WorldWideScience

Sample records for geographic region weather

  1. Geographically varying effects of weather on tobacco consumption: implications for health marketing initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, Rahul; Garg, Nitika; Sun, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Weather and its fluctuations have been found to influence the consumption of negative hedonic goods. However, such findings are of limited use to health marketers who cannot control the weather, and hence, its effects. The current research utilizes data obtained at the zip-code level to study geographical variations in the effect of weather on tobacco consumption across the entire continental United States. The results allow health marketers to identify areas that will be most responsive to marketing efforts aimed at curtailing negative hedonic consumption and thus implement more effective, region-specific initiatives.

  2. Satellite Sounder Data Assimilation for Improving Alaska Region Weather Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Stevens, E.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Zhang, X.; Heinrichs, T.; Broderson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Data assimilation has been demonstrated very useful in improving both global and regional numerical weather prediction. Alaska has very coarser surface observation sites. On the other hand, it gets much more satellite overpass than lower 48 states. How to utilize satellite data to improve numerical prediction is one of hot topics among weather forecast community in Alaska. The Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) at University of Alaska is conducting study on satellite data assimilation for WRF model. AIRS/CRIS sounder profile data are used to assimilate the initial condition for the customized regional WRF model (GINA-WRF model). Normalized standard deviation, RMSE, and correlation statistic analysis methods are applied to analyze one case of 48 hours forecasts and one month of 24-hour forecasts in order to evaluate the improvement of regional numerical model from Data assimilation. The final goal of the research is to provide improved real-time short-time forecast for Alaska regions.

  3. Geometric algorithms for delineating geographic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinbacher, I.

    2006-01-01

    Everyone of us is used to geographical regions like the south of Utrecht, the dutch Randstad, or the mountainous areas of Austria. Some of these regions have crisp, fixed boundaries like Utrecht or Austria. Others, like the dutch Randstad and the Austrian mountains, have no such boundaries and are u

  4. Geometric algorithms for delineating geographic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinbacher, I.

    2006-01-01

    Everyone of us is used to geographical regions like the south of Utrecht, the dutch Randstad, or the mountainous areas of Austria. Some of these regions have crisp, fixed boundaries like Utrecht or Austria. Others, like the dutch Randstad and the Austrian mountains, have no such boundaries and are

  5. Problems in the geographic source of historical and geographical regional studies (for example, Dnipropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trocenko O.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Defined information potential source base of the territory of modern Dnipropetrovsk region, outlined the problems of using historical sources in historical and geographical studies at the regional level.

  6. Operational, regional-scale, chemical weather forecasting models in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kukkonen, J.; Balk, T.; Schultz, D.M.; Baklanov, A.; Klein, T.; Miranda, A.I.; Monteiro, A.; Hirtl, M.; Tarvainen, V.; Boy, M.; Peuch, V.H.; Poupkou, A.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Finardi, S.; Sofiev, M.; Sokhi, R.; Lehtinen, K.; Karatzas, K.; San José, R.; Astitha, M.; Kallos, G.; Schaap, M.; Reimer, E.; Jakobs, H.; Eben, K.

    2011-01-01

    Numerical models that combine weather forecasting and atmospheric chemistry are here referred to as chemical weather forecasting models. Eighteen operational chemical weather forecasting models on regional and continental scales in Europe are described and compared in this article. Topics discussed

  7. Weather impact forecasting using MOGREPS with socially- and geographically-derived vulnerability and exposure datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Joanne

    2010-05-01

    Hazardous weather has a major impact on health and safety and on the economy in the UK and other countries. This has renewed efforts within the Met Office to develop a system that can predict weather related impacts, extending the Office's ability to warn the public and business sectors of potential weather related hazards. Ultimately the prediction of both an impending weather hazard and its potential for impact will allow concise decision making to implement mitigation strategies. A diagnostic tool has been developed for the UK transport network, which focuses on quantifying the risk of specific vehicle types overturning in strong winds or being disrupted due to heavy snow. The impacts to those using the network are then quantified in terms of journey delay times and number of people affected. For this tool to be effective it requires vulnerability and exposure datasets to be combined with the probability of hazardous weather occurring. Probabilities are obtained from MOGREPS (Met Office Global and Regional Ensemble Prediction System), while vulnerability is a combined field which determines the varying structural and geographical attributes of each kilometre segment of motorway route. A segment's attributes influence the likelihood of that location having weather related impacts, and the severity of these impacts. The exposure field accounts for the changes in traffic flow by vehicle type, day of the week and time of the day, and increases risk of disruption if the route has high traffic flows while reducing the risk in low traffic flow areas. The model has been shown to be useful in the Met Office Operations Centre where it is used as a support tool for issuing weather warnings. However, verification of the output has been difficult due to the lack of severe wind gust events over the trial period and the difficulty in obtaining accurate impact verification information. The Highways Agency is now on board, both receiving the model's output in their Operations

  8. Probability Forecast of Regional Landslide Based on Numerical Weather Forecast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Kechang; WEI Fangqiang; CUI Peng; HU Kaiheng; XU Jing; ZHANG Guoping; BI Baogui

    2006-01-01

    The regional forecast of landslide is one of the key points of hazard mitigation. It is also a hot and difficult point in research field. To solve this problem has become urgent task along with Chinese economy fast development. This paper analyzes the principle of regional landslide forecast and the factors for forecasting. The method of a combination of Information Value Model and Extension Model has been put forward to be as the forecast model. Using new result of Numerical Weather Forecast Research and that combination model, we discuss the implementation feasibility of regional landslide forecast. Finally, with the help of Geographic Information System, an operation system for southwest of China landslide forecast has been developed. It can carry out regional landslide forecast daily and has been pilot run in NMC. Since this is the first time linking theoretical research with meteorological service, further works are needed to enhance it.

  9. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the islands of Samoa at...

  10. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the island of Guam at...

  11. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: CNMI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Commonwealth of the Northern...

  12. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Oahu

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 3.5-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Hawaiian island of Oahu at...

  13. Geographic heterogeneity in cycling under various weather conditions: Evidence from Greater Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbich, M.; Böcker, L.; Dijst, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    With its sustainability, health and accessibility benefits, cycling has nowadays been established on research and policy agendas. Notwithstanding the decision to cycle is closely related to local weather conditions and interwoven with the geographical context, research dealing with both aspects is s

  14. Geographic heterogeneity in cycling under various weather conditions: Evidence from Greater Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbich, M.; Böcker, L.; Dijst, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    With its sustainability, health and accessibility benefits, cycling has nowadays been established on research and policy agendas. Notwithstanding the decision to cycle is closely related to local weather conditions and interwoven with the geographical context, research dealing with both aspects is s

  15. Delineation of eco—geographic regional system of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUShaohong; YANGOinye; ZHENGDu

    2003-01-01

    Eco-geographic regionalization has been one of the most important topics in China's regionalization researches since the end of the 20th century. It is a major ecosystem in geographic zonality. A hierarchical system, which is formed by division or combination of natural features based on geographic relativity and comparison of major ecosystem factors (including biological and non-biological) and geographic zonality, is called eco-geographic regional system. This paper introduces process of China's regionalization development. The first level unit, temperature zone, is delineated with main criteria of temperature. The second level unit, humidity region, is based on criteria of water/moisture states. The third level unit, natural region, is divided according to medium geomorphologic units. Vegetation types and soils are applied as supplementary criteria to indicate temperature and water/moisture states. Mapping process from qualitative to quantitative and China's eco-geographic regional system are also explained in this paper.

  16. Amplified mid-latitude planetary waves favour particular regional weather extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screen, James A.; Simmonds, Ian

    2014-08-01

    There has been an ostensibly large number of extreme weather events in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes during the past decade. An open question that is critically important for scientists and policy makers is whether any such increase in weather extremes is natural or anthropogenic in origin. One mechanism proposed to explain the increased frequency of extreme weather events is the amplification of mid-latitude atmospheric planetary waves. Disproportionately large warming in the northern polar regions compared with mid-latitudes--and associated weakening of the north-south temperature gradient--may favour larger amplitude planetary waves, although observational evidence for this remains inconclusive. A better understanding of the role of planetary waves in causing mid-latitude weather extremes is essential for assessing the potential environmental and socio-economic impacts of future planetary wave changes. Here we show that months of extreme weather over mid-latitudes are commonly accompanied by significantly amplified quasi-stationary mid-tropospheric planetary waves. Conversely, months of near-average weather over mid-latitudes are often accompanied by significantly attenuated waves. Depending on geographical region, certain types of extreme weather (for example, hot, cold, wet, dry) are more strongly related to wave amplitude changes than others. The findings suggest that amplification of quasi-stationary waves preferentially increases the probabilities of heat waves in western North America and central Asia, cold outbreaks in eastern North America, droughts in central North America, Europe and central Asia, and wet spells in western Asia.

  17. WEATHERING PROCESS IN EOCENE FLYSCH IN REGION OF SPLIT (CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Miščević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Eocene flysh in the region of Split (Dalmatia, Croatia is char¬acterized by the presence of layers with different characteristics. It mainly includes thin-layered marls, clayey marls, calcareous marls, clastic lay¬ered limestones, calcarenites and breccias. Those parts that can be de¬scribed as the soft rocks or hard clays by the mechanical means, exposed to weathering reduce the durability within "an engineering time scale". The paper deals with the factors that influence the weathering process. The analyzed weathering is a combination of processes acting simulta¬neously. Most of these processes depend on the change of the water con¬tent, thus the weathering process mainly develops when a material is subjected to the wetting-drying process, On the base of these results form of degradation process is modeled. The weathering process can be main¬ly described as physical weathering combined with chemical weathering on the free surfaces and on the cracks walls. Erosion as a result of weath¬ering, is the dominant geomorphic process on analyzed flysch terrain. According to the analysis, as the most appropriate due to the characteris¬tics the tests are chosen as index properties. Some of these tests are modified in order to adapt them to the determined characteristics of ma¬terials from flysch layers. The correlations between the measured values are used as the basis for the classification proposal of the analyzed mate¬rial, according to its resistance to weathering processes. Roughly, three main groups of samples are recognizable: the first one with carbonate content more then 90% is not weathered at the engineers time scale; the second group with carbonate content from 75% to 90% include samples susceptible to weathering in engineers time scale; the third group with carbonate content less then 75% include samples in which the weather¬ing occurs immediately after the exposition to the weathering factors.

  18. Hantavirus in new geographic regions, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, human cases of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infections are reported from the northern endemic regions. We found hantavirus-specific antibodies in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) trapped in human dwellings in the surroundings of the cities of Uppsala and Stockholm, which are situated far south from the traditional endemic areas of PUUV. Because the yellow-necked mouse is the most common rodent in human dwellings, hantaviruses in this rodent species may be important for the pu...

  19. Assessing reference evapotranspiration at regional scale based on remote sensing, weather forecast and GIS tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Cuesta, J. M.; Cruz-Blanco, M.; Santos, C.; Lorite, I. J.

    2017-03-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is a key component in efficient water management, especially in arid and semi-arid environments. However, accurate ETo assessment at the regional scale is complicated by the limited number of weather stations and the strict requirements in terms of their location and surrounding physical conditions for the collection of valid weather data. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, new approaches based on the use of remote sensing techniques and weather forecast tools have been proposed. Use of the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility (LSA SAF) tool and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have allowed the design and development of innovative approaches for ETo assessment, which are especially useful for areas lacking available weather data from weather stations. Thus, by identifying the best-performing interpolation approaches (such as the Thin Plate Splines, TPS) and by developing new approaches (such as the use of data from the most similar weather station, TS, or spatially distributed correction factors, CITS), errors as low as 1.1% were achieved for ETo assessment. Spatial and temporal analyses reveal that the generated errors were smaller during spring and summer as well as in homogenous topographic areas. The proposed approaches not only enabled accurate calculations of seasonal and daily ETo values, but also contributed to the development of a useful methodology for evaluating the optimum number of weather stations to be integrated into a weather station network and the appropriateness of their locations. In addition to ETo, other variables included in weather forecast datasets (such as temperature or rainfall) could be evaluated using the same innovative methodology proposed in this study.

  20. Hantavirus in new geographic regions, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, human cases of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV infections are reported from the northern endemic regions. We found hantavirus-specific antibodies in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis trapped in human dwellings in the surroundings of the cities of Uppsala and Stockholm, which are situated far south from the traditional endemic areas of PUUV. Because the yellow-necked mouse is the most common rodent in human dwellings, hantaviruses in this rodent species may be important for the public health.

  1. A review of operational, regional-scale, chemical weather forecasting models in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kukkonen, J.; Olsson, T.; Schultz, D.M.; Baklanov, A.; Klein, T.; Miranda, A.I.; Monteiro, A.; Hirtl, M.; Tarvainen, V.; Boy, M.; Peuch, V.-H.; Poupkou, A.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Finardi, S.; Sofiev, M.; Sokhi, R.; Lehtinen, K.E.J.; Karatzas, K.; San José, R.; Astitha, M.; Kallos, G.; Schaap, M.; Reimer, E.; Jakobs, H.; Eben, K.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical models that combine weather forecasting and atmospheric chemistry are here referred to as chemical weather forecasting models. Eighteen operational chemical weather forecasting models on regional and continental scales in Europe are described and compared in this article. Topics discussed

  2. "Latin" and "Anglo" America Geographic Regions Do Not Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes DaSilva, Edmar; Kvasnak, Robert Neil

    2015-01-01

    The regional divisions termed as "Latin America" versus "Anglo-America" used by many geographers do not fully reflect the cultural and political trends in the world today. "Latin" is a term that was coined by the French Emperor Napoleon the III in order to justify Mexico's being ruled by Maximillian, and later picked…

  3. Weather types and strokes in the Augsburg region (Southern Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christoph; Ertl, Michael; Giemsa, Esther; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Naumann, Markus; Seubert, Stefanie

    2017-04-01

    Strokes are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and the main reason for longterm care dependency in Germany. Concerning the economical impact on patients and healthcare systems it is of particular importance to prevent this disease as well as to improve the outcome of the affected persons. Beside the primary well-known risk factors like hypertension, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity and others, also weather seems to have pronounced influence on the occurrence and frequency of strokes. Previous studies most often focused on effects of singular meteorological variables like ambient air temperature, air pressure or humidity. An advanced approach is to link the entire suite of daily weather elements classified to air mass- or weather types to cerebrovascular morbidity or mortality. In a joint pilot study bringing together climatologists, environmental scientists and physicians from the University of Augsburg and the clinical centre Augsburg, we analysed relationships between singular meteorological parameters as well as combined weather effects (e.g. weather types) and strokes in the urban area of Augsburg and the surrounding rural region. A total of 17.501 stroke admissions to Neurological Clinic and Clinical Neurophysiology at Klinikum Augsburg between 2006 and 2015 are classified to either "ischaemic" (16.354) or "haemorrhagic" (1.147) subtype according to etiology (based on the International Classification of Diseases - 10th Revision). Spearman correlations between daily frequencies of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes and singular atmospheric parameters (T, Tmin, Tmax, air pressure, humidity etc.) measured at the DWD (German weather service) meteorological station at Augsburg Muehlhausen are rather low. However, higher correlations are achieved when considering sub-samples of "homogenous weather conditions" derived from synoptic circulation classifications: e.g. within almost all of 10 types arising from a classification of

  4. Impact of AIRS Thermodynamic Profile on Regional Weather Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovee, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Prudent assimilation of AIRS thermodynamic profiles and quality indicators can improve initial conditions for regional weather models. AIRS-enhanced analysis has warmer and moister PBL. Forecasts with AIRS profiles are generally closer to NAM analyses than CNTL. Assimilation of AIRS leads to an overall QPF improvement in 6-h accumulated precipitation forecasts. Including AIRS profiles in assimilation process enhances the moist instability and produces stronger updrafts and a better precipitation forecast than the CNTL run.

  5. Space-weather MDI Active Region Patches (SMARPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobra, Monica

    2017-08-01

    We are developing a new data product from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO) called Space-weather MDI Active Region Patches (SMARPs). The SMARP data series provide maps of the photospheric line-of-sight magnetic field in patches that encompass automatically tracked magnetic concentrations, or active regions, for their entire lifetime. These concentrations are automatically detected in the photospheric line-of-sight magnetic field data using a method described in Turmon et al. (2010) and, thus, are necessarily different from NOAA's definition of an active region. As such, these regions are assigned their own identification number, or SMARP number, which is also linked to a NOAA active region number should it exist. In addition, keywords in the SMARP data series include parameters that concisely characterize the magnetic field distribution. These parameters may be useful for active region event forecasting and for identifying regions of interest. These parameters are calculated per patch and are available on a 96 minute cadence.The SMARP data product is designed to provide seamless coverage with its counterpart, the Space-weather HMI Active Region Patches (SHARPs), described in Bobra et al. (2014). Together, the SMARP and SHARP data series provide continuous coverage of tracked active regions for two solar cycles from 1996 to the present day. The SMARP data series, which runs from April 1996 to October 2010, contains 9496 unique active regions tracked throughout their lifetime. The SHARP data series, which runs from May 2010 to the present day, contains (as of May 30, 2017) 3883 unique active regions tracked throughout their lifetime. In addition, the two series contain 118 unique active regions during the overlap period between May and October 2010. SMARP data will be available at jsoc.stanford.edu and the photospheric line-of-sight magnetic field maps will be available in either of two different coordinate

  6. Geographical baselines of sustainable planning of the regional development of Zasavje region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Plut

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Geographical baselines of planning the regional development and interventions into the geographical environment derive from the premises of the concept of permanent adjusting the anthropogenic changes in the landscape to specific capacities and limitations of landscape-forming components. In the landscape-degraded region of Zasavje the improvement of environmental quality (curative measures and regional economic progress within the scope of carrying capacities and space (preventative measures are the primary, developmentaly-environmentally devised goal of developmental strategy.

  7. Recent Activities on the Embrace Space Weather Regional Warning Center: the New Space Weather Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dal Lago, Alisson; Mendes, Odim; Batista, Inez S.; SantAnna, Nilson; Gatto, Rubens; Takahashi, Hisao; Costa, D. Joaquim; Banik Padua, Marcelo; Campos Velho, Haroldo

    2016-07-01

    On August 2007 the National Institute for Space Research started a task force to develop and operate a space weather program, which is known by the acronyms Embrace that stands for the Portuguese statement "Estudo e Monitoramento BRAasileiro de Clima Espacial" Program (Brazilian Space Weather Study and Monitoring program). The mission of the Embrace/INPE program is to monitor the Solar-Terrestrial environment, the magnetosphere, the upper atmosphere and the ground induced currents to prevent effects on technological and economic activities. The Embrace/INPE system monitors the physical parameters of the Sun-Earth environment, such as Active Regions (AR) in the Sun and solar radiation by using radio telescope, Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) information by satellite and ground-based cosmic ray monitoring, geomagnetic activity by the magnetometer network, and ionospheric disturbance by ionospheric sounders and using data collected by four GPS receiver network, geomagnetic activity by a magnetometer network, and provides a forecasting for Total Electronic Content (TEC) - 24 hours ahead - using a version of the SUPIM model which assimilates the two latter data using nudging approach. Most of these physical parameters are daily published on the Brazilian space weather program web portal, related to the entire network sensors available. Regarding outreach, it has being published a daily bulletin in Portuguese and English with the status of the space weather environment on the Sun, the Interplanetary Medium and close to the Earth. Since December 2011, all these activities are carried out at the Embrace Headquarter, a building located at the INPE's main campus. Recently, a comprehensive data bank and an interface layer are under commissioning to allow an easy and direct access to all the space weather data collected by Embrace through the Embrace web Portal. The information being released encompasses data from: (a) the Embrace Digisonde Network (Embrace DigiNet) that monitors

  8. Arctic Region Space Weather Customers and SSA Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Per; Kauristi, Kirsti; Wintoft, Peter

    Arctic inhabitants, authorities, and companies rely strongly on precise localization information and communication covering vast areas with low infrastructure and population density. Thus modern technology is crucial for establishing knowledge that can lead to growth in the region. At the same time...... it is crucial for the development of the industrial sectors and transportation systems in the Arctic that the digital infrastructure for higher-level information are operating at the standards for modern industrial societies. This can only be done if the precision of the localization information...... and communication can be established without errors resulting from Space Weather effects. An ESA project have identified and clarified, how the products of the four ESA Space Weather Expert Service Centres (SWE) in the ESA Space Situational Awareness Programme (SSA), can contribute to the requirements of SSA...

  9. Decadal changes of weather types in the alpine region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanicki, G.; Talkner, P.; Weber, R.O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The annual occurrence of different weather types of Schuepp`s synoptic classification in the Alpine region has changed since the beginning of its recording 1945. The annual frequency (number of days) of convective types has increased and that of advective types has decreased. In parallel the number of long-lasting convective episodes rose and the number of long-lasting advective episodes lessened. Most of the change took place in winter. The frequencies of different weather types and the annual mean of certain meteorological parameters are significantly correlated. Moreover, there is a strong interdependence between the subclass of high pressure types and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  10. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Maui-Oahu

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Hawaiian islands of Oahu,...

  11. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Main Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI)...

  12. Impact of High Resolution SST Data on Regional Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Case, Jonathon; LaFontaine, Frank; Vazquez, Jorge; Mattocks, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Past studies have shown that the use of coarse resolution SST products such as from the real-time global (RTG) SST analysis[1] or other coarse resolution once-a-day products do not properly portray the diurnal variability of fluxes of heat and moisture from the ocean that drive the formation of low level clouds and precipitation over the ocean. For example, the use of high resolution MODIS SST composite [2] to initialize the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) (ARW) [3] has been shown to improve the prediction of sensible weather parameters in coastal regions [4][5}. In an extend study, [6] compared the MODIS SST composite product to the RTG SST analysis and evaluated forecast differences for a 6 month period from March through August 2007 over the Florida coastal regions. In a comparison to buoy data, they found that that the MODIS SST composites reduced the bias and standard deviation over that of the RTG data. These improvements led to significant changes in the initial and forecasted heat fluxes and the resulting surface temperature fields, wind patterns, and cloud distributions. They also showed that the MODIS composite SST product, produced for the Terra and Aqua satellite overpass times, captured a component of the diurnal cycle in SSTs not represented in the RTG or other one-a-day SST analyses. Failure to properly incorporate these effects in the WRF initialization cycle led to temperature biases in the resulting short term forecasts. The forecast impact was limited in some situations however, due to composite product inaccuracies brought about by data latency during periods of long-term cloud cover. This paper focuses on the forecast impact of an enhanced MODIS/AMSR-E composite SST product designed to reduce inaccuracies due data latency in the MODIS only composite product.

  13. The geographical identification (GI under geographic perspective for coalho cheese in agreste region of Pernambuco state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janieire Dorlamis Cordeiro Bezerra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This theme, geographic identification, although it has an intrinsic relationship with space and the organization of it, is little studied in Geography. For GI becomes tool to promote territorial development this should be linked to a policy not only economic but social and environmental, seeking to reach the marginalized producers in order to avoid social exclusion. GI coalho cheese Agreste of Pernambuco is indication of origin (IO which will help in spatial changes. To obtain a certification studies will required to contribute to the achievement of the GI, and futher after certification further research will be extremely necessary in order to manage the certification process and inclusion of family farming. Therefore, it will possible to conclude that the coalho cheese GI Agreste Pernambuco in fact included the family farmer, enhancing production, improving their income and enabling the rise. Therefore, the certification will bring beyond recognition in the region, a socio-spatial change, which in the future will involve studies of socio-economic indicators, with the interaction of man with the territory, how to adopt it and use it, contextualizing the space changes.

  14. Calibration of weather radar using region probability matching method (RPMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayat, Hooman; Reza Kavianpour, M.; Moazami, Saber; Hong, Yang; Ghaemi, Esmail

    2017-09-01

    This research aims to develop a novel method named region probability matching method (RPMM) for calibrating the Amir-Abad weather radar located in the north of Iran. This approach also can overcome the limitations of probability matching method (PMM), window probability matching method (WPMM), and window correlation matching method (WCMM). The employing of these methods for calibrating the radars in light precipitation is associated with many errors. Additionally, in developing countries like Iran where ground stations have low temporal resolution, these methods cannot be benefited from. In these circumstances, RPMM by utilizing 18 synoptic stations with a temporal resolution of 6 h and radar data with a temporal resolution of 15 min has indicated an accurate estimation of cumulative precipitation over the entire study area in a specific period. Through a comparison of the two methods (RPMM and traditional matching method (TMM)) on March 22, 2014, the obtained correlation coefficients for TMM and RPMM were 0.13 and 0.95, respectively. It is noted that the cumulative precipitation of the whole rain gauges and the calibrated radar precipitation at the same pixels were 38.5 and 36.9 mm, respectively. Therefore, the obtained results prove the inefficiency of TMM and the capability of RPMM in the calibration process of the Amir-Abad weather radar. Besides, in determining the uncertainty associated with the calculated values of A and B in the Z e -R relation, a sensitivity analysis method was employed during the estimation of cumulative light precipitation for the period from 2014 to 2015. The results expressed that in the worst conditions, 69% of radar data are converted to R values by a maximum error less than 30%.

  15. Geographical patterns in cyanobacteria distribution: climate influence at regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitois, Frédéric; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle; Thomas, Olivier

    2014-01-28

    Cyanobacteria are a component of public health hazards in freshwater environments because of their potential as toxin producers. Eutrophication has long been considered the main cause of cyanobacteria outbreak and proliferation, whereas many studies emphasized the effect of abiotic parameters (mainly temperature and light) on cell growth rate or toxin production. In view of the growing concerns of global change consequences on public health parameters, this study attempts to enlighten climate influence on cyanobacteria at regional scale in Brittany (NW France). The results show that homogeneous cyanobacteria groups are associated with climatic domains related to temperature, global radiation and pluviometry, whereas microcystins (MCs) occurrences are only correlated to local cyanobacteria species composition. As the regional climatic gradient amplitude is similar to the projected climate evolution on a 30-year timespan, a comparison between the present NW and SE situations was used to extrapolate the evolution of geographical cyanobacteria distribution in Brittany. Cyanobacteria composition should shift toward species associated with more frequent Microcystins occurrences along a NW/SE axis whereas lakes situated along a SW/NE axis should transition to species (mainly Nostocales) associated with lower MCs detection frequencies.

  16. Impacts of Amazon deforestation on regional weather and climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvigy, D.; Walko, R. L.; Avissar, R.

    2010-12-01

    Recent deforestation projections estimate that 40% of the Amazon rainforest will be deforested by 2050. Many modeling studies have indicated that deforestation will reduce average rainfall in the Amazon. However, very few studies have investigated the potential for deforestation to change the frequency and intensity of extreme climate and weather events. To fill this gap in our understanding, we use a variable-resolution GCM to investigate how precipitation and temperature extremes throughout South America respond to deforestation. The model’s grid mesh is set up to cover South America and nearby oceans at mesoscale (25 km) resolution, and then to gradually coarsen and cover the rest of the world at 200 km resolution. This approach differs from the two most common current approaches: (1) to use a GCM with too coarse of a resolution to evaluate regional climate extremes, or (2) to use a regional atmospheric model that requires lateral boundary conditions from a GCM or reanalysis. We find that deforestation induces large changes in winter (June-July-August) climate throughout much of South America. Extreme cold events become much more common along the eastern slopes of the Andes. The largest changes were in the western Amazon and, surprisingly, in Argentina, far from the actual deforested area. We also find shifts in precipitation extremes, especially in September-October-November. Such changes in temperature and precipitation extremes have important consequences for agriculture, natural ecosystems, and human society.

  17. Object-based landslide detection in different geographic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Barbara; Hölbling, Daniel; Eisank, Clemens; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    , SPOT-5 images are combined with digital elevation models (DEM) for developing a consistent semi-automated landslide detection approach using eCognition (Trimble) software. Suitable image objects are generated by means of multiresolution segmentation. Expert knowledge, i.e. reported facts on features (e.g. mean object slope, mean NDVI) and thresholds that are commonly chosen by professionals for digital landslide mapping, is considered during classification. The applicability of a range of features is tested and the most promising parameters, i.e. features that produce appropriate results for both regions, are selected for landslide detection. However, minor adaptations of particular thresholds are necessary due to the distinct environmental conditions of the test sites. In order to reduce the number of required adjustments to a minimum, relational features and spectral indices are primarily used for classification. The obtained results are finally compared to manually digitized reference polygons and existing landslide inventories in order to quantify the applicability of the developed object-based landslide detection approach in different geographic regions.

  18. Ionospheric forecasts for the European region for space weather applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsagouri Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent advances in the implementation and validation of the Solar Wind driven autoregression model for Ionospheric short-term Forecast (SWIF that is running in the European Digital upper Atmosphere Server (DIAS to release ionospheric forecasting products for the European region. The upgraded implementation plan expands SWIF’s capabilities in the high latitude ionosphere while the extensive validation tests in the two solar cycles 23 and 24 allow the comprehensive analysis of the model’s performance in all terms. Focusing on disturbed conditions, the results demonstrate that SWIF’s alert detection algorithm forecasts the occurrence of ionospheric storm time disturbances with probability of detection up to 98% under intense geomagnetic storm conditions and up to 63% when storms of moderate intensity are also considered. The forecasts show relative improvement over climatology of about 30% in middle-to-low and high latitudes and 40% in middle-to-high latitudes. This indicates that SWIF is able to capture on average more than one third (35% of the storm-associated ionospheric disturbances. Regarding the accuracy, the averaged mean relative error during storm conditions usually ranges around 20% in middle-to-low and high latitudes and 24% in the middle-to-high latitudes. Our analysis shows clearly that SWIF alert criteria were designed to effectively anticipate the ionospheric storm time effects that occurred under specific interplanetary conditions, e.g., cloud Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs and/or associated sheaths. The results provide valuable input in advancing our ability in predicting the space weather effects in the ionosphere for future developments, and further work is proposed to enhance the model forecasting efficiency to support operational applications.

  19. Fog water chemical composition in different geographic regions of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaś, Marek; Polkowska, Żaneta; Sobik, Mieczysław; Klimaszewska, Kamila; Nowiński, Kamil; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-03-01

    The fog water samples were collected with the use of both passive and active fog collectors during 2005-2006 at 3 sites: lowland in northern Poland (Borucino; 186 m a.s.l.), valley basin in southern Poland (Zakopane; 911 m a.s.l.) and mountain top (Szrenica Mt.; 1330 m a.s.l.) in south-western Poland. For all daily samples (Borucino—25; Zakopane—4 and Szrenica—155), electric conductivity, pH, and concentrations of some anions: Cl -, F -, Br -, NO 2-, NO 3-, SO 42-, PO 43-and cations: NH 4+, Ca 2+, K +, Na + and Mg 2+ were measured. The selected ions were determined using ion suppressed chromatography (IC). Fog consists of a specific type of atmospheric phenomena. Results obtained on the basis of analysis of suitable fog samples can be treated as a source of valuable information on the chemistry of the atmosphere. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences depending on region, altitude, local morphology and, last but not least, fog origin. A distinct contrast is evident in the concentration and chemical composition between lowland radiation fog (represents lower layers of the atmosphere which are more influenced by continental emissions) versus orographic slope fog represented by a summit station, Mt Szrenica. It is partly induced by a distinction in weather conditions favouring fog existence, height of fog formation and its microphysical parameters. Acidity was associated with high concentrations of excess sulphate and nitrate in the fog water samples. Ammonium and calcium concentrations represent the most important neutralizing inputs. Collected cloud water at Szrenica Mt. includes solute contributions from emission sources located at much larger upwind distances. The fact that 95% of fog/cloud deposition is concentrated during SW-W-NW-N-NE, atmospheric circulation exerts an influence on the environmental quality of montane forests in the Sudety Mts. At numerous conspicuous convex landforms, where fog/cloud deposition becomes at least as important

  20. Weather Variability, Tides, and Barmah Forest Virus Disease in the Gladstone Region, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Nicholls, Neville; Mackenzie, John S.; McMichael, Anthony J.; Dale, Pat; Tong, Shilu

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examined the impact of weather variability and tides on the transmission of Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease and developed a weather-based forecasting model for BFV disease in the Gladstone region, Australia. We used seasonal autoregressive integrated moving-average (SARIMA) models to determine the contribution of weather variables to BFV transmission after the time-series data of response and explanatory variables were made stationary through seasonal differencing. We obtai...

  1. Diagnostic Analysis on a Regional Rainstorm Weather in North-central Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to analyze a regional rainstorm weather process in north-central Henan Province. [Method] Based on the conventional meteorological observation data and the rainfall data of Henan Meteorological Station, the diagnostic analysis of atmospheric thermodynamics and dynamics on a rainstorm weather process in north-central Henan Province on July 19, 2010 was carried out. The characteristics of physical quantity field and the evolution of weather situation in north-central Henan Provi...

  2. The Importance of Geographical Indications in Regional Tourism Development: The Case of Çanakkale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şefik Okan Mercan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many products unique to Turkey, the origins of which are recognized with the name of region. Turkey, its geographical location and climatic zone having three different soil structure and cultural heritage and human capital due to a rich variety of geographical product has the potential. Features of geographical environment revealed  this product wealth, this product also requires the protection of geographical indications through. In this study, in Çanakkale who have registered geographical indication products, to examine the importance of the development of regional tourism and how these products can be assessed on a tourism product relevant institutions/organizations are intended to be of the opinion. According to the findings, the general opinion of Canakkale geographical indication products are properly and effectively with the regional tourism promotion and marketing work done in the development of a tool is that it will undertake the task. 

  3. Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and Human Health Implications in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Hashim, Zailina

    2016-03-01

    The Asia Pacific region is regarded as the most disaster-prone area of the world. Since 2000, 1.2 billion people have been exposed to hydrometeorological hazards alone through 1215 disaster events. The impacts of climate change on meteorological phenomena and environmental consequences are well documented. However, the impacts on health are more elusive. Nevertheless, climate change is believed to alter weather patterns on the regional scale, giving rise to extreme weather events. The impacts from extreme weather events are definitely more acute and traumatic in nature, leading to deaths and injuries, as well as debilitating and fatal communicable diseases. Extreme weather events include heat waves, cold waves, floods, droughts, hurricanes, tropical cyclones, heavy rain, and snowfalls. Globally, within the 20-year period from 1993 to 2012, more than 530 000 people died as a direct result of almost 15 000 extreme weather events, with losses of more than US$2.5 trillion in purchasing power parity.

  4. Size and type of places, geographical region, satisfaction with life, age, sex and place attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Alan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the article concerns the issue of place attachment and its determinants. An analysis of place attachment was performed in terms of place identity and place dependence (Williams, Vaske, 2003. Moreover, links between place attachment and selected geographical (size and type of place, geographical region, demographic (age, sex and psychological (satisfaction with life variables were investigated.

  5. Economic and Geographical Structure of the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolai M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea region is one of the most developed transnational regions. It comprises the coastal areas of Russia, Germany, and Poland and the entire territories of Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. New spatial forms of international economic cooperation develop in the region. The region is not homogeneous in terms of socioeconomic development, thus there are certain differences in the areas and the intensity of international cooperation. The article sets out to identify structural characteristics of the Baltic Sea region. This requires studying practices of transnational and transboundary cooperation and possibilities for their adoption in other regions of the world. An important characteristic of the Baltic Sea region is a considerable difference between its coastal territories, the fact that affects the development of multilateral relations. This article examines the most pronounced socioeconomic differences that should be taken into account when forecasting cooperation trends in t he region, including those between the Baltic territories of Russia and their international partners.

  6. Geographic bases of tourist development of the Sjenica's region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šabić Dejan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the central places in finding out the overall solutions to stop the processes of economic power weakening of Sjenica's region, deagrarianization and depopulation of rural regions, is assumed by the question of adequate rural economy structuring in accordance with locally available resources. Within these frameworks we should look for the place, i.e. the position of tourist activity in Sjenica's region, which so far has not been given an appropriate role in development policies and concepts related to these areas, although it is based on various strong, highly attractive natural-ecological and anthropogenesis values. Rural areas were used for some forms of economic production and were known by low overall population densities. Tourism is attracted into these regions by natural features landscape quality and rural way of life. Rural tourism brings life to many areas. It can include a great variety of activities and can be way to prosperous life for people in Sjenica's region.

  7. Weather derivative design in agriculture – a case study of barley in the Southern Moravia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Špička

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to point out some problems of index estimation for the purposes of weather derivative valuation considering the particularities of agriculture. The assessment of the sensitivity of barley to weather over 40 years has been the basis for the design and valuation of weather derivative in the Czech Republic (The Southern Moravia Region. The analysis is based on regression modeling using temperature index and barley yield. The burn analysis based on parametric bootstrap is used as the method for the valuation of weather derivative contract. With the effective bootstrap tool, the burn analysis may easily be processed and the uncertainty about the pay-off, option price and statistics of probability distribution of revenues can be effectively determined. Nevertheless, the results of the analysis reveal a significant adverse impact of basis risk on the quality of agricultural weather derivative in the Czech growing conditions. The article outlines the scope for use of weather derivative as the reinsurance tool in regions with frequent occurrence of systematic weather risk.

  8. Sources of Sodium in US Adults From 3 Geographic Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnack, Lisa J; Cogswell, Mary E; Shikany, James M; Gardner, Christopher D; Gillespie, Cathleen; Loria, Catherine M; Zhou, Xia; Yuan, Keming; Steffen, Lyn M

    2017-05-09

    Most US adults consume excess sodium. Knowledge about the dietary sources of sodium intake is critical to the development of effective reduction strategies. A total of 450 adults were recruited from 3 geographic locations: Birmingham, AL (n=150); Palo Alto, CA (n=150); and the Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN (n=150), metropolitan areas. Equal numbers of women and men from each of 4 race/ethnic groups (blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites) were targeted for recruitment. Four record-assisted 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from each participant with special procedures, which included the collection of duplicate samples of salt added to food at the table and in home food preparation. Sodium added to food outside the home was the leading source of sodium, accounting for more than two thirds (70.9%) of total sodium intake in the sample. Although the proportion of sodium from this source was smaller in some subgroups, it was the leading contributor for all subgroups. Contribution ranged from 66.3% for those with a high school level of education or less to 75.0% for those 18 to 29 years of age. Sodium inherent to food was the next highest contributor (14.2%), followed by salt added in home food preparation (5.6%) and salt added to food at the table (4.9%). Home tap water consumed as a beverage and dietary supplement and nonprescription antacids contributed minimally to sodium intake (reduce sodium intake in the United States. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02474693. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. The weather@home regional climate modelling project for Australia and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mitchell T.; Karoly, David J.; Rosier, Suzanne M.; Dean, Sam M.; King, Andrew D.; Massey, Neil R.; Sparrow, Sarah N.; Bowery, Andy; Wallom, David; Jones, Richard G.; Otto, Friederike E. L.; Allen, Myles R.

    2016-09-01

    A new climate modelling project has been developed for regional climate simulation and the attribution of weather and climate extremes over Australia and New Zealand. The project, known as weather@home Australia-New Zealand, uses public volunteers' home computers to run a moderate-resolution global atmospheric model with a nested regional model over the Australasian region. By harnessing the aggregated computing power of home computers, weather@home is able to generate an unprecedented number of simulations of possible weather under various climate scenarios. This combination of large ensemble sizes with high spatial resolution allows extreme events to be examined with well-constrained estimates of sampling uncertainty. This paper provides an overview of the weather@home Australia-New Zealand project, including initial evaluation of the regional model performance. The model is seen to be capable of resolving many climate features that are important for the Australian and New Zealand regions, including the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on driving natural climate variability. To date, 75 model simulations of the historical climate have been successfully integrated over the period 1985-2014 in a time-slice manner. In addition, multi-thousand member ensembles have also been generated for the years 2013, 2014 and 2015 under climate scenarios with and without the effect of human influences. All data generated by the project are freely available to the broader research community.

  10. A review of operational, regional-scale, chemical weather forecasting models in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kukkonen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical models that combine weather forecasting and atmospheric chemistry are here referred to as chemical weather forecasting models. Eighteen operational chemical weather forecasting models on regional and continental scales in Europe are described and compared in this article. Topics discussed in this article include how weather forecasting and atmospheric chemistry models are integrated into chemical weather forecasting systems, how physical processes are incorporated into the models through parameterization schemes, how the model architecture affects the predicted variables, and how air chemistry and aerosol processes are formulated. In addition, we discuss sensitivity analysis and evaluation of the models, user operational requirements, such as model availability and documentation, and output availability and dissemination. In this manner, this article allows for the evaluation of the relative strengths and weaknesses of the various modelling systems and modelling approaches. Finally, this article highlights the most prominent gaps of knowledge for chemical weather forecasting models and suggests potential priorities for future research directions, for the following selected focus areas: emission inventories, the integration of numerical weather prediction and atmospheric chemical transport models, boundary conditions and nesting of models, data assimilation of the various chemical species, improved understanding and parameterization of physical processes, better evaluation of models against data and the construction of model ensembles.

  11. The system of physico-geographical regions of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑度

    1996-01-01

    The Qinghai-Xizang Plateau is a unique physico-geographical region on the earth. As a whole, the spatial differentiation of physico-geographical regions of the plateau is mainly determined by topographic configuration and atmospheric circulation, warm and humid in the southeast, cold and arid in the northwest. The natural landscapes apppear in the following succession: forest → meadow → steppe → desert. The system of physico-geographical regions of the plateau is demarcated on the principle of bio-climate or the principle of three dimension zonality. Based on the thermal conditions, moisture regimes and variation in landform the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau is sequentially demarcated. The duration of mean daily temperature above 10℃ is the principal index, the subsidiary criterion is mean temperature of the warmest month, two temperature belts may be divided: plateau subpolar and plateau temperate. Annual aridity is taken as the principal index, subordinated by annual precipitation. Four moisture regional

  12. Weather-Related Flood and Landslide Damage: A Risk Index for Italian Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messeri, Alessandro; Morabito, Marco; Messeri, Gianni; Brandani, Giada; Petralli, Martina; Natali, Francesca; Grifoni, Daniele; Crisci, Alfonso; Gensini, Gianfranco; Orlandini, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of natural hazards has been increasing in the last decades in Europe and specifically in Mediterranean regions due to climate change. For example heavy precipitation events can lead to disasters through the interaction with exposed and vulnerable people and natural systems. It is therefore necessary a prevention planning to preserve human health and to reduce economic losses. Prevention should mainly be carried out with more adequate land management, also supported by the development of an appropriate risk prediction tool based on weather forecasts. The main aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between weather types (WTs) and the frequency of floods and landslides that have caused damage to properties, personal injuries, or deaths in the Italian regions over recent decades. In particular, a specific risk index (WT-FLARI) for each WT was developed at national and regional scale. This study has identified a specific risk index associated with each weather type, calibrated for each Italian region and applicable to both annual and seasonal levels. The risk index represents the seasonal and annual vulnerability of each Italian region and indicates that additional preventive actions are necessary for some regions. The results of this study represent a good starting point towards the development of a tool to support policy-makers, local authorities and health agencies in planning actions, mainly in the medium to long term, aimed at the weather damage reduction that represents an important issue of the World Meteorological Organization mission.

  13. Investigation on the geographical distribution and life form of plant species in sub alpine zone Karsanak region, Shahrekord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanbakhsh Pairanj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in rangelands of Karsanak, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, which is regarded as one of the rich rangelands. Phytogeographically, this region is located in Irano-Turanian (zone of sub alpine. Endemic and rare plants were identified and geographical distribution and life form of identified plant species were investigated as well. Overall, 100 species from 17 families were identified from which 20 percent of identified species was endemic element of Irano-Turanian region. Results indicated that 75.7 percent of identified plants belonged to the Irano-Turanian and only 3 and 2 percent belonged to Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean regions respectively. The reason of high percentage of Irano-Turanian elements is probably the long distance of this region from other regions. Similarities of Irano-Turanian and Mediterranean were included 6.1 percent of identified plants and Irano-Turanian and Euro-Siberian included 2 percent. Results of life forms showed hemichryptophytes including 60 percent of life forms which indicate the cold and mountainous weather.

  14. Weathering-pedogenesis of Carbonate Rocks and Its Environmental Effects in Subtropical Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Lijun; HE Shouyang; LI Jingyang

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the weathering-pedogenesis of carbonate rocks and its environmental effects in subtropical regions of China. The investigation demonstrated that the weathering-pedogenesis of carbonate rocks is the process of a joint action of corrosion and illuviation and metasomatism in subtropical region. It is characterized by multi-stage, multi-path and multi-style.With the persisting development of weathering-pedogenesis of carbonate rocks, metasomatic pedogenesis progressively became the main process of the weathering-pedogenesis and the dominant style of formation of minerals. And it proceeds through the whole process of evolution of theweathering-pedogenesis of carbonate rocks. The stage evolution of wcathering-pedogenesis ofcarbonate rocks and the fractionation evolution of newly produced minerals are characterized byobvious vertically zoning structures and the rules of gradation of elements geochemical characteristics in the carbonate rocks weathering profiles. The geochemical process of weathering-pedogenesis of carbonate rocks can be divided into three geochemical evolution stages, I.e., the Ca, Mg-depletion and Si, AI-enrichment stage; the Fe, Mn enrichment stage and the Si-depletion and Al-enrichment stage in the subtropical regions. Consistent with the three geochemical evolution stages, the sequence of formation and evolution of minerals can be divided into the clay mineral stage; the Fe, Mn oxide and the gibbsite stage. The influence of weathering-pedogenesis of carbonate rocks on the chemical forms of heavy elements is mainly affected via newly produced components and minerals in the process of weathering-pedogenesis, e.g., iron oxide minerals and organic matters. The important mechanism for the mobilization, transport and pollution of F and As is affected the selective adsorption and desorption of F and As on the surface of iron oxide minerals in the subtropical karst zones, I.e., the selective adsorption and desorption on mineral surfaces of

  15. Techniques for Representation of Regional Clusters in Geographical In-formation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana REVEIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of visualization techniques adapted for regional clusters presentation in Geographic Information Systems. Clusters are groups of companies and insti-tutions co-located in a specific geographic region and linked by interdependencies in providing a related group of products and services. The regional clusters can be visualized by projecting the data into two-dimensional space or using parallel coordinates. Cluster membership is usually represented by different colours or by dividing clusters into several panels of a grille display. Taking into consideration regional clusters requirements and the multilevel administrative division of the Romania’s territory, I used two cartograms: NUTS2- regions and NUTS3- counties, to illustrate the tools for regional clusters representation.

  16. A Space Weather mission concept: Observatories of the Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strugarek, Antoine; Janitzek, Nils; Lee, Arrow

    2015-01-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are major sources of magnetic storms on Earth and are therefore considered to be the most dangerous space weather events. The Observatories of Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR) mission is designed to identify the 3D str....... The spacecraft will be separated by an angle of 68 degrees to provide optimum stereoscopic view of the solar corona. We study the feasibility of such a mission and propose a preliminary design for OSCAR....

  17. Sequential correction of ensemble regional weather predictions for forecasting reference evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, Anna; Medina Gonzalez, Hanoi; Villani, Paolo; D'Urso, Guido; Battista Chirico, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    This study explores the performance of an adaptive procedure for correcting the ensemble numerical weather outputs applied to the probabilistic forecast of reference evapotranspiration (ETo). This procedure is proposed as an effective forecast correction method when the available dataset is not large enough for the calibration of statistical batch procedures. The numerical weather prediction outputs are those provided by COSMO-LEPS, an ensemble-based Limited Area Model, with 16 members and 7.5 km spatial resolution, with forecast lead-time up to 5 days. ETo forecasts are computed according to the FAO Penman-Monteith (FAO-PM) equation, which requires data of five weather variables: air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation and wind speed. The performance of the proposed procedure is evaluated at eighteen monitoring stations, located in Campania region (Southern Italy), with two alternative strategies: i) correction applied to the raw ensemble forecasts of the five weather variables prior applying the FAO-PM equation; ii) correction applied to the ensemble output of the ETo forecasts obtained with FAO-PM equation after using the raw ensemble weather forecasts as input. In both cases the suggested post-processing procedure was able to significantly increase the accuracy and reduce the uncertainty of the ETo forecasts.

  18. Indices of methylation in sperm DNA from fertile men differ between distinct geographical regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Consales, C.; Leter, G.; Bonde, J. P E; Toft, G.; Eleuteri, P.; Moccia, T.; Budillon, A.; Jönsson, B. A G; Giwercman, A.; Pedersen, H. S.; Ludwicki, J. K.; Zviezdai, V.; Heederik, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542; Spanò, M.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Which are the main determinants, if any, of sperm DNA methylation levels? SUMMARY ANSWER Geographical region resulted associated with the sperm methylation status assessed on genome-wide repetitive sequences. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY DNA methylation level, assessed on repetitive sequence

  19. 50 CFR 216.250 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE... Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.250 Specified activity and specified geographical region. (a... within the Eglin Air Force Base Gulf Test and Training Range within the northern Gulf of Mexico....

  20. 50 CFR 216.211 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE.... Gulf of Mexico § 216.211 Specified activity and specified geographical region. (a) Regulations in this... Mexico adjacent to the coasts of Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, and Florida. The incidental,...

  1. Indices of methylation in sperm DNA from fertile men differ between distinct geographical regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Consales, C.; Leter, G.; Bonde, J. P E; Toft, G.; Eleuteri, P.; Moccia, T.; Budillon, A.; Jönsson, B. A G; Giwercman, A.; Pedersen, H. S.; Ludwicki, J. K.; Zviezdai, V.; Heederik, D.; Spanò, M.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Which are the main determinants, if any, of sperm DNA methylation levels? SUMMARY ANSWER Geographical region resulted associated with the sperm methylation status assessed on genome-wide repetitive sequences. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY DNA methylation level, assessed on repetitive sequence

  2. weather@home 2: validation of an improved global-regional climate modelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillod, Benoit P.; Jones, Richard G.; Bowery, Andy; Haustein, Karsten; Massey, Neil R.; Mitchell, Daniel M.; Otto, Friederike E. L.; Sparrow, Sarah N.; Uhe, Peter; Wallom, David C. H.; Wilson, Simon; Allen, Myles R.

    2017-05-01

    Extreme weather events can have large impacts on society and, in many regions, are expected to change in frequency and intensity with climate change. Owing to the relatively short observational record, climate models are useful tools as they allow for generation of a larger sample of extreme events, to attribute recent events to anthropogenic climate change, and to project changes in such events into the future. The modelling system known as weather@home, consisting of a global climate model (GCM) with a nested regional climate model (RCM) and driven by sea surface temperatures, allows one to generate a very large ensemble with the help of volunteer distributed computing. This is a key tool to understanding many aspects of extreme events. Here, a new version of the weather@home system (weather@home 2) with a higher-resolution RCM over Europe is documented and a broad validation of the climate is performed. The new model includes a more recent land-surface scheme in both GCM and RCM, where subgrid-scale land-surface heterogeneity is newly represented using tiles, and an increase in RCM resolution from 50 to 25 km. The GCM performs similarly to the previous version, with some improvements in the representation of mean climate. The European RCM temperature biases are overall reduced, in particular the warm bias over eastern Europe, but large biases remain. Precipitation is improved over the Alps in summer, with mixed changes in other regions and seasons. The model is shown to represent the main classes of regional extreme events reasonably well and shows a good sensitivity to its drivers. In particular, given the improvements in this version of the weather@home system, it is likely that more reliable statements can be made with regards to impact statements, especially at more localized scales.

  3. Regional features of the socio-economic component of the geographical process in the northeast part of Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornus A.O.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the aggregated ranking economic environment is installed regional characteristics of this part of the process of social and geographical context of administrative regions in North-Eastern region of Ukraine.

  4. A Space Weather Mission Concept: Observatories of the Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR)

    CERN Document Server

    Strugarek, Antoine; Lee, Arrow; Löschl, Philipp; Seifert, Bernhard; Hoilijoki, Sanni; Kraaikamp, Emil; Mrigakshi, Alankrita Isha; Philippe, Thomas; Spina, Sheila; Bröse, Malte; Massahi, Sonny; O'Halloran, Liam; Blanco, Victor Pereira; Stausland, Christoffer; Escoubet, Philippe; Kargl, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are major sources of magnetic storms on Earth and are therefore considered to be the most dangerous space weather events. The Observatories of Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR) mission is designed to identify the 3D structure of coronal loops and to study the trigger mechanisms of CMEs in solar Active Regions (ARs) as well as their evolution and propagation processes in the inner heliosphere. It also aims to provide monitoring and forecasting of geo-effective CMEs and CIRs. OSCAR would contribute to significant advancements in the field of solar physics, improvements of the current CME prediction models, and provide data for reliable space weather forecasting. These objectives are achieved by utilising two spacecraft with identical instrumentation, located at a heliocentric orbital distance of 1~AU from the Sun. The spacecraft will be separated by an angle of 68$^{\\circ}$ to provide optimum stereoscopic view of the solar corona. We ...

  5. Weather variability, tides, and Barmah Forest virus disease in the Gladstone region, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Nicholls, Neville; Mackenzie, John S; McMichael, Anthony J; Dale, Pat; Tong, Shilu

    2006-05-01

    In this study we examined the impact of weather variability and tides on the transmission of Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease and developed a weather-based forecasting model for BFV disease in the Gladstone region, Australia. We used seasonal autoregressive integrated moving-average (SARIMA) models to determine the contribution of weather variables to BFV transmission after the time-series data of response and explanatory variables were made stationary through seasonal differencing. We obtained data on the monthly counts of BFV cases, weather variables (e.g., mean minimum and maximum temperature, total rainfall, and mean relative humidity), high and low tides, and the population size in the Gladstone region between January 1992 and December 2001 from the Queensland Department of Health, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Department of Transport, and Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. The SARIMA model shows that the 5-month moving average of minimum temperature (b=0.15, p-value<0.001) was statistically significantly and positively associated with BFV disease, whereas high tide in the current month (b=-1.03, p-value=0.04) was statistically significantly and inversely associated with it. However, no significant association was found for other variables. These results may be applied to forecast the occurrence of BFV disease and to use public health resources in BFV control and prevention.

  6. Weather Forecasting Systems and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecikalski, John (Inventor); MacKenzie, Wayne M., Jr. (Inventor); Walker, John Robert (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A weather forecasting system has weather forecasting logic that receives raw image data from a satellite. The raw image data has values indicative of light and radiance data from the Earth as measured by the satellite, and the weather forecasting logic processes such data to identify cumulus clouds within the satellite images. For each identified cumulus cloud, the weather forecasting logic applies interest field tests to determine a score indicating the likelihood of the cumulus cloud forming precipitation and/or lightning in the future within a certain time period. Based on such scores, the weather forecasting logic predicts in which geographic regions the identified cumulus clouds will produce precipitation and/or lighting within during the time period. Such predictions may then be used to provide a weather map thereby providing users with a graphical illustration of the areas predicted to be affected by precipitation within the time period.

  7. Weather Types, temperature and relief relationship in the Iberian Peninsula: A regional adiabatic processes under directional weather types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Angulo, Dhais; Trigo, Ricardo; Cortesi, Nicola; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, Jose Carlos

    2016-04-01

    We have analyzed at monthly scale the spatial distribution of Pearson correlation between monthly mean of maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures with weather types (WTs) in the Iberian Peninsula (IP), represent them in a high spatial resolution grid (10km x 10km) from MOTEDAS dataset (Gonzalez-Hidalgo et al., 2015a). The WT classification was that developed by Jenkinson and Collison, adapted to the Iberian Peninsula by Trigo and DaCamara, using Sea Level Pressure data from NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis dataset (period 1951-2010). The spatial distribution of Pearson correlations shows a clear zonal gradient in Tmax under the zonal advection produced in westerly (W) and easterly (E) flows, with negative correlation in the coastland where the air mass come from but positive correlation to the inland areas. The same is true under North-West (NW), North-East (NE), South-West (SW) and South-East (SE) WTs. These spatial gradients are coherent with the spatial distribution of the main mountain chain and offer an example of regional adiabatic phenomena that affect the entire IP (Peña-Angulo et al., 2015b). These spatial gradients have not been observed in Tmin. We suggest that Tmin values are less sensitive to changes in Sea Level Pressure and more related to local factors. These directional WT present a monthly frequency over 10 days and could be a valuable tool for downscaling processes. González-Hidalgo J.C., Peña-Angulo D., Brunetti M., Cortesi, C. (2015a): MOTEDAS: a new monthly temperature database for mainland Spain and the trend in temperature (1951-2010). International Journal of Climatology 31, 715-731. DOI: 10.1002/joc.4298 Peña-Angulo, D., Trigo, R., Cortesi, C., González-Hidalgo, J.C. (2015b): The influence of weather types on the monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures in the Iberian Peninsula. Submitted to Hydrology and Earth System Sciences.

  8. Transport of Aerosols: Regional and Global Implications for Climate, Weather, and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Yu, Hongbin; Bian, Huisheng; Remer, Lorraine; Kahn, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Long-range transport of atmospheric aerosols can have a significant impact on global climate, regional weather, and local air quality. In this study, we use a global model GOCART together with satellite data and ground-based measurements to assess the emission and transport of pollution, dust, biomass burning, and volcanic aerosols and their implications. In particular, we will show the impact of emissions and long-range transport of aerosols from major pollution and dust source regions to (1) the surface air quality, (2) the atmospheric heating rates, and (3) surface radiation change near the source and downwind regions.

  9. Weather Station and Sensor Locations, WeatherStations-This dataset contains the names and locations of weathers stations found throughout Utah, Published in 2005, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Weather Station and Sensor Locations dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  10. Weather Station and Sensor Locations, WeatherStations-This dataset contains the names and locations of weathers stations found throughout Utah, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Weather Station and Sensor Locations dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  11. Forecasting the Solar Drivers of Severe Space Weather from Active-Region Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Solar drivers of severe space weather can be predicted from line-of-sight magnetograms, via a free-energy proxy measured from the neutral lines. This can be done in near real time. In addition to depending strongly on the free magnetic energy, an active region's chance of having a major eruption depends strongly on other aspects of the evolving magnetic field (e.g., its complexity and flux emergence).

  12. Lubbock Regional Airport, Texas. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-12

    FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 7 267 LUBOCK REGIONAL ARPT TX 73-81 ALUG ALL WEATHER 1 ]0-ZC02 SPEED MEAN IN’S) 5.- 4.-6 7.10...VISIBILITYA!;- EAITHER SF0VlCF/-AC :-’ LUBOCK ;ZE IONAL Af T T - C PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS 672- 6 0. T 6 67 69.1~ 64

  13. FARMERS’ WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR WEATHER FORECAST INFORMATION IN SAVELUGU-NANTON MUNICIPALITY OF THE NORTHERN REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, Nantui; Prince, Nketiah; Daniel, Darko

    2014-01-01

    In the quest for farmers to get maximum output and improve their livelihood within the major constraint of depending on rain-fed agriculture, the issue of having access to weather forecast information is very important. A contingent valuation method was used to elicit the amount farmers are willing to pay for accessing unpriced weather forecast information in the Savelugu-Nanton Municipality of the Northern Region. Farmers were also asked to rank weather forecast variables according to their ...

  14. Analysis of Synoptic Weather Types and Its Influence on Precipitation in the Marmara Region (NW Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, H.; Kindap, T.; Unal, A.; Karaca, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between synoptic weather types and rainfall patterns in the Marmara region, northwestern part of Turkey. For this purpose, the automated Lamb weather type classification method was applied to the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis daily mean sea level pressure data for the period between 2001 and 2010. Ten synoptic weather types were found that represent the 90% of the synoptic patterns that affect the Marmara region. Based on the annual frequency analysis, mainly six synoptic weather types, 24% (NorthEast), 21% (North), 11% (South), 9% (SouthWest), 7% (Anticyclonic), 5% (Cyclonic), were found dominant in the region. Multiple comparison tests suggest that (i.e., Bonferroni test) northerly patterns (i.e., North and NorthEast) have statistically significantly higher percentages as compared to the southerly (i.e., South and SouthWest) and the rest of the patterns (i.e., Anticylonic and Cylonic). During winter months, N- and NE-patterns observed less frequently than the annual frequencies of them, 18% and 13% of the period, respectively. On the other hand, due to the formation of the low pressure center located over the central Mediterranean Sea, S- and SW-patterns were observed more frequently than their annual mean frequencies, 16% and 17%, respectively. During summer months, N- and NE-patterns become dominant in the region, and they constitute about three quarters of the period, 25% and 44%, respectively. The low pressure center located over central Anatolia and Black Sea brings moist and cool air to the region, preventing excessive heating during the summer season. Cyclonic patterns observed less frequent during the winter and fall months, about 3%. They become more frequent during the summer season, 9% as a result of the shifting of the subtropical jet stream to the south, and the seasonal movement of the Basra low pressure toward the inner and northern parts of the Anatolian peninsula. On the other hand, Anticyclonic patterns are

  15. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF INFLUENCE OF INDIAN OCEAN SSTA ON WEATHER AND CLIMATE IN ASIAN MONSOON REGION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) exerts great influence on the generation of global weather and climate. Much progress has been made with respect to SSTA in the Pacific Ocean region in contrast to the Indian Ocean. The IAP9L model, which is developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese Academy of Science, is used to simulate the influence of the Indian Ocean SSTA on the general circulation and weather/climate anomalies in the monsoon region of Asia. It is found that the warm (cool) SSTA in the equatorial low latitudes of the Indian Ocean triggers winter (summer) teleconnection patterns in middle and higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere that are similar to PNA or EAP. They play a very important role in the anomaly of circulation or weather and climate in the middle and lower latitudes of the Asian summer monsoon region. With the warm (cool) SSTA forcing in the Indian Ocean, the Asian summer monsoon sets up at a late (early) date and withdraws at a early (late) date, lasting for a short (long) duration at a weak (strong) intensity. The Indian Ocean SSTA is shown to be an indicator for precipitation variation in China.

  16. Geographical pattern and environmental correlates of regional-scale general flowering in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Shinya; Yasuda, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Ryo O; Hosaka, Tetsuro; Noor, Nur Supardi Md; Fletcher, Christine D; Hashim, Mazlan

    2013-01-01

    In South-East Asian dipterocarp forests, many trees synchronize their reproduction at the community level, but irregularly, in a phenomenon known as general flowering (GF). Several proximate cues have been proposed as triggers for the synchronization of Southeast Asian GF, but the debate continues, as many studies have not considered geographical variation in climate and flora. We hypothesized that the spatial pattern of GF forests is explained by previously proposed climatic cues if there are common cues for GF among regions. During the study, GF episodes occurred every year, but the spatial occurrence varied considerably from just a few forests to the whole of Peninsular Malaysia. In 2001, 2002 and 2005, minor and major GF occurred widely throughout Peninsular Malaysia (GF2001, GF2002, and GF2005), and the geographical patterns of GF varied between the episodes. In the three regional-scale GF episodes, most major events occurred in regions where prolonged drought (PD) had been recorded prior, and significant associations between GF scores and PD were found in GF2001 and GF2002. However, the frequency of PD was higher than that of GF throughout the peninsula. In contrast, low temperature (LT) was observed during the study period only before GF2002 and GF2005, but there was no clear spatial relationship between GF and LT in the regional-scale episodes. There was also no evidence that last GF condition influenced the magnitude of GF. Thus, our results suggest that PD would be essential to trigger regional-scale GF in the peninsula, but also that PD does not fully explain the spatial and temporal patterns of GF. The coarse relationships between GF and the proposed climatic cues may be due to the geographical variation in proximate cues for GF, and the climatic and floristic geographical variations should be considered to understand the proximate factors of GF.

  17. Geographical pattern and environmental correlates of regional-scale general flowering in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Numata

    Full Text Available In South-East Asian dipterocarp forests, many trees synchronize their reproduction at the community level, but irregularly, in a phenomenon known as general flowering (GF. Several proximate cues have been proposed as triggers for the synchronization of Southeast Asian GF, but the debate continues, as many studies have not considered geographical variation in climate and flora. We hypothesized that the spatial pattern of GF forests is explained by previously proposed climatic cues if there are common cues for GF among regions. During the study, GF episodes occurred every year, but the spatial occurrence varied considerably from just a few forests to the whole of Peninsular Malaysia. In 2001, 2002 and 2005, minor and major GF occurred widely throughout Peninsular Malaysia (GF2001, GF2002, and GF2005, and the geographical patterns of GF varied between the episodes. In the three regional-scale GF episodes, most major events occurred in regions where prolonged drought (PD had been recorded prior, and significant associations between GF scores and PD were found in GF2001 and GF2002. However, the frequency of PD was higher than that of GF throughout the peninsula. In contrast, low temperature (LT was observed during the study period only before GF2002 and GF2005, but there was no clear spatial relationship between GF and LT in the regional-scale episodes. There was also no evidence that last GF condition influenced the magnitude of GF. Thus, our results suggest that PD would be essential to trigger regional-scale GF in the peninsula, but also that PD does not fully explain the spatial and temporal patterns of GF. The coarse relationships between GF and the proposed climatic cues may be due to the geographical variation in proximate cues for GF, and the climatic and floristic geographical variations should be considered to understand the proximate factors of GF.

  18. European regional efficiency and geographical externalities: a spatial nonparametric frontier analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramajo, Julián; Cordero, José Manuel; Márquez, Miguel Ángel

    2017-10-01

    This paper analyses region-level technical efficiency in nine European countries over the 1995-2007 period. We propose the application of a nonparametric conditional frontier approach to account for the presence of heterogeneous conditions in the form of geographical externalities. Such environmental factors are beyond the control of regional authorities, but may affect the production function. Therefore, they need to be considered in the frontier estimation. Specifically, a spatial autoregressive term is included as an external conditioning factor in a robust order- m model. Thus we can test the hypothesis of non-separability (the external factor impacts both the input-output space and the distribution of efficiencies), demonstrating the existence of significant global interregional spillovers into the production process. Our findings show that geographical externalities affect both the frontier level and the probability of being more or less efficient. Specifically, the results support the fact that the spatial lag variable has an inverted U-shaped non-linear impact on the performance of regions. This finding can be interpreted as a differential effect of interregional spillovers depending on the size of the neighboring economies: positive externalities for small values, possibly related to agglomeration economies, and negative externalities for high values, indicating the possibility of production congestion. Additionally, evidence of the existence of a strong geographic pattern of European regional efficiency is reported and the levels of technical efficiency are acknowledged to have converged during the period under analysis.

  19. Intraspecific N and P stoichiometry of Phragmites australis: geographic patterns and variation among climatic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-Kun; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Liu, Guo-Fang; Pan, Xu; Yang, Xuejun; Li, Wen-Bing; Dai, Wen-Hong; Tang, Shuang-Li; Xiao, Tao; Chen, Ling-Yun; Xiong, Wei; Song, Yao-Bin; Dong, Ming

    2017-02-24

    Geographic patterns in leaf stoichiometry reflect plant adaptations to environments. Leaf stoichiometry variations along environmental gradients have been extensively studied among terrestrial plants, but little has been known about intraspecific leaf stoichiometry, especially for wetland plants. Here we analyzed the dataset of leaf N and P of a cosmopolitan wetland species, Phragmites australis, and environmental (geographic, climate and soil) variables from literature and field investigation in natural wetlands distributed in three climatic regions (subtropical, temperate and highland) across China. We found no clear geographic patterns in leaf nutrients of P. australis across China, except for leaf N:P ratio increasing with altitude. Leaf N and N:P decreased with mean annual temperature (MAT), and leaf N and P were closely related to soil pH, C:N ratio and available P. Redundancy analysis showed that climate and soil variables explained 62.1% of total variation in leaf N, P and N:P. Furthermore, leaf N in temperate region and leaf P in subtropical region increased with soil available P, while leaf N:P in subtropical region decreased with soil pH. These patterns in P. australis different from terrestrial plants might imply that changes in climate and soil properties can exert divergent effects on wetland and terrestrial ecosystems.

  20. Investigating Surface Bias Errors in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model using a Geographic Information System (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    horizontal grid spacing inner domain centered near San Diego, California. The San Diego area contains a mixture of urban , suburban, agricultural, and...Global Forecast System (GFS) model (Environmental Modeling Center 2003). The WRE–N is envisioned to be a rapid-update cycling application of WRF–ARW...surface– hydrology model with the Penn State-NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part I: Model implementation and sensitivity. Monthly Weather Review. 2001a

  1. Study on Rear-end Real-time Data Quality Control Method of Regional Automatic Weather Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the rear-end real-time data quality control method of regional automatic weather station. [Method] The basic content and steps of rear-end real-time data quality control of regional automatic weather station were introduced. Each element was treated with systematic quality control procedure. The existence of rear-end real time data of regional meteorological station in Guangxi was expounded. Combining with relevant elements and linear changes, improvement based on traditiona...

  2. Weathering of Pisha-Sandstones in the Wind-Water Erosion Crisscross Region on the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Two types of pisha-sandstones of purple sandstones and gray sandstones, widely distributing in the wind-water erosion crisscross region of China, were selected and used in laboratory experiments for a better understanding of the drying-wetting-freezing weathering process resulting from the apportionment of water or salt solution to rock samples. Weathering experiments were carried out under the conditions of environment control (including temperature, moisture and salt solution). All rock samples were frequently subjected to 140 drying-wetting-freezing cycles. The influences of weathering process were evaluated. It was found that the different treatments of moisture and salt solution applications could affect the nature of the weathering products resulting from drying-wetting-freezing. It was also observed that salt solution could effectively alleviate the weathering of pisha-sandstones. Although not all the observations could be explained, it was apparent that simulated environmental factors had both direct and indirect effects on the weathering of rocks.

  3. Geographic intersections of regional science: Reflections on Walter Isard's contributions to geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasmeier, Amy

    . In his writing, analyses, and commentaries, Walter Isard contributed significantly to economic geography, inspiring a generation of economic geographers with seminal texts on industrial location and spatial economics and methods of regional analysis - a line of argumentation that explicitly incorporated economic reasoning into an otherwise largely descriptive and inventory-based subdiscipline of geography. His circumscribed view of regional development and industrial location helped precipitate the emergence of the critical turn in economic geography in the late 1970s. He was the one early modern 20th century economics author to successfully wed economics and a certain perspective on space.

  4. Hazards Assessment of Regional Debris Flows Based on Geographic Information Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiaobo; GUI Peng

    2007-01-01

    Supported by the spatial analysis feature of geographic information science and assessment model of regional debris flows, hazards degrees of the debris flows in the Upper Yangtze River Watershed (UYRW) are divided into five grades based on grid cell. The area of no danger, light danger, medium danger, severe danger and extreme severe danger regions respectively are 278 000, 288 000, 217 000, 127 000, 15 000 km2. Furthermore, the counties in the UYRW are classified into four classes based on the hazards degrees in each county. The number of severe danger, medium danger, light danger and no danger counties respectively are 49, 82, 77 and 105. The assessment results will be provided for the hazards forecasting and mitigation in the UYRW and ongoing regionalization of Main Function Regions in China as data and technique framework.

  5. Implementation of an atmospheric sulfur scheme in the HIRLAM regional weather forecast model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekman, Annica [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    2000-02-01

    Sulfur chemistry has been implemented into the regional weather forecast model HIRLAM in order to simulate sulfur fields during specific weather situations. The model calculates concentrations of sulfur dioxide in air (SO{sub 2}(a)), sulfate in air (SO{sub 4}(a)), sulfate in cloud water (SO{sub 4}(aq)) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Modeled concentrations of SO{sub 2}(a), SO{sub 4}(a) and SO{sub 4}(aq) in rain water are compared with observations for two weather situations, one winter case with an extensive stratiform cloud cover and one summer case with mostly convective clouds. A comparison of the weather forecast parameters precipitation, relative humidity, geopotential and temperature with observations is also performed. The results show that the model generally overpredicts the SO{sub 2}(a) concentration and underpredicts the SO{sub 4}(a) concentration. The agreement between modeled and observed SO{sub 4}(aq) in rain water is poor. Calculated turnover times are approximately 1 day for SO{sub 2}(a) and 2-2.5 days for SO{sub 4}(a). For SO{sub 2}(a) this is in accordance with earlier simulated global turnover times, but for SO{sub 4}(a) it is substantially lower. Several sensitivity simulations show that the fractional mean bias and root mean square error decreases, mainly for SO{sub 4}(a) and SO{sub 4}(aq), if an additional oxidant for converting SO{sub 2}(a) to SO{sub 4}(a) is included in the model. All weather forecast parameters, except precipitation, agree better with observations than the sulfur variables do. Wet scavenging is responsible for about half of the deposited sulfur and in addition, a major part of the sulfate production occurs through in-cloud oxidation. Hence, the distribution of clouds and precipitation must be better simulated by the weather forecast model in order to improve the agreement between observed and simulated sulfur concentrations.

  6. Implementation of an atmospheric sulfur scheme in the HIRLAM regional weather forecast model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekman, Annica [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    2000-02-01

    Sulfur chemistry has been implemented into the regional weather forecast model HIRLAM in order to simulate sulfur fields during specific weather situations. The model calculates concentrations of sulfur dioxide in air (SO{sub 2}(a)), sulfate in air (SO{sub 4}(a)), sulfate in cloud water (SO{sub 4}(aq)) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Modeled concentrations of SO{sub 2}(a), SO{sub 4}(a) and SO{sub 4}(aq) in rain water are compared with observations for two weather situations, one winter case with an extensive stratiform cloud cover and one summer case with mostly convective clouds. A comparison of the weather forecast parameters precipitation, relative humidity, geopotential and temperature with observations is also performed. The results show that the model generally overpredicts the SO{sub 2}(a) concentration and underpredicts the SO{sub 4}(a) concentration. The agreement between modeled and observed SO{sub 4}(aq) in rain water is poor. Calculated turnover times are approximately 1 day for SO{sub 2}(a) and 2-2.5 days for SO{sub 4}(a). For SO{sub 2}(a) this is in accordance with earlier simulated global turnover times, but for SO{sub 4}(a) it is substantially lower. Several sensitivity simulations show that the fractional mean bias and root mean square error decreases, mainly for SO{sub 4}(a) and SO{sub 4}(aq), if an additional oxidant for converting SO{sub 2}(a) to SO{sub 4}(a) is included in the model. All weather forecast parameters, except precipitation, agree better with observations than the sulfur variables do. Wet scavenging is responsible for about half of the deposited sulfur and in addition, a major part of the sulfate production occurs through in-cloud oxidation. Hence, the distribution of clouds and precipitation must be better simulated by the weather forecast model in order to improve the agreement between observed and simulated sulfur concentrations.

  7. Land-use planning of Volyn region (Ukraine) using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strielko, Irina; Pereira, Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Land-use development planning is carried out in order to create a favourable environment for human life, sustainable socioeconomic and spatial development. Landscape planning is an important part of land-use development that aims to meet the fundamental principles of sustainable development. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a fundamental tool to make a better landscape planning at different territorial levels, providing data and maps to support decision making. The objective of this work is to create spatio-temporal, territorial and ecological model of development of Volyn region (Ukraine). It is based on existing spatial raster and vector data and includes the analysis of territory dynamics as the aspects responsible for it. A spatial analyst tool was used to zone the areas according to their environmental components and economic activity. This analysis is fundamental to define the basic parameters of sustainability of Volyn region. To carry out this analysis, we determined the demographic capacity of districts and the analysis of spatial parameters of land use. On the basis of the existing natural resources, we observed that there is a need of landscape protection and integration of more are natural areas in the Pan-European Ecological Network. Using GIS technologies to landscape planning in Volyn region, allowed us to identify, natural areas of interest, contribute to a better resource management and conflict resolution. Geographic Information Systems will help to formulate and implement landscape policies, reform the existing administrative system of Volyn region and contribute to a better sustainable development.

  8. Understanding Space Weather influence on earthquake triggering to shield people living in seismic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachikyan, Galina; Inchin, Alexander; Kim, Alexander; Khassanov, Eldar

    2016-07-01

    There is an idea at present that space weather can influence not only the technological infrastructure and people's health, but seismic activity as well. Space weather impact on the Earth results from magnetic reconnection between the Sun's and Earth's magnetic fields. The effectiveness of reconnection depends on sign and magnitude of Z-components in solar wind magnetic field and earth's magnetic field as measured in the geocentric solar magnetosphere (GSM) coordinate system. The more negative value of Zgsm in the solar wind magnetic field, and the more positive value of Zgsm in the geomagnetic field, the more solar wind energy penetrates into the earth's environment due to reconnection. It was found recently by Khachikyan et al. [2012, http://www.scirp.org/journal/ijg] that maximal possible earthquake magnitude in a particular seismic region (seismic potential - Mmax) may be determined, in first approximation, on the base of maximal geomagnetic Zgsm value in this region, namely: Mmax = (5.22 +- 0.17) + (0.78 +- 0.06) x [abs (Zgsm)]. In this report we present statistical results on association between variations in space weather and global seismic activity, and demonstrate that a great Sumatra earthquake (M=9.1, on December 26, 2004, at 00:58:53 GMT) indeed occurred in region where the geomagnetic Zgsm components are largest at the globe. In the time of earthquake occurrence, geomagnetic Zgsm value in the epicenter (3.30N, 95.980E) was equal to ~37147 nT. A range of possible maximal magnitude, as estimated from above relation, could be of 8.8 - 9.2. The recorded magnitude M=9.1 is within this range.

  9. A Space Weather mission concept: Observatories of the Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strugarek Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs are major sources of magnetic storms on Earth and are therefore considered to be the most dangerous space weather events. The Observatories of Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR mission is designed to identify the 3D structure of coronal loops and to study the trigger mechanisms of CMEs in solar Active Regions (ARs as well as their evolution and propagation processes in the inner heliosphere. It also aims to provide monitoring and forecasting of geo-effective CMEs and CIRs. OSCAR would contribute to significant advancements in the field of solar physics, improvements of the current CME prediction models, and provide data for reliable space weather forecasting. These objectives are achieved by utilising two spacecraft with identical instrumentation, located at a heliocentric orbital distance of 1 AU from the Sun. The spacecraft will be separated by an angle of 68° to provide optimum stereoscopic view of the solar corona. We study the feasibility of such a mission and propose a preliminary design for OSCAR.

  10. Regional Prediction of Impending Debris Flow Based on Doppler Weather Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yuhong; WEI Fangqiang; ZHANG Jinghong; GU Linkang; DENG Bo; LIU Hongjiang

    2007-01-01

    Debris flow prediction is one of the important means to reduce the loss caused by debris flow. This paper built a regional prediction model of impending debris flow based on regional environmentalbackground (including topography, geology, land use, and etc.), rainfalland debris flow data. A system of regional prediction of impending debris flow was set up on ArcGIS 9.0 platform according to the model.The system used forecast precipitation data of Doppler weather radarand observational precipitation data as its input data. It could provide aprediction about the possibility of debris flow one to three hours beforeit happened, and was put into use in Liangshan Meteorological Observatory in Sichuan province in the monsoon of 2006.

  11. Prospects for Formation and Development of the Geographical (Territorial) Industrial Clusters in West Kazakhstan Region of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imashev, Eduard Zh.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop and implement an economic and geographic approach to forming and developing geographic (territorial) industrial clusters in regions of Kazakhstan. The purpose necessitates the accomplishment of the following scientific objectives: to investigate scientific approaches and experience of territorial economic…

  12. Geographical Information Systems Assessment of Development Disparities Among Romanian Regions of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN DANIEL MANOLE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New strategies of the European Union, focused directly on regional development or originated from different areas, but leading to changes in this field, had resulted into a set of indices used to monitor the effects of their implementation. Previous studies suggest that flexible systems perform better and could strengthen the administrative capacity of accessing structural and cohesion funds. Our study used the Geographical Information Systems (GIS to produce hierarchies of the territorial indices at NUTS level II, displayed as charts and maps underlining the disparities between the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental aspects of the development. The results suggest that the regions with a low potential of development are situated in the south of Romania, but, most important, underline the potential of the method to be used as a planning tool in regional development, as its flexibility allows for an input with particular focus from different stakeholders, resulting into the selection of different indices and weights.

  13. Regional contamination versus regional dietary differences: Understanding geographic variation in brominated and chlorinated contaminant levels in polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, M.A.; Letcher, R.J.; Aars, J.; Born, E.W.; Branigan, M.; Dietz, R.; Evans, T.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Muir, D.C.G.; Peacock, E.; Sonne, C.

    2011-01-01

    The relative contribution of regional contamination versus dietary differences to geographic variation in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) contaminant levels is unknown. Dietary variation between Alaska Canada, East Greenland, and Svalbard subpopulations was assessed by muscle nitrogen and carbon stable isotope (?? 15N, ?? 13C) and adipose fatty acid (FA) signatures relative to their main prey (ringed seals). Western and southern Hudson Bay signatures were characterized by depleted ?? 15N and ??13C, lower proportions of C20 and C22 monounsaturated FAs and higher proportions of C18 and longer chain polyunsaturated FAs. East Greenland and Svalbard signatures were reversed relative to Hudson Bay. Alaskan ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy by Brazilian geographic regions: findings from the National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Souza Júnior, Paulo Roberto Borges de; Marques, Aline Pinto; Almeida, Wanessa da Silva de; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero

    2016-11-17

    The demographic shift and epidemiologic transition in Brazil have drawn attention to ways of measuring population health that complement studies of mortality. In this paper, we investigate regional differences in healthy life expectancy based on information from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013. In the survey, a three-stage cluster sampling (census tracts, households and individuals) with stratification of the primary sampling units and random selection in all stages was used to select 60,202 Brazilian adults (18 years and over). Healthy life expectancies (HLE) were estimated by Sullivan's method according to sex, age and geographic region, using poor self-rated health for defining unhealthy status. Logistic regression models were used to investigate socioeconomic and regional inequalities in poor self-rated health, after controlling by sex and age. Wide disparities by geographic region were found with the worst indicators in the North and Northeast regions, whether considering educational attainment, material deprivation, or health care utilization. Life expectancy at birth for women and men living in the richest regions was 5 years longer than for those living in the less wealthy regions. Modeling the variation across regions for poor self-rated health, statistically significant effects (p < 0.001) were found for the North and Northeast when compared to the Southeast, even after controlling for age, sex, diagnosis of at least one non-communicable chronic disease, and schooling or socioeconomic class. Marked regional inequalities in HLE were found, with the loss of healthy life much higher among residents of the poorest regions, especially among the elderly. By combining data on self-rated health status and mortality in a single indicator, Healthy Life Expectancy, this study demonstrated the excess burden of poor health experienced by populations in the less wealthy regions of Brazil. To mitigate the effects of social exclusion, the development of strategies

  15. Indices of methylation in sperm DNA from fertile men differ between distinct geographical regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Consales, C; Leter, G; Bonde, J P E

    2014-01-01

    sequences from peripheral blood lymphocyte, can vary with age, gender, alcohol consumption and white blood cell counts. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A cross-sectional study. Individual data were collected from 269 young healthy men of proven fertility living in three geographical regions: Inuits from...... parameters, sperm chromatin integrity, biomarkers of accessory gland function and the plasma concentration of reproductive hormones were associated with sperm DNA methylation levels in men. Associations were evaluated by analysis of variance and linear regression analyses. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE...

  16. Comparing Female Victims of Separation/Divorce Assault across Geographical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter S DeKeseredy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS data show that male-to-female separation/divorce assault varies across geographic regions in the United States, with rural rates of such woman abuse being higher than those for suburban and urban areas. Using the same data set, the main objective of this paper is to present the results of an investigation into whether characteristics of female victims of separation/divorce assault also differ across urban, suburban, and rural communities.

  17. Optical effects of space weathering in lunar crustal magnetic anomaly regions based on CE-1 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Wang, X.; Cui, J.; Fu, X.; Zhang, G.; Yao, M.; Liu, B.; Liu, J.; Li, C.; Ouyang, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The discovery of mini-magnetospheres above the lunar surface suggests that magnetic shielding could have led to anomalous space weathering (little darkening with limited reddening) in magnetic anomaly regions. Using spectral data from Chang'E 1 Imaging Interferometer (IIM) and data from Lunar Prospector's magnetometer, we instigate the relationship between lunar crustal magnetic anomalies and the optical effects in those areas in association with space weathering. The IIM onboard China's Chang'E 1 (CE-1) spacecraft is a Fourier transform Sagnac imaging spectrometer operating in the visible to near infrared (0.48-0.96 μm) spectral range, with 32 channels at spectral intervals of 325.5 cm-1. We selected four regions with crustal magnetic anomalies to study their albedo properties: three lunar swirls (Gerasimovich, Mare Marginis, and Reiner Gamma) and the area antipodal to Herzsprung. We found that all three of the anomalous albedo areas are associated with magnetic anomalies, however, no anomalous albedo feature is found in the last magnetic anomaly area. In addition, we also studied the correlation between magnetic anomaly strength and albedo anomaly on a global scale. Our initial analysis suggests an overall tread of less darkening with increased magnetic anomaly.

  18. Verification of GRAPES unified global and regional numerical weather prediction model dynamic core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XueSheng; HU JiangLin; CHEN DeHui; ZHANG HongLiang; SHEN XueShun; CHEN JiaBin; JI LiRen

    2008-01-01

    During the past few years, most of the new developed numerical weather prediction models adopt the strategy of multi-scale technique. Therefore, China Meteorological Administration has devoted to de-veloping a new generation of global and regional multi-scale model since 2003. In order to validate the performance of the GRAPES (Global and Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System) model both for its scientific design and program coding, a suite of idealized tests has been proposed and conducted, which includes the density flow test, three-dimensional mountain wave and the cross-polar flow test. The density flow experiment indicates that the dynamic core has the ability to simulate the fine scale nonlinear flow structures and its transient features. While the three-dimensional mountain wave test shows that the model can reproduce the horizontal and vertical propagation of internal gravity waves quite well. Cross-polar flow test demonstrates the rationality of both for the semi-Lagrangian departure point calculation and the discretization of the model near the poles. The real case forecasts reveal that the model has the ability to predict the large-scale weather regimes in summer such as the subtropical high, and to capture the major synoptic patterns in the mid and high latitudes.

  19. EPA Region 6 Sole Source Aquifers in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, EPA (1996) [sole_source_aquifers_LA_EPA_1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Polygon layer of EPA Region 6 sole source aquifers in Louisiana. The sole source aquifers represented are Chicot and Southern Hills in Louisiana/Mississippi.

  20. The Genomic Ancestry of Individuals from Different Geographical Regions of Brazil Is More Uniform Than Expected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Di Pietro, Giuliano; Fuchshuber-Moraes, Mateus; Genro, Julia Pasqualini; Hutz, Mara H.; Kehdy, Fernanda de Souza Gomes; Kohlrausch, Fabiana; Magno, Luiz Alexandre Viana; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Moraes, Manoel Odorico; de Moraes, Maria Elisabete Amaral; de Moraes, Milene Raiol; Ojopi, Élida B.; Perini, Jamila A.; Racciopi, Clarice; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea Kely Campos; Rios-Santos, Fabrício; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Sortica, Vinicius A.; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2011-01-01

    Based on pre-DNA racial/color methodology, clinical and pharmacological trials have traditionally considered the different geographical regions of Brazil as being very heterogeneous. We wished to ascertain how such diversity of regional color categories correlated with ancestry. Using a panel of 40 validated ancestry-informative insertion-deletion DNA polymorphisms we estimated individually the European, African and Amerindian ancestry components of 934 self-categorized White, Brown or Black Brazilians from the four most populous regions of the Country. We unraveled great ancestral diversity between and within the different regions. Especially, color categories in the northern part of Brazil diverged significantly in their ancestry proportions from their counterparts in the southern part of the Country, indicating that diverse regional semantics were being used in the self-classification as White, Brown or Black. To circumvent these regional subjective differences in color perception, we estimated the general ancestry proportions of each of the four regions in a form independent of color considerations. For that, we multiplied the proportions of a given ancestry in a given color category by the official census information about the proportion of that color category in the specific region, to arrive at a “total ancestry” estimate. Once such a calculation was performed, there emerged a much higher level of uniformity than previously expected. In all regions studied, the European ancestry was predominant, with proportions ranging from 60.6% in the Northeast to 77.7% in the South. We propose that the immigration of six million Europeans to Brazil in the 19th and 20th centuries - a phenomenon described and intended as the “whitening of Brazil” - is in large part responsible for dissipating previous ancestry dissimilarities that reflected region-specific population histories. These findings, of both clinical and sociological importance for Brazil, should also be

  1. Geographical location and key sensitivity issues of post-industrial regions in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuczynski, Tomasz; Siebielec, Grzegorz; Korzeniowska-Puculek, Renata; Koza, Piotr; Pudelko, Rafal; Lopatka, Artur; Kowalik, Monika

    2009-04-01

    Primary objectives of our work were to spatially delineate post industrial areas of the EU-27 and indicate key environmental, social and economic sensitivity issues for these regions. The density of industrial sites within NUTS-x regions for EU-27 countries was assessed by using CORINE 2000 land cover layer. A development of postindustrial society in Europe represents a strong geographic diversity. There are distinct historical and current differences between regions which form major groups, comprising similar internal characteristics and definable trends in environmental and socioeconomic sense. Regions grouped into postindustrial clusters are fundamentally different from the European average, and are facing specific problems related to global market and political changes. Eastern postindustrial regions can be characterized as socially and economically weak, exhibiting high unemployment rate, low GDP, negative population growth and a strong environmental pressure, represented by a high density of dump sites. Most of the western EU postindustrial areas have been successfully recovered and moved into new economy as shown by most of the indicators. In urban postindustrial zones, however, emission sources of pollutants seem to continually be a major problem--not necessarily in terms of exceeding thresholds, but through a remarkable difference in the amount of pollutants produced relative to other regions.

  2. The Current State and Historico-geographical Background of Mt. Chirisan Region Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the historico-geographical background and current state of immigrants in the area designated as the “Mt. Chirisan Region,” their characteristics, and related integration issues. This article defines the Mt. Chirisan Region as the 7 cities/kuns of Namwŏn-si, Changsu-kun, Koksŏng-kun, Kurye-kun, Hadong-kun, Sanchŏng-kun, and Hamyang-kun. As the Mt. Chirisan Region mainly consists of mountainous and agricultural areas, the immigrant induction effect socio-economically was low relative to urban and industrial areas. It was also noted that, as the percentage of marriage immigration in Mt. Chirisan was high relative to urban or industrial areas, the female foreigner ratio was higher than that of male foreigners. In regard to the home countries of immigrants, women from South-East Asia and North-East Asia accounted for the majority. Also, this article examines the current situation of support programs of 7 local Multicultural Family Support Centers in the Mt. Chirisan Region, their problems, and probably solutions. Based on the historical development of the region and recent social changes, our society and government need to actively develop a higher level of social integration and employment education support programs, and carry out policies that will protect the diverse cultural identities of immigrants. In addition, differentiated multicultural family support programs appropriate for Mt. Chirisan, an inland mountain region, need to be developed.

  3. Pilot age and geographic region of commuter and air taxi crashes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebok, George W; Qiang, Yandong; Baker, Susan P; Li, Guohua

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies of major airline and general aviation crashes have identified a host of risk factors. We examined risk factors related to crashes involving commuter air carrier and air taxi flights. A matched case-control design was applied to assess the association of pilot age, total flight time, and geographic region with commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes (14 CFR Part 135) from 1983-2002 in the United States. A total of 2033 commuter air carrier or air taxi crashes from the National Transportation Safety Board aviation crash database were identified as eligible cases. Controls were randomly selected incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) aviation incident database coded under Part 135 operation. Relative to controls, commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes were less likely to occur in pilots under 30 yr of age (adjusted odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.88) after adjusting for geographic region and total flight time. With adjustment for pilot age and total flight time, the commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes with pilot error were nearly 13 times as likely to be in Alaska as their matched controls (adjusted odds ratio 12.84, 95% confidence interval 5.24-31.45). These results suggest that pilot age may be associated with risk of crash involvement in Part 135 operations. The excess crash risk in Alaska with or without pilot error underscores the importance of environmental hazards in flight safety.

  4. Assessing the Potential of Economic-Geographical Position for Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepan Petrovich Zemtsov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the review of the scientific literature, the category of economic-geographical position (EGP is formalized. The developed method of international and interregional EGP potential assessment is based on the use of gravity models; in the future, it can be widely used in regional studies to explore the benefits of the spatial location of objects (countries, regions, cities, etc.. These calculations for Russian regions have showed a significant spatial differentiation. The regions located near Moscow and St. Petersburg agglomerations have the maximum potential of interregional EGP, the potential decreases uniformly to the east. The maximum international EGP potential is concentrated in the regions on the coast of the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea and the Sea of Japan. The potential of the Kaliningrad region is in 5.6 times higher than it is for the Tyva Republic. In addition, it is revealed a significant increase in the total EGP potential in the 2000s, and its shift to the southern regions of the Far East due to the growth of the Asia-Pacific economies. The regions with a high and low efficiency of EGP use are revealed. The results are used to identify the connections between the EGP potential and the indicators of socio-economic development. It is found that a favorable EGP is one of the factors for gross regional productgrowth, the growth of investment and foreign trade, migration growth and spread of new technologies. Formalizing EGP as a category allows to use it to predict the spatial changes in the socioeconomic development of Russia.

  5. A PBL-radiation model for application to regional numerical weather prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Bo

    1989-01-01

    Often in the short-range limited-area numerical weather prediction (NWP) of extratropical weather systems the effects of planetary boundary layer (PBL) processes are considered secondarily important. However, it may not be the case for the regional NWP of mesoscale convective systems over the arid and semi-arid highlands of the southwestern and south-central United States in late spring and summer. Over these dry regions, the PBL can grow quite high up into the lower middle troposphere (600 mb) due to very effective solar heating and hence a vigorous air-land thermal interaction can occur. The interaction representing a major heat source for regional dynamical systems can not be ignored. A one-dimensional PBL-radiation model was developed. The model PBL consists of a constant-flux surface layer superposed with a well-mixed (Ekman) layer. The vertical eddy mixing coefficients for heat and momentum in the surface layer are determined according to the surface similarity theory, while their vertical profiles in the Ekman layer are specified with a cubic polynomial. Prognostic equations are used for predicting the height of the nonneutral PBL. The atmospheric radiation is parameterized to define the surface heat source/sink for the growth and decay of the PBL. A series of real-data numerical experiments has been carried out to obtain a physical understanding how the model performs under various atmospheric and surface conditions. This one-dimensional model will eventually be incorporated into a mesoscale prediction system. The ultimate goal of this research is to improve the NWP of mesoscale convective storms over land.

  6. Comparison of subtypes of penile squamous cell carcinoma from high and low incidence geographical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Alcides; Lezcano, Cecilia; Cubilla, Antonio L; Tamboli, Pheroze; Ro, Jae; Ayala, Alberto

    2010-08-01

    There is a worldwide geographical variation in the incidence of penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC); some subtypes are HPV-related (warty, basaloid) while others (keratinizing variants) are not. The aims of this study were to compare the distribution of different histological subtypes of PSCC from regions of low (Paraguay, 144 cases) and high (USA, 157 cases) incidence and to identify and compare tumors with and without warty and/or basaloid morphology. The distribution of subtypes in the Paraguayan and the American series was: usual, 49.3 and 46.5%; verrucous, 8.3 and 7.6%; papillary NOS, 7.6 and 5.7%; warty, 6.9 and 8.3%; basaloid, 4.2 and 7.0%; sarcomatoid, 0.7 and 0.6%; adenosquamous, 3.5 and 0.6%; and mixed, 19.4 and 23.6%, respectively. The distribution of mixed PSCC was: warty-basaloid, 50.0 and 59.5%; usual-verrucous, 21.4 and 21.6%; usual-warty, 14.3 and 8.1%; usual-basaloid, 7.1 and 0.0%; usual-papillary, 3.6 and 5.4%; and others, 3.6 and 5.4%, respectively. In conclusion, we found no geographical difference in the incidence of histological subtypes (p = 0.6501), mixed PSCC (p = 0.5937) or HPV-related tumors (p = 0.2505). Geographical variation may be the result of staging variation at clinical presentation or of pathological diagnosis. The identification of similar histological subtypes in both series validates this classification approach for penile cancer. The tendency for typical SCC to mix with verrucous and papillary carcinomas and of the basaloid to preferentially mix with benign condyloma and condylomatous (warty) carcinomas would support the hypothesis of the existence of an etiologically different dual population of penile tumors.

  7. Molecular characterisation of Newcastle disease virus isolates from different geographical regions in Mozambique in 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Fringe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is regarded as a highly contagious and economically important disease in poultry and has a worldwide distribution. Viral determinants for Newcastle disease virus (NDV virulence are not completely understood and viruses of different pathotypes can be found at live-bird markets in different geographical areas. The prevalence of Newcastle disease in village poultry in Mozambique is not well documented and strains of NDV involved in yearly outbreaks are unknown. The fusion (F protein is an important determinant of pathogenicity of the virus and is used commonly for phylogenetic analysis. Newcastle disease viruses from various geographical regions of Mozambique were sequenced and compared genetically to published sequences obtained from GenBank. Samples were collected in three different areas of Mozambique and NDV was isolated by infection of embryonated chicken eggs. Sequence analysis of the F-protein encoding gene was used to classify 28 isolates from Mozambique into genotypes and compare these genotypes phylogenetically with existing genotypes found in GenBank. The isolates obtained from Mozambique grouped mainly into two clades. In the first clade, 12 isolates grouped together with sequences of isolates representing genotypes from Mozambique that were previously described. In the second clade, 16 isolates group together with sequences obtained from GenBank originating from Australia, China, South Africa and the USA. Eleven of these isolates showed a high similarity with sequences from South Africa. The number of samples sequenced (n = 28, as well as the relatively small geographical collection area used in this study, are too small to be a representation of the circulating viruses in Mozambique in 2005. Viruses characterised in this study belonged to lineage 5b, a similar finding of a previous study 10 years ago. From this data, it merely can be concluded that no new introduction of the virus occurred from 1995 to 2005 in

  8. Molecular characterisation of Newcastle disease virus isolates from different geographical regions in Mozambique in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fringe, Raul; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Ebersohn, Karen; Bisschop, Shahn; Abolnik, Celia; Venter, Estelle

    2012-08-31

    Newcastle disease (ND) is regarded as a highly contagious and economically important disease in poultry and has a worldwide distribution. Viral determinants for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) virulence are not completely understood and viruses of different pathotypes can be found at live-bird markets in different geographical areas. The prevalence of Newcastle disease in village poultry in Mozambique is not well documented and strains of NDV involved in yearly outbreaks are unknown. The fusion (F) protein is an important determinant of pathogenicity of the virus and is used commonly for phylogenetic analysis. Newcastle disease viruses from various geographical regions of Mozambique were sequenced and compared genetically to published sequences obtained from GenBank. Samples were collected in three different areas of Mozambique and NDV was isolated by infection of embryonated chicken eggs. Sequence analysis of the F-protein encoding gene was used to classify 28 isolates from Mozambique into genotypes and compare these genotypes phylogenetically with existing genotypes found in GenBank. The isolates obtained from Mozambique grouped mainly into two clades. In the first clade, 12 isolates grouped together with sequences of isolates representing genotypes from Mozambique that were previously described. In the second clade, 16 isolates group together with sequences obtained from GenBank originating from Australia, China, South Africa and the USA. Eleven of these isolates showed a high similarity with sequences from South Africa. The number of samples sequenced (n = 28), as well as the relatively small geographical collection area used in this study, are too small to be a representation of the circulating viruses in Mozambique in 2005. Viruses characterised in this study belonged to lineage 5b, a similar finding of a previous study 10 years ago. From this data, it merely can be concluded that no new introduction of the virus occurred from 1995 to 2005 in Mozambique.

  9. A comparison of seasonal trends in asthma exacerbations among children from geographic regions with different climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Julia A; McLaughlin, Anne P; Stenger, Philip J; Patrie, James; Brown, Mark A; El-Dahr, Jane M; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Byrd, Nora J; Heymann, Peter W

    2016-11-01

    The fall peak in childhood asthma exacerbations is thought to be related to an increase in viral infections and allergen exposure when children return to school. Whether the seasonality of asthma attacks among children from different geographic regions follows similar trends is unclear. To compare seasonal trends in asthma exacerbations among school-age children who lived in different geographic locations, with different climates, within the United States. Hospital billing data bases were examined to determine the monthly number of school-age children who were hospitalized or treated in the emergency department (ED) for asthma exacerbations. Data from four cities within three states were compared. Climate data were obtained from archives of the National Climate Data Center, U.S. Department of Commerce. An annual peak in asthma exacerbations was observed during the fall months (September through November) among children who lived in Charlottesville, Virginia, as well as throughout the state of Virginia. An increase in exacerbations, which peaked in November, was observed for exacerbations among children who lived in Tucson, Arizona, and Yuma, Arizona. In contrast, exacerbations among children from New Orleans, Louisiana, increased in September but remained elevated throughout the school year. Although there was annual variation in the frequency of exacerbations over time, the seasonal patterns observed remained similar within the locations from year to year. A nadir in the frequency of attacks was observed during the summer months in all the locations. Seasonal peaks for asthma exacerbations varied among the children who lived in geographic locations with different climates, and were not restricted to the beginning of the school year.

  10. Trends in the risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in five Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Marinho de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To analyze the trends in risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases in the northern, northeastern, southern, southeastern, and central western Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996. METHODS - Data on mortality due to cardiovascular, cardiac ischemic, and cerebrovascular diseases in 5 Brazilian geographic regions were obtained from the Ministry of Health. Population estimates for the time period from 1978 to 1996 in the 5 Brazilian geographic regions were calculated by interpolation with the Lagrange method, based on the census data from 1970, 1980, 1991, and the population count of 1996, for each age bracket and sex. Trends were analyzed with the multiple linear regression model. RESULTS - Cardiovascular diseases showed a declining trend in the southern, southeastern, and northern Brazilian geographic regions in all age brackets and for both sexes. In the northeastern and central western regions, an increasing trend in the risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases occurred, except for the age bracket from 30 to 39 years, which showed a slight reduction. This resulted from the trends of cardiac ischemic and cerebrovascular diseases. The analysis of the trend in the northeastern and northern regions was impaired by the great proportion of poorly defined causes of death. CONCLUSION - The risk of death due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and cardiac ischemic diseases decreased in the southern and southeastern regions, which are the most developed regions in the country, and increased in the least developed regions, mainly in the central western region.

  11. A Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Ali Idarous; Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Due to the lack of dependency for routing initiation and an inadequate allocated sextant on responding messages, the secure geographic routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have attracted considerable attention. However, the existing protocols are more likely to drop packets when legitimate nodes fail to respond to the routing initiation messages while attackers in the allocated sextant manage to respond. Furthermore, these protocols are designed with inefficient collection window and inadequate verification criteria which may lead to a high number of attacker selections. To prevent the failure to find an appropriate relay node and undesirable packet retransmission, this paper presents Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) to increase the probability of selecting the appropriate relay node. By extending the allocated sextant and applying different message contention priorities more legitimate nodes can be admitted in the routing process. Moreover, the paper also proposed the bound collection window for a sufficient collection time and verification cost for both attacker identification and isolation. Extensive simulation experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol in comparison with other existing protocols. The results demonstrate that SRBGR increases network performance in terms of the packet delivery ratio and isolates attacks such as Sybil and Black hole. PMID:28121992

  12. Neospora spp. antibodies in horses from two geographical regions of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Barbosa de Moura

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine occurrences ofNeospora spp. IgG antibodies in horses from two geographical regions of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, and identify risk factors for infection. Analyses were performed on 615 samples using the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT ≥ 1:50. Out of the 615 samples, 25 (4.1% were positive for Neospora spp. The titers for Neospora spp. were distributed as follows: 1:50 (13, 1:100 (eight, 1:200 (three and 1:400 (one. Out of the 311 samples taken in the mountain region, eight were positive (2.6%. Among the samples from the coastal region (304, 17 had Neospora spp. antibodies, thus indicating occurrence of 5.6%. Although no statistically significant difference was observed (P = 0.06704, the prevalence among animals of the coast was 2.2 times higher than that of the mountain region. Contact with dogs and/or cattle (P = 0.007596 were identified as risk factor forNeospora spp. infection.

  13. Neospora spp. antibodies in horses from two geographical regions of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Anderson Barbosa; da Silva, Márcio Orides; Farias, Juliana Antunes; Vieira-Neto, Achilles; de Souza, Antonio Pereira; Sartor, Amélia Aparecida; Fonteque, Joandes Henrique; Bunn, Silvério

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine occurrences of Neospora spp. IgG antibodies in horses from two geographical regions of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, and identify risk factors for infection. Analyses were performed on 615 samples using the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT ≥ 1:50). Out of the 615 samples, 25 (4.1%) were positive for Neospora spp. The titers for Neospora spp. were distributed as follows: 1:50 (13), 1:100 (eight), 1:200 (three) and 1:400 (one). Out of the 311 samples taken in the mountain region, eight were positive (2.6%). Among the samples from the coastal region (304), 17 had Neospora spp. antibodies, thus indicating occurrence of 5.6%. Although no statistically significant difference was observed (P = 0.06704), the prevalence among animals of the coast was 2.2 times higher than that of the mountain region. Contact with dogs and/or cattle (P = 0.007596) were identified as risk factor for Neospora spp. infection.

  14. Impact of various observing systems on weather analysis and forecast over the Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Randhir; Ojha, Satya P.; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the potential impact of various types of data on weather forecast over the Indian region, a set of data-denial experiments spanning the entire month of July 2012 is executed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and its three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system. The experiments are designed to allow the assessment of mass versus wind observations and terrestrial versus space-based instruments, to evaluate the relative importance of the classes of conventional instrument such as radiosonde, and finally to investigate the role of individual spaceborne instruments. The moist total energy norm is used for validation and forecast skill assessment. The results show that the contribution of wind observations toward error reduction is larger than mass observations in the short range (48 h) forecast. Terrestrial-based observations generally contribute more than space-based observations except for the moisture fields, where the role of the space-based instruments becomes more prevalent. Only about 50% of individual instruments are found to be beneficial in this experiment configuration, with the most important role played by radiosondes. Thereafter, Meteosat Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMVs) (only for short range forecast) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) are second and third, followed by surface observations, Sounder for Probing Vertical Profiles of Humidity (SAPHIR) radiances and pilot observations. Results of the additional experiments of comparative performance of SSM/I total precipitable water (TPW), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS), and SAPHIR radiances indicate that SSM/I is the most important instrument followed by SAPHIR and MHS for improving the quality of the forecast over the Indian region. Further, the impact of single SAPHIR instrument (onboard Megha-Tropiques) is significantly larger compared to three MHS instruments (onboard NOAA-18/19 and MetOp-A).

  15. Observed & Modeled Changes in the Onset of Spring: A Preliminary Comparative Analysis by Geographic Regions of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, C.

    2012-12-01

    Phenology, the study of seasonal life cycle events in plants and animals, is a well-recognized indicator of climate change impacts on people and nature. Models, experiments, and observational studies show changes in plant and animal phenology as a function of environmental change. Current research aims to improve our understanding of changes by enhancing existing models, analyzing observations, synthesizing previous research, and comparing outputs. Local to regional climatology is a critical driver of phenological variation of organisms across scales. Because plants respond to the cumulative effects of daily weather over an extended period, timing of life cycle events are effective integrators of climate data. One specific measure, leaf emergence, is particularly important because it often shows a strong response to temperature change, and is crucial for assessment of processes related to start and duration of the growing season. Schwartz et al. (2006) developed a suite of models (the "Spring Indices") linking plant development from historical data from leafing and flowering of cloned lilac and honeysuckle with basic climatic drivers to monitor changes related to the start of the spring growing season. These models can be generated at any location that has daily max-min temperature time series. The new version of these models is called the "Extended Spring Indices," or SI-x (Schwartz et al. in press). The SI-x model output (first leaf date and first bloom date) are produced similarly to the original models (SI-o), but do not incorporate accumulated chilling hours; rather energy accumulation starts for all stations on January 1. This change extends the locations SI model output can be generated into the sub-tropics, allowing full coverage of the conterminous USA. Both SI model versions are highly correlated, with mean bias and mean absolute differences around two days or less, and a similar bias and absolute errors when compared to cloned lilac data. To

  16. The European ALMA Regional Centre Network: A Geographically Distributed User Support Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Andreani, Paola; Barta, Miroslav; Bertoldi, Frank; Brand, Jan; Gueth, Frederique; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Maercker, Matthias; Massardi, Marcella; Muehle, Stefanie; Muxlow, Thomas; Richards, Anita; Schilke, Peter; Tilanus, Remo; Vlemmings, Wouter; Afonso, Jose; Messias, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been a paradigm shift from centralised to geographically distributed resources. Individual entities are no longer able to host or afford the necessary expertise in-house, and, as a consequence, society increasingly relies on widespread collaborations. Although such collaborations are now the norm for scientific projects, more technical structures providing support to a distributed scientific community without direct financial or other material benefits are scarce. The network of European ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) nodes is an example of such an internationally distributed user support network. It is an organised effort to provide the European ALMA user community with uniform expert support to enable optimal usage and scientific output of the ALMA facility. The network model for the European ARC nodes is described in terms of its organisation, communication strategies and user support.

  17. Tool for evaluating the evolution Space Weather Regional Warning Centers under the innovation point of view: the Case Study of the Embrace Space Weather Program Early Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a tool for measuring the evolutional stage of the space weather regional warning centers using the approach of the innovative evolution starting from the perspective presented by Figueiredo (2009, Innovation Management: Concepts, metrics and experiences of companies in Brazil. Publisher LTC, Rio de Janeiro - RJ). It is based on measuring the stock of technological skills needed to perform a certain task that is (or should) be part of the scope of a space weather center. It also addresses the technological capacity for innovation considering the accumulation of technological and learning capabilities, instead of the usual international indices like number of registered patents. Based on this definition, we have developed a model for measuring the capabilities of the Brazilian Study and Monitoring Program Space Weather (Embrace), a program of the National Institute for Space Research (INPE), which has gone through three national stages of development and an international validation step. This program was created in 2007 encompassing competence from five divisions of INPE in order to carry out the data collection and maintenance of the observing system in space weather; to model processes of the Sun-Earth system; to provide real-time information and to forecast space weather; and provide diagnostic their effects on different technological systems. In the present work, we considered the issues related to the innovation of micro-processes inherent to the nature of the Embrace program, not the macro-economic processes, despite recognizing the importance of these. During the development phase, the model was submitted to five scientists/managers from five different countries member of the International Space Environment Service (ISES) who presented their evaluations, concerns and suggestions. It was applied to the Embrace program through an interview form developed to be answered by professional members of regional warning centers. Based on the returning

  18. Identifying geographical regions serviced by hospitals to assess laboratory-based outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sonja; Shariff, Salimah Z; Beyea, Michael M; Weir, Matthew A; Hands, Theresa; Kearns, Glen; Garg, Amit X

    2013-01-01

    Objective To define geographical regions (forward sortation areas; FSAs) in Southwestern Ontario, Canada from which patients would reliably present to a hospital with linked laboratory data if they developed adverse events related to medications dispensed in outpatient pharmacies. Design Descriptive research. Setting Forty-five hospitals in Southwestern Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2009. Participants Patients aged 66 years and older who received an outpatient prescription for any drug and presented to the emergency department in the subsequent 120 days. Main outcome measure The proportion of patients in a given FSA presenting to an emergency department at a hospital with linked laboratory data versus a hospital without linked laboratory data. To be included in the catchment area at least 90% of emergency department visits in an FSA must have occurred at laboratory-linked hospitals in a given year. Results Over the study period, there were 649 713 emergency department visits by patients with recent prescription claims from pharmacies in 1 of 118 FSAs. In total, 141 302 of these patients presented to an emergency department at a laboratory-linked hospital. For the year 2003, 12 FSAs met our criteria to be in the catchment area and this number grew to 25 FSAs by the year 2009. Conclusions The relevant geographical regions for hospitals with linked laboratory data have been successfully identified. Studies can now be conducted using these well-defined areas to obtain reliable information on the incidence and absolute risk of presenting to hospital with laboratory abnormalities in older adults dispensed commonly prescribed medications in outpatient pharmacies. PMID:23293246

  19. Integrating emergy evaluation and geographic information systems for monitoring resource use in the Abruzzo region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulselli, Riccardo Maria

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an application of an environmental accounting method, namely emergy evaluation, developed for the monitoring and assessment of environmental resource use by local communities in the Abruzzo Region (Italy). Once quantified and classified according to their origin (renewable or non-renewable, local or external), emergy flows were elaborated through a geographic information system (GIS) that allowed us to represent their spatial distribution throughout the region. Outcomes took the form of patterns in which different emergy intensities, namely empower (unit: seJ yr(-1)), were represented through a graduated grey-scale and visualized on a cartographic basis. The concentration of emergy flows, depending on the activity of local communities, showed variable levels of environmental load in different areas. In particular, spatial zones with homogeneous values of empower density (unit: seJ yr(-1) km(-2))--high, medium and low--were detected in order to identify areas with a similar "thermodynamic" nature, emergy being a thermodynamics based function. This allowed for the representation, at a glance, of a kind of geography that mirrors the behavior of a population settled in an area as additional information for investigating the effects of the use of urban structures and functions and improving our understanding of regional systems. A combined use of emergy evaluation and GIS could thus provide a complementary view of a territorial system and inform policy makers for planning specific strategies of future development.

  20. Regional variation in colorectal cancer testing and geographic availability of care in a publicly insured population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Stephanie B; Kuo, Tzy-Mey; Goyal, Ravi K; Meyer, Anne-Marie; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Gillen, Emily M; Tyree, Seth; Lewis, Carmen L; Crutchfield, Trisha M; Martens, Christa E; Tangka, Florence; Richardson, Lisa C; Pignone, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Despite its demonstrated effectiveness, colorectal cancer (CRC) testing is suboptimal, particularly in vulnerable populations such as those who are publicly insured. Prior studies provide an incomplete picture of the importance of the intersection of multilevel factors affecting CRC testing across heterogeneous geographic regions where vulnerable populations live. We examined CRC testing across regions of North Carolina by using population-based Medicare and Medicaid claims data from disabled individuals who turned 50 years of age during 2003-2008. We estimated multilevel models to examine predictors of CRC testing, including distance to the nearest endoscopy facility, county-level endoscopy procedural rates, and demographic and community contextual factors. Less than 50% of eligible individuals had evidence of CRC testing; men, African-Americans, Medicaid beneficiaries, and those living furthest away from endoscopy facilities had significantly lower odds of CRC testing, with significant regional variation. These results can help prioritize intervention strategies to improve CRC testing among publicly insured, disabled populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relations between common geographic descriptors and discharge nutrient concentrations across regions and at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juston, John; Destouni, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    Most river basins and coastal regions worldwide are not monitored adequately to support direct data based nutrient load computations to receiving waters. Therefore, there is continued need to investigate basic relationships between upstream conditions and downstream nutrient discharges. Much work has been done in the past to identify land use based nutrient yield coefficients, however yield coefficients disconnect load estimation from the hydrological cycle and thus expected changes. Here, we investigate relationships between recent multi-year flow-averaged riverine total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) concentrations as a function of upstream population density, percent crop and total agricultural cover, and fertilisation load over a wide range of scale (5E0-1.8E6 km2) and characteristics (e.g., 0-95% crop cover). We developed two new and utilised four previously published datasets (n=150 basins in total) to bridge understanding across three major drainage areas: the Baltic Sea, the Mississippi River basin and eastern seaboard, U.S.A. Significant positive correlations were observed in most cases between TN and TP concentrations and the geographic variables. Most noteworthy were strong and consistent relationships across the six datasets and three regions for TN concentration as a function of both percent crop cover and basin fertilisation load. In comparison, TP relationships indicated scale and region dependence. Simple empirical models for TN and TP prediction were calibrated and tested against independent data (n=113). These results are relevant to understanding how nutrient export functions across regions, and can also be useful for first order load estimation (provided complimentary flow data) in other less-well monitored non-arid regions.

  2. Classification of rainfall events for weather forecasting purposes in andean region of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Hincapié, Joan Nathalie; Romo Melo, Liliana; Vélez Upegui, Jorge Julian; Chang, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a comparative analysis of the results of applying different methodologies for the identification and classification of rainfall events of different duration in meteorological records of the Colombian Andean region. In this study the work area is the urban and rural area of Manizales that counts with a monitoring hydro-meteorological network. This network is composed of forty-five (45) strategically located stations, this network is composed of forty-five (45) strategically located stations where automatic weather stations record seven climate variables: air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, rainfall, solar radiation and barometric pressure. All this information is sent wirelessly every five (5) minutes to a data warehouse located at the Institute of Environmental Studies-IDEA. With obtaining the series of rainfall recorded by the hydrometeorological station Palogrande operated by the National University of Colombia in Manizales (http://froac.manizales.unal.edu.co/bodegaIdea/); it is with this information that we proceed to perform behavior analysis of other meteorological variables, monitored at surface level and that influence the occurrence of such rainfall events. To classify rainfall events different methodologies were used: The first according to Monjo (2009) where the index n of the heavy rainfall was calculated through which various types of precipitation are defined according to the intensity variability. A second methodology that permitted to produce a classification in terms of a parameter β introduced by Rice and Holmberg (1973) and adapted by Llasat and Puigcerver, (1985, 1997) and the last one where a rainfall classification is performed according to the value of its intensity following the issues raised by Linsley (1977) where the rains can be considered light, moderate and strong fall rates to 2.5 mm / h; from 2.5 to 7.6 mm / h and above this value respectively for the previous classifications. The main

  3. Optimal Use of Space-Borne Advanced Infrared and Microwave Soundings for Regional Numerical Weather Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chian-Yi Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Satellite observations can either be assimilated as radiances or as retrieved physical parameters to reduce error in the initial conditions used by the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP model. Assimilation of radiances requires a radiative transfer model to convert atmospheric state in model space to that in radiance space, thus requiring a lot of computational resources especially for hyperspectral instruments with thousands of channels. On the other hand, assimilating the retrieved physical parameters is computationally more efficient as they are already in thermodynamic states, which can be compared with NWP model outputs through the objective analysis scheme. A microwave (MW sounder and an infrared (IR sounder have their respective observational limitation due to the characteristics of adopted spectra. The MW sounder observes at much larger field-of-view (FOV compared to an IR sounder. On the other hand, MW has the capability to reveal the atmospheric sounding when the clouds are presented, but IR observations are highly sensitive to clouds, The advanced IR sounder is able to reduce uncertainties in the retrieved atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles due to its higher spectral-resolution than the MW sounder which has much broader spectra bands. This study tries to quantify the optimal use of soundings retrieved from the microwave sounder AMSU and infrared sounder AIRS onboard the AQUA satellite in the regional Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF model through three-dimensional variational (3D-var data assimilation scheme. Four experiments are conducted by assimilating soundings from: (1 clear AIRS single field-of-view (SFOV; (2 retrieved from using clear AMSU and AIRS observations at AMSU field-of-view (SUP; (3 all SFOV soundings within AMSU FOVs must be clear; and (4 SUP soundings which must have all clear SFOV soundings within the AMSU FOV. A baseline experiment assimilating only conventional data is generated for comparison

  4. The impact of weather conditions on Culex pipiens and Culex restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance: a case study in Peel Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiafeng; Ogden, Nick H; Zhu, Huaiping

    2011-03-01

    Mosquito populations are sensitive to long-term variations in climate and short-term variations in weather. Mosquito abundance is a key determinant of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases, such as West Nile virus (WNV). In this work, the short-term impact of weather conditions (temperature and precipitation) on Culex pipiens L.-Culex restuans Theobald mosquito abundance in Peel Region, Ontario, Canada, was investigated using the 2002-2009 mosquito data collected from the WNV surveillance program managed by Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care and a gamma-generalized linear model. There was a clear association between weather conditions (temperature and precipitation) and mosquito abundance, which allowed the definition of threshold criteria for temperature and precipitation conditions for mosquito population growth. A predictive statistical model for mosquito population based on weather conditions was calibrated using real weather and mosquito surveillance data, and validated using a subset of surveillance data. Results showed that WNV vector abundance on any one day could be predicted with reasonable accuracy from relationships with mean degree-days >9 degrees C over the 11 preceding days, and precipitation 35 d previously. This finding provides optimism for the development of weather-generated forecasting for WNV risk that could be used in decision support systems for interventions such as mosquito control.

  5. nowCOAST's Map Service for Geo-Referenced Hyperlinks to Forecast Discussions for Geographic Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST geolinks map service provides maps depicting the geographic areas where NWS regional weather forecast discussions for inland areas,...

  6. Mapping malaria in municipalities of the Coffee Triangle region of Colombia using Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Orrego-Acevedo, César A; Zambrano-Muñoz, Yazmin; García-Folleco, Francisco J; Herrera-Giraldo, Albert C; Lozada-Riascos, Carlos O

    2015-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have been used extensively for the development of epidemiological maps of malaria but not in the Coffee Triangle region of Colombia, endemic for P. vivax, P. falciparum and P. malariae. Surveillance case data (2007-2011) were used to estimate annual incidence rates per Plasmodium spp. (cases/100,000 pop) to develop the first malaria maps in the 53 municipalities of this region (departments Caldas, Quindío, Risaralda). The GIS software used was Kosmo Desktop 3.0RC1(®). Thirty thematic maps were developed according to the municipalities, years, parasite etiology, and uncomplicated and complicated cases. A total of 6582 cases were reported (6478 uncomplicated and 104 complicated, 77.8% Risaralda), for a cumulated rate of 269.46 cases/100,000 pop. Among uncomplicated cases, 5722 corresponded to P. vivax (234.25 cases/100,000 pop), 475 to P. falciparum (19.45 cases/100,000 pop), 8 to P. malariae (0.33 cases/100,000 pop) and 273 mixed (P. falciparum/P. vivax) (11.18 cases/100,000 pop). The highest rate reported was in the more undeveloped and rural municipality of Risaralda (Pueblo Rico, 57.7 cases/1000 pop, 2009). The burden of disease was concentrated in one department (>75% of the region). The use of GIS-based epidemiological maps helps to guide decision-making for the prevention and control of this public health problem that still represents a significant issue in the region and the country, particularly in children.

  7. Distribution of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris from different geographical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinchev, Dragomir; Janda, Bogdan; Evstatieva, Liuba; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Aslani, Mohammad R; Kostova, Ivanka

    2008-01-01

    The steroidal saponins of Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) are considered to be the factor responsible for biological activity of products derived from this plant. The activity depends on the concentration and the composition of active saponins, which in turn is influenced by the geographical origin of plant material. Samples of T. terrestris collected in Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, Macedonia, Turkey, Georgia, Iran, Vietnam and India were analyzed by LC-ESI/MS/MS for the presence and the concentration of protodioscin (1), prototribestin (2), pseudoprotodioscin (3), dioscin (4), tribestin (5) and tribulosin (6). The flavonoid rutin (7) was also included in the comparison. The results revealed distinct differences in the content of these compounds depending on region of sample collection, plant part studied and stage of plant development. The samples from Bulgaria, Turkey, Greece, Serbia, Macedonia, Georgia and Iran exhibited similar chemical profile and only some quantitative difference in the content of 1-7 with protodioscin (1) and prototribestin (2) as main components. The Vietnamese and Indian samples exhibit totally different chemical profile. They lack 2 and 5, while tribulosin (6) is present in high amounts. Compounds different from 1 to 7 are dominating in these 3 samples. The presented results suggested the existence of one chemotype common to the East South European and West Asian regions. Most probably, the Vietnamese and Indian samples belong to other chemotypes which are still to be studied and characterized. No clear correlation between the burrs morphology and the chemical composition of the samples has been found.

  8. Generating extreme weather event sets from very large ensembles of regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Neil; Guillod, Benoit; Otto, Friederike; Allen, Myles; Jones, Richard; Hall, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Generating extreme weather event sets from very large ensembles of regional climate models Neil Massey, Benoit P. Guillod, Friederike E. L. Otto, Myles R. Allen, Richard Jones, Jim W. Hall Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Extreme events can have large impacts on societies and are therefore being increasingly studied. In particular, climate change is expected to impact the frequency and intensity of these events. However, a major limitation when investigating extreme weather events is that, by definition, only few events are present in observations. A way to overcome this issue it to use large ensembles of model simulations. Using the volunteer distributed computing (VDC) infrastructure of weather@home [1], we run a very large number (10'000s) of RCM simulations over the European domain at a resolution of 25km, with an improved land-surface scheme, nested within a free-running GCM. Using VDC allows many thousands of climate model runs to be computed. Using observations for the GCM boundary forcings we can run historical "hindcast" simulations over the past 100 to 150 years. This allows us, due to the chaotic variability of the atmosphere, to ascertain how likely an extreme event was, given the boundary forcings, and to derive synthetic event sets. The events in these sets did not actually occur in the observed record but could have occurred given the boundary forcings, with an associated probability. The event sets contain time-series of fields of meteorological variables that allow impact modellers to assess the loss the event would incur. Projections of events into the future are achieved by modelling projections of the sea-surface temperature (SST) and sea-ice boundary forcings, by combining the variability of the SST in the observed record with a range of warming signals derived from the varying responses of SSTs in the CMIP5 ensemble to elevated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in three RCP scenarios. Simulating the future with a

  9. Impact of Circulation Weather Types in the study of Landslides in the Northern Lisbon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvação, Nadia; Trigo, Ricardo; Câmara, Carlos; Zêzere, José Luis

    2010-05-01

    Landslides in the region north of Lisbon during the last 60 years have been induced almost entirely by rainfall, and landslide activity has been confined to very wet periods. Previous results obtained using empirical relationships between rainfall intensity and slope instability show that critical rainfall conditions for failure are not the same for different types of landslides (Zêzere et al, 2008). Shallow translational soil slips have been related to intense rainfall periods ranging from 1 to 15 days, while deep slope movements (translational slides, rotational slides and complex and composite slope movements) have been occurred in relation to longer periods of less intense rain, lasting from 30 to 90 days. The different time span is consistent with the distinct hydrological triggering conditions related to different types of landslides. Intense rainfall is responsible by the rapid growth of pore pressure and by the loss of the apparent cohesion of thin soils, resulting in failure within the soil material or at the contact with the underlying impermeable bedrock. Long lasting precipitation periods allows the steady rising of the groundwater table, thus resulting in deep failures in soils and rocks by the reduction of shear strength. Rainfall information regarding 19 important landslide events occurred between 1958 and 2001, and the knowledge of the circulation weather types (CWTs) affecting those days, allow us to study the relationship between the CWTs frequency and the occurrence of landslide episodes. We have identified 10 basic CWTs (Cyclonic, Anticyclonic and 8 directional types) following the methodology previously adopted (Trigo and DaCamara, 2000). The composites and anomalies of several meteorological fields associated to landslide events show a large precipitation anomaly in the central region of Portugal and an anomalous low-pressure system located northwest of Iberia. This pattern is similar for both shallow and deep landslides events. However, for

  10. Species Diversity Distribution Patterns of Chinese Endemic Seed Plants Based on Geographical Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Ma, Keping; Huang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Based on a great number of literatures, we established the database about the Chinese endemic seed plants and analyzed the compositions, growth form, distribution and angiosperm original families of them within three big natural areas and seven natural regions. The results indicate that the above characters of Chinese endemic plants take on relative rule at the different geographical scales. Among the three big natural areas, Eastern Monsoon area has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas Northwest Dryness area is the lowest. For life forms, herbs dominate. In contrast, the proportion of herbs of Eastern Monsoon area is remarkable under other two areas. Correspondingly the proportions of trees and shrubs are substantially higher than other two. For angiosperm original families, the number is the highest in Eastern Monsoon area, and lowest in Northwest Dryness area. On the other hand, among the seven natural regions, the humid and subtropical zone in Central and Southern China has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas the humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China has the lowest. For life forms, the proportion of herbs tends to decrease from humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China to humid and tropical zone in Southern China. Comparably, trees, shrubs and vines or lianas increase with the same directions. This fully represents these characters of Chinese endemic plants vary with latitudinal gradients. Furthermore, as to the number of endemic plants belonging to angiosperm original families, the number is the most in humid and subtropical zone in Center and Southern China, and tropical zone in Southern China in the next place. In contrast, the endemic plant of these two regions relatively is richer than that of The Qinghai-Tibet alpine and cold region. All above results sufficiently reflect that the Chinese endemic plants mainly distribute in Eastern Monsoon area, especially humid and subtropical zone in Center

  11. Species Diversity Distribution Patterns of Chinese Endemic Seed Plants Based on Geographical Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Ma, Keping; Huang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Based on a great number of literatures, we established the database about the Chinese endemic seed plants and analyzed the compositions, growth form, distribution and angiosperm original families of them within three big natural areas and seven natural regions. The results indicate that the above characters of Chinese endemic plants take on relative rule at the different geographical scales. Among the three big natural areas, Eastern Monsoon area has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas Northwest Dryness area is the lowest. For life forms, herbs dominate. In contrast, the proportion of herbs of Eastern Monsoon area is remarkable under other two areas. Correspondingly the proportions of trees and shrubs are substantially higher than other two. For angiosperm original families, the number is the highest in Eastern Monsoon area, and lowest in Northwest Dryness area. On the other hand, among the seven natural regions, the humid and subtropical zone in Central and Southern China has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas the humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China has the lowest. For life forms, the proportion of herbs tends to decrease from humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China to humid and tropical zone in Southern China. Comparably, trees, shrubs and vines or lianas increase with the same directions. This fully represents these characters of Chinese endemic plants vary with latitudinal gradients. Furthermore, as to the number of endemic plants belonging to angiosperm original families, the number is the most in humid and subtropical zone in Center and Southern China, and tropical zone in Southern China in the next place. In contrast, the endemic plant of these two regions relatively is richer than that of The Qinghai-Tibet alpine and cold region. All above results sufficiently reflect that the Chinese endemic plants mainly distribute in Eastern Monsoon area, especially humid and subtropical zone in Center

  12. Implementation of Polar WRF for short range prediction of weather over Maitri region in Antarctica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anupam Kumar; S K Roy Bhowmik; Ananda K Das

    2012-10-01

    India Meteorological Department has implemented Polar WRF model for the Maitri (lat. 70° 45′S, long. 11° 44′E) region at the horizontal resolution of 15 km using initial and boundary conditions of the Global Forecast System (GFS T-382) operational at the India Meteorological Department (IMD). Main objective of this paper is to examine the performance skill of the model in the short-range time scale over the Maitri region. An inter-comparison of the time series of daily mean sea level pressure and surface winds of Maitri for the 24 hours and 48 hours forecast against the corresponding observed fields has been made using 90 days data for the period from 1 December 2010 to 28 February 2011. The result reveals that the performance of the Polar WRF is reasonable, good and superior to that of IMD GFS forecasts. GFS shows an underestimation of mean sea level pressure of the order of 16–17 hPa with root mean square errors (RMSE) of order 21 hPa, whereas Polar WRF shows an overestimation of the order of 3–4 hPa with RMSE of 4 hPa. For the surface wind, GFS shows an overestimation of 1.9 knots at 24 hours forecast and an underestimation of 3.7 knots at 48 hours forecast with RMSE ranging between 8 and 11 knots. Whereas Polar WRF shows underestimation of 1.4 knots and 1.2 knots at 24 hours and 48 hours forecast with RMSE of 5 knots. The results of a case study illustrated in this paper, reveal that the model is capable of capturing synoptic weather features of Antarctic region. The performance of the model is found to be comparable with that of Antarctic Meso-scale Prediction System (AMPS) products.

  13. Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Thermodynamic Profiles on Regional Weather Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Jedlovee, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and lead to better forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), provides temperature and moisture profiles with accuracy comparable to that of radiosondes. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to assimilate AIRS thermodynamic profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model using its three-dimension variational (3DVAR) analysis component (WRF-Var). Quality indicators are used to select only the highest quality temperature and moisture profiles for assimilation in both clear and partly cloudy regions. Separate error characteristics for land and water profiles are also used in the assimilation process. Assimilation results indicate that AIRS profiles produce an analysis closer to in situ observations than the background field. Forecasts from a 37-day case study period in the winter of 2007 show that AIRS profile data can lead to improvements in 6-h cumulative precipitation forecasts due to instability added in the forecast soundings by the AIRS profiles. Additionally, in a convective heavy rainfall event from February 2007, assimilation of AIRS profiles produces a more unstable boundary layer resulting in enhanced updrafts in the model. These updrafts produce a squall line and precipitation totals that more closely reflect ground-based observations than a no AIRS control forecast. The location of available high-quality AIRS profiles ahead of approaching storm systems is found to be of paramount importance to the amount of impact the observations will have on the resulting forecasts.

  14. Mitochondrial Genome Analyses Suggest Multiple Trichuris Species in Humans, Baboons, and Pigs from Different Geographical Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed B F Hawash

    Full Text Available The whipworms Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis are two parasitic nematodes of humans and pigs, respectively. Although whipworms in human and non-human primates historically have been referred to as T. trichiura, recent reports suggest that several Trichuris spp. are found in primates.We sequenced and annotated complete mitochondrial genomes of Trichuris recovered from a human in Uganda, an olive baboon in the US, a hamadryas baboon in Denmark, and two pigs from Denmark and Uganda. Comparative analyses using other published mitochondrial genomes of Trichuris recovered from a human and a porcine host in China and from a françois' leaf-monkey (China were performed, including phylogenetic analyses and pairwise genetic and amino acid distances. Genetic and protein distances between human Trichuris in Uganda and China were high (~19% and 15%, respectively suggesting that they represented different species. Trichuris from the olive baboon in US was genetically related to human Trichuris in China, while the other from the hamadryas baboon in Denmark was nearly identical to human Trichuris from Uganda. Baboon-derived Trichuris was genetically distinct from Trichuris from françois' leaf monkey, suggesting multiple whipworm species circulating among non-human primates. The genetic and protein distances between pig Trichuris from Denmark and other regions were roughly 9% and 6%, respectively, while Chinese and Ugandan whipworms were more closely related.Our results indicate that Trichuris species infecting humans and pigs are phylogenetically distinct across geographical regions, which might have important implications for the implementation of suitable and effective control strategies in different regions. Moreover, we provide support for the hypothesis that Trichuris infecting primates represents a complex of cryptic species with some species being able to infect both humans and non-human primates.

  15. Regional atmospheric CO2 inversion reveals seasonal and geographic differences in Amazon net biome exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Caroline B; Miller, John B; Gatti, Luciana V; Gloor, Manuel M; Guan, Kaiyu; Michalak, Anna M; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T; Touma, Danielle; Andrews, Arlyn; Basso, Luana S; Correia, Caio S C; Domingues, Lucas G; Joiner, Joanna; Krol, Maarten C; Lyapustin, Alexei I; Peters, Wouter; Shiga, Yoichi P; Thoning, Kirk; van der Velde, Ivar R; van Leeuwen, Thijs T; Yadav, Vineet; Diffenbaugh, Noah S

    2016-10-01

    Understanding tropical rainforest carbon exchange and its response to heat and drought is critical for quantifying the effects of climate change on tropical ecosystems, including global climate-carbon feedbacks. Of particular importance for the global carbon budget is net biome exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere (NBE), which represents nonfire carbon fluxes into and out of biomass and soils. Subannual and sub-Basin Amazon NBE estimates have relied heavily on process-based biosphere models, despite lack of model agreement with plot-scale observations. We present a new analysis of airborne measurements that reveals monthly, regional-scale (~1-8 × 10(6)  km(2) ) NBE variations. We develop a regional atmospheric CO2 inversion that provides the first analysis of geographic and temporal variability in Amazon biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange and that is minimally influenced by biosphere model-based first guesses of seasonal and annual mean fluxes. We find little evidence for a clear seasonal cycle in Amazon NBE but do find NBE sensitivity to aberrations from long-term mean climate. In particular, we observe increased NBE (more carbon emitted to the atmosphere) associated with heat and drought in 2010, and correlations between wet season NBE and precipitation (negative correlation) and temperature (positive correlation). In the eastern Amazon, pulses of increased NBE persisted through 2011, suggesting legacy effects of 2010 heat and drought. We also identify regional differences in postdrought NBE that appear related to long-term water availability. We examine satellite proxies and find evidence for higher gross primary productivity (GPP) during a pulse of increased carbon uptake in 2011, and lower GPP during a period of increased NBE in the 2010 dry season drought, but links between GPP and NBE changes are not conclusive. These results provide novel evidence of NBE sensitivity to short-term temperature and moisture extremes in the Amazon, where monthly and sub

  16. Geographic region and racial variations in polypharmacy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Winn; McClellan, William; Howard, George; Goyal, Abhinav; Kleinbaum, David; Goodman, Michael; Prince, Valerie; Muntner, Paul; McClure, Leslie A; McClellan, Ann; Judd, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    Medications can have unintended effects. High medication use populations may benefit from increased regimen oversight. Limited knowledge exists concerning racial and regional polypharmacy variation. We estimated total medication distributions (excluding supplements) of American black and white adults and assessed racial and regional polypharmacy variation. REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort data (n = 30,239 U.S. blacks and whites aged ≥45 years) were analyzed. Home pill bottle inspections assessed the last two weeks' medications. Polypharmacy (≥8 medications) was determined by summing prescription and/or over-the-counter ingredients. Population-weighted logistic regression assessed polypharmacy's association with census region, race, and sex. The mean ingredient number was 4.12 (standard error = 0.039), with 15.7% of REGARDS using 8 ingredients or more. In crude comparisons, women used more medications than men, and blacks and whites reported similar mean ingredients. A cross-sectional, logistic model adjusting for demographics, socioeconomics, and comorbidities showed increased polypharmacy prevalence in whites versus blacks (OR [95% CI]: 0.63, [0.55-0.72]), women (1.94 [1.68-2.23]), and Southerners (broadly Southeasterners and Texans; 1.48 [1.17-1.87]) versus Northeasterners (broadly New England and upper Mid-Atlantic). Possible limitations include polypharmacy misclassification and model misspecification. Polypharmacy is common. Race and geography are associated with polypharmacy variation. Further study of underlying factors explaining these differences is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [The AIDS epidemic in Brazil and differences according to geographic region and health services supply].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeiro, Alexandre; Escuder, Maria Mercedes Loureiro; Castilho, Euclides Ayres de

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify different profiles in the AIDS epidemic in Brazil by relating them to the health sector's organization, situations involving increased risk of infection, and the degree of implementation of the response by health services. The Brazilian municipalities (counties) were grouped according to the magnitude of the epidemic and its trends from 2002 and 2006, and were then studied using indicators obtained from secondary databases. Municipalities with large epidemics (39%) displayed more situations associated with risk of infection, and those with an upward trend in incidence (11.5%) showed a lower degree of response. Cities with large epidemics but with downward or stable trends had 68.6% of all the anonymous testing centers and 75.8% of the outpatient clinics, and performed 81.4% of all the HIV antibody tests in the health system. Preventive measures in schools and primary health services showed low coverage rates. Differences were observed between geographic regions. Inequalities in the degree of implementation of the response to HIV may contribute to different profiles in the epidemic around the country.

  18. Comparison of Volunteered Geographic Information Data Contributions and Community Development for Selected World Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zipf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI projects and their crowdsourced data have been the focus of a number of scientific analyses and investigations in recent years. Oftentimes the results show that the collaboratively collected geodata of one of the most popular VGI projects, OpenStreetMap (OSM, provides good coverage in urban areas when considering particular completeness factors. However, results can potentially vary significantly for different world regions. In this article, we conduct an analysis to determine similarities and differences in data contributions and community development in OSM between 12 selected urban areas of the world. Our findings showed significantly different results in data collection efforts and local OSM community sizes. European cities provide quantitatively larger amounts of geodata and number of contributors in OSM, resulting in a better representation of the real world in the dataset. Although the number of volunteers does not necessarily correlate with the general population density of the urban areas, similarities could be detected while comparing the percentage of different contributor groups and the number of changes they made to the OSM project. Further analyses show that socio-economic factors, such as income, can have an impact on the number of active contributors and the data provided in the analyzed areas. Furthermore, the results showed significant data contributions by members whose main territory of interest lies more than one thousand kilometers from the tested areas.

  19. Wild sorghum from different eco-geographic regions of Kenya display a mixed mating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraya, Moses M; Mutegi, Evans; Geiger, Hartwig H; de Villiers, Santie M; Sagnard, Fabrice; Kanyenji, Ben M; Kiambi, Dan; Parzies, Heiko K

    2011-05-01

    Knowledge of mating systems is required in order to understand the genetic composition and evolutionary potential of plant populations. Outcrossing in a population may co-vary with the ecological and historical factors influencing it. However, literature on the outcrossing rate is limited in terms of wild sorghum species coverage and eco-geographic reference. This study investigated the outcrossing rates in wild sorghum populations from different ecological conditions of Kenya. Twelve wild sorghum populations were collected in four sorghum growing regions. Twenty-four individuals per population were genotyped using six polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to compute their indirect equilibrium estimates of outcrossing rate as well as population structure. In addition, the 12 populations were planted in a field in a randomised block design with five replications. Their progeny (250 individuals per population) were genotyped with the six SSR markers to estimate multi-locus outcrossing rates. Equilibrium estimates of outcrossing rates ranged from 7.0 to 75.0%, while multi-locus outcrossing rates (t (m)) ranged from 8.9 to 70.0% with a mean of 49.7%, indicating that wild sorghum exhibits a mixed mating system. The wide range of estimated outcrossing rates in wild sorghum populations indicate that environmental conditions may exist under which fitness is favoured by outcrossing and others under which selfing is more advantageous. The genetic structure of the populations studied is concordant with that expected for a species displaying mixed mating system.

  20. Asthma prevalence associated with geographical latitude and regional insolation in the United States of America and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstić, Goran

    2011-04-08

    It has been proposed that vitamin D deficiency may be responsible for an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases and asthma worldwide. Human ability to generate physiologically required quantities of vitamin D through sun exposure is decreasing with increasing geographical latitude. Considering that vitamin D deficiency is usually due to lack of outdoor sun exposure, this study is designed to test the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of asthma should be expected at high relative to low geographical latitudes. Linear regression analyses are performed on asthma prevalence in the U.S. adult population vs. geographical latitude, insolation, air temperature, and air pollution (PM(2.5)) for 97 major metropolitan/micropolitan statistical areas of the continental United States of America and on general population asthma prevalence vs. geographical latitude in eight metropolitan areas of Australia. A 10° change in geographical latitude from southern to northern regions of the Eastern Seaboard is associated with a 2% increase in adult asthma prevalence (pinsolation in winter months is almost as strong as latitude in its ability to explain the observed spatial variation in the prevalence of asthma (r(2) = 0.43; pinsolation and asthma prevalence worldwide. The results of this study suggest that, as a known modulator of the immune response closely linked with the geographical latitude and erythemal UV irradiation, vitamin D may play an important role in the development/exacerbation of asthma.

  1. Local weather, regional climate, and annual survival of the northern spotted owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E.M.; Anthony, R.G.; Forsman, E.D.; Olson, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    We used an information-theoretical approach and Cormack-Jolly-Seber models for open populations in program MARK to examine relationships between survival rates of Northern Spotted Owls and a variety of local weather variables and long-term climate variables. In four of the six populations examined, survival was positively associated with wetter than normal conditions during the growing season or high summer temperatures. At the three study areas located at the highest elevations, survival was positively associated with winter temperature but also had a negative or quadratic relation with the number of storms and winter precipitation. A metaanalysis of all six areas combined indicated that annual survival was most strongly associated with phase shifts in the Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation, which reflect large-scale temperature and precipitation patterns in this region. Climate accounted for a variable amount (1-41%) of the total process variation in annual survival but for more year-to-year variation (3-66%) than did spatial variation among owl territories (0-7%). Negative associations between survival and cold, wet winters and nesting seasons were similar to those found in other studies of the Spotted Owl. The relationships between survival and growing-season precipitation and regional climate patterns, however, had not been reported for this species previously. Climate-change models for the first half of the 21st century predict warmer, wetter winters and hotter, drier summers for the Pacific Northwest. Our results indicate that these conditions could decrease Spotted Owl survival in some areas. Copyright ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  2. Determinants of geographic inequalities in HPV vaccination in the most populated region of France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background In France, there are recommendations and reimbursements for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination but no HPV vaccination programs. Therefore, vaccination is largely determined by parents’ initiative, which can lead to inequalities. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with poorer vaccination coverage rates in the most populated region of France. Methods The data of this study were obtained from the National Health Insurance between 2011 and 2013. Correlations between vaccination initiation rate (at least 1 dose reimbursed) and socio-demographic/cultural factors were assessed using Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression. Results In total, 121,636 girls received at least one HPV vaccine dose. The vaccination rate for girls born from 1996 to 1999 was 18.7%. Disparities in vaccination coverage rates were observed between the 8 departments of the region, ranging from 12.9% to 22.6%. At the department level, unemployment, proportion of immigrants and foreigners, and coverage by CMU health insurance (“Couverture Maladie Universelle”, a health insurance plan for those who are not otherwise covered through business or employment and who have a low income) were significantly inversely correlated with vaccination rates, whereas urban residence, medical density, income and use of medical services were not related to coverage. In the multivariate model, only the percentage of foreigners remained independently associated with lower vaccination coverage. At the individual level, the use of medical services was a strong driver of HPV vaccination initiation. Conclusion We observed geographic disparities in HPV vaccination initiation coverage. Even if no clear factor was identified as a vaccination determinant, we observed a failure of vaccination only based on parents’ initiative. Therefore, an organized policy on HPV vaccination, such as school

  3. Chemical element transfer of weathering granite regolith in the Three Gorges Dam region of Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Clearing up sediment and regolith on the foundation of the dam in the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River in 1999, riverbed were exposed. On the basis of weathering granite regolith sampled from different portions of the valley landforms, by analysing total chemical contents with X rays fluorescent slice and calculating proper value of chemical element transferring ratio and intensity, the transferring law of chemical elements in different portions of the landforms were concluded: 1) In various landforms of the river valley, the process of desilication is not distinct; 2) in weathering granite regolith of riverbed, easy soluble CaO and MgO are relatively enriched whereas A1203 tends to decrease. The enriching rate of Fe203 is the greatest in various landforms of the river valley; 3) in weathering granite regolith of flood-plain, K20 and MgO contents are relatively enriched; 4) the weathering granite regolith of valley slope is a typical north subtropical weathering regolith, and its chemical weathering degree is in the transition phase from early to middle period; and 5) there is an opposite layer where K20 is relatively leaching and Na20 relatively enriching in 6.5 m depth of all weathering granite regolith.

  4. Electric Currents and Fields in Middle and Low Atmosphere in Fair-Weather Regions due to Distant Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velinov, Peter; Velinov, Peter; Tonev, Peter

    The electric currents created by the thunderstorms and the electrified shower clouds over the Earth flow into the global atmospheric electric circuit and are responsible for the formation in fair-weather regions of ionosphere-ground current of about 2 pA per square meter, as well as for the related fair-weather electric field of the order of 100 V/m at sea level. The link of the diurnal variations of the fair-weather electric field with the global thunderstorm activity has been widely studied with connection to the Wilson's hypothesis. To confirm this hypothesis directly, also the fair-weather electric field response to a strong single lightning discharge has being examined. Here we study theoretically the variations of the electric currents and fields in fair-weather regions at different altitudes of the lower and middle atmosphere, which are provoked by distant lightning discharges. The electric field variations can play an important role at higher altitudes (in the upper troposphere and above), where they are much larger and possibly influence the physical and chemical processes. For our goals we realize a globalscale model of the electric fields and currents generated by a lightning discharge, which is based on the Maxwell's equations. The fair-weather electric characteristics are studied by our model depending on the lightning parameters, location and distance. We also examine how variations of the conductivity in the strato/mesosphere due to changes of solar and geomagnetic activity affect the characteristics studied. Another question discussed is whether and how the mesospheric electric response to a remote lightning discharge is influenced by the conductivity anisotropy above 70 km and by the geomagnetic field geometry. The variations of the fairweather electric fields due to a distant lightning at tropospheric heights are also studied with respect to their presumable role in the cloud physics.

  5. Scientific Opinion on Geographic Distribution of Tick-borne Infections and their Vectors in Europe and the other Regions of the Mediterranean Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This report is the second of a series of two technical assessments of the role of ticks in transmission of animal diseases and zoonoses in Eurasia. A previous published scientific opinion (EFSA Journal 2010; (88, 1703 focused on two diseases- Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and African swine fever in Eurasia. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the geographic distribution of tick species which have proven involvement in the transmission of pathogens causing animal diseases and zoonoses in Eurasia. The report provides maps of the region that display the occurrences of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Systematic literature review of available publications for the last 10 years and other available literature from the experts were used in the retrieval of the geographical reported cases for the presence of ticks and tick borne pathogens. The report includes a description of the factors that influence the dynamics of the relevant tick species and identify possible high-risk areas in the EU for introduction, considering the biological and ecological characteristics of the ticks and their ability to adapt to new areas. Findings from this review have provided evidence of the extent of ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs in geographical ranges and the existing risk areas that should be considered as baseline information to assess potential risk of these diseases. The report indicates the validity of using available literature to support the presence of ticks and TBDs without further predication using weather and other environmental factors associated with the ticks‟ survival. The report concluded that animal and human movement play more impact on the spread of the ticks and TBDs. Climate changes and flight pattern of migratory birds can influence the presence and spread of the ticks and TBDs, but have not been determined to be responsible for the widespread distribution of ticks.

  6. Winter weather regimes over the Mediterranean region: their role for the regional climate and projected changes in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, M.; Li, L. Z.; Kanakidou, M.; Hatzianastassiou, N.; Seze, G.; Le Treut, H.

    2013-08-01

    The winter time weather variability over the Mediterranean is studied in relation to the prevailing weather regimes (WRs) over the region. Using daily geopotential heights at 700 hPa from the ECMWF ERA40 Reanalysis Project and Cluster Analysis, four WRs are identified, in increasing order of frequency of occurrence, as cyclonic (22.0 %), zonal (24.8 %), meridional (25.2 %) and anticyclonic (28.0 %). The surface climate, cloud distribution and radiation patterns associated with these winter WRs are deduced from satellite (ISCCP) and other observational (E-OBS, ERA40) datasets. The LMDz atmosphere-ocean regional climate model is able to simulate successfully the same four Mediterranean weather regimes and reproduce the associated surface and atmospheric conditions for the present climate (1961-1990). Both observational- and LMDz-based computations show that the four Mediterranean weather regimes control the region's weather and climate conditions during winter, exhibiting significant differences between them as for temperature, precipitation, cloudiness and radiation distributions within the region. Projections (2021-2050) of the winter Mediterranean weather and climate are obtained using the LMDz model and analysed in relation to the simulated changes in the four WRs. According to the SRES A1B emission scenario, a significant warming (between 2 and 4 °C) is projected to occur in the region, along with a precipitation decrease by 10-20 % in southern Europe, Mediterranean Sea and North Africa, against a 10 % precipitation increase in northern European areas. The projected changes in temperature and precipitation in the Mediterranean are explained by the model-predicted changes in the frequency of occurrence as well as in the intra-seasonal variability of the regional weather regimes. The anticyclonic configuration is projected to become more recurrent, contributing to the decreased precipitation over most of the basin, while the cyclonic and zonal ones become more

  7. Geoelectrical Analyses of Sulfurous Wetland Sediments and Weathered Glacial Till in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Z. F.; Siegel, D. I.; Moucha, R.; Fiorentino, A. J., II; Mills, C. T.; Goldhaber, M. B.; Rosenberry, D. O.

    2015-12-01

    Millions of prairie wetlands occur in topographic depressions throughout the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America, an important ecoregion for amphibians and migratory birds. Climate is known to drive complex critical zone processes determining sulfur fate and transport in the PPR, but the specific mechanisms controlling the storage and release of salinity beneath the wetlands remain poorly understood. To help clarify this, we conducted a DC resistivity field survey of a closed-basin groundwater discharge wetland at the Cottonwood Lake Study Area, North Dakota; and collected wetland cores along one of the survey transects for laboratory analyses of resistivity, porewater/solid-phase geochemistry, and other physical properties. Inversions of our field survey delineate two primary geoelectrical layers beneath the wetland: the top ~8 m of wetland sediments and weathered glacial till (ρ25 = 4 - 5 Ω-m) overlying more resistive glacial till at depth (ρ25 = 7 - 12 Ω-m). Conductive lenses (ρ25 = 1 - 2 Ω-m) occur within the upper layer at 2 - 3 m depths in the center of the wetland and along a concentric band within the current ponded area, which corresponds to the location of the pond shoreline before extremely wet conditions in the 1990's expanded the wetland. The resistivities of wetland core segments (ρ25 = 2 - 7 Ω-m) match well with the upper layer inferred from the field survey, and show an inverse trend of bulk core to porewater resistivity for clay-rich intervals due to variations in moisture content. Our results demonstrate that geospatial patterns of subsurface salinity relate to wetland hydrodynamics during dry-wet climate cycles and should be considered when using geoelectrical methods to upscale geochemical measurements in PPR wetlands.

  8. Some Techniques for the Objective Analysis of Humidity for Regional Scale Numerical Weather Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Robert Gary

    Several topics relating to the objective analysis of humidity for regional scale numerical weather prediction are investigated. These include: (1) sampling the humidity field; (2) choosing an analysis scheme; (3) choosing an analysis variable; (4) using surface data to diagnose upper -air humidity (SFC-DIAG); (5) using cloud analysis data to diagnose surface and upper-air humidities (3DNEPH-DIAG); and (6) modeling the humidity lateral autocorrelation function. Regression equations for the diagnosed humidities and several correlation models are developed and validated. Four types of data are used in a preliminary demonstration: observations (radiosonde and surface), SFC-DIAG data, 3DNEPH-DIAG data, and forecast data from the Drexel/NCAR Limited-Area and Mesoscale Prediction System (LAMPS). The major conclusions are: (1) independent samples of relative humidity can be obtained by sampling at intervals of two days and 1750 km, on the average; (2) Gandin's optimum interpolation (OI) is preferable to Cressman's successive correction and Panofsky's surface fitting schemes; (3) relative humidity (RH) is a better analysis variable than dew-point depression; (4) RH*, the square root of (1-RH), is better than RH; (5) both surface and cloud analysis data can be used to diagnose the upper-air humidity; (6) pooling dense data prior to OI analysis can improve the quality of the analysis and reduce its computational burden; (7) iteratively pooling data is economical; (8) for the types of data considered, use of more than about eight data in an OI point analysis cannot be justified by expectations of further reducing the analysis error variance; and (9) the statistical model in OI is faulty in that an analyzed humidity can be biased too much toward the first guess.

  9. Blastocystis subtyping and its association with intestinal parasites in children from different geographical regions of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Carolina; Olivera, Mario; Bernal, María Consuelo; Giraldo, Julio Cesar

    2017-01-01

    Blastocystis is a common enteric protist colonizing probably more than 1 billion people with a large variety of non-human hosts. Remarkable genetic diversity has been observed, leading to the subdivision of the genus into multiple subtypes (ST), some of which are exclusively found in non-human hosts. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Blastocystis STs/18S alleles in symptomatic (abdominal pain, anal pruritus, diarrhea, headache, nauseas and/or vomit) and asymptomatic children from nine geographical regions of Colombia. A total of 2026 fecal samples were collected as part of a national survey to estimate the frequency of intestinal parasites in children. A set of 256 samples that were Blastocystis positive was finally selected. The samples were submitted to DNA extraction, Real Time PCR and sequencing using Blastocystis-specific primers targeting the small subunit rRNA gene for ST identification. DNA of Ascaris lumbricoides (16.4%), Trichuris trichiura (8.2%), hookworms (Necator americanus/Ancylostoma duodenale) (7.3%), Giardia duodenalis (23.1%), Entamoeba complex (82%), Entamoeba coli (55%), Hymenolepis nana (0.8%), Endolimax nana (33.2%) and Neobalantidium coli (2.7%) was detected in the Blastocystis-positive samples. We detected ST1 (21.4%), ST2 (19.5%), ST3 (55.5%), ST4 (0.8%), ST6 (2%) and ST7 (0.8%); alleles 1, 2, 4, 81, 82 and 83 for ST1; alleles 9, 11, 12, 15, 67, 71 and 73 for ST2; alleles 34, 36, 38, 45, 49, 55, 134 and 128 for ST3; allele 42 for ST4; allele 122 for ST6, and allele 142 for ST7. Further studies implementing high-resolution molecular markers are necessary to understand the dynamics of Blastocystis transmission and the role of this Stramenopila in health and disease. PMID:28222192

  10. Genetic and antigenic analysis of Babesia bigemina isolates from five geographical regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madruga Claudio R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular epidemiological study was performed with Babesia bigemina isolates from five geographical regions of Brazil. The genetic analysis was done with random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD, repetitive extragenic palindromic elements-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR that showed genetic polymorphism between these isolates and generated fingerprinting. In RAPD, ILO872 and ILO876 primers were able to detect at least one fingerprinting for each B. bigemina isolate. The amplification of B. bigemina DNA fragments by REP-PCR and ERIC-PCR gave evidence for the presence in this haemoprotozoan of the sequences described previously in microorganisms of the bacterial kingdom. For the first time it was demonstrated that both techniques can be used for genetic analysis of a protozoan parasite, although the ERIC-PCR was more discriminatory than REP-PCR. The dendogram with similarity coefficient among isolates showed two clusters and one subcluster. The Northeastern and Mid-Western isolates showed the greatest genetic diversity, while the Southeastern and Southern isolates were the closest. The antigenic analysis was done through indirect fluorescent antibody technique and Western blotting using a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against epitopes on the merozoite membrane surface, rhoptries and membrane of infected erythrocytes. As expected, the merozoite variable surface antigens, major surface antigen (MSA-1 and MSA-2 showed antigenic diversity. However, B cell epitopes on rhoptries and infected erythrocytes were conserved among all isolates studied. In this study it was possible to identify variable and conserved antigens, which had already been described as potential immunogens. Considering that an attenuated Babesia clone used as immunogen selected populations capable of evading the immunity induced by this vaccine, it is necessary to

  11. Blastocystis subtyping and its association with intestinal parasites in children from different geographical regions of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Juan David; Flórez, Carolina; Olivera, Mario; Bernal, María Consuelo; Giraldo, Julio Cesar

    2017-01-01

    Blastocystis is a common enteric protist colonizing probably more than 1 billion people with a large variety of non-human hosts. Remarkable genetic diversity has been observed, leading to the subdivision of the genus into multiple subtypes (ST), some of which are exclusively found in non-human hosts. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Blastocystis STs/18S alleles in symptomatic (abdominal pain, anal pruritus, diarrhea, headache, nauseas and/or vomit) and asymptomatic children from nine geographical regions of Colombia. A total of 2026 fecal samples were collected as part of a national survey to estimate the frequency of intestinal parasites in children. A set of 256 samples that were Blastocystis positive was finally selected. The samples were submitted to DNA extraction, Real Time PCR and sequencing using Blastocystis-specific primers targeting the small subunit rRNA gene for ST identification. DNA of Ascaris lumbricoides (16.4%), Trichuris trichiura (8.2%), hookworms (Necator americanus/Ancylostoma duodenale) (7.3%), Giardia duodenalis (23.1%), Entamoeba complex (82%), Entamoeba coli (55%), Hymenolepis nana (0.8%), Endolimax nana (33.2%) and Neobalantidium coli (2.7%) was detected in the Blastocystis-positive samples. We detected ST1 (21.4%), ST2 (19.5%), ST3 (55.5%), ST4 (0.8%), ST6 (2%) and ST7 (0.8%); alleles 1, 2, 4, 81, 82 and 83 for ST1; alleles 9, 11, 12, 15, 67, 71 and 73 for ST2; alleles 34, 36, 38, 45, 49, 55, 134 and 128 for ST3; allele 42 for ST4; allele 122 for ST6, and allele 142 for ST7. Further studies implementing high-resolution molecular markers are necessary to understand the dynamics of Blastocystis transmission and the role of this Stramenopila in health and disease.

  12. Workstation Related Anthropometric and Body Composition Parameters of Indian Women of Different Geographical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthropometry plays an important role in industrial design, clothing design, ergonomics and architecture where statistical data about the distribution of body dimensions in the population are used to optimize products. Changes in lifestyles, nutrition, and ethnic composition of populations lead to changes in the distribution of body dimensions (e.g. the obesity epidemic, and require regular updating of anthropometric data collections. Aim and Objectives: This study analyzed the variation in anthropometric dimensions and body composition parameters of working women employees of different geographical zones. Material and Methods: The study was undertaken on nine hundred forty (940 women employees of Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO working in seventeen different laboratories and belonged to different states of India. The age range of studied women was between 20-60 years. Fourteen body dimensions namely stature, popliteal height, knee height, buttock to popliteal length, hip breadth, waist breadth, shoulder breadth, forearm length, arm length, eye height (sitting, sitting shoulder height, hand length, hand breadth and elbow width were measured in cm using Martin anthropometers and Martin's sliding caliper. Body composition parameters like weight, percentage body fat, fat mass and fat free mass were recorded. Results: All anthropometric parameters were found significantly different (p<0.001. Body composition variables of women were also found significantly different in all three zones but fat free mass was not significantly different. Conclusion:It can be concluded that diet, environmental conditions and living style of different regions can influence the anthropometry and body composition of the individuals, however the influence of ethnic, genetic and hereditary factor are not controlled in this study.

  13. Interannual Arctic sea ice variability and associated winter weather patterns: A regional perspective for 1979-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hans W.; Alley, Richard B.; Zhang, Fuqing

    2016-12-01

    Using Arctic sea ice concentration derived from passive microwave satellite observations in autumn and early winter over the 1979-2014 period, the Arctic region was objectively classified into several smaller regions based on the interannual sea ice variability through self-organizing map analyses. The trend in regional sea ice extent (RSIE) in each region was removed using an adaptive, nonlinear, and nonstationary method called Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition, which captures well the accelerating decline of Arctic RSIEs in recent decades. Although the linear trend in RSIE is negative in all regions in both seasons, there are marked differences in RSIE trends and variability between regions, with the largest negative trends found during autumn in the Beaufort Sea, the Barents-Kara Seas, and the Laptev-East Siberian Seas. Winter weather patterns associated with the nonlinearly detrended RSIEs show distinct features for different regions and tend to be better correlated with the autumn than early winter RSIE anomalies. Sea ice losses in the Beaufort Sea and the Barents-Kara Seas are both associated with a cooling of Eurasia, but in the former case the circulation anomaly is reminiscent of a Rossby wave train, whereas in the latter case the pattern projects onto the negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation. These results highlight the nonuniform changes in Arctic sea ice and suggest that regional sea ice variations may play a crucial role for the winter weather patterns.

  14. CFORS - Regional Chemical and Weather Forecast System in Support of Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yienger, J. J.; Uno, I.; Guttikunda, S. K.; Carmichael, G. R.; Tang, Y.; Thongboonchoo, N.; Woo, J.; Dorwart, J.; Streets, D.

    2001-12-01

    In this paper we will present the development, evaluation, and use of improved modeling techniques and methodologies for the integration of meteorological forecasts with air pollution forecasts in support of field operations during the TRACE-P and Ace-Asia experiments in East Asia. During the campaign period we provided a variety of forecast products using our regional modeling system built upon the dynamic meteorological model RAMS and the 3-D regional chemical transport models STEM-III. These models were run in both on-line and off-line modes, and the results integrated into an interactive web-based data mining and analysis framework. This resulting Chemical Weather Forecasting System CFORS, was run operationally for the period February through May 2001, and provided 72-hr forecasts of a variety of aerosol, chemical and air mass and emission marker quantities. These included aerosol mass distribution and optical depth by major component (e.g., dust, sea salt, black carbon, organic carbon, and sulfate), photochemical quantities including ozone and OH/HO2, and air mass & emissions markers including lightning, volcanic, mega-cities, and biomass burning. These model products were presented along with meteorological forecasts and satellite products, and used to help determine the flight plans, the positioning of the ship, and to alert surface stations of upcoming events (such as dust storms). The use of CFORS forecasts (along with other model results) models were shown to provide important new information and level of detail into mission planning. For example many of the mission objectives required designing flight paths that sampled across gradients of optical depth, or flew above, below and through vertical layers of aerosol, intercepted biomass emission plumes, or sampled dust storms. CFORS, forecasts of dust outbreaks and plume locations, etc., proved to be very useful in designing missions that meet these objective. In this paper we will present an overview of

  15. Impacts of Weather Conditions Modified by Urban Expansion on Surface Ozone:Comparison between the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuemei; CHEN Fei; WU Zhiyong; ZHANG Meigen; Mukul TEWARI; Alex GUENTHER; Christine WIEDINMYER

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,the online weather research and forecasting and chemistry (WRF-Chem) model is used to explore the impacts of urban expansion on regional weather conditions and its implication on surface ozone concentrations over the Pearl River Delta(PRD) and Yangtze River Delta(YRD) regions.Two scenarios of urban maps are used in the WRF-Chem to represent the early 1990s (pre-urbanization) and the current urban distribution in the PRD and the YRD.Month-long simulation results using the above land-use scenarios for March 2001 show that urbanization increases both the day- and night-time 2-m temperatures by about 0.6℃ and 1.4℃,respectively. Daytime reduction in the wind speed by about 3.0 m s-1 is larger than that for the nighttime (0.5 to 2 m s-1).The daytime increase in the PBL height (>200 m) is also larger than the nighttime (50-100 m).The meteorological conditions modified by urbanization lead to detectable ozone-concentration changes in the PRD and the YRD.Urbanization increases the nighttime surface-ozone concentrations by about 4.7%-8.5% and by about 2.9%-4.2% for the daytime.In addition to modifying individual meteorological variables,urbanization also enhances the convergence zones,especially in the PRD.More importantly,urbanization has different effects on the surface ozone for the PRD and the YRD,presumably due to their urbanization characteristics and geographical locations.Even though the PRD has a smaller increase in the surface temperature than the YRD,it has (a) weaker surface wind speed,(b)smaller increase in PBL heights,and (c) stronger convergence zones.The latter three factors outweighed the temperature increase and resulted in a larger ozone enhancement in the PRD than the YRD.

  16. 中国生态地理区域系统区划%Delineation of eco-geographic regional system of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴绍洪; 杨勤业; 郑度

    2003-01-01

    Eco-geographic regionalization has been one of the most important topics in China'sregionalization researches since the end of the 20th century. It is a major ecosystem in geographiczonality. A hierarchical system, which is formed by division or combination of natural features basedon geographic relativity and comparison of major ecosystem factors (including biological andnon-biological) and geographic zonality, is called eco-geographic regional system. This paperintroduces process of China's regionalization development. The first level unit, temperature zone, isdelineated with main criteria of temperature. The second level unit, humidity region, is based oncriteria of water/moisture states. The third level unit, natural region, is divided according to mediumgeomorphologic units. Vegetation types and soils are applied as supplementary criteria to indicatetemperature and water/moisture states. Mapping process from qualitative to quantitative and China'seco-geographic regional system are also explained in this paper.

  17. Weather pattern climatology of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchet, W.R.; Davis, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    In this study the geographic domain covered the 48 conterminous states of the United States. The daily synoptic weather pattern was classified into nine types for the 10-year period January 1, 1969 to December 31, 1978. Weather pattern types were defined relative to the classical polar front model of a mid-latitude cyclonic storm system and its associated air masses. Guidelines for classifying weather patterns on an operational basis were developed. These were applied to 3652 daily surface weather maps to produce a time series of weather pattern type at 120 grid points of a 160 point, 3/sup 0/ latitude by 4/sup 0/ longitude array over the United States. Statistics on the frequency of occurrence, persistence and alternation of weather patterns were calculated for each grid point. Summary statistics for the entire grid and for six regions were also presented. Frequency of occurrence and persistence were found to depend on the size and speed of movement of the weather pattern. Large, slow moving air masses had higher frequency of occurrence and longer persistence than small (fronts) or rapidly moving (or changing) features (fronts, storm centers). Some types showed distinct regional preferences. The subtropical maritime high occurred mainly in the south central and southeast. An indeterminate weather pattern type accounted for those weather patterns that did not fit the polar front model or were too disorganized to be classified. The intermountain thermal low of the desert southwest was one such feature that dominated both frequency of occurrence and persistence in this region. Alternation from one weather pattern to another followed the polar front model of a moving cyclonic storm. The tendency for anticyclonic weather patterns to become disorganized as they weakened was seen in the high percentage of these patterns that changed to an indeterminate pattern as they aged.

  18. Modeling land-surface processes and land-atmosphere interactions in the community weather and regional climate WRF model (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F.; Barlage, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been widely used with high-resolution configuration in the weather and regional climate communities, and hence demands its land-surface models to treat not only fast-response processes, such as plant evapotranspiration that are important for numerical weather prediction but also slow-evolving processes such as snow hydrology and interactions between surface soil water and deep aquifer. Correctly representing urbanization, which has been traditionally ignored in coarse-resolution modeling, is critical for applying WRF to air quality and public health research. To meet these demands, numerous efforts have been undertaken to improve land-surface models (LSM) in WRF, including the recent implementation of the Noah-MP (Noah Multiple-Physics). Noah-MP uses multiple options for key sub-grid land-atmosphere interaction processes (Niu et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2011), and contains a separate vegetation canopy representing within- and under-canopy radiation and turbulent processes, a multilayer physically-based snow model, and a photosynthesis canopy resistance parameterization with a dynamic vegetation model. This paper will focus on the interactions between fast and slow land processes through: 1) a benchmarking of the Noah-MP performance, in comparison to five widely-used land-surface models, in simulating and diagnosing snow evolution for complex terrain forested regions, and 2) the effects of interactions between shallow and deep aquifers on regional weather and climate. Moreover, we will provide an overview of recent improvements of the integrated WRF-Urban modeling system, especially its hydrological enhancements that takes into account the effects of lawn irrigation, urban oasis, evaporation from pavements, anthropogenic moisture sources, and a green-roof parameterization.

  19. ERP Systems Created to Support Academic Management in Contexts of Geographic Dispersion: A Case Study in Regional Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moreno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to extension of coverage goals in higher education, academic programs offering has been growing in regions geographically dispersed which management requires solid information systems able to adapt to the context needs and particularities. This paper presents a descriptive case study conducted in one of the head offices of Corporación Universitaria Minuto de Dios operating in 34 municipalities of cundinamarca department in colombia, highlighting challenges evidenced in the process of design and implementation of a custom ERP system. The case of study provides wide contextual details about selection and design of components, customization, integration and evaluation of the ERP system. Through this analysis are documented (a the challenges in integration, escalability and interoperability of ERP systems in higher education that are evidenced in a context of regionalization with geographic dispersion variables; and (b the differential features provided by a custom ERP system respect to the currently used systems in higher education.

  20. Parcels versus pixels: modeling agricultural land use across broad geographic regions using parcel-based field boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Terry L.; Dornbierer, Jordan; Wika, Steve; Sayler, Kristi L.; Quenzer, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Land use and land cover (LULC) change occurs at a local level within contiguous ownership and management units (parcels), yet LULC models primarily use pixel-based spatial frameworks. The few parcel-based models being used overwhelmingly focus on small geographic areas, limiting the ability to assess LULC change impacts at regional to national scales. We developed a modified version of the Forecasting Scenarios of land use change model to project parcel-based agricultural change across a large region in the United States Great Plains. A scenario representing an agricultural biofuel scenario was modeled from 2012 to 2030, using real parcel boundaries based on contiguous ownership and land management units. The resulting LULC projection provides a vastly improved representation of landscape pattern over existing pixel-based models, while simultaneously providing an unprecedented combination of thematic detail and broad geographic extent. The conceptual approach is practical and scalable, with potential use for national-scale projections.

  1. Machine learning and linear regression models to predict catchment-level base cation weathering rates across the southern Appalachian Mountain region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas A. Povak; Paul F. Hessburg; Todd C. McDonnell; Keith M. Reynolds; Timothy J. Sullivan; R. Brion Salter; Bernard J. Crosby

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of soil mineral weathering are required for regional critical load (CL) modeling to identify ecosystems at risk of the deleterious effects from acidification. Within a correlative modeling framework, we used modeled catchment-level base cation weathering (BCw) as the response variable to identify key environmental correlates and predict a continuous...

  2. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  3. Public health in the regions of Russia at the beginning of the twenty-first century: Medical-geographical assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkhazova, S. M.; Pestina, P. V.; Shartova, N. V.

    2017-07-01

    The level of public health in the regions of Russia in the years 2002-2012 is characterized based on the indices of life expectancy of men and women, as well as infant mortality. The tendencies toward change as compared to 1990-2001 are determined. Five groups of regions with various levels of public health are identified and analyzed. The practical importance of this work is shown including its inclusion in the social policy and during the development of medico-geographical forecasts.

  4. Blizzards to hurricanes: computer modeling of hydrology, weathering, and isotopic fractionation across hydroclimatic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard MT Webb; David L. Parkhurst

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Model (WEBMOD) was used to simulate hydrology, weathering, and isotopic fractionation in the Andrews Creek watershed in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado and the Icacos River watershed in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. WEBMOD includes hydrologic modules derived from the USGS...

  5. Impact of geographic variations of the convective and dehydration center on stratospheric water vapor over the Asian monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Fu, Rong; Wang, Tao; Liu, Yimin

    2016-06-01

    The Asian monsoon region is the most prominent moisture center of water vapor in the lower stratosphere (LS) during boreal summer. Previous studies have suggested that the transport of water vapor to the Asian monsoon LS is controlled by dehydration temperatures and convection mainly over the Bay of Bengal and Southeast Asia. However, there is a clear geographic variation of convection associated with the seasonal and intra-seasonal variations of the Asian monsoon circulation, and the relative influence of such a geographic variation of convection vs. the variation of local dehydration temperatures on water vapor transport is still not clear. Using satellite observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and a domain-filling forward trajectory model, we show that almost half of the seasonal water vapor increase in the Asian monsoon LS are attributable to geographic variations of convection and resultant variations of the dehydration center, of which the influence is comparable to the influence of the local dehydration temperature increase. In particular, dehydration temperatures are coldest over the southeast and warmest over the northwest Asian monsoon region. Although the convective center is located over Southeast Asia, an anomalous increase of convection over the northwest Asia monsoon region increases local diabatic heating in the tropopause layer and air masses entering the LS are dehydrated at relatively warmer temperatures. Due to warmer dehydration temperatures, anomalously moist air enters the LS and moves eastward along the northern flank of the monsoon anticyclonic flow, leading to wet anomalies in the LS over the Asian monsoon region. Likewise, when convection increases over the Southeast Asia monsoon region, dry anomalies appear in the LS. On a seasonal scale, this feature is associated with the monsoon circulation, convection and diabatic heating marching towards the northwest Asia monsoon region from June to August. The march of convection

  6. [Analysis on Regional Characteristics of Air Quality Index and Weather Situation in Beijing and Its Surrounding Cities During the APEC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-xian; Lu, Jun-rong; Wang, Ning; Li, Wen-tao; Gao, Wen-kang; Su, Bu-da

    2015-11-01

    Analysis on the revolution and regional characteristics of air quality by hourly monitored readings from 1 to 15 November 2014 released by Environmental Monitoring Station of China and research of the impacts of weather situation and meteorological elements released by China Meteorological Administration towards air quality of Beijing and its surrounding cities during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) indicated that: (1) The air quality was good because of the implementation of mitigation measures, while the Air Quality Index (AQI) increased along with the termination of mitigation measures. Thus it can be seen that mitigation measures made a great contribution to the improvement of air quality of Beijing and its surrounding cities. (2) Affected by thermal inversion layer, AQI of Beijing and its surrounding cities increased quickly during the initial of the implemental of reducing measures which proved that pollutants would accumulate in the context of unfavourable weather, hence the influence of weather situation towards air quality could not be ignored. (3) Although affected by thermal inversion layer, the concentration of pollutants of Beijing was not accumulated to a high degree at the end period of reducing measures, while Tianjin, Tangshan, Baoding and Xingtai suffered from moderate and severe pollution at the same time which further illustrated that the implementation of mitigation measures have made a great contribution to the improvement of air quality in Beijing during APEC.

  7. Weathering on land and transport of chromium to the ocean in a subtropical region (Misiones, NW Argentina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Robert; Poiré, Daniel G.; Frei, Karin Margarita

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the pathway of chromium from its mobilization on land and along its riverine transport in a subtropical region of South America (Misiones Province, Argentina), in an attempt to link Cr stable isotope compositions recently measured in seawater with signals prevailing in rivers.......4‰, balancing the negatively fractionated weathering products. The isotope composition and concentration of dissolved Cr in the ca. 1200 km long Paraná River from Misiones to its estuary and discharge area into the South Atlantic Ocean remains relatively constant with an average Cr concentration around 2.4 ppb...

  8. Some effects of Space Weather in a 4GHz communication satellite link over the Brazilian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, A.

    This work concerns a study of some effects of Space Weather in a C-band Satellite Link between Rio de Janeiro (22o57'S, 43o11'W) and Vitoria (20o10SS, 40o10SW), in the SouthEast of Brazil, from October 2000 to nowadays. An automatic acquisition system was developed to register the spectrum of the used frequencies and, since January 2002, this system has also registered the data corruption over a known information embedded in the link. As a result of this monitoring now we can know some useful things about the interference caused by geophisical phenomena like Plasma Bubbles.

  9. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in pterygia from different geographical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, F; Moore, P S; Ugalde, J; Perra, M T; Scarpa, A; Sirigu, P

    2003-01-01

    Background/aims: The aetiology and pathogenesis of pterygia remain unclear and the involvement of human papillomavirus (HPV) is controversial. 41 pterygia from two geographic locations were evaluated for the presence of HPV DNA. Methods: 41 pterygium biopsies (17 from Italy and 24 from Ecuador) were analysed using the L1C1 and PU-1ML primer sets by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequence analysis. Results: 22 of the 41 pterygia (54%) were positive for HPV, including all 17 Italian cases and 5/24 (21%) Ecuadorean cases. DNA sequencing of the 22 positive cases showed that 11 were HPV type 52, four were type 54, five were candHPV90, and two of unknown genotype. Conclusions: The major differences in the frequency of HPV in geographically distant populations might suggest a possible explanation for the vast differences in the reported detection rates. Three subtypes of HPV were found in this sample of pterygia. None the less, these results suggest that HPV may have a pathogenic role in pterygium. PMID:12812887

  10. Extremely Severe Space Weather and Geomagnetically Induced Currents in Regions with Locally Heterogeneous Ground Resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Shigeru; Kataoka, Ryuho; Pulkkinen, Antti; Watari, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Large geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) triggered by extreme space weather events are now regarded as one of the serious natural threats to the modern electrified society. The risk is described in detail in High-Impact, Low-Frequency Event Risk, A Jointly-Commissioned Summary Report of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation and the US Department of Energy's November 2009 Workshop, June 2010. For example, the March 13-14,1989 storm caused a large-scale blackout affecting about 6 million people in Quebec, Canada, and resulting in substantial economic losses in Canada and the USA (Bolduc 2002). Therefore, European and North American nations have invested in GIC research such as the Solar Shield project in the USA (Pulkkinen et al. 2009, 2015a). In 2015, the Japanese government (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, METI) acknowledged the importance of GIC research in Japan. After reviewing the serious damages caused by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, METI recognized the potential risk to the electric power grid posed by extreme space weather. During extreme events, GICs can be concerning even in mid- and low-latitude countries and have become a global issue.

  11. Geographic Region Matters in the Relation Between Perceived Racial Discrimination and Psychiatric Disorders Among Black Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Giyeon; Parmelee, Patricia; Bryant, Ami N; Crowther, Martha R; Park, Soohyun; Parton, Jason M; Chae, David H

    2016-12-07

    This study examined whether the relation between perceived racial discrimination and psychiatric disorders varied by large geographic region among Black older adults in the United States. Black adults aged 55 or older who had experienced racial/ethnic-specific discrimination were drawn from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine main and interaction effects. Results show that there was a significant main effect of perceived racial discrimination, indicating that greater perceived discrimination was significantly associated with increased odds of having any past-year psychiatric disorder. The interaction of region by perceived racial discrimination was significant: The effect of perceived racial discrimination on any past-year psychiatric disorder was stronger among Blacks in the West than those in the South. Findings suggest that whereas, in general, perceived racial discrimination is a risk factor for poor mental health among older Blacks, this association may differ by geographic region. Additional research examining reasons for this variation is needed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Geographical and temporal variation of regional development and innovation in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Inkinen, Tommi

    2015-01-01

    . Analysis was conducted using principal component indices from the years 1995–2007 to provide a temporal trend perspective of the most successful locations in innovation activity and regional development. Availability of an extensive workforce, income and higher education have steadily been the most......Variations in regional development are basically carried forward by technological development together with spatial concentrations of production and finance. The main argument behind this paper is that innovation and regional development variables have temporal variations in a spatial context...... “distinct” variables corresponding to regional development in Finland, whereas innovation occupies a stable middling position among explanative variables. Regional development and innovation activity is still concentrated in the core urban regions, but this tendency has lost at least some of its importance....

  13. Nonparametric analysis of the time structure of seismicity in a geographic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Quintela-del-Río

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to traditional parametric approaches, we suggest nonparametric methods for analyzing temporal data on earthquake occurrences. In particular, the kernel method for estimating the hazard function and the intensity function are presented. One novelty of our approaches is that we take into account the possible dependence of the data to estimate the distribution of time intervals between earthquakes, which has not been considered in most statistics studies on seismicity. Kernel estimation of hazard function has been used to study the occurrence process of cluster centers (main shocks. Kernel intensity estimation, on the other hand, has helped to describe the occurrence process of cluster members (aftershocks. Similar studies in two geographic areas of Spain (Granada and Galicia have been carried out to illustrate the estimation methods suggested.

  14. Mapping the Energy Flow from Supply to End Use in three Geographic Regions of China

    OpenAIRE

    Mischke, Peggy; Xiong, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    China's past economic development policies resulted in different energy infrastructure patterns across China. There is a long tradition in analysing and discussing regional disparities of China's economy. For more than 20 years, regional differences in GDP, industrial outputs, household income and consumption were analysed across China's provincial units. Regional disparities in China's current energy flow are rarely visualised and quantified from a comprehensive, system-wide perspective that...

  15. Mapping the Energy Flow from Supply to End Use in three Geographic Regions of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Peggy; Xiong, Weiming

    and consumption were analysed across China's provincial units. Regional disparities in China's current energy flow are rarely visualised and quantified from a comprehensive, system-wide perspective that is tracing all major fuels and energy carriers in supply, transformation and final end-use in different sectors....... A few national and provincial energy flow diagrams of China were developed since 2000, althoug with limited detail on major regional disparities and inter-regional fuel flows. No regional energy flow charts are yet available for East-, Central- and West-China. This study maps and quantifies energy...

  16. Geographical Patterns and Temporal Variations of Regional Dry and Wet Heatwave Events in China during 1960-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Ting; QIAN Weihong

    2011-01-01

    Daily maximum/minimum temperatures and relative humidity records from 510 stations in China for the period 1960-2008 were used to investigate geographical patterns and temporal variations of heatwave (HW) events. Dry and wet HW events were compared by different definitions. Regionally, both dry and wetHW events are commonly located in southeastern China in the monsoon area, with neither type occurring in the northeast part of Northeast China and Southwest China, while the north-northwest region of the country experiences dry HW events and a few wet HW events. In the southeast of the country, site dryHW events occurred from April to September and mostly in June, while site wet HW events occurred from April to October and mostly in September. In total, 163 regional wet HW events were identified. The ten longest regional wet HW events lasted for more than 20 days, while the mean duration for 163 events was about 11 days. For the top ten events, six occurred after the 1990s, compared with four before this time.Global surface warming was clear since 1979, but the frequency and severity of regional wet HW events were relatively low in the 1980s, increasing remarkably since the 1990s. Possible reasons for this might be the strong interdecadal and interannual variations in regional atmospheric circulations, as well as water transport related directly to temperature contrasts in different regions, rather than global-mean temperature changes.

  17. Geographically Sourcing Cocaine's Origin - Delineation of the Nineteen Major Coca Growing Regions in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallette, Jennifer R; Casale, John F; Jordan, James; Morello, David R; Beyer, Paul M

    2016-03-23

    Previously, geo-sourcing to five major coca growing regions within South America was accomplished. However, the expansion of coca cultivation throughout South America made sub-regional origin determinations increasingly difficult. The former methodology was recently enhanced with additional stable isotope analyses ((2)H and (18)O) to fully characterize cocaine due to the varying environmental conditions in which the coca was grown. An improved data analysis method was implemented with the combination of machine learning and multivariate statistical analysis methods to provide further partitioning between growing regions. Here, we show how the combination of trace cocaine alkaloids, stable isotopes, and multivariate statistical analyses can be used to classify illicit cocaine as originating from one of 19 growing regions within South America. The data obtained through this approach can be used to describe current coca cultivation and production trends, highlight trafficking routes, as well as identify new coca growing regions.

  18. Formation of Jarosite in the Marwrth Vallis Region of Mars by Weathering Within Paleo-Ice Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, J. R.; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Here we report new detections of jarosite in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars. These newly recognized deposits expand the known occurrences of sulfates [1-2] in the region and further expand the already considerable geologic-mineralogic diversity of the Mawrth Vallis area [3-6]. The occurrence of sulfates such as jarosite in geologic contact with thick deposits of phyllosilicates in the Mawrth Vallis area is a relatively rare case on Mars where the enigmatic transition from an early phyllosilicateforming era to a younger sulfate-forming era [7] can be explored. We propose an ice-weathering model which can potentially explain the formation of jarosite-silicakaolinite within acidic ice deposits.

  19. Impact of horizontal resolution on prediction of tropical cyclones over Bay of Bengal using a regional weather prediction model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Mandal; U C Mohanty; K V J Potty; A Sarkar

    2003-03-01

    The present study is carried out to examine the performance of a regional atmospheric model in forecasting tropical cyclones over the Bay of Bengal and its sensitivity to horizontal resolution. Two cyclones, which formed over the Bay of Bengal during the years 1995 and 1997, are simulated using a regional weather prediction model with two horizontal resolutions of 165km and 55 km. The model is found to perform reasonably well towards simulation of the storms. The structure, intensity and track of the cyclones are found to be better simulated by finer resolution of the model as compared to the coarse resolution. Rainfall amount and its distribution are also found to be sensitive to the model horizontal resolution. Other important fields, viz., vertical velocity, horizontal divergence and horizontal moisture flux are also found to be sensitive to model horizontal resolution and are better simulated by the model with finer horizontal grids.

  20. Untangling human and environmental effects on geographical gradients of mammal species richness: a global and regional evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Romero, Erik Joaquín; Olalla-Tárraga, Miguel Á

    2015-05-01

    Different hypotheses (geographical, ecological, evolutionary or a combination of them) have been suggested to account for the spatial variation in species richness. However, the relative importance of environment and human impacts in explaining these patterns, either globally or at the biogeographical region level, remains largely unexplored. Here, we jointly evaluate how current environmental conditions and human impacts shape global and regional gradients of species richness in terrestrial mammals. We processed IUCN global distributional data for 3939 mammal species and a set of seven environmental and two human impact variables at a spatial resolution of 96.5 × 96.5 km. We used simple, multiple and partial regression techniques to evaluate environmental and human effects on species richness. Actual evapotranspiration (AET) is the main driver of mammal species richness globally. Together with our results at the biogeographical realm level, this lends strong support for the water-energy hypothesis (i.e. global diversity gradients are best explained by the interaction of water and energy, with a latitudinal shift in the relative importance of ambient energy vs. water availability as we move from the poles to the equator). While human effects on species richness are not easily detected at a global scale due to the large proportion of shared variance with the environment, these effects significantly emerge at the regional level. In the Nearctic, Palearctic and Oriental regions, the independent contribution of human impacts is almost as important as current environmental conditions in explaining richness patterns. The intersection of human impacts with climate drives the geographical variation in mammal species richness in the Palearctic, Nearctic and Oriental regions. Using a human accessibility variable, we show, for the first time, that the zones most accessible to humans are often those where we find lower mammal species richness. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of

  1. Soil Atterberg limits of different weathering profiles of the collapsing gullies in the hilly granitic region of southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yusong; Cai, Chongfa; Xia, Dong; Ding, Shuwen; Chen, Jiazhou; Wang, Tianwei

    2017-04-01

    Collapsing gullies are one of the most serious soil erosion problems in the tropical and subtropical areas of southern China. However, few studies have been performed on the relationship of soil Atterberg limits with soil profiles of the collapsing gullies. Soil Atterberg limits, which include plastic limit and liquid limit, have been proposed as indicators for soil vulnerability to degradation. Here, the soil Atterberg limits within different weathering profiles and their relationships with soil physicochemical properties were investigated by characterizing four collapsing gullies in four counties in the hilly granitic region of southern China. The results showed that with the fall of weathering degree, there was a sharp decrease in plastic limit, liquid limit, plasticity index, soil organic matter, cation exchange capacity and free iron oxide. Additionally, there was a gradual increase in liquidity index, a sharp increase in particle density and bulk density followed by a slight decline, a decrease in the finer soil particles, a noticeable decline in the clay contents, and a considerable increase in the gravel and sand contents. The plastic limit varied from 19.43 to 35.93 % in TC, 19.51 to 33.82 % in GX, 19.32 to 35.58 % in AX and 18.91 to 36.56 % in WH, while the liquid limit varied from 30.91 to 62.68 % in TC, 30.89 to 57.70 % in GX, 32.48 to 65.71 % in AX and 30.77 to 62.70 % in WH, respectively. The soil Atterberg limits in the sandy soil layers and detritus layers were lower than those in the surface layers and red soil layers, which results in higher vulnerability of the sandy soil layers and detritus layers to erosion and finally the formation of the collapsing gully. The regression analyses showed that soil Atterberg limits had significant and positive correlation with SOM, clay content, cationic exchange capacity and Fed, significant and negative correlation with sand content and no obvious correlation with other properties. The results of this study

  2. Regional, geographic, and racial/ethnic variation in glycemic control in a national sample of veterans with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egede, Leonard E; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Hunt, Kelly J; Axon, Robert N; Echols, Carrae; Gilbert, Gregory E; Mauldin, Patrick D

    2011-04-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of a national cohort of veterans with diabetes to better understand regional, geographic, and racial/ethnic variation in diabetes control as measured by HbA(1c). A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a national cohort of 690,968 veterans with diabetes receiving prescriptions for insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents in 2002 that were followed over a 5-year period. The main outcome measures were HbA(1c) levels (as continuous and dichotomized at ≥8.0%). Relative to non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), HbA(1c) levels remained 0.25% higher in non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs), 0.31% higher in Hispanics, and 0.14% higher in individuals with other/unknown/missing racial/ethnic group after controlling for demographics, type of medication used, medication adherence, and comorbidities. Small but statistically significant geographic differences were also noted with HbA(1c) being lowest in the South and highest in the Mid-Atlantic. Rural/urban location of residence was not associated with HbA(1c) levels. For the dichotomous outcome poor control, results were similar with race/ethnic group being strongly associated with poor control (i.e., odds ratios of 1.33 [95% CI 1.31-1.35] and 1.57 [1.54-1.61] for NHBs and Hispanics vs. NHWs, respectively), geographic region being weakly associated with poor control, and rural/urban residence being negligibly associated with poor control. In a national longitudinal cohort of veterans with diabetes, we found racial/ethnic disparities in HbA(1c) levels and HbA(1c) control; however, these disparities were largely, but not completely, explained by adjustment for demographic characteristics, medication adherence, type of medication used to treat diabetes, and comorbidities.

  3. Geographic Information System technology applications to Ground-Water Management Program, EPA Region 3. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clibanoff, A.

    1989-01-01

    The report is part of the National Network for Environmental Management Studies under the auspices of the Office of Cooperative Environmental Management of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. GIS technology is a computer informational system that stores, analyzes, and manipulates both spatial and non-spatial data. Base map information for the GIS has come primarily from the USGS. Data for the entire Region at the 1:2,000,000 scale and for some of the Region at the 1:100,000 scale is currently being used. Data from GIRAS, a land use Database, at the 1:250,000 also exists for much of the Region. Information is contributed to the GIS from various sources including but not limited to RCRA, CERCLA, UIC, and UST programs. The WHP program is also being tapped to identify locations of public water supply wells. Region III is interested in any data that accurately describes the ground water condition in a given area. In Regional pilot studies being conducted, GIS is being employed at both the regional and county level. The goals of the pilot studies include the identification of areas of ground water susceptibility and major sources of ground water contamination, and prioritizing the Region's ground water supplies in terms of vulnerability to pollution and risk to the population.

  4. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... STATES LOCATIONAL REQUIREMENT FOR DISPATCHING OF UNITED STATES RAIL OPERATIONS Pt. 241, App. C Appendix C... consists of New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana and Texas. The mailing address of the Regional...

  5. Chemical Characterization of Dew Water Collected in Different Geographic Regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Namieśnik

    2008-06-01

    stations close to the sea. It was proved that thermal stratification, direction of circulation and local breeze circulation control the atmospheric chemistry at ground level, where dew is formed. The highest TIC values at urban stations were associated with anticyclonic weather, while at rural sites with cyclonic weather situations. The chemistry of dew water in urban coastal stations was closely related to local breeze circulation in the warm season, mainly in the form of diurnal breeze causing a significant increase of the concentration of Na+ and Cl-ions. Thus, dew can be a good indicator of the atmospheric pollution level at a given site. Taking into account both high TIC values and the annual water equivalent estimated at around 50 mm, dew is a considerable factor of wet deposition, responsible for an additional 60 % of pollutant input into the ground when compared with precipitation.

  6. Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to Identify the Geographic Regions Where People That Use Ground Water are Most Vulnerable to Impacts from Underground Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the vulnerability of ground water supplies to contamination from underground storage tanks (USTs) was assessed. The analysis was conducted for the 48 contiguous states, and then again for groups of states corresponding to the EPA Regio...

  7. Technical Note: In-situ quantification of aerosol sources and sinks over regional geographical scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Buzorius

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain the source/sink functions for atmospheric particulates located on the planetary surface or elevated in the atmosphere; direct aerosol emission measurements are required. For this purpose, the performance of an airborne aerosol flux measurement system with an improved 3-km spatial resolution is evaluated in this study. Eddy covariance method was used in flux calculations. A footprint for airborne flux sampling with the increased resolution becomes comparable in area to the footprint for tower sampling (with the footprint length being 2 to 10 km. The improvement in spatial resolution allows quantification of emission rates from individual sources located several kilometers apart. Locally measured aerosol flux provides useful information about aerosol sources and sinks located below or aloft of measurement altitude. The advantage is a moving platform that allows scanning of aerosol emissions or depositions over practically unlimited geographic scales. The technique delivers effective emission rates of atmospheric particulates from specific sources such as highway segments, city blocks, and remote and industrial areas. The improved spatial resolution airborne flux measurements were conducted in ambient conditions with low (<500 m mixed boundary layer heights. Measurement results are reported from clean and partly polluted marine environments, and heavily polluted continental environments. The upward and downward fluxes from the clean marine environment were smaller than 0.5×106 particles m−2 s−1 in absolute value. The effective emissions measured from a ship plume ranged from 2×108 to 3×108 m−2 s−1, and effective fluxes measured crossing cities plumes with populations of 10 000 to 12 000 inhabitants were in the range of 2×108 to 3×108 m−2 s−1. Correlations between heat and aerosol fluxes are

  8. Landscape character assessment using region growing techniques in geographical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellema, André; Stobbelaar, Derk-Jan; Groot, Jeroen C J; Rossing, Walter A H

    2009-05-01

    Landscape character can be defined as the presence, variety and arrangement of landscape features, which give a landscape a specific identity and make it stand out from surrounding landscapes. Landscape character contributes to the esthetical and perceptional value of an area, which is important for the development of non-production functions in the countryside as demanded by society. In this paper we present a new methodology for landscape character assessment using the pattern of landscape features as stored in a GIS to delineate, characterize and evaluate landscapes using a region growing algorithm. We have applied this methodology in a case study area in the north of The Netherlands and compared the results with a series of expert classifications of the study area. The results of the region growing algorithms were good and interpretable in relation to the underlying data. The resemblance between the expert classification and the classification based on the region growing results varied between 34% and 100% for the different landscape types. The differences between the two data sets can be explained in terms of input data and knowledge about the study area. The classification of the region growing algorithm was more consistent than the expert classification throughout the study area. The presented methodology for landscape character assessment is proposed as support for spatial planning processes and policy development for landscape conservation by providing a quantitative tool to analyze landscape patterns, to discriminate between the various landscapes in a study area and by elucidating features that are important for the identity of a region.

  9. Frequency and abundance patterns of plant dispersal systems in Colombian forests and their relationships with the geographic regions of the country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Felipe Correa Gomez et al.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of plant dispersal systems improves our understanding of forest regeneration, the dynamics of plant populations and the ecological relationships that emerge within ecosystems. In this study we analyzed the patterns of seed dispersal systems for Colombia, in relation to the Amazonian, Andean, Caribbean, Upper Magdalena, Middle Magdalena, Orinoco and Pacific geographic regions. Based on information on identity and abundance of plants found in 101 one hectare vegetation plots, we explored the changes in the relative frequency and relative abundance of plant dispersal systems among the geographic regions. Additionally, we explored the floristic affinities between the regions, as well as the representativeness of families and genera per dispersal system. Endozoochory was highly represented at different taxonomic levels (species, genus, family, and its relative importance changed among the different geographic regions. Those changes could be explained by ecological differences between the regions.

  10. Intra- and interseasonal autoregressive prediction of dengue outbreaks using local weather and regional climate for a tropical environment in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastin, Matthew D; Delmelle, Eric; Casas, Irene; Wexler, Joshua; Self, Cameron

    2014-09-01

    Dengue fever transmission results from complex interactions between the virus, human hosts, and mosquito vectors-all of which are influenced by environmental factors. Predictive models of dengue incidence rate, based on local weather and regional climate parameters, could benefit disease mitigation efforts. Time series of epidemiological and meteorological data for the urban environment of Cali, Colombia are analyzed from January of 2000 to December of 2011. Significant dengue outbreaks generally occur during warm-dry periods with extreme daily temperatures confined between 18°C and 32°C--the optimal range for mosquito survival and viral transmission. Two environment-based, multivariate, autoregressive forecast models are developed that allow dengue outbreaks to be anticipated from 2 weeks to 6 months in advance. These models have the potential to enhance existing dengue early warning systems, ultimately supporting public health decisions on the timing and scale of vector control efforts.

  11. Identification and comparison of Mycobacterium leprae genotypes in two geographical regions of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Castro, Nora; Beltrán-Alzate, Juan Camilo; Romero-Montoya, Irma Marcela; Meléndez, Esperanza; Torres, Fernando; Sakamuri, Rama Murthy; Li, Wei; Vissa, Varalakshmi

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate and establish genomic strain typing markers suitable for the identification of transmission patterns of leprosy in different regions of Colombia. Patients from Agua de Dios, Barranquilla and Cartagena cities and neighbouring towns were enrolled during 2006-2007. Slit skin smears or biopsies were obtained from newly detected untreated patients, and those undergoing multidrug therapy. DNA was extracted from the clinical samples and tested using 15 different short tandem repeat and three SNP polymorphic markers. Differences or similarities between strain types from the northeast (n = 20) and central regions of Colombia (n = 18) were noted. The alleles at two loci, 27-5 and 12-5 were different in the M. leprae in the two regions. The other microsatellite loci may be useful for further intra-population differentiation. There was strong association of 27-5 and 12-5 alleles with the SNP types. The 4-5 combination of alleles was associated with SNP type 3, while the 5-4 combination was mostly associated with SNP type 1, 2 or 4. The SNP type 4 m. leprae isolates were seen in patients in the northeast, but not in the central part.

  12. Spatial modeling of the geographic distribution of wildlife populations: A case study in the lower Mississippi River region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, W.; Jeske, C.

    2000-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS)-based spatial modeling approach was developed to study environmental and land use impacts on the geographic distribution of wintering northern pintails (Arias acuta) in the Lower Mississippi River region. Pintails were fitted with backpack radio transmitter packages at Catahoula Lake, LA, in October 1992-1994 and located weekly through the following March. Pintail survey data were converted into a digital database in ARC/INFO GIS format and integrated with environmental GIS data through a customized modeling interface. The study verified the relationship between pintail distributions and major environmental factors and developed a conceptual relation model. Visualization-based spatial simulations were used to display the movement patterns of specific population groups under spatial and temporal constraints. The spatial modeling helped understand the seasonal movement patterns of pintails in relation to their habitat usage in Arkansas and southwestern Louisiana for wintering and interchange situations among population groups wintering in Texas and southeastern Louisiana. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. Changing regional weather-crop yield relationships across Europe between 1901 and 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, M; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Kersebaum, KC

    2016-01-01

    a greater effect on yields in recent times (between 1991 and 2012) than in previous decades. It is likely that changes in the climate-yield relationship at the local level might be more pronounced than those across the relatively large regions used in this study, as the latter represents aggregations...... century would also aid in our understanding of the potential impact of future climate changes and in assessments of the potential for adaptation across Europe. In this study, we compiled information from several sources on winter wheat and spring barley yields and climatological data from 12 countries....../regions covering the period from 1901-2012. The studied area includes the majority of climatic regions in which wheat and barley are grown (from central Italy to Finland). We hypothesized that changes in climatic conditions have led to measurable shifts in climate-yield relationships over the past 112 yr...

  14. Distinct gut microbiota of healthy children from two different geographic regions of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La-Ongkham, Orawan; Nakphaichit, Massalin; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Keawsompong, Suttipun; Nitisinprasert, Sunee

    2015-05-01

    In Thailand, food consumption by people from each region is different. This can be an important environmental factor which shapes the gut microbiota further affecting their health. This study aimed to use quantitative PCR (qPCR) to investigate the intestinal microbial community in 60 healthy children (aged 8-11 years) living in specific areas, namely central (CT) and northeastern (NE) Thailand where each region has its own typical food consumption. The children from NE had significantly higher consumption frequency of meat (chicken and beef), a wide variety of carbohydrate sources (noodle, fermented rice and sweet potato) including vegetables and fruit, while in CT, there was a significant preference for rice, breakfast cereal and cow milk. The qPCR analysis resulted in significantly higher abundance of lactobacilli, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Clostridium leptum, Prevotella and Bacteroides fragilis in children from the NE region. However, no significant difference in the count of Bifidobacterium spp., Enterobacteriaceae and methanogens was observed. Considering the correlation of food sources and microbial groups, the consumption frequency of vegetables showed a moderately positive correlation coefficient of 0.42 and 0.34 to the Lactobacillus group (P = 0.001) and the Prevotella group (P = 0.008), respectively, while a diet of fish and beef showed a moderately negative correlation coefficient of -0.41 (P = 0.001) and -0.33 (P = 0.09) to Bifidobacterium spp., respectively. Our results suggested that high frequency consumption of varieties of carbohydrates, protein sources, fruits and vegetables by the NE children promoted a high abundance of bacterial species in the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes.

  15. Geographic Information Systems for the Regional Integration of Renewable Energies; Los sitemas de Informacion Geografica en la Integracion Regional de Energias Renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador Guerra, J.; Dominguez Bravo, J. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This report is based on the project: The GIS in the regional integration of Renewable Energies for decentralized electricity production; developed by CIEMAT (Spanish Energy Research Centre) and UPM (Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain) since 1997. The objective of this project is to analyse, evaluate and improve the GIS methodologies for application in RE and how GIS can aid in the evaluation and simulation of influence of technical, socio economical and geographical parameters. This project begin with the review of SOLARGIS methodology. SOLARGIS was developed by an european research team (included CIEMAT) in the frame of JOULE II Programme. In the first place this report described the state of the art in the application of GIS to Renewable Energies. In second place, the SOLARGIS review tasks and the application of this new product to Lorca (Murcia Region in Spain). Finally, the report describes the methodology for the spatial sensibility analysis. (Author) 24 refs.

  16. Effects of forest cover changes in European Russia on regional weather conditions: results of numerical experiments with the COSMO-CLM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchev, Alexander; Kuzmina, Ekaterina; Rozinkina, Inna; Nikitin, Mikhail; Rivin, Gdaly S.

    2017-04-01

    The forests have a significant effect on the climatic system. They capture CO2 from the atmosphere, regulate the surface evaporation and runoff, and influence the radiation and thermal conditions of the land surface. It is obvious, that their influence depends on many different factors including regional climate conditions, land use and vegetation structure, surface topography, etc. The main goal of the study is to assess the possible influence of forest cover changes (under deforestation and/or afforestation) on regional weather conditions in the central part of European Russia using the results of modeling experiments provided by the meso-scale COSMO-CLM model. The need of the study lies in a lack of the experimental and modeling data characterizing the influence of the forest and land-use changes on regional weather conditions in European part of Russia. The forest ecosystems in the study region play a very important biosphere role that is significantly increased in the last decades due to considerable strengthening of anthropogenic activity in the area of European Russia. The area selected for the study is located in the central part of European Russia between 55 and 59N and 28 and 37E. It comprises several geographical zones including dark-coniferous forests of the South-European taiga in the north, the mixed forests in the central part and the broad-leaved forests in the south. The forests within the study area are very heterogeneous. The total area covered by forests according to recent remote sensing data is about 50%. The numerical experiments were provided using the COSMO-CLM model with the spatial resolution 13.2 km. As initial and boundary conditions for the numerical experiments the global reanalysis ERA Interim (with the 6-hour resolution in time and 0.75° × 0.75° in space) were used. The weather conditions were simulated in a continuous cycle for several months for the entire area of European Russia using the results of global reanalysis on

  17. Modeling regional mobile source emissions in a geographic information system framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, W. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Center for Geographic Information Systems; Sarasua, W. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Hallmark, S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). School of Civil and Construction Engineering; Guensler, R. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School fo Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2000-07-01

    Suburban sprawl, population growth, and automobile dependency contribute directly to air pollution problems in US metropolitan areas. As metropolitan regions attempt to mitigate these problems, they are faced with the difficult task of balancing the mobility needs of a growing population and economy, while simultaneously lowering or maintaining levels of ambient pollutants. Although ambient air quality can he directly monitored, predicting the amount and fraction of the mobile source components presents special challenges. A modeling framework that can correlate spatial and temporal emission-specific vehicle activities is required for the complex photochemical models used to predict pollutant concentrations . This paper discusses the GIS-based modeling approach called the Mobile Emission Assessment System for Urban and Regional Evaluation (MEASURE). MEASURE provides researchers and planners with a means of assessing motor vehicle emission reduction strategies. Estimates of spatially resolved fleet composition and activity are combined with activity-specific emission rates to predict engine start and running exhaust emissions. Engine start emissions are estimated using aggregate zonal information. Running exhaust emissions are predicted using road segment specific information and aggregate zonal information. The paper discusses the benefits and challenges related to mobile source emissions modeling in a GIS framework and identifies future GIS mobile emissions modeling research needs. (Author)

  18. Some Methodological Aspects Concerning the Use of Satellite Images and Maps in the Physico-Geographical Regional Determination of the Romania Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE LOGHIN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some methodological aspects concerning the use of satellite images and maps in the physico-geographical region determination of Romania's territory, as well as some results that can be obtained using this method. In order to determine the physico-geographical units and sub-units using satellite maps (Bucharest page, 1:1.500.000 and satellite images (Landsat, IRS we have analyzed, from the geographical point of view, some samples of such documents. The resulting maps were compared with the already existing physico-geographical region determination maps. Our results show that the method under consideration has both advantages and disadvantages. One conclusion is sure: satellite images and maps can be used for this purpose together with traditional maps.

  19. Severe weather during the North American monsoon and its response to rapid urbanization and a changing global climate within the context of high resolution regional atmospheric modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Thang Manh

    The North American monsoon (NAM) is the principal driver of summer severe weather in the Southwest U.S. With sufficient atmospheric instability and moisture, monsoon convection initiates during daytime in the mountains and later may organize, principally into mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Most monsoon-related severe weather occurs in association with organized convection, including microbursts, dust storms, flash flooding and lightning. The overarching theme of this dissertation research is to investigate simulation of monsoon severe weather due to organized convection within the use of regional atmospheric modeling. A commonly used cumulus parameterization scheme has been modified to better account for dynamic pressure effects, resulting in an improved representation of a simulated MCS during the North American monsoon experiment and the climatology of warm season precipitation in a long-term regional climate model simulation. The effect of urbanization on organized convection occurring in Phoenix is evaluated in model sensitivity experiments using an urban canopy model (UCM) and urban land cover compared to pre-settlement natural desert land cover. The presence of vegetation and irrigation makes Phoenix a "heat sink" in comparison to its surrounding desert, and as a result the modeled precipitation in response to urbanization decreases within the Phoenix urban area and increase on its periphery. Finally, analysis of how monsoon severe weather is changing in association with observed global climate change is considered within the context of a series of retrospectively simulated severe weather events during the period 1948-2010 in a numerical weather prediction paradigm. The individual severe weather events are identified by favorable thermodynamic conditions of instability and atmospheric moisture (precipitable water). Changes in precipitation extremes are evaluated with extreme value statistics. During the last several decades, there has been

  20. The influence of regional urbanization and abnormal weather conditions on the processes of human climatic adaptation on mountain resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artamonova, M.; Golitsyn, G.; Senik, I.; Safronov, A.; Babyakin, A.; Efimenko, N.; Povolotskaya, N.; Topuriya, D.; Chalaya, E.

    2012-04-01

    in patients with coronary heart disease, hypertension stage I-II syndrome disadaptative using the transcranial mezo diencephalic modulation / L.I.Zherlitsina, N.V. Efimenko, N.P. Povolotskaya, I.I. Velikanov. the Patent for the invention No.2422128, RU (11) 2 422 128 (13) C1 from 6/27/2011; Bull.13). We have observed that such anthropogenic characteristics as accumulation of aerosol with the size of particles 500-5000 nanometers in the lower atmosphere in the quantity more than 60 particles/sm3 (getting to alveoli); decrease in quantity of negative ions (N-) lower than 200 ions/sm3, high coefficient of ions unipolarity (N+/N-) - more than 4-6; mass concentration of aerosol more than 150 mkg/m3 and other modules of the environment can act as limited markers for the forecast of dangerous NAR, SAD and taking of urgent radical preventive measures. These techniques of medical weather forecast and meteo prevention can be used in other mountain regions of the world. The studies were performed by support of the Program "Basic Sciences for Medicine" and RFBR project No.10-05-01014_a.

  1. Assessing the status and trend of bat populations across broad geographic regions with dynamic distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ormsbee, Patricia C.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Vierling, Lee A.; Szewczak, Joseph M.; Vierling, Kerri T.

    2012-01-01

    Bats face unprecedented threats from habitat loss, climate change, disease, and wind power development, and populations of many species are in decline. A better ability to quantify bat population status and trend is urgently needed in order to develop effective conservation strategies. We used a Bayesian autoregressive approach to develop dynamic distribution models for Myotis lucifugus, the little brown bat, across a large portion of northwestern USA, using a four-year detection history matrix obtained from a regional monitoring program. This widespread and abundant species has experienced precipitous local population declines in northeastern USA resulting from the novel disease white-nose syndrome, and is facing likely range-wide declines. Our models were temporally dynamic and accounted for imperfect detection. Drawing on species–energy theory, we included measures of net primary productivity (NPP) and forest cover in models, predicting that M. lucifugus occurrence probabilities would covary positively along those gradients.

  2. Sensitivity of the weather research and forecasting model to parameterization schemes for regional climate of Nile River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariku, Tebikachew Betru; Gan, Thian Yew

    2017-08-01

    Regional climate models (RCMs) have been used to simulate rainfall at relatively high spatial and temporal resolutions useful for sustainable water resources planning, design and management. In this study, the sensitivity of the RCM, weather research and forecasting (WRF), in modeling the regional climate of the Nile River Basin (NRB) was investigated using 31 combinations of different physical parameterization schemes which include cumulus (Cu), microphysics (MP), planetary boundary layer (PBL), land-surface model (LSM) and radiation (Ra) schemes. Using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) ERA-Interim reanalysis data as initial and lateral boundary conditions, WRF was configured to model the climate of NRB at a resolution of 36 km with 30 vertical levels. The 1999-2001 simulations using WRF were compared with satellite data combined with ground observation and the NCEP reanalysis data for 2 m surface air temperature (T2), rainfall, short- and longwave downward radiation at the surface (SWRAD, LWRAD). Overall, WRF simulated more accurate T2 and LWRAD (with correlation coefficients >0.8 and low root-mean-square error) than SWRAD and rainfall for the NRB. Further, the simulation of rainfall is more sensitive to PBL, Cu and MP schemes than other schemes of WRF. For example, WRF simulated less biased rainfall with Kain-Fritsch combined with MYJ than with YSU as the PBL scheme. The simulation of T2 is more sensitive to LSM and Ra than to Cu, PBL and MP schemes selected, SWRAD is more sensitive to MP and Ra than to Cu, LSM and PBL schemes, and LWRAD is more sensitive to LSM, Ra and PBL than Cu, and MP schemes. In summary, the following combination of schemes simulated the most representative regional climate of NRB: WSM3 microphysics, KF cumulus, MYJ PBL, RRTM longwave radiation and Dudhia shortwave radiation schemes, and Noah LSM. The above configuration of WRF coupled to the Noah LSM has also been shown to simulate representative regional

  3. Efficacy of drug treatment for acute mania differs across geographic regions : An individual patient data meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welten, Carlijn Cm; Koeter, Mwj; Wohlfarth, T D; Storosum, J G; van den Brink, W; Gispen-de Wied, C C; Leufkens, Hgm; Denys, D.

    Given globalization trends in the conduct of clinical trials, the external validity of trial results across geographic regions is questioned. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of treatment in acute mania in bipolar disorder across regions and to explain potential differences by

  4. Investigating flood susceptible areas in inaccessible regions using remote sensing and geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joongbin; Lee, Kyoo-Seock

    2017-03-01

    Every summer, North Korea (NK) suffers from floods, resulting in decreased agricultural production and huge economic loss. Besides meteorological reasons, several factors can accelerate flood damage. Environmental studies about NK are difficult because NK is inaccessible due to the division of Korea. Remote sensing (RS) can be used to delineate flood inundated areas in inaccessible regions such as NK. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial characteristics of flood susceptible areas (FSAs) using multi-temporal RS data and digital elevation model data. Such study will provide basic information to restore FSAs after reunification. Defining FSAs at the study site revealed that rice paddies with low elevation and low slope were the most susceptible areas to flood in NK. Numerous sediments from upper streams, especially streams through crop field areas on steeply sloped hills, might have been transported and deposited into stream channels, thus disturbing water flow. In conclusion, NK floods may have occurred not only due to meteorological factors but also due to inappropriate land use for flood management. In order to mitigate NK flood damage, reforestation is needed for terraced crop fields. In addition, drainage capacity for middle stream channel near rice paddies should be improved.

  5. Requirements for an Advanced Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Sounder (ALS) for Improved Regional Weather Prediction and Monitoring of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Susskind, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Hyperspectral infrared atmospheric sounders (e.g., the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on Met Op) provide highly accurate temperature and water vapor profiles in the lower to upper troposphere. These systems are vital operational components of our National Weather Prediction system and the AIRS has demonstrated over 6 hrs of forecast improvement on the 5 day operational forecast. Despite the success in the mid troposphere to lower stratosphere, a reduction in sensitivity and accuracy has been seen in these systems in the boundary layer over land. In this paper we demonstrate the potential improvement associated with higher spatial resolution (1 km vs currently 13.5 km) on the accuracy of boundary layer products with an added consequence of higher yield of cloud free scenes. This latter feature is related to the number of samples that can be assimilated and has also shown to have a significant impact on improving forecast accuracy. We also present a set of frequencies and resolutions that will improve vertical resolution of temperature and water vapor and trace gas species throughout the atmosphere. Development of an Advanced Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Sounder (ALS) with these improvements will improve weather forecast at the regional scale and of tropical storms and hurricanes. Improvements are also expected in the accuracy of the water vapor and cloud properties products, enhancing process studies and providing a better match to the resolution of future climate models. The improvements of technology required for the ALS are consistent with the current state of technology as demonstrated in NASA Instrument Incubator Program and NOAA's Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) formulation phase development programs.

  6. Impacts of aerosols on weather and regional climate over the Pearl River Delta megacity area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Seven-year measurements of precipitation, lightning flashes, and visibility from 2000 to 2006 have been analyzed in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, China, with a focus on the Guangzhou megacity area. Statistical analysis shows that the occurrence of heavy rainfall (>25 mm per day and frequency of lightning strikes are reversely correlated to visibility during this period. To elucidate the effects of aerosols on cloud processes, precipitation, and lightning activity, a cloud resolving – Weather Research and Forecasting (CR-WRF model with a two-moment bulk microphysical scheme is employed to simulate a mesoscale convective system occurring on 28 Match 2009 in the Guangzhou megacity area. The model predicted evolutions of composite radar reflectivity and accumulated precipitation are in agreement with measurements from S-band weather radars and automatic gauge stations. The calculated lightning potential index (LPI exhibits temporal and spatial consistence with lightning flashes recorded by a local lightning detection network. Sensitivity experiments have been performed to reflect aerosol conditions representative of polluted and clean cases. The simulations suggest that precipitation and LPI are enhanced by about 16 % and 50 %, respectively, under the polluted aerosol condition. Our results suggest that elevated aerosol loading suppresses light and moderate precipitation (less than 25 mm per day, but enhances heavy precipitation. The responses of hydrometeors and latent heat release to different aerosol loadings reveal the physical mechanism for the precipitation and lightning enhancement in the Guangzhou megacity area, showing more efficient mixed phase processes and intensified convection under the polluted aerosol condition.

  7. Requirements for an Advanced Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Sounder (ALS) for improved regional weather prediction and monitoring of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Susskind, Joel

    2008-12-01

    Hyperspectral infrared atmospheric sounders (e.g. the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on MetOp) provide highly accurate temperature and water vapor profiles in the lower to upper troposphere. These systems are vital operational components of our National Weather Prediction system and the AIRS has demonstrated over 6 hrs of forecast improvement on the 5 day operational forecast1. Despite the success in the mid troposphere to lower stratosphere, a reduction in sensitivity and accuracy has been seen in these systems in the boundary layer over land. In this paper we demonstrate the potential improvement associated with higher spatial resolution (1km vs currently 13.5 km) on the accuracy of boundary layer products with an added consequence of higher yield of cloud free scenes. This latter feature is related to the number of samples that can be assimilated and has also shown to have a significant impact on improving forecast accuracy. We also present a set of frequencies and resolutions that will improve vertical resolution of temperature and water vapor and trace gas species throughout the atmosphere. Development of an Advanced Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Sounder (ALS) with these improvements will improve weather forecast at the regional scale and of tropical storms and hurricanes. Improvements are also expected in the accuracy of the water vapor and cloud properties products, enhancing process studies and providing a better match to the resolution of future climate models. The improvements of technology required for the ALS are consistent with the current state of technology as demonstrated in NASA Instrument Incubator Program and NOAA's Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) formulation phase development programs.

  8. Monitoring Coastal Processes at Local and Regional Geographic Scales with UAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starek, M. J.; Bridges, D.; Prouty, D.; Berryhill, J.; Williams, D.; Jeffress, G.

    2014-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) provide a powerful tool for coastal mapping due to attractive features such as low cost data acquisition, flexibility in data capture and resolution, rapid response, and autonomous flight. We investigate two different scales of UAS platforms for monitoring coastal processes along the central Texas Gulf coast. Firstly, the eBee is a small-scale UAS weighing ~0.7 kg designed for localized mapping. The imaging payload consists of a hand held RGB digital camera and NIR digital camera, both with 16.1 megapixel resolutions. The system can map up to 10 square kilometers on a single flight and is capable of acquiring imagery down to 1.5 cm ground sample distance. The eBee is configured with a GPS receiver, altitude sensor, gyroscope and a radio transmitter enabling autonomous flight. The system has a certificate of authorization (COA) from the FAA to fly over the Ward Island campus of Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi (TAMUCC). The campus has an engineered beach, called University Beach, located along Corpus Christi Bay. A set of groins and detached breakwaters were built in an effort to protect the beach from erosive wave action. The eBee is being applied to periodically survey the beach (Figure 1A). Through Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques, eBee-derived image sequences are post-processed to extract 3D topography and measure volumetric change. Additionally, when water clarity suffices, this approach enables the extraction of shallow-water bathymetry. Results on the utilization of the eBee to monitor beach morphodynamics will be presented including a comparison of derived estimates to RTK GPS and airborne lidar. Secondly, the RS-16 UAS has a 4 m wingspan and 11 kg sensor payload. The system is remotely piloted and has a flight endurance of 12 to 16 hours making it suitable for regional scale coastal mapping. The imaging payload consists of a multispectral sensor suite measuring in the visible, thermal IR, and ultraviolet ranges of the

  9. MODELING OF WEATHER DATA FOR THE EAST ANATOLIA REGION OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Akpinar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Monthly average daily data of climatic conditions over the period 1994-2003 of cities in the east Anatolia region of Turkey is presented. Regression methods are used to fit polynomial and trigonometric functions to the monthly averages for nine parameters. The parameters namely temperature, maximum-minimum temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed, rainfall, solar radiation and sunshine duration are useful for renewable energy applications. The functions presented for the parameters should enable determination of specific parameter values and prediction of missing values. They also provide some insight into the variation of these parameters. The models developed can be used in any study related to climatic and its effect on the environment and energy.

  10. Regional Extinctions and Quaternary Shifts in the Geographic Range of Lestodelphys halli, the Southernmost Living Marsupial: Clues for Its Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formoso, Anahí E.; Martin, Gabriel M.; Teta, Pablo; Carbajo, Aníbal E.; Sauthier, Daniel E. Udrizar; Pardiñas, Ulyses F. J.

    2015-01-01

    The Patagonian opossum (Lestodelphys halli), the southernmost living marsupial, inhabits dry and open environments, mainly in the Patagonian steppe (between ~32°S and ~49°S). Its rich fossil record shows its occurrence further north in Central Argentina during the Quaternary. The paleoenvironmental meaning of the past distribution of L. halli has been mostly addressed in a subjective framework without an explicit connection with the climatic “space” currently occupied by this animal. Here, we assessed the potential distribution of this species and the changes occurred in its geographic range during late Pleistocene-Holocene times and linked the results obtained with conservation issues. To this end, we generated three potential distribution models with fossil records and three with current ones, using MaxEnt software. These models showed a decrease in the suitable habitat conditions for the species, highlighting a range shift from Central-Eastern to South-Western Argentina. Our results support that the presence of L. halli in the Pampean region during the Pleistocene-Holocene can be related to precipitation and temperature variables and that its current presence in Patagonia is more related to temperature and dominant soils. The models obtained suggest that the species has been experiencing a reduction in its geographic range since the middle Holocene, a process that is in accordance with a general increase in moisture and temperature in Central Argentina. Considering the findings of our work and the future scenario of global warming projected for Patagonia, we might expect a harsh impact on the distribution range of this opossum in the near future. PMID:26203650

  11. Regional Extinctions and Quaternary Shifts in the Geographic Range of Lestodelphys halli, the Southernmost Living Marsupial: Clues for Its Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahí E Formoso

    Full Text Available The Patagonian opossum (Lestodelphys halli, the southernmost living marsupial, inhabits dry and open environments, mainly in the Patagonian steppe (between ~32 °S and ~49 °S. Its rich fossil record shows its occurrence further north in Central Argentina during the Quaternary. The paleoenvironmental meaning of the past distribution of L. halli has been mostly addressed in a subjective framework without an explicit connection with the climatic "space" currently occupied by this animal. Here, we assessed the potential distribution of this species and the changes occurred in its geographic range during late Pleistocene-Holocene times and linked the results obtained with conservation issues. To this end, we generated three potential distribution models with fossil records and three with current ones, using MaxEnt software. These models showed a decrease in the suitable habitat conditions for the species, highlighting a range shift from Central-Eastern to South-Western Argentina. Our results support that the presence of L. halli in the Pampean region during the Pleistocene-Holocene can be related to precipitation and temperature variables and that its current presence in Patagonia is more related to temperature and dominant soils. The models obtained suggest that the species has been experiencing a reduction in its geographic range since the middle Holocene, a process that is in accordance with a general increase in moisture and temperature in Central Argentina. Considering the findings of our work and the future scenario of global warming projected for Patagonia, we might expect a harsh impact on the distribution range of this opossum in the near future.

  12. Regional Extinctions and Quaternary Shifts in the Geographic Range of Lestodelphys halli, the Southernmost Living Marsupial: Clues for Its Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formoso, Anahí E; Martin, Gabriel M; Teta, Pablo; Carbajo, Aníbal E; Sauthier, Daniel E Udrizar; Pardiñas, Ulyses F J

    2015-01-01

    The Patagonian opossum (Lestodelphys halli), the southernmost living marsupial, inhabits dry and open environments, mainly in the Patagonian steppe (between ~32 °S and ~49 °S). Its rich fossil record shows its occurrence further north in Central Argentina during the Quaternary. The paleoenvironmental meaning of the past distribution of L. halli has been mostly addressed in a subjective framework without an explicit connection with the climatic "space" currently occupied by this animal. Here, we assessed the potential distribution of this species and the changes occurred in its geographic range during late Pleistocene-Holocene times and linked the results obtained with conservation issues. To this end, we generated three potential distribution models with fossil records and three with current ones, using MaxEnt software. These models showed a decrease in the suitable habitat conditions for the species, highlighting a range shift from Central-Eastern to South-Western Argentina. Our results support that the presence of L. halli in the Pampean region during the Pleistocene-Holocene can be related to precipitation and temperature variables and that its current presence in Patagonia is more related to temperature and dominant soils. The models obtained suggest that the species has been experiencing a reduction in its geographic range since the middle Holocene, a process that is in accordance with a general increase in moisture and temperature in Central Argentina. Considering the findings of our work and the future scenario of global warming projected for Patagonia, we might expect a harsh impact on the distribution range of this opossum in the near future.

  13. Modelling soil-plant-atmosphere interactions by coupling the regional weather model WRF to mechanistic plant models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, C.; Hoffmann, P.; Priesack, E.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change causes altering distributions of meteorological factors influencing plant growth and its interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere. Recent studies show, that uncertainties in regional and global climate simulations are also caused by lacking descriptions of the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Therefore, we couple a mechanistic soil-plant model to a regional climate and forecast model. The detailed simulation of the water and energy exchanges, especially the transpiration of grassland and forests stands, are the key features of the modelling framework. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) (Skamarock 2008) is an open source mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. The WRF model was modified in a way, to either choose its native, static land surface model NOAH or the mechanistic eco-system model Expert-N 5.0 individually for every single grid point within the simulation domain. The Expert-N 5.0 modelling framework provides a highly modular structure, enabling the development and use of a large variety of different plant and soil models, including heat transfer, nitrogen uptake/turnover/transport as well as water uptake/transport and crop management. To represent the key landuse types grassland and forest, we selected two mechanistic plant models: The Hurley Pasture model (Thornley 1998) and a modified TREEDYN3 forest simulation model (Bossel 1996). The models simulate plant growth, water, nitrogen and carbon flows for grassland and forest stands. A mosaic approach enables Expert-N to use high resolution land use data e.g. CORINE Land Cover data (CLC, 2006) for the simulation, making it possible to simulate different land use distributions within a single grid cell. The coupling results are analyzed for plausibility and compared with the results of the default land surface model NOAH (Fei Chen and Jimy Dudhia 2010). We show differences between the mechanistic and the static model coupling, with focus on the feedback effects

  14. [Geographic distribution of birds in the Sierra Madre Oriental of San Luis Potosi, Mexico: a regional analysis of conservation status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahagún Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Navarro, Jaime Castro; Reyes Hernández, Humberto

    2013-06-01

    The Sierra Madre Oriental region in the mexican state of San Luis Potosi is a relevant place for bird conservation at a country level. Therefore the main goal of this study was to analyze the geographic patterns of distribution and the conservation current state of the birds, to support the needs to expand the conservation areas in the future. Data was collected from various databases of zoological museums and collections, and field sampling methods conducted from January 2009 to May 2011. Potential distributions were modeled for 284 species using GARP software and then a map was developed to determine areas with favorable environmental characteristics for the distribution of species richness. Finally, the importance of conservation areas for the potential distribution of birds in the region was evaluated. A total of 359 species were recorded of which 71.4% are permanent residents, 19% are winter migrants and 4% are summer residents. From this total, 41 species were endemic, 47 were species at risk and 149 were neotropical migrants. The largest species richness correspond to oak forests, cloud forests, and tropical moist forests located at altitudes from 100m to 1 500m. Their potential distribution was concentrated towards the center and Southeast of the study area. Only 10% of areas with a high potential conservation was included in areas of priority for bird conservation (AICA) and just 3% of all potential areas were under some governmental category of protection. However, no conservation area has a management plan currently applied and monitored. The information generated is important for the development of management proposals for birds conservation in the region.

  15. Attribution of aerosol radiative forcing over India during the winter monsoon to emissions from source categories and geographical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Venkataraman, C.; Boucher, O.

    2011-08-01

    We examine the aerosol radiative effects due to aerosols emitted from different emission sectors (anthropogenic and natural) and originating from different geographical regions within and outside India during the northeast (NE) Indian winter monsoon (January-March). These studies are carried out through aerosol transport simulations in the general circulation (GCM) model of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD). The model estimates of aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) show lower values (0.86-0.92) over the region north to 10°N comprising of the Indian subcontinent, Bay of Bengal, and parts of the Arabian Sea compared to the region south to 10°N where the estimated SSA values lie in the range 0.94-0.98. The model estimated SSA is consistent with the SSA values inferred through measurements on various platforms. Aerosols of anthropogenic origin reduce the incoming solar radiation at the surface by a factor of 10-20 times the reduction due to natural aerosols. At the top-of-atmosphere (TOA), aerosols from biofuel use cause positive forcing compared to the negative forcing from fossil fuel and natural sources in correspondence with the distribution of SSA which is estimated to be the lowest (0.7-0.78) from biofuel combustion emissions. Aerosols originating from India and Africa-west Asia lead to the reduction in surface radiation (-3 to -8 W m -2) by 40-60% of the total reduction in surface radiation due to all aerosols over the Indian subcontinent and adjoining ocean. Aerosols originating from India and Africa-west Asia also lead to positive radiative effects at TOA over the Arabian Sea, central India (CNI), with the highest positive radiative effects over the Bay of Bengal and cause either negative or positive effects over the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP).

  16. Geochemistry of the Jurassic and Upper Cretaceous shales from the Molango Region, Hidalgo, eastern Mexico: Implications for source-area weathering, provenance, and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Altrin, John S.; Nagarajan, Ramasamy; Madhavaraju, Jayagopal; Rosalez-Hoz, Leticia; Lee, Yong Il; Balaram, Vysetti; Cruz-Martínez, Adriana; Avila-Ramírez, Gladis

    2013-04-01

    This study focuses on the Jurassic (Huayacocotla and Pimienta Formations) and Upper Cretaceous (Méndez Formation) shales from the Molango Region, Hidalgo, Mexico. In this article, we discuss the mineralogy, major, and trace element geochemistry of the Mesozoic shales of Mexico. The goal of this study is to constrain the provenance of the shales, which belong to two different periods of the Mesozoic Era and to understand the weathering conditions and tectonic environments of the source region.

  17. Geographical variations in the benefit of applying a prioritization system for cataract surgery in different regions of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez-Moreno Santiago

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Spain, there are substantial variations in the utilization of health resources among regions. Because the need for surgery differs in patients with appropriate surgical indication, introducing a prioritization system might be beneficial. Our objective was to assess geographical variations in the impact of applying a prioritization system in patients on the waiting list for cataract surgery in different regions of Spain by using a discrete-event simulation model. Methods A discrete-event simulation model to evaluate demand and waiting time for cataract surgery was constructed. The model was reproduced and validated in five regions of Spain and was fed administrative data (population census, surgery rates, waiting list information and data from research studies (incidence of cataract. The benefit of introducing a prioritization system was contrasted with the usual first-in, first-out (FIFO discipline. The prioritization system included clinical, functional and social criteria. Priority scores ranged between 0 and 100, with greater values indicating higher priority. The measure of results was the waiting time weighted by the priority score of each patient who had passed through the waiting list. Benefit was calculated as the difference in time weighted by priority score between operating according to waiting time or to priority. Results The mean waiting time for patients undergoing surgery according to the FIFO discipline varied from 1.97 months (95% CI 1.85; 2.09 in the Basque Country to 10.02 months (95% CI 9.91; 10.12 in the Canary Islands. When the prioritization system was applied, the mean waiting time was reduced to a minimum of 0.73 months weighted by priority score (95% CI 0.68; 0.78 in the Basque Country and a maximum of 5.63 months (95% CI 5.57; 5.69 in the Canary Islands. The waiting time weighted by priority score saved by the prioritization system varied from 1.12 months (95% CI 1.07; 1.16 in Andalusia to 2

  18. Human milk POPs and neonatal risk trend from 1982 to 2009 in the same geographic region in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukavić, T; Vojinović Miloradov, M; Mihajlović, I; Ristivojević, A

    2013-04-01

    Three groups of POPs - DDT, HCH and PCBs were monitored in early human milk for 27 years (1982-2009), as a measure of environmental pollution in the same geographic region (South Bačka, Voyvodina, Serbia). Measurements were performed using ECD GC Varian 3400. Concetrations of DDT and HCH had general decreasing trend from 1982 to 2009. However, the concentrations of both groups of compounds showed small rises in 1994. Concentrations of PCBs had general decreasing trend from 1982 to 2009 - smooth and steep only till 1994 and with two small peaks in 2003 and 2009. The latest estimated daily intake of DDT and HCH was well below the EU upper limit for pesticides in food intended for infants and small children. Although the estimated daily intake of PCBs was far below the upper limit for daily milk products in Serbia, its increase in 2003 and 2009 is a clear indication of environmental influx of these compounds after the 1994 measurements. The likely explanation for such POP profiles in South Bačka could have been a series of negative environmental impacts escalating in 1999, after which four hot spots were identified in Serbia (Novi Sad, Pančevo, Bor and Kragujevac) by UNEP. The results of this monitoring showed that although a long standing environmental presence of POPs has a decreasing trend, their occasional output in the environment may cause bioaccumulation and biomagnification in human organisms which already start in the neonatal age through mother-child transfer via human milk.

  19. Emergence of recombinant forms in geographic regions with co-circulating HIV subtypes in the dynamic HIV-1 epidemic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letiner, Thomas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Foley, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We have reexamined the subtype designations of {approx}10,000 subtype A, B, C, G, and AG, BC, BF recombinant sequences, and compared the results of the new analysis with their published designations. Intersubtype recombinants dominate HIV epidemics in three different geographical regions. The circulating recombinant from (CRF) CRF02-AG, common in West Central Africa, appears to result from a recombination event that occurred early in the divergence between subtypes A and G, although additional more recent recombination events may have contributed to the breakpoint pattern in this recombinant lineage as well. The Chinese recombinant epidemic strains CRF07 and CRF08, in contrast, result from recent recombinations between more contemporary strains. Nevertheless, CRF07 and CRF08 contributed to many subsequent recombination events. The BF recombinant epidemics in two HIV-1 epicenters in South America are not independent and BF epidemics in South America have an unusually high fraction of unique recombinant forms (URFs) that have each been found only once and carry distinctive breakpoints. Taken together, these analyses reveal a complex and dynamic picture of the current HIV-1 epidemic, and suggest a means of grouping and tracking relationships between viruses through preservation of shared breakpints.

  20. Lipidome and metabolome analysis of fresh tobacco leaves in different geographical regions using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lili; Lu, Xin; Zhao, Jieyu; Zhang, Junjie; Zhao, Yanni; Zhao, Chunxia; Xu, Guowang

    2015-07-01

    The combination of the lipidome and the metabolome can provide much more information in plant metabolomics studies. A method for the simultaneous extraction of the lipidome and the metabolome of fresh tobacco leaves was developed. Method validation was performed on the basis of the optimal ratio of methanol to methyl tert-butyl ether to water (37:45:68) from the design of experiments. Good repeatability was obtained. We found that 92.2% and 91.6% of the peaks for the lipidome and the metabolome were within a relative standard deviation of 20%, accounting for 94.6% and 94.6% of the total abundance, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were also satisfactory. A total of 230 metabolites, including 129 lipids, were identified. Significant differences were found in lipidomic and metabolomic profiles of fresh tobacco leaves in different geographical regions. Highly unsaturated galactolipids, phosphatidylethanolamines, predominant phosphatidylcholines, most of the polyphenols, amino acids, and polyamines had a higher content in Yunnan province, and low-unsaturation-degree galactolipids, triacylglycerols, glucosylceramides with trihydroxy long-chain bases, acylated sterol glucosides, and some organic acids were more abundant in Henan province. Correlation analysis between differential metabolites and climatic factors indicated the vital importance of temperature. The fatty acid unsaturation degree of galactolipids could be influenced by temperature. Accumulation of polyphenols and decreases in the ratios of stigmasterols to sitosterols and glucosylstigmasterols to glucosylsitosterols were also correlated with lower temperature in Yunnan province. Furthermore, lipids were more sensitive to climatic variations than other metabolites.

  1. Geographic structure and demographic history of Iranian brown bear (Ursus arctos based on mtDNA control region sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Ashrafzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the brown bear's range has declined and its populations in some areas have faced extinction. Therefore, to have a comprehensive picture of genetic diversity and geographic structure of populations is essential for effective conservation strategies. In this research, we sequenced a 271bp segment of mtDNA control region of seven Iranian brown bears, where a total dataset of 467 sequences (brown and polar bears were used in analyses. Overall, 113 different haplotypes and 77 polymorphic sites were identified within the segment. Based on phylogenetic analyses, Iranian brown bears were not nested in any other clades. The low values of Nm (range=0.014-0.187 and high values of Fst (range=0.728-0.972 among Iranian bears and others revealed a genetically significant differentiation. We aren't found any significant signal of demographic reduction in Iranian bears. The time to the most recent common ancestor of Iranian brown bears (Northern Iran was found to be around 19000 BP.

  2. Degradation of fenamiphos in soils collected from different geographical regions: the influence of soil properties and climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Tanya; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2008-05-01

    The persistence of fenamiphos (nematicide) in five soils collected from different geographical regions such as Australia, Ecuador and India under three temperature regimes (18, 25 and 37 degrees C) simulating typical environmental conditions was studied. The effect of soil properties (soil pH, temperature and microbial biomass) on the degradation of fenamiphos was determined. The rate of degradation increased with increase in temperature. Fenamiphos degradation was higher at 37 degrees C than at 25 and 18 degrees C (except under alkaline pH). The degradation pathway differed in different soils. Fenamiphos sulfoxide (FSO) was identified as the major degradation product in all the soils. Fenamiphos sulfone (FSO2), and the corresponding phenols: fenamiphos phenol (FP), fenamiphos sulfoxide phenol (FSOP) and fenamiphos sulfone phenol (FSO2P) were also detected. The degradation of fenamiphos was faster in the alkaline soils, followed by neutral and acidic soils. Under sterile conditions, the dissipation of the pesticide was slower than in the non-sterile soils suggesting microbial role in the pesticide degradation. The generation of new knowledge on fenamiphos degradation patterns under different environmental conditions is important to achieve better pesticide risk management.

  3. Divergence in Forest-Type Response to Climate and Weather: Evidence for Regional Links Between Forest-Type Evenness and Net Primary Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is altering long-term climatic conditions and increasing the magnitude of weather fluctuations. Assessing the consequences of these changes for terrestrial ecosystems requires understanding how different vegetation types respond to climate and weather. This study examined 20 years of regional-scale remotely sensed net primary productivity (NPP) in forests of the northern Lake States to identify how the relationship between NPP and climate or weather differ among forest types, and if NPP patterns are influenced by landscape-scale evenness of forest-type abundance. These results underscore the positive relationship between temperature and NPP. Importantly, these results indicate significant differences among broadly defined forest types in response to both climate and weather. Essentially all weather variables that were strongly related to annual NPP displayed significant differences among forest types, suggesting complementarity in response to environmental fluctuations. In addition, this study found that forest-type evenness (within 8 ?? 8 km2 areas) is positively related to long-term NPP mean and negatively related to NPP variability, suggesting that NPP in pixels with greater forest-type evenness is both higher and more stable through time. This is landscape- to subcontinental-scale evidence of a relationship between primary productivity and one measure of biological diversity. These results imply that anthropogenic or natural processes that influence the proportional abundance of forest types within landscapes may influence long-term productivity patterns. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  4. Eimeria species occurrence varies between geographic regions and poultry production systems and may influence parasite genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengat Prakashbabu, B; Thenmozhi, V; Limon, G; Kundu, K; Kumar, S; Garg, R; Clark, E L; Srinivasa Rao, A S R; Raj, D G; Raman, M; Banerjee, P S; Tomley, F M; Guitian, J; Blake, D P

    2017-01-15

    Coccidiosis is one of the biggest challenges faced by the global poultry industry. Recent studies have highlighted the ubiquitous distribution of all Eimeria species which can cause this disease in chickens, but intriguingly revealed a regional divide in genetic diversity and population structure for at least one species, Eimeria tenella. The drivers associated with such distinct geographic variation are unclear, but may impact on the occurrence and extent of resistance to anticoccidial drugs and future subunit vaccines. India is one of the largest poultry producers in the world and includes a transition between E. tenella populations defined by high and low genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with the prevalence of Eimeria species defined by high and low pathogenicity in northern and southern states of India, and seek to understand factors which vary between the regions as possible drivers for differential genetic variation. Faecal samples and data relating to farm characteristics and management were collected from 107 farms from northern India and 133 farms from southern India. Faecal samples were analysed using microscopy and PCR to identify Eimeria occurrence. Multiple correspondence analysis was applied to transform correlated putative risk factors into a smaller number of synthetic uncorrelated factors. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify poultry farm typologies, revealing three distinct clusters in the studied regions. The association between clusters and presence of Eimeria species was assessed by logistic regression. The study found that large-scale broiler farms in the north were at greatest risk of harbouring any Eimeria species and a larger proportion of such farms were positive for E. necatrix, the most pathogenic species. Comparison revealed a more even distribution for E. tenella across production systems in south India, but with a lower overall occurrence. Such a polarised region- and

  5. Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.

  6. Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.

  7. Beyond regional clusters: On the importance of geographical proximity for R&D collaborations in a global economy - the case of the flemisch biotech sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, A.M.; Taks, J.L.; Moors, E.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    When internal knowledge bases are insufficient for developing innovations, companies tend to collaborate with external R&D partners. According to a long-standing literature on “clusters”, “industrial districts”, “local production systems” and “regional innovation systems”, geographical proximity bet

  8. 中国当代地理教授、研究员地域分异%Geographical Distribution and Regional Differentiation of Contemporary Geographical Professors and Researchers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李双双; 延军平

    2011-01-01

    There have been few studies on the talents with geographical background. Based on the statistical data, this article examines Chinese contemporary geographical professors and researchers in several aspects, including the number, age structure, native place, geographical distribution and regional differentiation, and reveals the reasons for regional differences and relevant influencing factors. The results show that there is greater regional differentiation in eastern China than in western China, and also greater in southern China than in northern China. A large number of geographical brains are concentrated in Shaanxi, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces, while fewer professors and researchers are distributed in northwestern China. The regional differences, to a certain extent, have been formed due to the intrinsic factors of geographical scholars, while they are affected by some factors such as economic condition, politics, and culture.%针对人才地理学对具有特殊专业或学科背景人才研究明显缺失的问题,选取具有地理学背景的教授、研究员为研究对象,对中国当代地理教授、研究员时空格局进行分析,揭示影响其数量、年龄结构及分布特征的因素。结果表明:当代地理教授、研究员地域分布不均衡,南方多于北方,沿海多于内陆。东部多于中部,西部最少。青年地理教授、研究员本区比例则呈现东部少于中部,中部少于西部的特征。工作地区域聚集和空间分异现象明显。其特点反映了中国当代地理教授、研究员地域分异,除受经济地理环境、政治、文化等一系列因素影响外,还有其自身形成原因。

  9. Weather Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Science Communications International (SCI), formerly General Science Corporation, has developed several commercial products based upon experience acquired as a NASA Contractor. Among them are METPRO, a meteorological data acquisition and processing system, which has been widely used, RISKPRO, an environmental assessment system, and MAPPRO, a geographic information system. METPRO software is used to collect weather data from satellites, ground-based observation systems and radio weather broadcasts to generate weather maps, enabling potential disaster areas to receive advance warning. GSC's initial work for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center resulted in METPAK, a weather satellite data analysis system. METPAK led to the commercial METPRO system. The company also provides data to other government agencies, U.S. embassies and foreign countries.

  10. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots

  11. Venomics, lethality and neutralization of Naja kaouthia (monocled cobra) venoms from three different geographical regions of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kae Yi; Tan, Choo Hock; Fung, Shin Yee; Tan, Nget Hong

    2015-04-29

    geographical region seems possible, changes to standard recommended dosage should only be made if further study validates that the monocled cobras within a population do not exhibit remarkable inter-individual venom variation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A probabilistic sampling method (PSM for estimating geographic distance to health services when only the region of residence is known

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peek-Asa Corinne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to estimate the distance from an individual to a service provider is common in public health research. However, estimated distances are often imprecise and, we suspect, biased due to a lack of specific residential location data. In many cases, to protect subject confidentiality, data sets contain only a ZIP Code or a county. Results This paper describes an algorithm, known as "the probabilistic sampling method" (PSM, which was used to create a distribution of estimated distances to a health facility for a person whose region of residence was known, but for which demographic details and centroids were known for smaller areas within the region. From this distribution, the median distance is the most likely distance to the facility. The algorithm, using Monte Carlo sampling methods, drew a probabilistic sample of all the smaller areas (Census blocks within each participant's reported region (ZIP Code, weighting these areas by the number of residents in the same age group as the participant. To test the PSM, we used data from a large cross-sectional study that screened women at a clinic for intimate partner violence (IPV. We had data on each woman's age and ZIP Code, but no precise residential address. We used the PSM to select a sample of census blocks, then calculated network distances from each census block's centroid to the closest IPV facility, resulting in a distribution of distances from these locations to the geocoded locations of known IPV services. We selected the median distance as the most likely distance traveled and computed confidence intervals that describe the shortest and longest distance within which any given percent of the distance estimates lie. We compared our results to those obtained using two other geocoding approaches. We show that one method overestimated the most likely distance and the other underestimated it. Neither of the alternative methods produced confidence intervals for the distance

  13. Evaluation of Enhanced High Resolution MODIS/AMSR-E SSTs and the Impact on Regional Weather Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiferl, Luke D.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Case, Jonathan L.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has been generating a 1-km sea surface temperature (SST) composite derived from retrievals of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for use in operational diagnostics and regional model initialization. With the assumption that the day-to-day variation in the SST is nominal, individual MODIS passes aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua and Terra satellites are used to create and update four composite SST products each day at 0400, 0700, 1600, and 1900 UTC, valid over the western Atlantic and Caribbean waters. A six month study from February to August 2007 over the marine areas surrounding southern Florida was conducted to compare the use of the MODIS SST composite versus the Real-Time Global SST analysis to initialize the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Substantial changes in the forecast heat fluxes were seen at times in the marine boundary layer, but relatively little overall improvement was measured in the sensible weather elements. The limited improvement in the WRF model forecasts could be attributed to the diurnal changes in SST seen in the MODIS SST composites but not accounted for by the model. Furthermore, cloud contamination caused extended periods when individual passes of MODIS were unable to update the SSTs, leading to substantial SST latency and a cool bias during the early summer months. In order to alleviate the latency problems, the SPoRT Center recently enhanced its MODIS SST composite by incorporating information from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) instruments as well as the Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis. These enhancements substantially decreased the latency due to cloud cover and improved the bias and correlation of the composites at available marine point observations. While these enhancements improved upon the modeled cold bias using the original MODIS SSTs

  14. Genetic variability among Hymenolepis nana isolates from different geographical regions in China revealed by sequence analysis of three mitochondrial genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tian; Gao, De-Zhen; Zhu, Wei-Ning; Fang, Su-Fang; Chen, Ning; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Liu, Guo-Hua; Lin, Rui-Qing

    2016-11-01

    Hymenolepis nana is a common tapeworm that parasitizes in the small intestine of rodent animals and humans. The present study examined the sequence diversity of three mitochondrial (mt) genes namely NADH dehydrogenase subunits 5 (nad5), small subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnS), and ATPase subunit 6 (atp6) of H. nana from mice in different geographical regions of China. A part of the nad5 (pnad5), complete rrnS and atp6 genes were amplified separately from individual H. nana isolates using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then sequenced. The sequences of pnad5, rrnS, and atp6 were 710 bp, 704-711 bp, and 516 bp in length, respectively. The A + T contents of the sequences were 70.1-73.5% (pnad5), 70.1-71.7% (rrnS), and 76.6-77.9% (atp6). Sequence variation within H. nana was 0-1.4% for atp6, 0-1.7% for rrnS, and 0-0.7% for pnad5. The inter-specific sequence differences between H. nana and Hymenolepis diminuta were significantly higher, which was 31.6-31.7% (pnad5), 16.1-17.6% (rrnS), and 26.5-27.1% (atp6). Phylogenetic analysis based on the combined three sequences using the maximum parsimony (MP) method supported that H. nana is a species complex or "cryptic" species. These findings demonstrated clearly the usefulness of the three mtDNA sequences for population genetics and systematic studies of H. nana of human and animal health significance.

  15. Space weather monitoring and forecasting in South America: products from the user requests to the development of regional magnetic indices and GNSS vertical error maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Padilha, Antonio; Takahashi, Hisao; Souza, Jonas; Mendes, Odim; Batista, Inez S.; SantAnna, Nilson; Gatto, Rubens; Costa, D. Joaquim

    On August 2007 the National Institute for Space Research started a task force to develop and operate a space weather program, which is kwon by the acronyms Embrace that stands for the Portuguese statement “Estudo e Monitoramento BRAasileiro de Clima Espacial” Program (Brazilian Space Weather Study and Monitoring program). The main purpose of the Embrace Program is to monitor the space climate and weather from sun, interplanetary space, magnetosphere and ionosphere-atmosphere, and to provide useful information to space related communities, technological, industrial and academic areas. Since then we have being visiting several different space weather costumers and we have host two workshops of Brazilian space weather users at the Embrace facilities. From the inputs and requests collected from the users the Embrace Program decided to monitored several physical parameters of the sun-earth environment through a large ground base network of scientific sensors and under collaboration with space weather centers partners. Most of these physical parameters are daily published on the Brazilian space weather program web portal, related to the entire network sensors available. A comprehensive data bank and an interface layer are under development to allow an easy and direct access to the useful information. Nowadays, the users will count on products derived from a GNSS monitor network that covers most of the South American territory; a digisonde network that monitors the ionospheric profiles in two equatorial sites and in one low latitude site; several solar radio telescopes to monitor solar activity, and a magnetometer network, besides a global ionospheric physical model. Regarding outreach, we publish a daily bulletin in Portuguese with the status of the space weather environment on the Sun, in the Interplanetary Medium and close to the Earth. Since December 2011, all these activities are carried out at the Embrace Headquarter, a building located at the INPE's main campus

  16. Linking spatio-temporal patterns in land cover dynamics with regional climate factors and recent weather: Application to the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henebry, G.M.; Goodin, D.G. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Su, H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    A key obstacle to developing regional models of ecosystem dynamics is representation of spatio-temporal variation in constituent patterns and processes. Simple resealing of site-specific ecological data or simulations to broader spatial scales is unlikely to capture regional spatio-temporal dynamics. Yet logistical constraints usually require synoptic weather data to be synthesized from sparse data networks. We seek a simple top-down model that links remotely-sensed vegetation cover with antecedent meteorological forcings to generate boundary conditions for site-specific fine-resolution data and simulations of tallgrass prairie. We developed several candidate models using AVHRR NDVI maximum biweekly composites of the Flint Hills from 1990-1993 and data from a network of more than 60 weather stations across the 40,000 km2 region. Models combined parameters derived from exemplary land cover trajectories, spatial structure (lacunarity and correlation length), and running weighted sums of weather data. Spectral-temporal models were easier to fit; lacunarity was more sensitive than correlation length; compositing effects were strong.

  17. Weather Conditions, Weather Information and Car Crashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan Perrels

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic safety is the result of a complex interaction of factors, and causes behind road vehicle crashes require different measures to reduce their impacts. This study assesses how strongly the variation in daily winter crash rates associates with weather conditions in Finland. This is done by illustrating trends and spatiotemporal variation in the crash rates, by showing how a GIS application can evidence the association between temporary rises in regional crash rates and the occurrence of bad weather, and with a regression model on crash rate sensitivity to adverse weather conditions. The analysis indicates that a base rate of crashes depending on non-weather factors exists, and some combinations of extreme weather conditions are able to substantially push up crash rates on days with bad weather. Some spatial causation factors, such as variation of geophysical characteristics causing systematic differences in the distributions of weather variables, exist. Yet, even in winter, non-spatial factors are normally more significant. GIS data can support optimal deployment of rescue services and enhance in-depth quantitative analysis by helping to identify the most appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. However, the supportive role of GIS should not be inferred as existence of highly significant spatial causation.

  18. Use of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder clear-sky and cloud-cleared radiances in the Weather Research and Forecasting 3DVAR assimilation system for mesoscale weather predictions over the Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Randhir; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.

    2011-11-01

    A set of assimilation experiments is conducted with the Three-Dimensional Variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system associated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The purpose of the investigation is to assess the impact on forecast skill in response to assimilation of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) clear-sky and cloud-cleared radiances over the Indian region. This is the first study that makes use of cloud-cleared radiances in the WRF system. Two sets of thirty-one 72 h forecasts are performed, all initialized at 00:00 UTC each day throughout the month of July 2010, to compare the model performance consequent to assimilation of clear-sky versus cloud-cleared radiances. A rigorous validation is produced against National Centers for Environmental Prediction analyzed wind, temperature, and moisture. In addition, the precipitation forecast skill is assessed against Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission observations. The results show improvement in forecast skill consequent to the assimilation of cloud-cleared radiances (CCR). The implications of using CCR for operational weather forecasting appear to be significant. Since only a small fraction of AIRS channels are cloud-free, information obtained in cloudy regions, which is meteorologically very significant, is lost when assimilating only clear-sky radiances (CSR). On the contrary, assimilation of CCR allows a larger yield, which leads to improved model performance. The assimilation of CCR resulted in significantly improved rainfall prediction compared to that obtained from the use of CSR. The finding of this study clearly shows the advantage of CCR available from clear-sky as well as from partly cloudy regions as compared to CSR, which are available only in clear-sky regions.

  19. Flood Vulnerability Analysis of the part of Karad Region, Satara District, Maharashtra using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warghat, Sumedh R.; Das, Sandipan; Doad, Atul; Mali, Sagar; Moon, Vishal S.

    2012-07-01

    Karad City is situated on the bank of confluence of river Krishna & Koyana, which is severely flood prone area. The floodwaters enter the city through the roads and disrupt the infrastructure in the whole city. Furthermore, due to negligence of the authorities and unplanned growth of the city, the people living in the city have harnessed the natural flow of water by constructing unnecessary embankments in the river Koyna. Due to this reason now river koyna is flowing in the form of a narrow channel, which very easily over-flows during very minor flooding.Flood Vulnerabilty Analysis has been done for the karad region of satara district, maharashtra using remote sensing and geographic information system technique. The aim of this study is to identify flood vulnerability zone by using GIS and RS technique and an attempt has been to demonstrat the application of remote sensing and GIS in order to map flood vulnerabilty area by utilizing ArcMap, and Erdas software. Flood vulnerabilty analysis of part the Karad Regian of Satara District, Maharashtra has been carried out with the objectives - Identify the Flood Prone area in the Koyana and Krishna river basin, Calculate surface runoff and Delineate flood sensitive areas. Delineate classified hazard Map, Evaluate the Flood affected area, Prepare the Flood Vulnerability Map by utilizing Remote Sensing and GIS technique. (C.J. Kumanan;S.M. Ramasamy)The study is based on GIS and spatial technique is used for analysis and understanding of flood problem in Karad Tahsil. The flood affected areas of the different magnitude has been identified and mapped using Arc GIS software. The analysis is useful for local planning authority for identification of risk areas and taking proper decision in right moment. In the analysis causative factors for flooding in watershed are taken into account as annual rainfall, size of watershed, basin slope, drainage density of natural channels and land use. (Dinand Alkema; Farah Aziz.)This study of

  20. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  1. Distributed numerical rainfall-runoff modelling in an arid region using Thematic Mapper data and a geographical information system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, K.D.; Menenti, M.; Huygen, J.; Fernandez, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    A transient one-dimensional finite-difference model describing the partitioning of precipitation between surface run-off, soil moisture storage and deep percolation, through the coupling of saturated and unsaturated zones, has been implemented in a geographical information system including data on v

  2. Effects of Geographic Region upon Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Results: A Hawaii-Mainland United States Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T.; Bratton, Joseph C.

    1977-01-01

    Investigated geographic differences in Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) results by comparing 60 Hawaiian and 60 mainland United States psychiatric outpatients. The influence of pidgin English led to expectations that Hawaiian subjects would have significantly lower WAIS Verbal scores than mainland subjects. Data verified these…

  3. Profiling the ionome of rice and its use in discriminating geographical origins at the regional scale, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Li; Luis Nunes; Yijie Wang; Paul N.Williams; Maozhong Zheng; Qiufang Zhang; Yongguan Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Element profile was investigated for their use to trace the geographical origin of rice (Oryza sativa L.) samples.The concentrations of 13 elements (calcium (Ca),potassium (K),magnesium (Mg),phosphorus (P),boron (B),manganese (Mn),iron (Fe),nickel (Ni),copper (Cu),arsenic (As),selenium (Se),molybdenum (Mo),and cadmium (Cd)) were determined in the rice samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission and mass spectrometry.Most of the essential elements for human health in rice were within normal ranges except for Mo and Se.Mo concentrations were twice as high as those in rice from Vietnam and Spain.Meanwhile,Se concentrations were three times lower in the whole province compared to the Chinese average level of 0.088 mg/kg.About 12%of the rice samples failed the Chinese national food safety standard of 0.2 mg/kg for Cd.Combined with the multi-elemental profile in rice,the principal component analysis (PCA),discriminant function analysis (DFA) and Fibonacci index analysis (FIA) were applied to discriminate geographical origins of the samples.Results indicated that the FIA method could achieve a more effective geographical origin classification compared with PCA and DFA,due to its efficiency in making the grouping even when the elemental variability was so high that PCA and DFA showed little discriminatory power.Furthermore,some elements were identified as the most powerful indicators of geographical origin:Ca,Ni,Fe and Cd.This suggests that the newly established methodology of FIA based on the ionome profile can be applied to determine the geographical origin of rice.

  4. Geographic genetic structure in two laticaudine sea kraits, Laticauda laticaudata and Laticauda semifasciata (Serpentes: Elapidae), in the Ryukyu-Taiwan region as inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandavanitj, Nontivich; Ota, Hidetoshi; Cheng, Yuan-Cheng; Toda, Mamoru

    2013-08-01

    The Ryukyu-Taiwan region is an island arch with intervening waters of varying distances and depths. This study examines the geographic genetic structure of two sympatric sea kraits, Laticauda laticaudata and L. semifasciata, in the region, to infer factors affecting the extent of dispersal and other biogeographical traits of these amphibious reptiles. Sequence analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene revealed four and 16 haplotypes for L. laticaudata (136 individuals) and L. semifasciata (177 individuals), respectively. For both species, population pairwise F ST analyses revealed significant genetic differentiations among islands and island groups, which are separated by deep straits, suggesting that deep waters serve as obstacles for dispersal in both species. Significant genetic differentiation was detected even among islands of the same basin in L. laticaudata, but not in L. semifasciata, and the isolation by distance analyses revealed no significant correlation between geographic and genetic distances in the former species. These results further suggest that L. laticaudata has stronger site fidelity or degree of philopatry than L. semifasciata. Based on the geographic genetic patterns, the historical biogeography of the two species in the Ryukyu-Taiwan region is also discussed.

  5. The potential effect of global warming on the geographic and seasonal distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi in southwest Asia.

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, E R; Hyams, K C

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi in Southwest Asia is thought to be highly dependent on temperature and relative humidity. A discriminant analysis model based on weather data and reported vector surveys was developed to predict the seasonal and geographic distribution of P. papatasi in this region. To simulate global warming, temperature values for 115 weather stations were increased by 1 degree C, 3 degrees C, and 5 degrees C, and the outcome variable coded as unknown in the model. P...

  6. Numerical simulation for regional ozone concentrations: A case study by weather research and forecasting/chemistry (WRF/Chem) model

    OpenAIRE

    Khandakar Md Habib Al Razi, Moritomi Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to better understand and predict the atmospheric concentration distribution of ozone and its precursor (in particular, within the Planetary Boundary Layer (Within 110 km to 12 km) over Kasaki City and the Greater Tokyo Area using fully coupled online WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry) model. In this research, a serious and continuous high ozone episode in the Greater Tokyo Area (GTA) during the summer of 14–18 August 2010 was investigated u...

  7. Dual-polarization C-band weather radar algorithms for rain rate estimation and hydrometeor classification in an alpine region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Paulitsch

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dual polarization is becoming the standard for new weather radar systems. In contrast to conventional weather radars, where the reflectivity is measured in one polarization plane only, a dual polarization radar provides transmission in either horizontal, vertical, or both polarizations while receiving both the horizontal and vertical channels simultaneously. Since hydrometeors are often far from being spherical, the backscatter and propagation are different for horizontal and vertical polarization. Comparing the reflected horizontal and vertical power returns and their ratio and correlation, information on size, shape, and material density of cloud and precipitation particles can be obtained. The use of polarimetric radar variables can therefore increase the accuracy of the rain rate estimation compared to standard Z-R relationships of non-polarimetric radars. It is also possible to derive the type of precipitation from dual polarization parameters, although this is not an easy task, since there is no clear discrimination between the different values. Fuzzy logic approaches have been shown to work well with overlapping conditions and imprecisely defined class output.

    In this paper the implementation of different polarization algorithms for the new Austrian weather radar on Mt. Valluga is described, and first results from operational use are presented. This study also presents first observations of rain events in August 2007 during the test run of the radar. Further, the designated rain rate estimation and hydrometeor classification algorithms are explained.

  8. A case study of the methodology implemented to develop the geographic information system of tourism offer in the Alentejo region

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Maria do Rosário; Serra, Jaime Manuel; Marujo, Maria Noémi

    2011-01-01

    A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a powerful tool to make an integrated study of the overall spatial expression of tourism resources in the territory, as well as the facilities and the infrastructures required for its development. Tourism policies and strategies are becoming more complex to define due to the diversity of variables and constraints that underlie them. The availability of accurate and update information about tourism offer is thus crucial for the public sec...

  9. Record-low primary productivity and high plant damage in the Nordic Arctic Region in 2012 caused by multiple weather events and pest outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, Jarle W.; Rune Karlsen, Stein; Arild Høgda, Kjell; Malnes, Eirik; Jepsen, Jane U.; Lovibond, Sarah; Vikhamar-Schuler, Dagrun; Tømmervik, Hans

    2014-08-01

    The release of cold temperature constraints on photosynthesis has led to increased productivity (greening) in significant parts (32-39%) of the Arctic, but much of the Arctic shows stable (57-64%) or reduced productivity (browning, factors dampening the greening effect of more maritime regions have remained elusive. Here we show how multiple anomalous weather events severely affected the terrestrial productivity during one water year (October 2011-September 2012) in a maritime region north of the Arctic Circle, the Nordic Arctic Region, and contributed to the lowest mean vegetation greenness (normalized difference vegetation index) recorded this century. Procedures for field data sampling were designed during or shortly after the events in order to assess both the variability in effects and the maximum effects of the stressors. Outbreaks of insect and fungal pests also contributed to low greenness. Vegetation greenness in 2012 was 6.8% lower than the 2000-11 average and 58% lower in the worst affected areas that were under multiple stressors. These results indicate the importance of events (some being mostly neglected in climate change effect studies and monitoring) for primary productivity in a high-latitude maritime region, and highlight the importance of monitoring plant damage in the field and including frequencies of stress events in models of carbon economy and ecosystem change in the Arctic. Fourteen weather events and anomalies and 32 hypothesized impacts on plant productivity are summarized as an aid for directing future research.

  10. Tagging in Volunteered Geographic Information: An Analysis of Tagging Practices for Cities and Urban Regions in OpenStreetMap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Davidovic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI projects, the tagging or annotation of objects is usually performed in a flexible and non-constrained manner. Contributors to a VGI project are normally free to choose whatever tags they feel are appropriate to annotate or describe a particular geographic object or place. In OpenStreetMap (OSM, the Map Features part of the OSM Wiki serves as the de-facto rulebook or ontology for the annotation of features in OSM. Within Map Features, suggestions and guidance on what combinations of tags to use for certain geographic objects are outlined. In this paper, we consider these suggestions and recommendations and analyse the OSM database for 40 cities around the world to ascertain if contributors to OSM in these urban areas are using this guidance in their tagging practices. Overall, we find that compliance with the suggestions and guidance in Map Features is generally average or poor. This leads us to conclude that contributors in these areas do not always tag features with the same level of annotation. Our paper also confirms anecdotal evidence that OSM Map Features is less influential in how OSM contributors tag objects.

  11. Thermoregulatory responses and blood parameters of locally adapted ewes under natural weather conditions of Brazilian semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirton Peixoto Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the natural weather conditions on respiratory rate, rectal temperature and hematologic parameters such as glucose, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, total protein, albumin, globulin, red blood cells, microhematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, serum triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 levels was evaluated in red (RMN and white (WMN coat colored Morada Nova ewes, of different class of body condition score (CBCS, during the dry (from july to december and wet (from january to june seasons, which exhibited different (P<0.05 air temperature, relative humidity and radiant thermal load averages. Tukey’s test was used and the difference considered was to P<0.05. Significant greater averages of respiratory rate were observed in the dry period compared to the rainy period (42.26±8.96 and 36.89±8.20 breaths min-1, respectively, mainly in the RMN (45.54±8.23 breaths min-1 compared with the WMN (39.27±8.57 breaths min-1. No differences were observed in rectal temperature measurements between the dry and the wet periods (38.59±0.58 and 38.60±0.56 oC, respectively, but the WMN had higher values than the RMN (38.77±0.54 and 38.40±0.54 oC, respectively. The glucose and total cholesterol were higher in the wet season, with no variation due to breed variety and CBCS. The triacylglycerol did not change between breed varieties and seasons. The albumin was similar between varieties and in different seasons, being different in CBCS. Total protein and globulin serum were higher during the wet season, but total protein was higher and globulin was lower in better CBCS. T3 and T4 levels were higher in the rainy season (0.25±0.07 and 6.74±11.37 ?g dL-1, for T3 and T4, respectively than in the dry season (0.18±0.08 and 6.31±1.64 ?g dL-1, for T3 and T4, respectively. The red blood cells showed no difference, but microhematocrit was higher in WMN and in the better CBCS and mean corpuscular volume was higher in the dry season. The concentration

  12. Climatic characterization of the Banderas Bay Region using Köppen’s system modified by García and Geographic Information Systems techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Velázquez Ruiz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification of different climatic zones can be an important factor for decision-makers in various fields such as urban planning and agricultural alternatives. In order to characterize the climates of the region of Bahía de Banderas (BB Mexico, we adopted a methodology that combines the use of the Köppen climate classification modified by Garc.a for Mexico and methods of Geographic Information Systems (GIS. We used simple regression between temperature (dependent variable and height as independent variable. Multiple regressions were applied for rainfall (dependent variable and geographical data as independent variables (thermal continentality, thermopluviometric index and slope. The temperature and precipitation data were obtained from the Comisión Nacional del Agua, and ERIC III, 2006 database. Information from geographical variables was obtained from a Digital Elevation Model and Gorzynski’s Index of Continentality. The coefficients of simple and multiple regressions were used to construct digital maps of annual temperature and precipitation via GIS. With these maps and using the CCK-EG tool, we generated the final map of climatic characterization. The result was highly representative. The determination coefficients were 0.82 and 0.39 for temperature and precipitation respectively. The resulting classification for each of the stations was located in their corresponding climate zone on the final map. Zones and climatic limits were identified for this study region.

  13. Incorporating Medium-Range Weather Forecasts in Seasonal Crop Scenarios over the Greater Horn of Africa to Support National/Regional/Local Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The USAID's Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) provides seasonal assessments of crop conditions over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) and other food insecure regions. These assessments and current livelihood, nutrition, market conditions and conflicts are used to generate food security scenarios that help national, regional and local decision makers target their resources and mitigate socio-economic losses. Among the various tools that FEWS NET uses is the FAO's Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI). The WRSI is a simple yet powerful crop assessment model that incorporates current moisture conditions (at the time of the issuance of forecast), precipitation scenarios, potential evapotranspiration and crop parameters to categorize crop conditions into different classes ranging from "failure" to "very good". The WRSI tool has been shown to have a good agreement with local crop yields in the GHA region. At present, the precipitation scenarios used to drive the WRSI are based on either a climatological forecast (that assigns equal chances of occurrence to all possible scenarios and has no skill over the forecast period) or a sea-surface temperature anomaly based scenario (which at best have skill at the seasonal scale). In both cases, the scenarios fail to capture the skill that can be attained by initial atmospheric conditions (i.e., medium-range weather forecasts). During the middle of a cropping season, when a week or two of poor rains can have a devastating effect, two weeks worth of skillful precipitation forecasts could improve the skill of the crop scenarios. With this working hypothesis, we examine the value of incorporating medium-range weather forecasts in improving the skill of crop scenarios in the GHA region. We use the NCEP's Global Ensemble Forecast system (GEFS) weather forecasts and examine the skill of crop scenarios generated using the GEFS weather forecasts with respect to the scenarios based solely on the climatological forecast

  14. Effect of different sampling strategies for a single geographic region in Yemen on standard genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Meeri, A; Non, A L; Lajoie, T W; Mulligan, C J

    2011-06-01

    Collection of biological samples is the foundation of genetic studies ranging from estimation of genetic diversity to reconstruction of population history. Sample collections are intended to accurately represent the genetic, biological, ecological, cultural, geographic, and/or linguistic diversity of a particular region or population by providing a small, but representative, set of samples. In this study, we analyze human mitochondrial DNA variation in samples collected using four different sampling strategies to represent the same geographic region. Specifically, samples were collected from a village, a rural area, a regional clinic, and a national university in the governorate of Dhamar in Yemen. All samples were assayed for mitochondrial hypervariable region I DNA sequence variation and data were subjected to standard molecular genetic analyses. Our results suggest that analyses in which individual DNA sequences are explicitly compared or evaluated, e.g. phylogenetic and network analyses, may be more sensitive to sample collection design than analyses in which data are averaged across individuals or are analyzed more indirectly, e.g. summary statistics.

  15. Cardiac strain comparison between workers with normal weight and overweight in the hot humid weather of the Persian Gulf region

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan, Habibollah; Mortazavi, Seyed B.; Jafari, Mohammad J.; Maracy, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the hot weather, overweight and obesity are considered as significant risk factors for the incidence of cardiac strain in workers. This study is aimed at comparing the cardiac strain among overweight and normal-weighted workers, in the hot, humid conditions of the south of Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 71 workers in the south of Iran, in the summer of 2010. The heart rate was measured at rest and at actual work. Cardiac strain based on...

  16. Wacky Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  17. Wacky Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  18. Coexistence and geographical distribution of Leguminosae in an area of Atlantic forest in the semi-arid region of Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacira R. LIMA; Vidal F. MANSANO; Francisca S. ARA(U)JO

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect plant species distribution and coexistence in areas with high plant species diversity is a challenge for ecologists.According to some authors,species occupy specific niches,but for others,species coexistence and geographical distribution patterns are random.Floristic composition of the family Leguminosae was studied on moist and dry slopes of the Baturité mountains in semi-arid northeastern Brazil and was compared with findings for other plant formations elsewhere in Brazil.Substantial floristic differences were found between the moist windward and dry leeward slopes of the Baturité mountains despite their close geographical proximity.The leeward slope was slightly more diverse than the windward slope.Similarity analyses showed that the windward face is floristically allied to the Amazon forest,whereas the leeward slope is similar to other dry-area formations of northeastern Brazil,such as thorny woodland (caatinga) and seasonal forests.The strong floristic differences that were observed between the windward and leeward slopes corroborate the theory of ecological niche conservatism,which holds that species occurrence is closely linked to environmental factors,such as temperature and precipitation.

  19. Differences in volatile profiles of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes grown in two distinct regions of China and their responses to weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Dong; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2015-04-01

    Volatile compounds are considered important for plants to communicate with each other and interact with their environments. Most wine-producing regions in China feature a continental monsoon climate with hot-wet summers and dry-cold winters, giving grapes markedly different growing environments compared to the Mediterranean or oceanic climates described in previous reports. This study focused on comparing the volatile profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries from two regions with distinct climate characteristics: Changli has a warm and semi-humid summer, and Gaotai has a cool-arid summer and a cold winter. The relationship between meteorological metrics and the concentrations of grape volatiles were also examined. In harvested grapes, benzyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol, 1-hexanol and 1-octen-3-ol were more abundant in the Changli berries, while hexanal, heptanal, 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine, and (E)-β-damascenone presented higher levels in the Gaotai berries. The fluctuation in the accumulation of volatile compounds observed during berry development was closely correlated with variations in short-term weather (weather in a week), especially rainfall. The concentration of some volatiles, notably aliphatic aldehydes, was significantly related to diurnal temperature differences. The variability during berry development of concentrations for compounds such as C6 volatile compounds, 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine and (E)-β-damascenone strongly depended upon weather conditions. This work expands our knowledge about the influence of continental monsoon climates on volatile compounds in developing grape berries. It will also improve the comprehension of the plant response to their surrounding environments through the accumulation of volatiles. The results will help growers to alter viticultural practices according to local conditions to improve the aromatic quality of grapes.

  20. Equity in Whom Gets Studied: A Systematic Review Examining Geographical Region, Gender, Commodity, and Employment Context in Research of Low Back Disorders in Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Catherine; Khan, Muhammad Idress; Adebayo, Olugbenga; Boden, Catherine; Bath, Brenna

    2015-01-01

    Farmers are at high risk of having low back disorders (LBDs). Agriculture employs half the global workforce, but it is unclear whether all farming populations are represented equitably in the LBD literature. This systematic review quantifies the number and quality of research studies by geographical region, agricultural commodity, and farmer characteristics. MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, Scopus, and Embase databases were searched using conceptual groups of search terms: "farming" and "LBD." Screening and extraction were performed by two researchers in parallel, then reconciled through discussion. Extracted study characteristics included location of study; commodity produced; worker sex, ethnicity, and migration status; type of employment; and study quality. These were compared with agricultural employment statistics from the International Labour Organization and World Bank. From 125 articles, roughly half (67) did not specify the employment context of the participants in terms of migration status or subsistence versus commercial farming. Although in many regions worldwide women make up the bulk of the workforce, only a minority of low back disorder studies focus on women. Despite the predominance of the agricultural workforce in developing nations, 91% of included studies were conducted in developed nations. There was no significant difference in study quality by geographic region. The nature of the world's agricultural workforce is poorly represented by the literature when it comes to LBD research. If developing nations, female sex, and migrant work are related to increased vulnerability, then these groups need more representation to achieve equitable occupational health study.

  1. The Chemistry CATT-BRAMS model : a regional atmospheric model system for integrated air quality and weather forecasting and research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Longo, K. M; Freitas, S. R; Pirre, M; Marécal, V; Rodrigues, L. F; Panetta, J; Alonso, M. F; Rosário, N. E; Moreira, D. S; Gácita, M. S; Arteta, J; Fonseca, R; Stockler, R; Katsurayama, D. M; Fazenda, A; Bela, M

    2013-01-01

    ... (CCATT-BRAMS, version 4.5) is an on-line regional chemical transport model designed for local and regional studies of atmospheric chemistry from the surface to the lower stratosphere suitable both for operational and research purposes...

  2. Presence of Wolbachia endosymbionts in microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti (Spirurida: Onchocercidae from different geographical regions in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoti SL

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the recent discovery of rickettsial endosymbionts, Wolbachia in lymphatic filarial parasites, Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi and subsequently of their vital role in the survival and development of the latter, antibiotics such as tetracycline are being suggested for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis, by way of eliminating the endosymbiont. But, it is essential to assess their presence in parasites from areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis before such a new control tool is employed. In the present communication, we report the detection of Wolbachia endosymbionts in microfilariae of W. bancrofti parasites collected from geographically distant locations of India, such as Pondicherry (Union Territory, Calicut (Kerala, Jagadalpur (Madhya Pradesh, Thirukoilur (TamilNadu, Chinnanergunam (TamilNadu, Rajahmundry (Andhra Pradesh, and Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh, using Wolbachia specific 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction.

  3. Geographic distribution and mortality risk factors during the cholera outbreak in a rural region of Haiti, 2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Page

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 and 2011, Haiti was heavily affected by a large cholera outbreak that spread throughout the country. Although national health structure-based cholera surveillance was rapidly initiated, a substantial number of community cases might have been missed, particularly in remote areas. We conducted a community-based survey in a large rural, mountainous area across four districts of the Nord department including areas with good versus poor accessibility by road, and rapid versus delayed response to the outbreak to document the true cholera burden and assess geographic distribution and risk factors for cholera mortality.A two-stage, household-based cluster survey was conducted in 138 clusters of 23 households in four districts of the Nord Department from April 22nd to May 13th 2011. A total of 3,187 households and 16,900 individuals were included in the survey, of whom 2,034 (12.0% reported at least one episode of watery diarrhea since the beginning of the outbreak. The two more remote districts, Borgne and Pilate were most affected with attack rates up to 16.2%, and case fatality rates up to 15.2% as compared to the two more accessible districts. Care seeking was also less frequent in the more remote areas with as low as 61.6% of reported patients seeking care. Living in remote areas was found as a risk factor for mortality together with older age, greater severity of illness and not seeking care.These results highlight important geographical disparities and demonstrate that the epidemic caused the highest burden both in terms of cases and deaths in the most remote areas, where up to 5% of the population may have died during the first months of the epidemic. Adapted strategies are needed to rapidly provide treatment as well as prevention measures in remote communities.

  4. Geographic distribution and mortality risk factors during the cholera outbreak in a rural region of Haiti, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Anne-Laure; Ciglenecki, Iza; Jasmin, Ernest Robert; Desvignes, Laurence; Grandesso, Francesco; Polonsky, Jonathan; Nicholas, Sarala; Alberti, Kathryn P; Porten, Klaudia; Luquero, Francisco J

    2015-03-01

    In 2010 and 2011, Haiti was heavily affected by a large cholera outbreak that spread throughout the country. Although national health structure-based cholera surveillance was rapidly initiated, a substantial number of community cases might have been missed, particularly in remote areas. We conducted a community-based survey in a large rural, mountainous area across four districts of the Nord department including areas with good versus poor accessibility by road, and rapid versus delayed response to the outbreak to document the true cholera burden and assess geographic distribution and risk factors for cholera mortality. A two-stage, household-based cluster survey was conducted in 138 clusters of 23 households in four districts of the Nord Department from April 22nd to May 13th 2011. A total of 3,187 households and 16,900 individuals were included in the survey, of whom 2,034 (12.0%) reported at least one episode of watery diarrhea since the beginning of the outbreak. The two more remote districts, Borgne and Pilate were most affected with attack rates up to 16.2%, and case fatality rates up to 15.2% as compared to the two more accessible districts. Care seeking was also less frequent in the more remote areas with as low as 61.6% of reported patients seeking care. Living in remote areas was found as a risk factor for mortality together with older age, greater severity of illness and not seeking care. These results highlight important geographical disparities and demonstrate that the epidemic caused the highest burden both in terms of cases and deaths in the most remote areas, where up to 5% of the population may have died during the first months of the epidemic. Adapted strategies are needed to rapidly provide treatment as well as prevention measures in remote communities.

  5. Cockpit weather information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jeffrey Chen-Yu (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Weather information, periodically collected from throughout a global region, is periodically assimilated and compiled at a central source and sent via a high speed data link to a satellite communication service, such as COMSAT. That communication service converts the compiled weather information to GSDB format, and transmits the GSDB encoded information to an orbiting broadcast satellite, INMARSAT, transmitting the information at a data rate of no less than 10.5 kilobits per second. The INMARSAT satellite receives that data over its P-channel and rebroadcasts the GDSB encoded weather information, in the microwave L-band, throughout the global region at a rate of no less than 10.5 KB/S. The transmission is received aboard an aircraft by means of an onboard SATCOM receiver and the output is furnished to a weather information processor. A touch sensitive liquid crystal panel display allows the pilot to select the weather function by touching a predefined icon overlain on the display's surface and in response a color graphic display of the weather is displayed for the pilot.

  6. Numerical simulation for regional ozone concentrations: A case study by weather research and forecasting/chemistry (WRF/Chem) model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib Al Razi, Khandakar Md; Hiroshi, Moritomi [Environmental and Renewable Energy System, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu City, 501-1193 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this research is to better understand and predict the atmospheric concentration distribution of ozone and its precursor (in particular, within the Planetary Boundary Layer (Within 110 km to 12 km) over Kasaki City and the Greater Tokyo Area using fully coupled online WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry) model. In this research, a serious and continuous high ozone episode in the Greater Tokyo Area (GTA) during the summer of 14–18 August 2010 was investigated using the observation data. We analyzed the ozone and other trace gas concentrations, as well as the corresponding weather conditions in this high ozone episode by WRF/Chem model. The simulation results revealed that the analyzed episode was mainly caused by the impact of accumulation of pollution rich in ozone over the Greater Tokyo Area. WRF/Chem has shown relatively good performance in modeling of this continuous high ozone episode, the simulated and the observed concentrations of ozone, NOx and NO2 are basically in agreement at Kawasaki City, with best correlation coefficients of 0.87, 0.70 and 0.72 respectively. Moreover, the simulations of WRF/Chem with WRF preprocessing software (WPS) show a better agreement with meteorological observations such as surface winds and temperature profiles in the ground level of this area. As a result the surface ozone simulation performances have been enhanced in terms of the peak ozone and spatial patterns, whereas WRF/Chem has been succeeded to generate meteorological fields as well as ozone, NOx, NO2 and NO.

  7. Numerical simulation for regional ozone concentrations: A case study by weather research and forecasting/chemistry (WRF/Chem model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandakar Md Habib Al Razi, Moritomi Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to better understand and predict the atmospheric concentration distribution of ozone and its precursor (in particular, within the Planetary Boundary Layer (Within 110 km to 12 km over Kasaki City and the Greater Tokyo Area using fully coupled online WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry model. In this research, a serious and continuous high ozone episode in the Greater Tokyo Area (GTA during the summer of 14–18 August 2010 was investigated using the observation data. We analyzed the ozone and other trace gas concentrations, as well as the corresponding weather conditions in this high ozone episode by WRF/Chem model. The simulation results revealed that the analyzed episode was mainly caused by the impact of accumulation of pollution rich in ozone over the Greater Tokyo Area. WRF/Chem has shown relatively good performance in modeling of this continuous high ozone episode, the simulated and the observed concentrations of ozone, NOx and NO2 are basically in agreement at Kawasaki City, with best correlation coefficients of 0.87, 0.70 and 0.72 respectively. Moreover, the simulations of WRF/Chem with WRF preprocessing software (WPS show a better agreement with meteorological observations such as surface winds and temperature profiles in the ground level of this area. As a result the surface ozone simulation performances have been enhanced in terms of the peak ozone and spatial patterns, whereas WRF/Chem has been succeeded to generate meteorological fields as well as ozone, NOx, NO2 and NO.

  8. 中国中温带东部生态地理区划的土壤指标%Soil indicators for eco-geographic regionalization:A case study in mid-temperate zone of eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晔; 吴绍洪; 郑度; 戴尔阜

    2009-01-01

    Eco-geographic regional system is formed by division or combination of natural features based on geographic relativity and comparison of major ecosystem factors (including biological and non-biological) and geographic zonality. In previous studies, soil types were often taken as a basis for soil regionalization. However, the quantitative characteristics of soil indicators are fitter than the qualitative ones of soil types for modern regionalization re-searches. Based on the second China's national soil survey data and the provincial soil re-source information, by principal analysis and discriminant analysis, this paper discusses the appropriate soil indicators as the complement of eco-geographic region indicator systems and the relationships between these soil indicators and soil types in regionalization. The results show that five indicators are used in eco-geographic zonality in mid-temperate zone of east-ern China which are organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, pH, clay content and bulk density in topsoils. With a regression-kriging approach, the maps of soil indicators in mid-temperate zone of eastern China are compiled with a resolution of 1 km in every grid and the indicative meanings of these soil indicators are discussed. By cluster analysis it is proved that these soil indicators are better than the soil types and soil regionalization in delineating eco-geographic regions.

  9. Regional Technology Assets and Opportunities: The Geographic Clustering of High-Tech Industry, Science and Innovation in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feser, Edward; Goldstein, Harvey; Renski, Henry; Renault, Catherine

    A study identified 100 sub-regional concentrations of technology-related employment, research and development, and applied innovation within and immediately adjacent to the 406-county service area of the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC). Among the findings are that Appalachia's technology sector is comparatively small but expanding, with most…

  10. Geographically Sourcing Cocaine’s Origin – Delineation of the Nineteen Major Coca Growing Regions in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallette, Jennifer R.; Casale, John F.; Jordan, James; Morello, David R.; Beyer, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, geo-sourcing to five major coca growing regions within South America was accomplished. However, the expansion of coca cultivation throughout South America made sub-regional origin determinations increasingly difficult. The former methodology was recently enhanced with additional stable isotope analyses (2H and 18O) to fully characterize cocaine due to the varying environmental conditions in which the coca was grown. An improved data analysis method was implemented with the combination of machine learning and multivariate statistical analysis methods to provide further partitioning between growing regions. Here, we show how the combination of trace cocaine alkaloids, stable isotopes, and multivariate statistical analyses can be used to classify illicit cocaine as originating from one of 19 growing regions within South America. The data obtained through this approach can be used to describe current coca cultivation and production trends, highlight trafficking routes, as well as identify new coca growing regions. PMID:27006288

  11. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  12. Mirador - Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. Our weather system includes the dynamics of the atmosphere and its interaction with the oceans and land. The improvement of...

  13. Geographic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cases, most often related to eating hot, spicy, salty or acidic foods Many people with geographic tongue ... sensitive oral tissues, including: Hot, spicy, acidic or salty foods Tobacco products Toothpaste that contains tartar-control ...

  14. The Geographic Distribution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolates within three Italian Neighboring Winemaking Regions Reveals Strong Differences in Yeast Abundance, Genetic Diversity and Industrial Strain Dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Alessia; Legras, Jean-Luc; Nadai, Chiara; Carlot, Milena; Lombardi, Angiolella; Crespan, Manna; Migliaro, Daniele; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

    2017-01-01

    In recent years the interest for natural fermentations has been re-evaluated in terms of increasing the wine terroir and managing more sustainable winemaking practices. Therefore, the level of yeast genetic variability and the abundance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae native populations in vineyard are becoming more and more crucial at both ecological and technological level. Among the factors that can influence the strain diversity, the commercial starter release that accidentally occur in the environment around the winery, has to be considered. In this study we led a wide scale investigation of S. cerevisiae genetic diversity and population structure in the vineyards of three neighboring winemaking regions of Protected Appellation of Origin, in North-East of Italy. Combining mtDNA RFLP and microsatellite markers analyses we evaluated 634 grape samples collected over 3 years. We could detect major differences in the presence of S. cerevisiae yeasts, according to the winemaking region. The population structures revealed specificities of yeast microbiota at vineyard scale, with a relative Appellation of Origin area homogeneity, and transition zones suggesting a geographic differentiation. Surprisingly, we found a widespread industrial yeast dissemination that was very high in the areas where the native yeast abundance was low. Although geographical distance is a key element involved in strain distribution, the high presence of industrial strains in vineyard reduced the differences between populations. This finding indicates that industrial yeast diffusion it is a real emergency and their presence strongly interferes with the natural yeast microbiota.

  15. The Geographic Distribution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolates within three Italian Neighboring Winemaking Regions Reveals Strong Differences in Yeast Abundance, Genetic Diversity and Industrial Strain Dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Viel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the interest for natural fermentations has been re-evaluated in terms of increasing the wine terroir and managing more sustainable winemaking practices. Therefore, the level of yeast genetic variability and the abundance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae native populations in vineyard are becoming more and more crucial at both ecological and technological level. Among the factors that can influence the strain diversity, the commercial starter release that accidentally occur in the environment around the winery, has to be considered. In this study we led a wide scale investigation of S. cerevisiae genetic diversity and population structure in the vineyards of three neighboring winemaking regions of Protected Appellation of Origin, in North-East of Italy. Combining mtDNA RFLP and microsatellite markers analyses we evaluated 634 grape samples collected over 3 years. We could detect major differences in the presence of S. cerevisiae yeasts, according to the winemaking region. The population structures revealed specificities of yeast microbiota at vineyard scale, with a relative Appellation of Origin area homogeneity, and transition zones suggesting a geographic differentiation. Surprisingly, we found a widespread industrial yeast dissemination that was very high in the areas where the native yeast abundance was low. Although geographical distance is a key element involved in strain distribution, the high presence of industrial strains in vineyard reduced the differences between populations. This finding indicates that industrial yeast diffusion it is a real emergency and their presence strongly interferes with the natural yeast microbiota.

  16. Geographically weighted regression and geostatistical techniques to construct the geogenic radon potential map of the Lazio region: A methodological proposal for the European Atlas of Natural Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotoli, G; Voltaggio, M; Tuccimei, P; Soligo, M; Pasculli, A; Beaubien, S E; Bigi, S

    2017-01-01

    In many countries, assessment programmes are carried out to identify areas where people may be exposed to high radon levels. These programmes often involve detailed mapping, followed by spatial interpolation and extrapolation of the results based on the correlation of indoor radon values with other parameters (e.g., lithology, permeability and airborne total gamma radiation) to optimise the radon hazard maps at the municipal and/or regional scale. In the present work, Geographical Weighted Regression and geostatistics are used to estimate the Geogenic Radon Potential (GRP) of the Lazio Region, assuming that the radon risk only depends on the geological and environmental characteristics of the study area. A wide geodatabase has been organised including about 8000 samples of soil-gas radon, as well as other proxy variables, such as radium and uranium content of homogeneous geological units, rock permeability, and faults and topography often associated with radon production/migration in the shallow environment. All these data have been processed in a Geographic Information System (GIS) using geospatial analysis and geostatistics to produce base thematic maps in a 1000 m × 1000 m grid format. Global Ordinary Least Squared (OLS) regression and local Geographical Weighted Regression (GWR) have been applied and compared assuming that the relationships between radon activities and the environmental variables are not spatially stationary, but vary locally according to the GRP. The spatial regression model has been elaborated considering soil-gas radon concentrations as the response variable and developing proxy variables as predictors through the use of a training dataset. Then a validation procedure was used to predict soil-gas radon values using a test dataset. Finally, the predicted values were interpolated using the kriging algorithm to obtain the GRP map of the Lazio region. The map shows some high GRP areas corresponding to the volcanic terrains (central

  17. The impact of convection in the West African monsoon region on global weather forecasts - explicit vs. parameterised convection simulations using the ICON model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pante, Gregor; Knippertz, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The West African monsoon is the driving element of weather and climate during summer in the Sahel region. It interacts with mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) and the African easterly jet and African easterly waves. Poor representation of convection in numerical models, particularly its organisation on the mesoscale, can result in unrealistic forecasts of the monsoon dynamics. Arguably, the parameterisation of convection is one of the main deficiencies in models over this region. Overall, this has negative impacts on forecasts over West Africa itself but may also affect remote regions, as waves originating from convective heating are badly represented. Here we investigate those remote forecast impacts based on daily initialised 10-day forecasts for July 2016 using the ICON model. One set of simulations employs the default setup of the global model with a horizontal grid spacing of 13 km. It is compared with simulations using the 2-way nesting capability of ICON. A second model domain over West Africa (the nest) with 6.5 km grid spacing is sufficient to explicitly resolve MCSs in this region. In the 2-way nested simulations, the prognostic variables of the global model are influenced by the results of the nest through relaxation. The nest with explicit convection is able to reproduce single MCSs much more realistically compared to the stand-alone global simulation with parameterised convection. Explicit convection leads to cooler temperatures in the lower troposphere (below 500 hPa) over the northern Sahel due to stronger evaporational cooling. Overall, the feedback of dynamic variables from the nest to the global model shows clear positive effects when evaluating the output of the global domain of the 2-way nesting simulation and the output of the stand-alone global model with ERA-Interim re-analyses. Averaged over the 2-way nested region, bias and root mean squared error (RMSE) of temperature, geopotential, wind and relative humidity are significantly reduced in

  18. Combined venomics, venom gland transcriptomics, bioactivities, and antivenomics of two Bothrops jararaca populations from geographic isolated regions within the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Machado, Larissa; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Jorge, Roberta Jeane B; Leitão-De-Araújo, Moema; Alves, Maria Lúcia M; Alvares, Diego Janisch; De Miranda, Joari; Nowatzki, Jenifer; de Morais-Zani, Karen; Fernandes, Wilson; Tanaka-Azevedo, Anita Mitico; Fernández, Julián; Zingali, Russolina B; Gutiérrez, José María; Corrêa-Netto, Carlos; Calvete, Juan J

    2016-03-01

    Bothrops jararaca is a slender and semi-arboreal medically relevant pit viper species endemic to tropical and subtropical forests in southern Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina (Misiones). Within its geographic range, it is often abundant and is an important cause of snakebite. Although no subspecies are currently recognized, geographic analyses have revealed the existence of two well-supported B. jararaca clades that diverged during the Pliocene ~3.8Mya and currently display a southeastern (SE) and a southern (S) Atlantic rainforest (Mata Atlântica) distribution. The spectrum, geographic variability, and ontogenetic changes of the venom proteomes of snakes from these two B. jararaca phylogroups were investigated applying a combined venom gland transcriptomic and venomic analysis. Comparisons of the venom proteomes and transcriptomes of B. jararaca from the SE and S geographic regions revealed notable interpopulational variability that may be due to the different levels of population-specific transcriptional regulation, including, in the case of the southern population, a marked ontogenetic venom compositional change involving the upregulation of the myotoxic PLA2 homolog, bothropstoxin-I. This population-specific marker can be used to estimate the proportion of venom from the southern population present in the B. jararaca venom pool used for the Brazilian soro antibotrópico (SAB) antivenom production. On the other hand, the southeastern population-specific D49-PLA2 molecules, BinTX-I and BinTX-II, lend support to the notion that the mainland ancestor of Bothrops insularis was originated within the same population that gave rise to the current SE B. jararaca phylogroup, and that this insular species endemic to Queimada Grande Island (Brazil) expresses a pedomorphic venom phenotype. Mirroring their compositional divergence, the two geographic B. jararaca venom pools showed distinct bioactivity profiles. However, the SAB antivenom manufactured in Vital Brazil

  19. Total phenols and antioxidant activities of natural honeys and propolis collected from different geographical regions of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sime

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ten honey and five propolis samples from different geographical origins were tested. Both honey and propolis samples showed high content of total phenolic compounds (330-610 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g honey; 365-1022 mg GAE/g ethanol extract of propolis (EEP. The total flavonoids ranged from (15.1-42.6 mg catechin equivalent (CE/100 g for honey; to 123-74 mg CE/g for EEP. These honeybee products of Ethiopia had high total radical scavenging properties with respect to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH; 18.1-59.8% and 48.6-87.8% for honey and EEP respectively. Furthermore, the hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF of the honey samples was found to be low with a mean value of 4.8 mg/kg suggesting that the samples were of good quality. The antioxidant properties of the products showed a good correlation (r2 = 0.50-0.82 with their polyphenolic contents.

  20. A novel high-throughput vaccinia virus neutralization assay and preexisting immunity in populations from different geographic regions in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pre-existing immunity to Vaccinia Tian Tan virus (VTT resulting from a large vaccination campaign against smallpox prior to the early 1980s in China, has been a major issue for application of VTT-vector based vaccines. It is essential to establish a sensitive and high-throughput neutralization assay to understand the epidemiology of Vaccinia-specific immunity in current populations in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new anti-Vaccinia virus (VACV neutralization assay that used the attenuated replication-competent VTT carrying the firefly luciferase gene of Photinus pyralis (rTV-Fluc was established and standardized for critical parameters that included the choice of cell line, viral infection dose, and the infection time. The current study evaluated the maintenance of virus-specific immunity after smallpox vaccination by conducting a non-randomized, cross-sectional analysis of antiviral antibody-mediated immune responses in volunteers examined 30-55 years after vaccination. The rTV-Fluc neutralization assay was able to detect neutralizing antibodies (NAbs against Vaccinia virus without the ability to differentiate strains of Vaccinia virus. We showed that the neutralizing titers measured by our assay were similar to those obtained by the traditional plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT. Using this assay, we found a low prevalence of NAb to VTT (7.6% in individuals born before 1980 from Beijing and Anhui provinces in China, and when present, anti-VTT NAb titers were low. No NAbs were detected in all 222 samples from individuals born after 1980. There was no significant difference observed for titer or prevalence by gender, age range and geographic origin. CONCLUSION: A simplified, sensitive, standardized, reproducible, and high-throughput assay was developed for the quantitation of NAbs against different Vaccinia strains. The current study provides useful insights for the future development of VTT-based vaccination in

  1. A Novel High-Throughput Vaccinia Virus Neutralization Assay and Preexisting Immunity in Populations from Different Geographic Regions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Huang, Weijin; Nie, Jianhui; Zhu, Rong; Gao, Dongying; Song, Aijing; Meng, Shufang; Xu, Xuemei; Wang, Youchun

    2012-01-01

    Background Pre-existing immunity to Vaccinia Tian Tan virus (VTT) resulting from a large vaccination campaign against smallpox prior to the early 1980s in China, has been a major issue for application of VTT-vector based vaccines. It is essential to establish a sensitive and high-throughput neutralization assay to understand the epidemiology of Vaccinia-specific immunity in current populations in China. Methodology/Principal Findings A new anti-Vaccinia virus (VACV) neutralization assay that used the attenuated replication-competent VTT carrying the firefly luciferase gene of Photinus pyralis (rTV-Fluc) was established and standardized for critical parameters that included the choice of cell line, viral infection dose, and the infection time. The current study evaluated the maintenance of virus-specific immunity after smallpox vaccination by conducting a non-randomized, cross-sectional analysis of antiviral antibody-mediated immune responses in volunteers examined 30–55 years after vaccination. The rTV-Fluc neutralization assay was able to detect neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against Vaccinia virus without the ability to differentiate strains of Vaccinia virus. We showed that the neutralizing titers measured by our assay were similar to those obtained by the traditional plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Using this assay, we found a low prevalence of NAb to VTT (7.6%) in individuals born before 1980 from Beijing and Anhui provinces in China, and when present, anti-VTT NAb titers were low. No NAbs were detected in all 222 samples from individuals born after 1980. There was no significant difference observed for titer or prevalence by gender, age range and geographic origin. Conclusion A simplified, sensitive, standardized, reproducible, and high-throughput assay was developed for the quantitation of NAbs against different Vaccinia strains. The current study provides useful insights for the future development of VTT-based vaccination in Beijing and Anhui

  2. A novel high-throughput vaccinia virus neutralization assay and preexisting immunity in populations from different geographic regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Huang, Weijin; Nie, Jianhui; Zhu, Rong; Gao, Dongying; Song, Aijing; Meng, Shufang; Xu, Xuemei; Wang, Youchun

    2012-01-01

    Pre-existing immunity to Vaccinia Tian Tan virus (VTT) resulting from a large vaccination campaign against smallpox prior to the early 1980s in China, has been a major issue for application of VTT-vector based vaccines. It is essential to establish a sensitive and high-throughput neutralization assay to understand the epidemiology of Vaccinia-specific immunity in current populations in China. A new anti-Vaccinia virus (VACV) neutralization assay that used the attenuated replication-competent VTT carrying the firefly luciferase gene of Photinus pyralis (rTV-Fluc) was established and standardized for critical parameters that included the choice of cell line, viral infection dose, and the infection time. The current study evaluated the maintenance of virus-specific immunity after smallpox vaccination by conducting a non-randomized, cross-sectional analysis of antiviral antibody-mediated immune responses in volunteers examined 30-55 years after vaccination. The rTV-Fluc neutralization assay was able to detect neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against Vaccinia virus without the ability to differentiate strains of Vaccinia virus. We showed that the neutralizing titers measured by our assay were similar to those obtained by the traditional plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Using this assay, we found a low prevalence of NAb to VTT (7.6%) in individuals born before 1980 from Beijing and Anhui provinces in China, and when present, anti-VTT NAb titers were low. No NAbs were detected in all 222 samples from individuals born after 1980. There was no significant difference observed for titer or prevalence by gender, age range and geographic origin. A simplified, sensitive, standardized, reproducible, and high-throughput assay was developed for the quantitation of NAbs against different Vaccinia strains. The current study provides useful insights for the future development of VTT-based vaccination in Beijing and Anhui provinces of China.

  3. Salmonellosis in garden birds in Scotland, 1995 to 2008: geographic region, Salmonella enterica phage type and bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycott, T W; Mather, H A; Bennett, G; Foster, G

    2010-04-03

    Salmonellosis was diagnosed in garden birds from 198 incidents in Scotland between September 1995 and August 2008. Salmonellosis was essentially a disease of finches in the north of Scotland, but in the south of Scotland it was also a problem in house sparrows. Almost all of the incidents were caused by Salmonella Typhimurium phage types 40 or 56/variant, but regional variation in phage types was observed. In the north of Scotland, one phage type (DT 40) predominated, but in the south of Scotland two phage types were commonly isolated (DTs 40 and 56/variant, with the latter the more common of the two phage types). This regional difference was statistically significant for salmonellosis in greenfinches, chaffinches and 'other garden birds', but not for house sparrows. Different temporal patterns for different species of bird and different phage types were also observed within regions. These findings suggest that the epidemiology of salmonellosis in garden birds varies depending on the phage type of Salmonella and the species of garden bird, with additional regional differences depending on the wild bird populations and the phage types of Salmonella in circulation. An awareness of these differences will help when formulating guidelines aimed at reducing the impact of salmonellosis in garden birds.

  4. Drug Susceptibility and Genetic Evaluation of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates Obtained in Four Distinct Geographical Regions of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mbaisi, Abigael; Liyala, Pamela; Eyase, Fredrick; Achilla, Rachel; Akala, Hosea; Wangui, Julia; Mwangi, Josphat; Osuna, Finnley; Alam, Uzma; Smoak, Bonnie L.; Davis, Jon M.; Kyle, Dennis E.; Coldren, Rodney L; Mason, Carl; Waters, Norman C.

    2004-01-01

    The drug resistance profiles of Plasmodium falciparum isolated from four regions in Kenya were analyzed for drug resistance profiles. We observed variability in resistance to a broad range of antimalarial drugs across Kenya as determined from in vitro drug susceptibility screening and genotyping analysis.

  5. The chemistry CATT–BRAMS model (CCATT–BRAMS 4.5: a regional atmospheric model system for integrated air quality and weather forecasting and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Longo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Coupled Chemistry Aerosol-Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT–BRAMS, version 4.5 is an online regional chemical transport model designed for local and regional studies of atmospheric chemistry from surface to the lower stratosphere suitable both for operational and research purposes. It includes gaseous/aqueous chemistry, photochemistry, scavenging and dry deposition. The CCATT–BRAMS model takes advantages of the BRAMS specific development for the tropics/subtropics and of the recent availability of preprocessing tools for chemical mechanisms and of fast codes for photolysis rates. BRAMS includes state-of-the-art physical parameterizations and dynamic formulations to simulate atmospheric circulations of scales down to meters. The online coupling between meteorology and chemistry allows the system to be used for simultaneous atmospheric weather and chemical composition forecasts as well as potential feedbacks between them. The entire system comprises three preprocessing software tools for chemical mechanism (which are user defined, aerosol and trace gases emission fields and atmospheric and chemistry fields for initial and boundary conditions. In this paper, the model description is provided along evaluations performed using observational data obtained from ground-based stations, instruments aboard of aircrafts and retrieval from space remote sensing. The evaluation takes into account model application on different scales from megacities and Amazon Basin up to intercontinental region of the Southern Hemisphere.

  6. The Chemistry CATT-BRAMS model (CCATT-BRAMS 4.5: a regional atmospheric model system for integrated air quality and weather forecasting and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Longo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Coupled Chemistry Aerosol-Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS, version 4.5 is an on-line regional chemical transport model designed for local and regional studies of atmospheric chemistry from the surface to the lower stratosphere suitable both for operational and research purposes. It includes gaseous/aqueous chemistry, photochemistry, scavenging and dry deposition. The CCATT-BRAMS model takes advantage of BRAMS-specific development for the tropics/subtropics as well as the recent availability of preprocessing tools for chemical mechanisms and fast codes for photolysis rates. BRAMS includes state-of-the-art physical parameterizations and dynamic formulations to simulate atmospheric circulations down to the meter. This on-line coupling of meteorology and chemistry allows the system to be used for simultaneous weather and chemical composition forecasts as well as potential feedback between the two. The entire system is made of three preprocessing software tools for user-defined chemical mechanisms, aerosol and trace gas emissions fields and the interpolation of initial and boundary conditions for meteorology and chemistry. In this paper, the model description is provided along with the evaluations performed by using observational data obtained from ground-based stations, instruments aboard aircrafts and retrieval from space remote sensing. The evaluation accounts for model applications at different scales from megacities and the Amazon Basin up to the intercontinental region of the Southern Hemisphere.

  7. Deciphering diversity in populations of various linguistic and ethnic affiliations of different geographical regions of India: analysis based on 15 microsatellite markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. K. Kashyap; Richa Ashma; Sonali Gaikwad; B. N. Sarkar; R. Trivedi

    2004-04-01

    The extent of genetic polymorphism at fifteen autosomal microsatellite markers in 54 ethnically, linguistically and geographically diverse human populations of India was studied to decipher intrapopulation diversity. The parameters used to quantify intrapopulation diversity were average allele diversity, average heterozygosity, allele range (base pairs), and number of alleles. Multilocus genotype frequencies calculated for selected populations were utilized for testing conformity with the assumption of Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. The exact test values, after Bonferroni correction, showed significant deviation amongst Gowda (vWA, Penta E); Dhangar, Satnami and Gounder (D8S1179); Hmar (FGA); Kuki and Balti (vWA) groups. Relatively low number of alleles and allelic diversity (base-pairs size) had been observed in populations of central India as compared with southern and northern regions of the country. The communities of Indo-Caucasoid ethnic origin and Indo-European linguistic family (Kshatriya of Uttar Pradesh) showed highest allelic diversity, as well as rare alleles, not reported in any other Indian populations. Analysis based on average heterozygosity was also found to be lowest among the populations of central India (0.729) and highest among the populations from north (0.777) and west (0.784) regions of the country, having Indo-Caucasoid ethnic origin and Austro-Asiatic linguistic affiliation. The maximum power of discrimination (85%–89%) had been observed at loci FGA, Penta E, D18S51 and D21S11, suggested high intrapopulation diversity in India. Genetic diversity revealed by STR markers was consistent with the known demographic histories of populations. Thus, the present study clearly demonstrated that the intrapopulation diversity is not only present at the national level, but also within smaller geographical regions of the country. This is the first attempt to understand the extent of diversity within populations of India at such a large scale at genomic

  8. Hydrological response to land cover changes and human activities in arid regions using a geographic information system and remote sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereif H Mahmoud

    Full Text Available The hydrological response to land cover changes induced by human activities in arid regions has attracted increased research interest in recent decades. The study reported herein assessed the spatial and quantitative changes in surface runoff resulting from land cover change in the Al-Baha region of Saudi Arabia between 1990 and 2000 using an ArcGIS-surface runoff model and predicted land cover and surface runoff depth in 2030 using Markov chain analysis. Land cover maps for 1990 and 2000 were derived from satellite images using ArcGIS 10.1. The findings reveal a 26% decrease in forest and shrubland area, 28% increase in irrigated cropland, 1.5% increase in sparsely vegetated land and 0.5% increase in bare soil between 1990 and 2000. Overall, land cover changes resulted in a significant decrease in runoff depth values in most of the region. The decrease in surface runoff depth ranged from 25-106 mm/year in a 7020-km2 area, whereas the increase in such depth reached only 10 mm/year in a 243-km2 area. A maximum increase of 73 mm/year was seen in a limited area. The surface runoff depth decreased to the greatest extent in the central region of the study area due to the huge transition in land cover classes associated with the construction of 25 rainwater harvesting dams. The land cover prediction revealed a greater than twofold increase in irrigated cropland during the 2000-2030 period, whereas forest and shrubland are anticipated to occupy just 225 km2 of land area by 2030, a significant decrease from the 747 km2 they occupied in 2000. Overall, changes in land cover are predicted to result in an annual increase in irrigated cropland and dramatic decline in forest area in the study area over the next few decades. The increase in surface runoff depth is likely to have significant implications for irrigation activities.

  9. Hydrological response to land cover changes and human activities in arid regions using a geographic information system and remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Shereif H; Alazba, A A

    2015-01-01

    The hydrological response to land cover changes induced by human activities in arid regions has attracted increased research interest in recent decades. The study reported herein assessed the spatial and quantitative changes in surface runoff resulting from land cover change in the Al-Baha region of Saudi Arabia between 1990 and 2000 using an ArcGIS-surface runoff model and predicted land cover and surface runoff depth in 2030 using Markov chain analysis. Land cover maps for 1990 and 2000 were derived from satellite images using ArcGIS 10.1. The findings reveal a 26% decrease in forest and shrubland area, 28% increase in irrigated cropland, 1.5% increase in sparsely vegetated land and 0.5% increase in bare soil between 1990 and 2000. Overall, land cover changes resulted in a significant decrease in runoff depth values in most of the region. The decrease in surface runoff depth ranged from 25-106 mm/year in a 7020-km2 area, whereas the increase in such depth reached only 10 mm/year in a 243-km2 area. A maximum increase of 73 mm/year was seen in a limited area. The surface runoff depth decreased to the greatest extent in the central region of the study area due to the huge transition in land cover classes associated with the construction of 25 rainwater harvesting dams. The land cover prediction revealed a greater than twofold increase in irrigated cropland during the 2000-2030 period, whereas forest and shrubland are anticipated to occupy just 225 km2 of land area by 2030, a significant decrease from the 747 km2 they occupied in 2000. Overall, changes in land cover are predicted to result in an annual increase in irrigated cropland and dramatic decline in forest area in the study area over the next few decades. The increase in surface runoff depth is likely to have significant implications for irrigation activities.

  10. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Silva, Rejane Pina Dantas; Barreto, Gabriele de Abreu; Costa, Samantha Serra; da Silva, Danielle Figuerêdo; Brandão, Hugo Neves; da Rocha, José Luiz Carneiro; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo Andres; Padilha, Francine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2) and ethanolic extraction (EtOH), in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown), collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS), Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas) showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH). However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection. PMID:26745799

  11. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Aparecida Souza Machado

    Full Text Available The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2 and ethanolic extraction (EtOH, in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown, collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS, Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH. However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection.

  12. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Silva, Rejane Pina Dantas; Barreto, Gabriele de Abreu; Costa, Samantha Serra; Silva, Danielle Figuerêdo da; Brandão, Hugo Neves; Rocha, José Luiz Carneiro da; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo Andres; Padilha, Francine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2) and ethanolic extraction (EtOH), in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown), collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS), Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas) showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH). However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection.

  13. WegenerNet climate station network region Feldbach/Austria: From local measurements to weather and climate data products at 1 km-scale resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabas, T.; Leuprecht, A.; Bichler, C.; Kirchengast, G.

    2010-12-01

    South-eastern Austria is characteristic for experiencing a rich variety of weather and climate patterns. For this reason, the county of Feldbach was selected by the Wegener Center as a focus area for a pioneering observation experiment at very high resolution: The WegenerNet climate station network (in brief WegenerNet) comprises 151 meteorological stations within an area of about 20 km × 15 km (~ 1.4 km × 1.4 km station grid). All stations measure the main parameters temperature, humidity and precipitation with 5 minute sampling. Selected further stations include measurements of wind speed and direction completed by soil parameters as well as air pressure and net radiation. The collected data is integrated in an automatic processing system including data transfer, quality control, product generation, and visualization. Each station is equipped with an internet-attached data logger and the measurements are transferred as binary files via GPRS to the WegenerNet server in 1 hour intervals. The incoming raw data files of measured parameters as well as several operating values of the data logger are stored in a relational database (PostgreSQL). Next, the raw data pass the Quality Control System (QCS) in which the data are checked for its technical and physical plausibility (e.g., sensor specifications, temporal and spatial variability). In consideration of the data quality (quality flag), the Data Product Generator (DPG) results in weather and climate data products on various temporal scales (from 5 min to annual) for single stations and regular grids. Gridded data are derived by vertical scaling and squared inverse distance interpolation (1 km × 1 km and 0.01° × 0.01° grids). Both subsystems (QCS and DPG) are realized by the programming language Python. For application purposes the resulting data products are available via the bi-lingual (dt, en) WegenerNet data portal (www.wegenernet.org). At this time, the main interface is still online in a system in which

  14. Weather and human impacts on forest fires: 100 years of fire history in two climatic regions of Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zumbrunnen, T.; Pezzatti, B.; Menendez, P.; Bugmann, H.; Brgi, M.; Conedera, M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the factors driving past fire regimes is crucial in the context of global change as a basis for predicting future changes. In this study, we aimed to identify the impact of climate and human activities on fire occurrence in the most fire-prone regions of Switzerland. We considered fore

  15. Weather and human impacts on forest fires: 100 years of fire history in two climatic regions of Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zumbrunnen, T.; Pezzatti, B.; Menendez, P.; Bugmann, H.; Brgi, M.; Conedera, M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the factors driving past fire regimes is crucial in the context of global change as a basis for predicting future changes. In this study, we aimed to identify the impact of climate and human activities on fire occurrence in the most fire-prone regions of Switzerland. We considered

  16. Psychic and geographic distance in the process of firm internationalization. Example of companies from Poland and Lodz region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kłysik-Uryszek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Internationalisation of firms has been described in many theoretical concepts, among which the Uppsala model is the most widely used. It focuses on the sequence of the process in terms of both forms and directions of internationalisation. The need to gradually advance in internationalisation and the choice of foreign markets are explained by the concept of „psychic distance”, which results, among the others, from cultural differences or business practices of the home and host country. Our paper makes an attempt to answer the question whether Polish firms which enter the path of internationalisation start to invest in one or a few neighbouring countries rather than investing in distant markets and/or several markets simultaneously. The idea is analysed using the example of firms based in Poland and in the Lodz Region involved in foreign direct investment. The paper has been divided into 3 parts. The first one reviews the literature on internationalization models, with particular stress on the Uppsala model; the second part validates the main assumptions of the model using data concerning firms from Poland and the third part focuses on foreign operations of companies from the Lodz Region.

  17. Determination of production regions for pollution-free Chinese medicinal materials by geographic information system: Achyranthes bidentata (Niu Qi) in Tianjin as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The land and ecology suitability for producing pollution-free Chinese medicinal materials should be evaluated based on Geographic Information System (GIS). This study aims to determine production regions for pollution-free Achyranthes bidentata in Tianjin as a case to illustrate the workflow based on GIS. Methods The slopes, land usage, residential areas and roads were selected to evaluate the land suitability, to avoid the potential pollution sources. The ecology suitability evaluation was performed based on the soil type and nine climate factors, such as active accumulated temperature, mean January temperature, mean July temperature, the lowest temperature in January, the highest temperature in July, mean annual temperature, sunshine duration, relative humidity, annual precipitation, affecting the natural growth of A. bidentata. Results The best production regions for pollution-free A. bidentata in Tianjin, with a total area of approximately 575 km2, were found in Jinghai County, Ninghe County, Wuqing District, and Dagang District. Conclusion This study illustrated a workflow based on GIS for determining the production regions in Tianjin for pollution-free A. bidentata. PMID:25342961

  18. Changes in Time Spent Outdoors During the Daytime in Rural Populations in Four Geographically Distinct Regions in China: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qian; Wang, Fang; Hu, Liwen; Yu, Jiaming; Liu, Rong; Wang, Yang; Liu, Yang

    2017-03-01

    Changes in time-activity patterns may influence personal exposure to various environmental factors and affect individual health. However, few studies have investigated the changes in patterns of time spent outdoors. To investigate the trends in outdoor activity in recent decades in China, a retrospective questionnaire was used to examine the amount and pattern of time spent outdoors during the day by 2076 subjects in four geographically distinct rural regions of China. Rural Chinese people spent less time outdoors than they used to because of the economic development, increase in education and changes in working conditions that occurred over time. Outdoor time was the shortest during the school stage of life (Sanya: 3.24-3.61; Shaoxing: 3.35-3.68; Lhasa: 4.37-4.54; Xiuyan: 2.94-3.26 h per day). Subjects in wealthy regions spent less time outdoors during their working stage of life. In the four regions in this study, the average daily times spent outdoors were 3-13% lower for subjects aged 40-59 years and 20-38% lower for those under 40 years compared to subjects aged 60 years and over. Certain health-related issues, such as vitamin D deficiency, will become more prominent in China if this trend continues.

  19. Frequency distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in different geographical regions of Pakistan and their possible routes of transmission

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    Riazuddin Sheikh

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information regarding hepatitis C virus genotypes and subtypes circulating in Pakistan and various risk factors for their transmission are not known well. The specific objective of this study was to find out the frequency of various HCV genotypes present in well-characterized Pakistani HCV isolates and their possible routes of transmission. Methods A total of 3351 serum samples were tested by type-specific genotyping assay. Out of 3351 HCV RNA positive patients, 2039 were males and 1312 were females. As regard as genotyped samples, 2165 belonged to Punjab region, 823 belonged to N.W.F.P., 239 to Sindh and 124 patients were from Balochistan. Results Out of the total 3351 tested serum samples, type-specific PCR fragments were observed in 3150 (94.00% serum samples. The distribution of genotypes of the typeable samples as determined by this assay, was as follows: 1664 (49.05% genotype 3a; 592 (17.66% genotype 3b; 280 (8.35% genotype 1a; 252 (7.52% genotype 2a; 101 (3.01% genotype 1b; 50 (1.49% with genotype 4; 25 (0.75% with 3c; 27 (0.80% genotype 2b; 6 (0.18% with subtype 5a; 5 (0.15% genotype 1c; 4 (0.12% with subtype 6a; 3 (0.09% genotype 2c; and 161 (4.80% patients were infected with mixed infection. Two hundred and one (5.99% serum samples were found untypeable by the present genotyping system. More than 86% and 72% patients with genotypes 3a and 3b respectively had received multiple injections in past. For genotypes 1a and 1b the route of transmission was major/minor surgery along with unknown reasons. Majority of the cases with type 2a, 2b and indeterminate genotypes were sporadic. Mixed infections were common in thalassaemic patients. Conclusion The most common HCV genotype in Pakistan is type 3a. Regional difference in genotypes was observed only in Balochistan province of Pakistan. More than 70% of the cases were acquired in hospitals through reuse of needles/syringes and major/minor surgery that is very common in this

  20. Impact of Global Geographic Region on Time in Therapeutic Range on Warfarin Anticoagulant Therapy: Data From the ROCKET AF Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Daniel E.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Pan, Guohua; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Becker, Richard C.; Breithardt, Günter; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hacke, Werner; Nessel, Christopher C.; Patel, Manesh R.; Califf, Robert M.; Fox, Keith A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy remains the most common method of stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. Time in therapeutic range (TTR) is a widely cited measure of the quality of VKA therapy. We sought to identify factors associated with TTR in a large, international clinical trial. Methods and Results TTR (international normalized ratio [INR] 2.0 to 3.0) was determined using standard linear interpolation in patients randomized to warfarin in the ROCKET AF trial. Factors associated with TTR at the individual patient level (i‐TTR) were determined via multivariable linear regression. Among 6983 patients taking warfarin, recruited from 45 countries grouped into 7 regions, the mean i‐TTR was 55.2% (SD 21.3%) and the median i‐TTR was 57.9% (interquartile range 43.0% to 70.6%). The mean time with INR 3 was 15.7%. While multiple clinical features were associated with i‐TTR, dominant determinants were previous warfarin use (mean i‐TTR of 61.1% for warfarin‐experienced versus 47.4% in VKA‐naïve patients) and geographic region where patients were managed (mean i‐TTR varied from 64.1% to 35.9%). These effects persisted in multivariable analysis. Regions with the lowest i‐TTRs had INR distributions shifted toward lower INR values and had longer inter‐INR test intervals. Conclusions Independent of patient clinical features, the regional location of medical care is a dominant determinant of variation in i‐TTR in global studies of warfarin. Regional differences in mean i‐TTR are heavily influenced by subtherapeutic INR values and are associated with reduced frequency of INR testing. Clinical Trial Registration URL: ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00403767. PMID:23525418

  1. Interspecific and geographical differences in anticoagulant rodenticide residues of predatory wildlife from the Mediterranean region of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Perea, Jhon J; Camarero, Pablo R; Molina-López, Rafael A; Parpal, Luis; Obón, Elena; Solá, Jessica; Mateo, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    We studied the prevalence of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) in the liver of 344 individuals representing 11 species of predatory wildlife that were found dead in the Mediterranean region of Spain (Catalonia and Majorca Island). Six different ARs (brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum, flocoumafen, difethialone, warfarin) were found in the liver of 216 (62.8%) animals and >1 AR co-occurred in 119 individuals (34.6%). The occurrence of ARs was positively correlated with the human population density. Catalonia and Majorca showed similar prevalence of AR detection (64.4 and 60.4%, respectively), but a higher prevalence was found in the resident population of Eurasian scops owl (Otus scops) from Majorca (57.7%) compared to the migratory population from Catalonia (14.3%). Birds of prey had lower levels of bromadiolone than hedgehogs, whereas no difference was found for other ARs. The risk of SGAR poisoning in wild predators in NE Spain is believed to be elevated, because 23.3% of the individuals exhibited hepatic concentration of ARs exceeding 200 ng/g. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of acarbose in different geographical regions of the world: analysis of a real-life database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jianping; Soegondo, Sidartawan; Schnell, Oliver; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Grzeszczak, Wladyslaw; Watada, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Kalra, Sanjay

    2015-02-01

    Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are recommended in some international guidelines as first-line, second-line and third-line treatment options but are not used worldwide due to perceived greater effectiveness in Asians than Caucasians. Data from ten post-marketing non-interventional studies using acarbose, the most widely used alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, from 21 countries, provinces and country groups were pooled. Effects on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ) were analysed for four major ethnicity/region groups (European Caucasians and Asians from East, Southeast and South Asia) to identify differences in the response to acarbose. The safety and efficacy populations included 67 682 and 62 905 patients, respectively. Mean HbA1c in the total population decreased by 1.12 ± 1.31% at the 3-month visit from 8.4% at baseline (p multivariable analyses of covariance. After adjustment for relevant baseline confounding factors, Southeast and East Asians had slightly better responses to acarbose than South Asians and European Caucasians; however, the differences were small. Acarbose was effective in both European Caucasians and Asians; however, after adjustment for baseline confounding factors, significant small differences in response favoured Southeast and East Asians. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Summer weather characteristics and periodicity observed over the period 1888-2013 in the region of Belgrade, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujović, Dragana; Todorović, Nedeljko; Paskota, Mira

    2017-02-01

    With the goal of finding summer climate patterns in the region of Belgrade (Serbia) over the period 1888-2013, different techniques of multivariate statistical analysis were used in order to analyze the simultaneous changes of a number of climatologic parameters. An increasing trend of the mean daily minimum temperature was detected. In the recent decades (1960-2013), this increase was much more pronounced. The number of days with the daily minimum temperature greater or equal to 20 °C also increased significantly. Precipitation had no statistically significant trend. Spectral analysis showed a repetitive nature of the climatologic parameters which had periods that roughly can be classified into three groups, with the durations of the following: (1) 6 to 7 years, (2) 10 to 18 years, and (3) 21, 31, and 41 years. The temperature variables mainly had one period of repetitiveness of 5 to 7 years. Among other variables, the correlations of regional fluctuations of the temperature and precipitation and atmospheric circulation indices were analyzed. The North Atlantic oscillation index had the same periodicity as that of the precipitation, and it was not correlated to the temperature variables. Atlantic multidecadal oscillation index correlated well to the summer mean daily minimum and summer mean temperatures. The underlying structure of the data was analyzed by principal component analysis, which detected the following four easily interpreted dimensions: More sunshine-Higher temperature, Precipitation, Extreme heats, and Changeable summer.

  4. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in chagasic and nonchagasic patients from the same geographical region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Fonseca

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In this study, we evaluated the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among chagasic and non-chagasic subjects as well as among the subgroups of chagasic patients with the indeterminate, cardiac, digestive, and cardiodigestive clinical forms. METHODS: The evaluated subjects were from the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Chagasic patients showed positive reactions to the conventional serological tests used and were classified according to the clinical form of their disease. Immunoglobulin G antibodies specific to H. pylori were measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. RESULTS: The overall H. pylori prevalence was 77.1% (239/310 in chagasic and 69.1% (168/243 in non-chagasic patients. This difference was statistically significant even after adjustment for age and sex (odds ratio = 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-2.42; p = 0.04 in multivariate analysis. The prevalence of infection increased with age in the non-chagasic group (p = 0.007, χ2 for trend, but not in the chagasic group (p = 0.15, χ2 for trend. H. pylori infection was not associated with digestive or other clinical forms of Chagas disease (p = 0.27. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that chagasic patients have a higher prevalence of H. pylori compared to non-chagasic subjects; a similar prevalence was found among the diverse clinical forms of the disease. The factors contributing to the frequent co-infection with H. pylori and Trypanosoma cruzi as well as its effects on the clinical outcome deserve further study.

  5. A influência da proximidade tecnológica e geográfica sobre a inovação regional no Brasil The influence of the technological proximity and the geographical proximity on Brazilian regional innovation

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    Eduardo Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a influência da proximidade geográfica e da proximidade tecnológica sobre a inovação regional no Brasil, medida por depósitos de patentes no período 1999-2001 para mesorregiões geográficas. Para tanto, utilizaram-se técnicas de Análise Exploratória de Dados Espaciais (AEDE e de econometria espacial. Os dados de patentes foram organizados em quatro clusters tecnológicos segundo critérios de proximidade cognitiva, como biofarmacêutico, desenvolvimento de novos materiais, bens mecânicos e de consumo e tecnologias eletroeletrônicas, revelando um padrão de concentração da atividade tecnológica em poucas mesorregiões brasileiras. Além disso, foi calculada a medida de proximidade tecnológica de Jaffe para ponderar a vizinhança geográfica pelo grau de similaridade tecnológica das mesorregiões. Os resultados confirmam a hipótese de transbordamentos de conhecimento mediados tecnológica e geograficamente.The aim of this paper is to determine the influence of technological proximity and geographical proximity on Brazilian regional innovation, measured by patent applications over the period 1999-2001 for Brazilian geographical mesoregions. First, the paper undertakes an Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA and then uses spatial econometric techniques. According with procedures based on cognitive proximity the patent data are organized into four technological clusters such as chemical and bio-pharmaceutical, new materials, mechanical and process technologies and electrical and electronic technologies. The four aforementioned clusters exhibit a concentrated regional pattern of technological activity over few Brazilian mesoregions. Moreover, the paper uses a Jaffe's measure of technological distance in order to construct a matrix in which the technological similarity is weighted by the geographical proximity. The results corroborate the hypothesis of geographically and technologically

  6. Stormy Weather

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the deep abyss of the unknown; a constant source for investigation and discovery, heating and destruction, all simultaneously. Beneath the deep darkness, millions of species vibrantly thrive in another universe wholly untouched by human hands, though affected by their choices. The weathered pieces and people associated with seaside villages, the deep wrinkles that tell a story of one's life and experiences like

  7. Occurrence of ochratoxin A, fumonisin B2 and black aspergilli in raisins from Western Greece regions in relation to environmental and geographical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; De Girolamo, Annalisa; Sarigiannis, Yiannis; Haidukowski, Miriam Edith; Visconti, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    The presence of ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B2 (FB2) and black aspergilli in raisins from Western Greece regions (Messinia, Corinthia, Achaia, Ilia and Zante Island) was investigated in relation to the different geographic and climatic conditions in the 2011 growing season. The biseriate species Aspergillus niger "aggregate" and A. carbonarius were mainly identified. The population of A. niger "aggregate" species occurred in all raisin samples at colony-forming units (CFU) concentrations significantly higher (mean 2.2 × 10(5) CFU g(-1) homogenate) than those of A. carbonarius population (mean 4.9 × 10(3) CFU g(-1) homogenate), which occurred in 80% of the raisin samples. OTA was found in 73% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.1 µg kg(-1) to 98.2 µg kg(-1), with the highest level occurring in a raisin sample from Ilia that also contained the highest level of A. carbonarius. The European Union legal limit for OTA was exceeded in 15% of the raisin samples. FB2 was found in 29% of the raisin samples at levels ranging from 7.1 µg kg(-1) to 25.5 µg kg(-1), with 20% of the samples co-occurring with OTA. Principal-component analysis was applied to levels of mycotoxins, fungal contamination, geographical data and environmental conditions recorded in the harvesting (August) or drying (September) period. Principal-component analysis clearly indicated a good direct correlation of rainfall and relative humidity with OTA and A. carbonarius contamination. A lack of clustering was observed when A. niger and FB2 contamination were considered. This is the first report on the co-occurrence of the mycotoxins OTA and FB2 in dried vine fruits from Greece.

  8. Evaluating environmental and social influences on iron and zinc status of pregnant subsistence farmers in two geographically contrasting regions of Southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, N; Rankin, J; Pollard, M; Maleta, K; Robertson, C; Hursthouse, A

    2014-12-01

    Micronutrient deficiency affects over 4.5 billion people worldwide, the majority in developing countries. Deficiencies of iron (and associated anaemia) and zinc in pregnancy are associated with complications, maternal and neonatal mortality, and developmental disorders in the foetus and growing child. We report the results of pilot study which used an interdisciplinary approach to explore environmental and sociocultural factors influencing the micronutrient status in the soil-plant-human transfer for pregnant subsistence farmers in two geographically contrasting regions of Southern Malawi. It evaluated micronutrient status in soil and the staple crop and explored the context for their transfer to pregnant women. Scientific and social science methods were used to collect data, following full sensitisation of the communities. A total of 99 participants were recruited from Chiradzulu (plateau) and Chikwawa (floodplain). Soil, maize and blood samples were collected, along with food frequency and health behaviour questionnaires and anthropological observation. Statistical analysis revealed that soil iron was significantly higher in Chiradzulu than in Chikwawa; total iron concentration is not deemed to be deficient in either area. Soil zinc was not significantly different between areas. Maize concentrations of iron and zinc were not significantly different between areas, and were not deficient relative to improved cultivars. Blood iron deficiency and associated anaemia were problematic in both areas, but more so in Chikwawa than in Chiradzulu, and zinc deficiency was similar in both areas. The study has identified a significant difference in the blood iron status of the participants of the two communities, and has shown that this difference is not accounted for by the staple crop maize. Socio-geographical factors appear to play a significant role in the micronutrient health of the populations. The findings lend support to multifaceted community intervention studies which

  9. The nitrogen-fixation island insertion site is conserved in diazotrophic Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pseudomonas sp. isolated from distal and close geographical regions.

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    Anastasia Venieraki

    Full Text Available The presence of nitrogen fixers within the genus Pseudomonas has been established and so far most isolated strains are phylogenetically affiliated to Pseudomonas stutzeri. A gene ortholog neighborhood analysis of the nitrogen fixation island (NFI in four diazotrophic P. stutzeri strains and Pseudomonas azotifigens revealed that all are flanked by genes coding for cobalamin synthase (cobS and glutathione peroxidise (gshP. The putative NFIs lack all the features characterizing a mobilizable genomic island. Nevertheless, bioinformatic analysis P. stutzeri DSM 4166 NFI demonstrated the presence of short inverted and/or direct repeats within both flanking regions. The other P. stutzeri strains carry only one set of repeats. The genetic diversity of eleven diazotrophic Pseudomonas isolates was also investigated. Multilocus sequence typing grouped nine isolates along with P. stutzeri and two isolates are grouped in a separate clade. A Rep-PCR fingerprinting analysis grouped the eleven isolates into four distinct genotypes. We also provided evidence that the putative NFI in our diazotrophic Pseudomonas isolates is flanked by cobS and gshP genes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the putative NFI of Pseudomonas sp. Gr65 is flanked by inverted repeats identical to those found in P. stutzeri DSM 4166 and while the other P. stutzeri isolates harbor the repeats located in the intergenic region between cobS and glutaredoxin genes as in the case of P. stutzeri A1501. Taken together these data suggest that all putative NFIs of diazotrophic Pseudomonas isolates are anchored in an intergenic region between cobS and gshP genes and their flanking regions are designated by distinct repeats patterns. Moreover, the presence of almost identical NFIs in diazotrophic Pseudomonas strains isolated from distal geographical locations around the world suggested that this horizontal gene transfer event may have taken place early in the evolution.

  10. Automated geographic atrophy segmentation for SD-OCT images using region-based C-V model via local similarity factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Sijie; de Sisternes, Luis; Chen, Qiang; Leng, Theodore; Rubin, Daniel L

    2016-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among elderly individuals. Geographic atrophy (GA) is a phenotypic manifestation of the advanced stages of non-exudative AMD. Determination of GA extent in SD-OCT scans allows the quantification of GA-related features, such as radius or area, which could be of important value to monitor AMD progression and possibly identify regions of future GA involvement. The purpose of this work is to develop an automated algorithm to segment GA regions in SD-OCT images. An en face GA fundus image is generated by averaging the axial intensity within an automatically detected sub-volume of the three dimensional SD-OCT data, where an initial coarse GA region is estimated by an iterative threshold segmentation method and an intensity profile set, and subsequently refined by a region-based Chan-Vese model with a local similarity factor. Two image data sets, consisting on 55 SD-OCT scans from twelve eyes in eight patients with GA and 56 SD-OCT scans from 56 eyes in 56 patients with GA, respectively, were utilized to quantitatively evaluate the automated segmentation algorithm. We compared results obtained by the proposed algorithm, manual segmentation by graders, a previously proposed method, and experimental commercial software. When compared to a manually determined gold standard, our algorithm presented a mean overlap ratio (OR) of 81.86% and 70% for the first and second data sets, respectively, while the previously proposed method OR was 72.60% and 65.88% for the first and second data sets, respectively, and the experimental commercial software OR was 62.40% for the second data set.

  11. The nitrogen-fixation island insertion site is conserved in diazotrophic Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pseudomonas sp. isolated from distal and close geographical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venieraki, Anastasia; Dimou, Maria; Vezyri, Eleni; Vamvakas, Alexandros; Katinaki, Pagona-Artemis; Chatzipavlidis, Iordanis; Tampakaki, Anastasia; Katinakis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    The presence of nitrogen fixers within the genus Pseudomonas has been established and so far most isolated strains are phylogenetically affiliated to Pseudomonas stutzeri. A gene ortholog neighborhood analysis of the nitrogen fixation island (NFI) in four diazotrophic P. stutzeri strains and Pseudomonas azotifigens revealed that all are flanked by genes coding for cobalamin synthase (cobS) and glutathione peroxidise (gshP). The putative NFIs lack all the features characterizing a mobilizable genomic island. Nevertheless, bioinformatic analysis P. stutzeri DSM 4166 NFI demonstrated the presence of short inverted and/or direct repeats within both flanking regions. The other P. stutzeri strains carry only one set of repeats. The genetic diversity of eleven diazotrophic Pseudomonas isolates was also investigated. Multilocus sequence typing grouped nine isolates along with P. stutzeri and two isolates are grouped in a separate clade. A Rep-PCR fingerprinting analysis grouped the eleven isolates into four distinct genotypes. We also provided evidence that the putative NFI in our diazotrophic Pseudomonas isolates is flanked by cobS and gshP genes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the putative NFI of Pseudomonas sp. Gr65 is flanked by inverted repeats identical to those found in P. stutzeri DSM 4166 and while the other P. stutzeri isolates harbor the repeats located in the intergenic region between cobS and glutaredoxin genes as in the case of P. stutzeri A1501. Taken together these data suggest that all putative NFIs of diazotrophic Pseudomonas isolates are anchored in an intergenic region between cobS and gshP genes and their flanking regions are designated by distinct repeats patterns. Moreover, the presence of almost identical NFIs in diazotrophic Pseudomonas strains isolated from distal geographical locations around the world suggested that this horizontal gene transfer event may have taken place early in the evolution.

  12. Genotyping of Mycobacterium leprae present on Ziehl-Neelsen-stained microscopic slides and in skin biopsy samples from leprosy patients in different geographic regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Amanda Nogueira Brum; Gomes, Harrison Magdinier; Araujo, Marcelo Ivens de; Albuquerque, Edson Cláudio Araripe de; Baptista, Ida Maria Foschiani Dias; Moura, Maria Manuela da Fonseca; Rezende, Denise Silva; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Lara, Flávio Alves; Pontes, Maria Araci de Andrade; Gonçalves, Heitor de Sá; Lucena-Silva, Norma; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Vissa, Varalakshmi D; Brennan, Patrick J; Suffys, Philip Noel

    2012-12-01

    We analysed 16 variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) and three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in Mycobacterium leprae present on 115 Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N)-stained slides and in 51 skin biopsy samples derived from leprosy patients from Ceará (n = 23), Pernambuco (n = 41), Rio de Janeiro (n = 22) and Rondônia (RO) (n = 78). All skin biopsies yielded SNP-based genotypes, while 48 of the samples (94.1%) yielded complete VNTR genotypes. We evaluated two procedures for extracting M. leprae DNA from Z-N-stained slides: the first including Chelex and the other combining proteinase and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Of the 76 samples processed using the first procedure, 30.2% were positive for 16 or 15 VNTRs, whereas of the 39 samples processed using the second procedure, 28.2% yielded genotypes defined by at least 10 VNTRs. Combined VNTR and SNP analysis revealed large variability in genotypes, but a high prevalence of SNP genotype 4 in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Our observation of two samples from RO with an identical genotype and seven groups with similar genotypes, including four derived from residents of the same state or region, suggest a tendency to form groups according to the origin of the isolates. This study demonstrates the existence of geographically related M. leprae genotypes and that Z-N-stained slides are an alternative source for M. leprae genotyping.

  13. Estimate of regional groundwater recharge rate in the Central Haouz Plain, Morocco, using the chloride mass balance method and a geographical information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait El Mekki, Ouassil; Laftouhi, Nour-Eddine; Hanich, Lahoucine

    2017-07-01

    Located in the extreme northwest of Africa, the Kingdom of Morocco is increasingly affected by drought. Much of the country is characterised by an arid to semi-arid climate and the demand for water is considerably higher than the supply, particularly on the Haouz Plain in the centre of the country. The expansion of agriculture and tourism, in addition to industrial development and mining, have exacerbated the stress on water supplies resulting in drought. It is therefore necessary to adopt careful management practices to preserve the sustainability of the water resources in this region. The aquifer recharge rate in the piedmont region that links the High Atlas and the Central Haouz Plain was estimated using the chloride mass balance hydrochemical method, which is based on the relationship between the chloride concentrations in groundwater and rainwater. The addition of a geographical information system made it possible to estimate the recharge rate over the whole 400 km2 of the study area. The results are presented in the form of a map showing the spatialized recharge rate, which ranges from 13 to 100 mm/year and the recharge percentage of the total rainfall varies from 3 to 25 % for the hydrological year 2011-2012. This approach will enable the validation of empirical models covering areas >6200 km2, such as the Haouz nappe.

  14. Genotyping of Mycobacterium leprae present on Ziehl-Neelsen-stained microscopic slides and in skin biopsy samples from leprosy patients in different geographic regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Nogueira Brum Fontes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We analysed 16 variable number tandem repeats (VNTR and three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in Mycobacterium leprae present on 115 Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N-stained slides and in 51 skin biopsy samples derived from leprosy patients from Ceará (n = 23, Pernambuco (n = 41, Rio de Janeiro (n = 22 and Rondônia (RO (n = 78. All skin biopsies yielded SNP-based genotypes, while 48 of the samples (94.1% yielded complete VNTR genotypes. We evaluated two procedures for extracting M. leprae DNA from Z-N-stained slides: the first including Chelex and the other combining proteinase and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Of the 76 samples processed using the first procedure, 30.2% were positive for 16 or 15 VNTRs, whereas of the 39 samples processed using the second procedure, 28.2% yielded genotypes defined by at least 10 VNTRs. Combined VNTR and SNP analysis revealed large variability in genotypes, but a high prevalence of SNP genotype 4 in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Our observation of two samples from RO with an identical genotype and seven groups with similar genotypes, including four derived from residents of the same state or region, suggest a tendency to form groups according to the origin of the isolates. This study demonstrates the existence of geographically related M. leprae genotypes and that Z-N-stained slides are an alternative source for M. leprae genotyping.

  15. Validated HPTLC analysis method for quantification of variability in content of curcumin in Curcuma longa L (turmeric) collected from different geographical region of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamran Ashraf; Mohd Mujeeb; Altaf Ahmad; Mohd Amir; Md Nasar Mallick; Deepak Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop a simple, sensitive, precise, and accurate stability-indicating high performance thin-layer chromatographic method for analysis of curcumin (the main active constituent of turmeric). Methods: The separation was achieved on TLC aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 using toluene-chloroform-methanol (5:4:1, v/v/v) as a mobile phase. Densitometric analysis was performed at 430 nm. Results: This system was found to have compact spot of curcumin at RF value of (0.31±0.02). For the proposed procedure, linearity (r2= 0.99354 ± 0.00120), limit of detection (50 ng/spot), limit of quantification (200 ng/spot), recovery (ranging from 98.35% - 100.68%), and precision (≤2.25%) were found to be satisfactory. Statistical analysis reveals that the content of curcumin in different geographical region varied significantly.Conclusions:The highest and lowest concentration of curcumin in Turmeric was found to be present in sample of Erode (Tamilnadu) and Surat (Gujrat) respectively which inferred that the variety of turmeric found in Erode (Tamilnadu) is much superior to other region of India.

  16. Regional variations in water quality and relationships to soil and bedrock weathering in the southern Sacramento Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanty, R.B.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Morrison, J.M.; Lee, L.

    2009-01-01

    Regional patterns in ground- and surface-water chemistry of the southern Sacramento Valley in California were evaluated using publicly available geochemical data from the US Geological Survey's National Water Information System (NWIS). Within the boundaries of the study area, more than 2300 ground-water analyses and more than 20,000 surface-water analyses were available. Ground-waters from the west side of the Sacramento Valley contain greater concentrations of Na, Ca, Mg, B, Cl and SO4, while the east-side ground-waters contain greater concentrations of silica and K. These differences result from variations in surface-water chemistry as well as from chemical reactions between water and aquifer materials. Sediments that fill the Sacramento Valley were derived from highlands to the west (the Coast Ranges) and east (the Sierra Nevada Mountains), the former having an oceanic provenance and the latter continental. These geologic differences are at least in part responsible for the observed patterns in ground-water chemistry. Thermal springs that are common along the west side of the Sacramento Valley appear to have an effect on surface-water chemistry, which in turn may affect the ground-water chemistry.

  17. Tropical convective systems life cycle characteristics from geostationary satellite and precipitating estimates derived from TRMM and ground weather radar observations for the West African and South American regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiolleau, T.; Roca, R.; Angelis, F. C.; Viltard, N.

    2012-12-01

    In the tropics most of the rainfall comes in the form of individual storm events embedded in the synoptic circulations (e.g., monsoons). Understanding the rainfall and its variability hence requires to document these highly contributing tropical convective systems (MCS). Our knowledge of the MCS life cycle, from a physical point of view mainly arises from individual observational campaigns heavily based on ground radar observations. While this large part of observations enabled the creation of conceptual models of MCS life cycle, it nevertheless does not reach any statistically significant integrated perspective yet. To overcome this limitation, a composite technique, that will serve as a Day-1 algorithm for the Megha-Tropiques mission, is considered in this study. this method is based on a collocation in space and time of the level-2 rainfall estimates (BRAIN) derived from the TMI radiometer onboard TRMM with the cloud systems identified by a new MCS tracking algorithm called TOOCAN and based on a 3-dimensional segmentation (image + time) of the geostationary IR imagery. To complete this study, a similar method is also developed collocating the cloud systems with the precipitating features derived from the ground weather radar which has been deployed during the CHUVA campaign over several Brazilian regions from 2010 up to now. A comparison of the MCSs life cycle is then performed for the 2010-2012 summer seasons over the West African, and South American regions. On the whole region of study, the results show that the temporal evolution of the cold cloud shield associated to MCSs describes a symmetry between the growth and the decay phases. It is also shown that the parameters of the conceptual model of MCSs are strongly correlated, reducing thereby the problem to a single degree of freedom. At the system scale, over both land and oceanic regions, rainfall is described by an increase at the beginning (the first third) of the life cycle and then smoothly decreases

  18. Relation of the weather and the lunar cycle with the incidence of trauma in the Groningen region over a 36-year period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomp, W.; Fidler, V.; ten Duis, H.J.; Nijsten, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The time distribution of injuries is not random. To assess the potential impact of weather and the phase of the moon on accidents, adjustment for known periodic and nonperiodic factors may be important. We compared the incidence of injuries with quantitative and qualitative weather

  19. Geographical Tatoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cazetta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with maps tattooed on bodies. My interest in studying the corporeality is inserted in a broader project entitled Geographies and (in Bodies. There is several published research on tattoos, but none in particular about tattooed maps. However some of these works interested me because they present important discussions in contemporary about body modification that helped me locate the body modifications most within the culture than on the nature. At this time, I looked at pictures of geographical tattoos available in several sites of the internet.

  20. Developing a foundation for eco-epidemiological assessment of aquatic ecological status over large geographic regions utilizing existing data resources and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapo, Katherine E; Holmes, Christopher M; Dyer, Scott D; de Zwart, Dick; Posthuma, Leo

    2014-07-01

    Eco-epidemiological studies utilizing existing monitoring program data provide a cost-effective means to bridge the gap between the ecological status and chemical status of watersheds and to develop hypotheses of stressor attribution that can influence the design of higher-tier assessments and subsequent management. The present study describes the process of combining existing data and models to develop a robust starting point for eco-epidemiological analyses of watersheds over large geographic scales. Data resources from multiple federal and local agencies representing a range of biological, chemical, physical, toxicological, and other landscape factors across the state of Ohio, USA (2000-2007), were integrated with the National Hydrography Dataset Plus hydrologic model (US Environmental Protection Agency and US Geological Survey). A variety of variable reduction, selection, and optimization strategies were applied to develop eco-epidemiological data sets for fish and macroinvertebrate communities. The relative importance of landscape variables was compared across spatial scales (local catchment, watershed, near-stream) using conditional inference forests to determine the scales most relevant to variation in biological community condition. Conditional inference forest analysis applied to a holistic set of environmental variables yielded stressor-response hypotheses at the statewide and eco-regional levels. The analysis confirmed the dominant influence of state-level stressors such as physical habitat condition, while highlighting differences in predictive strength of other stressors based on ecoregional and land-use characteristics. This exercise lays the groundwork for subsequent work designed to move closer to causal inference.

  1. Geographical Analysis for Detecting High-Risk Areas for Bovine/Human Rabies Transmitted by the Common Hematophagous Bat in the Amazon Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begot, Alberto L.; Ramos, Ofir de S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The common hematophagous bat, Desmodus rotundus, is one of the main wild reservoirs of rabies virus in several regions in Latin America. New production practices and changed land use have provided environmental features that have been very favorable for D. rotundus bat populations, making this species the main transmitter of rabies in the cycle that involves humans and herbivores. In the Amazon region, these features include a mosaic of environmental, social, and economic components, which together creates areas with different levels of risk for human and bovine infections, as presented in this work in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. Methodology We geo-referenced a total of 175 cases of rabies, of which 88% occurred in bovines and 12% in humans, respectively, and related these cases to a number of different geographical and biological variables. The spatial distribution was analyzed using the Kernel function, while the association with independent variables was assessed using a multi-criterion Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique. Findings The spatiotemporal analysis of the occurrence of rabies in bovines and humans found reduction in the number of cases in the eastern state of Pará, where no more cases were recorded in humans, whereas high infection rates were recorded in bovines in the northeastern part of the state, and low rates in the southeast. The areas of highest risk for bovine rabies are found in the proximity of rivers and highways. In the case of human rabies, the highest concentration of high-risk areas was found where the highway network coincides with high densities of rural and indigenous populations. Conclusion The high-risk areas for human and bovine rabies are patchily distributed, and related to extensive deforested areas, large herds of cattle, and the presence of highways. These findings provide an important database for the generation of epidemiological models that could support the development of effective prevention

  2. The uncertainty of UTCI due to uncertainties in the determination of radiation fluxes derived from numerical weather prediction and regional climate model simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Stefan F; Suomi, Irene; Bröde, Peter; Formayer, Herbert; Rieder, Harald E; Nadeem, Imram; Jendritzky, Gerd; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Weihs, Philipp

    2013-03-01

    In this study we examine the determination accuracy of both the mean radiant temperature (Tmrt) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) within the scope of numerical weather prediction (NWP), and global (GCM) and regional (RCM) climate model simulations. First, Tmrt is determined and the so-called UTCI-Fiala model is then used for the calculation of UTCI. Taking into account the uncertainties of NWP model (among others the HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model HIRLAM) output (temperature, downwelling short-wave and long-wave radiation) stated in the literature, we simulate and discuss the uncertainties of Tmrt and UTCI at three stations in different climatic regions of Europe. The results show that highest negative (positive) differences to reference cases (under assumed clear-sky conditions) of up to -21°C (9°C) for Tmrt and up to -6°C (3.5°C) for UTCI occur in summer (winter) due to cloudiness. In a second step, the uncertainties of RCM simulations are analyzed: three RCMs, namely ALADIN (Aire Limitée Adaptation dynamique Développement InterNational), RegCM (REGional Climate Model) and REMO (REgional MOdel) are nested into GCMs and used for the prediction of temperature and radiation fluxes in order to estimate Tmrt and UTCI. The inter-comparison of RCM output for the three selected locations shows that biases between 0.0 and ±17.7°C (between 0.0 and ±13.3°C) for Tmrt (UTCI), and RMSE between ±0.5 and ±17.8°C (between ±0.8 and ±13.4°C) for Tmrt (UTCI) may be expected. In general the study shows that uncertainties of UTCI, due to uncertainties arising from calculations of radiation fluxes (based on NWP models) required for the prediction of Tmrt, are well below ±2°C for clear-sky cases. However, significant higher uncertainties in UTCI of up to ±6°C are found, especially when prediction of cloudiness is wrong.

  3. Geographic information systems and remote sensing methods for assessing and monitoring land degradation in the Sahel region: The case of southern Mauritania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Amadou Khoudiedji

    The application area of this study is southern Mauritania characterized by a northern Sahelian climate and a semi-arid ecosystem. Since the 1970s, the region has been under environmental stress due to the combined impacts of recurrent droughts and anthropogenic pressure. Although it represents only 12.5% of the country's land area, it concentrates nearly 37% of the population, 90% of whom practice substance agriculture and/or livestock keeping. The livestock population which has geometrically increased as a result of mass migrations from other parts of the country represents nearly 70% of the national herd. The degradation process that affects the life supporting base (soils, forage and forest resources) is a direct result of agricultural encroachment, overgrazing, fuelwood and building material collection. Such a situation needs to be assessed and monitored with a powerful data integration and analysis system in order to support environmental resources management decision making with accurate information. This study is an investigation on the potential of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing digital image processing methods to exhibit the pattern of land degradation prone areas from geographical data and satellite imagery. GIS data integration and analysis techniques are applied to physical and socio-economic data for the cartographic and statistical characterization of land degradation prone areas. Statistical analyses are carried out on tabular and image data while spatial modelling procedures such as surface interpolation, distance analysis and various overlay operations are specifically performed on images to determine the spatial extent of the degradation processes. The digital image processing techniques used include spectral vegetation indices (VI) grouped into sloped-based (e.g., NDVI), distance-based (e.g., PVI) and orthogonal (e.g., GVI) models. These VIs are used in order to assess their ability to distinguish sparse green vegetation

  4. Distribución geográfica del recurso humano en atención primaria en Costa Rica: equidad y convergencia regional Geographic distribution of human resources in primary care in Costa Rica: equity and regional convergente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvin Morera Salas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Medir el grado de inequidad y convergencia regional del gasto per cápita en recurso humano entre áreas de atención primaria. Material y Métodos: Los datos de gasto en recurso humano y población provienen de la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social y el Índice de Desarrollo Social del Ministerio de Planificación Nacional y Política Económica. Para analizar posibles inequidades espaciales se compararon los patrones geográficos del gasto per cápita en recurso humano, se estima el coeficiente de determinación del nivel de gasto y su tasa de crecimiento y el Índice de Desarrollo Social y se estima el coeficiente de Gini. En el análisis de convergencia se utilizó el coeficiente de correlación como medida de dispersión (convergencia sigma. Resultados: En el período 2000-2007 se presenta un patrón geográfico de bajo crecimiento del gasto per cápita en recurso humano en las zonas Atlántica, frontera con Nicaragua y parte del Sur del país, que coincide con zonas de bajo desarrollo social. El análisis de convergencia muestra que las diferencias en el gasto per cápita del recurso humano entre áreas de salud se redujeron en el periodo 2000-2004. Pero aún persiste una amplia variabilidad geográfica, dado que el coeficiente de variación ha permanecido alrededor del 53% a partir del 2004. Discusión: Para cumplir con el objetivo de lograr un acceso geográfico equitativo a la atención primaria, se recomienda que el Índice de Desarrollo Social sea una variable determinante en las nuevas políticas de asignación de recurso humano.Objective: To measure the degree of inequality and regional convergence of per capita expenses in the distribution of health workforce between primary health care areas. Material and Methods: Data of health workers and population by health areas were provided by the Public Health Service. The Index of Social Development is data from the Ministry of Economic and National Political Planning. In order

  5. Dynamic analysis of eco-environmental changes based on remote sensing and geographic information system: an example in Longdong region of the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L. C.; Dong, X. F.; Wang, J. H.

    2007-11-01

    The Chinese Loess Plateau is suffering from severe soil erosion. The eco-environmental changes of the plateau are believed to have an important influence on global eco-environmental sustainability; hence, this problem has attracted considerable attention from scientists around the world. This study has two purposes; application of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in the dynamic analysis of eco-environmental changes in the semiarid zone; and using the Longdong region of the Chinese Loess Plateau as an example, to make dynamic analysis of the eco-environmental changes of the region during the 1986 2004 period and identify controlling factors. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data at a spatial resolution of 30 m were used for analysis. Two training areas were selected in Jingning and Qingcheng counties for analysis using 10-m resolution SPOT and Landsat TM data. The satellite RS images were obtained from the Institute of Remote Sensing Application (IRSA), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Each images was rectified by Albers Equal Area Conic projection based on 1:50,000 scale topographic maps after spectrum preparation of the images. To make the precision within 1 or 2 pixels, the accurate coordinative control points of the two systems were identified. Then the interpretation key was established based on the land use/cover survey in the study area. The images were classified into six primary environmental types (farmland, forest, grassland, water, construction area, and desert) and 25 sub-types using a visual image interactive interpretation method to obtain vector and attribute data. The resultant accuracy of the land use/cover classification reached 95%. Finally, the transformation areas and ratios of various eco-environmental types in the region were calculated to obtain the transition matrixes of eco-environmental types in the two training areas, Jingning and Qingcheng. This study demonstrates that satellite RS and GIS techniques

  6. Applications of Kalman filters based on non-linear functions to numerical weather predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Galanis

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of non-linear functions in classical Kalman filter algorithms on the improvement of regional weather forecasts. The main aim is the implementation of non linear polynomial mappings in a usual linear Kalman filter in order to simulate better non linear problems in numerical weather prediction. In addition, the optimal order of the polynomials applied for such a filter is identified. This work is based on observations and corresponding numerical weather predictions of two meteorological parameters characterized by essential differences in their evolution in time, namely, air temperature and wind speed. It is shown that in both cases, a polynomial of low order is adequate for eliminating any systematic error, while higher order functions lead to instabilities in the filtered results having, at the same time, trivial contribution to the sensitivity of the filter. It is further demonstrated that the filter is independent of the time period and the geographic location of application.

  7. Field observations, experiments, and modeling of sediment production from freeze and thaw action on a bare, weathered granite slope in a temperate region of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Daizo; Fujita, Masaharu

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, field observations and model simulations were conducted to examine the process of sediment production due to freeze and thaw action in a temperate climate region. Two small areas were designated and observations were conducted to determine the mechanisms of sediment production due to freeze and thaw action on a bare, weathered granite slope in the Tanakami Mountains in the southern part of Shiga Prefecture, Japan. During the cold season from 2004 to 2005, air, surface, and subsurface temperatures were measured at 10-min intervals. The sediment produced on plot 1 was collected and weighed once per week, whereas the sediment produced on plot 2 was left untouched until the end of the cold season. The freeze and thaw cycle occurred repeatedly, with the frozen zone (i.e., temperature Pinus densiflora); plot 2 was covered by no leaves to understand the effects of surface cover on the reduction in sediment production. The results showed that surface leaf cover dramatically decreased sediment production due to freeze and thaw action versus the no-surface cover. A simulation model combining a thermal conductivity analysis and a simple and empirical sediment production model was developed to estimate the amount of sediment produced by the freeze and thaw action. The observation results of temperature change and amount of sediment during the first season, from 2004 to 2005, were simulated with the model. The model assumption, that repeated freezing and thawing events are necessary for the production of sediment from saprolite (14 cycles of the freeze and thaw with a freezing threshold of - 1 °C), is supported by comparisons of the simulated results and the observations. From an engineering viewpoint, a freeze and thaw index that incorporates the freezing depth and the repetition number of freeze and thaw cycles is proposed to estimate total amount of sediment produced from a wide area, such as a catchment scale, over a long period.

  8. Age-related cognitive decline and associations with sex, education and apolipoprotein E genotype across ethnocultural groups and geographic regions: a collaborative cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnicki, Darren M.; Crawford, John D.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Castro-Costa, Erico; Stephan, Blossom C. M.; Lipton, Richard B.; Katz, Mindy J.; Ritchie, Karen; Scali, Jacqueline; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Yannakoulia, Mary; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Lam, Linda C. W.; Fung, Ada W. T.; Vaccaro, Roberta; Davin, Annalisa; Kim, Ki Woong; Han, Ji Won; Kim, Tae Hui; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Butterworth, Peter; Scazufca, Marcia; Kumagai, Shuzo; Chen, Sanmei; Narazaki, Kenji; Lobo, Antonio; Lopez-Anton, Raúl; Santabárbara, Javier; Sachdev, Perminder S.

    2017-01-01

    .023 SD/decade, 95% CI [0.011, 0.035], p < 0.001), and every additional year of education was associated with a rate of decline slightly slower for the MMSE (0.004 SD/decade less, 95% CI [0.002, 0.006], p = 0.001), but slightly faster for language (-0.007 SD/decade more, 95% CI [-0.011, -0.003], p = 0.001). APOE*4 carriers declined slightly more rapidly than non-carriers on most cognitive measures, with processing speed showing the greatest difference (-0.08 SD/decade, 95% CI [-0.15, -0.01], p = 0.019). The same overall pattern of results was found when analyses were repeated with baseline dementia cases excluded. We used only one test to represent cognitive domains, and though a prototypical one, we nevertheless urge caution in generalizing the results to domains rather than viewing them as test-specific associations. This study lacked cohorts from Africa, India, and mainland China. Conclusions Cognitive performance declined with age, and more rapidly with increasing age, across samples from diverse ethnocultural groups and geographical regions. Associations varied across cohorts, suggesting that different rates of cognitive decline might contribute to the global variation in dementia prevalence. However, the many similarities and consistent associations with education and APOE genotype indicate a need to explore how international differences in associations with other risk factors such as genetics, cardiovascular health, and lifestyle are involved. Future studies should attempt to use multiple tests for each cognitive domain and feature populations from ethnocultural groups and geographical regions for which we lacked data. PMID:28323832

  9. Establishing Sprinkling Requirements on Trailers Transporting Market Weight Pigs in Warm and Hot Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kephart

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted July of 2012 in Iowa, in WARM (<26.7 °C and HOT (≥26.7 °C weather. Four sprinkling methods were compared, with one treatment being randomly assigned to each load: control- no sprinkling (not applied in HOT weather, pigs only, bedding only, or pigs and bedding. Experiment 1 used 51 loads in WARM- and 86 loads in HOT weather to determine sprinkling effects on pig measures (surface temperature, vocalizations, slips and falls, and stress signs. Experiment 2 used 82 loads in WARM- and 54 loads in HOT weather to determine the sprinkling effects on transport losses (non-ambulatory, dead, and total transport losses. Experiment 1 found that, in WARM weather, there were no differences between sprinkling treatments for surface temperature, vocalizations, or slips and falls (p ≥ 0.18. However, stress signs were 2% greater when sprinkling pigs- or bedding only- compared to control (p = 0.03. Experiment 2 found that, in WARM and HOT weather, sprinkling did not affect non-ambulatory, dead, or total transport losses (p ≥ 0.18. Although the current study did not find any observed sprinkling effects for pig measures or transport losses it is extremely important to note that the inference space of this study is relatively small, so further studies should be conducted to see if these results are applicable to other geographical regions and seasons.

  10. 《区域人文地理野外方法》对建构主义理论的呼应%Regional Human Geographical Field Method Echoes the Theory of Constructivism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周尚意

    2012-01-01

    区域地理是大学地理学的重要课程,各学校开展区域地理野外实践的基地不同,实习方案也有很大差异。本文采用认知心理学的建构主义理论,用以剖析区域地理野外教学的特征。%Regional geography is an important curriculum of university geography, and universities have different bases to carry out regional geographical field practice, and their internship projects are also very different. The paper applies the theory of constructivism of cognitive psychology to analyze the characteristic of regional geographical field teaching.

  11. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  12. Weather Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacmeister, Julio T.

    Awareness of weather and concern about weather in the proximate future certainly must have accompanied the emergence of human self-consciousness. Although weather is a basic idea in human existence, it is difficult to define precisely.

  13. Weatherization Apprenticeship Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Eric J

    2012-12-18

    Weatherization improvement services will be provided to Native people by Native people. The proposed project will recruit, train and hire two full-time weatherization technicians who will improve the energy efficiency of homes of Alaska Natives/American Indians residing in the Indian areas, within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska. The Region includes Anchorage as well as 8 small tribal villages: The Native Villages of Eklutna, Knik, Chickaloon, Seldovia, Ninilchik, Kenaitze, Salamatof, and Tyonek. This project will be a partnership between three entities, with Cook Inlet Tribal Council (CITC) as the lead agency: CITCA's Employment and Training Services Department, Cook Inlet Housing Authority and Alaska Works Partnership. Additionally, six of the eight tribal villages within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska have agreed to work with the project in order to improve the energy efficiency of their tribally owned buildings and homes. The remaining three villages will be invited to participate in the establishment of an intertribal consortium through this project. Tribal homes and buildings within Anchorage fall under Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI) tribal authority.

  14. French Geographers under International Gaze : regional excursions for the XIIIth International Geographical Congress, 1931 Les géographes français vus de l’étranger : excursions organisées à l’occasion du XIIIe Congrès International de Géographie en 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Clout

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Excursions accompanying international conferences provide important opportunities to transmit geographical knowledge. Fieldtrips associated with the International Geographical Congress in Paris are examined with respect to theme, leadership, and message. Leadership was entrusted to proven geographers holding doctorates, and to geologists working close to physical geography. Despite eight excursions being planned, opportunities were not offered to visit large sections of France. This pattern of activity reflected areas where regional monographs had been completed, and where annual inter-university excursions for French geographers had been run. Patronage by De Martonne (Sorbonne or by Blanchard (Grenoble was another important explanatory factor for who led excursions and where they took place.Les excursions offertes à l’occasion des congrès internationaux donnent des possibilités importantes pour la transmission des savoirs géographiques. Dans cet article on essaie d’analyser le contenu, la direction et les communications des excursions associées avec le Congrès International de Géographie à Paris. Malgré la préparation de huit excursions, de larges sections de l’Hexagone restaient fermées aux congressistes. Cette situation s’explique par la localisation et des études monographiques achevées, et des excursions interuniversitaires. Le patronage des grands maîtres (De Martonne à la Sorbonne, Blanchard à Grenoble fournit un autre élément d’explication.

  15. Vegetation Changes in the Permafrost Regions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 1982-2012: Different Responses Related to Geographical Locations and Vegetation Types in High-Altitude Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Qian; Wu, Xiaodong; Zhao, Lin; Yue, Guangyang; Nan, Zhuotong; Wang, Puchang; Yi, Shuhua; Zou, Defu; Qin, Yu; Wu, Tonghua; Shi, Jianzong

    2017-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) contains the largest permafrost area in a high-altitude region in the world, and the unique hydrothermal environments of the active layers in this region have an important impact on vegetation growth. Geographical locations present different climatic conditions, and in combination with the permafrost environments, these conditions comprehensively affect the local vegetation activity. Therefore, the responses of vegetation to climate change in the permafrost region of the QTP may be varied differently by geographical location and vegetation condition. In this study, using the latest Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) product based on turning points (TPs), which were calculated using a piecewise linear model, 9 areas within the permafrost region of the QTP were selected to investigate the effect of geographical location and vegetation type on vegetation growth from 1982 to 2012. The following 4 vegetation types were observed in the 9 selected study areas: alpine swamp meadow, alpine meadow, alpine steppe and alpine desert. The research results show that, in these study areas, TPs mainly appeared in 2000 and 2001, and almost 55.1% and 35.0% of the TPs were located in 2000 and 2001. The global standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and 7 meteorological variables were selected to analyze their correlations with NDVI. We found that the main correlative variables to vegetation productivity in study areas from 1982 to 2012 were precipitation, surface downward long-wave radiation and temperature. Furthermore, NDVI changes exhibited by different vegetation types within the same study area followed similar trends. The results show that regional effects rather than vegetation type had a larger impact on changes in vegetation growth in the permafrost regions of the QTP, indicating that climatic factors had a larger impact in the permafrost regions than the

  16. Demographics, Management Strategies, and Problems in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction from the Standpoint of Emergency Medicine Specialists: A Survey-Based Study from Seven Geographical Regions of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayipmaz, Afsin Emre; Karacaglar, Emir; Muderrisoglu, Haldun

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) management practices of emergency medicine specialists working in various healthcare institutions of seven different geographical regions of Turkey, and to examine the characteristics of STEMI presentation and patient admissions in these regions. Methods We included 225 emergency medicine specialists working in all geographical regions of Turkey. We e-mailed them a 20-item questionnaire comprising questions related to their STEMI management practices and characteristics of STEMI presentation and patient admissions. Results The regions were not significantly different with respect to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) resources (p = 0.286). Sixty six point two percent (66.2%) of emergency specialists stated that patients presented to emergency within 2 hours of symptom onset. Forty three point six percent (43.6%) of them contacted cardiology department within 10 minutes and 47.1% within 30 minutes. In addition, 68.3% of the participants improved themselves through various educational activities. The Southeastern Anatolian region had the longest time from symptom onset to emergency department admission and the least favorable hospital admission properties, not originating from physicians or 112 emergency healthcare services. Conclusion Seventy point seven percent (70.7%) of the emergency specialists working in all geographical regions of Turkey comply with the latest guidelines and current knowledge about STEMI care; they also try to improve themselves, and receive adequate support from 112 emergency healthcare services and cardiologists. While inter-regional gaps between the number of primary PCI capable centers and quality of STEMI care progressively narrow, there are still issues to address, such as delayed patient presentation after symptoms onset and difficulties in patient admission. PMID:27760229

  17. Assessing the role of spatial rainfall variability on watersheds response using weather radar A case study in the Gard region, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraheni, Evi; Payrastre, Olivier; Emmanuel, Isabelle; Andrieu, Herve

    2014-05-01

    The consideration of spatial rainfall variability in hydrological modeling is not only an important scientific issue but also, with the current development of high resolution rainfall data from weather radars, an increasing request from managers of sewerage networks and from flood forecasting services. Although the literature on this topic is already significant, at this time the conclusions remain contrasted. The impact of spatial rainfall variability on the hydrological responses appears to highly depend both on the organization of rainfall fields and on the watershed characteristics. The objective of the study presented here is to confirm and analyze the high impact of spatial rainfall variability in the specific context of flash floods. The case study presented is located in the Gard region in south east of France and focuses on four events which occurred on 13 different watersheds in 2008. The hydrological behaviors of these watersheds have been represented by the distributed rainfall - runoff model CINECAR, which already proved to well represent the hydrological responses in this region (Naulin et al., 2013). The influence of spatial rainfall variability has been studied here by considering two different rainfall inputs: radar data with a resolution of 1 km x 1 km and the spatial average rainfall over the catchment. First, the comparison between simulated and measured hydrographs confirms the good performances of the model for intense rainfall events, independently of the level of spatial rainfall variability of these events. Secondly, the simulated hydrographs obtained from radar data are taken as reference and compared to those obtained from the average rainfall inputs by computing two values: the time difference and the difference of magnitude between the simulated peaks discharge. The results highly depend on the rainfall event considered, and on the level of organization of the spatial rainfall variability. According to the model, the behavior of the

  18. Weather in Your Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

    Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

  19. Advances in Optimizing Weather Driven Electric Power Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Alexander, A.; Dunbar, A. D.; Xie, Y.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of weather-driven renewable energies for the United States (and global) energy portfolio is growing. The main perceived problems with weather-driven renewable energies are their intermittent nature, low power density, and high costs. The National Energy with Weather System Simulator (NEWS) is a mathematical optimization tool that allows the construction of weather-driven energy sources that will work in harmony with the needs of the system. For example, it will match the electric load, reduce variability, decrease costs, and abate carbon emissions. One important test run included existing US carbon-free power sources, natural gas power when needed, and a High Voltage Direct Current power transmission network. This study shows that the costs and carbon emissions from an optimally designed national system decrease with geographic size. It shows that with achievable estimates of wind and solar generation costs, that the US could decrease its carbon emissions by up to 80% by the early 2030s, without an increase in electric costs. The key requirement would be a 48 state network of HVDC transmission, creating a national market for electricity not possible in the current AC grid. These results were found without the need for storage. Further, we tested the effect of changing natural gas fuel prices on the optimal configuration of the national electric power system. Another test that was carried out was an extension to global regions. The extension study shows that the same properties found in the US study extend to the most populous regions of the planet. The extra test is a simplified version of the US study, and is where much more research can be carried out. We compare our results to other model results.

  20. Analytical Application of Monitoring Data and Graphic from Regional Automatic Weather Station Based on Web%基于Web的区域气象站监测资料图形分析应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄克磊; 王媛; 杨娜娜; 李秋元; 赵辉; 肖杰

    2009-01-01

    Introduced the characteristics of drawing isoline by Surfer software, described the methods of adding Surfer application, implement of analysis on isoline (iso-surface) of weather data from regional automatic weather station, graphic display and network sharing.With operational system of analytical application on isoline (iso-surface) of rainfall in Qin river valley as the example, the drawing method of isoline on weather data based on B/S structure was introduced.%介绍了Surfer软件绘制等值线的特性,阐述了在Asp.Net环境添加Surfer应用,实现区域自动气象站资料等值线(面)分析、图形显示及网络共享的方法.并以"沁河流域雨量等值线(面)分析应用"业务系统为例,介绍了基于B/S结构的气象资料等值线图的绘制方法.

  1. Geographical networks: geographical effects on network properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong-qing YANG; Lei YANG; Bai-hua GONG; Zhong-cai LIN; Hong-sheng HE; Liang HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Complex networks describe a wide range of sys-tems in nature and society. Since most real systems exist in certain physical space and the distance between the nodes has influence on the connections, it is helpful to study geographi-cal complex networks and to investigate how the geographical constrains on the connections affect the network properties. In this paper, we briefly review our recent progress on geo-graphical complex networks with respect of statistics, mod-elling, robustness, and synchronizability. It has been shown that the geographical constrains tend to make the network less robust and less synchronizable. Synchronization on random networks and clustered networks is also studied.

  2. Extreme weather events and related disasters in the Philippines, 2004-08: a sign of what climate change will mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumul, Graciano P; Cruz, Nathaniel A; Servando, Nathaniel T; Dimalanta, Carla B

    2011-04-01

    Being an archipelagic nation, the Philippines is susceptible and vulnerable to the ill-effects of weather-related hazards. Extreme weather events, which include tropical cyclones, monsoon rains and dry spells, have triggered hazards (such as floods and landslides) that have turned into disasters. Financial resources that were meant for development and social services have had to be diverted in response, addressing the destruction caused by calamities that beset different regions of the country. Changing climatic patterns and weather-related occurrences over the past five years (2004-08) may serve as an indicator of what climate change will mean for the country. Early recognition of this possibility and the implementation of appropriate action and measures, through disaster risk management, are important if loss of life and property is to be minimised, if not totally eradicated. This is a matter of urgent concern given the geographical location and geological characteristics of the Philippines.

  3. The dependence of honey-bee behaviour on weather — Shown by the results of weighing bee-hives in the period of 1969 to 1978 in the region of the Beekeepers Association of Hannover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Jutta

    1985-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of honey bee behaviour and their dependence on weather conditions. The main interest of the data evaluation was the rentability of beekeeping, especially the amount of honey produced, meteorological parameters were used to analyse the measurements. So-called “hive scale” measurements, a method used to judge the annual development of honey bees, were carried out in the region of the “Landesverband Hannoverscher Imker e. V.” by 30 to 35 observers from 1969 to 1978 under the direction of Wagener. Number of flight and forage days were collected in addition to climatic data and evaluated.

  4. The National Map - geographic names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Lou; Carswell, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about the official names for places, features, and areas in the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the territories and outlying areas of the United States, including Antarctica. It is the geographic names component of The National Map. The BGN maintains working relationships with State names authorities to cooperate in achieving the standardization of geographic names. The GNIS contains records on more than 2 million geographic names in the United States - from populated places, schools, reservoirs, and parks to streams, valleys, springs, ridges, and every feature type except roads and highways. Entries include information such as the federally-recognized name and variant names and spellings for the feature; former names; the status of the name as determined by the BGN; county or counties in which each named feature is located; geographic coordinates that locate the approximate center of an aerial feature or the mouth and source of a linear feature, such as a stream; name of the cell of the USGS topographic map or maps on which the feature may appear; elevation figures derived from the National Elevation Dataset; bibliographic code for the source of the name; BGN decision dates and historical information are available for some features. Data from the GNIS are used for emergency preparedness, mapmaking, local and regional planning, service delivery routing, marketing, site selection, environmental analysis, genealogical research, and other applications.

  5. Land Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is the international standard code format for hourly surface weather observations. The acronym roughly translates from French as Aviation Routine Weather...

  6. Project Weather and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pal J. Kirkeby

    2000-01-01

    Introduces Project Weather and Water with the goal of developing and testing ideas of how to implement weather topics and water physics in an integrated way. Discusses teacher preparation, implementation, and evaluation of this project. (ASK)

  7. Pilot Weather Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviation weather reports relayed from pilots to FAA air traffic controllers or National Weather Service personnel. Elements include sky cover, turbulence, wind...

  8. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  9. Surface Weather Observations Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  10. Surface Weather Observing Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Manuals and instructions for taking weather observations. Includes the annual Weather Bureau 'Instructions for Preparing Meteorological Forms...' and early airways...

  11. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  12. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  13. National Convective Weather Diagnostic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  14. Internet Weather Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) National Telecommunications Gateway provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its...

  15. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  16. Some Observations on Gold in the Weathering Profile at Garimpo Porquinho, an Artisanal Mine in the Tapajós Region, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Barros de Oliveira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available At Garimpo Porquinho (Tapajós Province, Brazilian Amazon gold-bearing quartz veins containing sulfides occur in anarrow zone affected by hydrothermal alteration. The artisanally mined veins are exposed in a saprolite zone extending downat least 9 m to the fresh rock and are covered by a 1 m thick residual soil. Lateral gold dispersion in the saprolite is notnoticeable whereas in the soil gold dispersion has been observed as far as 2 m from the vein. Trace metals associated with goldinclude Ag, Bi, As and Sb. Copper and lead, present in sulfides, can also indicate the presence of gold. The study of goldparticles in different levels of the profile shows that gold has been affected by weathering. In the upper levels of the profile,particles are smaller, more rounded and pitted by dissolution. Grains of primary gold containing up to 20% Ag are commonlyexhibit silver-poor rims which may penetrate deep into the grain. The interface between the Ag-poor rims and the interior isvery sharp. Such gold-rich rims likely formed by self-electrorefining of electrum grains during weathering

  17. The Comparison of the Winter Diet of Long-Eared Owl Asio otus in Two Communal Roosts in Lublin Region (Eastern Poland According to Selected Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Stasiak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The survey was conducted in two test areas in Wólka Kątna and Zemborzyce in Eastern Poland in winter 2012/2013. The winter diet of Long-eared Owl Asio otus in the test areas differed significantly. In Zemborzyce the Levins food niche breadth index and the Wiener-Shannon biodiversity index were strongly correlated with the average temperature and the snow depth, and not correlated with the precipitation. In Wólka Kątna no correlation was found. No correlation between the weather factors and the number of each prey species was found, except the Tundra Vole Microtus oeconomus in Zemborzyce, which occurrence in owls’ pellets was positively correlated with the temperature and negatively correlated with the snow depth. Seven factors describing the owls’ diet was chosen: average number of prey in one pellet, average number of prey per bird per day, share of Arvicolidae and Muridae in prey number and prey biomass, and the biomass of prey per bird per day. The share of Arvicolidae in biomass negatively correlated with the precipitation on the Zemborzyce test area and no other dependency between diet factors and weather conditions was found.

  18. The power of weather

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Huurman; Francesco Ravazzolo; Chen Zhou

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the predictive power of weather for electricity prices in day ahead markets in real time. We find that next-day weather forecasts improve the forecast accuracy of Scandinavian day-ahead electricity prices substantially in terms of point forecasts, suggesting that weather forecasts can price the weather premium. This improvement strengthens the confidence in the forecasting model, which results in high center-mass predictive densities. In density forecast, such a predictive...

  19. Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

  20. Cold-Weather Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold-Weather Sports A A A What's in this article? ... Equipment Ahh, winter! Shorter days. Frigid temperatures. Foul weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports ...

  1. The potential effect of global warming on the geographic and seasonal distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi in Southwest Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, E.R.; Hyams, K.C. [Naval Medical Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi in Southwest Asia is thought to be highly dependent on temperature and relative humidity. A discriminant analysis model based on weather data and reported vector surveys was developed to predict the seasonal and geographic distribution of P. papatasi in this region. To simulate global warming, temperature values for 115 weather stations were increased by 1 {degrees}C, 3{degrees}C, and 5{degrees}C, and the outcome variable coded as unknown in the model. Probability of occurrence values were then predicted for each location with a weather station. Stations with positive probability of occurrence values for May, June, July, and August were considered locations where two or more life cycles of P. papatasi could occur and which could support endemic transmission of leishmaniasis and sandfly fever. Among 115 weather stations, 71 (62%) would be considered endemic with current temperature conditions; 14 (12%) additional station could become endemic with an increase of 1 {degrees}C; 17 (15%) more than a 3{degrees}C increase; and 12 (10%) more (all but one station) with a t{degrees}C increase. In addition to increased geographic distribution, seasonality of disease transmission could be extended throughout 12 months of the year in 7 (6%) locations with at least a 3{degrees}C rise in temperature and in 29 (25%) locations with a 5{degrees}C rise. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Biogenic isoprene emissions driven by regional weather predictions using different initialization methods: case studies during the SEAC4RS and DISCOVER-AQ airborne campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Land and atmospheric initial conditions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model are often interpolated from a different model output. We perform case studies during NASA's SEAC4RS and DISCOVER-AQ Houston airborne campaigns, demonstrating that using land initial conditions directly downscaled from a coarser resolution dataset led to significant positive biases in the coupled NASA-Unified WRF (NUWRF, version 7 surface and near-surface air temperature and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH around the Missouri Ozarks and Houston, Texas, as well as poorly partitioned latent and sensible heat fluxes. Replacing land initial conditions with the output from a long-term offline Land Information System (LIS simulation can effectively reduce the positive biases in NUWRF surface air temperature by ∼ 2 °C. We also show that the LIS land initialization can modify surface air temperature errors almost 10 times as effectively as applying a different atmospheric initialization method. The LIS-NUWRF-based isoprene emission calculations by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN, version 2.1 are at least 20 % lower than those computed using the coarser resolution data-initialized NUWRF run, and are closer to aircraft-observation-derived emissions. Higher resolution MEGAN calculations are prone to amplified discrepancies with aircraft-observation-derived emissions on small scales. This is possibly a result of some limitations of MEGAN's parameterization and uncertainty in its inputs on small scales, as well as the representation error and the neglect of horizontal transport in deriving emissions from aircraft data. This study emphasizes the importance of proper land initialization to the coupled atmospheric weather modeling and the follow-on emission modeling. We anticipate it to also be critical to accurately representing other processes included in air quality modeling and chemical data assimilation. Having more

  3. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  4. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  5. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety.

  6. Geographic Place Names, GNIS data for Atkinson, Bacon, Ben Hill, Berrien, Brantley, Brooks, Charlton, Clinch, Coffee, Cook, Echols, Irwin, Lanier, Lowndes, Pierce, Tift, Turner, Ware counties., Published in 1999, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Geographic Place Names dataset current as of 1999. GNIS data for Atkinson, Bacon, Ben Hill, Berrien, Brantley, Brooks, Charlton, Clinch, Coffee, Cook, Echols, Irwin,...

  7. Geographic Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  8. Spatio-Temporal Description of the Rainfall for Colombian Andean Mountainous Region for Weather Forecasting Purposes. Case Study: Manizales - Caldas, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez Hincapie, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Manizales is a city located in west-central Colombian Andes in the Caldas province, whose spatial location coincides with one of the most threatened areas of Colombia (landslides, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, other). As a middle Andean mountainous city and for being located in the area of influence of the ITCZ presents an equatorial mountain climate with a bimodal rainfall regime, and with an average annual rainfall around 2000 mm, it shows very significant rates of precipitation, on average, 70% of the days of the year it is rainy. This situation favors the formation of large masses of clouds and the presence of macroclimatic phenomena such as ENSO, which has historically caused large-scale impacts in both warm and cold phase. Since last decade different entities have implemented a hydro-meteorological network which measures and transmits telemetrically every five minutes hydro-climatic variables. In general, the real-time weather monitoring should be used for a better understanding of our environmental urban environment and to establish indicators of quality of life and welfare for the community. Despite the city has telemetric data on atmospheric and hydrological variables, there is still no tool or a methodology able to generate a spatio-temporal description of these variables. So, the aim of this work is to establish guidelines to sort all this information of atmospheric variables monitored in real time with the help of data mining techniques, machine learning tools to improve the knowledge of atmospheric patterns at Manizales and to serve for territorial planning and decision makers. To reach this purpose the current data warehouse available at the National University of Colombia at Manizales will be used, and it will be fed with observed variables from hydro-meteorological monitoring stations that transmit in real-time. Then, as mentioned this information will make the corresponding processing with data mining techniques to describe the rainfall patterns

  9. Importance of geographic origin for invasion success: A case study of the North and Baltic Seas versus the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casties, Isabel; Seebens, Hanno; Briski, Elizabeta

    2016-11-01

    Recently, several studies indicated that species from the Ponto-Caspian region may be evolutionarily predisposed to become nonindigenous species (NIS); however, origin of NIS established in different regions has rarely been compared to confirm these statements. More importantly, if species from certain area/s are proven to be better colonizers, management strategies to control transport vectors coming from those areas must be more stringent, as prevention of new introductions is a cheaper and more effective strategy than eradication or control of established NIS populations. To determine whether species evolved in certain areas have inherent advantages over other species in colonizing new habitats, we explored NIS established in the North and Baltic Seas and Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River regions-two areas intensively studied in concern to NIS, highly invaded by Ponto-Caspian species and with different salinity patterns (marine vs. freshwater). We compared observed numbers of NIS in these two regions to expected numbers of NIS from major donor regions. The expected numbers were calculated based on the available species pool from donor regions, frequency of shipping transit, and an environmental match between donor and recipient regions. A total of 281 NIS established in the North and Baltic Seas and 188 in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River. Ponto-Caspian taxa colonized both types of habitats, saltwater areas of the North and Baltic Seas and freshwater of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River, in much higher numbers than expected. Propagule pressure (i.e., number of introduced individuals or introduction effort) is of great importance for establishment success of NIS; however in our study, either shipping vector or environmental match between regions did not clarify the high numbers of Ponto-Caspian taxa in our study areas. Although we cannot exclude the influence of other transport vectors, our findings suggest that the origin of the species plays an important role

  10. Helicobacter pylori vacA s1a and s1b alleles from clinical isolates from different regions of Chile show a distinct geographic distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MI Díaz; A Kirberg; E Hebel; J Fierro; R Bravo; F Siegel; G Leon; G Klapp; A Venegas; A Valdivia; P Martínez; JL Palacios; P Harris; J Novales; E Garrido; D Valderrama; C Shilling

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish the most common vacA alleles in Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) strains isolated from Chilean patients and its relationship with gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcers.METHODS: Two hundred and forty five H pylori clinical isolates were obtained from 79 biopsies from Chilean infected patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases. An average of 2-3 strains per patient was isolated and the vacA genotype was analyzed by PCR and 3% agarose electrophoresis. Some genotypes were checked by DNA sequencing.RESULTS: The most prevalent vacA genotype inChilean patients was s1b m1 (76%), followed by s1a m1 (21%). In contrast, the s2 m2 genotype was scarcely represented (3%).The s1b m1 genotype was found most frequently linked to gastropathies (P<0.05) rather than ulcers. Ulcers were found more commonly in male and older patients. Curiously, patients living in cities located North and far South of Santiago, the capital and largest Chilean city, carried almost exclusively strains with the s1b m1 genotype. In contrast, patients from Santiago and cities located South of Santiago carried strains with either one or both s1a m1 and s1b m1 genotypes.Regarding the s2 m2 genotype, comparison with GenBank sequences revealed that Chilean s2 sequence was identical to those of Australian, American, and Colombian strains but quite different from those of Alaska and India.CONCLUSION: Differences in geographic distribution of the s and m vaccA alleles in Chile and a relationship of s1b m1 genotype with gastritis were found. Sequence data in part support a hispanic origin for the vacA genotype.Asymmetric distribution of genotypes s1b m1 and s2 m2recedes H Pyloristrain distribution in Spain and Portugal.

  11. Benign Weather Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    operational interest in modifying weather to support combat operations increased, ultimately leading to a multi-service effort called PROJECT POPEYE . The goal...This, coupled with the revelations concerning weather modification use in the Vietnam War (PROJECT POPEYE ), was a double blow to weather modification...AWS-TR-74-247, June 1984. Cobb, James T., Jr., et. al. Project Popeye : Final Report. China Lake, CA: Naval Weapons Center, 1967. Langmuir, Irving

  12. Is Weather Chaotic?

    CERN Document Server

    Raidl, A

    1998-01-01

    The correlation dimension and K2-entropy are estimated from meteorological time- series. The results lead us to claim that seasonal variability of weather is under influence of low dimensional dynamics, whereas changes of weather from day to day are governed by high dimensional system(s). Error-doubling time of this system is less than 3 days. We suggest that the outstanding feature of the weather dynamics is deterministic chaos.

  13. Space Weather Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  14. Space Weather Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Space Weather Analysis archives are model output of ionospheric, thermospheric and magnetospheric particle populations, energies and electrodynamics

  15. From Early Exploration to Space Weather Forecasts: Canada's Geomagnetic Odyssey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hing-Lan

    2011-05-01

    Canada is a region ideally suited for the study of space weather: The north magnetic pole is encompassed within its territory, and the auroral oval traverses its vast landmass from east to west. Magnetic field lines link the country directly to the outer magnetosphere. In light of this geographic suitability, it has been a Canadian tradition to install ground monitors to remotely sense the space above Canadian territory. The beginning of this tradition dates back to 1840, when Edward Sabine, a key figure in the “magnetic crusade” to establish magnetic observatories throughout the British Empire in the nineteenth century, founded the first Canadian magnetic observatory on what is now the campus of the University of Toronto, 27 years before the birth of Canada. This observatory, which later became the Toronto Magnetic and Meteorological Observatory, marked the beginning of the Canadian heritage of installing magnetic stations and other ground instruments in the years to come. This extensive network of ground-based measurement devices, coupled with space-based measurements in more modern times, has enabled Canadian researchers to contribute significantly to studies related to space weather.

  16. Powernext weather, benchmark indices for effective weather risk management; Powernext Weather, des indices de reference pour gerer le risque meteo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the Powernext/Meteo France partnership for the elaboration of efficient weather-related risk management indices. (J.S.)

  17. High genetic diversity in the coat protein and 3' untranslated regions among geographical isolates of Cardamom mosaic virus from south India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Jacob; T Jebasingh; M N Venugopal; R Usha

    2003-09-01

    A survey was conducted to study the biological and genetic diversity of Cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV) that causes the most widespread disease in the cardamom growing area in the Western Ghats of south India. Six distinct subgroups were derived based on their symptomatology and host range from the sixty isolates collected. The serological variability between the virus isolates was analysed by ELISA and Western blotting. The 3′ terminal region consisting of the coat protein (CP) coding sequence and 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) was cloned and sequenced from seven isolates. Sequence comparisons revealed considerable genetic diversity among the isolates in their CP and 3′UTR, making CdMV one of the highly variable members of Potyviridae. The possible occurrence of recombination between the isolates and the movement of the virus in the cardamom tract of south India are discussed.

  18. Weather and emotional state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions

  19. Cytotoxicity and secondary metabolites production in terrestrial Nostoc strains, originating from different climatic/geographic regions and habitats: is their cytotoxicity environmentally dependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrouzek, Pavel; Tomek, Petr; Lukešová, Alena; Urban, Jan; Voloshko, Ludmila; Pushparaj, Benjamin; Ventura, Stefano; Lukavský, Jaromír; Stys, Dalibor; Kopecký, Jiří

    2011-08-01

    Extensive selection of cyanobacterial strains (82 isolates) belonging to the genus Nostoc, isolated from different climatic regions and habitats, were screened for both their secondary metabolite content and their cytotoxic effects to mammalian cell lines. The overall occurrence of cytotoxicity was found to be 33%, which corresponds with previously published data. However, the frequency differs significantly among strains, which originate from different climatic regions and microsites (particular localities). A large fraction of intensely cytotoxic strains were found among symbiotic strains (60%) and temperate and continental climatic isolates (45%); compared with the less significant incidences in strains originating from cold regions (36%), deserts (14%), and tropical habitats (9%). The cytotoxic strains were not randomly distributed; microsites that clearly had a higher occurrence of cytotoxicity were observed. Apparently, certain natural conditions lead to the selection of cytotoxic strains, resulting in a high cytotoxicity occurrence, and vice versa. Moreover, in strains isolated from a particular microsite, the cytotoxic effects were caused by different compounds. This result supports our hypothesis for the environmental dependence of cytotoxicity. It also contradicts the hypothesis that clonality and lateral gene transfer could be the reason for this phenomenon. Enormous variability in the secondary metabolites was detected within the studied Nostoc extracts. According to their molecular masses, only 26% of these corresponded to any known structures; thus, pointing to the high potential for the use of many terrestrial cyanobacteria in both pharmacology and biotechnology. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Niche breadth and geographical range: ecological compensation for geographical rarity in rainforest frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Yvette M; Williams, Stephen E.; Ross A Alford; Waycott, Michelle; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between diet specialization and geographical range in Cophixalus, a genus of microhylid frogs from the Wet Tropics of northern Queensland, Australia. The geographical ranges of these species vary from a few square kilometres in species restricted to a single mountain top to the entire region for the widespread species. Although macroecological theory predicts that species with broad niches should have the largest geographical ranges, we found the opposite: geo...

  1. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  2. Net regional ecosystem CO2 exchange from airborne and ground-based eddy covariance, land-use maps and weather observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miglietta, F.; Gioli, B.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Reichstein, M.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of regional net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were made over a period of 21 days in summer 2002 in the South-Central part of the Netherlands and extrapolated to an area of 13 000 km2 using a combination of flux measurements made by a Sky Arrow ERA research aircraft, half-hourly eddy

  3. Evaporation and weather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, H.A.R. de; Feddes, R.A.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Lablans, W.N.; Schuurmans, C.J.E.; Shuttleworth, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Data on evaporation to be used in agriculture, hydrology, forestry, etc. are usually supplied by meteorologists. Meteorologists themselves also use evaporation data. Air mass properties determining weather are strongly dependent on the input of water vapour from the surface. So for weather

  4. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  5. Evaporation and weather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, H.A.R. de; Feddes, R.A.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Lablans, W.N.; Schuurmans, C.J.E.; Shuttleworth, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Data on evaporation to be used in agriculture, hydrology, forestry, etc. are usually supplied by meteorologists. Meteorologists themselves also use evaporation data. Air mass properties determining weather are strongly dependent on the input of water vapour from the surface. So for weather predictio

  6. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore......, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces speed and capacity by around 5-8%, whereas snow primarily reduces capacity. Other weather variables......-parametrically against traffic density and in step 2 the residuals from step 1 are regressed linearly against the weather variables. The choice of a non-parametric method is made to avoid constricting ties from a parametric specification and because the focus here is not on the relationship between traffic flow...

  7. Impact Analysis of Climate Change on Snow over a Complex Mountainous Region Using Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF Simulation and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Data (MODIS-Terra Fractional Snow Cover Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoduo Pan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has a complex effect on snow at the regional scale. The change in snow patterns under climate change remains unknown for certain regions. Here, we used high spatiotemporal resolution snow-related variables simulated by a weather research and forecast model (WRF including snowfall, snow water equivalent and snow depth along with fractional snow cover (FSC data extracted from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Data (MODIS-Terra to evaluate the effects of climate change on snow over the Heihe River Basin (HRB, a typical inland river basin in arid northwestern China from 2000 to 2013. We utilized Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF analysis and Mann-Kendall/Theil-Sen trend analysis to evaluate the results. The results are as follows: (1 FSC, snow water equivalent, and snow depth across the entire HRB region decreased, especially at elevations over 4500 m; however, snowfall increased at mid-altitude ranges in the upstream area of the HRB. (2 Total snowfall also increased in the upstream area of the HRB; however, the number of snowfall days decreased. Therefore, the number of extreme snow events in the upstream area of the HRB may have increased. (3 Snowfall over the downstream area of the HRB decreased. Thus, ground stations, WRF simulations and remote sensing products can be used to effectively explore the effect of climate change on snow at the watershed scale.

  8. A Method of Weather Threat Level Modeling and Assessment for UAVs Mountainous Region%山地条件下的无人机气象威胁度建模与评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 周树道; 叶松; 朱国涛; 程龙

    2012-01-01

    In view of the complicated and changeable weather threat when the UAV flying in mountainous region, we proposed an algorithm for mountainous region meteorology threat level modeling and assessment. A Bayesian Network model was constructed combining with the expert knowledge and EM algorithm, and the Polytree Propagation was used for mountainous region meteorology threat level evaluation. Simulation results showed that the algorithm can correctly rank the mountainous meteorology threat level to UAV, which is important for intelligent decision-making of the UAV.%针对无人机在山地条件下飞行时气象威胁因素复杂多变,提出一种基于贝叶斯网络的山地气象威胁度建模与评估方法.结合专家知识与EM算法构建贝叶斯网络模型,利用多树传播推理算法对山地气象要素进行威胁等级评估.评估结果表明,基于贝叶斯网络的气象威胁度评估能够正确直观地划分山地气象要素对无人机的威胁等级,对无人机智能决策具有重要意义.

  9. Weather in Mountainous Terrain (Overcoming Scientific Barriers to Weather Support)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Weather in Mountainous Terrain (Overcoming Scientific Barriers to Weather Support) Fiesta Resort & Conference Center Tempe, AZ February 1...Meteorology Overcoming Scientific Barriers to Weather Support Fiesta Resort & Conference Center Tempe, AZ February 1 & 2, 2010 Hosted by University

  10. Geographical distribution and age composition of Euphausia superba larvae (Crustacea:Euphausiacea) in the South Shetland Islands region and southern Scotia Sea in relation to environmental conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qian; XU Zhaoli; HUANG Hongliang; CHEN Xuezhong; FENG Chunlei; LI Lingzhi

    2013-01-01

    Spatial distribution patterns of the different life stages of Euphausia superba in the region of the South Shet-land Islands and southern Scotia Sea (Antarctica) were assessed based on scientific survey data collected in January and February of 2010. Adults, eggs, nauplii, metanauplii, calyptopis I-III, and furcilia I-II were found in the investigation. The abundance of larvae averaged 1 172.8 ind./m2, with calyptopis I and II as the dominant stages. Habitat occupancy patterns varied among Euphausia superba at different stages, and three sub-regions were identified by cluster analysis. The degree of larval development increased from west to east. Larvae were not observed north of the South Shetland Islands. Calyptopis I was predominant in the water between Elephant Island and the South Orkney Islands, which featured no thermocline. Older stages, including calyptopis II and III and furcilia I and II, were common in north and northeast of the South Orkney Islands, which were characterized by high temperature and high chlorophyll concentration. Distri-bution and abundance of the early life stages of E. superba were associated with specific environmental con-ditions. According to Biota-Environment matching (BIOENV ), the distributions of E. superba larvae were correlated with a combination of temperature at the surface and 200 m, and 0-100 m integrated chlorophyll a concentration.

  11. 中国城市住房价格的地理扩散及其区域外部性问题%Geographical Spread of Urban House Price in China and Its Regional Externality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方晓萍; 丁四保

    2012-01-01

    Based on the panel data of House Sales Price index of 35 cities in China from 1998 to 2009 monitored by the National Development and Reform Commission,the unit root and Granger causality test shows that there is transmission of the house price fluctuations among the major cities in China.It shows that: ① the transmission is Geo-directional in the horizontal transmission;② the transmission has a "4-4-9-9-9" hierarchy structure in vertical direction.The research suggests that the fluctuation of urban house prices in China is a process of geographical spread and it has a feature of neighborhood diffusion and hierarchical diffusion coexisting,which is consistent with research on foreign relevant literature.The article supports that geographical spread of house price is "the geographical spread of development".It has a nature of regional externality and can reveal the process and pattern of regional externality spread from one side.%通过对1998-2009年年间、国家发改委所监测的国内35个大中城市房屋销售价格指数面板数据,进行单位根和Granger因果检验,表明中国城市居民的住房价格在经济地位最重要的城市之间存在波动的传递。表现出:一,在传递的水平方向上具有地理方向性;二,在传递的垂直方向上具有"4-4-9-9-9"的层级结构性。研究认为中国城市房价的波动是一个地理扩散过程,并且具有邻里扩散与等级扩散相并存的特征。这与国外相关文献的研究成果基本一致。房价的地理扩散属于"发展的地理扩散",具有区域外部性的性质,可以从一个侧面揭示区域外部性传递的过程和形成的格局。

  12. Assessing Geographic Information Enhancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loenen, B.; Zevenbergen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of geographic information infrastructures (or spatial data infrastructures) is increasingly attracting the attention of researchers in the Geographic information (GI) domain. Especially the assessment of value added GI appears to be complex. By applying the concept of value chain analysis

  13. Environmental geographic information system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W; Helfrich, Donald Alan; Gorman, Susan

    2010-08-01

    This document describes how the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) was used, along with externally received data, to create maps for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) Source Document project. Data quality among the various classes of geographic information system (GIS) data is addressed. A complete listing of map layers used is provided.

  14. Atmospheric Visual and Infrared Transmission Deduced from Surface Weather Observations: Weather and Warplanes. V1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    require stadistically valid predictions of PGM utility as a function of weather conditions in different potential theaters of combat at different times of...resource in making statisti- cally valid predictions of weapon performance (including diurnal, sea- sonal, and geographic variability). The model of...dewpoint range IO°F- 700F. -1 -16- be valid at 296 0K (73*F). They further suggest a strong temperature dependence of yc. (These corrections have been

  15. The Potential for Observing African Weather with GNSS Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan A. Isioye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When compared to the wide range of atmospheric sensing techniques, global navigation satellite system (GNSS offers the advantage of operating under all weather conditions, is continuous, with high temporal and spatial resolution and high accuracy, and has long-term stability. The utilisation of GNSS ground networks of continuous stations for operational weather and climate services is already in place in many nations in Europe, Asia, and America under different initiatives and organisations. In Africa, the situation appears to be different. The focus of this paper is to assess the conditions of the existing and anticipated GNSS reference network in the African region for meteorological applications. The technical issues related to the implementation of near-real-time (NRT GNSS meteorology are also discussed, including the data and network requirements for meteorological and climate applications. We conclude from this study that the African GNSS network is sparse in the north and central regions of the continent, with a dense network in the south and fairly dense network in the west and east regions of the continent. Most stations lack collocated meteorological sensors and other geodetic observing systems as called for by the GCOS Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN GNSS Precipitable Water Task Team and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO. Preliminary results of calculated zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD from the African GNSS indicate spatial variability and diurnal dependence of ZTD. To improve the density and geometry of the existing network, countries are urged to contribute more stations to the African Geodetic Reference Frame (AFREF program and a collaborative scheme between different organisations maintaining different GNSS stations on the continent is recommended. The benefit of using spaced based GNSS radio occultation (RO data for atmospheric sounding is highlighted and filling of geographical gaps from the station-based observation

  16. Element concentrations in the flesh and osteoderms of estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Australia: biotic and geographic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffree, R A; Markich, S J; Twining, J R

    2001-02-01

    The concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Co, Se, U, and Ti were determined in the flesh and osteoderms of estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) captured in three adjacent catchments of Kakadu National Park, within the Alligator Rivers Region of northern Australia. This study provides, for the first-time, baseline concentrations of elements in both flesh and osteoderms of wild crocodiles. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine the effects of total crocodile length, estimated age, gender, inferred reproductive status, physical condition, and catchment of capture on element concentrations in both tissues. The Mg concentration (log10) in the flesh and osteoderms of C. porosus significantly (p 0.05) effects of gender or inferred reproductive status on element concentrations in the flesh and osteoderms were found. The mean concentrations (log10) of Al, Ba, Cr, Ni, and Pb in flesh and Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, and U in the osteoderms were significantly (p crocodiles. They also point to the utility of crocodiles as long-term biomonitors of their environment.

  17. Essential Oils Extracted Using Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation from Aerial Parts of Eleven Artemisia Species: Chemical Compositions and Diversities in Different Geographical Regions of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mohammadhosseini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the chemical compositions of essential oils (EOs extracted through microwave-assisted hydrodistillation from aerial parts of 11 Artemisia species growing wild in different regions in Northern, Eastern, Western, and Central parts of Iran. The EOs were subsequently analyzed via GC and GC-MS. The percentage yields of the EOs varied over the range of 0.21-0.50 (w/w%. On the basis of these characterizations and spectral assignments, natural compounds including camphor, 1,8-cineole, camphene, α-pinene, β-pinene, β-thujone, and sabinene were the most abundant and frequent constituents among all studied chemical profiles. Accordingly, oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and non-terpene hydrocarbons were the dominant groups of natural compounds in the chemical profiles of 13, 4, and 2 samples, respectively. Moreover, five chemotypes were identified using statistical analyses: camphene, α-pinene and β-pinene; 1,8-cineole; camphore and 1,8-cineole; camphore and camphore and β-thujone.

  18. Assessment of the susceptibility of roads to flooding based on geographical information - test in a flash flood prone area (the Gard region, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, P.-A.; Gaume, E.; Andrieu, H.

    2010-04-01

    In flash flood prone areas, roads are often the first assets affected by inundations which make rescue operations difficult and represent a major threat to lives: almost half of the victims are car passengers trapped by floods. In the past years, the Gard region (France) road management services have realized an extensive inventory of the known road submersions that occurred during the last 40 years. This inventory provided an unique opportunity to analyse the causes of road flooding in an area frequently affected by severe flash floods. It will be used to develop a road submersion susceptibility rating method, representing the first element of a road warning system. This paper presents the results of the analysis of this data set. A companion paper will show how the proposed road susceptibility rating method can be combined with distributed rainfall-runoff simulations to provide accurate road submersion risk maps. The very low correlation between the various possible explanatory factors and the susceptibility to flooding measured by the number of past observed submersions implied the use of particular statistical analysis methods based on the general principals of the discriminant analysis. The analysis led to the definition of four susceptibility classes for river crossing road sections. Validation tests confirmed that this classification is robust, at least in the considered area. One major outcome of the analysis is that the susceptibility to flooding is rather linked to the location of the road sections than to the size of the river crossing structure (bridge or culvert).

  19. Geographic polymorphism of P element in populations of Drosophila sturtevanti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane M. de Almeida

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this report was to detect full-sized P element sequences in eight strains of Drosophila sturtevanti populations from distant geographic regions and to assess the structural geographic variation among P element sequences. PCR analysis confirmed the presence of a putative complete P element in all strains. Southern blot analysis indicated bands shared by all strains, and bands restricted to geographically related strains. Parsimony analysis corroborated the hybridization pattern that reflected the geographic relationships.

  20. Estimating the geographic range of a threatened shark in a data-poor region:Cetorhinus maximus in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luis O LUCIFORA; Santiago A BARBINI; Edgardo E DI GICOMO; Juan A WAESSLE; Daniel E FIGUEROA

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of the planktivorous basking sharkCetorhinus maximus is influenced by zooplankton abundance at small scales and temperature at medium scales in the North Atlantic. Here, we estimate the distribution of basking sharks on South Atlantic continental shelves, and the relative importance of chlorophyll concentration, as a proxy for zooplankton abun-dance, and temperature in determining habitat suitability for basking sharks at large scales. We used maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and maximum likelihood (MaxLike) species distribution modelling to test three hypotheses: the distribution of basking sharks is determined by (1) temperature, (2) chlorophyll concentration, or (3) both chlorophyll and temperature, while considering other factors, such as oxygen and salinity. Off South America, basking shark habitat included subtropical, temperate and cool-temperate waters between approximately 20°S and 55°S. Off Africa, basking shark habitat was limited to cool-temperate waters off Nami-bia and southern South Africa. MaxLike models had a better fit than MaxEnt models. The best model included minimum chloro-phyll concentration, dissolved oxygen concentration, and sea surface temperature range, supporting hypothesis 3. However, of all variables included in the best model, minimum chlorophyll concentration had the highest influence on basking shark distribution. Unlike the North Atlantic distribution, the South Atlantic distribution of basking sharks includes subtropical and cool-temperate waters. This difference is explained by high minimum chlorophyll concentration off southern Brazil as compared to North Atlan-tic subtropical areas. Observations in other regions of the world support this conclusion. The highest habitat suitability for bask-ing sharks is located close to nearshore areas that experience high anthropogenic impact [Current Zoology 61 (5): 811–826, 2015].

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi I genotypes in different geographical regions and transmission cycles based on a microsatellite motif of the intergenic spacer of spliced-leader genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cura, Carolina I; Mejía-Jaramillo, Ana M; Duffy, Tomás; Burgos, Juan M; Rodriguero, Marcela; Cardinal, Marta V; Kjos, Sonia; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Blanchet, Denis; De Pablos, Luis M; Tomasini, Nicolás; da Silva, Alexandre; Russomando, Graciela; Cuba, Cesar A Cuba; Aznar, Christine; Abate, Teresa; Levin, Mariano J; Osuna, Antonio; Gürtler, Ricardo E; Diosque, Patricio; Solari, Aldo; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Schijman, Alejandro G

    2010-12-01

    The intergenic region of spliced-leader (SL-IR) genes from 105 Trypanosoma cruzi I (Tc I) infected biological samples, culture isolates and stocks from 11 endemic countries, from Argentina to the USA were characterised, allowing identification of 76 genotypes with 54 polymorphic sites from 123 aligned sequences. On the basis of the microsatellite motif proposed by Herrera et al. (2007) to define four haplotypes in Colombia, we could classify these genotypes into four distinct Tc I SL-IR groups, three corresponding to the former haplotypes Ia (11 genotypes), Ib (11 genotypes) and Id (35 genotypes); and one novel group, Ie (19 genotypes). Genotypes harbouring the Tc Ic motif were not detected in our study. Tc Ia was associated with domestic cycles in southern and northern South America and sylvatic cycles in Central and North America. Tc Ib was found in all transmission cycles from Colombia. Tc Id was identified in all transmission cycles from Argentina and Colombia, including Chagas cardiomyopathy patients, sylvatic Brazilian samples and human cases from French Guiana, Panama and Venezuela. Tc Ie gathered five samples from domestic Triatoma infestans from northern Argentina, nine samples from wild Mepraia spinolai and Mepraia gajardoi and two chagasic patients from Chile and one from a Bolivian patient with chagasic reactivation. Mixed infections by Tc Ia+Tc Id, Tc Ia+Tc Ie and Tc Id+Tc Ie were detected in vector faeces and isolates from human and vector samples. In addition, Tc Ia and Tc Id were identified in different tissues from a heart transplanted Chagas cardiomyopathy patient with reactivation, denoting histotropism. Trypanosoma cruzi I SL-IR genotypes from parasites infecting Triatoma gerstaeckeri and Didelphis virginiana from USA, T. infestans from Paraguay, Rhodnius nasutus and Rhodnius neglectus from Brazil and M. spinolai and M. gajardoi from Chile are to our knowledge described for the first time.

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi I genotypes in different geographic regions and transmission cycles based on a microsatellite motif of the intergenic spacer of spliced leader genes✯

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cura, Carolina I.; Mejía-Jaramillo, Ana M.; Duffy, Tomás; Burgos, Juan M.; Rodriguero, Marcela; Cardinal, Marta V.; Kjos, Sonia; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Blanchet, Denis; De Pablos, Luis M.; Tomasini, Nicolás; Silva, Alex Da; Russomando, Graciela; Cuba Cuba, Cesar A.; Aznar, Christine; Abate, Teresa; Levin, Mariano J.; Osuna, Antonio; Gürtler, Ricardo E.; Diosque, Patricio; Solari, Aldo; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Schijman, Alejandro G.

    2011-01-01

    The intergenic region of spliced-leader (SL-IR) genes from 105 Trypanosoma cruzi I (Tc I) infected biological samples, culture isolates and stocks from 11 endemic countries, from Argentina to the USA were characterised, allowing identification of 76 genotypes with 54 polymorphic sites from 123 aligned sequences. On the basis of the microsatellite motif proposed by Herrera et al. (2007) to define four haplotypes in Colombia, we could classify these genotypes into four distinct Tc I SL-IR groups, three corresponding to the former haplotypes Ia (11 genotypes), Ib (11 genotypes) and Id (35 genotypes); and one novel group, Ie (19 genotypes). Genotypes harboring the Tc Ic motif were not detected in our study. Tc Ia was associated with domestic cycles in southern and northern South America and sylvatic cycles in Central and North America. Tc Ib was found in all transmission cycles from Colombia. Tc Id was identified in all transmission cycles from Argentina and Colombia, including Chagas cardiomyopathy patients, sylvatic Brazilian samples and human cases from French Guiana, Panama and Venezuela. Tc Ie gathered five samples from domestic Triatoma infestans from northern Argentina, nine samples from wild Mepraia spinolai and Mepraia gajardoi and two chagasic patients from Chile and one from a Bolivian patient with chagasic reactivation. Mixed infections by Tc Ia + Tc Id, Tc Ia + Tc Ie and Tc Id + Tc Ie were detected in vector faeces and isolates from human and vector samples. In addition, Tc Ia and Tc Id were identified in different tissues from a heart transplanted Chagas cardiomyopathy patient with reactivation, denoting histotropism. Trypanosoma cruzi I SL-IR genotypes from parasites infecting Triatoma gerstaeckeri and Didelphis virginiana from USA, T. infestans from Paraguay, Rhodnius nasutus and Rhodnius neglectus from Brazil and M. spinolai and M. gajardoi from Chile are to our knowledge described for the first time. PMID:20670628

  3. Assessment of the susceptibility of roads to flooding based on geographical information – test in a flash flood prone area (the Gard region, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-A. Versini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In flash flood prone areas, roads are often the first assets affected by inundations which make rescue operations difficult and represent a major threat to lives: almost half of the victims are car passengers trapped by floods. In the past years, the Gard region (France road management services have realized an extensive inventory of the known road submersions that occurred during the last 40 years. This inventory provided an unique opportunity to analyse the causes of road flooding in an area frequently affected by severe flash floods. It will be used to develop a road submersion susceptibility rating method, representing the first element of a road warning system.

    This paper presents the results of the analysis of this data set. A companion paper will show how the proposed road susceptibility rating method can be combined with distributed rainfall-runoff simulations to provide accurate road submersion risk maps.

    The very low correlation between the various possible explanatory factors and the susceptibility to flooding measured by the number of past observed submersions implied the use of particular statistical analysis methods based on the general principals of the discriminant analysis.

    The analysis led to the definition of four susceptibility classes for river crossing road sections. Validation tests confirmed that this classification is robust, at least in the considered area. One major outcome of the analysis is that the susceptibility to flooding is rather linked to the location of the road sections than to the size of the river crossing structure (bridge or culvert.

  4. Hydrochemistry of inland rivers in the north Tibetan Plateau: Constraints and weathering rate estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weihua

    2016-01-15

    The geographic region around the northern and northeastern Tibetan Plateau is the source of several inland rivers (e.g. Tarim River) of worldwide importance that are generated in the surrounding mountains systems of Tianshan, Pamir, Karakorum, and Qilian. To characterize chemical weathering and atmospheric CO2 consumption in these regions, water samples from the Tarim, Yili, Heihe, Shule, and Shiyang Rivers were collected and analyzed for major ion concentrations. The hydrochemical characteristics of these inland rivers pronouncedly distinguish them from large exorheic rivers (e.g., the Yangtze River and the Yellow River), as reflected in very high total dissolution solids (TDS) values. TDS was 115-4345 mg l(-1) with an average of 732 mg l(-1), which is an order of magnitude higher than the mean value for world rivers (65 mg l(-1)). The Cheerchen River, Niya River, Keliya River and the terminal lakes of the Tarim River and the Heihe River have TDS values higher than 1 gl(-1), indicating saline water that cannot be directly consumed. Therefore, the problem of sufficient and safe drinking water has become increasingly prominent in the northwestern China arid zone. According to an inversion model, the contribution from evaporite dissolution to the dissolved loads in these rivers is 12.5%-99% with an average of 54%. The calculated silicate and carbonate weathering rates are 0.02-4.62 t km(-2)y(-1) and 0.01-11.7 t km(-2)y(-1) for these rivers. To reduce the influence of lithology, only the silicate weathering rates in different parts of the Tibetan Plateau are compared. A rough variation tendency can be seen in the rates: northern regional (0.15-1.73 t km(-2)y(-1))runoff, however, seems to have a positive correlation with silicate weathering rates.

  5. Positive lightning and severe weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C.; Murphy, B.

    2003-04-01

    In recent years researchers have noticed that severe weather (tornados, hail and damaging winds) are closely related to the amount of positive lightning occurring in thunderstorms. On 4 July 1999, a severe derecho (wind storm) caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators for short-term forecasts of severe weather.

  6. Progress and Prospects of Geographical Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Du

    2001-01-01

    Contemporary geography includes physical geography, human geography and geographical information science. Advanced trends in geographical research are characterized by the following aspects:intersection and infiltration with various disciplines, the strengthening of integrated studies within geography, the deepening of micro-scale studies of geographical processes, the broadening of applied research fields, experimental geography and the introduction of new techniques and the transformation of theoretical concepts. In order to promote the development of earth system science and to coordinate the man-land relationship, geographers may make contributions in aspects such as the process and pattern of the terrestrial surface, global change and its regional response, natural resources security and eco-reconstruction, sustainable regional development, mechanism of the man-land relationship and its coordination, geo-information science and technology, digital earth research.

  7. Oil Rig Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather observations taken at offshore platforms along the United States coastlines. The majority are located in oil-rich areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of...

  8. Uruguay - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface weather observation forms for 26 stations in Uruguay. Period of record 1896-2005, with two to eight observations per day. Files created through a...

  9. Cape Kennedy Weather Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from original weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida. Elements recorded are wind speed and direction,...

  10. Monthly Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Weather Observation 1001 Forms is a set of historical manuscript records for the period 1893-1948. The collection includes two very similar form types: Form...

  11. Daily Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  12. Space Weather Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of space weather datasets from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and from the World Data Service for Geophysics,...

  13. MULTIMEDIA ON GEOGRAPHIC NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Merlanti, Danilo

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the topic of the multimedia contents distribution on a geo- graphic network which is a rarefied and huge field. First of all we have to classify the main parts necessary in the multimedia distribution on a geographic network. The main aspects of a geographic network that will be highlighted in this thesis are: the mechanism used to retrieve the sources of the multimedia content; in the case of the peer-to-peer network on geographic network one of t...

  14. The political economy of geographical indications

    OpenAIRE

    Deconinck, Koen; Swinnen, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing importance of geographical indications (GI), relatively little attention has been devoted to studying the optimal size of a GI region, as well as how lobbying by interest groups may affect the actual size. We develop a political economy model of the size of geographical indications, taking into account possible effects on perceived quality as well as on cost sharing among producers. We show that the political process may result in a GI area that is smaller or larger than t...

  15. Isolation of Microsporum gypseum in soil samples from different geographical regions of brazil, evaluation of the extracellular proteolytic enzymes activities (keratinase and elastase) and molecular sequencing of selected strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudice, Mauro Cintra; Reis-Menezes, Adriana Araújo; Rittner, Glauce Mary Gomes; Mota, Adolfo José; Gambale, Walderez

    2012-01-01

    A survey of Microsporum gypseum was conducted in soil samples in different geographical regions of Brazil. The isolation of dermatophyte from soil samples was performed by hair baiting technique and the species were identified by morphology studies. We analyzed 692 soil samples and the recuperating rate was 19.2%. The activities of keratinase and elastase were quantitatively performed in 138 samples. The sequencing of the ITS region of rDNA was performed in representatives samples. M. gypseum isolates showed significant quantitative differences in the expression of both keratinase and elastase, but no significant correlation was observed between these enzymes. The sequencing of the representative samples revealed the presence of two teleomorphic species of M. gypseum (Arthroderma gypseum and A. incurvatum). The enzymatic activities may play an important role in the pathogenicity and a probable adaptation of this fungus to the animal parasitism. Using the phenotypical and molecular analysis, the Microsporum identification and their teleomorphic states will provide a useful and reliable identification system. PMID:24031904

  16. Genetically optimizing weather predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S. B.; Staats, Kai; Romero-Colmenero, Encarni

    2016-07-01

    humidity, air pressure, wind speed and wind direction) into a database. Built upon this database, we have developed a remarkably simple approach to derive a functional weather predictor. The aim is provide up to the minute local weather predictions in order to e.g. prepare dome environment conditions ready for night time operations or plan, prioritize and update weather dependent observing queues. In order to predict the weather for the next 24 hours, we take the current live weather readings and search the entire archive for similar conditions. Predictions are made against an averaged, subsequent 24 hours of the closest matches for the current readings. We use an Evolutionary Algorithm to optimize our formula through weighted parameters. The accuracy of the predictor is routinely tested and tuned against the full, updated archive to account for seasonal trends and total, climate shifts. The live (updated every 5 minutes) SALT weather predictor can be viewed here: http://www.saao.ac.za/ sbp/suthweather_predict.html

  17. Cockpit weather graphics using mobile satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Shashi

    Many new companies are pushing state-of-the-art technology to bring a revolution in the cockpits of General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The vision, according to Dr. Bruce Holmes - the Assistant Director for Aeronautics at National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center, is to provide such an advanced flight control system that the motor and cognitive skills you use to drive a car would be very similar to the ones you would use to fly an airplane. We at ViGYAN, Inc., are currently developing a system called the Pilot Weather Advisor (PWxA), which would be a part of such an advanced technology flight management system. The PWxA provides graphical depictions of weather information in the cockpit of aircraft in near real-time, through the use of broadcast satellite communications. The purpose of this system is to improve the safety and utility of GA aircraft operations. Considerable effort is being extended for research in the design of graphical weather systems, notably the works of Scanlon and Dash. The concept of providing pilots with graphical depictions of weather conditions, overlaid on geographical and navigational maps, is extremely powerful.

  18. 天气气候中太阳活动信号的敏感区域%The Regions with Sensitive Signals of Solar Activities in Weather and Climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞丽; 肖子牛; 赵亮; 周立旻; 张庆云

    2014-01-01

    Solar activity is an important factor driving the formation of the Earth’s climate, and is closely linked with global climate change. Studies found that the response of the Earth’s climate change to solar activities is inhomogeneous in space. Weather and climate of certain regions on Earth are found more sensitive to solar activities. In this paper, we concentrate on sensitive responses to solar activity in the Arctic-North Atlantic, tropical and monsoon regions. The fact that solar activities have a great inlfuence on polar-North Atlantic regions on different time scales is presented, and we believe that cloud microphysical processes and the stratosphere-troposphere coupling play an important role in modulating relationships as aforementioned. Then we reviewed signiifcant solar signals in convection, sea surface temperature and the ENSO cycle in the tropics.The responses of monsoon regions, especially the Asian monsoon, to solar activities are summed up, the response being particularly active in the marginal areas of monsoon. Finally, scientiifc issues which need to be focused on are put forward for future investigation on the regions with sensitive signals of solar activities in weather and climate.%太阳活动是地球气候形成的重要驱动因子,与地球气候变化有密切的联系,但研究分析发现,地球气候对太阳活动变化的响应具有较大的空间差异,地球上某些区域的天气气候对太阳活动更加敏感。主要介绍了对太阳活动变化特别敏感的三个响应区域,即极地-北大西洋区域、热带地区和季风区的天气气候变化与太阳活动变化的联系。从不同的时间尺度上总结了太阳活动对极地-北大西洋区域的影响事实和可能机制,指出了太阳活动对云微物理过程/平流层-对流层耦合的调制在其中扮演重要角色,回顾了热带地区对流活动、海表温度以及ENSO循环中明显的太阳活动信号,归纳了亚洲季

  19. Geographic names of the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,; ,; ,; Alberts, Fred G.

    1995-01-01

    This gazetteer contains 12,710 names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and the Secretary of the Interior for features in Antarctica and the area extending northward to the Antarctic Convergence. Included in this geographic area, the Antarctic region, are the off-lying South Shetland Islands, the South Orkney Islands, the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia, Bouvetøya, Heard Island, and the Balleny Islands. These names have been approved for use by U.S. Government agencies. Their use by the Antarctic specialist and the public is highly recommended for the sake of accuracy and uniformity. This publication, which supersedes previous Board gazetteers or lists for the area, contains names approved as recently as December 1994. The basic name coverage of this gazetteer corresponds to that of maps at the scale of 1:250,000 or larger for coastal Antarctica, the off-lying islands, and isolated mountains and ranges of the continent. Much of the interior of Antarctica is a featureless ice plateau. That area has been mapped at a smaller scale and is nearly devoid of toponyms. All of the names are for natural features, such as mountains, glaciers, peninsulas, capes, bays, islands, and subglacial entities. The names of scientific stations have not been listed alphabetically, but they may appear in the texts of some decisions. For the names of submarine features, reference should be made to the Gazetteer of Undersea Features, 4th edition, U.S. Board on Geographic Names, 1990.

  20. Hillslope chemical weathering across Paraná, Brazil: a data mining-GIS hybrid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Fabio; Friedel, Michael J.; Filho, Carlos Roberto de Souza; Fraser, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Self-organizing map (SOM) and geographic information system (GIS) models were used to investigate the nonlinear relationships associated with geochemical weathering processes at local (~100 km2) and regional (~50,000 km2) scales. The data set consisted of 1) 22 B-horizon soil variables: P, C, pH, Al, total acidity, Ca, Mg, K, total cation exchange capacity, sum of exchangeable bases, base saturation, Cu, Zn, Fe, B, S, Mn, gammaspectrometry (total count, potassium, thorium, and uranium) and magnetic susceptibility measures; and 2) six topographic variables: elevation, slope, aspect, hydrological accumulated flux, horizontal curvature and vertical curvature. It is characterized at 304 locations from a quasi-regular grid spaced about 24 km across the state of Paraná. This data base was split into two subsets: one for analysis and modeling (274 samples) and the other for validation (30 samples) purposes. The self-organizing map and clustering methods were used to identify and classify the relations among solid-phase chemical element concentrations and GIS derived topographic models. The correlation between elevation and k-means clusters related the relative position inside hydrologic macro basins, which was interpreted as an expression of the weathering process reaching a steady-state condition at the regional scale. Locally, the chemical element concentrations were related to the vertical curvature representing concave–convex hillslope features, where concave hillslopes with convergent flux tends to be a reducing environment and convex hillslopes with divergent flux, oxidizing environments. Stochastic cross validation demonstrated that the SOM produced unbiased classifications and quantified the relative amount of uncertainty in predictions. This work strengthens the hypothesis that, at B-horizon steady-state conditions, the terrain morphometry were linked with the soil geochemical weathering in a two-way dependent process: the topographic relief was a factor on

  1. Predictive zoning of rice stem borer damage in southern India through spatial interpolation of weather-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reji, G; Chander, Subhash; Kamble, Kalpana

    2014-09-01

    Rice stem borer is an important insect pest causing severe damage to rice crop in India. The relationship between weather parameters such as maximum (T(max)) and minimum temperature (T(min)), morning (RH1) and afternoon relative humidity (RH2) and the severity of stem borer damage (SB) were studied. Multiple linear regression analysis was used for formulating pest-weather models at three sites in southern India namely, Warangal, Coimbatore and Pattambi as SB = -66.849 + 2.102 T(max) + 0.095 RH1, SB = 156.518 - 3.509 T(min) - 0.785 RH1 and SB = 43.483 - 0.418 T(min) - 0.283 RH1 respectively. The pest damage predicted using the model at three sites did not significantly differ from the observed damage (t = 0.442; p > 0.05). The range of weather parameters favourable for stem borer damage at each site were also predicted using the models. Geospatial interpolation (kriging) of the pest-weather models were carried out to predict the zones of stem borer damage in southern India. Maps showing areas with high, medium and low risk of stem borer damage were prepared using geographical information system. The risk maps of rice stem borer would be useful in devising management strategies for the pest in the region.

  2. Examining Projected Changes in Weather & Air Quality Extremes Between 2000 & 2030 using Dynamical Downscaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change may alter regional weather extremes resulting in a range of environmental impacts including changes in air quality, water quality and availability, energy demands, agriculture, and ecology. Dynamical downscaling simulations were conducted with the Weather Research...

  3. Genotipos de aislados de campo de Brucella abortus de distintas regiones geográficas de Chile Genotypes of Brucella abortus field isolates from different geographical regions of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mancilla

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La brucelosis bovina es una enfermedad zoonótica, endémica de alto impacto económico. La identificación genética de las cepas prevalentes de Brucella abortus, el patógeno, es clave para establecer estrategias epidemiológicas de control de la enfermedad. La secuencia de inserción IS711 ha sido utilizada como un marcador genético para diferenciar entre especies de Brucella, miembros de una misma especie y dentro de un mismo biovar. Hemos analizado los perfiles de IS711-RFLP de 46 aislados de B. abortus, recolectados durante el periodo 1997-2005, provenientes de 16 áreas geográficas diferentes de Chile. Todos los aislados fueron previamente identificados como B. abortus biovar 1, utilizando las técnicas convencionales. De estos, el 87% compartieron el mismo perfil de IS711-RFLP, mientras que el 8,7% correspondió al patrón de la cepa vacuna RB51. En este trabajo se informa el hallazgo de dos cepas indistinguibles por PCR AMOS con perfiles nuevos de IS711-RFLP, no reportados previamente.Bovine brucellosis is an endemic, zoonotic disease of high economic impact. The genetic identification of the prevalent Brucella abortus strains, the pathogen, is key to pursue further epidemiological strategies for disease control. The insertion sequence IS711 has been used as genetic marker to differentiate among Brucella species, members of the same specie and within the same biovar. We have analyzed the IS711-RFLP pattern for 46 B. abortus isolates, collected during the period of 1997-2005 from 16 different geographical areas of Chile. All isolates were previously identified by conventional techniques as B. abortus biovar 1. Of these, 87% sharedthesame IS711 DNA profile, while an 8.7 % corresponded to the pattern of RB51 vaccine strain. We report the finding of two new strains, not differentiated by AMOS PCR, which showed unreported patterns of IS711-RFLP.

  4. The importance of accurate glacier albedo for estimates of surface mass balance on Vatnajökull: evaluating the surface energy budget in a regional climate model with automatic weather station observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffensen Schmidt, Louise; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Guðmundsson, Sverrir; Langen, Peter L.; Pálsson, Finnur; Mottram, Ruth; Gascoin, Simon; Björnsson, Helgi

    2017-07-01

    A simulation of the surface climate of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, carried out with the regional climate model HIRHAM5 for the period 1980-2014, is used to estimate the evolution of the glacier surface mass balance (SMB). This simulation uses a new snow albedo parameterization that allows albedo to exponentially decay with time and is surface temperature dependent. The albedo scheme utilizes a new background map of the ice albedo created from observed MODIS data. The simulation is evaluated against observed daily values of weather parameters from five automatic weather stations (AWSs) from the period 2001-2014, as well as in situ SMB measurements from the period 1995-2014. The model agrees well with observations at the AWS sites, albeit with a general underestimation of the net radiation. This is due to an underestimation of the incoming radiation and a general overestimation of the albedo. The average modelled albedo is overestimated in the ablation zone, which we attribute to an overestimation of the thickness of the snow layer and not taking the surface darkening from dirt and volcanic ash deposition during dust storms and volcanic eruptions into account. A comparison with the specific summer, winter, and net mass balance for the whole of Vatnajökull (1995-2014) shows a good overall fit during the summer, with a small mass balance underestimation of 0.04 m w.e. on average, whereas the winter mass balance is overestimated by on average 0.5 m w.e. due to too large precipitation at the highest areas of the ice cap. A simple correction of the accumulation at the highest points of the glacier reduces this to 0.15 m w.e. Here, we use HIRHAM5 to simulate the evolution of the SMB of Vatnajökull for the period 1981-2014 and show that the model provides a reasonable representation of the SMB for this period. However, a major source of uncertainty in the representation of the SMB is the representation of the albedo, and processes currently not accounted for in RCMs

  5. The importance of accurate glacier albedo for estimates of surface mass balance on Vatnajökull: evaluating the surface energy budget in a regional climate model with automatic weather station observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Schmidt

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A simulation of the surface climate of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, carried out with the regional climate model HIRHAM5 for the period 1980–2014, is used to estimate the evolution of the glacier surface mass balance (SMB. This simulation uses a new snow albedo parameterization that allows albedo to exponentially decay with time and is surface temperature dependent. The albedo scheme utilizes a new background map of the ice albedo created from observed MODIS data. The simulation is evaluated against observed daily values of weather parameters from five automatic weather stations (AWSs from the period 2001–2014, as well as in situ SMB measurements from the period 1995–2014. The model agrees well with observations at the AWS sites, albeit with a general underestimation of the net radiation. This is due to an underestimation of the incoming radiation and a general overestimation of the albedo. The average modelled albedo is overestimated in the ablation zone, which we attribute to an overestimation of the thickness of the snow layer and not taking the surface darkening from dirt and volcanic ash deposition during dust storms and volcanic eruptions into account. A comparison with the specific summer, winter, and net mass balance for the whole of Vatnajökull (1995–2014 shows a good overall fit during the summer, with a small mass balance underestimation of 0.04 m w.e. on average, whereas the winter mass balance is overestimated by on average 0.5 m w.e. due to too large precipitation at the highest areas of the ice cap. A simple correction of the accumulation at the highest points of the glacier reduces this to 0.15 m w.e. Here, we use HIRHAM5 to simulate the evolution of the SMB of Vatnajökull for the period 1981–2014 and show that the model provides a reasonable representation of the SMB for this period. However, a major source of uncertainty in the representation of the SMB is the representation of the albedo, and processes

  6. Ecofisiología de seis variedades de frijol bajo las condiciones climáticas de la Región Lagunera Ecophysiology of six bean varieties under the weather conditions of the Lagunera region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Armando Chávez-Simental

    2012-04-01

    bean varieties, as well as their adaptability to the weather conditions of the Comarca Lagunera. The research was conducted at the experimental station of the UAAAN Unidad Laguna, in the autumn-winter 2009 agricultural cycle, using traditional irrigation. The photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were measured using the "photosynthesis system CI 340®". We also evaluated the yield, which was correlated with the physiological functions measured. The variety that had the highest yield was the Pinto Villa, which also displayed the highest photosynthetic activity, ranking within the group of genotypes with highest stomatal conductance. On the other hand, the Pinto Mestizo variety had the second best yield, although physiological activity of the variables studied was the lowest. Therefore, the Pinto Villa and Pinto Mestizo varieties presented the best adaptability to the weather conditions of the Lagunera region.

  7. Snake venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops atrox venoms from Colombia and the Amazon regions of Brazil, Perú and Ecuador suggest the occurrence of geographic variation of venom phenotype by a trend towards paedomorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Vitelbina; Cid, Pedro; Sanz, Libia; De La Torre, Pilar; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2009-11-02

    The venom proteomes of Bothrops atrox from Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú were characterized using venomic and antivenomic strategies. Our results evidence the existence of two geographically differentiated venom phenotypes. The venom from Colombia comprises at least 26 different proteins belonging to 9 different groups of toxins. PI-metalloproteinases and K49-PLA(2) molecules represent the most abundant toxins. On the other hand, the venoms from Brazilian, Ecuadorian, and Peruvian B. atrox contain predominantly PIII-metalloproteinases. These toxin profiles correlate with the venom phenotypes of adult and juvenile B. asper from Costa Rica, respectively, suggesting that paedomorphism represented a selective trend during the trans-Amazonian southward expansion of B. atrox through the Andean Corridor. The high degree of crossreactivity of a Costa Rican polyvalent (Bothrops asper, Lachesis stenophrys, Crotalus simus) antivenom against B. atrox venoms further evidenced the close evolutionary kinship between B. asper and B. atrox. This antivenom was more efficient immunodepleting proteins from the venoms of B. atrox from Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú than from Colombia. Such behaviour may be rationalized taking into account the lower content of poorly immunogenic toxins, such as PLA(2) molecules and PI-SVMPs in the paedomorphic venoms. The immunological profile of the Costa Rican antivenom strongly suggests the possibility of using this antivenom for the management of snakebites by B. atrox in Colombia and the Amazon regions of Ecuador, Perú and Brazil.

  8. Space weather & telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, John M

    2006-01-01

    This book is both a survey of practical concepts for forecasting the performance of various telecommunication systems as well as a balanced treatment of space-weather phenomena that give rise to telecommunication impairment episodes. It bridges the gap in the relationship that exists between the following two disciplines: space weather and telecommunication system performance. There are a number of books that address one of the two disciplines in some detail, but only merely mention the other as an afterthought. In this book the author has married the two disciplines so that the readership can

  9. Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, William F; Delmerico, Alan M

    2009-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the development, capabilities, and utilization of geographic information systems (GIS). There are nearly an unlimited number of applications that are relevant to GIS because virtually all human interactions, natural and man-made features, resources, and populations have a geographic component. Everything happens somewhere and the location often has a role that affects what occurs. This role is often called spatial dependence or spatial autocorrelation, which exists when a phenomenon is not randomly geographically distributed. GIS has a number of key capabilities that are needed to conduct a spatial analysis to assess this spatial dependence. This chapter presents these capabilities (e.g., georeferencing, adjacency/distance measures, overlays) and provides a case study to illustrate how GIS can be used for both research and planning. Although GIS has developed into a relatively mature application for basic functions, development is needed to more seamlessly integrate spatial statistics and models.The issue of location, especially the geography of human activities, interactions between humanity and nature, and the distribution and location of natural resources and features, is one of the most basic elements of scientific inquiry. Conceptualizations and physical maps of geographic space have existed since the beginning of time because all human activity takes place in a geographic context. Representing objects in space, basically where things are located, is a critical aspect of the natural, social, and applied sciences. Throughout history there have been many methods of characterizing geographic space, especially maps created by artists, mariners, and others eventually leading to the development of the field of cartography. It is no surprise that the digital age has launched a major effort to utilize geographic data, but not just as maps. A geographic information system (GIS) facilitates the collection, analysis, and reporting of

  10. ANALYSES OF LANDSCAPE GEOGRAPHIC IMPACTS OF POTENTIAL CLIMATE CHANGE IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÉTER CSORBA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Change of climate can be a remarkable turning point in the 21st century history of mankind. An important task of landscape geographic research is forecasting environmental, nature protection, land use demands and helping mitigation of disadvantageous processes from the aspect of society. ALADIN and REMO numeric climate models predict strong warming and lack of summer precipitation for the area of Hungary for the period between 2021 and 2100. There is a predictedgrowth in frequency of extreme weather events (heat waves, droughts hailstorms. Changes have been forecasted using data presented in table 1. For analyses of complex landscape geographic impacts ofclimate change the area of Hungary have been divided into 18 mesoregions with 5.000-10.000 km2 area each (figure 1. The main aspect of choosing the regions was that they should have homogeneousphysical, geographic and land use endowments and, for this reason, they should react to climate change the same way. Relationships between landscape forming factors and meteorological elementsexamined by us have been taken into consideration. Results of analyses of impacts of the meteorological factors on the changes of relief through the mass movements are presented in this paper. Changes of landscape sensibility of mesoregions to mass movements have been presented in the last chapter for the periods between 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 according to numeric climate models.

  11. Weather perceptions, holidays satisfaction and perceived attractiveness of domestic vacationing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, Jelmer

    2017-01-01

    Despite variable and relatively cool summer weather, domestic vacations in countries around the North Sea are an important type of tourism. However, relations between weather and domestic tourism in this region remain understudied. A quantitative research (n = 326) among domestic camping tourists in

  12. Niche breadth and geographical range: ecological compensation for geographical rarity in rainforest frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Yvette M; Williams, Stephen E; Alford, Ross A; Waycott, Michelle; Johnson, Christopher N

    2006-12-22

    We investigated the relationship between diet specialization and geographical range in Cophixalus, a genus of microhylid frogs from the Wet Tropics of northern Queensland, Australia. The geographical ranges of these species vary from a few square kilometres in species restricted to a single mountain top to the entire region for the widespread species. Although macroecological theory predicts that species with broad niches should have the largest geographical ranges, we found the opposite: geographically rare species were diet generalists and widespread species were diet specialists. We argue that this pattern is a product of extinction filtering, whereby geographically rare and therefore extinction-prone species are more likely to persist if they are diet generalists.

  13. Symposium on Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felleman, John, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Six papers on geographic information systems cover the future of geographic information systems, land information systems modernization in Wisconsin, the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) System of the U.S. Bureau of the Census, satellite remote sensing, geographic information systems and sustainable development,…

  14. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-04-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal.

  15. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-01-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal. PMID:28374825

  16. 核心词汇折射中国测绘地理信息发展方向标——从国家及各地区“十二五”《纲要》看中国测绘地理信息的发展脉络%The Core Vocabulary of Refraction Mapping Geographic Information Development Direction in China:From National and Regional "Twelfth Five" "Outline" See China Surveying and Mapping Geographic Information Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂德竹; 徐坤; 刘芳

    2013-01-01

    Realization of Surveying and mapping geographic information science development, the government needs to include the local national economic and social development of " Twelfth Five" , and to give strong support and promote. Through the national and regional economic and social development of " Twelfth Five" program related to surveying and mapping geographic information of high frequency vocabulary comparison, analysis of " Twelfth Five" " during our mapping geographic information development direction.%实现测绘地理信息科学发展,需要各级政府将其列入本地区国民经济和社会发展“十二五”规划,并给予强有力的支持和推动.通过国家及各地区的国民经济和社会发展“十二五”规划纲要中有关测绘地理信息的高频词汇比较,解析“十二五”期间我国测绘地理信息的发展方向.

  17. Dress for the Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Nicole J.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2010-01-01

    "If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson, students explored local and national data sets to give "travelers" advice…

  18. Microbial Weathering of Olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, D. S.; Longazo, T. G.; Wentworth, S. J.; Southam, G.

    2002-01-01

    Controlled microbial weathering of olivine experiments displays a unique style of nanoetching caused by biofilm attachment to mineral surfaces. We are investigating whether the morphology of biotic nanoetching can be used as a biosignature. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Winter Weather: Indoor Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  20. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  1. Winter Weather Checklists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  2. Weather at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggeman, David Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-19

    This report gives general information about how to become a meteorologist and what kinds of jobs exist in that field. Then it goes into detail about why weather is monitored at LANL, how it is done, and where the data can be accessed online.

  3. Cold Weather Pet Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they can be knocked over, potentially starting a fire. Check your furnace before the cold weather sets in to make ... avoided because of the risk of burns or fire. Heated pet mats should also be used ... to burrow, get them back inside quickly because they are showing signs of ...

  4. Dress for the Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Nicole J.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2010-01-01

    "If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson, students explored local and national data sets to give "travelers" advice…

  5. 'Is it the weather?'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobsen (Ben); W.A. Marquering (Wessel)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe show that results in the recent strand of the literature that tries to explain stock returns by weather induced mood shifts of investors might be data-driven inference. More specifically, we consider two recent studies (Kamstra, Kramer and Levi, 2003a and Cao and Wei, 2004) that claim

  6. Space Weather Effects of Coronal Mass Ejection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. N. Iyer; R. M. Jadav; A. K. Jadeja; P. K. Manoharan; Som Sharma; Hari Om Vats

    2006-06-01

    This paper describes the space weather effects of a major CME which was accompanied by extremely violent events on the Sun. The signatures of the event in the interplanetary medium (IPM) sensed by Ooty Radio Telescope, the solar observations by LASCO coronagraph onboard SOHO, GOES X-ray measurements, satellite measurements of the interplanetary parameters, GPS based ionospheric measurements, the geomagnetic storm parameter Dst and ground based ionosonde data are used in the study to understand the space weather effects in the different regions of the solar-terrestrial environment. The effects of this event are compared and possible explanations attempted.

  7. Forecasting Space Weather from Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Large flares and fast CMEs are the drivers of the most severe space weather including Solar Energetic Particle Events (SEP Events). Large flares and their co-produced CMEs are powered by the explosive release of free magnetic energy stored in non-potential magnetic fields of sunspot active regions. The free energy is stored in and released from the low-beta regime of the active region s magnetic field above the photosphere, in the chromosphere and low corona. From our work over the past decade and from similar work of several other groups, it is now well established that (1) a proxy of the free magnetic energy stored above the photosphere can be measured from photospheric magnetograms, maps of the measured field in the photosphere, and (2) an active region s rate of production of major CME/flare eruptions in the coming day or so is strongly correlated with its present measured value of the free-energy proxy. These results have led us to use the large database of SOHO/MDI full-disk magnetograms spanning Solar Cycle 23 to obtain empirical forecasting curves that from an active region s present measured value of the free-energy proxy give the active region s expected rates of production of major flares, CMEs, fast CMEs, and SEP Events in the coming day or so (Falconer et al 2011, Space Weather, 9, S04003). For each type of event, the expected rate is readily converted to the chance that the active region will produce such an event in any given forward time window of a day or so. If the chance is small enough (e.g. <5%), the forecast is All Clear for that type of event. We will present these forecasting curves and demonstrate the accuracy of their forecasts. In addition, we will show that the forecasts for major flares and fast CMEs can be made significantly more accurate by taking into account not only the value of the free energy proxy but also the active region s recent productivity of major flares; specifically, whether the active region has produced a major flare

  8. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...

  9. Making Geographical Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John

    2015-01-01

    Although there are surprisingly few academic books about geography with the term "future" or "futures" in their titles, this paper indicates that for much of the twentieth century geographers contributed to important discussions about the shape of worlds to come. The paper offers a review of these debates within Anglo-American…

  10. Geographic profiling survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emeno, Karla; Bennell, Craig; Snook, Brent; Taylor, Paul Jonathon

    Geographic profiling (GP) is an investigative technique that involves predicting a serial offender?s home location (or some other anchor point) based on where he or she committed a crime. Although the use of GP in police investigations appears to be on the rise, little is known about the procedure

  11. Establishing Denudation Chronology through Weathering Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, S. B.; Vasconcelos, P. M.; Farley, K. A.; Carmo, I. O.

    2011-12-01

    Planar landforms - erosion surfaces - are used as temporal markers in denudation chronology. These surfaces are interpreted as the result of long-term weathering and denudation controlled by a specific base level within a given time-interval characterized by long-term tectonic stability. The presence of several planar landforms at distinct elevations is interpreted as evidence for distinct denudation events, separated by periods of tectonic reactivation and crustal uplift. We selected an area in the Paraná-La Plata basin, southern Brazil (25°S lat.) to investigate if the application of weathering geochronology by the 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He methods could permit differentiating different elevation landsurfaces. We dated supergene Mn oxyhydroxides by 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and coexisting supergene Fe oxyhydroxides by the (U-Th)/He method from one of the three regional landsurfaces - The First, Second, and Third Paraná plateaus - previously identified in this area. Two sites were sampled from the Second Paraná Plateau: a ferricrust at Serra das Almas (7 hand specimens of goethite at 1080 m of altitude) and deeply weathered ferricretes and saprolites at Vila Velha (11 hand specimens of cryptomelane and 14 of goethite at 910 m of altitude). The Serra das Almas sites hosts a stratified weathering profile with ferricrust, and mottle zone. The Vila Velha site results from intense weathering that led to the precipitation of well-crystallized supergene minerals precipitated within fractures in the saprolites. The geochronological results are correlatable between the two sites and the two distinct methods (40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He), and they reveal three generations of weathering and mineral precipitation: Late Eocene-Oligocene, Early Miocene, and Pleistocene. The geochronological results suggested that the Second Paraná Plateau formed by regional erosion during the Oligocene, and that this landsurface has been continuously exposed to weathering and erosion since then

  12. Active Discriminative Dictionary Learning for Weather Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weather recognition based on outdoor images is a brand-new and challenging subject, which is widely required in many fields. This paper presents a novel framework for recognizing different weather conditions. Compared with other algorithms, the proposed method possesses the following advantages. Firstly, our method extracts both visual appearance features of the sky region and physical characteristics features of the nonsky region in images. Thus, the extracted features are more comprehensive than some of the existing methods in which only the features of sky region are considered. Secondly, unlike other methods which used the traditional classifiers (e.g., SVM and K-NN, we use discriminative dictionary learning as the classification model for weather, which could address the limitations of previous works. Moreover, the active learning procedure is introduced into dictionary learning to avoid requiring a large number of labeled samples to train the classification model for achieving good performance of weather recognition. Experiments and comparisons are performed on two datasets to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. ISES Experience in Delivering Space Weather Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boteler, David

    The International Space Environment Service has over eighty years experience in providing space weather services to meet a wide variety of user needs. This started with broadcast on December 1, 2008 from the Eiffel Tower about radio conditions. The delivery of information about ionospheric effects on high frequency (HF) radio propagation continue to be a major concern in many parts of the world. The movement into space brought requirements for a new set of space weather services, ranging from radiation dangers to man in space, damage to satellites and effects on satellite communication and navigation systems. On the ground magnetic survey, power system and pipeline operators require information about magnetic disturbances that can affect their operations. In the past these services have been delivered by individual Regional Warning Centres. However, the needs of new trans-national users are stimulating the development of new collaborative international space weather services.

  14. North America Synoptic Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Series of Synoptic Weather Maps. Maps contains a surface analysis comprised of plotted weather station observations, isobars indicating low and high-pressure...

  15. Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI) is an integrated database of severe weather records for the United States. SWDI enables a user to search through a variety...

  16. What characterizes planetary space weather?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Space weather has become a mature discipline for the Earth space environment. With increasing efforts in space exploration, it is becoming more and more necessary to understand the space environments of bodies other than Earth. This is the background for an emerging aspect of the space weather discipline: planetary space weather. In this article, we explore what characterizes planetary space weather, using some examples throughout the solar system. We consider energy s...

  17. GIS Based Stereoscopic Visualization Technique for Weather Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S.; Jang, B. J.; Lee, K. H.; Lee, C.; Kim, W.

    2014-12-01

    As rainfall characteristic is more quixotic and localized, it is important to provide a prompt and accurate warning for public. To monitor localized heavy rainfall, a reliable disaster monitoring system with advanced remote observation technology and high-precision display system is needed. To advance even more accurate weather monitoring using weather radar, there have been growing concerns regarding the real-time changes of mapping radar observations on geographical coordinate systems along with the visualization and display methods of radar data based on spatial interpolation techniques and geographical information system (GIS). Currently, the method of simultaneously displaying GIS and radar data is widely used to synchronize the radar and ground systems accurately, and the method of displaying radar data in the 2D GIS coordinate system has been extensively used as the display method for providing weather information from weather radar. This paper proposes a realistic 3D weather radar data display technique with higher spatiotemporal resolution, which is based on the integration of 3D image processing and GIS interaction. This method is focused on stereoscopic visualization, while conventional radar image display works are based on flat or two-dimensional interpretation. Furthermore, using the proposed technique, the atmospheric change at each moment can be observed three-dimensionally at various geological locations simultaneously. Simulation results indicate that 3D display of weather radar data can be performed in real time. One merit of the proposed technique is that it can provide intuitive understanding of the influence of beam blockage by topography. Through an exact matching each 3D modeled radar beam with 3D GIS map, we can find out the terrain masked areas and accordingly it facilitates the precipitation correction from QPE underestimation caused by ground clutter filtering. It can also be expected that more accurate short-term forecasting will be

  18. Ontology-Based Geographic Data Set Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitermark, Harry T.; Oosterom, Peter J.M.; Mars, Nicolaas J.I.; Molenaar, Martien

    1999-01-01

    In order to develop a system to propagate updates we investigate the semantic and spatial relationships between independently produced geographic data sets of the same region (data set integration). The goal of this system is to reduce operator intervention in update operations between corresponding

  19. Severe Weather Planning for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Barbara McNaught; Strong, Christopher; Bunting, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Flash floods, severe thunderstorms, and tornadoes occur with rapid onset and often no warning. Decisions must be made quickly and actions taken immediately. This paper provides tips for schools on: (1) Preparing for Severe Weather Emergencies; (2) Activating a Severe Weather Plan; (3) Severe Weather Plan Checklist; and (4) Periodic Drills and…

  20. Whether weather affects music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Karen L.; Williams, Paul D.

    2012-09-01

    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London [Richardson, 2012]. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for artists Claude Monet, John Constable, and William Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies [e.g., Baker and Thornes, 2006].

  1. Association of global weather changes with acute coronary syndromes: gaining insights from clinical trials data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakal, Jeffrey A.; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Westerhout, Cynthia M.; Boersma, Eric; Armstrong, Paul W.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for the identification of global weather parameters and patient characteristics associated with a type of heart attack in which there is a sudden partial blockage of a coronary artery. This type of heart attack does not demonstrate an elevation of the ST segment on an electrocardiogram and is defined as a non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). Data from the Global Summary of the Day database was linked with the enrollment and baseline data for a phase III international clinical trial in NSTE-ACS in four 48-h time periods covering the week prior to the clinical event that prompted enrollment in the study. Meteorological events were determined by standardizing the weather data from enrollment dates against an empirical distribution from the month prior. These meteorological events were then linked to the patients' geographic region, demographics and comorbidities to identify potential susceptible populations. After standardization, changes in temperature and humidity demonstrated an association with the enrollment event. Additionally there appeared to be an association with gender, region and a history of stroke. This methodology may provide a useful global insight into assessing the biometeorologic component of diseases from international data.

  2. Modeled Forecasts of Dengue Fever in San Juan, PR Using NASA Satellite Enhanced Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Cory; Quattrochi, Dale; Zavodsky, Bradley; Case, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus is transmitted between humans and mosquitoes of the genus Aedes and causes approximately 96 million cases of disease (dengue fever) each year (Bhatet al. 2013). Symptoms of dengue fever include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and eye, muscle and joint pain (CDC). More sever manifestations such as abdominal pain, bleeding from nose and gums, vomiting of blood, and clammy skin occur in rare cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (CDC). Dengue fever occurs throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide, however, the geographical range and size of epidemics is increasing. Weather and climate are drivers of dengue virus transmission dynamics (Morin et al. 2013) by affecting mosquito proliferation and the virus extrinsic incubation period (i.e. required time for the virus to replicate and disseminate within the mosquito before it can retransmit the virus).

  3. Two Rare Northern Entoloma Species Observed in Sicily under Exceptionally Cold Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Venturella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology and ecology of many Entoloma species is still poorly known as well as their geographical distribution. In Italy, there are no studies on the influence of weather on fungal abundance and richness and our knowledge on the ecology and distribution of Entoloma species needs to be improved. The discovery of two Entoloma species in Sicily (southern Italy, reported in the literature as belonging to the habitat of north European countries, was the basis leading to the assumption that anomalous climatic conditions could stimulate the growth of northern entolomas in the southernmost Mediterranean regions. The results of this study show that the presence of northern Entoloma species in Sicily is not influenced by the Mediterranean type of vegetation, by edaphic or altitudinal factors but by anomalous climatic trends of precipitations and temperatures which stimulate the fructification of basidiomata in correspondence with a thermal shock during autumn.

  4. The Weather Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋涵毅

    2009-01-01

    Secondly. the weather man一定会告诉我们每天的最高和最低温度(the highest and the lowest temperature)。我们用℃来表示摄氏度,有的地方则用°F,那是华氏温度。°F=9/5×℃+32

  5. Tactical Weather Expert System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of developing an expert system for tactical weather prediction. Using WILLARD, an expert ...indicate that intelligent interpretations of cloud formations can be made. These inferences can then be automatically passed to the expert system for...processing as another piece of information. It is anticipated that this technology will significantly reduce the dependence of the expert system on a

  6. Space Weather Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tony; Johnson, Sam; Koske-Phillips, Amelia; White, Michael; Yarborough, Amelia; Lamb, Aaron; Herbst, Anna; Molina, Ferris; Gilpin, Justin; Grah, Olivia; Perez, Ginger; Reid, Carson; Harvey, Joey; Schultz, Jamie

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a "Space Weather Buoy" for measuring upper atmospheric radiation from cosmic rays and solar storms. The Buoy, which is carried to the stratosphere by helium balloons, is relatively inexpensive and uses off-the-shelf technology accessible to small colleges and high schools. Using this device, we have measured two Forbush Decreases and a small surge in atmospheric radiation during the St. Patrick's Day geomagnetic storm of March 2015.

  7. Weathering the financial storm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi; Pétursson, Thórarinn G.

    2011-01-01

    to explain a significant share of the cross-country variation in the depth and duration of the crisis and provide quite sharp predictions of the incidence of banking and currency crises. This suggests that country-specific initial conditions played an important role in determining the economic impact...... of the crisis and, in particular, that countries with sound fundamentals and flexible economic frameworks were better able to weather the financial storm....

  8. Areosynchronous weather imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschell, Jeffery J.; Lock, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Mars is characterized by rapidly changing, poorly understood weather that is a concern for future human missions. Future Areosynchronous Mars Orbit (AMO) communication satellites offer possible platforms for Mars weather imagers similar to the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) weather imagers that have been observing Earth since 1966. This paper describes an AReosynchronous Environmental Suite (ARES) that includes two imagers: one with two emissive infrared bands (10.8 μm and 12.0 μm) at 4 km resolution and the other with three VNIR bands (500 nm, 700 nm, 900 nm) at 1 km resolution. ARES stares at Mars and provides full disk coverage as fast as every 40 sec in the VNIR bands and every 2 min in the emissive bands with good sensitivity (SNR 200 in the VNIR for typical radiances and NEDT 0.2K at 180 K scene temperature in the emissive infrared). ARES size, mass, power and data rate characteristics are compatible with expectations for hosted payloads onboard future AMO communication satellites. Nevertheless, more work is needed to optimize ARES for future missions, especially in terms of trades between data rate, full disk coverage rate, sensitivity, number of spectral bands and spatial resolution and in study of approaches for maintaining accurate line of sight knowledge during data collection.

  9. Soil weathering rates in 21 catchments of the Canadian Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Houle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil mineral weathering represents an essential source of nutrient base cation (Ca, Mg and K for forest growth in addition to provide a buffering power against precipitation acidity for soils and surface waters. Weathering rates of base cations were obtained for 21 catchments located within the temperate and the boreal forest of the Canadian Shield with the geochemical model PROFILE. Weathering rates ranged from 0.58 to 4.46 kmolc ha−1 yr−1 and their spatial variation within the studied area was mostly in agreement with spatial variations in soil mineralogy. Weathering rates of Ca and Mg were significantly correlated (r = 0.80 and 0.64 with their respective lake concentrations. Weathering rates of K and Na did not correlate with lake concentrations of K and Na. The modeled weathering rates for each catchment were also compared with estimations of net catchment exportations. The result show that modeled weathering rates of Ca were not significantly different than the net catchment exportations while modeled weathering rates of Mg were higher by 51 %. Larger differences were observed for K and Na weathering rates that were significantly different than net catchment exportations being 6.9 and 2.2 times higher than net exportations, respectively. The results for K were expected given its high reactivity with biotic compartments and suggest that most of the K produced by weathering reactions was retained within soil catchments and/or above ground biomass. This explanation does not apply to Na, however, which is a conservative element in forest ecosystems because of the insignificant needs of Na for soil microorganisms and above ground vegetations. It raises concern about the liability of the PROFILE model to provide reliable values of Na weathering rates. Overall, we concluded that the PROFILE model is powerful enough to reproduce spatial geographical gradients in weathering rates for relatively large areas

  10. Soil weathering rates in 21 catchments of the Canadian Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Houle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil mineral weathering represents an essential source of nutrient base cation (Ca, Mg and K for forest growth in addition to provide a buffering power against precipitation acidity for soils and surface waters. Weathering rates of base cations were obtained for 21 catchments located within the temperate and the boreal forest of the Canadian Shield with the geochemical model PROFILE. Weathering rates ranged from 0.58 to 4.46 kmolc ha−1 yr−1 and their spatial variation within the studied area was mostly in agreement with spatial variations in soil mineralogy. Weathering rates of Ca and Mg were significantly correlated (r = 0.80 and 0.64 with their respective lake concentrations. Weathering rates of K and Na did not correlate with lake concentrations of K and Na. The modeled weathering rates for each catchment were also compared with estimations of net catchment exportations. The result show that modeled weathering rates of Ca were not significantly different than the net catchment exportations while modeled weathering rates of Mg were higher by 51%. Larger differences were observed for K and Na weathering rates that were significantly different than net catchment exportations being 6.9 and 2.2 times higher than net exportations, respectively. The results for K were expected given its high reactivity with biotic compartments and suggest that most of the K produced by weathering reactions was retained within soil catchments and/or above ground biomass. This explanation does not apply to Na, however, which is a conservative element in forest ecosystems because of the insignificant needs of Na for soil microorganisms and above ground vegetations. It raises concern about the liability of the PROFILE model to provide reliable values of Na weathering rates. Overall, we concluded that the PROFILE model is powerful enough to reproduce spatial geographical gradients in weathering rates for relatively large areas

  11. Weather Monitoring Station: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Dipak V. Sose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weather monitoring plays a very important role in human life hence study of weather system is necessary. Currently there are two types of the weather monitoring stations available i.e. wired and wireless. Wireless system has some advantages over the wired one hence popular now a days. The parameters are include in weather monitoring usually temperature, humidity atmospheric pressure, light intensity, rainfall etc. There are many techniques existed using different processor such as PIC, AVR, ARM etc. Analog to digital channel are used to fetch the analog output of the sensors. The wireless techniques used in the weather monitoring having GSM, FM channel, Zigbee, RF etc Protocols

  12. Innovative Information Technology for Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Qu, M.; Shih, F.; Denker, C.; Gerbessiotis, A.; Lofdahl, M.; Rees, D.; Keller, C.

    2004-05-01

    Solar activity is closely related to the near earth environment -- summarized descriptively as space weather. Changes in space weather have adverse effect on many aspects of life and systems on earth and in space. Real-time, high-quality data and data processing would be a key element to forecast space weather promptly and accurately. Recently, we obtained a funding from US National Science Foundation to apply innovative information technology for space weather prediction. (1) We use the technologies of image processing and pattern recognition, such as image morphology segmentation, Support Vector Machines (SVMs), and neural networks to detect and characterize three important solar activities in real-time: filament eruptions, flares, and emerging flux regions (EFRs). Combining the real time detection with the recent statistical study on the relationship among filament eruptions, flares, EFRs, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and geomagnetic storms, we are establishing real time report of solar events and automatic forecasting of earth directed CMEs and subsequent geomagnetic storms. (2) We combine state-of-art parallel computing techniques with phase diverse speckle imaging techniques, to yield near real-time diffraction limited images with a cadence of approximately 10 sec. We utilize the multiplicity of parallel paradigms to optimize the calculation of phase diverse speckle imaging to improve calculation speed. With such data, we can monitor flare producing active regions continuously and carry out targeted studies of the evolution and flows in flare producing active regions. (3) We are developing Web based software tools to post our processed data, events and forecasting in real time, and to be integrated with current solar activity and space weather prediction Web pages at BBSO. This will also be a part of Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) being developed by the solar physics community. This research is supported by NSF ITR program.

  13. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Year-Old Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Can the Weather Affect My ... empeorar el asma de mi hijo? Weather and Asthma The effect of weather on asthma symptoms isn' ...

  14. The Precipitation Characteristics of ISCCP Tropical Weather States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongmin; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Huffman, George J.; Rossow, William B.; Kang, In-Sik

    2011-01-01

    We examine the daytime precipitation characteristics of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) weather states in the extended tropics (35 deg S to 35 deg N) for a 10-year period. Our main precipitation data set is the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis 3B42 data set, but Global Precipitation Climatology Project daily data are also used for comparison. We find that the most convective weather state (WS1), despite an occurrence frequency below 10%, is the most dominant state with regard to surface precipitation, producing both the largest mean precipitation rates when present and the largest percent contribution to the total precipitation of the tropical zone of our study; yet, even this weather state appears to not precipitate about half the time. WS1 exhibits a modest annual cycle of domain-average precipitation rate, but notable seasonal shifts in its geographic distribution. The precipitation rates of the other weather states tend to be stronger when occurring before or after WS1. The relative contribution of the various weather states to total precipitation is different between ocean and land, with WS1 producing more intense precipitation on average over ocean than land. The results of this study, in addition to advancing our understanding of the current state of tropical precipitation, can serve as a higher order diagnostic test on whether it is distributed realistically among different weather states in atmospheric models.

  15. Space Weather Services of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Jangsuk, C.; Dong Kyu, K.; Jinyee, C.; Yeongoh, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  16. Space Weather Services of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, KiChang; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Young Yun; Kwon, Yongki; Wi, Gwan-sik

    2016-07-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  17. Impacts of Climate Change on Stream Flow in the Upper Mississippi River Basin: A Regional Climate Model Perspective, The

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Jha; Zaitao Pan; Takle, Eugene S.; Roy Gu

    2003-01-01

    We evaluate the impact of climate change on stream flow in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) by using a regional climate model (RCM) coupled with a hydrologic model, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The SWAT model was calibrated and validated against measured stream flow data using observed weather data and inputs from the Environmental Protection Agency's BASINS (Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources) geographical information/database system. The c...

  18. Geographical orientation. An integral geoperspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Cobo Arízaga

    2013-12-01

    This approach seeks to create a new line of discussion, to launch a proposal that is scientifically challenging to the hegemony of geographical thought and that provides new geographical rationality structures.

  19. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiriz, Kaddour; Gosselin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities’ preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities’ capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change. PMID:27649547

  20. Improving Weather Research and Forecasting Model Initial Conditions via Surface Pressure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Obsgrid) that creates input data for the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-ARW) is modified to perform a...Configuration  The Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-ARW) V3.6.1 (Skamarock et al. 2008) is applied with 56 vertical...those with more benign weather. On 7 February a trough moved onshore and led to widespread precipitation in the region . More quiescent weather was in

  1. Extreme weather events in Iran under a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh-Choobari, Omid; Najafi, M. S.

    2017-03-01

    Observations unequivocally show that Iran has been rapidly warming over recent decades, which in sequence has triggered a wide range of climatic impacts. Meteorological records of several ground stations across Iran with daily temporal resolution for the period 1951-2013 were analyzed to investigate the climate change and its impact on some weather extremes. Iran has warmed by nearly 1.3° C during the period 1951-2013 (+0.2° per decade), with an increase of the minimum temperature at a rate two times that of the maximum. Consequently, an increase in the frequency of heat extremes and a decrease in the frequency of cold extremes have been observed. The annual precipitation has decreased by 8 mm per decade, causing an expansion of Iran's dry zones. Previous studies have pointed out that warming is generally associated with more frequent heavy precipitation because a warmer air can hold more moisture. Nevertheless, warming in Iran has been associated with more frequent light precipitation, but less frequent moderate, heavy and extremely heavy precipitation. This is because in the subtropical dry zones, a longer time is required to recharge the atmosphere with water vapour in a warmer climate, causing more water vapour to be transported from the subtropics to high latitudes before precipitations forms. In addition, the altitude of the condensation level increases in a warmer climate in subtropical regions, causing an overall decrease of precipitation. We argue that changing in the frequency of heavy precipitation in response to warming varies depending on the geographical location. Warming over the dry subtropical regions is associated with a decrease in the frequency of heavy precipitation, while an increase is expected over both subpolar and tropical regions. The warmer climate has also led to the increase in the frequency of both thunderstorms (driven by convective heating) and dust events over Iran.

  2. Uncertainty Comparison of Visual Sensing in Adverse Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on flood-region detection using monitoring images. However, adverse weather affects the outcome of image segmentation methods. In this paper, we present an experimental comparison of an outdoor visual sensing system using region-growing methods with two different growing rules—namely, GrowCut and RegGro. For each growing rule, several tests on adverse weather and lens-stained scenes were performed, taking into account and analyzing different weather conditions with the outdoor visual sensing system. The influence of several weather conditions was analyzed, highlighting their effect on the outdoor visual sensing system with different growing rules. Furthermore, experimental errors and uncertainties obtained with the growing rules were compared. The segmentation accuracy of flood regions yielded by the GrowCut, RegGro, and hybrid methods was 75%, 85%, and 87.7%, respectively.

  3. Books, Places, Regions: A Natural Blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Pat

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that children love books, and through carefully selected books, geographic concepts can be taught. Explains how children's literature encourages geographic thinking, builds geographic skills, and develops lasting mental maps of places and regions. Discusses 14 suggested books. (CFR)

  4. MODELING FUZZY GEOGRAPHIC OBJECTS WITHIN FUZZY FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To improve the current GIS functions in describing geographic objects w ith fuzziness,this paper begins with a discussion on the distance measure of sp atial objects based on the theory of sets and an introduction of dilation and er osion operators.Under the assumption that changes of attributes in a geographic region are gradual,the analytic expressions for the fuzzy objects of points,l ines and areas,and the description of their formal structures are presented.Th e analytic model of geographic objects by means of fuzzy fields is developed.We have shown that the 9-intersection model proposed by Egenhofer and Franzosa (19 91) is a special case of the model presented in the paper.

  5. A epidemia de AIDS no Brasil e as desigualdades regionais e de oferta de serviço The AIDS epidemic in Brazil and differences according to geographic region and health services supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Grangeiro

    2010-12-01

    and primary health services showed low coverage rates. Differences were observed between geographic regions. Inequalities in the degree of implementation of the response to HIV may contribute to different profiles in the epidemic around the country.

  6. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...... inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  7. Tanzanian food origins and protected geographical indications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John, Innocensia Festo; Egelyng, Henrik; Lokina, Azack

    2016-01-01

    As the world's population is constantly growing, food security will remain on the policy Agenda, particularly in Africa. At the same time, global food systems experience a new wave focusing on local foods and food sovereignty featuring high quality food products of verifiable geographical origin...... and sovereignty and quality within an efficient marketing system with the availability of government support, hence the need to identify key candidates for GI certification. Five Tanzanian origin products were selected from 14 candidate agricultural products through a scoping study. Rice from Kyela, Aloe vera...... area, product quality perceived by the consumer in terms of taste, flavour, texture, aroma, appearance (colour, size) and perceptions of links between geography related factors (soil, land weather characteristics) and product qualities. A qualitative case study analysis was done for each of the (five...

  8. The Weather in Richmond

    OpenAIRE

    Harless, William Edwin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Weather in Richmond is a short documentary about the Oilers, the football team at Richmond High School in downtown Richmond, California, as they struggle in 2012 with the legacy of winning no games, with the exception of a forfeit, in two years. The video documents the city of Richmond’s poverty and violence, but it also is an account of the city’s cultural diversity, of the city’s industrial history and of the hopes of some of the people who grow up there. The...

  9. Combating bad weather

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta

    2015-01-01

    Every year lives and properties are lost in road accidents. About one-fourth of these accidents are due to low vision in foggy weather. At present, there is no algorithm that is specifically designed for the removal of fog from videos. Application of a single-image fog removal algorithm over each video frame is a time-consuming and costly affair. It is demonstrated that with the intelligent use of temporal redundancy, fog removal algorithms designed for a single image can be extended to the real-time video application. Results confirm that the presented framework used for the extension of the

  10. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.; Short, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a 15-year climatological study of severe weather events and related severe weather atmospheric parameters. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. The local forecast rules were used to set threat assessment thresholds for stability parameters that were derived from the sounding data. The severe weather events databases were used to identify days with reported severe weather and the CGLSS data was used to differentiate between lightning and non-lightning days. These data sets provided the foundation for analyzing the stability parameters and synoptic patterns that were used to develop an objective tool to aid in forecasting severe weather events. The period of record for the analysis was May - September, 1989 - 2003. The results indicate that there are certain synoptic patterns more prevalent on days with severe weather and some of the stability parameters are better predictors of severe weather days based on locally tuned threat values. The results also revealed the stability parameters that did not display any skill related to severe weather days. An interactive web-based Severe Weather Decision Aid was developed to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters, CGLSS data, and synoptic-scale dynamics. The tool will be tested and evaluated during the 2005 warm season.

  11. Assessment of Global Weather Disasters in 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chuanfeng

    2001-01-01

    The global climate in 2000 kept warmer than that in the average year. The strong La Nina weakened abruptly after reaching its second peak value over the central and eastern Pacific region along the equator in January. The event had significant impacts upon the world climate, especially that in the tropical regions. Many areas of the Northern Hemisphere suffered severe cold weather in winter and heat wave in summer. The globe was afflicted with severe high temperature, drought and forest fire, whereas many areas in southern Asia, Western Europe, southern Africa, and northern South America were frequently attacked by storm rainfall. It is estimated that the global economic loss caused by weather disasters in 2000 was over $100 billion with hundreds of millions of people affected.

  12. Euro-Climhist - a data platform for weather-, climate- and disaster history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The Euro-Climhist data base (http://www.euroclimhist.unibe.ch/de)/ presents evidence about weather and climate in space and time mostly originating from the archives of societies. It facilitates the cross-checking of proxy data with contemporaneous high-resolution narrative weather reports. Contemporary and non-contemporary data are distinguished for quality control. The original Euro-Climhist database was established between 1992 and 1994 to investigate weather patterns in Europe during the cold period of the late Maunder Minimum (1675-1715). The present-day internet version of Euro-Climhist went online in November 2015 with the Module Switzerland. It currently provides 160'000 records from 1501 to present, available in German, French, Italian and English. The module serves as a pilot project for developing an adequate methodology and user-friendly software. Currently a module "Middle Ages" led by Christian Rohr from the Bern University is being worked out. It includes evidence for the whole of Europe prior to 1501. Further modules may be established by regional working groups. The classification scheme includes 300 categories. A complementary facility—COMP—has been also been created to permit a still more precise description of events. For example, the facility can be used to describe in detail the impacts of nature-induced hazards. Moreover, it makes possible to rate quantitative evidence such as phenological data or the frequency of rain-days at a given location according to standard criteria. The elements of COMP are translated and can be augmented to an almost unlimited extent. The data are mapped according to the administrative organization of a country and to geographical units. Results are presented in the form of text and geographical charts. The structure of Euro-Climhist may be readily adapted to amplifications in relationship to content, spatial dimension and translation into further languages. In the long term, it may be possible to release

  13. NASA Space Weather Center Services: Potential for Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Space Weather Center's primary objective is to provide the latest space weather information and forecasting for NASA's robotic missions and its partners and to bring space weather knowledge to the public. At the same time, the tools and services it possesses can be invaluable for research purposes. Here we show how our archive and real-time modeling of space weather events can aid research in a variety of ways, with different classification criteria. We will list and discuss major CME events, major geomagnetic storms, and major SEP events that occurred during the years 2010 - 2012. Highlights of major tools/resources will be provided.

  14. The Geographical Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Schweikart

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Geographical Information System, normally called GIS, is a tool for representing spatial relationships and real processes with the help of a model. A GIS is a system of hardware, software and staff for collecting, managing, analysing and representing geospatial information. For example, we can study the evolution of an infectious disease in a certain territory, perform market analysis, or locate the best ways to choose a new industrial site. In substance, it is data manipulation software for that allows us to have, both the graphic component, that is a territorial representation of the reality that you want to represent, and the data components in the form of a database or more commonly, calculation sheets. Geographical data are divided in spatial data and attribute data: Spatial data are recorded as points, lines and polygons (vectorial structure. In other words, the survey systems have been projected to acquire information in accordance to elementary cells corresponding to a territorial grid (raster structure. It also includes remote sensing data.

  15. LEGAL INSTRUMENT FOR PROTECTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION PRODUCT IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almusawir Nansa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As an archipelago country, Indonesia comprises of a large territory where every region is capable of producing distinctive and characterized products due to its geographical, social, and cultural factors, in addition to its higher quality compared to imported products. In the market, goods with distinct characterization as a result of various geographical locations of production regions is known as Geographical Indication Products. Geographical Indication defines as a characterization that indicates the origin of a product, which includes several influencing factors such as geographical factor, natural factor, human factor or the combination of both factors which eventually contribute to establish a certain distinction and quality upon a product. Several geographical indicated products in Indonesia are widely known to have excellent reputation on the market, namely Delinese tobacco, Temanggung tobacco, Ciancur rice, Muntok white pepper, Lampung black pepper, Kerinci cinnamon, Cilembu cassava, Bandanese nutmeg, Proboliggo sweet mango, Balinese Kintamani coffee, Kalosi coffee, Papuan matoa, etc. Those are several richness of goods from certain regions in Indonesia widely known for their characterization. Characterization of goods are resulted by variation of geographic locations of producing regions in Indonesia. These goods possess high quality and high economic value. Consequently, certain instruments are required to provide protection upon the regions producing those goods against the act of counterfeiting.

  16. Rough weather rescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report, which was commissioned by the Offshore Division of the Health and Safety Executive, reviews the type of equipment and techniques used to rescue people from the water around offshore platforms in rough weather. It also examines the limitations of the equipment in extreme conditions and reports the views of the various industry sectors (as determined by a questionnaire survey). The type of incidents covered by the report include: man overboard; helicopter ditching; and evacuation from totally enclosed motor propelled survival craft (TEMPSC) and life rafts. The report considers: the approach taken by other oil-producing countries; current escape, evacuation and rescue (EER) practices for the UK Continental Shelf (UKCS); environmental limits; methods for rescue and recovery from the water and TEMPSC; launch and recovery systems; fast rescue craft (FSC) and daughter craft; emergency response and rescue vessels; helicopters; casualty personal protection equipment; claimed versus actual equipment performance; training and practice procedures; attitudes to environmental limits; lessons learnt from incidents; mechanical recovery devices; equipment design and use in rough weather; and recommendations for improvements.

  17. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  18. Space Weather- Physics and Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bothmer, Volker

    2007-01-01

    This book is a state-of-the-art review on the physics of space weather and on space weather impacts on human technology, including manned spaceflight. With contributions from a team of international experts, this comprehensive work covers all aspects of space weather physical processes, and all known aspects of space hazards from humans, both in space and on Earth. Space Weather - Physics and Effects provides the first comprehensive, scientific background of space storms caused by the sun and its impact on geospace focuses on weather issues that have become vital for the development of nationwide technological infrastructures explains magnetic storms on Earth, including the effects of EUV radiation on the atmosphere is an invaluable aid in establishing real-time weather forecasts details the threat that solar effects might have on modern telecommunication systems, including national power grid systems, aircraft and manned spaceflight.

  19. Extreme Convective Weather in Future Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadian, Alan; Burton, Ralph; Groves, James; Blyth, Alan; Warner, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy; Done, James; Thielen, Jutta

    2016-04-01

    WISER (Weather Climate Change Impact Study at Extreme Resolution) is a project designed to analyse changes in extreme weather events in a future climate, using a weather model (WRF) which is able to resolve small scale processes. Use of a weather model is specifically designed to look at convection which is of a scale which cannot be resolved by climate models. The regional meso-scale precipitation events, which are critical in understanding climate change impacts will be analysed. A channel domain outer model, with a resolution of ~ 20km in the outer domain drives an inner domain of ~ 3 km resolution. Results from 1989-1994 and 2020-2024 and 2030-2034 will be presented to show the effects of extreme convective events over Western Europe. This presentation will provide details of the project. It will present data from the 1989-1994 ERA-interim and CCSM driven simulations, with analysis of the future years as defined above. The representation of pdfs of extreme precipitation, Outgoing Longwave Radiation and wind speeds, with preliminary comparison with observations will be discussed. It is also planned to use the output to drive the EFAS (European Flood model) to examine the predicted changes in quantity and frequency of severe and hazardous convective rainfall events and leading to the frequency of flash flooding due to heavy convective precipitation.

  20. Determining optimum climate drivers for weather risk projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Erik; Kilian, Markus; Lucarini, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    In spite of the exponential increase of available data, the uncertainties of projections of weather variability, especially at local scale, have not decreased. This poses important challenges for the design of weather risk management strategies in various vulnerable sectors such as energy or agricultural production. This paper focuses on a two step methodology to enable projection of local weather risk in future climate scenarios. First, we focus on the optimum selection of drivers of regional weather patterns in order to project local weather variability risk estimates in future climate scenarios. This is carried out through the use of stochastic downscaling enabling conditional modelling of pixel-level distributions of weather variables as a function of inter-annual and inter-decadal climate variability drivers. Secondly, a statistical and physically-based climate model selection methodology is developed in order to produce a sub-ensemble of inter-annual and decadal variability drivers dataset that allows accurate and robust projection of weather variability. The case study of South Eastern Africa will be used. Datasets retrieved from CMIP5 repository in three RCP scenarios (historical, 8.5 and 2.5) are used as well as observed historical weather data.