterogeneity, the distinct perspectives from which it can be understood, and the ultimate economic objectives it seeks to attain, and the way in which the social and solidary economy relate to the mercantile and public economies. The article will revisit some of the obstacles that have emerged out of the concrete case studies examine in the articles included in the previous dossier of Iconos (No.33.

  10. Social class and policy preferences: implications for economic inequality and interclass relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Heather E

    2017-12-01

    Record-setting levels of income and wealth inequality are deepening social class divisions. The adoption of strong progressive redistributive policies is crucial to reducing class inequities, yet many barriers to doing so exist. This review examines class-based policy preferences, focusing on the effects of economic self-interest, system justification, and classist, racist, and sexist stereotypes on policy support. The impact of broader economic conditions is also considered. Collectively, this body of research makes clear that building stronger cross-class support for redistributive policies and programs will prove difficult without addressing both class-based power differences and beliefs that justify inequality. Reducing stereotypes and developing a shared sense of societal responsibility that cuts across class lines can help advance these goals. Social psychological research is vital to informing these efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors Influence on Geographic Distribution of Physicians in Selected Countries: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ashkan Nasiripour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most important inequalities of providing health services is misdistribution of human resources, especially physicians. Many factors contribute to the distribution of physicians in different regions. The present study was aimed to explore the effective factors in distributing physicians in different countries. Methods: This study is a systematic review, in which the data were gathered through literature review, online searches in multiple databases and relevant organizations’ websites. Later, the collected data were classified using content analysis method, and consequently, they were illustrated in comparative matrix. Results: The factors that influence the dispersion of the physicians are divided into 4 main groups. Firstly, Geographic and Demographic factors of the region such as, population, age, gender and climate. Secondly, Health factors of the region and the country such as, the number of hospitals, health centers and health indicators. Thirdly, Economic, Social and Political factors of the region such as, economic growth, culture and believes. And finally, the factors related to physicians' characteristics and motivation such as, age, gender and the compensation system. Conclusion: There are different reasons why physicians spread in different countries’ geographical regions. Regarding the unequal distribution of physicians in Iran, identifying these influential reasons and also the factors affecting the distribution of physicians, and the impact of each one of these, can lead to a fair and equal distribution of resources of the health sector.

  12. Investigation of factors influencing the formation of the middle class on the territory of regions of Capital socio-geographical area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Pereguda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article stated that to determine the specifics of a middle class it is necessary to apply economic and mathematical methods allowing one to display a certain proportion and sometimes qualitative patterns of distribution of different forms and types of settlement and problems that are investigated. The key components of each factor can be determined based on the analysis of factor analysis and the indicators playing a major role in shaping sets of factors can be shown based on a factor variance. The spatial organization of society in this research study has been noted to have a multi-level character, because it is going to cover the territory within the regions and the accommodation of diverse population on it will include spatial distribution of various types of economic activity and economic indicators. In this study, the special attention has been paid to economic poverty to determine the boundaries of the middle class, and conduction of more accurate inequality of economic indicators in the regions. The regional specifics of the Capital socio-geographical area has been conducted through socio-geographical approach aimed at disclosing the middle class. Based on statistical data systematization, the analysis has been conducted due to the matrix factorization of selected indicators intercorrelation. It has been noted that the study of the middle class from the standpoint of social geography as spatially conditioned phenomenon requires the formulation of methodological regulations, it defines procedures for research highlighting the main stages, and it studies the techniques and methods of forming the system of scientific research to further disclosure issues.

  13. Extensive geographical and social structure in the paternal lineages of Saudi Arabia revealed by analysis of 27 Y-STRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khubrani, Yahya M; Wetton, Jon H; Jobling, Mark A

    2018-03-01

    Saudi Arabia's indigenous population is organized into patrilineal descent groups, but to date, little has been done to characterize its population structure, in particular with respect to the male-specific region of the Y chromosome. We have used the 27-STR Yfiler ® Plus kit to generate haplotypes in 597 unrelated Saudi males, classified into five geographical regions (North, South, Central, East and West). Overall, Yfiler ® Plus provides a good discrimination capacity of 95.3%, but this is greatly reduced (74.7%) when considering the reduced Yfiler ® set of 17 Y-STRs, justifying the use of the expanded set of markers in this population. Comparison of the five geographical divisions reveals striking differences, with low diversity and similar haplotype spectra in the Central and Northern regions, and high diversity and similar haplotype spectra in the East and West. These patterns likely reflect the geographical isolation of the desert heartland of the peninsula, and the proximity to the sea of the Eastern and Western areas, and consequent historical immigration. We predicted haplogroups from Y-STR haplotypes, testing the performance of prediction by using a large independent set of Saudi Arabian Y-STR + Y-SNP data. Prediction indicated predominance (71%) of haplogroup J1, which was significantly more common in Central, Northern and Southern groups than in East and West, and formed a star-like expansion cluster in a median-joining network with an estimated age of ∼2800 years. Most of our 597 participants were sampled within Saudi Arabia itself, but ∼16% were sampled in the UK. Despite matching these two groups by home sub-region, we observed significant differences in haplotype and predicted haplogroup constitutions overall, and for most sub-regions individually. This suggests social structure influencing the probability of leaving Saudi Arabia, correlated with different Y-chromosome compositions. The UK-recruited sample is an inappropriate proxy for

  14. Gender Achievement and Social, Political and Economic Equality: A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, Gren

    2017-01-01

    Differences in gender equality based on social, political and economic factors is cited, by some writers, as a contributory factor in the differentially greater achievement of boys in STEM subjects through the concept of gender stratification. Gender differences, especially in mathematics, have been linked directly to gender parity in wider…

  15. The Development of Forms of Corporate Social Responsibility in Russia in the Current Economic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Arzumanova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the characteristic features of modern trends in the formation and implementation of corporate social responsibility in Russia in the current economic conditions, which is based on the fact that reasonable economic interests oriented business not only on maximizing profits, but also to improve their own macro - socio-economic, natural, political, through voluntary investment profits in the respective areas.

  16. The overlapping food and economic crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Radu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are looking at the cause-effect relationship between the economic, financial, demographic and food crises. Crises are interrelated and need to be viewed together, as the effects of one crisis are or may represent causes for another crisis. The current food crisis translates today in food price increases, in the level of health of the population that does not have enough resources for a balanced diet and in obesity problems of the young generation (Romania ranks third among European countries. All these issues with immediate and direct effects over the population in our country have generated our interest to conduct a rigorous and careful observation on the development of the phenomenon of food crisis. Food crisis, its causes and consequences – aging population, the migration of the active population to other countries (especially from the rural areas and the agglomeration of the disadvantaged population in certain geographical areas, can cause social and economic imbalances.

  17. Cognitive social capital and mental illness during economic crisis: a nationwide population-based study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Marina; Madianos, Michael; Peppou, Lily Evangelia; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Patelakis, Athanasios; Stefanis, Costas

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing financial crisis in Greece has yielded adverse effects on the mental health of the population. In this context, the particular study investigates the link between two indices of cognitive social capital; namely interpersonal and institutional trust, and the presence of major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. A random and representative sample of 2256 respondents took part in a cross-sectional nationwide telephone survey the time period February-April 2011 (Response Rate = 80.5%), after being recruited from the national phone number databank. Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview, while for interpersonal and institutional trust the pertinent questions of the European Social Survey were utilized. Socio-demographic variables were also encompassed in the research instrument, while participants' degree of financial strain was assessed through the Index of Personal Economic Distress. Both interpersonal and institutional trust were found to constitute protective factors against the presence of major depression, but not against generalized anxiety disorder for people experiencing low economic hardship. Nonetheless, in people experiencing high financial strain, interpersonal and institutional trust were not found to bear any association with the presence of the two disorders. Consistent with these, the present study shows that the effect of social capital on mental health is not uniform, as evident by the different pattern of results for the two disorders. Furthermore, cognitive social capital no longer exerts its protective influence on mental health if individuals experience high economic distress. As a corollary of this, interventions aiming at mitigating the mental health effects of economic downturns cannot rely solely on the enhancement of social capital, but also on alleviating economic burden. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Socialização econômica: conhecendo o mundo econômico das crianças Economic Socialization: knowing the children's economic world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iani Dias Lauer-Leite

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O aprendizado de conceitos econômicos e os comportamentos econômicos de crianças são objetos de estudo da Socialização Econômica, uma área que tem atraído a atenção de pesquisadores, tanto da Psicologia do Desenvolvimento quanto da Psicologia Econômica. Os estudos têm aumentado significativamente nos últimos anos em outros países, mas no Brasil poucas pesquisas têm sido desenvolvidas. Este artigo objetiva apresentar a socialização econômica como uma área de pesquisa promissora e em franco desenvolvimento, mediante a discussão de três questões fundamentais inerentes à área: 1 As fases de desenvolvimento do pensamento econômico, 2 Variáveis que interferem na socialização econômica e 3 Comportamentos econômicos de crianças. No decorrer do artigo são evidenciados os principais resultados que pretendem responder às questões citadas e são mencionadas as lacunas a preencher, como possibilidades de pesquisas a realizar. Finaliza-se com sugestões para uma agenda brasileira de pesquisas.The child's learning of economic concepts and economic' behaviors are subjects of economic socialization. The research in this area is increasing in the recent years but in Brazil there are a few studies only. This article aims to introduce economic socialization as a promising research area, through discussion of three questions: 1 stages of economic reasoning development, 2 variables that interfere in economic socialization and 3 children's economic behaviors. The article shows the most important results that try to answer those questions, points out some lacks to filled in and future investigations. Finally suggestions are presented for a Brazilian research agenda.

  19. Impacts of nuclear and hydroelectric great projects: economical, technological, environmental and social aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.; Sigaud, L.; Mielnik, O.

    1988-01-01

    Some studies about the Great Impacts of Energy Sources, mainly nuclear power plant and hydroelectric power plant, in Brazil are presented. The technological, economical, social and environmental aspects are described [pt

  20. Mechanisms Fostering Social Entrepreneurship as Potential Instruments for Economic Development: The Eastern Partnership Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotnieks Dāvis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With its plan to assign 600 million euros through the European Neighbourhood Instrument for Eastern Partnership countries, the European Union intended to increase the efficiency of institutions, attenuate social problems, and create an environment that fosters economic growth and human well-being in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine. A few scholars have criticized the amount of funding and planned initiatives of the European Neighbourhood Instrument as insufficient and suggested that in order to foster cooperation and support reforms in its Eastern Partnership countries, more action should be taken. In times when European Commission budget is under constraints of consolidation and increase of aid for supporting European Neighbourhood countries is hardly possible, alternative solutions for tempering social problems need to be assessed. Various scientists, philanthropists and entrepreneurs see social entrepreneurship as a tool for solving social problems in a sustainable way where business thinking is being combined with non-profit philosophy. Contrary to government support and intervention for solving social problems, social entrepreneurship is already being used as tool that initially addresses joint needs--solve social problems and create revenue that provides much needed income for sustainable business initiatives. This paper analyzes the concept of social entrepreneurship, examples where social entrepreneurship is solving social problems, and mechanisms that can foster these phenomena. The aim of this paper is to examine different mechanisms of how governments can foster the creation and development of social entrepreneurship. Unique survey data derived from a project examining social entrepreneurship in Europe is used. It is concluded that by adopting mechanisms proven in various developed countries, the Eastern Partnership countries can stimulate social entrepreneurship, thus attenuating social problems and

  1. The Impact of Child Care Subsidies on Child Well-Being: Evidence from Geographic Variation in the Distance to Social Service Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, child care subsidies have become an integral part of federal and state efforts to move economically disadvantaged parents from welfare to work. Although previous empirical studies consistently show that these employment-related subsidies raise work levels among this group, little is known about the impact of subsidy receipt on child well-being. In this paper, we identify the causal effect of child care subsidies on child development by exploiting geographic variation in the d...

  2. Game Theory: The Nash Equilibrium Point Identification In Bi-Matrix Games Of Economic And Social Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Kreuzberg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently companies have to think about its management system to meet not only their economic interests but also their social interests aiming at the activities’ sustainability and longevity. In this research, the goal is to identify the Nash equilibrium point in the bi-matrix game of economic and social indicators of the companies of Public Utilities sector listed on the BM & FBovespa. The research was conducted with a sample of 26 companies. To evaluate the economic performance it was used the profitability and market indicators; for evaluating the social performance, it was used the indicators derived from the VAD (Value Added Statement. In the estimation of earnings among indicators, it was used the standard parameters of the multiple linear regression. The obtained results highlighted the existence of at least one point of equilibrium for the years analyzed and, especially in the models, two points of equilibrium were proposed for 2009 and 2011 and three for 2010. It is noteworthy that, in the proposed model it was confirmed the hypothesis of the existence of at least one point of equilibrium. Thus, it was possible to meet the research objective, namely, that it is possible to meet both economic aspects and the social aspects of the companies when the indicators are taken as basic information.

  3. POLITICAL OPTIONS AND ECONOMIC PROSPECTS WITHIN THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Sandu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent changes in the security environment of Eastern Europe and the South Caucasus have been reshaping the strategies of the six small countries in the proximity of both the EU and Russia. Their attempts to take upon themselves their Soviet heritage and their sensitive geographical position were reflected by a mix of East-West orientations. Some of them chose to create stronger economic bonds with the EU members while others decided to anticipate Russian discontent in separatist areas they shelter and became members of the EEU. Regardless of their option, the Eastern Partnership members embarked? on a long road of political, social and economic changes, so that their stability and growth would become pillars of a stronger role on the regional and international arena in the future. The EU, in turn, has been supporting its partners to the East according to their level of commitment to reform and approximation, although the economic benefits of this relation are imperceptible.

  4. Female economic dependence and the morality of promiscuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Michael E; Pound, Nicholas; Scott, Isabel M

    2014-10-01

    In environments in which female economic dependence on a male mate is higher, male parental investment is more essential. In such environments, therefore, both sexes should value paternity certainty more and thus object more to promiscuity (because promiscuity undermines paternity certainty). We tested this theory of anti-promiscuity morality in two studies (N = 656 and N = 4,626) using U.S. samples. In both, we examined whether opposition to promiscuity was higher among people who perceived greater female economic dependence in their social network. In Study 2, we also tested whether economic indicators of female economic dependence (e.g., female income, welfare availability) predicted anti-promiscuity morality at the state level. Results from both studies supported the proposed theory. At the individual level, perceived female economic dependence explained significant variance in anti-promiscuity morality, even after controlling for variance explained by age, sex, religiosity, political conservatism, and the anti-promiscuity views of geographical neighbors. At the state level, median female income was strongly negatively related to anti-promiscuity morality and this relationship was fully mediated by perceived female economic dependence. These results were consistent with the view that anti-promiscuity beliefs may function to promote paternity certainty in circumstances where male parental investment is particularly important.

  5. Social disparities in dietary habits among women: Geographic Research on Wellbeing (GROW) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, May; Heck, Katherine; Winkleby, Marilyn; Cubbin, Catherine

    2016-06-01

    Relationships among race/ethnicity, individual socio-economic status (SES), neighbourhood SES and acculturation are complex. We sought to answer whether: (i) race/ethnicity, individual SES and neighbourhood SES have independent effects on women's fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC); (ii) SES modifies the effects of race/ethnicity on FVC; and (iii) nativity modifies the effect of Latina ethnicity on FVC. Cross-sectional surveys from the population-based Geographic Research on Wellbeing (GROW) Study were linked with census-tract level data. FVC was indicated by (i) consuming fruits and vegetables less often than daily (LOWFV) and (ii) not having fruits and vegetables in the home very often. Other variables included age, marital status, race/ethnicity, country of birth, educational attainment, family income and longitudinal neighbourhood poverty (based on latent class growth models). Weighted logistic regression models accounting for the complex sample design were constructed. California, USA, 2012-2013. Women (n 2669). In adjusted models, race/ethnicity, education and income were independently associated with FVC, but not neighbourhood poverty. Women of colour, high-school graduates and women with incomes at 301-400 % of the federal poverty level were at higher odds of LOWFV compared with non-Hispanic Whites, college graduates and those with incomes >400 % of the federal poverty level. Little evidence for interactions between race/ethnicity and individual or neighbourhood SES was found; similar patterns were observed for immigrant and US-born Latinas. Addressing the dietary needs of lower-SES communities requires multilevel interventions that simultaneously provide culturally tailored nutrition education and address the physical and economic accessibility of culturally acceptable fruits and vegetables.

  6. Herding, social influence and economic decision-making: socio-psychological and neuroscientific analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Michelle

    2010-01-27

    Typically, modern economics has steered away from the analysis of sociological and psychological factors and has focused on narrow behavioural assumptions in which expectations are formed on the basis of mathematical algorithms. Blending together ideas from the social and behavioural sciences, this paper argues that the behavioural approach adopted in most economic analysis, in its neglect of sociological and psychological forces and its simplistically dichotomous categorization of behaviour as either rational or not rational, is too narrow and stark. Behaviour may reflect an interaction of cognitive and emotional factors and this can be captured more effectively using an approach that focuses on the interplay of different decision-making systems. In understanding the mechanisms affecting economic and financial decision-making, an interdisciplinary approach is needed which incorporates ideas from a range of disciplines including sociology, economic psychology, evolutionary biology and neuroeconomics.

  7. How community-level social and economic developments have changed the patterns of substance use in a transition economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhao Y

    2017-07-01

    Most social changes take place at the community level before indirectly affecting individuals. Although the contextual effect is far-reaching, few studies have investigated the important questions of: how do community-level developments affect drinking and smoking, and how do they change the existing gender and income patterns of drinking and smoking, particularly in transition economies? In this study, I used a Chinese panel dataset between 1991 and 2011 to reveal the moderating effects of community developments. Through multilevel growth curve modeling that controls for age, period, and cohort effects, as well as individual- and community-level covariates, I found that community-level economic development and social development are negatively associated with drinking and smoking. Moreover, economic and social developments also moderate the important influences of income and gender: women start to drink more in communities with higher economic development; the traditionally positive association between income and smoking/drinking is also reversed, i.e. the rich start to smoke and drink less in communities with higher social development. This study concludes that the rapid changes in communal social and economic structures have created new health disparities based on the gender and socioeconomic hierarchy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analyzing the non-stationary space relationship of a city's degree of vegetation and social economic conditions in Shanghai, China using OLS and GWR models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kejing; Zhang, Yuan; An, Youzhi; Jing, Zhuoxin; Wang, Chao

    2013-09-01

    With the fast urbanization process, how does the vegetation environment change in one of the most economically developed metropolis, Shanghai in East China? To answer this question, there is a pressing demand to explore the non-stationary relationship between socio-economic conditions and vegetation across Shanghai. In this study, environmental data on vegetation cover, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from MODIS imagery in 2003 were integrated with socio-economic data to reflect the city's vegetative conditions at the census block group level. To explore regional variations in the relationship of vegetation and socio-economic conditions, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models were applied to characterize mean NDVI against three independent socio-economic variables, an urban land use ratio, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and population density. The study results show that a considerable distinctive spatial variation exists in the relationship for each model. The GWR model has superior effects and higher precision than the OLS model at the census block group scale. So, it is more suitable to account for local effects and geographical variations. This study also indicates that unreasonable excessive urbanization, together with non-sustainable economic development, has a negative influence of vegetation vigor for some neighborhoods in Shanghai.

  9. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  10. Assessment of the economic and social implications of the avian flu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of the debut incursion of the avian influenza virus into Nigeria in January 2006, severe outbreaks occurred in a number of poultry farms leading to widespread fears and a lot of apprehension. The objectives of the study were to assess, document and highlight the economic and social implications of the disease ...

  11. Visualizing the Impacts of Movement Infrastructures on Social Inclusion: Graph-Based Methods for Observing Community Formations in Contrasting Geographic Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie O'Brien

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe some innovative methods for observing the possible impacts of roads, junctions and pathways (movement infrastructures, on community life in terms of their affordances and hindrances for social connectivity. In seeking to observe these impacts, we combined a range of visualization research methods, based on qualitative points-data mapping, graphic representation and urban morphological analysis at local and global geographic scales. Our overall aim in this study was to develop exploratory methods for combining and visualizing various kinds of data that relate to urban community formations in contrasting urban contexts. We focused our enquiry on the perspectives of adolescents in two urban contexts: Liverpool, UK, and Medellín, Colombia. While they contrast in their geo-political and cultural characteristics, these two cities each present polarized socio-economic inequalities across distinctive spatial patterns. We found that adolescents in these cities offer generally localized, pedestrian perspectives of their local areas, and unique insights into the opportunities and challenges for place-making in their local community spaces. We gathered the communities’ local perspectives through map-making workshops, in which participants used given iconographic symbols to select and weight the social and structural assets that they deemed to be significant features of their community spaces. We then sampled and visualized these selective points data to observe ways in which local community assets relate to infrastructural affordances for movement (in terms of network integration. This analysis was based on the theory and method of Space Syntax, which provides a model of affordances for movement across the urban network over various scales of network configuration. In particular, we sought to determine how city-scale movement infrastructures interact with local-scale infrastructures, and to develop methods for observing ways

  12. Economic, ecological, and social performance of conventional and organic broiler production in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokkers, E A M; de Boer, I J M

    2009-09-01

    1. In this study, we compared a conventional broiler production system keeping fast growing broilers with an organic broiler production system keeping slow growing broilers in the Netherlands, both managed by one person working a full time year (Full Time Equivalent, FTE). This comparison was based on a quantification of economic, ecological and social indicators. Indicators were quantified using scientific literature and national data sets. 2. The organic system performed better for the economic indicator net farm income per FTE than the conventional system. 3. Regarding ecological indicators, calculations showed a higher on-farm emission of ammonia per kg live weight for the organic system. Moreover, an organic system includes a higher risk for eutrophication per ha due to outdoor access. Emission of green house gasses, use of fossil fuels and use of land required for the production of one kg of live weight is higher for an organic than for a conventional system. This is mainly due to a lower feed conversion in organic production and use of organic feed. 4. The organic system performed better than the conventional system for the social indicators related to animal welfare time spent on walking, footpad lesions, mortality, and sound legs. Regarding the social indicator food safety was found that meat from an organic system contained less antibiotic residues and Salmonella contaminations but more Campylobacter contaminations than meat from a conventional system. 5. Changing from a conventional to an organic broiler production system, therefore, not only affects animal welfare, but also affects economic, ecological and other social issues. In this study, we ran into the situation that some information needed was lacking in literature and quantifications had to be based upon several sources. Therefore, an integrated on-farm assessment is needed, which can be used to develop a broiler production system that is economically profitable, ecologically sound, and

  13. Social, economic, and resource predictors of variability in household air pollution from cookstove emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam N Yadama

    Full Text Available We examine if social and economic factors, fuelwood availability, market and media access are associated with owning a modified stove and variation in household emissions from biomass combustion, a significant environmental and health concern in rural India. We analyze cross-sectional household socio-economic data, and PM(2.5 and particulate surface area concentration in household emissions from cookstoves (n=100. This data set combines household social and economic variables with particle emissions indexes associated with the household stove. The data are from the Foundation for Ecological Society, India, from a field study of household emissions. In our analysis, we find that less access to ready and free fuelwood and higher wealth are associated with owning a replacement/modified stove. We also find that additional kitchen ventilation is associated with a 12% reduction in particulate emissions concentration (p<0.05, after we account for the type of stove used. We did not find a significant association between replacement/modified stove on household emissions when controlling for additional ventilation. Higher wealth and education are associated with having additional ventilation. Social caste, market and media access did not have any effect on the presence of replacement or modified stoves or additional ventilation. While the data available to us does not allow an examination of direct health outcomes from emissions variations, adverse environmental and health impacts of toxic household emissions are well established elsewhere in the literature. The value of this study is in its further examination of the role of social and economic factors and available fuelwood from commons in type of stove use, and additional ventilation, and their effect on household emissions. These associations are important since the two direct routes to improving household air quality among the poor are stove type and better ventilation.

  14. Social and Economic Determinants of the Level of Support for Environmental Protection and Economic Growth in a Rural Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Steve H.; Schriner, Eldon C.

    Based on a secondary analysis of data from a statewide survey of North Dakota residents conducted during the spring of 1976, this study examined the differences in levels of support for environmental protection and economic growth via respondent characteristics, respondent characteristics within residence types, and occupational and social class…

  15. Vrednotne pasti gospodarske tranzicije v Sloveniji = Social and Values Traps of Economic Transition in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Kosec Zorko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition is very unpredictable because of several value changesamong macro-social alterations which are reflected in public opinionvariability, based on the increment of dissatisfaction with new employmentpolicies, relationship with capital(ists and occurrence of socialdiscrepancies. Because of lack of knowledge or interest in politicalparticipation people have mainly described transition as corruptionand political revenge; in public opinion, culprits for the new situationarose from corporate management and the political elite. Nevertheless,with political-economic changes and the era of transition, the cancer cells of socialism-planning macroeconomics are emphasized,as also other economic and value traps which society has never beenprepared for.

  16. The Economic Impact of Social Media on Small Businesses: Evidence from Three Mississippi Extension Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, James N.; Hood, Ken; Gallardo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    With many social media companies now in the marketplace, it behooves small businesses not to use these outlets to market their products, especially rural businesses. In this paper, we discuss some of the economic impacts of using online social networks and provide case study evidence from Mississippi.

  17. How Can Innovative Practices In HEIs Facilitate Sustainable Social And Economic Development ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psillaki, M.; Youssef, A.B.; Filippov, S.; Ravesteijn, W.; Zvereva, T.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The paper is focused on analyzing net-based practices in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) as a policy tool for instituting a sustainable social and economic development. The purpose of the study is to identify relationships between net-based HEIs and welfare perspective; to investigate the

  18. Racial Geography, Economic Growth and Natural Disaster Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huiping [University of North Carolina at Charlotte; Fernandez, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Ganguly, Auroop [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2014-03-01

    Recent development of National Response Plans and National Incident Management Plans has emphasized the need for interoperability of plans, systems, technology, and command structures. However, much less emphasis has been placed on equally important elements such as the at-risk populations’ response to those plans, systems, and directions. The community-wide consequences of Hurricane Katrina demonstrated that the protection of communities should no longer be considered only a function of public organizations. Private organizations, nonprofit organizations and individual households have significant roles to play in these plans (Comfort 2006, Salamon 2002). This study is a first attempt to characterize the effect on the resilience (recovery) of metropolitan areas by the presence (or absence) of separate small communities within a larger jurisdiction. These communities can be based on many different social cleavages (ethnic, racial, economic, social, geographic, linguistic, etc.).

  19. Hard times and European youth. The effect of economic insecurity on human values, social attitudes and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeskens, Tim; Vandecasteele, Leen

    2017-02-01

    While economic downturns have adverse effects on young people's life chances, empirical studies examining whether and to what extent human values, social attitudes and well-being indicators respond to sudden economic shocks are scarce. To assess the claim that human values are less affected by economic shocks than social attitudes and well-being, two distinct yet related studies based on the European Social Survey (ESS) are conducted. The first employs a fixed effects pseudo-panel analysis of the 2008-2014 ESS-waves to detect whether changes over time in the socio-demographic group's unemployment risk and national youth unemployment affect individual dispositions to varying degrees. The second study captures micro- and cross-national effects in the 2010 ESS cross-section. Unique for this set-up is that we can test whether the findings hold for over-time changes in youth unemployment within countries (pseudo-panel), as well as for cross-country differences in youth unemployment (multilevel). Both studies indicate that political trust, satisfaction with the economy and subjective well-being are lowered by economic risk and hardship, while social trust and self-rated health are less affected by changes in youth unemployment. Secondly, human values are immune to economic risk, underscoring that values transcend specific situations and are therefore resistant against sudden economic shocks. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Union of Psychological Science.

  20. Rethinking Social Work in times of economic and financial crisis in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Irene Carvalho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to contextualize the social policy transformations in social services and health care system in the context of the economic and financial crisis and following intervention of the international monetary fund, the World Bank and the European Central Bank (Troika in Portugal, over the past four years. We analyze the social emergency program, which replaced the national plan for social inclusion, and the implementation of the national integrated network for long term care. Based on the evidence of the results we reflect on these transformations in Social Work, highlighting the negative aspects and the challenges for this profession. To achieve these aims we analyzed documents, statistical data and research on this subject. In this context of scarcity and emergency interventions, Social Work is challenged to rethink itself as a sociopolitical profession, taking into account the temporality of the intervention, the allocation of resources and the training of professionals.