WorldWideScience

Sample records for geographic region saudi

  1. Phytogeography of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlNafie, Abdulatif H

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the phyto geography of Saudi Arabia and examines its phytogeographic location within the complex plant geographical regions of the Middle East. It reviews and discuses works have that been published so far by plant geographers and biogeographers on the phytogeographical regions of Southwest Asia and Northeast Africa, and determines the location of Saudi Arabia within it. The delimitation of the frontiers between plant-regions in Saudi Arabia, especially the south western part, which has always created some difficulties for biogeographers as well as phytogeographers who have studied the region. (author)

  2. Extensive geographical and social structure in the paternal lineages of Saudi Arabia revealed by analysis of 27 Y-STRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khubrani, Yahya M; Wetton, Jon H; Jobling, Mark A

    2018-03-01

    Saudi Arabia's indigenous population is organized into patrilineal descent groups, but to date, little has been done to characterize its population structure, in particular with respect to the male-specific region of the Y chromosome. We have used the 27-STR Yfiler ® Plus kit to generate haplotypes in 597 unrelated Saudi males, classified into five geographical regions (North, South, Central, East and West). Overall, Yfiler ® Plus provides a good discrimination capacity of 95.3%, but this is greatly reduced (74.7%) when considering the reduced Yfiler ® set of 17 Y-STRs, justifying the use of the expanded set of markers in this population. Comparison of the five geographical divisions reveals striking differences, with low diversity and similar haplotype spectra in the Central and Northern regions, and high diversity and similar haplotype spectra in the East and West. These patterns likely reflect the geographical isolation of the desert heartland of the peninsula, and the proximity to the sea of the Eastern and Western areas, and consequent historical immigration. We predicted haplogroups from Y-STR haplotypes, testing the performance of prediction by using a large independent set of Saudi Arabian Y-STR + Y-SNP data. Prediction indicated predominance (71%) of haplogroup J1, which was significantly more common in Central, Northern and Southern groups than in East and West, and formed a star-like expansion cluster in a median-joining network with an estimated age of ∼2800 years. Most of our 597 participants were sampled within Saudi Arabia itself, but ∼16% were sampled in the UK. Despite matching these two groups by home sub-region, we observed significant differences in haplotype and predicted haplogroup constitutions overall, and for most sub-regions individually. This suggests social structure influencing the probability of leaving Saudi Arabia, correlated with different Y-chromosome compositions. The UK-recruited sample is an inappropriate proxy for

  3. Survey of the reptilian fauna of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. V. The lizard fauna of Turaif region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed K. Al-Sadoon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Turaif area located in the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important regions of the Kingdom. This work was proposed to throw light on the diversity of lizard fauna investigated through the collection and subsequent identification of specimens from different localities of Turaif region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Sixteen species of lizards belonging to 5 families (Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae and Varanidae were recorded. Lacertidae was the most common family. Three species of lizards namely Acanthodactylus orientalis, Acanthodactylus scutellatus and Acanthodactylus grandis were reported for the first time in the Turaif region of Saudi Arabia. The geographical distribution of the collected species within this province was mapped.

  4. Regional variations in the growth of Saudi children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mouzan, Mohammad; AlHerbish, Abdullah; AlSalloum, Abdullaha; Foster, Peter; Kecojevic, Tatjana; AlOmer, Ahmad; Alqurashi, Mansour

    2009-01-01

    No previous study has provided a detailed description of regional variations of growth within the various regions of Saudi Arabia. Thus, we sought to demonstrate differences in growth of children and adolescents in different regions. The 2005 Saudi reference was based on a cross-sectional representative sample of the Saudi population of healthy children and adolescents from birth to 18 years of age. Body measurements of the length, stature, weight, head circumference and calculation of the BMI were performed according to standard recommendations. Percentile construction and smoothing were performed using the LMS (lambda, mu and sigma) methodology, followed by transformation of all individual measurements into standard deviation scores. Factors such as weight for age, height for age, weight for height, and head circumference for children from birth to 3 years, stature for age, head circumference and body mass index for children between 2-18 years of age were assessed. Subsequently, variations in growth between the three main regions in the north, southwest, and center of Saudi Arabia were calculated, with the Bonferroni: method used to assess the significance of differences between regions. There were significant differences in growth between regions that varied according to age, gender, growth parameter and region. The highest variation was found between children and adolescents of the southwestern region and those of the other two regions The regression lines for all growth parameters in children <3 years of age were significantly different from one region to another reaching - 0.65 standard deviation scores for the southwestern regions ( P =.001). However, the difference between the northern and central regions were not significant for the head circumference and for weight for length. For older children and adolescents a significant difference was found in all parameters except between the northern and central regions in BMI in girls and head circumference in

  5. Validation of botanical origins and geographical sources of some Saudi honeys using ultraviolet spectroscopy and chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Khan, Khalid Ali; Adgaba, Nuru; El-Ahmady, Sherweit H; Gad, Haidy A; Roshan, Abdulrahman; Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Kolyali, Sevgi

    2018-02-01

    This study aims at distinguishing honey based on botanical and geographical sources. Different floral honey samples were collected from diverse geographical locations of Saudi Arabia. UV spectroscopy in combination with chemometric analysis including Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) were used to classify honey samples. HCA and PCA presented the initial clustering pattern to differentiate between botanical as well as geographical sources. The SIMCA model clearly separated the Ziziphus sp. and other monofloral honey samples based on different locations and botanical sources. The results successfully discriminated the honey samples of different botanical and geographical sources validating the segregation observed using few physicochemical parameters that are regularly used for discrimination.

  6. Epidemiological trends of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah Province, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miskelyemen Abdelatti Elmekki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the epidemiological trends of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, western region of KSA. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and sixty-seven parasitologically confirmed CL cases attending Al-Meeqat Hospital, Al-Madinah, during 2012–2015, were included in this study. Results: Both Saudi and non-Saudi nationals were infected, with the highest infection rate being among Saudis (68.7%. Males were more affected than females as 86.9% of the total CL cases were males. Moreover, CL was prevalent in all age groups with higher frequency among young adults and adolescents (23.1% and 22.7%, respectively. Interestingly, almost all the patients in the adolescent and child age groups were Saudis (96.2% and 93.5%, respectively. Considering geographical distribution, the highest percentage of the cases (40.5% were from the northern parts of Al-Madinah province while the eastern parts reported the least infection rate (7.3%. Few cases (2.5% were supposed to encounter the infection abroad. Additionally, the frequency of infection was found to follow a seasonal distribution. Regarding treatment, pentostam, ketoconazole, or cryotherapy were the treatment options usually used. Conclusion: CL is prevalent in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah area and new foci are being introduced. Thus, detailed studies with large surveillances regarding vector and reservoir hosts in and around the area are needed.

  7. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Panicum turgidum Forssk from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaeed, Abdulaziz M; Al-Faifi, Sulieman A; Migdadi, Hussein M; El-Bana, Magdy I; Al Qarawi, Abdulaziz A; Khan, Mohammad Altaf

    2018-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 177 accessions of Panicum turgidum Forssk, representing ten populations collected from four geographical regions in Saudi Arabia, was analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A set of four primer-pairs with two/three selective nucleotides scored 836 AFLP amplified fragments (putative loci/genome landmarks), all of which were polymorphic. Populations collected from the southern region of the country showed the highest genetic diversity parameters, whereas those collected from the central regions showed the lowest values. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 78% of the genetic variability was attributable to differences within populations. Pairwise values for population differentiation and genetic structure were statistically significant for all variances. The UPGMA dendrogram, validated by principal coordinate analysis-grouped accessions, corresponded to the geographical origin of the accessions. Mantel's test showed that there was a significant correlation between the genetic and geographical distances ( r  = 0.35, P  < 0.04). In summary, the AFLP assay demonstrated the existence of substantial genetic variation in P. turgidum . The relationship between the genetic diversity and geographical source of P. turgidum populations of Saudi Arabia, as revealed through this comprehensive study, will enable effective resource management and restoration of new areas without compromising adaptation and genetic diversity.

  8. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A preliminary survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive was performed in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia. Olive is a newly introduced crop in this region, and is cultivated in the agricultural enterprises of some of the biggest Saudi agricultural companies. Seedlings are mostly im...

  9. Study of Stroke Incidence in the Aseer Region, Southwestern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhazzani, Adel A; Mahfouz, Ahmed A; Abolyazid, Ahmed Y; Awadalla, Nabil J; Aftab, Razia; Faraheen, Aesha; Khalil, Shamsun Nahar

    2018-01-26

    Recent data regarding first-stroke incidence in Saudi Arabia in general and in the Aseer region in particular are scarce and even lacking. The aim of this work was to study the first-time stroke incidence in the Aseer region, southwestern Saudi Arabia. All first-stroke patients admitted to all hospitals in the Aseer region over a one-year period (January through December 2016) were included. Stroke patients outside the Aseer region were excluded from the study. The incidence per 100,000 patients and the concomitant 95% CI (Confidence Intervals) were computed. The present study included 1249 first-time stroke patients and calculated an overall minimal incidence rate of hospitalized first-time stroke of 57.64 per 100,000 persons per year (95% CI: 57.57-57.70). A steady increase was noticed depending on the patients' age, reaching a figure of 851.81 (95% CI: 849.2-854.5) for those patients aged 70 years and more. Overall, the incidence rate for females (48.14; 95% CI: 48.04-48.24) was lower compared to males (65.52; 95% CI: 65.1-66.0). Taking into consideration the expected rise of the elderly because of the prominent medical services provided by the Saudi government, leading to a subsequent change in the horizontal and vertical age distribution structure of the population, an increase in the number of stroke patients is expected. It is suggested to establish a nationwide stroke surveillance system in the Kingdom, with the objective to report, analyze, and maintain an updated overview of the stroke status in Saudi Arabia.

  10. Assessment of Genetic Connectivity between Sudan and Saudi Arabia for Commercially Important Fish Species

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, Sara N.

    2017-01-01

    loci). Samples from three geographically separate regions along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coastline, as well as from Sudan, were analyzed to address latitudinal and cross-sea connectivity. I was able to determine that little genetic differentiation

  11. Climate change and epidemiology of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Mohamed Lotfy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is an emerging global problem. It has hazardous effects that vary across different geographic regions and populations. It is anticipated to have significant effects in Saudi Arabia. The present work reviews the future of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia in response to the expected climate change. The key projections are increased precipitations, flash floods, unstable temperatures, sea-level rise and shoreline retreat. Such environmental changes could strongly influence the epidemiology of fly-borne, mosquito-borne, snail-borne and water-borne human parasitoses in the country.

  12. Indoor radon concentration measurement in the dwellings of Al-Jauf region of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jarallah, M. I.; Fazal ur, Rehman

    2006-01-01

    Indoor radon concentration measurement in the dwellings of Al-Jauf region of Saudi Arabia was carried out using passive radon dosemeters. The objective of this radon survey was to obtain representative indoor radon data of Al-Jauf region. The study is a continuation of radon survey in main cities of Saudi Arabia which constitutes a baseline for Saudi Arabia in the Radon World Atlas. A total of 318 passive radon dosemeters were distributed randomly in the region and placed for a period of 1 y starting from April 2004 to April 2005. The results of indoor radon concentration measurement in 136 dwellings distributed in Al-Jauf region are presented. The remaining dosemeters were lost in the dwellings or mishandled. The results showed that the average, minimum, maximum radon concentrations and standard deviation were 35, 7, 168 and 30 Bq m -3 , respectively. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of the radon distribution were found to be 28 and 1.83, respectively. (authors)

  13. The Prevalence of Dental Anomalies in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Afify, Ahmed R.; Zawawi, Khalid H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies that could be a cause of malocclusion in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study of 878 digital orthopantomograms (OPGs) taken of patients, age ranging between 12 and 30 years, who presented to treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 2002 and 2011. The OPGs and dental records were reviewed for con...

  14. The Spectrum of Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: The Results of the Saudi Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huraib S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary diagnostic facilities in the reporting centers. In order to overcome these problems, a registry for glomerulonephropathy was attempted in Saudi Arabia. Six large referral hospitals from different regions of Saudi Arabia participated in this registry. Biopsy reports and clinical information of 1294 renal biopsies were obtained. There were 782 renal biopsies due to glomerulonephritis (GN accounting for 77.2% of the total biopsies. Five hundred eighty seven (72.6% were primary glomerulonephritidis. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (21.3% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (20.7% were the most common types found in the primary glomerulonephritidis. Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN was present in only 10.6% of the cases. IgA nephropathy was found in 6.5% of the cases. Of the secondary glomerulo-nephritides, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE was the most common indication for biopsy (57.0% and amyloidosis was found in only 3.2% of the biopsies. In conclusion, FSGS and MPGN were the most common forms of primary glomerulonephritis in adult patients in Saudi Arabia. MGN was not as common as in the western world. SLE was the commonest cause of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was not as common as in other Arab countries. There is a need for more centers from Saudi Arabia to join this national GN registry. Similar registries can be established in different Arab countries, which all would, hopefully, lead to a Pan-Arab GN registry.

  15. Flood Hazard Assessment along the Western Regions of Saudi Arabia using GIS-based Morphometry and Remote Sensing Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Qianwen

    2014-12-01

    Flash flooding, as a result of excessive rainfall in a short period, is considered as one of the worst environmental hazards in arid regions. Areas located in the western provinces of Saudi Arabia have experienced catastrophic floods. Geomorphologic evaluation of hydrographic basins provides necessary information to define basins with flood hazard potential in arid regions, especially where long-term field observations are scarce and limited. Six large basins (from North to South: Yanbu, Rabigh, Khulais, El-Qunfza, Baish and Jizan) were selected for this study because they have large surface areas and they encompass high capacity dams at their downstream areas. Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing techniques were applied to conduct detailed morphometric analysis of these basins. The six basins were further divided into 203 sub-basins based on their drainage density. The morphometric parameters of the six basins and their associated 203 sub-basins were calculated to estimate the degree of flood hazard by combining normalized values of these parameters. Thus, potential flood hazard maps were produced from the estimated hazard degree. Furthermore, peak runoff discharge of the six basins and sub-basins were estimated using the Snyder Unit Hydrograph and three empirical models (Nouh’s model, Farquharson’s model and Al-Subai’s model) developed for Saudi Arabia. Additionally, recommendations for flood mitigation plans and water management schemes along these basins were further discussed.

  16. Saudi Arabia: A future regional hub for advanced education, research, science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2015-10-01

    Saudi Arabia is the largest country of the Arabian Peninsula, blessed with significant natural resources, including oil, gas and minerals. Saudi Arabia has recognised the importance of education in social and economic transformation, and has established a large number of universities, research and advanced technical institutes which have broken the metropolitan boundaries and have been extended to the far-flung areas of the country. There are 68 universities and degree-awarding institutes. The educational budget reached its highest-ever level of $56.56 billion for the year 2014. About 124,000 Saudi students are pursuing higher education in about 500 universities around the world. Saudi Arabia produced 177826 research papers in Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) database and in the year 2014 alone, 26168 research papers were published in indexed science journals with a rising h-index of 144. The country is turning into a regional hub for advanced education, research, science and technology while swiftly shifting from an oil-based to a knowledge-based economy.

  17. Rainfall Climatology over Asir Region, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, H.; Furl, C.; Al-Zahrani, M.

    2012-04-01

    Arid and semi-arid lands occupy about one-third of the land surface of the earth and support about one-fifth of the world population. The Asir area in Saudi Arabia is an example of these areas faced with the problem of maintaining sustainable water resources. This problem is exacerbated by the high levels of population growth, land use changes, increasing water demand, and climate variability. In this study, the characteristics of decade-scale variations in precipitation are examined in more detail for Asir region. The spatio-temporal distributions of rainfall over the region are analyzed. The objectives are to identify the sensitivity, magnitude, and range of changes in annual and seasonal evapotranspiration resulting from observed decade-scale precipitation variations. An additional objective is to characterize orographic controls on the space-time variability of rainfall. The rainfall data is obtained from more than 30 rain gauges spread over the region.

  18. Measuring Job Satisfaction Patterns in Saudi ArabiaÕs Southern Regions Hospitals: Implications for Hospital Staff Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Alshahrani Bander Sayaf

    2015-01-01

    Saudi Arabia Southern Region hospitals have shortage of health professionals especially doctors. Retention of quality doctors and minimizing staff turnover has, therefore, become a major priority for hospitals. Job satisfaction is recognized as key factor influencing retention of doctors. In our paper special emphasis is put on doctors working is Southern Region hospitals of Saudi Arabia. By conducting correlation analysis we determine the most important factors conducive to job satisfaction....

  19. SaudiVeg ecoinformatics: Aims, current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Sheikh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots were established in many countries around the world. These databases contain valuable phytosociological information assisting both governmental and NGO (Non-governmental organizations agencies to formulate strategies and on-ground plans to manage and protect nature resources. This paper provides an account on aims, current status and perspectives of building of a vegetation database for the Central Region (Najd of Saudi Arabia – the founding element of the Saudi Vegetation Database (SVD. The data stored by the database are sample plots (vegetation relevés collected according to the field techniques of the Braun-Blanquet approach (lists of taxa accompanied by semi-quantitative cover assessment, and are accompanied by general vegetation characteristics such as vegetation layering and cover, information on life-form of the recorded species, geographical coordinates, altitude, soil typology, topography and many more. More than 2900 vegetation-plot records (relevés have so far been collected in the Najd region; of these more than 2000 have already been stored using the Turboveg database platform. These field records cover many habitats such as depressions, wadis (dry river beds, agricultural lands, sand dunes, sabkhas, and ruderal habitats. The ecological information collected in the database is currently the largest set of vegetation data collated into a database in the Middle East. These data are of great importance for biodiversity studies in Saudi Arabia, since the region is recording a loss of biodiversity at a fast rate due to environmental problems such as global warming and land-use changes. We envisage that this database would catalyze further data collection on vegetation of the entire Arabian Peninsula, and shall serve as one of the most important datasets for classification and mapping of the vegetation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  20. Aerosol and Cloud Microphysical Properties in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axisa, Duncan; Kucera, Paul; Burger, Roelof; Li, Runjun; Collins, Don; Freney, Evelyn; Posada, Rafael; Buseck, Peter

    2010-05-01

    In recent advertent and inadvertent weather modification studies, a considerable effort has been made to understand the impact of varying aerosol properties and concentration on cloud properties. Significant uncertainties exist with aerosol-cloud interactions for which complex microphysical processes link the aerosol and cloud properties. Under almost all environmental conditions, increased aerosol concentrations within polluted air masses will enhance cloud droplet concentration relative to that in unperturbed regions. The interaction between dust particles and clouds are significant, yet the conditions in which dust particles become cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are uncertain. In order to quantify this aerosol effect on clouds and precipitation, a field campaign was launched in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia as part of a Precipitation Enhancement Feasibility Study. Ground measurements of aerosol size distributions, hygroscopic growth factor, CCN concentrations as well as aircraft measurements of cloud hydrometeor size distributions were done in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia in August 2009. Research aircraft operations focused primarily on conducting measurements in clouds that are targeted for cloud top-seeding, on their microphysical characterization, especially the preconditions necessary for precipitation; understanding the evolution of droplet coalescence, supercooled liquid water, cloud ice and precipitation hydrometeors is necessary if advances are to be made in the study of cloud modification by cloud seeding. Non-precipitating mixed-phase clouds less than 3km in diameter that developed on top of the stable inversion were characterized by flying at the convective cloud top just above the inversion. Aerosol measurements were also done during the climb to cloud base height. The presentation will include a summary of the analysis and results with a focus on the unique features of the Asir region in producing convective clouds, characterization of the

  1. Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Kamran Bokhari; Zaheer, Kamran Bokhari; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Bagi, Mustafa Abdel; Assiri, Mohammed Abdullah

    2013-02-01

    To report the prevalence of impacted third molars according to the age, gender and type among Saudi population. This retrospective study involved 3800 panoramic radiographs of subjects aged 18 to 45 years who presented to the College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for oral care during the period from February 2009 to February 2011. Data collected was entered into a spreadsheet (Excel 2000; Microsoft, US) and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. A total of 713 impacted teeth were identified (18.76%) (p=0.003). The male to female ratio with impacted third molars was 604:109 (5.54:1) and the ratio of patients with impacted teeth was (5:1). Age group 1 (i.e., 20 to 25 years)had the highest prevalence of third molar tooth impaction (64.5%) and this decreased with increasing age. Incidence of tooth impaction is higher in the mandible than in maxilla. Males had a higher incidence of third molar impaction as compared to the females. Highest incidence is found in the age group of 20-25 years. Mesio-angular impaction was the most predominant type. How to cite this article: Syed KB, Kota Z, Ibrahim M, Bagi MA, Assiri MA. "Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years". J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):43-47.

  2. The persistence of rift valley fever in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfadil, A A; Hasab-Allah, K A; Dafa-Allah, O M; Elmanea, A A

    2006-12-01

    A survey was conducted in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia to investigate the presence of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in sheep and goats, by clinical identification of suspected herds and detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to RVF virus. The level of herd immunity was identified by detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Rift Valley fever was diagnosed in six out of eight districts included in the survey. Twenty-two animals from 17 herds tested positive for the presence of IgM antibodies against RVF in these districts. The infection rate ranged from 0.12% in the Sabya district to 1.04% in the Jizan district. The level of herd immunity ranged from 22.2% in Jizan to 39.3% in the Alarda district. It can be concluded that the presence of IgM antibodies in clinically suspected herds suggests persistent RVF infection in the Jazan region. Thus, RVF control programmes should be continued to prevent the recurrence of outbreaks in the region and the possible further spread of infection to other regions of Saudi Arabia.

  3. The prevalence of sickle cell disease in Saudi children adolescents: Acommunity based survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qurashi, Mansour M.; El-Mouzan, Mohammad I.; Al-Herbish, Abdullah S.; Al-Salloum, AbdullhA.; Al-Omar, Ahmad A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to determine the prevalence and regional distribution ofsickle cell disease in Saudi children. A sample size of 45,682 children andadolescents from newborn to 19 years of age was selected by multistage randomprobability sampling of the Saudi households from each of the 13 regions ofthe country. The study is cross-sectional, community based and conducted over2 years from 2004 to 2005. Data including history and clinical examinationwere collected with house-to-house survey of all selected households. Datamanagement and analysis was carried out at King Saud University, Riyadh,Saudi Arabia. Sickle cell disease was detected in 108 of 45,682 children andadolescents with a prevalence of 24 per 10,000. The regional distribution ofsickle cell disease showed eastern region dominance with a prevalence of 145per 10,000, followed by the southern region with a prevalence of 24 per10,000, western region 12 per 10,000and central region with 6 per 10,000. Nocases were found in the northern region. The male to female ratio wasapproximately 1:1. The results of this national wide community-based surveyshow a high prevalence of sickle cell disease. In the community and thedisease is more common in eastern and southern regions of the country.National or regional newborn screening programs for sickle cell disease usinghematological tests should be planned. This study shows that the populationat risk has an uneven geographical distribution. For this reason, selectiverather than universal neonatal screening is likely to be more appropriate inthe country. (author)

  4. Optimization of Broadband Seismic Network in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Alshuhail, Abdulrahman

    2011-05-01

    Saudi Arabia covers a large portion of the Arabian plate, a region characterized by seismic activity, along complex divergent and convergent plate boundaries. In order to understand these plate boundaries it is essential to optimize the design of the broadband seismic station network to accurately locate earthquakes. In my study, I apply an optimization method to design the broadband station distribution in Saudi Arabia. This method is based on so called D-optimal planning criterion that optimizes the station distribution for locating the hypocenters of earthquakes. Two additional adjustments were implemented: to preferentially acquire direct and refracted wave, and to account for geometric spreading of seismic waves (and thus increases the signal to noise ratio). The method developed in this study for optimizing the geographical location of broadband stations uses the probability of earthquake occurrence and a 1-D velocity model of the region, and minimizes the ellipsoid volume of the earthquake location errors. The algorithm was applied to the current seismic network, operated by the Saudi Geologic Survey (SGS). Based on the results, I am able to make recommendations on, how to expand the existing network. Furthermore, I quantify the efficiency of our method by computing the standard error of epicenter and depth before and after adding the proposed stations.

  5. Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia: 2012 Data from the Saudi Cancer Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarbashi, Shouki; Al Eid, Haya; Minguet, Joan

    2017-09-27

    Background: In order to most appropriately allocate healthcare and research funding for cancer, it is important to have accurate population-based incidence data. The Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) provides such information, covering the time period from 1994 to the present day. The current report concerns an overview of cancer incidence statistics for Saudi Arabia in 2012. Methods: The SCR collects data from healthcare facilities throughout the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. All newly diagnosed cases of cancer are recorded, with information on site and histology. For the present report, age-standardised and age-specific incidence rates (ASR, AIR, respectively) were calculated, with attention to gender-specific and regional differences. Results: The total number of incident cases of cancer identified by the SCR in 2012 was 14,336, with 6,791 (47.5%) among males and 7,545 (52.6%) among females. Of this total, 11,034 cases (76.9%) occurred in patients of Saudi origin. For Saudi males, the overall ASR (inc. all cancer sites) was 78.1 per 100,000 people, while that for females was 86.7. Incidence varied by region, with the Eastern region and Riyadh displaying the highest ASRs for both males and females, and Hail and Jazan displaying the lowest. Incidence varied by gender, with colorectal cancer (13.3%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; 8.4%), and leukaemia (8.2%) being the most common types in males, and breast (25.8%), thyroid (11.7%), and colorectal cancers (9.3%) being the most common in females. Conclusions: This analysis of cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia demonstrated significant differences according to gender, age, and region of the Kingdom. The data should help ensure the most appropriate allocation of resources, with the aim of minimising the healthcare burden associated with cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  6. The relationship between heavy metal concentration and soil mycoflora in the Gizan region, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Falih, A. M. [عبد الله مساعد خلف الفالح

    1997-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from different places from the Gizan region, Saudi Arabia, and analyzed mechanically and chemically for mineral content. The soils were highly alkaline and sandy in texture in all cases. The concentration of Zn, Pb and Cu were within the ranges reported earlier for some Saudi Arabian soils, while Fe, Co and Al occurred in high concentrations. There was a high content of total soluble salts in the samples tested. There was a marked decrease in bacterial counts, a...

  7. Periodontal disease awareness among pregnant women in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa'ad, Farah A; Rahman, Ghousia; Al Mahmoud, Noura; Al Shamasi, Ebtehaj; Al Khuwaileidi, Abrar

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness regarding periodontal disease and its effects on pregnancy among pregnant women in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional survey, self-administered, structured questionnaires were distributed to 300 pregnant women who were chosen randomly from attendees of maternity health care centers in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. The questions were developed from literature reviews of articles. The questionnaire addressed personal and sociodemographic variables, periodontal health awareness, and knowledge of pregnant women. The questionnaire was translated into Arabic and was pretested during the pilot study on a random sample of 50 pregnant women. Data were analyzed by χ(2) -tests, with the level of significance set at P disease could be prevented through toothbrushing and flossing. Approximately 97% of the respondents knew the negative effect of smoking, while only 12% knew there was a possible relationship between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The results of this cross-sectional study found that there is limited knowledge and awareness about periodontal disease and its possible effects on pregnancy among pregnant women attending maternal health care centers in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Geopolitical hotspots : Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation

  9. Quality of hypertension care in the family practice center, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahia M Al-Khaldi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension (HTN is a common health problem in Saudi Arabia. Good control depends on the quality of care, which should be supervised and monitored regularly through clinical audit. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the quality of HTN care at Al-Manhal Family Practice, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. Settings and Design: This study was conductedin 2009 at Al-Manhal Family Practice, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Medical records of all hypertensive patients were extracted and reviewed using master sheets. Assessment of processes and outcomes of HTN care were based on the standards of quality assurance manual issuedby the Ministry of Health. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were entered and analyzed by SPPS, version 15. Relevant statistical tests were used accordingly and the P-value was considered significant when it was less than 0.05. Results: A total of 295 medical records were reviewed and assessed. Most patients were Saudi, married, and about 50% were educated. Two-hundred and thirty-one records were assessed for processes and outcomes of HTN care. Weight measurement and physical examination were carried out for 99% and 97% of the patients, respectively. For 53% of the patients, blood was checked for glucose and kidney function and a lipid profile was done. More than two-thirds of the patients were overweight and obese while 46% had diabetes. Less than one half of the patients had good control of HTN. Conclusions: By most standards, quality of HTN care in Al-Manhal Family Practice was unsatisfactory. Most of the patients had comorbidities and poor HTN control. Essential facilities should be provided to the practice to optimize HTN care and to improve the degree of control.

  10. Human sensitization to Prosopis Juliflora antigen in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Frayh, A.; Gad-el-Rab, Mohammed O.; Al-Mobeireek, K.; Al-Turki, T.; Hasnain, Syed M.; Al-Sedairy, Sultan T.

    1999-01-01

    Allergenicity Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported fromonly a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. Insome parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by themillions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasonsduring which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role ofProsopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has neverbeen evaluated. A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from the bronchialasthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf, Gizan),and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university andMinistry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediatehypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis Juliflora allergens. Airborne pollengrains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetricsampling techniques. A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29%in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiplesensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. Thelevel of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m ofair. In view of documented evidence of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizingfactor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However the cause of elicitationof symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the questionof cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitroconfirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopisas one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  11. Geographical baselines of sustainable planning of the regional development of Zasavje region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Plut

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Geographical baselines of planning the regional development and interventions into the geographical environment derive from the premises of the concept of permanent adjusting the anthropogenic changes in the landscape to specific capacities and limitations of landscape-forming components. In the landscape-degraded region of Zasavje the improvement of environmental quality (curative measures and regional economic progress within the scope of carrying capacities and space (preventative measures are the primary, developmentaly-environmentally devised goal of developmental strategy.

  12. Factors affecting performance of hospital nurses in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmadi, Hanan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify factors influencing performance of hospital nurses in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia. Specific objectives were to estimate self-reported performance, and determine whether differences in employee demographics, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment, influenced performance. In total, 15 hospitals were randomly selected. The questionnaire was sent to all nurses (1,834) in these facilities and 923 nurses responded. Statistical analysis included correlation, t-test, and regression analysis. The study finds that job performance is positively correlated with organizational commitment, job satisfaction and personal and professional variables. Both job satisfaction and organizational commitment are strong predictors of nurses' performance. Job performance is positively related to some personal factors, including years of experience, nationality, gender, and marital status. Level of education is negatively related to performance. The findings of this study have a limited generalisability due to the fact that all measures used are based on self-reports. Future research may be directed to other objective measures of performance. Emphasis should be placed on effective supervision, empowerment, and a better reward system. Cultural diversity is a reality for most health organizations in Saudi Arabia; therefore, they need to adopt effective human resources strategies that aim to improve commitment and retention of qualified workers, and build a high performance organizational culture based on empowerment, open communication, and appreciation of impact of national culture on work attitudes. This study fulfills a research gap in the area of nursing performance, and its relationship with work attitudes in Saudi Arabia. The paper also highlights the impact of national culture on job performance and work attitude among nurses in Saudi Arabia, and other countries facing the issue of multi-national work force.

  13. Geometric algorithms for delineating geographic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinbacher, I.

    2006-01-01

    Everyone of us is used to geographical regions like the south of Utrecht, the dutch Randstad, or the mountainous areas of Austria. Some of these regions have crisp, fixed boundaries like Utrecht or Austria. Others, like the dutch Randstad and the Austrian mountains, have no such boundaries and are

  14. Different Factors of Llap as a Geographic Region

    OpenAIRE

    , F. Isufi; , S. Halimi; , F. Humolli

    2011-01-01

    In this work attempts were made to express in the best possible manner the factors which differentiate the Llap as geographic region. The Llap Region is located in the north-east of Kosovo. Within the ethnic geography, the Llap area is having peripheric position, but within the Balkan Penninsula it is having a central position, while along Llap goes the Highway which connects Kosovo and Serbia. The Llap region has important natural conditions; such as very good geographic position, running an...

  15. The National and Regional Prevalence Rates of Disability, Type, of Disability and Severity in Saudi Arabia-Analysis of 2016 Demographic Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindawas, Saad M; Vennu, Vishal

    2018-02-28

    The prevalence of disability varies between countries ranging from less than 1% to up to 30% in some countries, thus, the estimated global disability prevalence is about 15%. However, it is unknown what the current estimate of disability and its types and severity are in Saudi Arabia. Thus, the objective of this study is to estimate national and regional prevalence rates of any disability, types of disability, and their severity among Saudi populations. Data on disability status were extracted from the national demographic survey conducted in 2016 as reported by the General Authority for Statistics, Saudi Arabia (N = 20,064,970). Prevalence rates per a population of 100,000 of any disability, type of disability, and its severity were calculated at the national level and in all 13 regions. Out of 20,064,970 Saudi citizens surveyed, 667,280 citizens reported disabilities, accounting for a prevalence rate of 3326 per a population of 100,000 (3.3%). Individuals aged 60 years and above (11,014) and males (3818) had a higher prevalence rate of disability compared with females (2813). The Tabuk region has the highest rate of reported disability, at 4.3%. The prevalence rates of extreme disabilities in mobility and sight were higher in Madinah (57,343) and Northern border (41,236) regions, respectively. In Saudi Arabia, more than half a million Saudi citizens (1 out of every 30 individuals) reported the presence of disability during the year 2016. A higher prevalence rate of disability was seen among those aged 60 years and above, and males. Targeted efforts are required at the national and regional levels to expand and improve rehabilitation and social services for all people with disabilities.

  16. Geographical data structures supporting regional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.G.; Durfee, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the computer has become a valuable aid in solving regional environmental problems. Over a hundred different geographic information systems have been developed to digitize, store, analyze, and display spatially distributed data. One important aspect of these systems is the data structure (e.g. grids, polygons, segments) used to model the environment being studied. This paper presents eight common geographic data structures and their use in studies of coal resources, power plant siting, population distributions, LANDSAT imagery analysis, and landuse analysis

  17. Pediatric hypertension in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahtani, Shaea A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the levels of blood pressure (BP) between male and female adolescents in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and reference percentiles for Saudi adolescents. A secondary aim was to explore the distribution of BP among the participants based on age and gender. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 146 boys and girls attending intermediate and secondary schools in 2 regions (Al-Mallaha and Al-Mubarraz) in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Weight, random blood glucose, and BP were collected by a team of health educators in the morning of the school day between April and May 2014. Results: Of the current sample of adolescents originally from the Eastern Province, 30% had systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥140 mm Hg and 22% had diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg. For girls between 13 and 16 years old, the SBP was greater than the 95th percentile of Saudi national norms. Participants were classified by gender and school stage, and one-way analysis of variance showed significant differences in the means of SBP between intermediate boys (127±2.5 mm Hg) and secondary boys (136±2.1 mm Hg) (p<0.05), and between intermediate boys and intermediate girls (138±1.6 mm Hg) (p<0.01). Conclusion: The increased level of BP among adolescents originally from the Eastern Province raises the need to update the current BP nomograms, considering possible differences for specific geographic areas across the country. Implementing therapeutic life style management in girls’ schools is recommended. PMID:25987114

  18. Nuptiality pattern in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, M K; al-Mazrou, Y Y; Baldo, M H; Aziz, K M; al-Shehri, S N

    1995-01-01

    The data of this work are based on the 'Saudi Maternal and Child Health Survey' conducted in 1991. This was a nationwide house to house field survey. The study included 6294 ever-married Saudi female in the childbearing age who represent the target population. They were randomly selected from both urban and rural settings of the five geographical areas of Saudi Arabia. The mean current age of the sample of ever-married women was 31 years and the mean age at first marriage was 17 and 16 years for urban and rural females, respectively. Education was associated with upward shift of the age at first marriage. About 20 per cent of the sampled ever-married Saudi females got married before their 15th birthday and 83 per cent before reaching 20 years of age. These percentages are even higher in rural than urban settings. The overall percentage of women who were currently married at the time of the survey was 96 per cent. The divorced and widowed women of childbearing age were 2 and 3 per cent, respectively, of the total. Husband's educational level had positive impact on the frequency of divorce. The latter was highest among women married to illiterate husbands with a dose response pattern. Comparison has been made with the situation 4 years ago. An increase in literacy rates among Saudi ever-married women and their husbands was observed, however, a significant (P < 0.05) difference still exists between female and male literacy rates (38 and 71 per cent, respectively). The events of early marriage, before the age of 15 years, became less frequent. There is an overall decline in teenage marriages which explains a large part of the recent changes observed in nuptiality and pattern of birth in Saudi Arabia.

  19. Occurrence of ectoparasitic arthropods associated with rodents in Hail region northern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiry, Khalid A; Fetoh, Badr El-Sabah A

    2014-09-01

    Ectoparasitic arthropods are a diverse element of the Saudi fauna. Due to this, a survey of ectoparasites associated with rodents was conducted as a preliminary study in five districts of Hail region of northern Saudi Arabia for the first time. Ectoparasites extracted from 750 rodents were sampled and identified by recording their frequency of appearance. Results revealed that 1,287 ectoparasites infested 316 of the captured rodent hosts. These ectoparasites parasitized on four species of rodents including three species of rats Rattus rattus rattus, Rattus rattus frugivorus, and Rattus rattus alexandrinus and one species of mouse Acomys dimidiatus (Rodentia: Muridae). The ectoparasites belong to four different groups: ticks, fleas, lice, and mites. Ticks were the highest in the number, while fleas were the lowest among all the extracted ectoparasite groups. The collected ectoparasitic arthropods consisted of seven species. Ticks were of two species: Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae), fleas were of two species: Xenopsylla cheopis and Xenopsyllus conformis mycerini (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), lice was a single species: Polyplax serrata (Anoplura: Hoplopleuridae), and mites were of two species: Laelaps nuttali and Laelaps echidninus (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae). The findings of the study showed that the intensity of infestation was varied between rodent host sexes, wherein females had the highest rate of parasitic infestation, and the parasitic index of appearance was very high for one group of parasites (i.e., ticks). The parasitic prevalence was 42.13 % on rodents, and mites were the most prevalent parasite species. Overall, this study was carried out to establish baseline data for ectoparasite-infested rodents in Hail region, Saudi Arabia, and may help for appropriate planning to control zoonotic diseases in this area.

  20. Human sensitization to Prosopis juliflora antigen in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Frayh, A; Hasnain, S M; Gad-El-Rab, M O; Al-Turki, T; Al-Mobeireek, K; Al-Sedairy, S T

    1999-01-01

    Allergenicity to Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported from only a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. In some parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by the millions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasons during which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role of Prosopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or triggering agent of allergic asthma and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has never been evaluated. A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from bronchial asthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf and Gizan), and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university and Ministry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediate hypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis juliflora allergens. Airborne pollen grains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetric sampling techniques. A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29% in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiple sensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. The level of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m -3 of air. In view of the documented evidence of Prosopis-involved allergenicity, the role of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizing factor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However, the cause of elicitation of symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the question of cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitro confirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopis as one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia.

  1. Saudi Arabia and Regional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    and Kuwait to the north; by the Persian Gulf, Qatar , the United Arab Emirates, and Oman to the east; by Oman and Yemen to the South; and by the Red Sea...on both the east and west coasts, primary and secondary aquifers that may not be renewable, and a growing system of dams that attempt to capture the...water plants producing 230 million gallons of water per day. (1:1289) More than 20 deep aquifers have been discovered in Saudi Arabia with 340

  2. Social-geographical essence and content of the competitiveness of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gryniuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The current stage of market transformations in Ukraine requires the changing of existing stereotypes and management. Expecting for administrative reform and economic regionalization of the state requires detailed attention to the scientific concept of "competitiveness of the region." Being economical in nature this concept requires social and geographical understanding. The paper traced the content and nature of the economic competitiveness of the region in social and geographical interpretation. Author presents the fragments of research model components of regional competitiveness. The effective influence of socio-geographical laws, patterns, factors and competitive advantages that determine the strategic potential of the region is figured on. The importance of individual studies of functional subsystems, industrial, social, recreation and tourism, natural resources, administrative and management, investment and innovation under the influence of social transformation is noted. Based on scientific generalizations, the author's definition of region competitiveness was suggested. It is defined by the author as an integrated concept that reveals the state, the process and the outcome of the territory as a socio-economic system. The basis of regional competitiveness is the potential of the territory able to function effectively on the basis of competition (social and geographical advantages. The main goal here should be improvement of the region population quality of life. The work reveals the contribution of individual schools and social geographers’ studies to the development of regional competitiveness. The importance of further development of the theory and methodology of social and geographical research competitiveness of the region is stressed.

  3. Seismicity of the Tihamat-Asir region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghelani, Habib M.

    1979-01-01

    Knowledge of the seismicity of the west coast of Saudi Arabia is vitally important to the Kingdom. The eastern margin of the Red Sea, which includes all of the west coast of Saudi Arabia, is possibly cut by transform faults that may be capable of producing earthquakes large enough to cause damage in the heavily populated areas or in the industrial complexes under construction. Prior to this study, there were no seismic stations in Saudi Arabia and no studies of microearthquake activity. It was generally assumed that there were no active faults along the west coast. During the period 20 January to 22 February, 1978, five portable seismic stations were deployed in the Tihamat Asir in the southwest part of the country. A significant level of microearthquake activity was detected at a location that approximately coincides with the landward extension of the proposed transform fault. The recording of these earthquakes demonstrates that there are active faults at this location, probably associated with the currently active Red Sea tectonic system. The practical significance of these earthquakes cannot be evaluated from the few data available, and further studies should be undertaken to determine if there are significant seismic hazards along the west coast of Saudi Arabia. 

  4. Puberty Onset among Boys in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Al Alwan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors; however, due to lack of country-specific norms, clinicians in Saudi Arabia use Western estimates as standards of reference for local children. Aims The aim of the Riyadh Puberty Study was to provide data on pubertal development to determine the average age of onset of pubertal characteristics among Saudi boys. Methods Cross-sectional study among male school children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2006, 542 schoolboys, aged 6 to 16 years old, from diverse socioeconomic levels were selected into the sample using a cluster sample design. Tanner stages were ascertained during physical examination by pediatric endocrine consultants, and also trained pediatric residents and fellows. Results The mean age (standard deviation at Tanner Stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 for pubic hair development of Saudi boys was 11.4 (1.6, 13.3 (1.3, 14.4 (1.0 and 15.1 (0.8 years old, respectively. For gonadal development, the mean age (standard deviation at stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 11.4 (1.5, 13.3 (1.2, 14.3 (1.1 and 15.0 (0.9 years old, respectively. Conclusion The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics, based on gonadal development, among Saudi boys are comparable to those reported in Western populations.

  5. Seasonal variation and trend of chicken pox in the southern region of Saudi Arabia (2007-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Noha; Al Moghazy, Bassem

    2014-12-01

    Chicken pox is a contagious disease caused by varicella zoster virus. Children are most susceptible to infection. In 1998, the WHO recommended that routine childhood varicella vaccination be considered in countries where the disease is a relatively important public health concern. There are few data on the trends of chicken pox. We aimed to evaluate the trend of chicken pox in Saudi Arabia (KSA) during the period 2007-2012. Data were collected by retrospective review of the existing anonymous surveillance records and book registries of chicken pox cases at the preventive medicine department of Armed Forces Hospital of the Southern Region of Saudi Arabia from 2007 to 2012. The collected data included the number, age, and sex of registered cases. A seasonal pattern was clearly demonstrated, with peak in March and April. There was also a decreasing trend from 2007 to 2012. Most cases occurred in the age group 4-15 years. The number of infected male patients was a little higher compared with female patients. These results indicate success in controlling the disease in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, which may be attributed to the implementation of public health interventions targeted at reducing infectious diseases (such as the introduction of varicella zoster vaccine in 2008). We recommend that a future study be conducted on the severity of chicken pox infection in adults (hospitalization, complications, and death) and a national survey among adults for the seroprevalence of markers of infection with varicella zoster.

  6. The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghamdi IG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK Background: The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results: A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0, followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0, and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6. The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion: There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah

  7. Incidence rate of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas among males in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Cancer Registry, 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghamdi IG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy5 1School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK; 2Albaha University, Al Baha city, Saudi Arabia; 3General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Al Baha, 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals NHSTrust, Lincoln, UK Background: This study describes epidemiological data of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi men. Materials and methods: Retrospective data from all NHL cancer cases among Saudi men recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR between January 2001 and December 2008 were used. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and simple linear regression were also used. Results: In total, 2,555 new cases of NHL were recorded between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had the highest overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR at 7.8, followed by the Eastern region at 6.8, and Makkah at 6.1 per 100,000 men; however, Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest average ASIRs at 2.5, 3.7, and 3.9 per 100,000 men, respectively. The incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases was significantly higher in Riyadh (4.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.11–5.32, followed by Makkah (4.47, 95% CI 3.94–5.07, and the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia (3.27, 95% CI 2.90–3.69 than that in the reference region of Jazan. Jouf had the highest changes in the ASIRs of NHL among Saudi men from 2001 and 2008 (5.0 per 100,000 men. Conclusion: A significant increase in the crude incidence rate and ASIR for NHL in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008 was found. Riyadh, the Eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest rates. Additionally, Riyadh, Makkah, and the Eastern region had the

  8. Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management Systems (PIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlAhmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-12-19

    Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

  9. Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ahmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

  10. Incidence rate of ovarian cancer cases in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghamdi IG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy51School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Al-Baha University, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia; 3Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital–Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UKPurpose: This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling.Results: A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (P<0.001 in the Makkah region at 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.13–9.83, followed by Riyadh at 6.3 (95% CI: 4.10–9.82, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98. The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years and 1.71 + (0.09× years, respectively.Conclusion: We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and

  11. Injection Safety among Primary Health Care Workers in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Ismail

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational exposure to percutaneous injuries is a substantial source of infections with blood-borne pathogens among health-care workers. Few studies evaluated injection safety practices in Saudi Arabia. Objective: To examine the structure and process of injection safety at primary health care level in Jazan health district, to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices of primary health care physicians and nurses towards injection safety, and to determine the incidence of needle stick injuries among health care workers in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jazan primary health care centers (PHCCs, Saudi Arabia from September 2011 to March 2012. Data were collected using an observational checklist and data collection sheet. Jazan city health district was chosen at random from the 14 health sectors in Jazan region. All the 33 (10 urban, and 23 rural PHCCs of Jazan city were included in this study to get the predetermined sample size of health care workers. 200 health care workers (HCWs were recruited (29% physicians, and 71% nurses. Results: Syringes in the PHCCs were disposable (100%, individually packed (92%, and available at all volumes (98%. Methods of safe disposal of needles and sharps were also operated through contracting with professional companies in 84.8% of instances. Urban PHCCs had more posts for injection safety promotion than rural centers (p=0.02. Continuous Medical Education (CME programs on infection control were present in only 60% of PHCCs. At least 95% of HCWs in Jazan believed that sharp objects should be kept in a puncture-proof container, kept in a closed container, or disposed by a professional company. More than 80% of HCWs washed their hands by soap and water and cleaned them by alcohol before giving injection, and also got the three doses of hepatitis B vaccine.The rate of needle stick injury in the past year was 14%, without a significant difference between

  12. Hemoglobin H disease in the Al-Qatif region of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankra-Badu, George A.; Al-Jama, A.; Al-Kadim, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The Al-Qatif region in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia has thehighest prevalence of alpha-thalassemia genes in the Kingdom. Hemoglobin H(Hb H) disease, however, has been rarely reported. We decided therefore toverify the rarity of disease and characterize the presenting features incases identified. All patients seen in Qatif Central Hospital betweenSeptember 1988 and November 1990 with low red cell indices were screened forHb H disease and those found positive had clinical data compiled from theirhospital records and analyzed. Thirty-nine cases of Hb H were diagnosed. Themean age of patients was 18 years. The mean hemoglobin was 13.5 g/dL forneonates and 7.6 g/dL for others. The mean Hb Bart's level was 27.5% inneonates and the mean Hb H level in others was 11.1%. In addition to low redcell indices, all patients had a high red cell distribution width (RDW) meanof 25.6%. The main clinical signs were jaundice and hepatosplenomegaly.Concurrent glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency was seen in28.2% of patients. Hemoglobin H disease is not uncommon in the Al-Qatifregion of Saudi Arabia. The red cell indices may mimic iron deficiency, whichshould be excluded by the presence of jaundice and organomegaly. Thecondition often co-exists with G6PD deficiency. (author)

  13. From barriers to bridges: An investigation on Saudi student mobility (2006-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Brian D.; Hilal, Kholoud T.

    2011-08-01

    Globalisation is often thought to advocate for a single set of beliefs and customs and for a rejection of the need to protect regional cultures and traditions. In the aftermath of 9/11, the rift between Western and Arab cultures has deepened, and there is a patent need for cultural bridges to be built. The government of Saudi Arabia has, by increasing funding for higher education through grants and scholarships, enabled Saudi students to study at overseas universities. A number of non-Saudi students are also enrolled at Saudi Arabian universities. After a brief introduction to the cultural and educational history of the Arab region and Saudi identity, this article turns to contemporary higher education in Saudi Arabia. It introduces the King Abdullah Scholarship Programme and then goes on to present detailed enrolment data for 2006-2009, demonstrating trends and policy changes and identifying patterns in student mobility.

  14. The prevalence of dental anomalies in the Western region of saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afify, Ahmed R; Zawawi, Khalid H

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies that could be a cause of malocclusion in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study of 878 digital orthopantomograms (OPGs) taken of patients, age ranging between 12 and 30 years, who presented to treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 2002 and 2011. The OPGs and dental records were reviewed for congenitally missing teeth, supernumerary teeth, impactions, ectopic eruption, transposition, germination, fusion, dilacerations, taurodontism, dens in dent, and any other unusual conditions that can be assessed with OPG. Results. The prevalence of patient that exhibited at least one dental anomaly was 396 (45.1%) patients. The prevalence of congenitally missing teeth was 226 (25.7%), impacted teeth 186 (21.1%), dilacerated teeth 10 (1.1%), supernumerary teeth 3 (0.3%), odontoma 1 (0.1%), and taurodontism was also 1 case (0.1%) of the total radiographs reviewed. Conclusions. Congenitally missing teeth were found to be the most prevalent anomaly (25.7%), and the second frequent anomaly was impacted teeth (21.1%), whereas root dilacerations, supernumerary teeth, and taurodontism were the least frequent anomalies (1.1%, 0.3% and 0.1%, resp.).

  15. Human-geographical concept of the regional geodemographic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Sehida

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The synergetic analysis of geodemographic researches indicates that they can be solved with use of modern technologies of management. according to the theory of a sotsioaktogenez, for this purpose it is necessary to define and formulate accurately the purpose of future phase transition, to construct consistent system of the purposes taking into account own and provided resources, to create executive system, effective from the point of view of optimum use of the available methods (technologies and means of activity, and to control and analyze obtaining result. The analysis of results of social management demands the quantitative description and comparison of real result with his expected model (purpose. The offered concept of geodemographic system of the region on the basis of dissipative structures which treats people, groups of people, society is aimed at the development and functioning of the studied system where the special role belongs to implementation of administrative decisions. In article it is covered the generalized structure of the concept, it is revealed her the purpose, an object subject area. It is defined public and spatial localization of a research, in particular within regional, region and local communities. It is identified geodemographic process as composite human and geographical process as sotsioaktogenez (with determination of stages of motivation, system of the purposes, executive system and result from a line item of society and a family as self-development and self-organization (with determination of the internal and external factors supporting and evolutionary resources, mechanisms as process (information exchange, external and internal adaptation. Methodological approaches (geographical, system, synergy, information, historical, research techniques (the analysis of system indices, simulation of a path of development, the component analysis and evaluation and prognostic simulation are opened. Technological procedures

  16. Techniques for Representation of Regional Clusters in Geographical In-formation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana REVEIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of visualization techniques adapted for regional clusters presentation in Geographic Information Systems. Clusters are groups of companies and insti-tutions co-located in a specific geographic region and linked by interdependencies in providing a related group of products and services. The regional clusters can be visualized by projecting the data into two-dimensional space or using parallel coordinates. Cluster membership is usually represented by different colours or by dividing clusters into several panels of a grille display. Taking into consideration regional clusters requirements and the multilevel administrative division of the Romania’s territory, I used two cartograms: NUTS2- regions and NUTS3- counties, to illustrate the tools for regional clusters representation.

  17. Khat Dependency and Psychophysical Symptoms among Chewers in Jazan Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged El-Setouhy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Khat chewing is highly prevalent in Africa, Yemen and Jazan region, southwest of Saudi Arabia. Most of Jazani Khat chewers consider khat session as a social activity and do not consider khat dependency. The aim of this study was to explore khat dependency and its relationship with the psychophysical symptoms among chewers. Methods. Cross-sectional study on seventy Saudi male khat chewers living in Jazan area. Psychological dependence to khat chewing was evaluated using the Severity of Dependency Scale (SDS. The participants filled in a self-administrated assisted structured questionnaire designed to collect data about their medical history, neurological symptoms, and their chewing behavior. Results. Half (52.2% of khat chewers showed psychological dependency. Those having longer khat sessions (≥6 hours were more liable for dependency. Physical and psychological symptoms were more prevalent among khat dependent chewers. Conclusions. khat has a psychological dependence effect that can be measured by the SDS, even in low doses and with irregular use. SDS scale is a useful tool to expect the burden of either physical or psychological symptoms on khat chewers.

  18. Sarcoidosis in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Khouzaie Thamer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To review a general hospital′s experience with sarcoidosis and the clinical pattern of the disease among Saudis. Methods: A retrospective file review was carried out on all patients with a proven diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a general hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia over a period of 11 years (1998-2008. Results: Sixty-nine patients, of whom 33 cases were included in the analyses, were diagnosed to have sarcoidosis during the study period. There were 18 females and 15 males. The mean age was 44.5 years (SD 17. The most common presentations were cough (48%, dyspnea (21%, joint pain (18%, splenomegaly (12%, hepatomegaly (9%, and lymphadenopathy (5%. The biochemical analysis showed elevated calcium levels in 6% and elevated angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE in 14 (46.7%. The tuberculin skin test was negative in all tested patients (n = 29 except one patient. The patients were classified using the modified Scadding classification system. None of the patients was in stage 0, 39.4% were in stage 1, 45% were in stage 2 and 15% were in stage 3.. The diagnosis in all patients was proven histologically. The outcome was favorable in most patients (85%, and in 6% of the patients, the course was chronic and progressive, although 66% received active treatment. Conclusion: Sarcoidosis does occur in native Saudis. The clinical presentation of these patients was similar to the western pattern of disease with some differences such as relative lack of cardiac, eye, parotid, and central nervous system involvement. The rarity of cardiac and central nervous system involvement was comparable with other Middle Eastern studies. Sarcoidosis, though rare in our community, should still be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with the typical presentation after excluding tuberculosis.

  19. The Importance of Geographical Indications in Regional Tourism Development: The Case of Çanakkale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şefik Okan Mercan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many products unique to Turkey, the origins of which are recognized with the name of region. Turkey, its geographical location and climatic zone having three different soil structure and cultural heritage and human capital due to a rich variety of geographical product has the potential. Features of geographical environment revealed  this product wealth, this product also requires the protection of geographical indications through. In this study, in Çanakkale who have registered geographical indication products, to examine the importance of the development of regional tourism and how these products can be assessed on a tourism product relevant institutions/organizations are intended to be of the opinion. According to the findings, the general opinion of Canakkale geographical indication products are properly and effectively with the regional tourism promotion and marketing work done in the development of a tool is that it will undertake the task. 

  20. Prevalence and distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in malaria endemic areas of Asir region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoon, A M M O; Alshahrani, A M

    2003-05-01

    To study the prevalence of anopheline mosquitoes, over 180 sites were sampled in malaria-endemic areas of Asir region, Saudi Arabia, during June 1999-April 2001. A total of 7085 larval and 754 adult female Anopheles spp. specimens were collected. Seven species were identified: An. dthali, An. rupicolus, An. sergentii, An. arabiensis, An. multicolor, An. turkhudi and An. pretoriensis. Both An. arabiensis and An. sergentii are known vectors of malaria in the region. An. dthali occurred in all sites and was the most abundant species. An. turkhudi was collected in low numbers as larvae only. An. multicolor and An. pretoriensis were recorded for the first time in Asir region. An. sergentii is a species of the northern areas of the region, whereas An. arabiensis was more prevalent in the south.

  1. Chemical diversity of essential oils from flowers, leaves, and stems of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Awad

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Essential oils from flowers, leaves and stems of R. epapposum growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia are considered as a rich source of monoterpenes which have biological activities.

  2. Common Diseases and Some Demographic Characteristics among Saudi Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haramlah, Ahmed Abdulrahman; Al-Bakr, Fawziah; Merza, Haniah

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the common diseases among Saudi women and their relationship with the level of physical activity and some variables. This study was applied to 1233 Saudi woman in different regions of the Kingdom, and adopted to explore the common diseases: obesity, hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol and asthma. The study results showed…

  3. Evaluation of hospital-learning environment for pediatric residency in eastern region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed H. BuAli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: No study had been conducted to assess the hospitals’ environment for learning purposes in multicenter sites in Saudi Arabia. It aims to evaluate the environment of hospitals for learning purposes of pediatric residents. Methods: We applied Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM to measure the learning environment at six teaching hospitals in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia from September to December 2013. Results: The number of respondents was 104 (86.7% out of 120 residents and 37 females and 67 male residents have responded. The residents’ response scored 100 out of 160 maximum score in rating of PHEEM that showed overall learning environment is favorable for training. There were some items in the social support domain suggesting improvements. There was no significant difference between male and female residents. There was a difference among the participant teaching hospitals (p<0.05. Conclusion: The result pointed an overall positive rating. Individual item scores suggested that their social life during residency could be uninspiring. They have the low satisfactory level and they feel racism, and sexual discrimination. Therefore, there is still a room for improvement.

  4. Histopathologic Patterns of Breast Lesions in Northern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence rates of common types of breast cancer in Northern Saudi Arabia. Methodology: A retrospective cohort study was carried out over a five-year period in two referral hospitals. In this study 257 files were retrieved from departments of Surgery from different hospitals in Hail region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Results: Of the 257 samples diagnosed using Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC, histopathological diagnosis was confirmed for 158 patients. Of the 158 diagnosed samples, 46/158 (23.2% were ductal carcinoma, 7/158 (4.4% were lobular carcinoma, 3/158 (1.9% were mixed tumours, and 102/158 (64.6 were fibroadenoma. Conclusion: Fibroadenoma and ductal carcinoma are the prevalent breast lesions in Hail Region of Saudi Arabia.

  5. Groundwater quality and hydrochemical properties of Al-Ula Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Naji; Hussein, Belal H M; Rafrafi, Sarra; El Kassas, Neama

    2015-03-01

    Groundwater quality monitoring is one of the most important aspects in groundwater studies in arid environments particularly in developing countries, like Saudi Arabia, due to the fast population growth and the expansion of irrigated agriculture and industrial uses. Groundwater samples have been collected from eight locations in Al-Ula in Saudi Arabia during June 2012 and January 2013 in order to investigate the hydrochemical characteristics and the groundwater quality and to understand the sources of dissolved ions. Physicochemical parameters of groundwater such as electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solid, and major cations and anions were determined. Chloride was found to be the dominant anion followed by HCO(-) 3 and SO4 (2-). Groundwater of the study area is characterized by the dominance of alkaline earths (Ca(2+) + Mg(2+)) over alkali metals (Na(+) + K(+)). The analytical results show that the groundwater is generally moderately hard and slightly alkaline in nature. The binary relationships of the major ions reveal that water quality of the Al-Ula region is mainly controlled by rock weathering, evaporation, and ion exchange reactions. Piper diagram was constructed to identify hydrochemical facies, and it was found that majority of the samples belong to Ca-Cl and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl facies. Chemical indices like chloro-alkali indices, sodium adsorption ratio, percentage of sodium, residual sodium carbonate, and permeability index were calculated. Also, the results show that the chemical composition of groundwater sources of Al-Ula is strongly influenced by lithology of country rocks rather than anthropogenic activities.

  6. First dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Kear

    Full Text Available Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (~ 75 Ma deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods with derived abelisaurids - this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region.

  7. Epidemiological aspects of prematurity in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal O. Al-Qurashi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the epidemiological characteristics of prematurity and survival rate in preterm infants diagnosed at a university hospital in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out of 476 preterm infants who were admitted with the diagnosis of prematurity to King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between June 2008 and 2013. Demographics, birth weight, and neonatal survival rate were analyzed. Results: Four hundred and seventy-six preterm infants were admitted with a total prevalence of 7.5%. Descriptive analysis revealed 55% were males. Extremely preterm infants (<28 weeks’ gestation comprised 9% and very preterm infants (28 to <32 weeks’ gestation comprised 20%. Extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW infants (<1000 g comprised 11%. One hundred and fifty-seven (32% infants were small for gestational age. Out of the total number of ELBW infants, 58% of them were discharged. The overall mortality was 7.6%. The mortality rate of male infants was 53%. The survival to discharge according to gestational age ranged from 30-97.6%. Conclusion: The estimated prevalence of preterm births in a university hospital in eastern province of Saudi Arabia, is consistent with various studies from different parts of the world.

  8. Regional geographic variations in kidney cancer incidence rates in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Znaor, Ariana; Holcatova, Ivana; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Dana; Wozniak, Magdalena B; Ferlay, Jacques; Scelo, Ghislaine

    2015-06-01

    Marked unexplained national variations in incidence rates of kidney cancer have been observed for decades in Europe. To investigate geographic variations at the regional level and identify European regions with high incidence rates of kidney cancer. Regional- and national-level incidence data were extracted from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents databases, local cancer registry databases, and local published reports. World population age-standardised rates (ASRs) were calculated for the periods 2003-2007 and 1988-1992. Rates by period and sex were compared using map visualisation. During 2003-2007, the highest ASR was found in the Plzen region, Czech Republic (31.4/100,000 person-years in men). Other regions of the Czech Republic had ASRs of 18.6-27.5/100,000 in men, with a tendency for higher rates in regions south of Prague. Surrounding regions, including eastern Germany and regions of Slovakia and Austria, had medium-to-high incidence rates (13.0-16.8/100,000 in men). Three other areas in Europe showed higher incidence rates in men compared with the rest of the continent: Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, and Belarus (15.0-17.6/100,000); Iceland (13.5/100,000), and northern Italy (up to 16.0/100,000). Similar regional differences were observed among women, with rates approximately half of those observed in men in the same region. In general, these regional geographic variations remained stable over the periods 1988-1992 and 2003-2007, although higher incidence rates were detected in the Baltic countries in 2003-2007. Several European regions show particularly high rates of kidney cancer incidence. Large variations were observed within countries covered by national health-care systems, implying that overdetection is not the major factor. We present regional geographic variations in kidney cancer incidence rates in Europe. We highlight several regions with high incidence rates where further studies should be conducted for cancer control and prevention. Copyright

  9. The characteristics and distribution of dentist workforce in Saudi Arabia: A descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBaker, Abdulaziz A; Al-Ruthia, Yazed Sulaiman H; AlShehri, Mohammed; Alshuwairikh, Samar

    2017-12-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has shown steady growth in the dental workforce over the last 20 years. Although the number of dental colleges has significantly increased in the last decade, there is not any study so far that described the status of the licensed dentist workforce in the kingdom. The present study aimed to explore the demographic distribution and professional characteristics of licensed dentist workforce in Saudi Arabia. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study using the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties (SCFHS) database to identify the number of licensed dentists in Saudi Arabia as well as their professional and demographic characteristics as of December 2016. The data was categorized based on gender, nationality, dental specialty, health sector, geographic location, and professional rank. The number of licensed dentists working in the kingdom as of December 2016 was 16887 dentists, and the vast majority of them are professionally registered as general dentists (70.27%). The percentage of general dentists among the professionally registered female dentists is significantly higher than their male counterparts (79.71% vs. 64.80%; P  sector in comparison to only 20.46% of the non-Saudi dentists ( P  sectors. With the rising unemployment rate among Saudi dentists, the governmental bodies that are responsible of dental labor market regulations such as the ministries of health, economy and planning, and labor should come up with a policy to gradually but carefully replace the non-Saudi dentists in both public and private sectors with Saudi dentists.

  10. Cryptosporidiosis in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areeshi, Mohammed Y.; Hart, C.A.; Beeching, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite of the intestinal tract that causes severe and sometimes fatal watery diarrhea in immunocompromised patients and self-limiting but prolonged diarrheal disease in immunocompetent individuals. It exists naturally in animals and can be zoonotic. Although cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrheal disease in both developing and developed countries, it is more prevalent in developing countries and in tropical environments. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of Cryptosporidium in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries by reviewing 23 published studies of Cryptosporidium and etiology of diarrhea in between 1986 and 2006. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in human's ranged from 1% to 37% with a median of 4%, while in animals it was for different species of animals and geographic locations of the studies. Most cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among children less than 7 years of age and particularly in the first two years of life. The seasonality of Cryptosporidium varied depending on the geographic locations of the studies but it generally most prevalent in the rainy season. The most commonly identified species was Cryptosporidium parvum while C.hominis was detected only in one study from Kuwait. The cumulative experience from Saudi Arabia and four neighboring countries (Kuwait, Oman, Jordan and Iraq) suggest that Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in human and cattle. However, the findings of this review also demonstrate the limitations of the available data regarding Cryptosporidium species and strains in circulation in these countries. (author)

  11.  Public Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Complementary and AlternativeMedicine in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M.N. AlBedah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM iswell established world wide. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM by the people of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive household survey studyof the people living in Riyadh city, as well as the surrounding governorates. A multistage random sample was taken from1st January to the end of March 2010, with a total number of 518 participants. Data were collected using a pre-designed questionnaire through direct interview. The data was collected based on socio-demography, as well as knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM.Results: Participants were nearly sex-matched, consisting of approximately 70�0Saudi and 30�0non-Saudis. About 89�0ofthe participants had some knowledge of CAM. Mass media e.g.(T.V., newspapers and radio and family, relatives and friends represented the main sources of CAM knowledge, (46.5�0and46.3�0respectively. Nearly 85�0of participants or one of their family members has used some form of CAM before, and the most common users of CAM practices were females, housewives, and illiterate subjects (or those who could just read and write, as well as participants aged 60 years and above. Medical herbs (58.89� prayer (54� honey and bee products (54� hijama (35.71�nd cauterization or medical massage therapy (22�20were thecommonly used CAM practices. Most participants agreed that there are needs for; CAM practices (93.8� regulations for CAM(94.9� health education (96.6� specialized centers (94.8�20and CAM clinics (92.7� While only 8.3�0of participants usually discussed CAM with their physicians.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence and increased public interest in CAM use in the Riyadh region. There is a positiv eattitude towards CAM, yet most participants are reluctant to share and discuss CAM information with their physicians.

  12. Predicting geographically distributed adult dental decay in the greater Auckland region of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C M; Kruger, E; Whyman, R; Tennant, M

    2014-06-01

    To model the geographic distribution of current (and treated) dental decay on a high-resolution geographic basis for the Auckland region of New Zealand. The application of matrix-based mathematics to modelling adult dental disease-based on known population risk profiles to provide a detailed map of the dental caries distribution for the greater Auckland region. Of the 29 million teeth in adults in the region some 1.2 million (4%) are suffering decay whilst 7.2 million (25%) have previously suffered decay and are now restored. The model provides a high-resolution picture of where the disease burden lies geographically and presents to health planners a method for developing future service plans.

  13. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi NA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective: We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method: The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results: Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion: This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. Keywords: Saudi Arabia, mental health system, organization, legal issues, research, training

  14. Saudi Arabia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Saudi Arabia assesses Saudi Arabia’s role in the oil market and global economy. Saudi Arabia, the world’s largest producer and exporter of oil, has long played a systemically important role in the global oil market. Short-term fluctuations in Saudi Arabia’s oil production have partially reflected attempts to stabilize the global oil market. Saudi Arabia has on several occasions used its systemic role to raise production to fill global demand gaps created by large...

  15. Assessment of Genetic Connectivity between Sudan and Saudi Arabia for Commercially Important Fish Species

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, Sara N.

    2017-12-01

    Patterns of genetic connectivity can help answer key questions about the evolutionary ecology of fishes. This knowledge is particularly useful when considering the management and conservation of species that are impacted by fisheries. Population connectivity in ocean habitats is heavily influenced by environmental and oceanographic factors. These factors can lead to strong genetic differences within populations, causing fragmentation into smaller subpopulations. The Red Sea exhibits pronounced oceanographic gradients in temperature, chlorophyll, and salinity, which have been assessed in various species’ populations and which have been found to have potential impacts on gene flow. The Red Sea also features strong cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies that may facilitate, or possibly inhibit, the transport of larvae throughout the Red Sea, potentially influencing gene flow themselves. The ability of oceanographic factors like eddies to structure wild fisheries populations in this region has yet to be fully determined. To address this, the genetic composition of two of the most highly fished species, (Plectropomus areolatus and Plectropomus pessuliferus marisrubri), in the Red Sea were evaluated utilizing genetic markers (polymorphic microsatellite loci). Samples from three geographically separate regions along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coastline, as well as from Sudan, were analyzed to address latitudinal and cross-sea connectivity. I was able to determine that little genetic differentiation exists within Plectropomus species across all regions of the Red Sea, indicating high gene flow for these species throughout. These findings highlight the ability of currents and eddies to transport larvae along and across the Red Sea. The results from this study also indicate that a single population of P. areolatus and a single population of P. pessuliferus marisrubri occurs in the Red Sea. The high degree of genetic flow suggests that each species should be managed as individual

  16. Khat Chewing among Students of Higher Education in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence, Pattern, and Related Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To estimate the prevalence and behavioral patterns of Khat chewing and (2) to investigate factors that influenced the pattern of Khat use among undergraduate students in different higher education institutions in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study using a pretested structured self-administered quantitative questionnaire was used to collect data. SPSS version 17 software program was used for data analysis. Results. The overall current Kha...

  17. Epidemiology of road traffic injuries in qassim region, saudi arabia: consistency of police and health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrimah, Issam; Midhet, Farid; Sharaf, Fawzi

    2012-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, road traffic accidents (RTA) are becoming a serious public health problem. Police reports are designed for legal purposes with very little information on the health consequences. Also, health system data include detailed health information, but not related or linked to the data obtained police reports. Examining the consistency of these sources is vital to build an accurate surveillance system that can track the risk factors and the health consequences, as well as establishing and evaluating prevention interventions. This study is intended to: ▪ Examine the consistency of health -registration data with the data gathered by the traffic police department.▪ Elucidate the magnitude, risk factors and outcome of RTI in Qassim region of Saudi Arabia,▪ Compare the pattern of accidents in Qassim with those at different regions of the Kingdom. Health care information was collected on visits of victims of road traffic accidents to emergency and outpatients' departments of the major hospitals in Qassim region during the year 2010. The information included the patients' demographics, and clinical characteristics. Traffic Police Department information was also collected on all accidents that occurred in the study region. A Questionnaire was also developed and pilot tested to collect data from a random sample of population attending hospital outpatient and Primary Health Care clinics. Data included previous involvement in road traffic accident, and information about any injury; fatality or disability due to these RTI. During the study period, road traffic death rate based on death registration data was almost twice as high as the rate reported by the police (P police-reported data during the study period, as opposed to a non-significant increase of 8% according to health registration data during the same period. Population Survey Information showed the overall age-sex-adjusted rate for non-fatal RTI was 20.7 (95% CI, 20.0 - 21.3)/100 persons/year. The rate

  18. Composition of the root mycorrhizal community associated with Coffea arabica in Fifa Mountains (Jazan region, Saudi Arabia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdhi, Mosbah; Tounekti, Taieb; Al-Turki, Turki Ali; Khemira, Habib

    2017-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) constitute a key functional group of soil biota that can greatly contribute to crop productivity and ecosystem sustainability. They improve nutrient uptake and enhance the ability of plants to cope with abiotic stresses. The presence of AMF in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plant roots have been reported in several locations but not in Saudi Arabia despite the fact that coffee has been in cultivation here since ancient times. The objective of the present study was to investigate the diversity of AMF communities colonizing the roots of coffee trees growing in two sites of Fifa Mountains (south-west Saudi Arabia): site 1 at 700 m altitude and site 2 at 1400 m. The AMF large subunit rDNA regions (LSU) were subjected to nested PCR, cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Microscopic observations indicated higher mycorrhizal intensity (24.3%) and spore density (256 spores/100 g of soil) in site 2 (higher altitude). Phylogenetic analysis revealed 10 phylotypes, six belonging to the family Glomeraceae, two to Claroideoglomercea, one to Acaulosporaceae and one to Gigasporaceae family. Glomus was the dominant genus at both sites and the genus Gigaspora was detected only at site 2. This is the first study reporting the presence of AMF in coffee roots and the composition of this particular mycorrhizal community in Saudi Arabia. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401 and females (1507 aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use, physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

  20. A New Phenomenon in Saudi Females' Code-Switching: A Morphemic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turjoman, Mona O.

    2016-01-01

    This sociolinguistics study investigates a new phenomenon that has recently surfaced in the field of code-switching among Saudi females residing in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. This phenomenon basically combines bound Arabic pronouns, tense markers or definite article to English free morphemes or the combination of bound English affixes to…

  1. Coronavirus infections in horses in Saudi Arabia and Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemida, M G; Chu, D K W; Perera, R A P M; Ko, R L W; So, R T Y; Ng, B C Y; Chan, S M S; Chu, S; Alnaeem, A A; Alhammadi, M A; Webby, R J; Poon, L L M; Balasuriya, U B R; Peiris, M

    2017-12-01

    Equine coronaviruses (ECoV) are the only coronavirus known to infect horses. So far, data on ECoV infection in horses remain limited to the USA, France and Japan and its geographic distribution is not well understood. We carried out RT-PCR on 306 nasal and 315 rectal swabs and tested 243 sera for antibodies to detect coronavirus infections in apparently healthy horses in Saudi Arabia and Oman. We document evidence of infection with ECoV and HKU23 coronavirus by RT-PCR. There was no conclusive evidence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in horses. Serological data suggest that lineage A betacoronavirus infections are commonly infecting horses in Saudi Arabia and Oman but antibody cross-reactivities between these viruses do not permit us to use serological data alone to identify which coronaviruses are causing these infections. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Attitudes to evidence-based medicine of primary care physicians in Asir region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoja, T A; Al-Ansary, L A

    2007-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was made of primary health care physicians in Asir region, Saudi Arabia in 1999 to explore their awareness of and attitude towards evidence-based medicine. The 272 respondents welcomed the principles of evidence-based medicine. Awareness and use of extracting journals, review publications and databases was low. Pharmaceutical company sponsored journals were the most commonly read. Bibliographic databases could only be accessed by 13% of respondents and the Internet by only 6%. There was only partial understanding of technical terms used in evidence-based medicine. Absence of a local library and increased patient workload were seen by most respondents as the main obstacles to practising evidence-based medicine.

  3. Saudi Arabia walks a tightrope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, P.

    2007-01-01

    Saudi diplomacy seems more active than ever. This has to do with three recent major regional developments: the summer 2006 war between Israel and Hezbollah, the violent clashes between Hamas and Fatah in the occupied Palestinian territories, and the Iraqi quagmire. In each of these, the role of Iran

  4. Decadal Variation of Precipitation in Saudi Arabia induced by Agricultural Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, M. H.; Wey, H. W.; Wada, Y.; IM, E. S.; Chien, R. Y.; Wu, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Decadal variation of wet-season precipitation has been found in the arid region of central Saudi Arabia. 1980s has been a rather wet decade compared with the decades before. Previous studies have mentioned that the irrigation moisture may contribute to the precipitation anomalies in Saudi Arabia. In the current study, we show from observational data that the contribution of the variation comes mostly from February to May. As the irrigation is a localized forcing, we therefore use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model to simulate the response of the land-atmosphere interaction to the wet soil moisture resulted from additional irrigation moisture supply. Preliminary result shows in the irrigated simulation that precipitation in central Saudi Arabia is enhanced, indicating the possible link between irrigation expansion in the 1980s and the decadal precipitation variation over central Saudi Arabia. We propose it is the anomalous convergence induced by irrigation as well as additional moisture that contribute to the enhanced precipitation over heavily irrigation region in the central Saudi Arabian. In addition, analysis on the daily precipitation from the WRF outputs indicates that positive rainfall anomalies tend to happen when there is rainfall originally; that is, irrigation enhances rainfall but not creates rainfall.

  5. Aerosol-Cloud Interactions and Cloud Microphysical Properties in the Asir Region of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, P. A.; Axisa, D.; Burger, R. P.; Li, R.; Collins, D. R.; Freney, E. J.; Buseck, P. R.

    2009-12-01

    In recent advertent and inadvertent weather modification studies, a considerable effort has been made to understand the impact of varying aerosol properties and concentration on cloud properties. Significant uncertainties exist with aerosol-cloud interactions for which complex microphysical processes link the aerosol and cloud properties. Under almost all environmental conditions, increased aerosol concentrations within polluted air masses will enhance cloud droplet concentration relative to that in unperturbed regions. The interaction between dust particles and clouds are significant, yet the conditions in which dust particles become cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are uncertain. In order to quantify this aerosol effect on clouds and precipitation, a field campaign was launched in the Asir region, located adjacent to the Red Sea in the southwest region of Saudi Arabia. Ground measurements of aerosol size distributions, hygroscopic growth factors, CCN concentrations as well as aircraft measurements of cloud hydrometeor size distributions were observed in the Asir region in August 2009. The presentation will include a summary of the analysis and results with a focus on aerosol-cloud interactions and cloud microphysical properties observed during the convective season in the Asir region.

  6. Saudi security: challenges for the post-Saddam era

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited Events at the beginning of the 21st century have brought a fundamental change to the security environment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia of a significance not witnessed in the region since the Iranian Revolution in 1979. The fall of Saddam Hussein's regime in 2003 eliminated the most significant external threat facing Saudi Arabia. At the same time, internal threats to the Kingdom appear to be increasing. The demographic and economic c...

  7. Healthy dietary patterns decrease the risk of colorectal cancer in the Mecca Region, Saudi Arabia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzeh, Firas S; Alshammari, Eyad M; Alazzeh, Awfa Y; Jazar, Abdelelah S; Dabbour, Ibrahim R; El-Taani, Hani A; Obeidat, Ahmed A; Kattan, Fayrooz A; Tashtoush, Sufyan H

    2017-06-29

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the first most common cancer in males and the third most common cancer in females in Saudi Arabia. Dietary habits are strongly associated with the inhibition or proliferation of malignancy. Therefore, this study is aiming to investigate the risks and protective benefits of dietary factors affecting CRC in the Mecca region of Saudi Arabia. A case-control study was conducted from June 2014 to March 2015. One hundred thirty-seven patients with colon and/or rectal cancer were recruited in the case group, while 164 healthy participants were recruited in the control group. A questionnaire was completed with the help of trained dietitians to study the effects of several dietary patterns on the risk of CRC. Dairy product intake of 1-5 servings/day, legume intake of 3-5 servings/week, leafy vegetables intake of 1-5 servings/week, olive oil intake of 1-5 servings/week, black tea intake of three or more cups/day, and coffee intake of one or more cups/day was found to decrease the risk of CRC in participants. This study highlights the importance of changing dietary habits to decrease CRC incidence in the Mecca region.

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun exposure and protection: A national survey in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; AlAklabi, Aeed S; AlQahtani, Abdulla Z

    2016-11-01

    Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western). Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601) of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544) were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer ( p  Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.

  9. Seasonal Evaporation and Surface Energy Budget Estimation Across an Arid Agricultural Region in Saudi Arabia: Quantifying Groundwater Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, B.; Huang, D.; Houborg, R.; Dasari, H. P.; Hoteit, I.; McCabe, M.

    2017-12-01

    In arid-land agricultural environments, knowledge of the water and energy budget is critical in order to sustainably manage the allocation and use of water resources. Using long-term weather reanalysis data from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and a time-series record of Landsat 8 imagery, we apply the Priestly-Taylor Jet Propulsion Lab (PT-JPL) model to estimate the energy budget over the Al Jawf agricultural region in the north of Saudi Arabia. This zone generates a significant proportion of the agricultural production in Saudi Arabia and consumes an important fraction of the non-renewable water resources. This research contributes towards efforts seeking to quantify the precise amount of water that is used in agriculture - a difficult variable given that the overwhelming majority of supply comes from groundwater extraction. Results of this research can be used to improve crop management and to mitigate aquifer over-exploitation by monitoring the indiscriminate use of water and establishing bounds around the rates of groundwater withdrawal.

  10. European regional efficiency and geographical externalities: a spatial nonparametric frontier analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramajo, Julián; Cordero, José Manuel; Márquez, Miguel Ángel

    2017-10-01

    This paper analyses region-level technical efficiency in nine European countries over the 1995-2007 period. We propose the application of a nonparametric conditional frontier approach to account for the presence of heterogeneous conditions in the form of geographical externalities. Such environmental factors are beyond the control of regional authorities, but may affect the production function. Therefore, they need to be considered in the frontier estimation. Specifically, a spatial autoregressive term is included as an external conditioning factor in a robust order- m model. Thus we can test the hypothesis of non-separability (the external factor impacts both the input-output space and the distribution of efficiencies), demonstrating the existence of significant global interregional spillovers into the production process. Our findings show that geographical externalities affect both the frontier level and the probability of being more or less efficient. Specifically, the results support the fact that the spatial lag variable has an inverted U-shaped non-linear impact on the performance of regions. This finding can be interpreted as a differential effect of interregional spillovers depending on the size of the neighboring economies: positive externalities for small values, possibly related to agglomeration economies, and negative externalities for high values, indicating the possibility of production congestion. Additionally, evidence of the existence of a strong geographic pattern of European regional efficiency is reported and the levels of technical efficiency are acknowledged to have converged during the period under analysis.

  11. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    .... Since 2005, King Abdullah bin Abd al Aziz Al Saud has sought to strengthen Saudi relations with European and Asian counterparts and has worked to build and lead an Arab consensus on regional security...

  12. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of dengue type 1 virus isolated from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Esam I; Hashem, Anwar M; El-Kafrawy, Sherif A; Abol-Ela, Said; Abd-Alla, Adly M M; Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Farraj, Suha A; Othman, Norah A; Ben-Helaby, Huda G; Ashshi, Ahmed; Madani, Tariq A; Jamjoom, Ghazi

    2015-01-16

    Dengue viruses (DENVs) are mosquito-borne viruses which can cause disease ranging from mild fever to severe dengue infection. These viruses are endemic in several tropical and subtropical regions. Multiple outbreaks of DENV serotypes 1, 2 and 3 (DENV-1, DENV-2 and DENV-3) have been reported from the western region in Saudi Arabia since 1994. Strains from at least two genotypes of DENV-1 (Asia and America/Africa genotypes) have been circulating in western Saudi Arabia until 2006. However, all previous studies reported from Saudi Arabia were based on partial sequencing data of the envelope (E) gene without any reports of full genome sequences for any DENV serotypes circulating in Saudi Arabia. Here, we report the isolation and the first complete genome sequence of a DENV-1 strain (DENV-1-Jeddah-1-2011) isolated from a patient from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia in 2011. Whole genome sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed high similarity between DENV-1-Jeddah-1-2011 strain and D1/H/IMTSSA/98/606 isolate (Asian genotype) reported from Djibouti in 1998. Further analysis of the full envelope gene revealed a close relationship between DENV-1-Jeddah-1-2011 strain and isolates reported between 2004-2006 from Jeddah as well as recent isolates from Somalia, suggesting the widespread of the Asian genotype in this region. These data suggest that strains belonging to the Asian genotype might have been introduced into Saudi Arabia long before 2004 most probably by African pilgrims and continued to circulate in western Saudi Arabia at least until 2011. Most importantly, these results indicate that pilgrims from dengue endemic regions can play an important role in the spread of new DENVs in Saudi Arabia and the rest of the world. Therefore, availability of complete genome sequences would serve as a reference for future epidemiological studies of DENV-1 viruses.

  13. The incidence rate of female breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghamdi IG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Lincoln Hospital, Research and Development, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, United Kingdom Background: This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR, and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by the region and year of diagnosis. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study of all Saudi female breast cancer cases from 2001 to 2008. The statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, a linear regression model, and analysis of variance with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA. Results: A total of 6,922 female breast cancer cases were recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The highest overall percentages (38.6% and 31.2% of female breast cancer cases were documented in women who were 30–44 and 45–59 years of age, respectively. The eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 26.6 per 100,000 women, followed by Riyadh at 20.5 and Makkah at 19.4. Jazan, Baha, and Asir had the lowest average ASIRs, at 4.8, 6.1, and 7.3 per 100,000 women, respectively. The region of Jouf (24.2%; CIR 11.2, ASIR 17.2 had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. While Qassim, Jazan and Tabuk recorded down-trending rates with negative values. Conclusion: There was a significant increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for female breast cancer between 2001 and 2008. The majority of breast cancer cases occurred among younger women. The region of Jouf had the greatest significant

  14. Breast Cancer awareness among Saudi females in Jeddah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Sahar Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy of women worldwide. It is the leading cause of female cancer related disability and mortality. In Saudi Arabia breast cancer ranks first among cancerous diseases in females. In the Gulf region, and especially in Saudi Arabia, few studies have been conducted to address breast cancer awareness. The purpose of the current study was therefore to investigate the level of breast cancer awareness among Saudi females in Jeddah, focusing on knowledge of breast cancer warning signs, risk factors, screening programs and breast self-examination (BSE). The design of this study was an exploratory correlational analysis. The sample comprised 200 Saudi females aged 20 and older living in Jeddah. Data were collected using face-to- face interviews. Breast cancer awareness was measured using a modified Arabic version of the Breast Cancer Awareness Measure (Breast CAM) version 2. Descriptive statistical analysis, Pearson's Product Moment correlation coefficients and ANOVA test were used to answer study questions. Out of 200 participants, 50.5% were aware of breast lump as a warning sign of breast cancer, 57.5% claimed that family history was risk factor, 20.5% had undergone breast screening, 79% heard about BSE, and 47.5% knew how to perform BSE. Findings indicated that Saudi females level of awareness of breast cancer is very inadequate. Public awareness interventions are needed in order to overcome an ever-increasing burden of this disease among Saudi females.

  15. Geographic Prevalence and Mix of Regional Cuisines in Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Zhu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on the geographies of food put a considerable focus on analyzing how different types of food or ingredients are consumed across different places. Little is known, however, about how food culture is manifested through various cooking traditions as well as people’s perceptions over different culinary styles. Using a data set captured from one of the largest online review sites in China (www.dianping.com, this study demonstrates how geo-referenced social review data can be leveraged to better understand the geographic prevalence and mix of regional cuisines in Chinese cities. Based on information of millions of restaurants obtained in selected cities (i.e., provincial capitals and municipalities under direct supervision of the Chinese central government, we first measure by each city the diversity of restaurants that serve regional Chinese cuisines using the Shannon entropy, and analyze how cities with different characteristics are geographically distributed. A hierarchical clustering algorithm is then used to further explore the similarities of consumers’ dining options among these cities. By associating each regional Chinese cuisine to its origin, we then develop a weighted distance measure to quantify the geographic prevalence of each cuisine type. Finally, a popularity index (POPU is introduced to quantify consumers’ preferences for different regional cuisines. We find that: (1 diversity of restaurants among the cities shows an “east–west” contrast that is in general agreement with the socioeconomic divide in China; (2 most of the cities have their own unique characteristics, which are mainly driven by a large market share of the corresponding local cuisine; (3 there exists great heterogeneity of the geographic prevalence of different Chinese cuisines. In particular, Chuan and Xiang, which are famous for their spicy taste, are widely distributed across the mainland China and (4 among the top-tier restaurants ranked

  16. 50 CFR 216.211 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Explosive Severance.... Gulf of Mexico § 216.211 Specified activity and specified geographical region. (a) Regulations in this...

  17. 50 CFR 216.250 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.250 Specified activity and specified geographical region. (a...

  18. Virtual water content for meat and egg production through livestock farming in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Ouda, Omar K. M.; Papadopoulou, Maria P.

    2017-12-01

    The concept of virtual water content (VWC) may facilitate an understanding of total water demand for commodity production. The water consumption for livestock production forms a significant fraction of freshwater demand in arid regions, i.e., Saudi Arabia. In this paper, VWC was estimated for different livestocks in the 13 regions of Saudi Arabia. The VWC for camel production was also estimated, which has not been investigated in the previous studies. The overall VWC for livestock in Saudi Arabia was about 10.5 and 8.9 billion m3 in 2006 and 2010, respectively. This study shows the decreasing trend of overall VWC in producing livestock in Saudi Arabia. The VWC were highest in Riyadh followed by Eastern region, Qaseem, Hail, and Makkah with ranges of 3587-4112, 1684-2044, 1007-1331, 644-810, and 504-715 million m3/year, respectively. The results demonstrate that a shift in diet from the high VWC meat to low VWC meat may reduce the overall VWC for livestock production. The findings of this analysis provide an assessment of the quantity and trend of water demand for livestock production in Saudi Arabia, which is useful to assess the development of an information-based agricultural water management strategy.

  19. Prevalence of congenital color vision defects in Saudi females of Arab origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdelmoneam, Mussaed

    2011-09-01

    Inherited color vision deficiencies (CVD) vary in prevalence by population and by sex. The most common CVD is X chromosome-linked anomalous trichromacy. Prevalence varies significantly by sex and race. The frequency of color vision defects in Saudi females has not been studied previously. This study surveyed the prevalence of congenital color vision defects in Saudi females of Arab origin. Seven thousand four hundred sixty-seven female subjects (N = 7,467) from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were screened using both Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates and the Farnsworth Dichotomous test (D-15). CVD subjects were tested further with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test. Of 7,467 female subjects tested, 26 subjects were found to have defective color vision, for a prevalence of 0.35%. Sixteen subjects had a deutan defect, and 10 had a protan defect. Arab females have significantly lower prevalence of CVD when compared with published data from females of other races. Analysis of the 5 regions of Saudi Arabia showed no significant difference between the regions. Prevalence of CVD among Saudi females of Arab origin is 0.35% and is among the lowest of all published data. Copyright © 2011 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Saudi Arabia : emerging with influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qudsi, S.

    2006-01-01

    Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. Some of the economic, technical and geopolitical factors that influenced the increase in oil prices between 2003 and 2005 were also identified. The dual relationship between the Saudi petrochemical industry and long term economic performance of the Saudi economy were illustrated within a broad domestic economic diversification policy objective. The future growth prospects and challenges facing the Saudi petrochemical industry were also evaluated with respect to the evolving economic reform policies and Saudi international commitments. Potential implications for the petrochemical industry in North America were also identified, in terms of technology transfer and having Saudi Arabia secure the markets in order to meet its commitment to the World Trade Organization. tabs., figs

  1. Interactions between physicians and pharmaceutical sales representatives in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, Fahad Dakheel; Alkaabba, Abdulaziz; Qadi, Mahdi; Albahlal, Abdullah; Alabdulkarim, Yasir; Alabduljabbar, Mohammad; Alqahtani, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    Interaction between physicians and pharmaceutical sales representative (PR) is a major component of the promotional activities by pharmaceutical companies. The lack of studies examining the magnitude of this interaction in Saudi Arabia is evident. The objective of this study is to estimate the magnitude and associated characteristics of physician-PR interaction. A cross-sectional study was conducted among physicians working in the different regions of Saudi Arabia between March and July of 2012. A cross-sectional study was undertaken between March and July of 2012 in the different regions of Saudi Arabia. A self-administrated questionnaire was developed and handed to all participants, both in paper and electronic formats. A total of 663 participants completed the questionnaire. The participation rate was 66.3% (663/1000). The majority of the participants (72.9%) reported interaction with PRs. This was lower among residents/interns compared to higher ranking employees (55.6% vs 83.6%, P strategy to reduce negative impact.

  2. Attitudes of Saudi medical students toward the disclosure of information on cancer in eastern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M Al-Amri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the attitude of future physicians regarding the disclosure of diagnosis, prognosis, benefits, and adverse effects of therapeutic intervention if they happen to have cancer. It also examined the differences if any between regions or gender. Materials and Methods: A total of 332 medical students from University of Dammam, in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of nine questions on the attitudes to disclosure of information on cancer. This self-administered questionnaire was completed by the students in the presence of an investigator. Results: The vast majority of Saudi medical students stated that they would like to know about diagnosis of cancer (92.8% and only 7.2% wanted information withheld from them. Further, 67% of the males and 74.1% of the females wanted family members to know (P = 0.01, but one-third (33% did not want their family to know. Only 24.1% of the male and 21.1% of female students wanted their friends to know. In addition, -97% of the males and 98.8% of the females wanted to know the diagnosis, and 97% and 95.8% of females and males, respectively, would like to know the side effects of the therapy. Almost 95% of male and 93.4% of female students wanted to know the prognosis. Also, 98% of medical students from the Eastern Region would want the diagnosis of cancer to be disclosed compared to 73.6% of those from other regions (P = 0.01. There is no difference between the genders in attitudes toward the disclosure of the diagnosis, 94.6% and 92.2% (P = 0.38. Conclusions: There was a consensus among Saudi medical students on the knowledge of the benefits of treatment, adverse effects of therapy, and prognosis. Female students significantly more than males would like their families to be informed. Significantly more medical students from the Eastern Region than those from other regions would like the diagnosis of

  3. The rifted margin of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, J. S.; Orcutt, J. A.

    The structure of rifted continental margins has always been of great scientific interest, and now, with dwindling economic oil deposits, these complex geological features assume practical importance as well. The ocean-continent transition is, by definition, laterally heterogeneous and likely to be extremely complicated. The southernmost shotpoints (4, 5, and 6) in the U.S. Geological Survey seismic refraction profile in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia lie within a transition region and thus provide a testing ground for methods that treat wave propagation in laterally heterogeneous media. This portion of the profile runs from the Farasan Islands in the Red Sea across the coast line and the Hijaz-Asir escarpment into the Hijaz-Asir tectonic province. Because the southernmost shotpoint is within the margin of the Saudi sub-continent, the full transition region is not sampled. Furthermore, such an experiment is precluded by the narrowness of the purely oceanic portion of the Red Sea.

  4. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Abahussain, Nada A; Al-Sobayel, Hana I; Qahwaji, Dina M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-12-21

    Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p intake but not with sedentary behaviors. The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among

  5. Geographic Region, Size, and Program Type in Family Practice Residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jolene K.; Garrard, Judith

    1981-01-01

    Research on residency education in family practice is discussed. Programmatic variables are examined: geographic region, size, and type of program. Definitions of these variables are provided, the current distribution of family practice residency programs across each of these variables is described, and data for use by other researchers is…

  6. Soy sauce classification by geographic region and fermentation based on artificial neural network and genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Libin; Li, Yang; Xu, Ning; Hu, Yong; Wang, Chao; He, Jianjun; Cao, Yueze; Chen, Shigui; Li, Dongsheng

    2014-12-24

    This work demonstrated the possibility of using artificial neural networks to classify soy sauce from China. The aroma profiles of different soy sauce samples were differentiated using headspace solid-phase microextraction. The soy sauce samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 22 and 15 volatile aroma compounds were selected for sensitivity analysis to classify the samples by fermentation and geographic region, respectively. The 15 selected samples can be classified by fermentation and geographic region with a prediction success rate of 100%. Furans and phenols represented the variables with the greatest contribution in classifying soy sauce samples by fermentation and geographic region, respectively.

  7. Healthy dietary patterns decrease the risk of colorectal cancer in the Mecca Region, Saudi Arabia: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas S. Azzeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the first most common cancer in males and the third most common cancer in females in Saudi Arabia. Dietary habits are strongly associated with the inhibition or proliferation of malignancy. Therefore, this study is aiming to investigate the risks and protective benefits of dietary factors affecting CRC in the Mecca region of Saudi Arabia. Methods A case-control study was conducted from June 2014 to March 2015. One hundred thirty-seven patients with colon and/or rectal cancer were recruited in the case group, while 164 healthy participants were recruited in the control group. A questionnaire was completed with the help of trained dietitians to study the effects of several dietary patterns on the risk of CRC. Results Dairy product intake of 1–5 servings/day, legume intake of 3–5 servings/week, leafy vegetables intake of 1–5 servings/week, olive oil intake of 1–5 servings/week, black tea intake of three or more cups/day, and coffee intake of one or more cups/day was found to decrease the risk of CRC in participants. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of changing dietary habits to decrease CRC incidence in the Mecca region.

  8. Outbreaks of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Libya and Saudi Arabia During 2013 Due to an Exotic O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 Lineage Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, N J; Bachanek-Bankowska, K; Wadsworth, J; Mioulet, V; Valdazo-González, B; Eldaghayes, I M; Dayhum, A S; Kammon, A M; Sharif, M A; Waight, S; Shamia, A M; Tenzin, S; Wernery, U; Grazioli, S; Brocchi, E; Subramaniam, S; Pattnaik, B; King, D P

    2016-10-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease viruses are often restricted to specific geographical regions and spread to new areas may lead to significant epidemics. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences of the VP1 genome region of recent outbreak viruses from Libya and Saudi Arabia has revealed a lineage, O-Ind-2001, normally found in the Indian subcontinent. This paper describes the characterization of field viruses collected from these cases and provides information about a new real-time RT-PCR assay that can be used to detect viruses from this lineage and discriminate them from other endemic FMD viruses that are co-circulating in North Africa and western Eurasia. © 2014 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnain, Syed M.; Fatima, K.; Al-Frayh, A.

    2007-01-01

    Amaranthus pollen grains are known to have highly allergenic and potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A.viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samples were operated continuously for one year at each location. The data revealed A.viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%), Jeddah (87%), Qassim (85%), Taif (84%), Dammam (83%) and Jizan (61%). These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. virdis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000 mt. cube of air in October and 1827 mt. cube of air in September. The data also exhibited, a seasonal pattern, in their maximum appearance. Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  10. EGovernment Stage Model: Evaluating the Rate of Web Development Progress of Government Websites in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Alfarraj; Steve Drew; Rayed Abdullah AlGhamdi

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the issue of eGovernment implementation in Saudi Arabia by discussing the current situation of ministry websites. It evaluates the rate of web development progress of vital government websites in Saudi Arabia using the eGovernment stage model. In 2010, Saudi Arabia ranked 58th in the world and 4th in the Gulf region in eGovernment readiness according to United Nations reports. In particular, Saudi Arabia has ranked 75th worldwide for its online service index and its ...

  11. Geographical Pattern and Environmental Correlates of Regional-Scale General Flowering in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Shinya; Yasuda, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Ryo O.; Hosaka, Tetsuro; Noor, Nur Supardi Md.; Fletcher, Christine D.; Hashim, Mazlan

    2013-01-01

    In South-East Asian dipterocarp forests, many trees synchronize their reproduction at the community level, but irregularly, in a phenomenon known as general flowering (GF). Several proximate cues have been proposed as triggers for the synchronization of Southeast Asian GF, but the debate continues, as many studies have not considered geographical variation in climate and flora. We hypothesized that the spatial pattern of GF forests is explained by previously proposed climatic cues if there are common cues for GF among regions. During the study, GF episodes occurred every year, but the spatial occurrence varied considerably from just a few forests to the whole of Peninsular Malaysia. In 2001, 2002 and 2005, minor and major GF occurred widely throughout Peninsular Malaysia (GF2001, GF2002, and GF2005), and the geographical patterns of GF varied between the episodes. In the three regional-scale GF episodes, most major events occurred in regions where prolonged drought (PD) had been recorded prior, and significant associations between GF scores and PD were found in GF2001 and GF2002. However, the frequency of PD was higher than that of GF throughout the peninsula. In contrast, low temperature (LT) was observed during the study period only before GF2002 and GF2005, but there was no clear spatial relationship between GF and LT in the regional-scale episodes. There was also no evidence that last GF condition influenced the magnitude of GF. Thus, our results suggest that PD would be essential to trigger regional-scale GF in the peninsula, but also that PD does not fully explain the spatial and temporal patterns of GF. The coarse relationships between GF and the proposed climatic cues may be due to the geographical variation in proximate cues for GF, and the climatic and floristic geographical variations should be considered to understand the proximate factors of GF. PMID:24260159

  12. Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shammas, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

  13. Cambrian nepheline syenite complex at Jabal Sawda, Midyan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, W.K.; Ramsay, C.R.; Hedge, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The only nepheline syenite complex presently known in the Arabian Shield is at Jabal Sawda, about 30 km S of Haql in the extreme NW of Saudi Arabia. It is a post-tectonic, composite intrusion with a crudely concentric structure. A core of leuco-nepheline syenite, a partial ring of mela-nepheline syenite, and an almost complete outer ring of alkali-feldspar syenite are the main rock units. Several mega-inclusions of porphyritic nepheline syenite, nepheline monzosyenite, malignite and ijolite are present in the leuco-nepheline syenite. The chemical composition is notable for very high values of Al2O3, Na2O, Ba, La, Nb, Sr and Zr. U{single bond}Pb isotope dating indicates an emplacement age of 553 ?? 4 Ma, one of an increasing number of reliable Cambrian isotope dates in the northern Red Sea region. ?? 1986.

  14. Cambrian nepheline syenite complex at Jabal Sawda, Midyan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, W. K.; Ramsay, C. R.; Hedge, C. E.

    The only nepheline syenite complex presently known in the Arabian Shield is at Jabal Sawda, about 30 km S of Haql in the extreme NW of Saudi Arabia. It is a post-tectonic, composite intrusion with a crudely concentric structure. A core of leuco-nepheline syenite, a partial ring of mela-nepheline syenite, and an almost complete outer ring of alkali-feldspar syenite are the main rock units. Several mega-inclusions of porphyritic nepheline syenite, nepheline monzosyenite, malignite and ijolite are present in the leuco-nepheline syenite. The chemical composition is notable for very high values of Al 2O 3, Na 2O, Ba, La, Nb, Sr and Zr. U sbnd Pb isotope dating indicates an emplacement age of 553 ± 4 Ma, one of an increasing number of reliable Cambrian isotope dates in the northern Red Sea region.

  15. Saudi Security: Challenges in the Post-Saddam Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burke, David

    2004-01-01

    Events at the beginning of the 2lst century have brought a fundamental change to the security environment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia of a significance not witnessed in the region since the Iranian Revolution in 1979...

  16. Operators in Yemen draw warning from Saudis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that foreign oil companies with concessions in northern Yemen have been drawn into a border dispute between Yemen and Saudi Arabia. At least six companies received letters from the Saudi government warning them that steps, as yet undefined, will be taken if exploration extends into disputed areas. A second territorial dispute also appears to be brewing in the region. Iran has ejected United Arab Emirates nationals from the island of Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf, which is jointly administered by Iran and Sharjah, one of the emirates. The U.A.E. government has reported the situation to the Gulf Cooperation Council, triggering a denial from Iran that anyone has been deported from the island

  17. NO2 and Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Ahmadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2 were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32–0.71, weaker at the governorate level (r2 = 0.03–0.43, and declined slightly at the city level (r2 = 0.17–0.33, suggesting that an increased aggregated spatial level increased the explained variability and the model GOF. However, the low GOF at the lowest spatial level suggests that additional variation remains unexplained. At different spatial levels, associations between NO2 concentration and the most common cancers were marginally improved in geographically weighted regression (GWR analysis, which explained both global and local heterogeneity and variations in cancer incidence. High coefficients of determination were observed between NO2 concentration and lung and breast cancer incidences, followed by prostate, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancers, confirming results from other studies. These results could be improved using individual explanatory variables such as environmental, demographic, behavioral, socio-economic, and genetic risk factors.

  18. Blood pressure standards for Saudi children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSalloum, Abdullah A.; El Mouzan, Mohammad I.; AlHerbish, Abdullah S.; AlOmar, Ahmad A.; Qurashi, Mansour M.

    2009-01-01

    Blood pressure levels may vary in children because of genetic, ethnic and socioeconomic factors. To date, there have been no large national studies in Saudi Arabia on blood pressure in children. Therefore, we sought to establish representative blood pressure reference centiles for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. We selected a sample of children and adolescents aged from birth to 18 years by multi-stage probability sampling of the Saudi population. The selected sample represented Saudi children from the whole country. Data were collected through a house-to-house survey of all selected households in all 13 regions in the country. Data were analyzed to study the distribution pattern of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and to develop reference values. The 90th percentile of SBP and DBP values for each age were compared with values from a Turkish and an American study. A total of 16 226 Saudi children and adolescents from birth to 18 years were studied. Blood pressure rose steadily with age in both boys and girls. The average annual increase in SBP was 1.66 mm Hg for boys and1.44 mm Hg for girls. The average annual increase in DBP was 0.83 mm Hg for boys and 0.77 mm Hg for girls. DBP rose sharply in boys at the age of 18 years. Values for the 90th percentile of both SBP and DBP varied in Saudi children from their Turkish and American counterparts for all age groups. Blood pressure values in this study differed from those from other studies in developing countries and in the United States, indicating that comparison across studies is difficult and from that every population should use their own normal standards to define measured blood pressure levels in children. (author)

  19. [Births prevalence of 27 selected congenital anomalies in 7 geographic regions of Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaña, Hebe; Pawluk, Mariela S; López Camelo, Jorge S

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to estimate the frequency of 27 birth defects in 7 geographical regions of Argentina. Observational, cross-sectional, descriptive design. A sample of 21,844 new born with birth defects was selected, ascertained from 855,220 births, between 1994 and 2007, in 59 hospitals belonging to the ECLAMC network. In order to identify regions of high frequency a Poisson regression was used, adjusted by different hospitals from the same region. The model included a time variable to detect secular trends and 6 dummy variables for 7 predefined geographical regions: Metropolitana (MET); Pampa (PAM); Centro (CEN); Cuyo (CUY); Noroeste (NOA); Nordeste (NEA) and Patagonia (PAT). High frequencies regional analysis showed the following significant results: PAM: severe hypospadias; CEN: spina bifida, microtia, cleft lip with cleft palate, polycystic kidney, postaxial polydactyly and Down syndrome; CUY: postaxial polydactyly; NOA: omphalocele, gastroschisis, cleft lip without cleft palate, cleft lip with cleft palate, anorectal atresia/stenosis, indeterminate sex, preaxial polydactyly and pectoral agenesis; PAT: cleft lip without cleft palate. Out of the 27 congenital anomalies analyzed, fourteen showed a frequency significatively higher in one or more regions.

  20. Captive power generation in Saudi Arabia—Overview and recommendations on policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Majeed, Mohammed Arif; Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Al-Soufi, Khaled Y.; Ahmad, Firoz; Rehman, Shafiqur

    2013-01-01

    The power sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is undergoing the restructuring process. Moreover, during the last decade the Kingdom has witnessed a phenomenal growth in the load demand, consequently a huge amount of generation is added to the electric utilities to meet the load. Up to now only the electric utility generation was taken in the planning of the electrical sector. The data regarding the captive power generation was not readily available. A survey is conducted regarding the captive power generation in Saudi Arabia based on its utilization pattern, fuel used and amount of excess energy available to the grid. The existing regulatory framework and institutional structure of the Saudi power industry was also reviewed. Based on the information collected in the survey of captive power, key guidelines that may be considered in developing the policy for the captive power generators are presented. Furthermore, these guidelines and later the policies will help promote the investors to come forward in developing the captive power generation in Saudi Arabia. -- Highlights: •Database of captive power generation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. •Historical perspective of electrical power industry in the Kingdom. •Saudi Arabia′s power requirements. •Regulatory framework and key guidelines regarding captive power generation. •It is first of its kind study in the region

  1. Four viruses infecting figs in Western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Y. ALDHEBIANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases are compromising fig production in Saudi Arabia and in particular those caused by viruses. RT-PCR assays were conducted on 80 samples collected from four fig-growing provinces in the West Mecca region of Saudi Arabia, including the Fatima, Khulais, Rabigh and Alshifa valleys. Samples consisted of leaf tissues taken from caprifig and common fig trees. The presence of Fig mosaic virus (FMV, Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 1 (FLMaV-1, Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 2 (FLMaV-2 and Fig mild mottle-associated virus (FMMaV was assessed from the samples. RT-PCR results showed that all four viruses were present in the surveyed areas with different proportions of infection. Incidence was 69% of samples, with a peak of 80%, from the Alshifa and Fatima valleys, 60% from Rabigh and 55% from Khulais valley. FLMaV-1 was the prevailing virus (55% of samples, followed by FMV (34%, whereas FLMaV-2 (11% of samples and FMMaV (6% were less common. Most of the mosaic symptoms observed in surveyed fig orchards occurred with the presence of FMV. However, many other symptoms remained unexplained because of the arduous task of determining the involvement of other fig-infecting viruses with mosaic disease. This is the first report of FMMaV and FLMaV-2 in Saudi Arabia, and of FMV and FLMaV-1 in western Saudi Arabia. The virus status of this crop is probably compromised and a sanitation programme is required to produce healthy plant material in Saudi Arabia.

  2. EPSTEIN–BARR VIRUS IN THE POPULATION OF TWO GEOGRAPHICALLY DIFFERENT REGIONS OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Senyuta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV being widely spread in the human population is also the etiologic agent for a number of malignancies. A notable feature of tumors associated with EBV is their different incidence in various geographical regions, that, as suggested, related with mutational events in multiple loci of the EBV genome and its oncogene, the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1, associated with the transforming potential of the virus. Given the multi-ethnic composition of Russian population and the diversity of geographical areas and conditions of their residence, it was relevant to examine the representatives of different geographical regions for the nature of their relationship with EBV. To solve this task the antibody response to locally circulating EBV strains, determined by indirect immunofluorescence, was studied in residents of the Central, North Caucasus and Far Eastern Federal Districts, represented by healthy individuals and patients with various head and neck tumors. The levels of antibody titers obtained were compared with the incidence rates of nasopharyngeal tumors (NPT in population of above Districts. In order to determine possible structural modifications in LMP1 gene of EBV strains persisting in selected geographic regions, samples of the gene have been amplified from a biological material collected by “nested” PCR and sequenced. The results obtained have shown that levels of antibody response to EBV among representatives of the regions included in the study vary significantly. It was found that in residents of the Dagestan and the Chechen Republics, the inhabitants of the North Caucasus Federal District, the correlation between enhanced humoral response to EBV and increased incidence of NPT was detected. Since among NPT the EBV-associated form of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPCEBV is dominated, the findings allow us to suggest that the population of these Republics have genetic

  3. Efficient data analysis approaches to enhance the quality of customer service in Saudi Government sector

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Baz

    2016-01-01

    The common aim of all our daily activities is providing services to others or ourselves. Services provided by the government are called public services while those provided by some people to some others are called private services. Both types differ from country to country and from region to region. In Saudi Arabia, public services include education, health, police, trading, and environmental services. It is the aim of all government agencies in Saudi Arabia and other countries around the wor...

  4. The demographic and clinical characteristics of leprosy in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Mohammad H; Bahammam, Salman A; Ur Rahman, Saeed; Bahnassy, Ahmed A; Hassan, Imad S; Alothman, Adel F; Alkayal, Abdulkareem M

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Although the occurrence of leprosy has declined in Saudi Arabia, it has not yet been eradicated. To our knowledge, this descriptive retrospective study is the first to assess the clinical presentation of leprosy at the time of diagnosis in Saudi Arabia. All study subjects were leprosy patients admitted to Ibn Sina hospital, the only referral hospital for leprosy in Saudi Arabia, between January 2000 and May 2012. A total of 164 subjects, the majority of whom (65%) were between 21 and 50 years of age, were included, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.8:1. Of these 164 patients, 63% were Saudis, and 77% of all admitted patients were from the western region. Lepromatous leprosy was observed most frequently (33%), and 31% of cases had a positive history of close contact with leprosy. At the time of diagnosis, 84% of all subjects presented with skin manifestation. The prevalence of neurological deficit at the time of diagnosis was 87%. Erythema nodosum leprosum (E.N.L.) developed in only 10% of all subjects. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical characteristics pertaining to each type of leprosy in the region, and training courses in caring for and diagnosing patients with leprosy should be organized for health workers. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A New Phenomenon in Saudi Females’ Code-switching: A Morphemic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona O. Turjoman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This sociolinguistics study investigates a new phenomenon that has recently surfaced in the field of code-switching among Saudi females residing in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. This phenomenon basically combines bound Arabic pronouns, tense markers or definite article to English free morphemes or the combination of bound English affixes to Arabic morphemes. Moreover, the study examines the factors that affect this type of code-switching. The results of the study indicate that this phenomenon provides data that invalidates Poplack’s (1980 universality of the ‘Free Morpheme Constraint’. It is also concluded that the main factors that influence this type of code-switching is solidarity and group identity among other factors. Keywords: Code-switching, Saudi females, sociolinguistics, CS factors, morphemic analysis

  6. Research progress and prospects of Saudi Arabia in global medical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, S A; Hassan, A; Usmani, A M

    2013-12-01

    Since last decade, Saudi Arabia has been swiftly moving ahead to promote an education and research in the country. This study aimed to investigate the research outcome of Saudi Arabia in medical sciences during the period 1996-2012. In this study, the research papers published in various global science journals during the period 1996-2012 were accessed. We recorded the total number of research documents having an affiliation with Saudi Arabia. The main source for information was Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science, Thomson Reuters and SCI-mago/Scopus. In global science data base, Saudi Arabia contributed 103804 documents in all science and social sciences. In medicine the total number of research papers from Saudi Arabia are 16196, citable documents 14732, total citations 102827, citations per documents 6.36 and Hirsch index (h-index) is 92. However, in combined medical and allied health sciences the total number of research papers are 27246, citable documents 25416, total citations 181999, mean citations per documents 7.07 and mean h-index is 41.44. Furthermore, Saudi Arabia contributed 40797 research documents in ISI indexed journals only and also 151 research documents in highly reputable and towering science journals. Saudi Arabia's research performance in global medical sciences has markedly increased during the period 2006-2012. The research publications are continuously on mounting path; however, the number of citations has decreased. The country improved its regional as well as international research rankings and graded 45 in the world in year 2012.

  7. Using SaudiVeg Ecoinformatics in assessment, monitoring and proposing environmental restoration tools in central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed; Hennekens, Stephan; Alfarhan, Ahmed; Thomas, Jacob; Schaminee, Joop; El-Keblawy, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Successful restoration of degraded habitats requires information about the history and factors led to the deterioration of these habitats. This study analyzed SaudiVeg Ecoinformatics, which is a big phytosociological database about plant communities and other environmental factors affecting them in the Najd-Central Region of Saudi Arabia. A phytosociological survey with more than 3000 vegetation relevés was conducted during 2013. The data were used to correlate the plant community attributes, such as abundance and species diversity in natural and ruderal habitats with environmental factors, such as human impacts, soil physical and chemical properties, and land uses. The data were subjected to multivariate analyses using programs, such as TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA, via Juice package. Fourteen vegetation associations were described under provisional classification of the Central Saudi Arabia deserts. These associations were broadly grouped into desert vegetation types. One alliance group, Haloxylonion salicornici, is the most widespread and contains four associations on the wadis and desert plains. Three associations are dominant on the depression habitats (raudhas) and two associations of Tamarixidetum spp. on the wetland and salt pan habitats. Four associations inhabit the man-made habitat and abandoned field habitats and one association, the Neurado procumbentis-Heliotropietum digyni, dominates the overgrazed sandy dunes. As human impact is huge and increasing, the vegetation ecoinformatics of the present study would form a baseline description that could be used as a vital tool for future monitoring and for proposing environmental restoration processes in central Saudi Arabia. It could also help both Governmental and Non-governmental organizations (NGO) in formulating strategies and on-ground plans for protection, management and restoration of the natural vegetation.

  8. Transport and geographical position of the big and average cities of the Ukrainian Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Shulevskyi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There were features of the transport and geographical position of large and average cities of the Ukrainian Black Sea region described in the article. The situation of cities in relation to the existing network of main types of transport connections like road, rail, water, aviation was analyzed. The location of cities in relation to regional centers, the regional center of Odessa, the capital of the country and the state border were characterized. The situation of cities in relation to international transport corridors and the international E-road network was examined. The cities with the most and least favorable transport and geographical location in the region were highlighted.

  9. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Abdominal Obesity among Urban Saudi Adolescents: Gender and Regional Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abahussain, Nada A.; Al-Sobayel, Hana I.; Qahwaji, Dina M.; Alsulaiman, Nouf A.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nutrition transition with associated lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases has rapidly reached many developing countries, including Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity among Saudi adolescents. This school-based multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010 in three major cities in Saudi Arabia: Al-Khobar, Jeddah, and Riyadh. Participants included 2,908 students of secondary schools (1,401 males and 1,507 females) aged 14 to 19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster-sampling technique. Weight, height, and waist-circumference were measured; prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined using age- and sex-specific BMI cutoff reference standards of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Abdominal obesity was determined using waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) cutoffs (above 0.5). The prevalence of overweight was 19.5% in males and 20.8% in females while that of obesity was 24.1% in males and 14% in females. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in males and females was 35.9% and 30.3% respectively. Higher prevalence of obesity was observed among adolescents in private schools. Across all ages, overweight and obesity ranged from 39.9% to 45.6% in males and from 30.4% to 38.7% in females. ANCOVA, controlling for age, showed significant interaction effects (city by gender). It is concluded that the proportions of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity, observed among Saudi adolescents were remarkably high. Such high prevalence of overweight and obesity is a major public-health concern. PMID:25895197

  10. Physical therapy education in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To review the physical therapy educational program model, professional curriculum, and gender representation at major universities, as well as the quality and scope of physical therapy practice in Saudi Arabia. [Methods] Information regarding course curriculum, gender representation, and the quality and scope of physical therapy practice was collected from six universities in Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Physical Therapy Association, and the Saudi Health Commission. [Results] The first b...

  11. Comparison of vitamin D deficiency in Saudi married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, D E; Al-Khashan, H I; Mishriky, A M

    2012-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in Saudi Arabia. The study objective was to compare vitamin D deficiency in Saudi married couples. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Royal Guard primary health care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on a consecutive sample of 50 Saudi married couples attending the center without complaints related to vitamin D deficiency. Data were collected through an interview questionnaire addressing the risk factors and dietary habits. Quantitative determination of total 25-hydroxy vitamin D in blood was done by Electro-Chemical Luminescence assay. Fieldwork was carried out from December 2010 to January 2011. Men had higher sun exposure (P = 0.001), more use of light clothes at home (P = 0.002) and more intake of milk (P = 0.023) and soft drinks (P = 0.001). Vitamin D was higher in men with mean difference about 9 nmol/l (P activity and the intake of milk as statistically significant positive independent predictors of vitamin D level, adjusted for factors as age, sun exposure, clothing, skin color, BMI, soft drinks and animal protein intake. Vitamin D deficiency is very high among Saudi married couples, especially wives. Female gender is an independent predictor of lower vitamin D level, in addition to sedentary lifestyle and low milk consumption. There is a need to revise the levels set for the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency in the study region.

  12. GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS INCIDENCE IN THE CHILD POPULATION OF THE GRODNO REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khokha R. N.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Research objective. To estimate a geographical variation of the indicator of the incidence of atopic dermatitis among the child population of the Grodno region. Material and methods. The data of the official statistical reports of the Grodno Regional Department of Statistics, the annual report forms «Form 1 – children» of the medical statistics office of the Regional Children’s Clinical Hospital for the period of 1999-2016 years were analyzed. Territorial differentiation of the indicator of disease incidence was carried out by the method of cluster analysis (k-means clustering. Results. The geographical characteristic of the indicator of the incidence of atopic dermatitis among the child population of the Grodno region aged 0–14 years during 1999-2016 years has been given. Low, below the average, above the average, average and high values of the indicator of atopic dermatitis incidence have been established. The cartogram of territorial distribution of the indicator of atopic dermatitis incidence among the child population has been made. Conclusion. The established features, various intensity of the degree of a geographical variation of the indicator of atopic dermatitis incidence reflect the influence of a set of various factors determining an indicator of diseases incidence in various territories of the region and confirm the need to analyze the cause-and-effect relationships in the system «medium-indicator of atopic dermatitis incidence among the child population».

  13. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Hannan, Mohammed A.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies. PMID:22140343

  14. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner: Their natural history and role in beekeeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Alqarni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999 has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of A. m. jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only A. m. jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from A. m. jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

  15. Technological Leadership Behavior of High School Headteachers in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkrdem, Mofareh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the technological leadership behaviors of Saudi Arabian high school regarding the supply and use of educational technologies based on the educational technology standards developed and approved for school headteachers in many countries. The study was carried out with 135 high school headteachers. In the…

  16. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and a key to Saudi Arabian species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... of the related species from Arabian region. A key to Saudi Arabian ... only two of these subgenera viz., Bracotritoma Csiki and. Phanerotoma s.str. .... species is also closely related to P. (B.) ebneri Fahringer from Sudan but ...

  17. Cytological pattern of cervical papanicolaou smear in eastern region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Hassan Balaha

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: The study has shown a relatively high prevalence of epithelial abnormalities in cervical smears in the studied population. The squamous cell carcinoma represented a higher than the overall prevalence compared to World Health Organization (WHO factsheets about Saudi Arabia. The mean age of epithelial abnormalities and squamous cell carcinoma was in the reproductive years.

  18. Hepatitis C genotypes /subtypes among chronic hepatitis patients in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shobokshi, Ossama A.; Serebour, Frank E.; Skakni, Leila L.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the molecular epidemiology of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in K.S.A. 492 histological proven chronic HCV patients recruited from all regions of KSA,between November 1999 and March 2002 were genotyped and subtyped using amplified products of specific primers from the 5-UTR region in a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by a hybridization technique. 62% of Saudis were found to be genotype4. Other genotypes were 1(24.1%); 2(7.4%); 3(5.9%); 5(0.3%) add 10(0.3%).All regions showed similar distribution except except the Eastern region where subtype 2a/c emerged. 86% of Saudi chronic hepatitis C cases are due to genotypes 1 and 4.Since these are considered difficult to treat an aggressive approach to management using combination therapy of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin for 48 weeks should be considered for all cases of chronic hepatitis C until genotyping proves otherwise. (author)

  19. Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

  20. Ground Motion Prediction Equations for Western Saudi Arabia from a Reference Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, R.; Mooney, W. D.; Mori, J. J.; Zahran, H. M.; Al-Raddadi, W.; Youssef, S.

    2017-12-01

    Western Saudi Arabia is surrounded by several active seismic zones such as the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba where a destructive magnitude 7.3 event occurred in 1995. Over the last decade, the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) has deployed a dense seismic network that has made it possible to monitor seismic activity more accurately. For example, the network has detected multiple seismic swarms beneath the volcanic fields in western Saudi Arabia. The most recent damaging event was a M5.7 earthquake that occurred in 2009 at Harrat Lunayyir. In terms of seismic hazard assessment, Zahran et al. (2015; 2016) presented a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) for western Saudi Arabia that was developed using published Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) from areas outside of Saudi Arabia. In this study, we consider 41 earthquakes of M 3.0 - 5.4, recorded on 124 stations of the SGS network, to create a set of 442 peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV) records with a range of epicentral distances from 3 km to 400 km. We use the GMPE model BSSA14 (Boore et al., 2014) as a reference model to estimate our own best-fitting coefficients from a regression analysis using the events occurred in western Saudi Arabia. For epicentral distances less than 100 km, our best fitting model has different source scaling in comparison with the GMPE of BSSA14 adjusted for the California region. In addition, our model indicates that the peak amplitudes have less attenuation in western Saudi Arabia than in California.

  1. Chemical diversity of essential oils from flowers,leaves,and stems of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marwa Awad; Abdelrhman Abdelwahab

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the medicinal uses of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv.(R.epapposum) growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia,through the chemical diversity of essential oils extracted from its flowers,leaves and stems.Methods:Aerial parts of R.epapposum were collected in April 2014.Air dried flowers,leaves,and stems were separately subjected to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 4 h to extract the essential oils.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oils was carried out using an Agilent 6890 gas chromatograph equipped with an Agilent 5973 mass spectrometric detector.Results:A total of 51 compounds representing 76.35%–94.86% of flowers,leaves and stems oils composition were identified.The chemical profiles of the studied fractions revealed the dominance of monoterpenes,regardless of qualitative and quantitative differences observed.Limonene,linalool,4-terpineol and a-cadinol represented the major constituents of flowers oil.Leaves oil was dominated by limonene,sabinene,a-pinene and b-myrcene whereas linalool,ionole,a-cadinol,b-eudesmol,4-terpineol,and aterpineol were the major constituents of stems oil.Conclusions:Essential oils from flowers,leaves and stems of R.epapposum growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia are considered as a rich source of monoterpenes which have biological activities.

  2. Size and type of places, geographical region, satisfaction with life, age, sex and place attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Alan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the article concerns the issue of place attachment and its determinants. An analysis of place attachment was performed in terms of place identity and place dependence (Williams, Vaske, 2003. Moreover, links between place attachment and selected geographical (size and type of place, geographical region, demographic (age, sex and psychological (satisfaction with life variables were investigated.

  3. Khat chewing among students of higher education in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia: prevalence, pattern, and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel

    2013-01-01

    (1) To estimate the prevalence and behavioral patterns of Khat chewing and (2) to investigate factors that influenced the pattern of Khat use among undergraduate students in different higher education institutions in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study using a pretested structured self-administered quantitative questionnaire was used to collect data. SPSS version 17 software program was used for data analysis. The overall current Khat chewing prevalence among higher education students was found to be 23.1%, significantly higher among males at 38.5% than among females at 2.1% (P higher compared with females at 3.7% (P higher education students in Jazan region. A multilevel, value based, comprehensive, and strategic long-term intervention plan is needed. The comprehensive plan may include social interventions geared by creating recreations alternatives and opportunities for youth and a critical review for current authorities' interventions and services.

  4. Patients' satisfaction of service quality in Saudi hospitals: a SERVQUAL analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Borie, Hussein M; Damanhouri, Amal M Sheikh

    2013-01-01

    Saudi Arabian hospital performance, vis-á-vis patient satisfaction with service provision, has emerged as a key policy and planning concern. Keeping in view public and private hospital service quality, this article seeks to provide guidelines to the on-going Saudi Arabian health service reorganization, which emphasizes decentralization, bed-capacity expansion, research-based policymaking and initiatives in the health insurance sector. The article outlines an empirical study that compares patient satisfaction with service quality in Saudi Arabian public and private sector hospitals. The authors employ a stratified random sample (1,000 inpatients) from five Saudi Arabian public and five private hospitals. Data were collected through questionnaire using the SERVQUAL scale. For reducing the language bias the questionnaire was translated into Arabic. The response rate was 74.9 percent. Data were analyzed using SPSS and appropriate descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. Cronbach's alpha for five service-quality dimensions (tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, safety and empathy) were high and the SERVQUAL instrument proved to be reliable, valid and appropriate. The results showed that sex, education, income and occupation were statistically significant in influencing inpatients' satisfaction, and all the null hypotheses were rejected. Only inpatient age was not significant. The study highlights service quality influence in the design of broader healthcare strategies for Saudi Arabian public and private hospitals. It demands that management researchers and analysts must identify regional service quality consistencies and related inpatient demographic indicators. The study offers some insights into, and guidance for, hospital quality assurance in Saudi Arabia in general and the urban hospital setting in the Middle-East in particular.

  5. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey: 2001–2002 in Riyadh region, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bedah AM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah1, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi21Arabian Center for Tobacco Control, 2General Administration for Medical Research and Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Tobacco use is a major public health problem, and its prevalence is globally increasing, especially among children and adolescents.Objective: The Global Youth Tobacco Survey aimed to explore the epidemiological trends and risk factors of tobacco smoking among intermediate school boys in Riyadh region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Method: A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce a representative sample of male students from selected schools. The participants (n = 1830 self recorded their responses on the Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire.Results: Lifetime prevalence of cigarette smoking was 35%, while 13% of students currently used other tobacco products. About 16% of students currently smoked at home, and 84% of students bought cigarettes without any refusal from storekeepers. Thirty-one percent and 39% of students were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke inside and outside the house, respectively, which was definitely or probably harmful to health as opined by 87% of participants, and 74% voiced to ban smoking from public places. Among current smokers, 69% intended (without attempt to quit and 63% attempted (but failed to quit during the past year. Almost an equal number of students saw antismoking and prosmoking media messages in the last month, and 28% of students were offered free cigarettes by a tobacco company representative. In schools, more than 50% of students were taught about the dangers of cigarette smoking in the last year. Smoking by parents, older brothers, and close friends, watching prosmoking cigarette advertisements, free offer of cigarettes by tobacco company representatives, perception of smoking being not harmful, and continuing smoking which can be easily quit significantly

  6. Trends in the risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in five Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Marinho de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To analyze the trends in risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases in the northern, northeastern, southern, southeastern, and central western Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996. METHODS - Data on mortality due to cardiovascular, cardiac ischemic, and cerebrovascular diseases in 5 Brazilian geographic regions were obtained from the Ministry of Health. Population estimates for the time period from 1978 to 1996 in the 5 Brazilian geographic regions were calculated by interpolation with the Lagrange method, based on the census data from 1970, 1980, 1991, and the population count of 1996, for each age bracket and sex. Trends were analyzed with the multiple linear regression model. RESULTS - Cardiovascular diseases showed a declining trend in the southern, southeastern, and northern Brazilian geographic regions in all age brackets and for both sexes. In the northeastern and central western regions, an increasing trend in the risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases occurred, except for the age bracket from 30 to 39 years, which showed a slight reduction. This resulted from the trends of cardiac ischemic and cerebrovascular diseases. The analysis of the trend in the northeastern and northern regions was impaired by the great proportion of poorly defined causes of death. CONCLUSION - The risk of death due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and cardiac ischemic diseases decreased in the southern and southeastern regions, which are the most developed regions in the country, and increased in the least developed regions, mainly in the central western region.

  7. Exercise capacity of Saudi with symptoms suggestive of cardiovascular disease in a military hospital in Western Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, T.; Mohammad, Kazim H.; Abdel-Fattah, Moataz M.; Abbasi, Abdul H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to analyze the results of exercise tolerance test ETT of Saudi women and assess their exercise capacity. A hospital based retrospective cohort analysis was carried out on all Saudi women referred to the Cardiology Department for ETT from February 2005 to June 2007. They underwent symptom limited treadmill test according to the standard Bruce protocol with exercise electrocardiogram monitoring. One hundred and seventy-six women were included in the study. Fifty-one 31.9% patients did not achieve target heart rate. The mean age +/- SD was 48.3+-9.3 years. There was no association of age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, positive family history of ischemic heart disease IHD and hyperlipidemia to achieve target heart rate p>0.05. Exercise time was influenced by diabetes mellitus p=0.054 and hyperlipidemia p=0.044. The mean exercise time +/- SD was 5.15+/-2.63 minutes and the mean exercise capacity +/-SD was 6.29+/-2.52 metabolic equivalent. Sensitivity was 36.4%, 95% CI 29.3-44.6, specificity 92.3%, 95% CI 80.5-96.8, positive predictive value 26.7%, 95% CI 21.3-31.4, negative predictive value 95.4%, 95% CI 90.9-98.3, likelihood ratio for positive result was 4.7, 95%CI 3.1-6.2 and likelihood ratio for negative result was 0.69, 95% CI 0.48-0.81. Exercise capacity of Saudi women is less compared to similar studies in women from other regions. Exercise tolerance test can be used to rule out presence of IHD in Saudi women, but value of a positive test is less likely to predict the presence of IHD. (author)

  8. Desertification and its effect on the erosion of vegetation in the south-western region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy; Elhakem, Abeer Hamdy

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted in Jazan region of south-western Saudi Arabia. Vegetation cover, frequency, abundance and soil characteristics were analysed at three locations with different quantitative and descriptive vegetation characteristics. Plant species were classified into three primary communities dominated by Salvadora persic, Acacia tortilis and Ziziphus spini-Christi. The results indicated that the distribution of plant species is controlled by soil characteristics. Very limited water resources are also limiting factor in vegetation growth. Among the three studied sites, desert and coastal environments are affected by desertification. Rehabilitation of the degraded lands requires collaborative efforts and support from the different related governmental sectors. Ecological conservation and sustainable development must be adopted as tools of rehabilitation.

  9. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-20

    influence of the Islamic State and Iran. 44 However, in conjunction with the government’s expanded efforts to dissuade Saudi citizens from supporting...Saudi Arabia, ruled by the Al Saud family since its founding in 1932, wields significant global influence through its administration of the birthplace...Administration has endorsed Saudi citizens ’ rights to free assembly and free expression. Saudi leaders reject foreign interference in the country’s internal

  10. ASSESSMENT OF THE ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF THE MOST COMMON COFFEE BREWS AVAILABLE IN THE LOCAL MARKETS OF THE WESTERN REGION OF SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Huda A. Al Doghaither; Ashjan M. Almowalad; Ayat M. Shorbaji; Ayat B. Al-Ghafari; Ulfat M. Omar

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the antioxidant activity of the most commonly used coffee brews in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. Further, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured and antioxidants properties including ferric reducing antioxidant power and ferrous ion chelating activity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and scavenging of hydrogen peroxide assays were also determined. Results of study revealed that phenolic contents were 741, 835 an...

  11. Regional Geographic Information Systems of Health and Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurolap Semen A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a new scientific and methodological approach to designing geographic information systems of health and environmental monitoring for urban areas. Geographic information systems (GIS are analytical tools of the regional health and environmental monitoring; they are used for an integrated assessment of the environmental status of a large industrial centre or a part of it. The authors analyse the environmental situation in Voronezh, a major industrial city, located in the Central Black Earth Region with a population of more than 1 million people. The proposed research methodology is based on modern approaches to the assessment of health risks caused by adverse environmental conditions. The research work was implemented using a GIS and multicriteria probabilistic and statistical evaluation to identify cause-and-effect links, a combination of action and reaction, in the dichotomy ‘environmental factors — public health’. The analysis of the obtained statistical data confirmed an increase in childhood diseases in some areas of the city. Environmentally induced diseases include congenital malformations, tumors, endocrine and urogenital pathologies. The main factors having an adverse impact on health are emissions of carcinogens into the atmosphere and the negative impact of transport on the environment. The authors identify and characterize environmentally vulnerable parts of the city and developed principles of creating an automated system of health monitoring and control of environmental risks. The article offers a number of measures aimed at the reduction of environmental risks, better protection of public health and a more efficient environmental monitoring.

  12. Prevalence, knowledge and attitude of prohibited substances use (doping) among Saudi sport players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghobain, M; Konbaz, M S; Almassad, A; Alsultan, A; Al Shubaili, M; AlShabanh, O

    2016-04-16

    To estimate the lifetime prevalence and address the attitudes and knowledge of using prohibited substances (doping) among sport players in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey carried out using systematic random sampling technique among Saudi players of variable sports attending the sport clubs, stadiums, and sport fields (70 sport clubs, 22 types of sports belong to 22 Saudi sport federations were visted in 18 cities from all regions of Saudi Arabia). A total of 1142 male sport players were interviewed with main age of 24. The prevalence of using prohibited substances (doping) was 4.3 %. The main reason for using prohibited substances was to improve performance (69 %). The prevalence of using food supplements (not prohibited) was 38.4 %. Among the players, 30 % of them believe that such behavior is against the spirit of sport while 70 % of the players are aware of punishment against doping. 65 % of players admitted that they received advice on prohibited substances. Higher rate of using prohibited substances (doping) among Saudi players was associated with low education, age below 20 years, previous use of food supplements and lack of punishment awareness. Using prohibited substances (doping) among Saudi sport players is common. Players believe that such use is against the spirit of the sport and they are aware about its punishment, despite this, they are still using prohibited substances.

  13. Surface gene variants of hepatitis B Virus in Saudi Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qudari, Ahmed Y; Amer, Haitham M; Abdo, Ayman A; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Hamoudi, Waleed; Alswat, Khalid; Almajhdi, Fahad N

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) continues to be one of the most important viral pathogens in humans. Surface (S) protein is the major HBV antigen that mediates virus attachment and entry and determines the virus subtype. Mutations in S gene, particularly in the "a" determinant, can influence virus detection by ELISA and may generate escape mutants. Since no records have documented the S gene mutations in HBV strains circulating in Saudi Arabia, the current study was designed to study sequence variation of S gene in strains circulating in Saudi Arabia and its correlation with clinical and risk factors. A total of 123 HBV-infected patients were recruited for this study. Clinical and biochemical parameters, serological markers, and viral load were determined in all patients. The entire S gene sequence of samples with viral load exceeding 2000 IU/mL was retrieved and exploited in sequence and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 48 mutations (21 unique) were recorded in viral strains in Saudi Arabia, among which 24 (11 unique) changed their respective amino acids. Two amino acid changes were recorded in "a" determinant, including F130L and S135F with no evidence of the vaccine escape mutant G145R in any of the samples. No specific relationship was recognized between the mutation/amino acid change record of HBsAg in strains in Saudi Arabia and clinical or laboratory data. Phylogenetic analysis categorized HBV viral strains in Saudi Arabia as members of subgenotypes D1 and D3. The present report is the first that describes mutation analysis of HBsAg in strains in Saudi Arabia on both nucleotide and amino acid levels. Different substitutions, particularly in major hydrophilic region, may have a potential influence on disease diagnosis, vaccination strategy, and antiviral chemotherapy.

  14. Comparing Female Victims of Separation/Divorce Assault across Geographical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter S DeKeseredy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS data show that male-to-female separation/divorce assault varies across geographic regions in the United States, with rural rates of such woman abuse being higher than those for suburban and urban areas. Using the same data set, the main objective of this paper is to present the results of an investigation into whether characteristics of female victims of separation/divorce assault also differ across urban, suburban, and rural communities.

  15. Tracing the epidemic history of hepatitis C virus genotypes in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anis; Al Balwi, Mohammed; AlAyyar, Latifah; AlAbdulkareem, Ibrahim; Albekairy, Abdulkareem; Aljumah, Abdulrahman

    2017-08-01

    HCV genotype 4 is highly prevalent in many Middle Eastern countries, yet little is known about the genotype's epidemic history at the subtype-level in this region. To address the dearth of data from Saudi Arabia (SA) we genotyped 230 HCV isolates in the core/E- and NS5B-region and analyzed using Bayesian phylogenetic approaches. HCV genotype 4 (HCV/4) was positive in 61.7% (142/230) of isolates belonging to 7 different subtypes with the predominance of 4d (73/142; 51.4%) followed by 4a (51/142; 35.9%). Phylogenetic analysis also revealed a distinct epidemiological cluster of HCV/4d for Saudi Arabia. HCV/1 appeared as the second most prevalent genotype positive in 31.3% (72/230) of isolates with the predominance of 1b (53/72; 73.6%) followed by 1a (16/72; 22.2%), and 1g (3/72; 4.1%). A small proportion of isolates belonged to HCV/3a (12/230; 5.2%), and HCV/2a (4/230; 1.7%). We estimate that the genotype 4 common ancestor existed around 1935 (1850-1985). Genotype 4 originated plausibly in Central Africa and multiple subtypes disseminated across African borders since ~1970, including subtype 4d which dominates current HCV infections in Saudi Arabia. The Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) analysis showed that genotype 4d entered the Saudi population in 1900. The effective number of HCV infections grew gradually until the second half of the 1950s and more rapidly until the early-80s through the use of imported blood units and blood products. Subsequently, the rate of HCV infection in the Saudi Arabian population was stabilized through effective screening of blood and infection control measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Universal Elements in Saudi Novel: A Study of Al-Gosaibi’s “Freedom Apartment” and Alem’s “The Dove’s Necklace”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Aboud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the short history of the Saudi fiction, compared with the genre of poetry and with the rise of novel in other Arab countries like Egypt, Lebanon and Iraqi, Saudi novelists start to occupy a remarkable part of the space of Arab narration. Although Saudi novelists face the challenge of a restrictive cultural milieu, they seek to go beyond the local and regional levels and maintain a real significant universal presence. This study is a critical reaction to an outstanding attitude that colors the reception of Saudi fictional works. In reading of Saudi narrative texts readers, critics and scholars obviously focus on the local and regional aspects, and consciously or unconsciously ignore the universal perspectives that characterize their thematic and technical concerns. The study, accordingly, explores the world of Saudi fiction, concentrating on the question of universality, a concern which has been and will remain a core issue of critical and scholarly controversy. With reference to selected works, the study is an attempt to shed light on the universal aspects in Saudi novel. The basic and core premise of the study, then, is that the production of some Saudi novelists is rich in universal elements.  The study concentrates on Gazi Al-Gosaibi (1940 – 2010 and Rajaa Alem  (1956 – present as writers representing the search for universality in Saudi novel. Al-Gosaibi’s Freedom Apartment (1994 and Alem’s The Doves’ Necklace (2010 are works rich in persistent universal narrative themes and images. The main objective of the study is to show how these two texts, like many others, incarnate and present both Saudi culture and universal human values. With reference to these two novels, the researchers seek to prove the reliability of the main premise of the study. Keywords: Challenge Saudi novel, Universal elements of novel, Human values, Culture, Comparative literature

  17. A methodology for landfill location using geographic information systems: a Colombian regional case

    OpenAIRE

    Zafra Mejía, Carlos Alfonso; Mendoza Castañeda, Franklin Andrés; Montoya Varela, Paula Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    The regions' economic growth and accelerated development have created high solid waste production rates; such waste is dis-posed of in many localities in places without any technical and/or environmental measures having been taken. This paper presents guidelines for locating landfills by combining geographic information systems (GIS) with analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and simple additive weighting (SAW). The methodology so developed was applied to the regional case of Tame in the Arauca de...

  18. Strategies to address the nursing shortage in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshaiqah, A

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the nursing shortage in Saudi Arabia and specifically the shortage of Saudi nurses in the healthcare workforce and to propose solutions. Literature published from 1993 to 2013 providing relevant information on the nursing shortage, cultural traditions and beliefs, and nursing education and policies in Saudi was accessed from multiple sources including Medline, CINAHL Plus and Google Scholar and from official Saudi government document and was reviewed. Saudi Arabia depends largely on an expatriate workforce, and this applies to nursing. Saudi Arabia is experiencing a nursing shortage in common with most countries in the world and a shortage of Saudi nationals, especially women, in the healthcare workforce. The world shortage of nursing is extrinsic to Saudi, but intrinsic factors include a poor image of the nursing profession in the country that is exacerbated by cultural factors. With the call for the Saudization of the workforce to replace the imported workforce by Saudi nationals, including nurses, through the 1992 Royal Decree, Saudi Arabia faces a problem in attracting and retaining Saudi nationals in the nursing workforce. Solutions are suggested that are aimed at improving the public image of nursing through education and the use of the media and improvements in the workplace by addressing working processes such as teamwork, ensuring adequate staffing levels and addressing some aspects of culture which may make working in nursing more compatible with being a Saudi national. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  19. Hyperlipidaemia in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Nozha, Mansour M.; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Al-Maatouq, Mohammed A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to determine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia among Saudis of both genders in rural and urban communities. Selected Saudis in the age group of 30-70 years were studied over a 5-year period between 1995 and 2000 in Saudi Arabia. Data were obtained from history, physical examination and analysis of fasting plasma lipids. The data were analyzed to classify individuals with hypercholesterolemia (HC) (total cholesterol >=5.2 mmol/l) and hypertriglyceridemia (HT) (total triglycerides >=1.69 mmol/l). Logistic regression analysis was performed to provide a risk assessment model and correlation with other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. The number of study samples included in the final analysis was 16,819. The prevalence of HC was 54% with mean cholesterol level of 5.4+-1.52 mmol/l. Prevalence of HC among males was 54.9% and 53.2% for females, while 53.4% among urban Saudis and 55.3% for rural Saudis. Hypertriglycemia prevalence was 40.3% with mean triglycerides level of 1.8+-1.29 mmol/l. Males had statistically significant higher HT prevalence of 47.6% compared to 33.7% in females (p<0.0001). Hyperlipidemia is reaching higher prevalence rates in KSA. This finding may suggest that CAD will soon be a major health problem. Reduction in obesity by adopting healthier eating problem habits and increasing physical activity are of considerable importance to our community. (author)

  20. Updating a synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic virgin olive oil adulteration calibration to a new geographical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Matthew Ross; Ottaway, Joshua; Kalivas, John H; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Mousdis, George A

    2011-02-23

    Detecting and quantifying extra virgin olive adulteration is of great importance to the olive oil industry. Many spectroscopic methods in conjunction with multivariate analysis have been used to solve these issues. However, successes to date are limited as calibration models are built to a specific set of geographical regions, growing seasons, cultivars, and oil extraction methods (the composite primary condition). Samples from new geographical regions, growing seasons, etc. (secondary conditions) are not always correctly predicted by the primary model due to different olive oil and/or adulterant compositions stemming from secondary conditions not matching the primary conditions. Three Tikhonov regularization (TR) variants are used in this paper to allow adulterant (sunflower oil) concentration predictions in samples from geographical regions not part of the original primary calibration domain. Of the three TR variants, ridge regression with an additional 2-norm penalty provides the smallest validation sample prediction errors. Although the paper reports on using TR for model updating to predict adulterant oil concentration, the methods should also be applicable to updating models distinguishing adulterated samples from pure extra virgin olive oil. Additionally, the approaches are general and can be used with other spectroscopic methods and adulterants as well as with other agriculture products.

  1. Prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Herbish, Abdullah S.; Al-Mouzan, Mohammad I.; Al-Salloum, Abdullah A.; Al-Qurachi, Mansour M.; Al-Omar, Ahmed M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to determine the prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus among 0-19 years old Saudi children and adolescents. A nationwide Saudi Arabian project was conducted in the years 2001-2007 with the objective of establishing national growth charts and defining the prevalence of some chronic childhood diseases such as diabetes mellitus. The 14000 households were randomly selected based on a recent population statistic. The questionnaire used included demographic data and evidence of diabetes mellitus. The prevalence was estimated and expressed per 100,000. Breakdown of this figure per age and region was carried out. In the 11,874 out of the 14000 (84.9%) selected households, 45,682 children and adolescents were surveyed. Fifty children and adolescents were identified to have type 1 diabetes mellitus with a prevalence rate of 109.5 per 100,000. The male to female ratio was almost equal (26 males and 24 females). The distribution of prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus by region shows that the highest was 162 in the central region. Children and adolescents were also grouped by age into 5-6 (prevalence 100), 7-12 (prevalence 109), 13-16 (prevalence 243) and 17-18 (prevalence 150). We conclude that the prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents is 109.5 per 100,000. (author)

  2. Residential water usage: A case study of the major cities of the western region of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Rizaiza, Omar S.

    1991-05-01

    Socioeconomic and climatological data of the major cities of the western region of Saudi Arabia have been used to develop several models to estimate the residential water usage for different kinds of houses. The developed models correlate the residential water usages with temperature, income, family size, price of water, and availability of a garden within the house. The study shows that the residential water uses in houses supplied by a public pipe network are 1.4-2 times greater than the residential water uses in houses supplied by tankers. It also shows that the price elasticities are very similar to those estimated in the United States. Income elasticities, on the other hand, are lower than those typically found in more industrialized countries.

  3. Molecular characterization of Fasciola species isolated from imported sheep in Taif region (Saudi Arabia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, I; Gherbawy, Y; Banaja, A

    2013-03-01

    Accurate identification of Fasciola species, followed by biological and ecological characterization, is important with concern to the planning for field control. Because there are many variations in morphological characteristics, exact distinguishing of Fasciola species is usually difficult by simple traditional microscopic measurements and, therefore, the morphometric characterization may be insufficient for the species identification. Hence, the present work was proposed to collect 100 liver samples from 100 imported sheep from Sudan from slaughterhouses in Taif region. The samples were firstly examined macroscopically and microscopically to ensure the presence or absence of infection. The collected worms were subjected for RAPD-PCR analysis using different primers and ITS1 sequences for accurate identification. Using RAPD-PCR analysis, two primers were selected to amplify the DNA of each Fasciola. The results show that the amplification fragments were between 500 and 1500 bp and, the use of random genetic markers allowed to discriminate among the different collected species. Using Internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequencing, the imported sheep in Taif region consisted of 630 bps including complete ITS1, partial 18S and 5.8S and had 5 variable nucleotide positions. This is the first demonstration of the existence of both F. hepatica, F. gigantica and hybrid and/or introgressed populations of liver flukes bearing genetic material from both F. hepatica and F. gigantica in the imported sheep in Saudi Arabia by a genetic approach.

  4. Expanded Newborn Screening Program in Saudi Arabia: Incidence of screened disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadhel, Majid; Al Othaim, Ali; Al Saif, Saif; Al Mutairi, Fuad; Alsayed, Moeenaldeen; Rahbeeni, Zuhair; Alzaidan, Hamad; Alowain, Mohammed; Al-Hassnan, Zuhair; Saeedi, Mohamad; Aljohery, Saeed; Alasmari, Ali; Faqeih, Eissa; Alwakeel, Mansour; AlMashary, Maher; Almohameed, Sulaiman; Alzahrani, Mohammed; Migdad, Abeer; Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y; Rashed, Mohamed; Alamoudi, Mohamed; Jacob, Minnie; Alahaidib, Lujane; El-Badaoui, Fahd; Saadallah, Amal; Alsulaiman, Ayman; Eyaid, Wafaa; Al-Odaib, Ali

    2017-06-01

    To address the implementation of the National Newborn Screening Program (NBS) in Saudi Arabia and stratify the incidence of the screened disorders. A retrospective study conducted between 1 August 2005 and 31 December 2012, total of 775 000 newborns were screened from 139 hospitals distributed among all regions of Saudi Arabia. The NBS Program screens for 16 disorders from a selective list of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) and endocrine disorders. Heel prick dry blood spot samples were obtained from all newborns for biochemical and immunoassay testing. Recall screening testing was performed for Initial positive results and confirmed by specific biochemical assays. A total of 743 cases were identified giving an overall incidence of 1:1043. Frequently detected disorders nationwide were congenital hypothyroidism and congenital adrenal hyperplasia with an incidence of 1:7175 and 1:7908 correspondingly. The highest incidence among the IEM was propionic acidaemia with an incidence rate of 1:14 000. The article highlights the experience of the NBS Program in Saudi Arabia and providing data on specific regional incidences of all the screened disorders included in the programme; and showed that the incidence of these disorders is one of the highest reported so far world-wide. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambart, A.

    1998-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is a country of the first importance because of its oil reserves (26% of the known world reserves) and its oil production: the third of the whole Opec production. This energetic gold mine finances up to 75% of the budget and assures 90% of its exports. The capacity of Saudi Arabia to refine crude oil is now comparable to that of France. Nevertheless the inflexibility of government expenditures makes foreign investors necessary to a balanced industrial development. It is expected that the Board of Trade soon presents some dispositions in order to promote and ease the opening to foreign investors. (A.C.)

  6. Self-Directed Learning Readiness among Undergraduate Students at Saudi Electronic University in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaifi, Mousa S.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the level of self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) among undergraduate students at Saudi Electronic University in Saudi Arabia. Also, investigated were potential relationships between the level of self-directed learning readiness and selected demographic variables such as gender and specific college within the…

  7. Saudi Arabia: Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granata, V.; Palermo, M.

    1993-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has a central role in the world oil market. After analyzing the country's political and economic situation with all its possible outgrowths, this article indicates the various development prospects relevant to Saudi oil production and its future impacts on the market

  8. Physicochemical characteristics, total phenols and pigments of national and international honeys in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz S. Alqarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 23 types of honey from Saudi Arabia and six other countries, the levels of some minor components and floral pigments as well as physicochemical characteristics were investigated. Most tested Saudi honeys, e.g. Acacia and Seder showed high values of density and total soluble solids and low water content compared to exotic ones. Some Acacia and Manuka samples had higher HMF contents than permitted levels. All the tested honeys were acidic; however Acacia honey had total acidity values over those of permitted levels, while most of the remainding types were comparable or acceptable. Also, Saudi Acacia and Egyptian honeys contained more content of total nitrogen, free amino acids and proline than those of the other tested types. Dark-colored honeys e.g. Acacia contained more phenolic content than those of the light-colored ones. Carotenoids were the predominant floral pigments in all the tested honeys, while xanthophylls and anthocyanins were the least predominant ones. Seder honeys showed moderate values of the tested characteristics compared to other types. The tested parameters are useful to determine the botanical origin of Saudi or exotic honeys and their quality. Further research on specific physicochemical properties of Saudi Acacia honey especially acidity is very much recommended. New criteria based on the regional characteristics of Saudi honeys including antioxidants, micro-constituents are suggested.

  9. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manssour Habbash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs (Preparatory Year Programs in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the distinctiveness with regard to the learning attitudes of Saudi students that are often cultivated by the culture and academic environment in their homeland. Employing an emic approach for collecting the required data an analysis was carried out in light of the other studies on ‘education’ in Saudi Arabia that have particular reference to the factors that can positively influence student motivation, student success and the academic environment. The findings were used in constructing the rationale behind such distinctiveness. Assuming that the outcome of the discussion on the findings of this exploration can be helpful for teachers in adapting their teaching methodology and improving their teacher efficacy in dealing with students both from the kingdom and in the kingdom, some recommendations are made. Keywords: China Distinctiveness, Saudi Arabian University context, Expatriate teachers’ perspective, Distinctiveness Theory

  10. Quality of work life among primary health care nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almalki Mohammed J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of work life (QWL is defined as the extent to which an employee is satisfied with personal and working needs through participating in the workplace while achieving the goals of the organization. QWL has been found to influence the commitment and productivity of employees in health care organizations, as well as in other industries. However, reliable information on the QWL of primary health care (PHC nurses is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the QWL among PHC nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Methods A descriptive research design, namely a cross-sectional survey, was used in this study. Data were collected using Brooks’ survey of quality of nursing work life and demographic questions. A convenience sample was recruited from 134 PHC centres in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. The Jazan region is located in the southern part of Saudi Arabia. A response rate of 91% (n = 532/585 was achieved (effective response rate = 87%, n = 508. Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics, t-test and one way-analysis of variance. Total scores and subscores for QWL items and item summary statistics were computed and reported using SPSS version 17 for Windows. Results Findings suggested that the respondents were dissatisfied with their work life. The major influencing factors were unsuitable working hours, lack of facilities for nurses, inability to balance work with family needs, inadequacy of vacations time for nurses and their families, poor staffing, management and supervision practices, lack of professional development opportunities, and an inappropriate working environment in terms of the level of security, patient care supplies and equipment, and recreation facilities (break-area. Other essential factors include the community’s view of nursing and an inadequate salary. More positively, the majority of nurses were satisfied with their co-workers, satisfied to be nurses and had a sense of belonging

  11. Quality of work life among primary health care nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalki, Mohammed J; Fitzgerald, Gerry; Clark, Michele

    2012-09-13

    Quality of work life (QWL) is defined as the extent to which an employee is satisfied with personal and working needs through participating in the workplace while achieving the goals of the organization. QWL has been found to influence the commitment and productivity of employees in health care organizations, as well as in other industries. However, reliable information on the QWL of primary health care (PHC) nurses is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the QWL among PHC nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. A descriptive research design, namely a cross-sectional survey, was used in this study. Data were collected using Brooks' survey of quality of nursing work life and demographic questions. A convenience sample was recruited from 134 PHC centres in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. The Jazan region is located in the southern part of Saudi Arabia. A response rate of 91% (n = 532/585) was achieved (effective response rate = 87%, n = 508). Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics, t-test and one way-analysis of variance. Total scores and subscores for QWL items and item summary statistics were computed and reported using SPSS version 17 for Windows. Findings suggested that the respondents were dissatisfied with their work life. The major influencing factors were unsuitable working hours, lack of facilities for nurses, inability to balance work with family needs, inadequacy of vacations time for nurses and their families, poor staffing, management and supervision practices, lack of professional development opportunities, and an inappropriate working environment in terms of the level of security, patient care supplies and equipment, and recreation facilities (break-area). Other essential factors include the community's view of nursing and an inadequate salary. More positively, the majority of nurses were satisfied with their co-workers, satisfied to be nurses and had a sense of belonging in their workplaces. Significant differences were found

  12. The Foreign Policy of Saudi Arabia in the Near East at the Beginning of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Kryuchkov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the formation of a new foreign policy strategy of Saudi Arabia in conditions of the changing situation in the Middle East after the “Arab spring” and the “nuclear deal” with Iran. It is shown in the article that the instability of domestic policy and economic problems connected with oil price drop have influence on the foreign policy of Saudi Arabia. Struggle with Iran for domination in the region becomes the basis of its policy in the Middle East. The author notes that the complication of relations with the USA also greatly influences the foreign policy of Saudi Arabia. The Kingdom condemned the nuclear program agreement of Iran. Riyadh didn’t manage to neutralize the growth of influence of Iran in Iraq, Lebanon, Syria and Yemen. Riyadh places a bet on B. Asad opponents support in the Syrian conflict aiming to strengthen its positions in the country and to dislodge Iran and Russia from it. Confrontation with Iran forced Saudi Arabia to interfere with the civil war in Yemen and to carry out a successful operation in Bahrein. The article shows the aspiration of Saudi Arabia to withhold Egypt, Jordan and a number of other countries of the region in the sphere of its foreign policy through financial aid to these countries. It is proved that the reasons of the conflict of Saudi Arabia with Iran were of economic, geopolitical and religious nature, and that Saudi Arabia aspired to strengthen its positions in the Middle East and East Africa. A great breakthrough was acquisition of two islands in the Red Sea from Egypt by Riyadh.

  13. Pattern of third molar impaction in a Saudi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H Hassan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ali H Hassan11Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To evaluate the current pattern of third molar impaction in a sample of Saudi patients.Methods: One thousand thirty-nine orthopantomograms (OPG of patients ranging in age from 19 to 46 years (536 males and 503 females were evaluated to determine the frequency of impacted third molars, their levels of eruption, and their angulations.Results: Four hundred twenty-two (40.5% of the 1039 OPG showed at least one impacted third molar, with no significant difference between males (222; 52.6% and females (200; 47.4% (P = 0.284. The most common number of impacted third molars per OPG was one (72.5%. Impacted third molars were 1.64 times more likely to occur in the mandible than in the maxilla. The most common angulation of impaction in the mandible was the mesial (33.4%, while the most common angulation in the maxilla, was the vertical (49.6%. Level B impaction was the most common in both maxilla (48.2% and mandible (67.7%. There was no significant difference in the frequency of impaction between the right and left sides in both jaws.Conclusion: The pattern of third molar impaction in the western region of Saudi Arabia is characterized by a high prevalence of impaction that is greater in the mandibles and with no sex predilection.Keywords: third molar, impaction, prevalence, Saudi 

  14. Body mass index in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents: A national reference and comparison with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Herbish, Abdullah S; ElMouzan, Mohammed I; AlSalloum, Abdullah A; AlQureshi, Mansour M; AlOmar, Ahmed A; Fster, Peter J; Kecojevic, Tatjana

    2009-01-01

    Because there are no reference standards for body mass index (BMI) in Saudi children, we established BMI reference percentiles for normal Saudi Arabian children and adolescents and compared them with international standards. Data from a stratified multistage probability sample were collected from the 13 health regions in Saudi Arabia, as part of a nationwide health profile survey of Saudi Arabian children and adolescents conducted to establish normal physical growth references. Selected households were visited by a trained team. Weight and length/height were measured and recorded following the WHO recommended procedures using the same equipment, which were subjected to both calibration and intra/interobserver variations. Survey of 11 874 eligible households yielded 35 275 full-term and healthy children and adolescents who were subjected to anthropometric measurements. Four BMI curves were produced, from birth to 36 months and 2 to 19 years for girls and boys. The 3rd, 5th, 10th ,25th , 5oth , 75th ,85th , 90th , 95th , and 97th percentiles were produced and compared with the WHO and CDC BMI charts. In the higher percentiles, the Saudi children differed from Western counterparts, indicating that Saudi children have equal or higher BMIs. The BMI curves reflect statistically representative BMI values for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. (author)

  15. Investigating Indoor Radon Levels and Influencing Factors in Primary Schools of Zulfi City, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Al-Mosa, Tahani M.; Baig, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0±14.2 Bq/m 3 , 83.4±6.0 Bq/m 3 , 61.6±6.4 Bq/m 3 , 63.7±5.4 Bq/m 3 and 87.5±6.Bq/m 3 and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m 3 , 5.5 Bq/m 3 , 1.1 Bq/m 3 , 1.0 Bq/m 3 and 24 Bq/m 3 respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm -3 set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The ''within regions''(different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region ''1''(p = 0.783) and versus region ''5''(P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region ''3''(P = 0.0160) and also versus region ''4''(p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq

  16. Cephalometric norms of Saudi boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashashibi, I. A.; Shaikh, H. S.; Sarhan, O. A.

    1990-01-01

    The present study was conducted to establish cephalometric norms of Saudi boys based on the Steiners analysis, and to compare the results of the present study with similar studies conducted on other racial or ethnic groups. For this purpose, fifty-five healthy Saudi boys, with a mean age of 12.04 years, were selected from different schools of Riyadh. Female Saudis were not used for this study due to social restrictions with respect to the Kingdom's customs and traditions. Selection was made on the basis of normal occlusion, balanced and pleasing profile with no obvious facial asymmetry. None of the boys have undergone orthodontic treatment prior to this study. Lateral skull cephaiograms were taken and traced using a standardized technique. Each cephalogram was traced twice with a one week interval by the authors. All angular and linear measurements were calculated to the nearest 0.5 degree and 0.5 mm, respectively. Steiners method of cephalometric analysis was used to establish cephalometric norms. The result of the study demonstrated that the Saudi boys differed from other racial and ethnic groups in some skeletal and dental measurements. Generally, the Saudi boys revealed a more protrusive maxillary apical base and double dental protrusion. (author)

  17. Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlGelban, Khalid S.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psycchoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. (author)

  18. Nedtur. Griske prinser svækker Saudi-Arabien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren

    2016-01-01

    I analyze the ability of Saudi-Arabia to adjust to present low oil prices. I analyze the political foundations of the Saudi state and its weak autonomy in relation to its power bases: the avaricious princes and the fundamentalist religious Sheikhs. I am pessimistic as to the likelyhood of Saudi......-Arabia making the needed ajdustments due to current low oil prices. This is the second of two articles on Saudi-Arabia....

  19. Motivational Issues of Faculty in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Cader, Akram; Anthony, Peter John

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the factors that affect motivation of faculty in Saudi Arabia. It included two surveys and open-ended queries to a focus group of five academic managers and 25 faculty members of varying nationalities, rank, and institutes in Saudi Arabia. The research showed that the faculties in Saudi Arabia's highest education industry…

  20. Regional income disparities in Canada: exploring the geographical dimensions of an old debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Breau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature on convergence in Canada largely ignores the underlying geographical dimensions of regional disparities. By using income measures developed from census micro-data files to analyze patterns of convergence across census divisions, we show that regional disparities are increasingly clustered across the Canadian space-economy along (1 East–West and (2 urban–rural gradients. Rural census divisions in the Eastern provinces, in particular, are showing increased signs of distress in terms of differences in levels and growth rates of incomes with other regions in the country. Such findings have important policy implications which are briefly discussed.

  1. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants in Albaha Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Al Sokari, Saeed Salah; Gushash, Ahmed; Anwar, Sirajudheen; Al-Karani, Khalid; Al-Khulaidi, Abdulwali

    2017-01-01

    Local natural medicinal resource knowledge is important to define and elaborate usage of herbs, in systematic and organized manner. Until recently, there has been little scientifically written document regarding the traditional uses of medicinal plants in Al Bahah region. This pilot study aims to collect the ethnobotanical information from native populations regarding the benefits of medicinal plants of Al Bahah region, and determine if the traditional usage is scientifically established (proved) from literature. The survey collected data for 39 plant species recorded by informants for their medicinal benefits. The recorded species were distributed among 28 plant families. Leguminosae and Euphorbiaceae were represented each by 3 species, followed by Asteraceae (2 species), Lamiaceae (2 species), Apocynaceae (2 species), and Solanaceae (2 species). All the medicinal plants were reported in their local names. Analysis of ethnopharmacological data was done to obtain percentage of plant families, species, parts of plants used, mode of administration, and preparation types. Total 43 informants were interviewed, maximum number of species were used to cure skin diseases including burns (3), wounds (7), warts (1), Leishmania (7), topical hemostatic (2), followed by gastrointestinal system, rheumatism, respiratory tract problems, diabetes mellitus, anti-snake venom, malaria, and eye inflammation. The study covered Al Bahah city and its outskirts. Ten new ethnobotanical uses were recorded such as antirheumatic and anti-vitiligo uses for Clematis hirsute , leishmaniasis use of Commiphora gileadensis , antigout of Juniperus procera , removing warts for Ficus palmata . 39 plant species from 28 plant families are used for treating more than 20 types of diseases.Maximum number of species (23 species) was used for treating skin diseases (42.6%) including leishmaniasis, wound healing, dermatitis, psoriasis, vitiligo and warts.Ten ethnobotanical uses of 8 studied plants have not

  2. Developmental toxicity in flounder embryos exposed to crude oils derived from different geographical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Hee; Choi, Kwang-Min; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Kim, Moonkoo

    2017-06-01

    Crude oils from distinct geographical regions have distinct chemical compositions, and, as a result, their toxicity may be different. However, developmental toxicity of crude oils derived from different geographical regions has not been extensively characterized. In this study, flounder embryos were separately exposed to effluents contaminated by three crude oils including: Basrah Light (BLO), Pyrenees (PCO), and Sakhalin Vityaz (SVO), in addition to a processed fuel oil (MFO-380), to measure developmental toxicity and for gene expressions. Each oil possessed a distinct chemical composition. Edema defect was highest in embryos exposed to PCO and MFO-380 that both have a greater fraction of three-ring PAHs (33% and 22%, respectively) compared to BLO and SVO. Observed caudal fin defects were higher in embryos exposed to SVO and MFO-380, which are both dominated by naphthalenes (81% and 52%, respectively). CYP1A gene expressions were also highest in embryos exposed to SVO and MFO-380. Higher incidence of cardiotoxicity and lower nkx 2.5 expression were detected in embryos exposed to PCO. Unique gene expression profiles were observed in embryos exposed to crude oils with distinct compositions. This study demonstrates that crude oils of different geographical origins with different compositional characteristics induce developmental toxicity to different degrees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Allelic variance among ABO blood group genotypes in a population from the western region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abdularahman B O; Hindawi, Salwa Ibrahim; Al-Harthi, Sameer; Alam, Qamre; Alam, Mohammad Zubair; Haque, Absarul; Ahmad, Waseem; Damanhouri, Ghazi A

    2016-12-01

    Characterization of the ABO blood group at the phenotype and genotype levels is clinically essential for transfusion, forensics, and population studies. This study elucidated ABO phenotypes and genotypes, and performed an evaluation of their distribution in individuals from the western region of Saudi Arabia. One-hundred and seven samples underwent standard serological techniques for ABO blood group phenotype analysis. ABO alleles and genotypes were identified using multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and electrophoretic analysis was performed to evaluate the highly polymorphic ABO locus. A phenotype distribution of 37.4%, 30.8%, 24.3%, and 7.5% was found for blood groups O, A, B, and AB respectively in our study cohort. Genotype analysis identified 10 genotype combinations with the O01/O02 and A102/O02 genotypes being the most frequent with frequencies of 33.6% and 14.95%, respectively. Common genotypes such as A101/A101 , A101/A102 , A101/B101 , B101/B101 , and O01/O01 were not detected. Similarly, the rare genotypes, cis-AB01/O02 , cis-AB01/O01 , and cis-AB01/A102 were not found in our cohort. The most frequently observed allele was O02 (35.98%) followed by the A102 allele (17.76%). Furthermore, our findings are discussed in reference to ABO allele and genotype frequencies found in other ethnic groups. The study has a significant implication on the management of blood bank and transfusion services in Saudi Arabian patients.

  4. Impact of mobile teams on tuberculosis treatment outcomes, Riyadh Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Alqahtani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the tuberculosis (TB mobile teams on treatment outcomes in Riyadh Region by comparing patients who received treatment under mobile teams and those who did not, from 2013 to 2015. This was a retrospective descriptive study using National TB Control and Prevention Program data from 2013 to 2015 from Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize characteristics of TB case-patients served by mobile teams and those who were not served. The χ2 test measured the significant differences between mobile-served and non-mobile-served case-patients. Exposure was whether or not the TB case-patient was under the care of the mobile team; the outcome of interest was whether or not treatment was successful, defined as treatment completed and cured. We found that the ratio of treatment success among mobile team case-patients was 1.28 greater than among those not served by mobile teams. The χ2 test showed a statistically significant finding (probability ratio = 1.28; 95% confidence interval = 1.21–1.35, p < 0.01. Mobile teams increased the treatment success rate to 92%, compared to 71.77% among those not served by mobile teams. This study shows that community mobilization of mobile teams is an effective strategy to enhance TB treatment, reduced mortality and loss to follow-up and improve TB treatment outcomes. Keywords: Directly observed therapy, Mobile teams, Saudi Arabia, Tuberculosis

  5. What encourages Saudis to quit smoking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A Al-Mohrej

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We have looked at smoking cessation from a broader perspective, analysing different categories of the Saudi population. Social, religious and health reasons must be emphasised by counsellors assisting Saudi smokers to quit.

  6. PRODUCERS’ PERCEPTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS AS A PRODUCT DIVERSIFICATION TOOL FOR AGRIFOOD PRODUCTS IN SEMI-ARID REGIONS OF KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredah Wangui Maina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed producers’ awareness and perceptions of territorial-based qualities and the economic potential of two potential origin-based geographical indications in two semi-arid counties in Kenya. Protection of the origin products as geographical indications is presented as an option for ecosystem approach in managing fragile semi-arid regions while providing producers economic incentives and social inclusion; key components of green growth. Factor analysis was conducted on Likert scale perception questions administered to producers of goats (Baringo and mangoes (Makueni. The producers were aware of the uniqueness of their products and its geographical source. The resultant factors reveal the importance of public policies, institutions, market access and public sector actors as important to producers’ perception of the success of protecting their products as geographical indications. Clustering revealed producer heterogeneity in their perceptions of protecting their respective products as geographical indications. The constitution of the clusters was significantly different based on the number of years the producers had practiced farming in the region, their awareness of the uniqueness of their goats, income received from goat production and institutional factors. Enhanced collective action for both goats and mangoes in the semi-arid regions would ensure collective reputation in the product presented to the market. The producers’ perceptions emphasise geographical indications as a marketing tool rather than an environmental tool, agreeing with Principle 4 of the ecosystem approach on managing ecosystem in an economic context.

  7. Indices of methylation in sperm DNA from fertile men differ between distinct geographical regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Consales, C; Leter, G; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Which are the main determinants, if any, of sperm DNA methylation levels? SUMMARY ANSWER: Geographical region resulted associated with the sperm methylation status assessed on genome-wide repetitive sequences. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: DNA methylation level, assessed on repetitive se...

  8. Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) by Sinorhizobium Meliloti at Al-Qassim Regions, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Barakah, F. N.; Mridha, M. A. U.

    2016-01-01

    The nodulation status in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants by Sinorhizobium meliloti under Saudi field condition was assessed in some selected farms in four seasons for two years. In the present study, we also monitored the introduced S. meliloti strains activity under Saudi soil conditions. The samples were collected at regular seasonal intervals from the selected farms. The total number of nodules, morphology of the nodules and the effectiveness of N/sub 2/-fixation was assessed. In general, it was revealed that soils in the selected areas in Saudi Arabia have sufficient bacteria of the proper types to nodulate the alfalfa plants. These nodules are high in number, small in size and white in color. The nodules obtained from most of the selected farms are ineffective for nitrogen fixation. Inoculation of alfalfa seeds with imported S. meliloti strains failed to fix the atmospheric nitrogen sufficiently and also the growth improvement of alfalfa plants. There was a wide variation in the occurrence of number of nodules among the four seasons in two years. It was also observed that summer season severely affected the nodulation making it nearly zero. This low number of nodules exerts a very slow recovery of nodule formation in the next year. The introduced strains were always over competing with the native strains but they did not survive because of hot and dry summer. Nitrogenase activity of the nodules collected from both the inoculated and non-inoculated farms were always very low in all the collected samples, which indicates that the ability of fixing nitrogen by S. meliloti strains in alfalfa under Saudi soils conditions is very low. (author)

  9. Women's Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuwaida, Nouf

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the historical, political, ideological (value), and government policies of women's education in Saudi Arabia implicated within teaching and learning, how women's higher education has changed over time in the realm of Saudi cultural traditions and religious norms. It also highlights the golden era of women's higher education.…

  10. Technology Leadership in Saudi Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenezi, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the potential of Saudi schools for technology leadership provided by Learning Resource Centres (LRCs) to enhance the formation of a technology-motivated educational environment. Using the grounded theory methodology and the CBAM stages of concern and levels of use this study sheds light on Saudi LRCs and their leadership…

  11. Fertility behaviour of working women in Saudi Arabia: a special case of King Saud University, Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khraif, Rshood; Abdul Salam, Asharaf; Al-Mutairi, Abdullah; Elsegaey, Ibrahim

    2018-03-15

    Fertility levels and their determinants in Saudi Arabia have not been studied sufficiently for formulating family policy, although some attention has been paid to rapid fertility transitions in the context of socioeconomic and cultural change. This study focused on the fertility of a particular occupational category in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess determinants of fertility, measured as the number of children. The sample was drawn from the King Saud University staff - ever-married Saudi Arabian women. Results found that proximate factors (age, age at first marriage, intended number of children, length of marriage and contraceptive use) were significant in predicting fertility behaviour, whereas geographic, social and economic factors were insignificant. Thus, the fertility behaviour of this occupational group seems unique. This might be due to the special characteristics and lifestyle of this particular occupational group. The effect of the intended number of children on the actual number signified the fertility behaviour of this group of women. This, expectedly, should improve the influence of social and economic factors on fertility behaviour, in the future. Thus, advocates, policies and programmes (population and public health) at the societal and familial levels, should consider the demographic change in the social and economic context.

  12. Land-use planning of Volyn region (Ukraine) using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strielko, Irina; Pereira, Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Land-use development planning is carried out in order to create a favourable environment for human life, sustainable socioeconomic and spatial development. Landscape planning is an important part of land-use development that aims to meet the fundamental principles of sustainable development. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a fundamental tool to make a better landscape planning at different territorial levels, providing data and maps to support decision making. The objective of this work is to create spatio-temporal, territorial and ecological model of development of Volyn region (Ukraine). It is based on existing spatial raster and vector data and includes the analysis of territory dynamics as the aspects responsible for it. A spatial analyst tool was used to zone the areas according to their environmental components and economic activity. This analysis is fundamental to define the basic parameters of sustainability of Volyn region. To carry out this analysis, we determined the demographic capacity of districts and the analysis of spatial parameters of land use. On the basis of the existing natural resources, we observed that there is a need of landscape protection and integration of more are natural areas in the Pan-European Ecological Network. Using GIS technologies to landscape planning in Volyn region, allowed us to identify, natural areas of interest, contribute to a better resource management and conflict resolution. Geographic Information Systems will help to formulate and implement landscape policies, reform the existing administrative system of Volyn region and contribute to a better sustainable development.

  13. An approach for a complex assessment of the geo-ecological risk from natural disasters in a geographic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlateva, Plamena; Stoyanov, Krasimir

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes an approach for a complex assessment of the geo-ecological risk of a certain geographic region on the basis of quantitative and qualitative datum about the potential natural disasters. A fuzzy logic model is designed. The type of the threats, consequences and interdependencies between infrastructure objects are taken into account. The geographic region is considered as a complex system of interconnected and mutually influencing elements. The expected damages are directly and/or indirectly connected with life quality deterioration. Keywords: Risk, Geo-ecological risk, Damages, Threats, Vulnerabilities, Natural disasters

  14. Diet in Saudi Arabia: findings from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Afshin, Ashkan; Daoud, Farah; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Memish, Ziad A; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Mokdad, Ali H

    2017-04-01

    No recent original studies on the pattern of diet are available for Saudi Arabia at the national level. The present study was performed to describe the consumption of foods and beverages by Saudi adults. The Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS) was conducted in 2013. Data were collected through interviews and anthropometric measurements were done. A diet history questionnaire was used to determine the amount of consumption for eighteen food or beverage items in a typical week. The study was a household survey in all thirteen administrative regions of Saudi Arabia. Participants were 10 735 individuals aged 15 years or older. Mean daily consumption was 70·9 (se 1·3) g for fruits, 111·1 (se 2·0) g for vegetables, 11·6 (se 0·3) g for dark fish, 13·8 (se 0·3) g for other fish, 44·2 (se 0·7) g for red meat, 4·8 (se 0·2) g for processed meat, 10·9 (se 0·3) g for nuts, 219·4 (se 5·1) ml for milk and 115·5 (se 2·6) ml for sugar-sweetened beverages. Dietary guideline recommendations were met by only 5·2 % of individuals for fruits, 7·5 % for vegetables, 31·4 % for nuts and 44·7 % for fish. The consumption of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages was high in young adults. Only a small percentage of the Saudi population met the dietary recommendations. Programmes to improve dietary behaviours are urgently needed to reduce the current and future burden of disease. The promotion of healthy diets should target both the general population and specific high-risk groups. Regular assessments of dietary status are needed to monitor trends and inform interventions.

  15. Adult Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Tim D.; Algren, Mark S.

    Religion pervades all aspects of Saudi Arabia, the conservative home of Islam, where the constitution is the Quran and law is interpreted by religious scholars. A formal adult basic education program was initiated in 1960. As part of the country's modernization since the early 1970s, the Saudi government has begun an enormous nation-building plan…

  16. A field study on the anthelmintic resistance of Parascaris spp. in Arab foals in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Abdullah D; Mukbel, Rami M; Alyousif, Mohamed S; AlShehri, Zafer S; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Al-Mohammed, Hamdan I

    2017-12-01

    In the last decade, Parascaris spp. resistance to anthelmintics has been recorded in many countries. In Saudi Arabia, there are limited data available on Parascaris spp. resistance to anthelmintics. To determine the current status of ivermectin, abamectin and praziquantel combined, and fenbendazole resistance to Parascaris spp. in horses in Saudi Arabia. Three hundred and forty-one foals from eleven different farms were examined by faecal egg count (FEC). The foals were all Arab horses aged 17.2 ± 4.5 (SD) months. Ivermectin (n = 46 foals), abamectin and praziquantel combined (n = 46), and fenbendazole (n = 46) were administered on day 0 and faeces were collected on day 14. The study comprised 41 untreated foals as controls. Animals that have FEC of ≥100 eggs per gram (EPG) were used to measure anthelmintic efficacy. Parascaris spp. populations were considered susceptible when faecal egg count reduction (FECR) was ≥95% associated with a lower 95% confidence limit (LCL) >90%, suspected resistant when FECR ≤90% or LCL Saudi Arabia.

  17. Biogeographic Patterns of Reef Fish Communities in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roberts, May B.

    2014-12-01

    As a region renowned for high biodiversity, endemism and extreme temperature and salinity levels, the Red Sea is of high ecological interest. Despite this, there is relatively little literature on basic broad scale characteristics of the biodiversity or overall reef fish communities and how they change across latitude. We conducted visual transects recording the abundance of over 200 species of fish from 45 reefs spanning over 1000 km of Saudi Arabian coastline and used hierarchical cluster analysis to find that for combined depths from 0m-10m across this geographical range, the reef fish communities are relatively similar. However we find some interesting patterns both at the community level across depth and latitude as well as in endemic community distributions. We find that the communities, much like the environmental factors, shift gradually along latitude but do not show distinct clusters within the range we surveyed (from Al-Wajh in the north to the Farasan Banks in the south). Numbers of endemic species tend to be higher in the Thuwal region and further south. This type of baseline data on reef fish distribution and possible factors that may influence their ranges in the Red Sea are critical for future scientific studies as well as effective monitoring and in the face of the persistent anthropogenic influences such as coastal development, overfishing and climate change.

  18. Pharmacy Malpractice: The rate and prevalence of dispensing high-risk prescription-only medications at community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Thamir M; Alhindi, Salman A; Alrashdi, Ahmed M; Benmerzouga, Imaan; Aljofan, Mohamad

    2017-07-01

    To assess the compliance of community pharmacies with the regulations that prohibit the dispensing of prescription-only medications in the absence of a physician prescription in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the period between October 2014 and January 2015. A list of 10 prescription-only medications were selected to be studied. 150 community pharmacies were visited across 6 major regions in Saudi Arabia to assess the prevalence of non-compliance among community pharmacies. Pharmacies were selected in random and researchers (disguised as patients) requested to purchase prescription-only medications in the absence of a prescription. Not all medications were purchased at once. Data were recorded per pharmacy, where pharmacies that approved dispense of the selected drug were scored as non-compliant and the pharmacies that rejected dispense of the selected drug were scored as compliant. Compliance rate was calculated per region per drug. Pharmacies based in governmental hospitals were visited in parallel. A total of 20 were visited. Data and statistical analysis were performed using Statistical Analyses Software (SAS 9.3). A total of 150 pharmacies were visited over a period of 3 months. On average, the percent approved dispense of prescription-only drugs across 6 regions in Saudi Arabia is 63% and the percent rejected dispense is 37% representing a significant non-compliance rate regarding the selected list of medications in this study. The frequency of dispense per medication across 6 major regions in Saudi Arabia is as follows: Isosorbide dinitrate (86%), Enoxaparin (82%), nitroglycerin (74%), Propranolol (73%), Verapamil (70%), Warfarin (65%), Methyldopa (64%), Ciprofloxacin (57%) and Codeine (4%). Non-compliance of community pharmacies with the law of pharmaceutical practice is at an alarming rate in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and authoritative figures must intervene to impede and combat such activities .

  19. SCIENTIFIC POLICY OF SAUDI ARABIA: INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE AS A BASIS FOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Tyukaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In less than a century of its existence Saudi Arabia has developed from mass illiteracy and lack of education of its population into the current state of complex structure of educational and research institutions and organizations equipped with most modern and advanced technologies and top world specialists in accordance with the highest international standards. It is especially important that the Kingdom has managed to achieve such success in no time. Until lately scientifi c development in Saudi Arabia was mostly concentrated on applied research, especially in the Kingdom’s key economic sphere – energy. Despite the country’s abundant financial resources, science was considerably underfunded and lacked any development strategy. Meanwhile, in the last 15 years the Saudi Kingdom has made a huge leap in scientifi c development with a clear action plan worked out, a solid structure of scientifi c institutes formed and the world experience effi ciently used. The success came with the Saudi authorities’ realization of the importance of scientifi c and technical progress both for the national economy and political positions of the state in the region and in the world. The article aims to analyze the scientifi c policy of Saudi Arabia on the stage of its birth and in the current state by means of studying offi cial documents, statistics and the existing institutes in the scientifi c system of the Kingdom. The author concludes that the key features of the Saudi scientifi c policy are prevailing role of the state, priority of applied over fundamental research and internalization with serious dependency on foreign support in the absence of a national scientifi c tradition.

  20. Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail

  1. Deficiencies Under Plenty of Sun: Vitamin D Status among Adults in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffaha, Marwa; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Daoud, Farah; Al Hussaini, Hessah Abdulla; Alamri, Fahad; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Memish, Ziad A; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Mokdad, Ali H

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been correlated with several diseases and injuries including diabetes, osteoporosis, fractures, and falls. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), current data on vitamin D status are lacking. To inform Saudi public health authorities on the current status of blood levels vitamin D deficiency, we analyzed data from the Saudi Health Interview Survey. The Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS) is a cross-sectional national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years and above on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. A total of 10,735 participants completed a health questionnaire and were invited to the local health clinics for biomedical exams. 62.65% of female Saudis and 40.6% of male Saudis aged 15 years and above are deficient in vitamin D. Out of them, less than 1% males and less than 2% females consume vitamin D supplements. Women who have never married and obese individuals are more likely to be deficient in vitamin D, compared to men who were currently married and nonobese individuals. Those consuming vitamin D supplements are less likely to be deficient in vitamin D. Our study showed a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Saudi men and women, and the results call for an increased awareness to ensure adequate levels of vitamin D for better health in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, our findings are certainly relevant for other countries in the Gulf region or countries with similar cultures, clothing, and religions.

  2. Diversity of dengue virus-3 genotype III in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Anwar M; Sohrab, Sayed S; El-Kafrawy, Sherif A; Abd-Alla, Adly M M; El-Ela, Saeid Abo; Abujamel, Turki S; Hassan, Ahmed M; Farraj, Suha A; Othman, Noura A; Charrel, Remi N; Azhar, Esam I

    2018-07-01

    Dengue is the most important arboviral disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Dispersal of the vector and an increase in migratory flow between countries have led to large epidemics and severe clinical outcomes. Over the past 20 years, dengue epidemics have become more wide-spread and frequent. Previous studies have shown that dengue is endemic in Jeddah, Makkah and Al-Madinah in western Saudi Arabia as well as in Jazan region in the southern part of the country. The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) have been reported from western Saudi Arabia. It has been suggested that pilgrims could play a significant and unique role in DENV-1 and DENV-2 introduction into Saudi Arabia, especially in the cities of Jeddah, Makkah and Al-Madinah during Hajj and Umrah seasons. However, only limited data on DENV-3 in Saudi Arabia are available. All available DENV-3 sequences published and unpublished from Saudi Arabia and other countries were retrieved from Genbank and gene sequence repository and phylogenetically analyzed to examine the diversity of DENV-3 into the city of Jeddah. Based on the analysis of the envelope gene and non-structural 1 (E/NS1) junction sequences, we show that there were at least four independent introductions of DENV-3, all from genotype III into Jeddah. The first introduction was most probably before 1997 as Saudi virus isolates from 1997 formed a cluster without any close relationship to other globally circulating isolates, suggesting their local circulation from previous introduction events. Two introductions were most probably in 2004 with isolates closely-related to isolates from Africa and India (Asia), in addition to another introduction in 2014 with isolates clustering with those from Singapore (Asia). Our data shows that only genotype III isolates of DENV-3 are circulating in Jeddah and highlights the potential role of pilgrims in DENV-3 importation into western Saudi Arabia and subsequent exportation to their home countries during Hajj

  3. Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Gelban, Khalid S.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. RESULTS: The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psychoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. CONCLUSION: Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. PMID:19584586

  4. Distribution and periodicity of sandflies (Diptera: Phlebotominae along different altitudes in Asir Region, Southwest of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kenawy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Asir Region in the southwest of Saudi Arabia has been a subject for expansion of agricultural projects, urbanization, which presumably have impact on distribution of phlebotomine sandflies. Few reports are available on sandflies in this region which is an important focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Therefore, this study aimed at updating the species composition, distribution and periodical fluctuation of sandflies in this region. Specimens were monthly collected by the Center for Disease Control light traps for one year in four localities representing different altitudes. In five other, collections were twice during the year period. Ten species (six Phlebotomus and four Sergentomyia were identified, of which P. arabicus (32% was the most common followed by P. bergeroti (29% and P. sergenti (15%. Of the reported species, S. palestinensis is considered a new record from Asir. Sandflies were more common and maximum biodiversity was observed in lowlands and not in high altitudes. At different altitudes, the two commonest species were more active during spring. Sandfly density (sandfly/trap was directly related to temperature and inversely related to altitude, relative humidity (RH and wind velocity (P<0.05. To sum up, the distribution and abundance of sandflies in Asir are influenced by a combination of different factors: temperature, RH, wind velocity and altitude.

  5. An Analysis of Variables Related to Biology Achievement at the 12th Grade Level in the Southwestern Region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shahrani, Amer A. S.

    Saudi Arabia has not ignored the fact that education is the key to a nation's progress. It considers education as a first priority and is trying to catch up with more advanced nations in this area. One way Saudi Arabia has planned to reduce the risk of complete reliance on the oil revenues is by improving education. This study was designed to…

  6. Dracunculiasis: An incidental diagnosis in a Saudi female

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, Fayaz A.; Khan, Nadra N.

    2007-01-01

    Dracunculiasis is a disabling and economically crippling parasitic infestation transmitted by drinking contaminated water. Although the disease has been eradicated from most parts of the world, it is still endemic in some tropical African countries. Here we report a 65-year-old female from the southern region of Saudi Arabia with radiological evidence of heavy load of guinea worms. This case could represent the local reemergence of disease. (author)

  7. The cost of domestic energy prices to Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alyousef, Yousef; Stevens, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The issue of subsidies on domestic energy prices has moved up the policy agenda, most recently as a result of the G20 commitment in September 2009 to phase out such subsidies. However, what constitutes a 'subsidy' is complex and controversial. The IEA in its last World Energy Outlook claimed that Saudi Arabia was second in the world in terms of its levels of subsidy on domestic energy prices. However, because Saudi Arabia is a price maker in the international oil market, the methodology used by the IEA is seriously flawed. This paper explains the problems with the methodology for computing subsidies and explains the correct method in the case of Saudi Arabia. It then attempts to measure the levels of subsidy in Saudi Arabia using this methodology. However, while it converts the IEA's 'subsidy' of $23 billion into a net 'profit' of $5.7 billion, it goes on to point out that the current low price regime is causing problems for Saudi Arabia. - Highlights: → How to define energy subsidies in the context of Saudi Arabia as the price maker for international oil prices? → How far do the low domestic energy price in Saudi Arabia represent subsidized prices? → What are the costs and benefits of low/subsidized domestic energy prices in Saudi Arabia? → What policy options are available to offset the very poor record of energy efficiency in Saudi Arabia?

  8. Ecophysiological Traits of Leaves of Three Marsilea Species Distributed in Different Geographical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Chung Wu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Marsilea, an amphibian fern genus (containing ca. 80 species characterized by their unusual leaves and reproductive structures, is distributed over the five continents. To investigate the adaptation traits of three Marsilea species (M. crenata, M. quadrifolia, and M. schelpiana, distributed in different geographic regions, to terrestrial conditions, we compared morphological features, optical properties and photosynthetic performance of leaflets of the three species grown in terrestrial environment. The results showed that leaflets of the three species had significant differences in some of the ecophysiogical traits. Among the three species, M. quadrifolia (distributed in temperate region where receiving low precipitation had the highest trichome density on its leaflet surface and the highest water use efficiency, M. schelpiana (mainly in southern Africa where accepting high level of solar irradiance had the tallest petiole and the highest leaf dissection index, total stomatal pore area index, PSII electron transport rate and photosaturated photosynthetic rate, M. crenata (mainly in southeastern Asia region where receiving high precipitation and with high humidity had the lowest leaf dissection index and water use efficiency. Accordingly, leaf characteristics of the three Marsilea species reflect the climate pattern of their habitats. The results also suggest that water availability and light intensity are two of the important factors contributing to the geographic distribution of the three species.

  9. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-22

    its “ double standards” and general “inability to carry out its duties and assume its responsibilities.” Saudi officials have called for “profound and... doubling our gas production.” 97 In 2016, Saudi officials stated they are studying the prospect of a partial public offering of shares in Saudi Aramco...leaders could avoid the risks posed by this scenario by adopting “tough policy reforms in areas such as domestic pricing of energy and taxation , an

  10. Information Assurance in Saudi Organizations - An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Syed Irfan; Mirza, Abdulrahman A.; Alghathbar, Khaled

    This paper presents selective results of a survey conducted to find out the much needed insight into the status of information security in Saudi Arabian organizations. The purpose of this research is to give the state of information assurance in the Kingdom and to better understand the prevalent ground realities. The survey covered technical aspects of information security, risk management and information assurance management. The results provide deep insights in to the existing level of information assurance in various sectors that can be helpful in better understanding the intricate details of the prevalent information security in the Kingdom. Also, the results can be very useful for information assurance policy makers in the government as well as private sector organizations. There are few empirical studies on information assurance governance available in literature, especially about the Middle East and Saudi Arabia, therefore, the results are invaluable for information security researchers in improving the understanding of information assurance in this region and the Kingdom.

  11. Institute for Scientific Information-indexed biomedical journals of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohra, Dileep K.; Rohra, Vikram K.; Cahusac, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the journal impact factor (JIF) and Eigenfactor score (ES) of Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)-indexed biomedical journals published from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 8 years. Methods: This is a retrospective study, conducted at Alfaisal University, Riyadh, KSA from January to March 2016. The Journal Citation Reports of ISI Web of Knowledge were accessed, and 6 Saudi biomedical journals were included for analysis. Results: All Saudi journals have improved their IF compared with their baseline. However, the performance of the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Neurosciences has been exceptionally good. The biggest improvement in percent growth in JIF was seen in the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal (approximately 887%) followed by Neurosciences (approximately 462%). Interestingly, the ES of all biomedical journals, except Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology and Saudi Medical Journal, increased over the years. The greatest growth in ES (more than 5 fold) was noted for Neurosciences and Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. Conclusion: This study shows that the overall quality of all Saudi biomedical journals has improved in the last 8 years. PMID:27761565

  12. Siting of an MRS facility: identification of a geographic region that reduces transportation requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, G.M.; Braitman, J.L.

    1985-04-01

    The study reported here was undertaken as part of the site screening and evaluation activities for the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Program of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Department of Energy (DOE). Its primary purpose was to determine: the location and shape of a preferred geographic region within which locating an MRS facility would minimize total shipment miles for spent fuel transported through the MRS facility to a repository, and the sensitivity of the location and shape of this region and the reduction in total shipment miles to possible variations in waste management system logistics. As a result of this analysis, a geographic region has been identified which is preferred for siting an MRS facility. This region will be referred to as the preferred region in this study. Siting an MRS facility in the preferred region will limit total shipment miles (i.e., the total miles traveled for all shipments of spent fuel) to and from the MRS facility to within 20% of the lowest achievable. The region is preferred for a mixed truck/rail system of transport from reactors to the MRS facility. It is assumed that rail will be used to ship spent fuel from the MRS facility to a geologic repository for disposal. Siting an MRS facility in the preferred region will reduce total shipment miles for all currently considered system logistics options which include an MRS facility in the system. These options include: any first repository location, the possible range of spent fuel consolidation at the MRS, use of multi-cask or single-cask train shipments, use of current or future spent fuel transport casks, servicing only the first or both the first and second repositories, and shipment of fuel from western reactors either through the MRS facility or to a western facility (a second, smaller MRS facility or the first repository)

  13. Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of Intolerance with Excerpts from Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nina; Al-Ahmed, Ali

    2006-01-01

    After September 11, 2001, complaints were voiced around the world, including by the U.S. government, that Saudi Arabian schools demonize the West and the "other." Senior Saudi government spokesmen also acknowledged this as a problem, and have repeatedly pledged that reform is underway or completed. This report was written in response to…

  14. Health technology assessment in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aqeel, Sinaa

    2018-05-16

    The Saudi government, similar to any other government, is committed to making public spending more efficient, using resources more effectively, and limiting waste. Health technology assessment (HTA) is a tool that informs policy and decision makers regarding the formulation of safe and effective policies that are patient-focused and help to achieve efficiency when allocating limited health-care resources. Areas covered: After a brief description of HTA in the international context, this review provides a brief introduction to Saudi Arabia's health-care system, followed by a delineation of the decision maker(s) and influencers and the decision-making process for pricing and reimbursement. The article then discusses the current status of HTA in Saudi Arabia and proposes four strategic objectives that can form the first step in the development of a formal HTA process. Expert commentary: In Saudi Arabia, facilitators for incorporating HTA into the decision-making process exist. Future local research is needed to guide the implementation of full HTA.

  15. Focus Studies of Geographically Connected Countries: Analysis of Regionally Oriented Studies in Political Science Publications 1996-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Petković

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the focus studies of geographically connected and geographically not connected countries, i.e. regional and comparative regional studies. In the first part of the article, a description of the role and development of this type of studies as a subdiscipline of comparative politics is provided. In the second part, I present the results of quantitative analysis of the content of articles published in the academic journals published or co-published by the Faculty of Political Science, University of Zagreb. The objects of analysis are regional studies of South-East Europe published in the journals. The main goal of this article is to determine which countries in their regional surroundings are researched the most by Croatian political scientists (and other authors who publish such articles in Croatian or English language in those journals, and which countries Croatia is most often compared to. This research has shown that, with regard to studies of the region, Croatian political scientists mostly focus on the countries of the former Yugoslavia.

  16. Geographic Information Systems for the Regional Integration of Renewable Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador Guerra, J.; Dominguez Bravo, J.

    2000-01-01

    This report is based on the project: The GIS in the regional integration of Renewable Energies for decentralised electricity production; developed by CIEMAT (Spanish Energy Research Centre) and UPM (Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain) since 1997. The objective of this project is to analyse, evaluate and improve the GIS methodologies for application in RE and how GIS can aid in the evaluation and simulation of influence of technical, socio economical and geographical parameters. This project begin with the review of SOLARGIS methodology. SOLARGIS was developed by an european research team (included CIEMAT) in the frame of JOULE II Programme. In the first place this report described the state of the art in the application of GIS to Renewable Energies. In second place, the SOLARGIS review tasks and the application of this new product to Lorca (Murcia Region in Spain). Finally, the report describes the methodology for the spatial sensibility analysis. (Author) 24 refs

  17. Optic neuritis: Observation and experience at a tertiary care hospital in Qassim region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohammad Jawad; Ali, Syed Abrar; Hamdy, Nermin Aly; Khan, Moin Zafar; Mohammad, Elgamri E

    2017-01-01

    Optic neuritis (ON) can occur in isolation or association with multiple sclerosis (MS) or neuromyelitis optica. ON, is seen more commonly in Caucasians and interaction is found to exist between ethnic origin and the latitude at which the patient grows up. At present limited information is available about the profile of ON in Saudi patients. We aimed to analyze the records of ON patients, in regard to their presentation, natural history, treatment outcome, and risk and association with MS. Whether, ON in Saudi patients behaves differently from the Western and Asian patients? In this retrospective observational study; we retrieved the data from the medical records of the patients with ON, who attended the ophthalmology and neurology services of King Fahad Specialist Hospital Buraidah, Al Qassim, Saudi Arabia, from period 2006 to 2012. We recorded data of 60 patients of ON; 38 females (63.3%) and 22 males (36.7%). Color vision was affected in 66.7% of cases. Vision in the affected eye was 20/200 or worse in 74.97 % of our cases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain revealed multiple lesions in 55% of cases; most of them developed MS on follow-up. Only 48.3% of patients had received systemic steroids. Vision improved in 85% of our cases. Most of our patients had idiopathic ON, and almost 85% had good visual recovery, in this regard our study is comparable with such studies done in other Asian countries. On the other hand, 55% of our patients had multiple MRI brain lesions, a high risk and association of MS, almost similar to the Western Europe and North American ON patients.

  18. Exploring Fog Water Harvesting Potential and Quality in the Asir Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhidasan, P.; Abualhamayel, H. I.

    2012-05-01

    During the last decade, the exploitation of the existing water resources in the Asir region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has considerably increased due to both the decrease in annual precipitation and the added population pressures from the growing tourist industry. To face the conventional water shortage, attention has been mainly focused on desalination of water. To save the region from severe water shortage, additional new water sources that are low-cost and renewable must be identified. There exists an alternative source of water such as fog water harvesting. Fog forms in the Asir Region more frequently between December and February compared to the other months of the year. This paper presents the study of the climatic conditions in the Asir region of the Kingdom to identify the most suitable location for fog water collection as well as design and testing of two large fog collectors (LFCs) of size 40 m2 along with standard fog collectors (SFCs) of 1 m2 in that region. During the period from 27 December 2009 to 9 March 2010, a total of 3,128.4 and 2,562.4 L of fog water were collected by the LFC at two sites in the Al-Sooda area of the Asir region, near Abha. Experimental results indicate that fog water collection can be combined with rain water harvesting systems to increase water yield during the rainy season. The quality of the collected fog water was analyzed and compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standards and found to be potable. An economic analysis was carried out for the proposed method of obtaining fresh water from the fog. The study suggests a clear tendency that in terms of both quality and magnitude of yield, fog is a viable source of water and can be successfully used to supplement water supplies in the Asir region of the Kingdom.

  19. Knowledge and attitude towards the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus among healthcare personnel in the southern region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbag, Huda F; El-Mekki, Awad Ahmed; Al Bshabshe, Ali Aobaid Ali; Mahfouz, Ahmed A; Al-Dosry, Ahasen A; Mirdad, Rasha T; AlKhttabi, Nora F; Abbag, Lubna F

    2018-03-07

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) belongs to the family Coronaviridae, and is named for the crown-like spikes on its surface. The clinical presentation of MERS-CoV infection ranges from asymptomatic to very severe disease, and the classical presentation includes fever, cough chills, sore throat, myalgia, and arthralgia. A cross-sectional study of 339 healthcare personnel was conducted over an 8-month period in the Aseer region of Saudi Arabia using a structured survey that included demographic information and questions testing participant's knowledge. Approximately two-thirds of the respondents properly identified the causative agent of MERS-CoV as an RNA virus (66.4%, n=225) that is enveloped (68.1%, n=231). On the other hand, few respondents identified the proper number of strains or the genus (16.5% and 17.4%, respectively). More than half of the study sample identified the disease as zoonotic (57.2%, n=194). Similarly, 89.1% (n=302) identified that camels and bats are prone to infection with coronaviruses. Only 23.9% (n=81) properly identified March through May as the season with the highest transmission rate. There was a massive lack of adequate knowledge regarding prevalence of antibodies. Only 18.3% (n=62) of respondents identified PCR as the proper diagnostic confirmatory test for MERS-CoV infection. Regarding MERS-CoV clinical features, 76.4% (n=259) recognized the presence of sub-clinical infection, 64.7% (n=218) indicated that cases should be immediately isolated, and 46.9% (n=159) identified the main cause of mortality as respiratory failure. There is limited microbiological and virological knowledge of MERS-CoV infection among healthcare personnel in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, although the clinical aspects are known. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Prevalence of somatization and minor psychiatric morbidity in primary healthcare in Saudi Arabia: A preliminary study in Asir region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M Alqahtani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To determine the prevalence of psychological disorders and somatization among primary care patients from a semi-urban area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Design : Screening of consecutive patients with the 12-item and 28-item versions of the General Health Questionnaires and assessments of physical symptoms associated with somatization, using the HSCL-12. Eight primary care health centres in Assir, Saudi Arabia. Results : About half of the sample had one or more psychological disorders. The prevalence of somatization detected by the GHQ-28 was 16%. The prevalence of somatization indicated by GPs′ identification of medically unexplained symptoms was 14%. Women displayed higher levels of somatization than men. Conclusion : This study reported prevalence of psychological disorders that was as high as found in the more modern areas of Saudi Arabia such as Riyadh. The view that individuals in less open areas are protected from psychological disorders associated with stress and lifestyle pressure seems to be unsubstantiated. The results highlight the potential value of screening for psychological disorders using such simple instruments as the GHQ

  1. Prevalence of somatization and minor psychiatric morbidity in primary healthcare in saudi arabia: a preliminary study in asir region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Mohammed M; Salmon, Peter

    2008-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of psychological disorders and somatization among primary care patients from a semi-urban area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Screening of consecutive patients with the 12-item and 28-item versions of the General Health Questionnaires and assessments of physical symptoms associated with somatization, using the HSCL-12. Eight primary care health centres in Assir, Saudi Arabia. About half of the sample had one or more psychological disorders. The prevalence of somatization detected by the GHQ-28 was 16%. The prevalence of somatization indicated by GPs' identification of medically unexplained symptoms was 14%. Women displayed higher levels of somatization than men. This study reported prevalence of psychological disorders that was as high as found in the more modern areas of Saudi Arabia such as Riyadh. The view that individuals in less open areas are protected from psychological disorders associated with stress and lifestyle pressure seems to be unsubstantiated. The results highlight the potential value of screening for psychological disorders using such simple instruments as the GHQ.

  2. Socio-psychological technology of building entrepreneurial culture of the geographical region representatives in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Yu. Bazarov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of an interdisciplinary project on the development and implementation of socio-psychological technologies of building enterpriseculture of the geographical region representatives in Russia. The purpose of this technology is to encourage entrepreneurial activity of the working-age population of a certain Russian geographical region with its cultural, historical, economic and socio-psychological features of the project launches by Professor Takhir Yu. Bazarov «Stolypin reform: version 2.0» and is being implemented in the Saratov region which is historically associated with the name of the prominent Russian reformer Pyotr Stolypin. The project started in the Chernyshevsky Saratov National Research State University in the course of the 7th Scientific Practical Conference «Organizational psychology: people and risks» (October 19-20, 2016 devoted to the interdisciplinary analysis of the reforming practice of the Russian economy within «past – present – future» transspective, leadership in terms of reforms and capacity assessment (socio psychological, cultural, economic of the Saratov region in the context of more active development of entrepreneurship by establishing the entrepreneurial culture. The paper describes innovative communication technology organization and promotion of value and target-oriented discussions of scientists, managers and students (among the authors T. Yu. Bazarov and T. A. Nestik are among the authors. The results of socio-psychological research are presented and discussed: a the image of Saratov city and the image of Saratov entrepreneurs, b Saratov citizens’ idea about the (ideal and actual image of Saratov entrepreneurs and Saratov respect of the business selfassessment by entrepreneurs of their image in the eyes of citizens, c the analysis of the reformer personality and successful leadership in terms of reforms, d the results of the comparative analysis of the early twentieth and

  3. Comparison of Turkey’s Geographical Regions in terms of Stand-Alone PV System Design and Cost Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Onat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stand-alone photovoltaic (SAPV systems are widely used in rural areas where there is no national grid or as a precaution against power outages. In this study, technical and economic analysis of a SAPV system was carried out using meteorological data for 75 province centers in seven geographical regions of Turkey. Obtained results for each province center were separated by geographical area. The averages of the centers for each region are taken as output. A calculation algorithm based on MsExcel has been established for these operations. The analyses made with the developed algorithm are repeated for five different scenarios that they cover periods of time when a constant strong load is active for all seasons (winter, spring, summer, and autumn and all year round. The developed algorithm calculates the life-cycle cost, the unit energy cost, the electrical capacity utilization rate, the amount of generated/excess energy per month, the initial investment/replacement, and operating and maintenance (O&M costs of each element. As a result, geographical regions of Turkey are compared in terms of these outputs graphically. Further investigations may include the sale of excess energy generated, small-scale PV system cost factors parallel to the grid, and the effects of government incentives.

  4. Differences in virulence and sporulation of Phytophthora kernoviae isolates originating from two distinct geographical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora kernoviae has only been isolated from the United Kingdom (U.K.) and New Zealand. To understand what differences may exist between isolates from these two distinct geographical regions, virulence studies on three host plants and sporulation on host leaves were conducted on select isolat...

  5. Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urology Association combined clinical management guidelines for prostate cancer 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljubran, Ali; Abusamra, Ashraf; Alkhateeb, Sultan; Alotaibi, Mohammed; Rabah, Danny; Bazarbashi, Shouki; Alkushi, Hussain; Al-Mansour, Mubarak; Alharbi, Hulayel; Eltijani, Amin; Alghamdi, Abdullah; Alsharm, Abdullah; Ahmad, Imran; Murshid, Esam

    2018-01-01

    This is an update to the previously published Saudi guidelines for the evaluation and medical and surgical management of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is categorized according to the stage of the disease using the tumor node metastasis staging system 7 th edition. The guidelines are presented with supporting evidence levels based on a comprehensive literature review, several internationally recognized guidelines, and the collective expertise of the guidelines committee members (authors) who were selected by the Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urological Association. Local factors, such as availability, logistic feasibility, and familiarity of various treatment modalities, have been taken into consideration. These guidelines should serve as a roadmap for the urologists, oncologists, general physicians, support groups, and health-care policymakers in the management of patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the prostate.

  6. Diphyllobothriasis in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhalife, Ibrahim S.; Hassan, Rafiaa R.; Abdel-Hameed, Ahmed A.; Al-Khayal, Laila A.

    2006-01-01

    We described a Saudi patient infected with Diphyllobothrium latum D. latum. A 38-year-old male presented, complaining of passing worms. He had a history of recent travel to Europe and South East Asia. Stools examination revealed typical D. latum eggs. He was treated with praziquantel followed by saline purge, after which he discharged an intact tapeworm. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the worm confirmed the diagnosis of D. latum. This is the first case of diphyllobothriasis to be reported in Saudi Arabia. The epidemiology and methods of prevention of diphyllobothriasis are discussed. (author)

  7. Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4±1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8±0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0±1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1±1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68. g for Saudis and 128. g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  8. Evidence for crustal low shear-wave speed in western Saudi Arabia from multi-scale fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Zheng

    2018-05-15

    We investigate the crustal and upper-mantle shear-velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography and shear-wave velocity inversion. The seismic dataset is compiled using ∼140 stations of the Saudi National Seismic Network (SNSN) operated by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). We measure Rayleigh-wave group-velocities at periods of 8–40 s from regional earthquakes. After obtaining 1-D shear-wave velocity models by inverting group-velocities at each grid node, we construct a 3-D shear-velocity model for Saudi Arabia and adjacent regions by interpolating the 1-D models. Our 3-D model indicates significant lateral variations in crustal and lithospheric thickness, as well as in the shear-wave velocity over the study region. In particular, we identify zones of reduced shear-wave speed at crustal levels beneath the Cenozoic volcanic fields in the Arabian Shield. The inferred reductions of 2–5% in shear-wave speed may be interpreted as possibly indicating the presence of partial melts. However, their precise origin we can only speculate about. Our study also reveals an upper-mantle low velocity zone (LVZ) below the Arabian Shield, supporting the model of lateral mantle flow from the Afar plume. Further geophysical experiments are needed to confirm (or refute) the hypothesis that partial melts may exist below the Cenozoic volcanism in western Saudi Arabia, and to build a comprehensive geodynamic–geological model for the evolution and present state of the lithosphere of the Arabian Plate and the Red Sea.

  9. Evidence for crustal low shear-wave speed in western Saudi Arabia from multi-scale fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Zheng; Mai, Paul Martin; Chang, Sung-Joon; Zahran, Hani

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the crustal and upper-mantle shear-velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography and shear-wave velocity inversion. The seismic dataset is compiled using ∼140 stations of the Saudi National Seismic Network (SNSN) operated by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). We measure Rayleigh-wave group-velocities at periods of 8–40 s from regional earthquakes. After obtaining 1-D shear-wave velocity models by inverting group-velocities at each grid node, we construct a 3-D shear-velocity model for Saudi Arabia and adjacent regions by interpolating the 1-D models. Our 3-D model indicates significant lateral variations in crustal and lithospheric thickness, as well as in the shear-wave velocity over the study region. In particular, we identify zones of reduced shear-wave speed at crustal levels beneath the Cenozoic volcanic fields in the Arabian Shield. The inferred reductions of 2–5% in shear-wave speed may be interpreted as possibly indicating the presence of partial melts. However, their precise origin we can only speculate about. Our study also reveals an upper-mantle low velocity zone (LVZ) below the Arabian Shield, supporting the model of lateral mantle flow from the Afar plume. Further geophysical experiments are needed to confirm (or refute) the hypothesis that partial melts may exist below the Cenozoic volcanism in western Saudi Arabia, and to build a comprehensive geodynamic–geological model for the evolution and present state of the lithosphere of the Arabian Plate and the Red Sea.

  10. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbash, Manssour; Idapalapati, Srinivasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs…

  11. Partial Immersion Program for Saudi Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulami, Sumayyah Qaed

    2017-01-01

    English is taught as a foreign language in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Although the government tries gradually to integrate teaching English in all grades: secondary, intermediate and elementary, learning English is still limited and need more developing. This essay is a brief review about bilingualism in Saudi education. This essay will be divided…

  12. High prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Desouki, Mahmoud I.; Sulimani, Riyadh A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in healthy Saudi men. We randomly recruited 429 Saudi men from the community. The recruited Saudi men were subjected to an interview to reveal their lifestyle parameters, calcium intake and level of activity. Bone densitometry was assessed at lumbar spine (L-4) and the femoral neck. The dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was carried out in the Nuclear Medicine at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from September 2002 to December 2004. The World Health Organization definition of low bone mineral density was used. Poor oral calcium intake and low level of daily activity were noted. The overall prevalence of osteopenia for the lumbar spine in the whole group was 35.7% while osteoporosis was present in 21.4% of the subjects. In the femoral neck, osteopenia was noted in 38% and osteoporosis in 11.4%. When either lumbar spine or femoral neck osteoporosis is used for diagnosis, the prevalence of osteoporosis rises to 23.5%. Within the whole group, osteopenia and osteoporosis were more common in individuals above the age of 50 than those below 50 years old. Low bone mineral density occurs with high frequency in Saudi men. Lumbar spine appears to be affected to a higher degree. The reason for the high prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men is unclear. Possible underlying causes include nutritional, life style and genetic factors. (author)

  13. Prospects for Formation and Development of the Geographical (Territorial) Industrial Clusters in West Kazakhstan Region of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imashev, Eduard Zh.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop and implement an economic and geographic approach to forming and developing geographic (territorial) industrial clusters in regions of Kazakhstan. The purpose necessitates the accomplishment of the following scientific objectives: to investigate scientific approaches and experience of territorial economic…

  14. Knowledge and attitude towards total knee arthroplasty among the public in Saudi Arabia: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohrej, Omar A; Alshammari, Faris O; Aljuraisi, Abdulrahman M; Bin Amer, Lujain A; Masuadi, Emad M; Al-Kenani, Nader S

    2018-04-01

    Studies on total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Saudi Arabia are scarce, and none have reported the knowledge and attitude of the procedure in Saudi Arabia. Our study aims to measure the knowledge and attitude of TKA among the adult Saudi population. To encompass a representative sample of this cross-sectional survey, all 13 administrative areas were used as ready-made geographical clusters. For each cluster, stratified random sampling was performed to maximize participation in the study. In each area, random samples of mobile phone numbers were selected with a probability proportional to the administrative area population size. Sample size calculation was based on the assumption that 50% of the participants would have some level of knowledge, with a 2% margin of error and 95% confidence level. To reach our intended sample size of 1540, we contacted 1722 participants with a response rate of 89.4%. The expected percentage of public knowledge was 50%; however, the actual percentage revealed by this study was much lower (29.7%). A stepwise multiple logistic regression was used to assess the factors that positively affected the knowledge score regarding TKA. Age [P = 0.016 with OR of 0.47], higher income [P = 0.001 with OR of 0.52] and participants with a positive history of TKA or that have known someone who underwent the surgery [P Saudi Arabia concerning TKA, its indications and results. We recommend that doctors use the results of our survey to assess their conversations with their patients, and to determine whether the results of the procedure are adequately clarified.

  15. Floristic diversity and vegetation analysis of Wadi Arar: A typical desert Wadi of the Northern Border region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ahmed K; Al-Ghamdi, Faraj; Bawadekji, Abdulhakim

    2014-12-01

    Wadi Arar in the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important Wadis of the Kingdom. The present study provides an analysis of vegetation types, life forms, as well as floristic categories and species distribution. A total of 196 species representing 31 families of vascular plants were recorded. Compositae, Gramineae and Leguminosae were the most common families. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the most frequent life forms, indicating typical desert spectrum vegetation. The distribution of these species in the different sectors of the Wadi as well as the phytochoria for the recorded species is provided. Ninety-one species (46.5%) are typical bi-regional. Furthermore, about 105 species (53.5%) are mono- or pluriregional taxa. The highest number of species (136 or 69.5%) was recorded for annual plants, while the lowest number of species (60% or 30.5%) was recorded for perennial, short perennial or annual to biennial species.

  16. Saudi Arabia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In April 2016 Saudi Arabia took the world by surprise with the launch of its Vision 2030 plan. The surprise was not the plan in itself, as the kingdom has since 1970 guided its development through a series of 5-year plans, but rather the radical approach to development contained in the plan. Priv...... silver. Later in 2016 the Vision 2030 plan was followed by the National Transformation Plan 2020 which is a far more detailed plan or operational plan, posting specific benchmarks and targets for the economy in order to fulfill the aims of the Vision 2030.......In April 2016 Saudi Arabia took the world by surprise with the launch of its Vision 2030 plan. The surprise was not the plan in itself, as the kingdom has since 1970 guided its development through a series of 5-year plans, but rather the radical approach to development contained in the plan...

  17. Pediatric testicular cancer: Two decades of Saudi national data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abomelha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric testicular cancer is exceedingly rare. There are no data available touching Saudi children. The aim of the study is to determine the trends and patterns of testicular cancer among Saudi children over a period of 20 years. The national database of the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR on pediatric testicular cancer over the last two decades was examined including epidemiological and histological patterns. From 1994 to 2013, 82 cases of testicular cancer among Saudi children aged 1–14 years were accumulated at the SCR. The annual percentage change rate was 3.3%. Of all cases, 62% appeared within the first 2 years of life. Seminomas were seen in 39%, nonseminomas in 40.3%, and paratesticular tumors in 20.7%. No gonadal stromal tumors observed. About 91% of the seminomas accrued in the first decade (1994–2003, while all nonseminomas fell in the last decade (2004–2013. The most common subtypes of the nonseminomas were yolk sac tumors and mixed tumors. More than 80% of the paratesticular tumors were rhabdomyosarcomas and lymphomas. The SEER summary stage of seminomas was localized in 56%, regional in 22%, and distant in 16%, while of nonseminomas was 56%, 16%, and 28%, respectively, and no stage improvement over the studied period was noted. No temporal trend in incidence rate was observed. The most affected age group was the first 2 years of life. Noteworthy was the high incidence of seminoma and the low rate of teratomas and stromal tumors, when compared to Western data. Notable was the dominance of the seminomas in the first decade and of the nonseminomas in the second decade. At the time of diagnosis, nonseminomas were more advanced than seminomas. No stage improvement noted over the studied period.

  18. Diabetes mellitus type 2 and other chronic non-communicable diseases in the central region, Saudi Arabia (riyadh cohort 2: a decade of an epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkharfy Khalid M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Follow-up epidemiologic studies are needed to assess trends and patterns of disease spread. No follow-up epidemiologic study has been done in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the current prevalence of major chronic, noncommunicable diseases, specifically in the urban region, where modifiable risk factors remain rampant. This study aims to fill this gap. Methods A total of 9,149 adult Saudis ages seven to eighty years (5,357 males (58.6% and 3,792 females (41.4% were randomly selected from the Riyadh Cohort Study for inclusion. Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2 and obesity were based on the World Health Organization definitions. Diagnoses of hypertension and coronary artery disease (CAD were based on the Seventh Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure and American Heart Association criteria, respectively. Results The overall crude prevalence of DMT2 was 23.1% (95% confidence interval (95% CI 20.47 to 22.15. The age-adjusted prevalence of DMT2 was 31.6%. DMT2 prevalence was significantly higher in males, with an overall age-adjusted prevalence of 34.7% (95% CI 32.6 to 35.4, than in females, who had an overall age-adjusted prevalence of 28.6% (95% CI 26.7 to 29.3 (P P Conclusion Comparisons of our findings with earlier data show that the prevalence of DMT2, hypertension and CAD in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has alarmingly worsened. Aggressive promotion of public awareness, continued screening and early intervention are pivotal to boosting a positive response.

  19. The Saudi electricity sector: pressing issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachet, Said; Aoun, Marie-Claire

    2015-01-01

    With 266 billion barrels of proved oil reserves (16% of world total), Saudi Arabia holds the world's largest (conventional) crude oil reserves, was the largest exporter of total petroleum liquids in 2013, and the second largest petroleum liquids producer behind the United States. The Kingdom has the lion share of the global oil production spare capacity, which proved to be crucial for the oil market stability on many occasions in the past, allowing Saudi Arabia to replace missing barrels from any other oil producer in the world. In the same manner, Saudi Arabia's decision last November not to step-in and reverse the oil price decline thus, abandoning its historical role as a 'swing producer,' revived the old debate on the use of oil as a 'political weapon' on the international energy scene. In addition to its well-known predominant role in the oil markets and in the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), several other features make the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia a major player in the world economy and global geopolitics. - Although the Kingdom does not export nor import natural gas, Saudi Arabia is embodied with the 5. natural gas proved reserves (8.2 trillion cubic meters (tcm), 4.4% of world natural gas proved reserves), behind Russia, Iran, Qatar and United States. With a production of 103 billion cubic meters (bcm), Saudi Arabia is also a gas producer solely for its domestic demand. - Because the Kingdom relies heavily on hydrocarbons for its present and future prosperity, the country is very active in climate change negotiations, as mitigation measures resulting from such negotiations will impact global oil demand. In the international talks on climate change, Saudi Arabia has often been calling for the need to address the vulnerabilities of the economies dependent on a single resource. - The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is member of G20 Group, putting up-front oil producers' interests in a forum which accounts for 85

  20. The development process and its relation to oil revenues and dependence on imported labor market in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almtairi, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    This study describes and analyzes the process of development in Saudi Arabia in relation to oil revenues and Saudi Arabian dependence on imported foreign labor. Modern development and societal change in Saudi Arabia began with the commercial exploitation of oil in 1939, therefore Saudi economy must be viewed from a dual perspective: a highly capital-intensive oil sector and a labor-intensive non-oil sector. In one generation the Kingdom created an infrastructure suitable to a rapid transformation from Bedouin tribes to a modern state, which became a leading regional power and now occupies an important place in international society. Important advances were made in social services, health services and education at all levels. Large-scale importation of foreign labor workers during the 1970s and early 1980s was necessary for the Development Plans. By the 1990s the major infrastructure was completed and only the maintenance work and minor projects remained for foreign labor sources

  1. Copy number variations in Saudi family with intellectual disability and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, Muhammad I; Chaudhary, Adeel G; Rasool, Mahmood; Kalamegam, Gauthaman; Ashgan, Fai T; Assidi, Mourad; Ahmed, Farid; Ansari, Shakeel A; Zaidi, Syed Kashif; Jan, Mohammed M; Al-Qahtani, Mohammad H

    2016-10-17

    Epilepsy is genetically complex but common brain disorder of the world affecting millions of people with almost of all age groups. Novel Copy number variations (CNVs) are considered as important reason for the numerous neurodevelopmental disorders along with intellectual disability and epilepsy. DNA array based studies contribute to explain a more severe clinical presentation of the disease but interoperation of many detected CNVs are still challenging. In order to study novel CNVs with epilepsy related genes in Saudi family with six affected and two normal individuals with several forms of epileptic seizures, intellectual disability (ID), and minor dysmorphism, we performed the high density whole genome Agilent sure print G3 Hmn CGH 2x 400 K array-CGH chips analysis. Our results showed de novo deletions, duplications and deletion plus duplication on differential chromosomal regions in the affected individuals that were not shown in the normal fathe and normal kids by using Agilent CytoGenomics 3.0.6.6 softwear. Copy number gain were observed in the chromosome 1, 16 and 22 with LCE3C, HPR, GSTT2, GSTTP2, DDT and DDTL genes respectively whereas the deletions observed in the chromosomal regions 8p23-p21 (4303127-4337759) and the potential gene in this region is CSMD1 (OMIM: 612279). Moreover, the array CGH results deletions and duplication were also validated by using primer design of deleted regions utilizing the flanked SNPs using simple PCR and also by using quantitative real time PCR. We found some of the de novo deletions and duplication in our study in Saudi family with intellectual disability and epilepsy. Our results suggest that array-CGH should be used as a first line of genetic test for epilepsy except there is a strong indication for a monogenic syndrome. The advanced high through put array-CGH technique used in this study aim to collect the data base and to identify new mechanisms describing epileptic disorder, may help to improve the clinical

  2. Optimizing coffee cultivation and its impact on economic growth and export earnings of the producing countries: The case of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdulkader, Ahmed M; Al-Namazi, Ali A; AlTurki, Turki A; Al-Khuraish, Muteb M; Al-Dakhil, Abdullah I

    2018-05-01

    Coffee is one of the historical socioeconomic crops. It has received an increasing attention at the global level, due to its positive interlinkage with the economic growth and on the gross domestic product for most of the producing countries, particularly, developing and least developed countries. Saudi Arabia is one of the coffee producing countries that has a relative comparative advantage of coffee cultivation. Yet, coffee cultivation has not received as much attention in Saudi Arabia as that of producing countries around the world. This study aims to assess the current state of coffee cultivation in Saudi Arabia and to investigate the potential to optimize coffee cultivation in Saudi Arabia that maximizes the net national economic return and export earnings, given limitation of cultivated areas, local market activities, and international trade activities. The study statistically analyzed primary data collected from around (65) coffee farms and traders in the study regions at the south and southwest Saudi Arabia, and optimized coffee cultivation in Saudi Arabia using LINGO optimization software. Empirical results of the study revealed the great potential of Saudi Arabia to expand coffee cultivation at south and southwest regions to meet the escalating local demand and to increase its share at the world market up to 2%. Optimization of coffee cultivation in Saudi Arabia showed a high potential to meet the local demand for coffee by producing 80.07 thousand tons grown over 2861.78 hectares and to generate a net return equivalent to $395.72 million a year, which is equivalent to $138.28 thousand per hectare and $4.94 thousand per ton of coffee. Optimizing coffee cultivation will play a substantial role to increase market share of Saudi Arabia to about 1-2% of the world market by increasing its export volume, respectively, to about 69.66 and 112.56 thousand tons, the national net economic return by about $395.86 and $395.95 million a year, and the export earnings

  3. Prevalence and causes of blindness and diabetic retinopathy in Southern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajar, Saad; Al Hazmi, Ali; Wasli, Mustafa; Mousa, Ahmed; Rabiu, Mansour

    2015-04-01

    To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Jazan district, Southern Saudi Arabia. Using the standardized Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) and DR cross-sectional methodology, 3800 subjects were randomly selected from the population of ≥50 years of age in Jazan, Saudi Arabia between November 2011 and January 2012. Participants underwent screening comprised of interview, random blood glucose test, and ophthalmic assessment including visual acuity (VA) and fundus examination. Among participants with VA less than 6/18 in either eye, the cause(s) of visual impairment was determined. Participants were classified as diabetic if they had previous diagnoses of diabetes, or random blood glucose more than 200 mg/dl. Diabetic participants were assessed for DR using dilated fundus examination. All data were recorded using the RAAB + DR standardized forms. The prevalence of bilateral blindness less than 3/60 was 3.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.74 - 3.90). Cataract was the leading cause of blindness (58.6%); followed by posterior segment diseases (20%), which included DR (7; 3.3%). The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) was 22.4%, (95% CI: 21.09 - 23.79]), among them; 27.8% had DR. The prevalence of sight-threatening DR was 5.7%. The prevalence of DM and the corresponding proportion of DR in this region is lower than that reported in other regions of Saudi Arabia. However, the prevalence of blindness not related to DR is relatively higher than the other studies.

  4. Buying success, Saudi style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Matin

    2009-11-01

    Oil - it is what has made Saudi Arabia rich. Without this black gold, none of the country's shopping malls, luxury hotels, six-lane highways or the airconditioned comfort that keeps the terrible heat at bay would be possible. From the first deposits harvested in the early 1950s, Saudi Arabia is now the world's leading exporter of petroleum, which accounts for nearly three-quarters of government revenue. And without the wealth from oil, the huge new King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), built on hard, desert soil in less than two years, would have been impossible.

  5. A methodology for landfill location using geographic information systems: a Colombian regional case

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alfonso Zafra Mejía; Franklin Andrés Mendoza Castañeda; Paula Alejandra Montoya Varela

    2012-01-01

    The regions’ economic growth and accelerated development have created high solid waste production rates; such waste is disposed of in many localities in places without any technical and/or environmental measures having been taken. This paper presents guidelines for locating landfills by combining geographic information systems (GIS) with analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and simple additive weighting (SAW). The methodology so developed was applied to the regional case of Tame in the Arauca dep...

  6. Some Silurian (Llandovery) monograptids from Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Khayal, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Three species of Monograptus are recognized from Qusayba, Al-Qasim Province, Saudi Arabia. The Qusayba Shales Member of the Tabuk Formation in central Saudi Arabia contains M. decipiens decipiens, M. ex gr. barrandei and M. elongatus, associated with other graptolites. This assemblage is indicative

  7. Geographic Information for Analysis of Highway Runoff-Quality Data on a National or Regional Scale in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieszek, Tomas W.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2000-01-01

    Spatial data are important for interpretation of water-quality information on a regional or national scale. Geographic information systems (GIS) facilitate interpretation and integration of spatial data. The geographic information and data compiled for the conterminous United States during the National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis project is described in this document, which also includes information on the structure, file types, and the geographic information in the data files. This 'geodata' directory contains two subdirectories, labeled 'gisdata' and 'gisimage.' The 'gisdata' directory contains ArcInfo coverages, ArcInfo export files, shapefiles (used in ArcView), Spatial Data Transfer Standard Topological Vector Profile format files, and meta files in subdirectories organized by file type. The 'gisimage' directory contains the GIS data in common image-file formats. The spatial geodata includes two rain-zone region maps and a map of national ecosystems originally published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; regional estimates of mean annual streamflow, and water hardness published by the Federal Highway Administration; and mean monthly temperature, mean annual precipitation, and mean monthly snowfall modified from data published by the National Climatic Data Center and made available to the public by the Oregon Climate Service at Oregon State University. These GIS files were compiled for qualitative spatial analysis of available data on a national and(or) regional scale and therefore should be considered as qualitative representations, not precise geographic location information.

  8. Healthcare Finance in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Qualitative Study of Householders' Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hanawi, Mohammed Khaled; Alsharqi, Omar; Almazrou, Saja; Vaidya, Kirit

    2018-02-01

    The public sector healthcare system in Saudi Arabia, essentially financed by oil revenues and 'free at the point of delivery', is coming under increasing strain due to escalating expenditure and an increasingly volatile oil market and is likely to be unsustainable in the medium to long term. This study examines how satisfied the Saudi people are with their public sector healthcare services and assesses their willingness to contribute to financing the system through a national health insurance scheme. The study also examines public preferences and expectations of a future national health insurance system. A total of 36 heads of households participated in face-to-face audio-recorded semi-structured interviews. The participants were purposefully selected based on different socio-economic and socio-demographic factors from urban and rural areas to represent the geographical diversity that would presumably influence individual views, expectations, preferences and healthcare experiences. The evidence showed some dissatisfaction with the provision and quality of current public sector healthcare services, including the availability of appointments, waiting times and the availability of drugs. The households indicated a willingness to contribute to a national insurance scheme, conditional upon improvements in the quality of public sector healthcare services. The results also revealed a variety of preferences and expectations regarding the proposed national health insurance scheme. Quality improvement is a key factor that could motivate the Saudi people to contribute to financing the healthcare system. A new authority, consisting of a partnership between the public and private sectors under government supervision, could represent an acceptable option for addressing the variation in public preferences.

  9. Geographical Information Systems Assessment of Development Disparities Among Romanian Regions of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN DANIEL MANOLE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New strategies of the European Union, focused directly on regional development or originated from different areas, but leading to changes in this field, had resulted into a set of indices used to monitor the effects of their implementation. Previous studies suggest that flexible systems perform better and could strengthen the administrative capacity of accessing structural and cohesion funds. Our study used the Geographical Information Systems (GIS to produce hierarchies of the territorial indices at NUTS level II, displayed as charts and maps underlining the disparities between the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental aspects of the development. The results suggest that the regions with a low potential of development are situated in the south of Romania, but, most important, underline the potential of the method to be used as a planning tool in regional development, as its flexibility allows for an input with particular focus from different stakeholders, resulting into the selection of different indices and weights.

  10. Lucerne transient streak virus; a Recently Detected Virus Infecting Alfafa (Medicago sativa) in Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Ahmed; Al-Shahwan, Ibrahim M; Abdalla, Omer A; Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

    2017-02-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail) during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1-97.6%) and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8-97.1%). Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum , Nicotiana occidentalis , Chenopodium glaucum , and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it.

  11. Blurry Vision: Institutional Impediments to Reform in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    24 Figure 7. Net Incomes of Listed Saudi Corporates by Sector ...................................25 Figure 8. Contribution to Non-oil Export... Corporation SAGIA Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority SAMA Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency SME Small and Medium Enterprises SOE Sate Owned...happens-overseas-necessarily-stay-overseas; “Ministry of Finance Appoints Mr. Alsayari to Lead the Debt Management Office,” Ministry of Finance

  12. The genus Artemisia L. in the northern region of Saudi Arabia: essential oil variability and antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetat, Arbi; Al-Ghamdi, Faraj A; Osman, Ahmed K

    2017-03-01

    Four species of the genus Artemisia L. (Artemisia monosperma, Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia judaica and Artemisia sieberi) growing in the northern region of Saudi Arabia were investigated with respect to their volatile oil contents. The yield of oil varied between 0.30 and 0.41%, % (w/w). A. monosperma showed the highest number of compounds with 30 components representing 93.78% of oil composition. However, A. judaica showed the lowest number of compounds with only 16 components representing 87.47% of essential oil. A. scoparia and A. sieberi are both composed of 17 components, representing 97.14 and 94.2% of total oil composition. A. sieberi and A. judaica were dominated by spathulenol (30.42 and 28.41%, respectively). For A. monosperma, butanoic acid (17.87%) was a major component. However, A. scoparia was a chemotype of acenaphthene. (83.23%). Essential oil of studied species showed high antibacterial activities against common human pathogens.

  13. Factors that affect the job satisfaction of Saudi Arabian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Jazi; Paliadelis, Penny Susan; Valenzuela, Fredy-Roberto

    2016-04-01

    To determine factors that influence the job satisfaction of Saudi nurses. Saudi Arabia has a chronic shortage of Saudi national nurses. This research contributes to a greater understanding of how job satisfaction influences the recruitment and retention of Saudi nationals within the nursing profession. Qualitative data were gathered from Saudi nurses and content analysis was used to identify themes in the written responses. Four main themes emerged from the data: lack of educational opportunities and support and the poor image of the nursing profession, perceptions of favouritism, high workloads and stressful work environment and the effect of religion on job satisfaction. Saudi nurses would be more satisfied with their jobs if they had greater access to educational opportunities and if there was a reduction in workload and the perceived favouritism in the workplace was addressed. Religion was also found to play a significant role in supporting job satisfaction. These findings suggest the development of educational scholarships, as well as policies that better support equity in the workplace, to address Saudi nurses' level of job satisfaction. The generally positive impact of cultural and religious beliefs is also highlighted in this study. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Princes, priests, and people is Saudi Arabia the next Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Waltermire, Bradley J.

    2005-01-01

    Renewed violent attacks in Saudi Arabia against the monarchy, combined with growing concern over royal corruption has led some analysts to predict that Saudi Arabia is likely to be "the next Iran"-that Islamist revolutionaries will come to power in Riyadh. I test this theory through the lens of network analysis in order to measure the degree of state-society integration in Pahlavi Iran and Saudi Arabia. My analysis finds that a) the Saudi state is far more integrated in society through so...

  15. Does Saudi school furniture meet ergonomics requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamed Zaki

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to study the effect of adjustable imported desk and chair combinations available in the market on student performance. Six sets of chairs and tables within three different activities (reading, writing, and looking to the blackboard) were the independent variables. Evaluation of back force at 5th lumbar vertebrae and the 1st sacrum (L5/S1), subjective measures of discomfort, and the mismatch between student body dimension and classroom furniture analysis were measured. A total of 124 young male students (first through sixth-grade) participated in this experiment. The results revealed too low or too high chair and table heights relative to the students' body dimensions increased the stresses acting at L5/S1 as well as discomfort ratings. This study indicated there was a high level of body mismatch in desk-chair combinations even with the adjustable imported furniture available in the local market. Anthropometric data of Saudi students should be collected from different regions in the Kingdom and then design and development of desk-chair combinations could follow the development of a standard procedure to adapt to the needs of Saudi school children.

  16. Saudi Vigilance Program: Challenges and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharf, Adel; Alqahtani, Nasser; Saeed, Ghazi; Alshahrani, Ali; Alshahrani, Mubarak; Aljasser, Nasser; Alquwaizani, Mohammed; Bawazir, Saleh

    2018-03-01

    Pharmacovigilance is vital to public health. Adopting a robust spontaneous reporting system for adverse drug events can counteract most hazards that arise from utilizing medicinal products. Prior to the establishment of the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA), the number of pharmacovigilance-related activities in Saudi Arabia was limited. In 2009, the SFDA established the National Pharmacovigilance and Drug Safety Center (Saudi Vigilance). The pharmacovigilance system has remarkably improved during the past few years. Several initiatives have been taken to improve the program's performance. These initiatives include initiation of pharmacovigilance guidelines, enhancement of communication and reporting tools, training sessions for concerned staff and healthcare providers, and compliance from stakeholders. This review article provides an overview of what the Saudi Vigilance program is, focusing on the scope, mission and vision, hierarchy, operational themes, and overall work processes. Additionally, we will shed light on the challenges we encountered during the early phase and on our future plans.

  17. The Educational Aspirations of Saudi Arabian Youth: Implications for Creating a New Framework to Explain Saudi Arabian Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Woohyang

    2016-01-01

    Higher education in Saudi Arabia has garnered immense praise for its rapid expansion and developments in both quantity and quality. In response to this, the tertiary school enrollment in Saudi Arabia is rapidly rising. These achievements can be explained by changes in educational policies. However, studies regarding youth's awareness are scarce.…

  18. Potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed G. Hegazi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey against selected bacterial strains of medical importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 Saudi Arabia honey used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacterial strains. The bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: The antibacterial activity of Saudi honey against five bacterial strains showed different levels of inhibition according to the type of honey. The overall results showed that the potential activity was differing according to the pathogen and honey type. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the Saudi honey inhibit the growth of bacterial strains and that honey can be used as complementary antimicrobial agent against selected pathogenic bacteria.

  19. Early Childhood Education in Saudi Arabia: Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaah, Alqassem; Doaa, Dashash; Asma, Alzahrani

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviewed the development of early childhood education (ECE) in Saudi Arabia and its strengths and weaknesses. The paper discusses the contextual background of Saudi Arabia, including its geography, demographics, social system, economy, political system and religion. In addition, the paper investigated the education system at large in…

  20. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    rights. 21 Ambassador Chas Freeman, President of the Middle East Policy Council, served as U.S. Ambassador to Saudi Arabia from 1989 to 1992. Tabassum ...U.S. Policymakers Conference, Washington, DC, October 15, 2009. 24 Tabassum Zakaria, “Analysis—Saudi smile likely for Bush on oil plea, not more

  1. The Saudi Initiative for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Moamary Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.

  2. Khat Chewing among Students of Higher Education in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence, Pattern, and Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad Mohammed Alsanosy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To estimate the prevalence and behavioral patterns of Khat chewing and (2 to investigate factors that influenced the pattern of Khat use among undergraduate students in different higher education institutions in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study using a pretested structured self-administered quantitative questionnaire was used to collect data. SPSS version 17 software program was used for data analysis. Results. The overall current Khat chewing prevalence among higher education students was found to be 23.1%, significantly higher among males at 38.5% than among females at 2.1% . Lifetime Khat chewer students were 24.8% for males at 40.5%, significantly higher compared with females at 3.7% . Univariate analysis revealed that the gender of student, smoking status of student, a friend’s smoking, and Khat chewing were associated with a significant high risk of Khat chewing (   for all. Conclusions. The use of Khat trend is increasing among higher education students in Jazan region. A multilevel, value based, comprehensive, and strategic long-term intervention plan is needed. The comprehensive plan may include social interventions geared by creating recreations alternatives and opportunities for youth and a critical review for current authorities’ interventions and services.

  3. The impact of work-related stress on medication errors in Eastern Region Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdul; Segal, David M; Abu-Helalah, Munir Ahmad; Gutierrez, Mary Lou; Joosub, Imran; Ahmed, Wasim; Bibi, Rubina; Clarke, Elizabeth; Qarni, Ali Ahmed Al

    2018-05-07

    To examine the relationship between overall level and source-specific work-related stressors on medication errors rate. A cross-sectional study examined the relationship between overall levels of stress, 25 source-specific work-related stressors and medication error rate based on documented incident reports in Saudi Arabia (SA) hospital, using secondary databases. King Abdulaziz Hospital in Al-Ahsa, Eastern Region, SA. Two hundred and sixty-nine healthcare professionals (HCPs). The odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for HCPs documented incident report medication errors and self-reported sources of Job Stress Survey. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified source-specific work-related stress as significantly associated with HCPs who made at least one medication error per month (P stress were two times more likely to make at least one medication error per month than non-stressed HCPs (OR: 1.95, P = 0.081). This is the first study to use documented incident reports for medication errors rather than self-report to evaluate the level of stress-related medication errors in SA HCPs. Job demands, such as social stressors (home life disruption, difficulties with colleagues), time pressures, structural determinants (compulsory night/weekend call duties) and higher income, were significantly associated with medication errors whereas overall stress revealed a 2-fold higher trend.

  4. Non-verbal communication barriers when dealing with Saudi sellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosra Missaoui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication has a major impact on how customers perceive sellers and their organizations. Especially, the non-verbal communication such as body language, appearance, facial expressions, gestures, proximity, posture, eye contact that can influence positively or negatively the first impression of customers and their experiences in stores. Salespeople in many countries, especially the developing ones, are just telling about their companies’ products because they are unaware of the real role of sellers and the importance of non-verbal communication. In Saudi Arabia, the seller profession has been exclusively for foreign labor until 2006. It is very recently that Saudi workforce enters to the retailing sector as sellers. The non-verbal communication of those sellers has never been evaluated from consumer’s point of view. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore the non-verbal communication barriers that customers are facing when dealing with Saudi sellers. After discussing the non-verbal communication skills that sellers must have in the light of the previous academic research and the depth interviews with seven focus groups of Saudi customers, this study found that the Saudi customers were not totally satisfied with the current non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to develop the non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers by intensive trainings, to distinguish more the appearance of their sellers, especially the female ones, to focus on the time of intervention as well as the proximity to customers.

  5. Growth and Maturation of Plectropomus spp. in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DesRosiers, Noah

    2011-05-01

    Two species of plectropomid grouper (Plectropomus areolatus and P. pessuliferus) are found in the Red Sea. In Saudi Arabia these are the most valuable fishes by weight, averaging wholesale prices around US $15 per kilogram (personal observation). Over the past two decades, the number of fishing vessels in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea has tripled. Despite this increase in fishing effort Saudi Arabia has not implemented any marine resource management for Red Sea fisheries. Little biological data are currently available to inform managers. The research presented here addresses knowledge gaps on the growth pattern, longevity and sexual ontogeny of Plectropomus spp. in the Red Sea. Collections of each species were established by purchasing landed individuals from fishermen and fish markets distributed evenly between three latitudinal regions around the country. The total length of each fish was measured to the nearest millimeter. Age was estimated by enumerating annual bands visualized in transverse sections of sagittal otoliths. Sexual stage was determined via histological examination of gonadal tissue. Plots of total length versus age were fitted with reparameterized von Bertalanffy growth functions constrained to a size-at-settlement estimate of 20 mm. P. pessuliferus achieved a larger size (maximum 960 mm) and an older age (maximum 19 years) than P. areolatus (maximum size 570 mm, maximum age 9 years). While no regional patterns were found for P. pesuliferus, likelihood ratio tests revealed regional differences in growth pattern for P. areolatus, finding an increasing mean age, increasing mean length, and decreasing growth rate with decreasing latitude. In addition, males of P. areolatus were more abundant in the Southern region. These findings contradict existing theories about the effects of latitudinal temperature gradients on life history. It is hypothesized that the broader continental shelf in the Southern region may be providing a haven for these species in the

  6. Saudi production capacity climbing to 10 million b/d

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Saudi Arabia this year is completing its expansion of production capacity and developing recent discoveries to enhance export flexibility. The 3 million b/d capacity expansion to 10 million b/d, announced in 1989, is on target for completion by year end 1994. Most of the effort involves restoration of mothballed production equipment and installation of several gas-oil separation plants (GOSPs) in existing fields. But Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) also this year will start up production of extra-light oil from a new field in the central part of the kingdom. Start-up of Hawtah area production demonstrates success of an oil search Aramco began after receiving exclusive exploration rights to nearly all of Saudi Arabia's prospective area in 1986. From new fields and traditional producing areas, therefore, Saudi Arabia has the potential to expand production capacity beyond 10 million b/d. The paper describes the development of the extra capacity

  7. Novel mutations underlying argininosuccinic aciduria in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashed Mohamed S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASAuria is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle relatively common in Saudi Arabia as a consequence of extensive consanguinity. It is the most common urea cycle disorder identified in the Saudi population, which therefore prioritizes the need to delineate the underlying molecular defects leading to disease. Findings We utilized Whole Genome Amplification (WGA, PCR and direct sequencing to identify mutations underlying ASAuria cases diagnosed by our institution. A missense mutation that accounts for 50% of Saudi ASAuria patients was recently reported by our laboratory. In this study we report a further six novel mutations (and one previously reported found in Saudi patients with ASAuria. The novel four missense, one nonsense and one splice-site mutation were confirmed by their absence in >300 chromosomes from the normal population. Pathogenicity of the novel splice-site mutation was also confirmed using reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. Cross species amino acid conservation at the substituted residues described were observed in some but not all instances. Conclusions Together, the eight mutations described by our laboratory, encompass >90% of ASAuria patients in Saudi Arabia and add to about 45 other ASAuria mutations reported worldwide.

  8. Impact of geographic variations of the convective and dehydration center on stratospheric water vapor over the Asian monsoon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian monsoon region is the most prominent moisture center of water vapor in the lower stratosphere (LS during boreal summer. Previous studies have suggested that the transport of water vapor to the Asian monsoon LS is controlled by dehydration temperatures and convection mainly over the Bay of Bengal and Southeast Asia. However, there is a clear geographic variation of convection associated with the seasonal and intra-seasonal variations of the Asian monsoon circulation, and the relative influence of such a geographic variation of convection vs. the variation of local dehydration temperatures on water vapor transport is still not clear. Using satellite observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS and a domain-filling forward trajectory model, we show that almost half of the seasonal water vapor increase in the Asian monsoon LS are attributable to geographic variations of convection and resultant variations of the dehydration center, of which the influence is comparable to the influence of the local dehydration temperature increase. In particular, dehydration temperatures are coldest over the southeast and warmest over the northwest Asian monsoon region. Although the convective center is located over Southeast Asia, an anomalous increase of convection over the northwest Asia monsoon region increases local diabatic heating in the tropopause layer and air masses entering the LS are dehydrated at relatively warmer temperatures. Due to warmer dehydration temperatures, anomalously moist air enters the LS and moves eastward along the northern flank of the monsoon anticyclonic flow, leading to wet anomalies in the LS over the Asian monsoon region. Likewise, when convection increases over the Southeast Asia monsoon region, dry anomalies appear in the LS. On a seasonal scale, this feature is associated with the monsoon circulation, convection and diabatic heating marching towards the northwest Asia monsoon region from June to August. The

  9. Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B

    2010-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended.

  10. The lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia: Young volcanism in an old shield

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Zheng; Julià , Jordi; Zahran, Hani; Mai, Paul Martin

    2016-01-01

    deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). The study region, the Arabian plate, is traditionally divided into the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform: The Arabian shield itself is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed

  11. Prevalence and distribution of selected dental anomalies among saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Syed M

    2016-12-01

    Dental anomalies are not an unusual finding in routine dental examination. The effect of dental anomalies can lead to functional, esthetic and occlusal problems. The Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of selected developmental dental anomalies in Saudi children. The study was based on clinical examination and Panoramic radiographs of children who visited the Pediatric dentistry clinics at King Khalid University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia. These patients were examined for dental anomalies in size, shape, number, structure and position. Data collected were entered and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences version. Of the 1252 children (638 Boys, 614 girls) examined, 318 subjects (25.39%) presented with selected dental anomalies. The distribution by gender was 175 boys (27.42%) and 143 girls (23.28%). On intergroup comparison, number anomalies was the most common anomaly with Hypodontia (9.7%) being the most common anomaly in Saudi children, followed by hyperdontia (3.5%). The Prevalence of size anomalies were Microdontia (2.6%) and Macrodontia (1.8%). The prevalence of Shape anomalies were Talon cusp (1.4%), Taurodontism (1.4%), Fusion (0.8%).The prevalence of Positional anomalies were Ectopic eruption (2.3%) and Rotation (0.4%). The prevalence of structural anomalies were Amelogenesis imperfecta (0.3%) Dentinogenesis imperfecta (0.1%). A significant number of children had dental anomaly with Hypodontia being the most common anomaly and Dentinogenesis imperfecta being the rare anomaly in the study. Early detection and management of these anomalies can avoid potential orthodontic and esthetic problems in a child. Key words: Dental anomalies, children, Saudi Arabia.

  12. Broad accommodation of rift-related extension recorded by dyke intrusion in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Pallister, John S.

    2010-09-26

    The extensive harrat lava province of Arabia formed during the past 30 million years in response to Red Sea rifting and mantle upwelling. The area was regarded as seismically quiet, but between April and June 2009 a swarm of more than 30,000 earthquakes struck one of the lava fields in the province, Harrat Lunayyir, northwest Saudi Arabia. Concerned that larger damaging earthquakes might occur, the Saudi Arabian government evacuated 40,000 people from the region. Here we use geologic, geodetic and seismic data to show that the earthquake swarm resulted from magmatic dyke intrusion. We document a surface fault rupture that is 8 km long with 91 cm of offset. Surface deformation is best modelled by the shallow intrusion of a north-west trending dyke that is about 10 km long. Seismic waves generated during the earthquakes exhibit overlapping very low- and high-frequency components. We interpret the low frequencies to represent intrusion of magma and the high frequencies to represent fracturing of the crystalline basement rocks. Rather than extension being accommodated entirely by the central Red Sea rift axis, we suggest that the broad deformation observed in Harrat Lunayyir indicates that rift margins can remain as active sites of extension throughout rifting. Our analyses allowed us to forecast the likelihood of a future eruption or large earthquake in the region and informed the decisions made by the Saudi Arabian government to return the evacuees. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  13. Broad accommodation of rift-related extension recorded by dyke intrusion in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Pallister, John S.; McCausland, Wendy A.; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Lu, Zhong; Zahran, Hani M.; El-Hadidy, Salah Y.; Aburukbah, Abdallah; Stewart, Ian C F; Lundgren, Paul R.; White, Randal A.; Moufti, Mohammed Rashad H

    2010-01-01

    The extensive harrat lava province of Arabia formed during the past 30 million years in response to Red Sea rifting and mantle upwelling. The area was regarded as seismically quiet, but between April and June 2009 a swarm of more than 30,000 earthquakes struck one of the lava fields in the province, Harrat Lunayyir, northwest Saudi Arabia. Concerned that larger damaging earthquakes might occur, the Saudi Arabian government evacuated 40,000 people from the region. Here we use geologic, geodetic and seismic data to show that the earthquake swarm resulted from magmatic dyke intrusion. We document a surface fault rupture that is 8 km long with 91 cm of offset. Surface deformation is best modelled by the shallow intrusion of a north-west trending dyke that is about 10 km long. Seismic waves generated during the earthquakes exhibit overlapping very low- and high-frequency components. We interpret the low frequencies to represent intrusion of magma and the high frequencies to represent fracturing of the crystalline basement rocks. Rather than extension being accommodated entirely by the central Red Sea rift axis, we suggest that the broad deformation observed in Harrat Lunayyir indicates that rift margins can remain as active sites of extension throughout rifting. Our analyses allowed us to forecast the likelihood of a future eruption or large earthquake in the region and informed the decisions made by the Saudi Arabian government to return the evacuees. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  14. Broad accommodation of rift-related extension recorded by dyke intrusion in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, J.S.; McCausland, W.A.; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Lu, Z.; Zahran, H.M.; El, Hadidy S.; Aburukbah, A.; Stewart, I.C.F.; Lundgren, P.R.; White, R.A.; Moufti, M.R.H.

    2010-01-01

    The extensive harrat lava province of Arabia formed during the past 30 million years in response to Red Sea rifting and mantle upwelling. The area was regarded as seismically quiet, but between April and June 2009 a swarm of more than 30,000 earthquakes struck one of the lava fields in the province, Harrat Lunayyir, northwest Saudi Arabia. Concerned that larger damaging earthquakes might occur, the Saudi Arabian government evacuated 40,000 people from the region. Here we use geologic, geodetic and seismic data to show that the earthquake swarm resulted from magmatic dyke intrusion. We document a surface fault rupture that is 8 km long with 91 cm of offset. Surface deformation is best modelled by the shallow intrusion of a north-west trending dyke that is about 10 km long. Seismic waves generated during the earthquakes exhibit overlapping very low- and high-frequency components. We interpret the low frequencies to represent intrusion of magma and the high frequencies to represent fracturing of the crystalline basement rocks. Rather than extension being accommodated entirely by the central Red Sea rift axis, we suggest that the broad deformation observed in Harrat Lunayyir indicates that rift margins can remain as active sites of extension throughout rifting. Our analyses allowed us to forecast the likelihood of a future eruption or large earthquake in the region and informed the decisions made by the Saudi Arabian government to return the evacuees.

  15. Ethnic, socioeconomic and geographical inequalities in road traffic injury rates in the Auckland region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Jamie; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Exeter, Daniel; Stewart, Joanna; Bell, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    To describe ethnic, socioeconomic and geographical differences in road traffic injury (RTI) within Auckland, New Zealand's largest city. We analysed rates of RTI deaths and non-fatal hospital admissions using the New Zealand Mortality Collection and the National Minimum Data Set 2000-08. Poisson regression examined the association of age, gender, prioritised ethnicity and small area deprivation (New Zealand Index of Deprivation) with RTI rates, and RTI rates were mapped for 21 local board areas within the Auckland region. While RTI rates increased with levels of deprivation in all age groups, the gradient was steepest among children (9% increase/decile) and adults aged 25-64 years (11% increase/decile). In all age groups, RTI risk was highest among Māori. Pacific children had an elevated risk of RTI compared with the NZ European/Other group, but Pacific youth (15-24 years) and adults (25-64 years) had a lower risk. While RTI rates were generally higher for those living in rural local board areas, all but one local board in the southern Auckland urban area had among the highest rates. There are substantial ethnic, socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in RTI risk in the Auckland region, with high rates among Māori (all ages), Pacific children, people living in socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods, the urban south and rural regions. To meet the vision of regional plans, road safety efforts must prioritise vulnerable communities at greatest risk of RTI, and implement and monitor the effectiveness of strategies that specifically include a focus on reducing inequalities in RTI rates. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. Apology Strategies Employed by Saudi EFL Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulayyi, Marzouq Nasser

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the apology strategies used by 30 Saudi EFL teachers in Najran, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), paying special attention to variables such as social distance and power and offence severity. The study also delineates gender differences in the respondents' speech as opposed to studies that only examined speech act output by…

  17. Geographical patterns in cyanobacteria distribution: climate influence at regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitois, Frédéric; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle; Thomas, Olivier

    2014-01-28

    Cyanobacteria are a component of public health hazards in freshwater environments because of their potential as toxin producers. Eutrophication has long been considered the main cause of cyanobacteria outbreak and proliferation, whereas many studies emphasized the effect of abiotic parameters (mainly temperature and light) on cell growth rate or toxin production. In view of the growing concerns of global change consequences on public health parameters, this study attempts to enlighten climate influence on cyanobacteria at regional scale in Brittany (NW France). The results show that homogeneous cyanobacteria groups are associated with climatic domains related to temperature, global radiation and pluviometry, whereas microcystins (MCs) occurrences are only correlated to local cyanobacteria species composition. As the regional climatic gradient amplitude is similar to the projected climate evolution on a 30-year timespan, a comparison between the present NW and SE situations was used to extrapolate the evolution of geographical cyanobacteria distribution in Brittany. Cyanobacteria composition should shift toward species associated with more frequent Microcystins occurrences along a NW/SE axis whereas lakes situated along a SW/NE axis should transition to species (mainly Nostocales) associated with lower MCs detection frequencies.

  18. The Najd Fault System of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stüwe, Kurt; Kadi, Khalid; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    The Najd Fault System of the Arabian-Nubian Shield is considered to be the largest Proterozoic Shear zone system on Earth. The shear zone was active during the late stages of the Pan African evolution and is known to be responsible for the exhumation of fragments of juvenile Proterozoic continental crust that form a series of basement domes across the shield areas of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. A three year research project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and supported by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) has focused on structural mapping, petrology and geochronology of the shear zone system in order to constrain age and mechanisms of exhumation of the domes - with focus on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea. We recognise important differences in comparison with the basement domes in the Eastern desert of Egypt. In particular, high grade metamorphic rocks are not exclusively confined to basement domes surrounded by shear zones, but also occur within shear zones themselves. Moreover, we recognise both exhumation in extensional and in transpressive regimes to be responsible for exhumation of high grade metamorphic rocks in different parts of the shield. We suggest that these apparent structural differences between different sub-regions of the shield largely reflect different timing of activity of various branches of the Najd Fault System. In order to tackle the ill-resolved timing of the Najd Fault System, zircon geochronology is performed on intrusive rocks with different cross cutting relationships to the shear zone. We are able to constrain an age between 580 Ma and 605 Ma for one of the major branches of the shear zone, namely the Ajjaj shear zone. In our contribution we present a strain map for the shield as well as early geochronological data for selected shear zone branches.

  19. Agency, Expression, and the Virtual Sphere: Social Media in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayman, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    This paper seeks to address the question of why so many Saudi Arabians use social media. Prior literature investigating social media usage in the Saudi Arabia is either too broad or too narrow. This necessitates academic inquiry that addresses the “middle ground”. Saudi Arabians' markedly high rates of social media usage appear incongruous with the traditional, highly restrictive nature of Saudi Arabian society. Given social media's status as a relatively new phenomenon, and its recognized ab...

  20. Optimizing coffee cultivation and its impact on economic growth and export earnings of the producing countries: The case of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Al-Abdulkader

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is one of the historical socioeconomic crops. It has received an increasing attention at the global level, due to its positive interlinkage with the economic growth and on the gross domestic product for most of the producing countries, particularly, developing and least developed countries. Saudi Arabia is one of the coffee producing countries that has a relative comparative advantage of coffee cultivation. Yet, coffee cultivation has not received as much attention in Saudi Arabia as that of producing countries around the world. This study aims to assess the current state of coffee cultivation in Saudi Arabia and to investigate the potential to optimize coffee cultivation in Saudi Arabia that maximizes the net national economic return and export earnings, given limitation of cultivated areas, local market activities, and international trade activities. The study statistically analyzed primary data collected from around (65 coffee farms and traders in the study regions at the south and southwest Saudi Arabia, and optimized coffee cultivation in Saudi Arabia using LINGO optimization software. Empirical results of the study revealed the great potential of Saudi Arabia to expand coffee cultivation at south and southwest regions to meet the escalating local demand and to increase its share at the world market up to 2%. Optimization of coffee cultivation in Saudi Arabia showed a high potential to meet the local demand for coffee by producing 80.07 thousand tons grown over 2861.78 hectares and to generate a net return equivalent to $395.72 million a year, which is equivalent to $138.28 thousand per hectare and $4.94 thousand per ton of coffee. Optimizing coffee cultivation will play a substantial role to increase market share of Saudi Arabia to about 1–2% of the world market by increasing its export volume, respectively, to about 69.66 and 112.56 thousand tons, the national net economic return by about $395.86 and $395.95 million a year, and

  1. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators) - A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulkareem O Alsuwaida

    2010-01-01

    There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The overall prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients (Author).

  2. Shortage of psychotropic medications in community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia: Causes and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ruthia, Yazed Sulaiman; Mansy, Wael; Barasin, Mohammad; Ghawaa, Yazeed Mohammad; AlSultan, Mohammed; Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Alhawas, Solaiman; AlGhadeer, Sultan

    2017-07-01

    Background: Patients with mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, who seek medical care in private psychiatric clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have recently expressed concerns to doctors about difficulty in filling psychotropic medications, such as Amitriptyline and Aripiprazole, at retail community pharmacies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a shortage of some commonly prescribed psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia, and if so, to explore the possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications. Methods: The availability of 28 commonly prescribed psychotropic medications was checked in multiple retail community pharmacies in 4 different regions of Saudi Arabia. Further, potential reasons behind the shortage of some psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies were also explored. Results: Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Aripiprazole, Bupropion, Buspirone, Duloxetine, Haloperidol, Hydroxyzine, Lithium, Prochlorperazine, Procyclidine, Promethazine, Thioridazine, Trazodone, and Trifluoperazine were unavailable in over half of the 248 community pharmacies surveyed. Four possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications were reported by 31 pharmacists working in different retail community pharmacies' purchasing departments, with a majority (58.06%) reporting the primary reason for a shortage of these medications that they are slow-moving items with low profit margins. Conclusions: The findings of this study should expedite the reform process in both the Ministry of Health and the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) to publish and enforce an essential list of medications for retail community pharmacies, which should include the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medications.

  3. Saudi Arabia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Martin

    2017-01-01

    . Private sector focus, privatization of state owned entities and salary cuts in the public sector were proposed. But the item that drew most attention was the plan to sell a 5 per cent stake in the oil company Saudi Aramco, the national pride of the Kingdom, which was seen by many as selling the family...

  4. Role of Corporate Social Responsibility Practices in Saudi Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Khalaf Alharthey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many researchers focus on the relocation of the government in the transformation of The purpose of this study is to examine the role of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR practices in higher education of Saudi Arabia. The growing importance of CSR has made it necessary for every university to use international benchmarks as standard to devise their CSR practices accordingly. This realization has shifted focus of CSR practices of Saudi universities towards every dimension of CSR. The study collected secondary data through 120 advertisements published from 2012 to 2015 and found out that CSR practices of universities of Saudi Arabia remain focused on social dimension of CSR because Saudi culture and religion had profound impact on business laws and eventually on CSR practices.

  5. The prevalence of specific dental anomalies in a group of Saudi cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kharboush, Ghada H; Al-Balkhi, Khalid M; Al-Moammar, Khalid

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and distribution of dental anomalies in a group of Saudi subjects with cleft lip and palate (CLP), to examine potential sex-based associations of these anomalies, and to compare dental anomalies in Saudi subjects with CLP with published data from other population groups. This retrospective study involved the examination of pre-treatment records obtained from three CLP centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in February and March 2010. The pre-treatment records of 184 subjects with cleft lip and palate were identified and included in this study. Pre-treatment maxillary occlusal radiographs of the cleft region, panoramic radiographs, and orthodontic study models of subjects with CLP were analyzed for dental anomalies. Orthopantomographs and occlusal radiographs may not be reliable for the accurate evaluation of root malformation anomalies. A total of 265 dental anomalies were observed in the 184 study subjects. Hypodontia was observed most commonly (66.8%), followed by microdontia (45.6%), intra-oral ectopic eruption (12.5%), supernumerary teeth (12.5%), intra-nasal ectopic eruption (3.2), and macrodontia (3.2%). No gender difference in the prevalence of these anomalies was observed. Dental anomalies were common in Saudi subjects with CLP type. This will complicate the health care required for the CL/P subjects. This study was conducted to epidemiologically explore the prevalence of dental anomalies among Saudi Arabian subjects with CLP.

  6. A comprehensive review of the prevalence of beta globin gene variations and the co-inheritance of related gene variants in Saudi Arabians with beta-thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaithan, Mousa A.; AbdulAzeez, Sayed; Borgio, J. Francis

    2018-01-01

    Beta-thalassemia is a genetic disorder that is caused by variations in the beta-hemoglobin (HBB) gene. Saudi Arabia is among the countries most affected by beta-thalassemia, and this is particularly problematic in the Eastern regions. This review article is an attempt to compile all the reported mutations to facilitate further national-level studies to prepare a Saudi repository of HBB gene variations. In Saudi Arabians, IVSI-5 (G>C) and Cd 39 (C>T) are the most prevalent HBB gene variations out of 42 variations. The coinheritance of HBB gene variations with ATRX, HBA1, HBA2, HBA12, AHSP, and KLF1 gene variations were observed to be common in the Saudi population. National surveys on the molecular nature of hemoglobinopathies should be set up through collaborations between research centers from various regions to create a well-documented molecular data bank. This data bank can be used to develop a premarital screening program and lead to the best treatment and prevention strategies for beta-thalassemia. PMID:29619482

  7. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy by Brazilian geographic regions: findings from the National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Souza Júnior, Paulo Roberto Borges de; Marques, Aline Pinto; Almeida, Wanessa da Silva de; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero

    2016-11-17

    The demographic shift and epidemiologic transition in Brazil have drawn attention to ways of measuring population health that complement studies of mortality. In this paper, we investigate regional differences in healthy life expectancy based on information from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013. In the survey, a three-stage cluster sampling (census tracts, households and individuals) with stratification of the primary sampling units and random selection in all stages was used to select 60,202 Brazilian adults (18 years and over). Healthy life expectancies (HLE) were estimated by Sullivan's method according to sex, age and geographic region, using poor self-rated health for defining unhealthy status. Logistic regression models were used to investigate socioeconomic and regional inequalities in poor self-rated health, after controlling by sex and age. Wide disparities by geographic region were found with the worst indicators in the North and Northeast regions, whether considering educational attainment, material deprivation, or health care utilization. Life expectancy at birth for women and men living in the richest regions was 5 years longer than for those living in the less wealthy regions. Modeling the variation across regions for poor self-rated health, statistically significant effects (p < 0.001) were found for the North and Northeast when compared to the Southeast, even after controlling for age, sex, diagnosis of at least one non-communicable chronic disease, and schooling or socioeconomic class. Marked regional inequalities in HLE were found, with the loss of healthy life much higher among residents of the poorest regions, especially among the elderly. By combining data on self-rated health status and mortality in a single indicator, Healthy Life Expectancy, this study demonstrated the excess burden of poor health experienced by populations in the less wealthy regions of Brazil. To mitigate the effects of social exclusion, the development of strategies

  8. Lucerne transient streak virus; a Recently Detected Virus Infecting Alfafa (Medicago sativa in Central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Raza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1–97.6% and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8–97.1%. Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum, Nicotiana occidentalis, Chenopodium glaucum, and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it.

  9. Negative Symptom Dimensions of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Across Geographical Regions: Implications for Social, Linguistic, and Cultural Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anzalee; Liharska, Lora; Harvey, Philip D; Atkins, Alexandra; Ulshen, Daniel; Keefe, Richard S E

    2017-12-01

    Objective: Recognizing the discrete dimensions that underlie negative symptoms in schizophrenia and how these dimensions are understood across localities might result in better understanding and treatment of these symptoms. To this end, the objectives of this study were to 1) identify the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom dimensions of expressive deficits and experiential deficits and 2) analyze performance on these dimensions over 15 geographical regions to determine whether the items defining them manifest similar reliability across these regions. Design: Data were obtained for the baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale visits of 6,889 subjects across 15 geographical regions. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether a two-factor negative symptom structure that is found in schizophrenia (experiential deficits and expressive deficits) would be replicated in our sample, and using differential item functioning, we tested the degree to which specific items from each negative symptom subfactor performed across geographical regions in comparison with the United States. Results: The two-factor negative symptom solution was replicated in this sample. Most geographical regions showed moderate-to-large differential item functioning for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale expressive deficit items, especially N3 Poor Rapport, as compared with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale experiential deficit items, showing that these items might be interpreted or scored differently in different regions. Across countries, except for India, the differential item functioning values did not favor raters in the United States. Conclusion: These results suggest that the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom factor can be better represented by a two-factor model than by a single-factor model. Additionally, the results show significant differences in responses to items representing the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale expressive

  10. Attitude of Saudi Female Math Teachers toward Integrating E-Learning in Teaching Math at High Schools in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalawi, Aishah M.

    2013-01-01

    Leaders in government and education have launched an extensive program to reform general education in Saudi Arabia. This initiative was designed to achieve many goals with a major emphasis being the enhancement of the Saudi curriculum to take advantage of the use of technology to improve education. A goal of this project was for e-learning to be a…

  11. Development of Saudi e-health literacy scale for chronic diseases in Saudi Arabia: using integrated health literacy dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nasriah; AlFakhry, Ohoud; Matbuli, Abeer; Alzahrani, Asma; Arab, Noha Samir Sadiq; Madani, Alaa; Alshehri, Noura; Albarrak, Ahmed I

    2018-05-01

    Health literacy has become a global issue, and it is important that patients and individuals are able to use information technology to access health information and educational services. The research objective is to develop a Saudi e-health literacy scale (SeHL) for measuring e-health literacy among Saudis suffering from non-communicable diseases (NCD). Overall, 14 relevant papers in related interdisciplinary fields were reviewed to select the most useful literacy dimensions. From these articles, we extracted the most common dimensions used to measure e-health literacy across the disciplines. Multiple workshops with multidisciplinary team members reviewed and evaluated items for SeHL. Four key aspects of e-health literacy-use of technology/media, information-seeking, usefulness and confidence-were identified and integrated as e-health literacy dimensions. These will be used to measure e-health literacy among Saudi patients with NCDs. A translation from Arabic to English was performed in order to ensure that translation process was accurate. A SeHL scale was developed to measure e-health literacy among Saudi patients. By understanding e-health literacy levels, we will be able to create a patient-education system to be used by patients in Saudi Arabia. As information technology is increasingly used by people of all ages all over the world, e-health literacy has been identified as a key factor in determining health outcomes. To date, no comprehensive scale exists to assess e-health literacy levels among speakers of Arabic, particularly among people with NCD such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and hypertension.

  12. Differences in healthy life expectancy for the US population by sex, race/ethnicity and geographic region: 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Man-Huei; Molla, Michael T; Truman, Benedict I; Athar, Heba; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Yoon, Paula W

    2015-09-01

    Healthy life expectancy (HLE) varies among demographic segments of the US population and by geography. To quantify that variation, we estimated the national and regional HLE for the US population by sex, race/ethnicity and geographic region in 2008. National HLEs were calculated using the published 2008 life table and the self-reported health status data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Regional HLEs were calculated using the combined 2007-09 mortality, population and NHIS health status data. In 2008, HLE in the USA varied significantly by sex, race/ethnicity and geographical regions. At 25 years of age, HLE for females was 47.3 years and ∼2.9 years greater than that for males at 44.4 years. HLE for non-Hispanic white adults was 2.6 years greater than that for Hispanic adults and 7.8 years greater than that for non-Hispanic black adults. By region, the Northeast had the longest HLE and the South had the shortest. The HLE estimates in this report can be used to monitor trends in the health of populations, compare estimates across populations and identify health inequalities that require attention. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Pattern of glomerular disease in the Saudi population: A single-center, five-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nawaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomerular diseases continue to be the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD globally. Hence, it is important to recognize the pattern of glomerular diseases in different geographical areas in order to understand the patho-biology, incidence and progression of the disorder. Published studies from different centers in Saudi Arabia have reported contradicting results. In this retrospective study, we report our experience at the Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 348 native renal biopsies performed at our center on patients with proteinuria >1 g, hematuria and/or renal impairment during a period of 5 years (between January 2005 and December 2009 were studied by a histopathologist using light microscopy, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, and were categorized. Results showed that primary glomerular disease accounted for 55.1% of all renal biopsies. The most common histological lesion was focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (27.6%, followed by minimal change disease (MCD (17.7% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (13.0%. Secondary glomerular disease accounted for 37.9% of the glomerular diseases, with lupus nephritis (LN being the most common lesion (54.5%, followed by hypertensive nephrosclerosis (22%, post-infectious glomerulonephritis (7.5%, diabetic nephropathy (DN (6.8% and vasculitides (4.5%. Four percent of all biopsies turned out to be ESRD while biopsy was inadequate in 2.8% of the cases. In conclusion, our study showed that FSGS was the most common primary GN encountered, while LN was the most common secondary GN. We encountered 14 cases of crescentic glomerulonephritis. Also, the prevalence of MPGN, MCD, IgA nephropathy and membranous GN was many folds higher in males when compared with the Western data. We believe that it is mandatory to maintain a Saudi Arabian Renal Biopsy Registry to understand better the pattern of glomerular disease in the Saudi population and to follow

  14. The merger of commercial companies in the Saudi Arabian Stock Exchange (Tadawul) and its impact on the rights of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the Saudi system

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Saeed Alshamrani

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on the rights of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Saudi Arabia when a merger occurs between two or more commercial companies in the Saudi Arabian Stock Exchange (Tadawul). This article aims to give a comprehensive and critical review of the new Saudi Arabia Companies Law 2015 and also the Foreign Investment Law 2000, and the extent to which these laws provide protection for foreign investors in Saudi Arabia. The article is divided into eight sections, as follows. The first...

  15. Adult testicular cancer: Two decades of Saudi national data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abomelha, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding testicular cancer among Saudis as well as the nonexistent of published national data. Furthermore, a substantial increase of the incidence of testicular cancer among Saudis was lately noted. The aim of the study is to determine the trends and patterns of testicular cancer among adult Saudis using national data over a period of 20 years. The national database of the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) on testicular cancer over the last two decades was studied including epidemiological and histological patterns. The 1004 cases of testicular cancer among adult Saudis reported by the SCR will be the subject of this study. From 1994 to 2013, 1004 cases of testicular cancer among adult Saudis were reported to the SCR, with a steadily significant increase in incidence rate reaching an annual rate of 94 cases in 2013. Age of the patients ranged 15-93 years with a mean of 34.5 years. The most affected age group was 20-34 years, where 51% of all testicular cancer accumulated. Around 85% of testicular cancer is germ cell tumors, while paratesticular and gonadal stromal tumors represent 15%. Of all testicular cancer, seminomas were seen in 40.7%, nonseminomas in 44.6%. Notably, 70.4% of the cases in the first decade were seminomas, while in the second decade 65.9% of the cases were nonseminomas. The subtypes of the nonseminomas were a mixed tumor in 51.6%, embryonal carcinoma in 19.9%, yolk sac tumor in 12.3%, germinomas in 6.7%, teratomas in 6%, and choriocarcinomas in 3.6%. Lymphomas (34.7%) and rhabdomyosarcomas (23.6%) are on the top of the paratesticular tumor group. The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results summary stage of seminomas was localized in 61.6%, regional in 19.8%, and distant in 12.6%, while of nonseminomas was 48%, 15.5%, and 28.5%, respectively. Localized and distant status of seminomas improved over the studied period by 12% and 4% respectively, while this trend was not seen in nonseminomas. The incidence rate is on rising

  16. Noninsulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia syndrome in a Saudi male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karawagh, Abullah M.; Gasim, Abdelhamid M.; Abdelaziz, Muntasir M.; Abdullah, Layla S.

    2008-01-01

    Nesidioblastosis is focal or diffuse islet hyperplasia leading tohyperinsulinism with subsequent hypoglycemia in the absence of insulinoma,usually described in neonates and infancy. We described the first adult caseof nesidioblastosis in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. The diagnosis andtreatment of the condition can be very difficult and challenging. Despite thefact that our patient responded initially to surgical treatment, hishypoglycemic symptoms occasionally recurred and needed adjunctive medicaltreatment. Although initially thought to affect only infants and children,cases of nesidioblastosis can effect adults and pose a diagnostic andtherapeutic challenge to the clinicians. (author)

  17. Geographic region: Does it matter in cutaneous melanoma of the head and neck?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Suat; Unsal, Aykut A; Chung, Sei Y; Samarrai, Ruwaa; Kılıç, Sarah S; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2017-12-01

    The head and neck are two of the most common locations for cutaneous melanoma. We present the first population-based analysis of geographic differences in anatomic subsite, clinicopathologic and demographical traits, histopathologic subtype, treatment modality, and disease-specific survival (DSS) of cutaneous head and neck melanoma (CHNM). Retrospective database analysis. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for cases of CHNM reported between 2000 and 2013. Patients were grouped into East, Midwest, South, and West regions of the United States. Overall incidence, demographic traits, primary tumor site, clinicopathologic traits, histopathologic subtype, treatment modality, and DSS were compared among regions. There were 49,365 patients with CHNM identified. The West (4.60) and the South (4.42) had significantly higher incidence (per 100,000) than the East (3.84) and Midwest (3.65) (P regions (P region may play a significant role in CHNM. Incidence is higher in the South and the West. Incidence, histologic subtype, treatment modality, and DSS vary among regions. DSS is lower in the South than the West, even after accounting for other major prognostic factors. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2763-2769, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. eHealth in Saudi Arabia: Current Trends, Challenges and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulame, Khaled; Khalifa, Mohamed; Househ, Mowafa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the current status of eHealth in Saudi Arabia from the perspective of health informatics professionals. We used a case study approach and analyzed participant data using thematic analysis. The study took place between July and August 2013. Data collection included interviews with nine senior health information professionals in Saudi Arabia. The findings describe participant views on current eHealth trends in Saudi Arabia and show differences among Saudi healthcare organizations in terms of eHealth adoption. Participants also describe the challenges relating to organizational and cultural issues, end user attitudes towards eHealth projects, and the lack of specialized human resources to implement eHealth systems. Two main recommendations made by the participants were to form a new national body for eHealth and to develop a unified plan for the implementation of Saudi eHealth initiatives.

  19. Environmental education in Saudi general environment system - an engineering perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulrahman Salih Hariri

    2006-01-01

    The Saudi Cabinet of Ministers approved the Saudi General Environment System (SGES) in 2001. This approval is considered a step forward towards preserving the environment in Saudi Arabia. One of the targets of this system is to make environmental planning as an un-replaceable part of every comprehensive development planning in all industrial, agricultural, and architectural sectors. Achieving such a target requires a specialized labor force. Therefore, College of Engineering should act positively and actively in disseminating environmental awareness among engineers since they play a major rule in development projects. A degree in environmental engineering is a must at present, which is not available yet at any university in Saudi Arabia. Details of a B. Sc degree in environmental engineering offered by two universities in USA, are discussed. The syllabus of a degree in environment engineering adapted for the Saudi environment and culture is outlined

  20. Clinicopathological patterns and distribution of Schistosomiasis in Asir Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morad, N A; Khan, A R

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study is to report, for the first time, the histopathologic pattern of Schistosomiasis from the Asir Region and to compare it to patterns reported from other regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Several studies have reported the patterns of Schistosomiasis in other regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and other countries where Schistosomiasis is endemic. Schistosomiasis is endemic in certain areas of Asir region, however no data is available concerning the clinicopathological pattern of Schistosomiasis in the Asir Region. This is a retrospective analysis of 217 cases of Schistosomiasis from surgical and biopsy files of Asir Central Hospital during a period from January 1990 to October 1999. Our study revealed that Schistosomiasis was more common among the expatriate population of Asir Region than Saudi nationals residing in this area. The urinary tract was most commonly involved, and then in descending frequency came the vermiform appendix, liver and large bowel. These findings are somewhat different from those observed in the Riyadh Region where the vermiform appendix was the most commonly affected organ. Based on the histopathologic pattern, our study describes the pattern of Schistosomiasis in the Asir Region and may serve as a base-line for future research work.

  1. Toward a Constructivist Approach in Saudi Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulami, Sumayyah

    2016-01-01

    In the way to develop the educational system in Saudi Arabia, the emphasis was only on the materials with no more attention for the role of the learner and the teacher in the learning process or even the external factors around them. However, there are many theories and approaches that may help the Saudi students in different levels to understand…

  2. Sustainable Energy Development in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Belloumi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to study the role of energy consumption in economic growth in Saudi Arabia over the period of 1971–2012 using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL cointegration procedure, and based on neoclassical growth, endogenous growth, and ecological-economics viewpoints. Our empirical results show the existence of a cointegrating relationship between the different variables investigated. In addition, all the inputs (conventional and non-conventional Granger cause economic growth in both the short and long runs. Our findings confirm the energy-led growth hypothesis in the case of Saudi Arabia. Hence, energy conservation policies may deteriorate economic growth in Saudi Arabia if they are not followed by measures that improve energy efficiency, energy saving technologies and encourage the investment and use of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energies that can participate in the attenuation of climate changes.

  3. Copy number variations in Saudi family with intellectual disability and epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad I. Naseer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epilepsy is genetically complex but common brain disorder of the world affecting millions of people with almost of all age groups. Novel Copy number variations (CNVs are considered as important reason for the numerous neurodevelopmental disorders along with intellectual disability and epilepsy. DNA array based studies contribute to explain a more severe clinical presentation of the disease but interoperation of many detected CNVs are still challenging. Results In order to study novel CNVs with epilepsy related genes in Saudi family with six affected and two normal individuals with several forms of epileptic seizures, intellectual disability (ID, and minor dysmorphism, we performed the high density whole genome Agilent sure print G3 Hmn CGH 2x 400 K array-CGH chips analysis. Our results showed de novo deletions, duplications and deletion plus duplication on differential chromosomal regions in the affected individuals that were not shown in the normal fathe and normal kids by using Agilent CytoGenomics 3.0.6.6 softwear. Copy number gain were observed in the chromosome 1, 16 and 22 with LCE3C, HPR, GSTT2, GSTTP2, DDT and DDTL genes respectively whereas the deletions observed in the chromosomal regions 8p23-p21 (4303127–4337759 and the potential gene in this region is CSMD1 (OMIM: 612279. Moreover, the array CGH results deletions and duplication were also validated by using primer design of deleted regions utilizing the flanked SNPs using simple PCR and also by using quantitative real time PCR. Conclusions We found some of the de novo deletions and duplication in our study in Saudi family with intellectual disability and epilepsy. Our results suggest that array-CGH should be used as a first line of genetic test for epilepsy except there is a strong indication for a monogenic syndrome. The advanced high through put array-CGH technique used in this study aim to collect the data base and to identify new mechanisms describing

  4. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M; Hassan, Loutfy M; Galal, Tarek M; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-04-01

    Hail Flora by some foreign weeds such as Solanum nigrum, Lactuca serriola and Amaranthus lividus. The presence of these weeds points out the need to monitor the vegetation change in Hail region, and also other regions of Saudi Arabia, in order to elucidate the human impact on the wild plants diversity as human activities change with the fast development in the kingdom.

  5. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M.; Hassan, Loutfy M.; Galal, Tarek M.; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-01-01

    of Hail Flora by some foreign weeds such as Solanum nigrum, Lactuca serriola and Amaranthus lividus. The presence of these weeds points out the need to monitor the vegetation change in Hail region, and also other regions of Saudi Arabia, in order to elucidate the human impact on the wild plants diversity as human activities change with the fast development in the kingdom. PMID:23961067

  6. Wither Saudi Arabia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren

    2018-01-01

    The article examines the foundational elements of the Saudi state: idea, governing institutions and physical basis. The author notes, that its supra-national ideas will be challenged by on-going reforms without attenuating tensions with its Shia minority population. Governing institutions of it...

  7. Potential for the international spread of middle East respiratory syndrome in association with mass gatherings in saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamran; Sears, Jennifer; Hu, Vivian Wei; Brownstein, John S; Hay, Simon; Kossowsky, David; Eckhardt, Rose; Chim, Tina; Berry, Isha; Bogoch, Isaac; Cetron, Martin

    2013-07-17

    A novel coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causing severe, life-threatening respiratory disease has emerged in the Middle East at a time when two international mass gatherings in Saudi Arabia are imminent. While MERS-CoV has already spread to and within other countries, these mass gatherings could further amplify and/or accelerate its international dissemination, especially since the origins and geographic source of the virus remain poorly understood. We analyzed 2012 worldwide flight itinerary data and historic Hajj pilgrim data to predict population movements out of Saudi Arabia and the broader Middle East to help cities and countries assess their potential for MERS-CoV importation. We compared the magnitude of travel to countries with their World Bank economic status and per capita healthcare expenditures as surrogate markers of their capacity for timely detection of imported MERS-CoV and their ability to mount an effective public health response. 16.8 million travelers flew on commercial flights out of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates between June and November 2012, of which 51.6% were destined for India (16.3%), Egypt (10.4%), Pakistan (7.8%), the United Kingdom (4.3%), Kuwait (3.6%), Bangladesh (3.1%), Iran (3.1%) and Bahrain (2.9%). Among the 1.74 million foreign pilgrims who performed the Hajj last year, an estimated 65.1% originated from low and lower-middle income countries. MERS-CoV is an emerging pathogen with pandemic potential with its apparent epicenter in Saudi Arabia, where millions of pilgrims will imminently congregate for two international mass gatherings. Understanding global population movements out of the Middle East through the end of this year's Hajj could help direct anticipatory MERS-CoV surveillance and public health preparedness to mitigate its potential global health and economic impacts.

  8. Job Satisfaction and Pay Satisfaction Levels of University Faculty by Discipline Type and by Geographic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, David E.; Honoree, Andre L.

    2004-01-01

    This study surveyed approximately 500 faculty across different disciplines from over 100 four- year colleges and universities in the U.S. The primary purpose of the study was to provide some empirical data on the general job satisfaction and pay satisfaction levels of faculty by type of academic discipline and by geographic region. The possible…

  9. Prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis in a Saudi adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, Majdy M.; Azzeghaiby, Saleh N.; Hammad, Mohammad M.; Kujan, Omar B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis among a Saudi adult population in Riyadh region. Methods: Three hundred and eighty-five eligible participants in this cross-sectional study were recruited from routine dental patients attending the oral diagnosis clinic at Al-Farabi College in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from June 2013 to December 2013. A clinical examination was performed by 2 dentists to measure the gingival and plaque indices of Löe and Silness for each participant. Results: The prevalence of gingivitis was 100% among adult subjects aged between 18-40 years old. Moreover, the mean gingival index was 1.68±0.31, which indicates a moderate gingival inflammation. In fact, males showed more severe signs of gingival inflammation compared with females (p=0.001). In addition, the mean plaque index was 0.875±0.49, which indicates a good plaque status of the participants. Interestingly, the age was not related either to the gingival inflammation (p=0.13), or to the amount of plaque accumulation (p=0.17). However, males were more affected than females (p=0.005). Conclusion: The results of this study show that plaque accumulation is strongly associated with high prevalence of moderate to severe gingivitis among Saudi subjects. PMID:25399215

  10. Economic Models of OPEC Behaviour and the Role of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Nourah A. Al-Yousef

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies of OPEC have suggested ways of explaining the behaviour of OPEC as a group. The specific role of Saudi Arabia in the market and within OPEC has received attention from some authors. This study analyses the role of Saudi Arabia in these models and tries to find how much they explain the role of Saudi Arabia in the period from 1973 to the present. Models of OPEC behaviour are divided into four sets. The first set of models does not address the role of Saudi Arabia; they include...

  11. The Current State and Historico-geographical Background of Mt. Chirisan Region Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the historico-geographical background and current state of immigrants in the area designated as the “Mt. Chirisan Region,” their characteristics, and related integration issues. This article defines the Mt. Chirisan Region as the 7 cities/kuns of Namwŏn-si, Changsu-kun, Koksŏng-kun, Kurye-kun, Hadong-kun, Sanchŏng-kun, and Hamyang-kun. As the Mt. Chirisan Region mainly consists of mountainous and agricultural areas, the immigrant induction effect socio-economically was low relative to urban and industrial areas. It was also noted that, as the percentage of marriage immigration in Mt. Chirisan was high relative to urban or industrial areas, the female foreigner ratio was higher than that of male foreigners. In regard to the home countries of immigrants, women from South-East Asia and North-East Asia accounted for the majority. Also, this article examines the current situation of support programs of 7 local Multicultural Family Support Centers in the Mt. Chirisan Region, their problems, and probably solutions. Based on the historical development of the region and recent social changes, our society and government need to actively develop a higher level of social integration and employment education support programs, and carry out policies that will protect the diverse cultural identities of immigrants. In addition, differentiated multicultural family support programs appropriate for Mt. Chirisan, an inland mountain region, need to be developed.

  12. Saudi Science Teachers' Views and Teaching Strategies of Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Aziz S.

    Scientific developments such as cloning and nuclear energy have generated many controversial issues pertain to many political, social, environmental, ethical and cultural values in different societies around the globe. These controversies delimited and encircled the potential of including and teaching some important aspects of science in schools and therefore caused less consideration to the influence of these issues on enhancing the scientific literacy of people in general. The purpose of this study was to investigate how Saudi science teachers in the city of Tabuk in Saudi Arabia view and teach SSI in Saudi Arabia. This study employed semi-structured interviews with Saudi science teachers. Methodologically, this study used a constructivist grounded theory as a method for analysis to generate in-depth descriptive data about Saudi science teachers' views and teaching strategies of socio-scientific issues. Some direct and indirect benefits pertain to teaching science, understanding the relationship between science, religion, and society and some other topics are discussed in this study.

  13. Saudi Arabia: persistent but tenable deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    In this article is described the economic situation of Saudi Arabia. In a first time, Saudi Arabia drew from external reserves to finance gulf war and covered its budget deficits, then the internal debts took over. The actual strategy in order to transfer from state to private national and foreign sector a great part of new projects financing is become a necessity to control the deficits in a country where state is strongly got in debt. (N.C.). 2 tabs

  14. Factors unflinching e-commerce adoption by retailers in Saudi Arabia: Qual Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    AlGhamdi, Rayed; Drew, Steve; Al-Ghaith, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary findings of a study researching the diffusion and the adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. It reports new research that identifies and explores the key issues that positively and negatively influence retailers in Saudi Arabia regarding the adoption of electronic commerce. Retailers in Saudi Arabia have been reserved in their adoption of electronically delivered aspects of their business. Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastes...

  15. Trends in child immunization across geographical regions in India: focus on urban-rural and gender differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Although child immunization is regarded as a highly cost-effective lifesaver, about fifty percent of the eligible children aged 12-23 months in India are without essential immunization coverage. Despite several programmatic initiatives, urban-rural and gender difference in child immunization pose an intimidating challenge to India's public health agenda. This study assesses the urban-rural and gender difference in child immunization coverage during 1992-2006 across six major geographical regions in India. Three rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2005-06 were analyzed. Bivariate analyses, urban-rural and gender inequality ratios, and the multivariate-pooled logistic regression model were applied to examine the trends and patterns of inequalities over time. The analysis of change over one and half decades (1992-2006) shows considerable variations in child immunization coverage across six geographical regions in India. Despite a decline in urban-rural and gender differences over time, children residing in rural areas and girls remained disadvantaged. Moreover, northeast, west and south regions, which had the lowest gender inequality in 1992 observed an increase in gender difference over time. Similarly, urban-rural inequality increased in the west region during 1992-2006. This study suggests periodic evaluation of the health care system is vital to assess the between and within group difference beyond average improvement. It is essential to integrate strong immunization systems with broad health systems and coordinate with other primary health care delivery programs to augment immunization coverage.

  16. Noteworthy: oil markets: Saudis abandon WTI price as benchmark

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson Thies

    2010-01-01

    Saudi Arabia's state-owned oil company no longer uses West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil as its pricing benchmark. Saudi Aramco, the third largest U.S. oil supplier, switched to the Argus Sour Crude Index (ASCI) in January.

  17. Nurse turnover in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falatah, Rawaih; Salem, Olfat A

    2018-04-06

    To appraise and synthesise existing literature on nurse turnover in the Saudi Arabian context. Saudi Arabia is notably one of the nations with a health care system that is bombarded by high rates of turnover and turnover intention. Moreover, rapid population growth and the expansion of the health care system increase the demand on registered nurses in the kingdom. Eleven primary sources were reviewed using Whittemore and Knafl's (Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2005; 52, 546-553) integrative review method. There is variation in the reported turnover rates across the studies. The identified determinants of nurse turnover in the Saudi Arabian context included nurses' demographics, satisfaction, leadership and management, and job-related factors. There is a need for more studies that focus on the cost and outcome of nurse turnover and turnover intention in the Saudi Arabian context. The review highlights the alarming rates of nurse turnover and its determinants in Saudi Arabia. Nurse managers in Saudi Arabia should consider this information, as they make daily assignments. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Sustainability Assessment of Higher Education Institutions in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib M. Alshuwaikhat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Universities are paramount change drivers in bringing about a culture of sustainability in society by setting themselves up as models and nurseries for sustainable development. Thus, assessment of sustainability integration within universities is key to their impact on sustainable development. This study conducted an assessment of different public sector universities of Saudi Arabia based on five components: (i Teaching and Curriculum; (ii Research and Scholarship; (iii Campus Operations; (iv Management and Community; and (v Financial Management. The sustainability assessment questionnaire (SAQ was utilized as a tool to discern the component-wise sustainability assessment for Saudi universities. The outcomes of the survey reveal that, in stark contrast with the universities of the developed world, offerings of sustainability relevant academic courses in Saudi Arabia are still lacking. Most Saudi universities still need to integrate research and scholarship in the area of sustainability; sustainable-campus operations in the current scenario are not sufficient. The results also reveal that sustainability-related projects are not prioritized within universities and sustainable financial management practices are not significant. This article concludes by proposing some recommendations emphasizing the importance of adopting sustainability practices in Saudi universities.

  19. Object-based landslide detection in different geographic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Barbara; Hölbling, Daniel; Eisank, Clemens; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    , SPOT-5 images are combined with digital elevation models (DEM) for developing a consistent semi-automated landslide detection approach using eCognition (Trimble) software. Suitable image objects are generated by means of multiresolution segmentation. Expert knowledge, i.e. reported facts on features (e.g. mean object slope, mean NDVI) and thresholds that are commonly chosen by professionals for digital landslide mapping, is considered during classification. The applicability of a range of features is tested and the most promising parameters, i.e. features that produce appropriate results for both regions, are selected for landslide detection. However, minor adaptations of particular thresholds are necessary due to the distinct environmental conditions of the test sites. In order to reduce the number of required adjustments to a minimum, relational features and spectral indices are primarily used for classification. The obtained results are finally compared to manually digitized reference polygons and existing landslide inventories in order to quantify the applicability of the developed object-based landslide detection approach in different geographic regions.

  20. Pharmacy education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A

    2006-02-15

    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs. In this report we describe pharmacy education in 3 Middle East countries: Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. All 3 countries offer bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) degrees. In addition, 2 universities in Jordan and 1 in Saudi Arabia offer PharmD degree programs. The teaching methods in all 3 countries combine traditional didactic lecturing and problem-based learning. Faculties of pharmacy in all 3 countries are well staffed and offer competitive remuneration. All 3 countries have a policy of providing scholarships to local students for postgraduate training abroad. The majority of students in Jordan and Kuwait are female, while the ratio of male to female students in Saudi Arabia is even. Students' attitudes towards learning are generally positive in all 3 countries. In Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, most pharmacy graduates work in the public sector, while in Jordan, the majority work in the private sector.

  1. Clinical, Endocrine, and Molecular Genetic Analysis of a Large Cohort of Saudi Arabian Patients with Laron Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ashwal, Abdullah A; Al-Sagheir, Afaf; Ramzan, Khushnooda; Al-Owain, Mohammed; Allam, Rabab; Qari, Alya; Al-Numair, Nouf S; Imtiaz, Faiqa

    2017-01-01

    Laron syndrome (LS) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by marked short stature and very low serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. This study assessed the clinical and endocrine features alongside determining the growth hormone receptor gene (GHR) mutation in Saudi Arabian patients with LS in order to establish whether or not a genotype/phenotype correlation is evident in this large cohort. A total of 40 Saudi Arabian patients with a suspected diagnosis of LS were recruited and subjected to a full clinical and endocrine investigation together with direct sequencing of the coding regions of the GHR gene. GHR mutations were identified in 34 patients from 22 separate nuclear families. All 34 molecularly confirmed patients had the typical clinical and endocrinological manifestations of LS. Eleven different mutations (9 previously unreported) were detected in this cohort of patients, all inherited in an autosomal recessive homozygous form. No genotype/phenotype correlation was apparent. The identification of pathogenic mutations causing LS will be of tremendous use for the molecular diagnosis of patients in Saudi Arabia and the region in general, with respect to prevention of this disease in the forms of future carrier testing, prenatal testing, premarital screening and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

  3. Time for an Adolescent Health Surveillance System in Saudi Arabia: Findings From "Jeeluna".

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Tamim, Hani; Al Dubayee, Mohammad; AlDhukair, Shahla; Al Shehri, Sulieman; Tamimi, Waleed; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Magzoub, Mohi Eldin; de Vries, Nanne; Al Alwan, Ibrahim

    2015-09-01

    With the increasing burden of noncommunicable disease, adolescence is viewed as an opportune time to prevent the onset of certain behaviors and promote healthy states. Although adolescents comprise a considerable portion of Saudi Arabia's population, they have received insufficient attention and indicators of their health status, as a first step in a prevention cycle are unavailable. This study was carried out with the aim of identifying the health risk behaviors and health status of adolescents in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional, school-based study was carried out in all 13 regions of Saudi Arabia. Through multistage, cluster, random sampling, intermediate, and secondary school students were invited to participate. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire addressing health risk behaviors and health status, clinical anthropometric measurements, and laboratory investigations. A total of 12,575 adolescents participated. Various health risk behaviors, including dietary and sedentary behaviors, lack of safety measures, tobacco use, bullying, and violence were highly prevalent. Twenty-eight percent of adolescents reported having a chronic health condition, 14.3% reported having symptoms suggestive of depression, 30.0% were overweight/obese, and 95.6% were vitamin D deficient. Behaviors and conditions known to persist into adulthood and result in morbidity and premature mortality are prevalent among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. Preventive measures and local health policies are urgently needed and can impact adolescents and future adults. Establishing adolescent health surveillance is necessary to monitor trends and impacts of such measures. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pneumonia mortality trends in all Brazilian geographical regions between 1996 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire de Olanda Ferraz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the temporal trends in pneumonia mortality rates (standardized by age, using the 2010 population of Brazil as the standard in all Brazilian geographical regions between 1996 and 2012. Methods: This was an ecological time-series study examining secondary data from the Mortality Database maintained by the Information Technology Department of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System. Polynomial and joinpoint regression models, and corresponding 95% CIs, were used for trend analysis. Results: The pneumonia mortality rates in the South, Southeast, and Central-West showed a decreasing behavior until 2000, followed by increases, whereas, in the North and Northeast, they showed increasing trends virtually throughout the period studied. There was variation in annual percent change in pneumonia mortality rates in all regions except the North. The Central-West had the greatest decrease in annual percent change between 1996 and 2000, followed by an increase of the same magnitude until 2005. The 80 years and over age group was the one most influencing the trend behavior of pneumonia mortality rates in all regions. Conclusions: In general, pneumonia mortality trends reversed, with an important increase occurring in the years after 2000.

  5. KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE – AN INITIAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Alsultan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current Geographic Information System (Longley et al. implementation and status in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Based on the review, several problems were identified and discussed. The characteristic of these problems show that the country needs a national geospatial centre. As a new initiative for a national geospatial centre, a study is being conducted especially on best practice from other countries, availability of national committee for standards and policies on data sharing, and the best proposed organization structure inside the administration for the KSA. The study also covers the degree of readiness and awareness among the main GIS stakeholders within the country as well as private parties. At the end of this paper, strategic steps for the national geospatial management centre were proposed as the initial output of the study.

  6. The role of nuclear desalination in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljohani, M.S.; Abdul-Rahman A.F.; Almarshad, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the role of nuclear desalination in Saudi Arabia is investigated. A water demand forecast between the years 2000 and 2025 was established for the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia as part of the collected input data for the DEEP computer code. The DEEP computer code was run for several options of energy sources such as PWR (600 MWe), SPWR (160 MWth), PHWR (450 MWe), HR (200 MWth) and GT (125 MWe or 175 MWe). These energy sources were investigated for different desalination plants such as RO, MSF, MED and the hybrid MED-RO. The levelised power cost, average daily water production, net saleable power and levelised water cost are presented for all cases. Two scenarios were investigated, the first assumes no interest and discount rates and the second assumes interest and discount rates equal to 8%. The first scenario assumes that the water utility will continue under the control of the government and the second assumes that the water utility will be privatised. (author)

  7. Saudi Intermediate School EFL Teachers' Views in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia of the Multiple Intelligences Theory as an Inclusive Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentab, Mohammad Yousef

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the researcher attempted to shed light on Saudi intermediate school EFL teachers' views of the multiple intelligences theory as an inclusive pedagogy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of multiple intelligences on Saudi intermediate students' learning of EFL. The study also tried to illustrate the main…

  8. Video Games Promote Saudi Children's English Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShaiji, Ohoud Abdullatif

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Video Games and their role on promoting Saudi Kids' English vocabulary retention. The study attempted to answer whether there was a statistically significant difference (a = 0.05) between the Saudi children's subjects' mean score on the English vocabulary test due to using Video Games…

  9. Clinical profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Faifa-Gizan, South west province of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (A study of 140 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Raghu

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to know the age, sex distribution and clinical pattern of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in a remote hilly area, Faifa, Gizan situated in the South West region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. C L accounted for nearly 5% of the new outpatient attendance in the study period (1988-90 of 20 months. Out of the 140 new patients who formed the study group, 82 were males (58.57% and 58 females (41.43% in the age range of 9 months to 60 years. Ninety two patients were children (65.71% below 15 years. including 58 boys and 34 girls and CL is a major public health problem in children of this area. The fact that out of 140 affected individuals, 134 were local Saudis and 6 non-Saudis reveals the autochthonous nature of the disease in this region. The clinical spectrum included dry crusted ulcers, erythematous indurated plaques, nodules, papules, and oozing shallow ulcers. The lesions were distributed mostly on face and extremities. Response to pentostam (Sodium stibogluconate was highly satisfactory.

  10. Assessing the Organizational Characteristics Influencing Quality Improvement Implementation in Saudi Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin Alaraki, Mohammad

    The health care system in Saudi Arabia has serious problems with quality and safety that can be reduced through systematic quality improvement (QI) activities. Despite the use of different QI models to improve health care in Saudi hospitals during the last 2 decades, consistent improvements have not yet been achieved and the results are still far below expectations. This may reflect a problem in introducing and implementing the QI models in the local contexts. The objective of this study is to assess the extent of QI implementation in Saudi hospitals and to identify the organizational characteristics that make Saudi hospitals particularly challenging for QI. Understanding these characteristics can inform efforts to improve them and may lead to more successful implementation. A mixed-methods approach was conducted using 2 data collection tools: questionnaires and interviews. The quantitative phase (questionnaires) aimed to uncover the current level of QI implementation in Saudi hospital as measured by 7 critical dimensions adapted from the literature. The qualitative phase (interviews) aimed to understand the organizational characteristics that impede or underpin QI in Saudi hospitals. The QI implementation was found to be significantly poor across the 7 dimensions with average score ranging between 22.80 ± 0.57 and 2.11 ± 0.69 on a 5-point Likert scale and with P value of less than .05. We also found that the current level of QI implementation helped Saudi hospitals neither to improve "customer satisfaction" nor to achieve measurable improvements in "quality results" scoring significantly low at 2.11 ± 0.69 with P value of .000 and 2.47 ± 0.57 with P value of .000, respectively. Our study confirms the presence of a multitude of organizational barriers that impede QI in Saudi hospitals. These are related to organizational culture, human resources management, processes and systems, and structure. These 4 were found to have the strongest impact on QI in Saudi

  11. Career profile of dentists in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashri, Nahid Y; AlAjaji Norah; AlMozainy, Mayyadah; AlSourani, Rasha

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present survey were to determine whether differences existed between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia in career development, positions occupied within their employment, and to analyze the effect of different variables on their career development in some of the provinces in Saudi Arabia. A self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among male and female dentists, general practitioners as well as specialists, working at several governmental hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaires consisted of 40 questions in the format of multiple choices and yes/no answer. Data were analyzed by gender with the significant difference level set at (P < 0.05). The response rate was 40.8% of which 51.9% were females and 48.1% males with 70% of them below 45 years of age. No significant difference was found between males and females in having higher education or additional degrees. The specialty that was highly reported among females was pedodontics and in males, orthodontics. Males were more likely to hold authorized administrative positions (63%), while females held administrative positions which were internally arranged by their departments (57%). Eighty-three percent of female respondents thought that there was favouritism towards males in appointment to administrative positions, while only 5.5% of male respondents reported that there was favouritism to females in occupying the same positions. There was no significant difference between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia with respect to job opportunities, working hours and relationships with their colleagues. In addition, there is evidence of an intensifying determination of female dentists in Saudi Arabia, to pursue their chosen career while coping with the diverse demands of being a professional, a wife and mother. (author)

  12. Assessment of AOD variability over Saudi Arabia using MODIS Deep Blue products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, Mohsin Jamil; Assiri, Mazen Ebraheem; Ali, Md. Arfan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the variability of aerosol over The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. For this analysis, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue (DB) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) product from Terra and Aqua satellites for the years 2000–2013 is used. The product is validated using AERONET data from ground stations, which are situated at Solar Village Riyadh and King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Jeddah. The results show that both Terra and Aqua satellites exhibit a tendency to show the spatial variation of AOD with Aqua being better than Terra to represent the ground based AOD measurements over the study region. The results also show that the eastern, central, and southern regions of the country have a high concentration of AOD during the study period. The validation results show the highest correlation coefficient between Aqua and KAUST data with a value of 0.79, whilst the Aqua and Solar Village based AOD indicates the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) values which are, 0.17 and 0.12 respectively. Furthermore, the Relative Mean Bias (RMB) based analysis show that the DB algorithm overestimates the AOD when using Terra and Solar Village data, while it underestimates the AOD when using Aqua with Solar Village and KAUST data. The RMB value for Aqua and Solar Village data indicates that the DB algorithm is close to normal in the study region. - Highlights: • The significance of aerosol in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is addressed. • MODIS (Terra and Aqua), AERONET and ground based sand event data is used. • MODIS DB product is used to prepare annual aerosol maps and monthly AOD variability. • A comparison is made between Terra and Aqua AOD product over bright surface. • MODIS DB AOD product is validated using AERONET data at Solar Village and KAUST. - This research highlighted the aerosol variability over The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by using Satellite, AERONET

  13. Regional contamination versus regional dietary differences: Understanding geographic variation in brominated and chlorinated contaminant levels in polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, M.A.; Letcher, R.J.; Aars, Jon; Born, E.W.; Branigan, M.; Dietz, R.; Evans, T.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Muir, D.C.G.; Peacock, E.; Sonne, C.

    2011-01-01

    The relative contribution of regional contamination versus dietary differences to geographic variation in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) contaminant levels is unknown. Dietary variation between Alaska Canada, East Greenland, and Svalbard subpopulations was assessed by muscle nitrogen and carbon stable isotope (?? 15N, ?? 13C) and adipose fatty acid (FA) signatures relative to their main prey (ringed seals). Western and southern Hudson Bay signatures were characterized by depleted ?? 15N and ??13C, lower proportions of C20 and C22 monounsaturated FAs and higher proportions of C18 and longer chain polyunsaturated FAs. East Greenland and Svalbard signatures were reversed relative to Hudson Bay. Alaskan ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Cost containment: the Middle East. Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R W

    1994-08-01

    The 1970s and early 1980s saw the phenomenal growth and development of healthcare services in Saudi Arabia. This growth was unique in that it took place in a country that lacked basic infrastructure and trained personnel, but had recently acquired great wealth. Developments that took hundreds of years to occur in other countries took only 20 yrs to attain in Saudi Arabia. This growth posed unique challenges and required novel solutions. Recently, the country has had to cope with a drastic decrease in oil revenue, as well as cutbacks in healthcare funding. Now that the basic foundations of a national healthcare service have been constructed, it remains to be seen whether gains can be consolidated and steady progress made as more and more Saudi nationals take over and run their own public and private healthcare services.

  15. Patient’s medicinal knowledge in Saudi Arabia:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamir M. Alshammari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Patient education is one of the main factors of patient therapeutic plan and without it, the patient may not benefit from his/her medications. Several studies showed the effectiveness of educating patients about their disease(s and their medication(s which ultimately enhance their quality of life especially in chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Concept of patient education is well known and understood in the Western countries while in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia it is not well established despite some efforts made by few big hospitals. In Saudi Arabia, different stakeholders such as hospitals, pharmaceutical companies, healthcare professionals, health societies and association and governmental agencies do not do their job as patient education. Aim of this paper was to throw some light about the current situation in Saudi Arabia.

  16. The fungal community structure of barley malts from diverse geographical regions correlates with malt quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Bowman, John P; Stewart, Doug C; Evans, David E

    2015-12-23

    Malt is a preferred base for fermentations that produce beer or whisky. Barley for malt is grown under diverse environments in different geographical locations. Malt provides an ecological niche for a varied range of microorganisms with both positive and negative effects on its quality for brewing. Little information exists in the literature on the microbial community structure of Australian malt as well as broader global geographical differences in the associated fungal and bacterial communities. The aims of the present study were to compare the bacterial and fungal community structures of Australian commercial malt with its international counterparts originating from different geographical regions using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) fingerprinting and clone library analyses of ribosomal RNA genes. Further, the relationship between malt associated microbial communities and conventional malt quality parameters was also compared. Results showed that differences in fungal communities of malts from different geographical location were more pronounced than bacterial communities. TRFLP analysis discriminated high quality commercial malts with low fungal loads from malts deliberately infected with fungal inocula (Fusarium/Penicillium). Malt moisture, beta-amylase, α-amylase and limit dextrinase contents showed significant correlations with fungal community structure. This investigation concluded that fungal community structure was more important to subsequent malt quality outcomes than bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Saudi Arabia’s National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-27

    A-A236 930 The views a--pressed ina dis papaer an or of the aaadkoe and do not necessauily Welset the view of the Depaju nt of Defense or any of its...Bandar 0. Nahil Al Harbi 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT ( Year , Month, Day) 15. PAGE COUNT Individual FROM TO 1991 March 27...festival introduces to the Saudi generation the past history of their forefathers and the way they used to live. It also educates the Saudi youth about

  18. Leadership style and organisational commitment among nursing staff in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yami, Mansour; Galdas, Paul; Watson, Roger

    2018-03-23

    To examine how nurse managers' leadership styles, and nurses' organisational commitment in Saudi Arabia relate. Effective leadership is influential in staff retention; however, recruiting and maintaining nurses is an increasing problem in Saudi Arabia. Using a survey design, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and the Organisational Commitment Questionnaire were distributed to a sample of 219 nurses and nurse managers from two hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Transformational leadership was the most dominant leadership style. After controlling for the influence of manager/staff status, nationality and hospitals, transformational leadership was the strongest contributor to organisational commitment. Perceptions of both transformational and transactional leadership styles, increased with age for nurse managers and nursing staff. Introducing the Full Range of Leadership model to the Saudi nursing workforce could help to prepare Saudi nurses for positions as nurse managers and leaders. The study provides insight into the type of leadership that is best suited to the dynamic and changing health care system in Saudi Arabia. It is possible that transformational leaders could influence and induce positive changes in nursing. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    23, 2013. 6 Background information on Saudi cabinet members is available at http://www.saudiembassy.net/about/ Biographies - of-Ministers.aspx. Saudi...territories it occupied in 1967, (2) agree to the establishment of a Palestinian state with a capital in East Jerusalem , and provide for the (3) “[a...compromise on Palestinian sovereignty in Jerusalem .” Elhanan Miller, “Arab ministers back Abbas in rejecting ‘Jewish’ Israel,” Times of Israel, January

  20. Climatic controls of the interannual to decadal variability in Saudi Arabian dust activity: Towards the development of a seasonal prediction tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Notaro, M.; Liu, Z.; Alkolibi, F.; Fadda, E.; Bakhrjy, F.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric dust significantly influences the climate system, as well as human life in Saudi Arabia. Skillful seasonal prediction of dust activity with climatic variables will help prevent some negative social impacts of dust storms. Yet, the climatic regulators on Saudi Arabian dust activity remain largely unaddressed. Remote sensing and station observations show consistent seasonal cycles in Saudi Arabian dust activity, which peaks in spring and summer. The climatic controls on springtime and summertime Saudi Arabian dust activity during 1975-2010 are studied using observational and reanalysis data. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) of the observed Saudi Arabian dust storm frequency shows a dominant homogeneous pattern across the country, which has distinct interannual and decadal variations, as revealed by the power spectrum. Regression and correlation analyses reveal that Saudi Arabian dust activity is largely tied to precipitation on the Arabian Peninsula in spring and northwesterly (Shamal) wind in summer. On the seasonal-interannual time scale, warm El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase (El Niño) in winter-to-spring inhibits spring dust activity by increasing the precipitation over the Rub'al Khali Desert, a major dust source region on the southern Arabian Peninsula; warm ENSO and warm Indian Ocean Basin Mode (IOBM) in winter-to-spring favor less summer dust activity by producing anomalously low sea-level pressure over eastern north Africa and Arabian Peninsula, which leads to the reduced Shamal wind speed. The decadal variation in dust activity is likely associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), which impacts Sahel rainfall and North African dust, and likely dust transport to Saudi Arabia. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and tropical Indian Ocean SST also have influence on the decadal variation in Saudi Arabian dust activity, by altering precipitation over the Arabian Peninsula and summer Shamal wind speed. Using eastern

  1. Neurology Research in Saudi Arabia: Urgent call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algahtani, Hussein; Shirah, Bader; Boker, Faisal; Algamdi, Albaraa; Alkahtani, Abdulah

    2017-08-01

    Research activities in Saudi Arabia are promoted at the governmental and institutional levels. However, the output and quality of research conducted in the field of neurology has not yet been measured quantitatively. This study therefore aimed to analyse neurology-related publications from Saudi Arabia. This study was conducted in January 2016. A systematic search using the PubMed ® search engine (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA) was conducted to identify all neurology-related articles published from Saudi Arabia between January 1996 and December 2015. A total of 1,292 neurology-related publications were identified. Neurology research increased linearly with time, with most publications originating from Riyadh (67%) and the university sector (≈47%). However, most neurology-related articles were published in journals which had an impact factor of Saudi Arabia has increased substantially over the last 20 years. However, as most articles were published in low-impact journals, the quality of research remains inadequate and should be improved. It is important that an official research culture be established in both governmental and private universities as well as colleges and health institutions in Saudi Arabia. The formation of clinical academic departments staffed by research experts is recommended to ensure the quality of neurology research output.

  2. Level of Sedentary Behavior and Its Associated Factors among Saudi Women Working in Office-Based Jobs in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada M. Albawardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research in Saudi Arabia has revealed a shocking level of insufficiently physically active adults, particularly women. The risk of sedentary behavior will likely increase as the number of women with office-based jobs increases. The aim of this study is to determine the level of sedentary behavior, and its associated factors, among Saudi women working office-based jobs in the city of Riyadh. A cross-sectional study of 420 Saudi female employees at 8 office-based worksites were measured to determine body mass index and were given a self-administered survey to evaluate their level of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Median sitting time on work days was 690 min per day (interquartile range, IQR 541–870, with nearly half accumulated during work hours, and 575 min per day (IQR 360–780 on non-work days. Predictors of work day sitting time were level of education, number of children, and working in the private sector. Number of children, whether they were single, and whether they lived in a small home were found to predict non-work day sitting time. This study identifies Saudi women in office-based jobs as a high-risk group for sedentary behavior. There is a need to promote physical activity at worksites and reduce prolonged sitting.

  3. Level of Sedentary Behavior and Its Associated Factors among Saudi Women Working in Office-Based Jobs in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albawardi, Nada M; Jradi, Hoda; Almalki, Abdulla A; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2017-06-19

    Research in Saudi Arabia has revealed a shocking level of insufficiently physically active adults, particularly women. The risk of sedentary behavior will likely increase as the number of women with office-based jobs increases. The aim of this study is to determine the level of sedentary behavior, and its associated factors, among Saudi women working office-based jobs in the city of Riyadh. A cross-sectional study of 420 Saudi female employees at 8 office-based worksites were measured to determine body mass index and were given a self-administered survey to evaluate their level of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Median sitting time on work days was 690 min per day (interquartile range, IQR 541-870), with nearly half accumulated during work hours, and 575 min per day (IQR 360-780) on non-work days. Predictors of work day sitting time were level of education, number of children, and working in the private sector. Number of children, whether they were single, and whether they lived in a small home were found to predict non-work day sitting time. This study identifies Saudi women in office-based jobs as a high-risk group for sedentary behavior. There is a need to promote physical activity at worksites and reduce prolonged sitting.

  4. The Royal Saudi Air Force and Long-Term Saudi National Defense: A Strategic Vision

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al

    2002-01-01

    Technological advances employed in strategic offensive air operations during the Gulf War revolutionized war fighting in a desert environment and provides a basis for developing a new Saudi strategic...

  5. LEGAL INSTRUMENT FOR PROTECTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION PRODUCT IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almusawir Nansa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As an archipelago country, Indonesia comprises of a large territory where every region is capable of producing distinctive and characterized products due to its geographical, social, and cultural factors, in addition to its higher quality compared to imported products. In the market, goods with distinct characterization as a result of various geographical locations of production regions is known as Geographical Indication Products. Geographical Indication defines as a characterization that indicates the origin of a product, which includes several influencing factors such as geographical factor, natural factor, human factor or the combination of both factors which eventually contribute to establish a certain distinction and quality upon a product. Several geographical indicated products in Indonesia are widely known to have excellent reputation on the market, namely Delinese tobacco, Temanggung tobacco, Ciancur rice, Muntok white pepper, Lampung black pepper, Kerinci cinnamon, Cilembu cassava, Bandanese nutmeg, Proboliggo sweet mango, Balinese Kintamani coffee, Kalosi coffee, Papuan matoa, etc. Those are several richness of goods from certain regions in Indonesia widely known for their characterization. Characterization of goods are resulted by variation of geographic locations of producing regions in Indonesia. These goods possess high quality and high economic value. Consequently, certain instruments are required to provide protection upon the regions producing those goods against the act of counterfeiting.

  6. Trends in child immunization across geographical regions in India: focus on urban-rural and gender differentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Although child immunization is regarded as a highly cost-effective lifesaver, about fifty percent of the eligible children aged 12-23 months in India are without essential immunization coverage. Despite several programmatic initiatives, urban-rural and gender difference in child immunization pose an intimidating challenge to India's public health agenda. This study assesses the urban-rural and gender difference in child immunization coverage during 1992-2006 across six major geographical regions in India.Three rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2005-06 were analyzed. Bivariate analyses, urban-rural and gender inequality ratios, and the multivariate-pooled logistic regression model were applied to examine the trends and patterns of inequalities over time.The analysis of change over one and half decades (1992-2006 shows considerable variations in child immunization coverage across six geographical regions in India. Despite a decline in urban-rural and gender differences over time, children residing in rural areas and girls remained disadvantaged. Moreover, northeast, west and south regions, which had the lowest gender inequality in 1992 observed an increase in gender difference over time. Similarly, urban-rural inequality increased in the west region during 1992-2006.This study suggests periodic evaluation of the health care system is vital to assess the between and within group difference beyond average improvement. It is essential to integrate strong immunization systems with broad health systems and coordinate with other primary health care delivery programs to augment immunization coverage.

  7. Cylindropuntia rosea (DC. Backeb, (Cactaceae: a new generic alien record in the flora of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Asir Al-Robai

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cylindropuntia rosea (DC. Backeb. (Cactaceae is a cactus and invasive species native to Mexico. This is the first record of the genus in Saudi Arabia. The alien species was found near Jebel Hizna, Baljurashi region, southwestern Saudi Arabia. Information about the species' habitat, distribution, and morphological description and its illustration are presented. The presence of Cylindropuntia rosea increased the probability of finding other species belonging to the genus Cylindropuntia in the country. However, if this species gets established in different areas of the Kingdom, it could become a serious invasive plant that has negative impacts on livestock and human. Therefore, tracking and controlling the invasion of this species is recommended.

  8. Diabetes Mellitus in Saudi Arabia: A Review of the Recent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dawish, Mohamed Abdulaziz; Robert, Asirvatham Alwin; Braham, Rim; Al Hayek, Ayman Abdallah; Al Saeed, Abdulghani; Ahmed, Rania Ahmed; Al Sabaan, Fahad Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported that Saudi Arabia ranks the second highest in the Middle East, and is seventh in the world for the rate of diabetes. It is estimated that around 7 million of the population are diabetic and almost around 3 million have pre-diabetes. Even more worrying perhaps, is the increasing pattern of diabetes noted in Saudi Arabia in the recent past. In fact, diabetes has approximately registered a ten-fold increase in the past three eras in Saudi Arabia. Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been found to be related to high mortality, morbidity and vascular complications, accompanied by poor general health and lower quality of life. In Saudi Arabia, DM is quickly reaching disturbing proportions and becoming a significant cause of medical complications and even death. However, when compared with the developed countries, the research work conducted, focusing particularly on the incidence, prevalence and socio-demographic properties of DM is woefully inadequate. The health burden due to DM in Saudi Arabia is predicted to rise to catastrophic levels, unless a wide-ranging epidemic control program is incorporated, with great emphasis laid on advocating a healthy diet, including exercise and active lifestyles, and weight control. To properly manage the DM in Saudi Arabia, a multidisciplinary approach is required. In this review we discuss all the aspects of DM in Saudi Arabia drawing from the published literature currently available.

  9. Essays on oil and business cycles in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.

    This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia

  10. Asthma and other allergic diseases among Saudi schoolchildren in Najran: the need for a comprehensive intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Jobran M

    2016-01-01

    In the last three decades, an increasing incidence of allergic diseases has been associated with increasing morbidity and mortality in children and young adults. The study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with allergic diseases among Saudi schoolchildren in the southwestern Saudi region of Najran, and to determine the sensitization of patients to a set of allergens. Cross-sectional observational study. Primary, intermediate and secondary schools, Najran, Saudi Arabia. All participants completed the Arabic version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed, using a panel of standardized allergenic extracts. Prevalence and risk factors associated with pediatric allergic diseases. The study included 1700 Saudi schoolchildren. The overall prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis was 27.5%, 6.3% and 12.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that male gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.27), fast food consumption (aOR, 1.53), trucks passing near houses (aOR, 1.86), and having a dog or cat at home (aOR, 1.85) were significant risk factors. A total of 722 (42.5%) children had a positive SPT result to at least one allergen. The most prevalent allergens were grass pollens (60%), cat fur (41.6%), and house dust mites (25%). The findings of this study highlight the urgent need for developing an effective interven- tion program including several components working in harmony to control and reduce the burden of allergic diseases. These results may not be generalizable to the rest of Saudi Arabia.

  11. Prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type I and type II antibody among blood donors in Eastern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Hassan, Zahoor; Al-Bahrani, Ahmad T; Panhotra, Bodh R

    2004-10-01

    Human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I and type II (HTLV-I/II) infections can be transfusion associated, leading to tropical paraparesis, myelopathy and other neurological disorders. The aim of this study is to circumvent the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and to describe the prevalence of HTLV-I/II antibody among blood donors of Al-Hasa region and the cost effectiveness of screening blood donors. The study was conducted at the Department of Laboratory and Blood Bank, King Fahad Hospital, Al-Hofuf, Al-Hasa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period of 1997 to 2003. A total of 47426 blood donors were screened for HTLV-I/II antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test, during the 7 years of study period. The positive samples were confirmed by western blot analysis. Overall, HTLV-I antibody positivity (confirmed by western blot) was 3/47426 (0.006%). Out of 3 donors positive for HTLV-I antibody during 1997 to 1998, 2 were expatriates (Indian) and one was native Saudi donor. Human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I antibody positivity among the native Saudi donors was 1/47426 (0.002%) (2/100000 blood donors). None of the donor were positive for HTLV-II antibody. During the last 5 consecutive years of the study period (1999-2003), none of the donor was positive for HTLV-I/II antibody. Al-Hasa region is non-endemic for HTLV-I/II virus infections. Screening of native Saudi blood donors for these viruses does not appear to be cost effective.

  12. Type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility gene TCF7L2 is strongly associated with hyperglycemia in the Saudi Arabia Population of the eastern province of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S; Al-Elq, A; Al-Nafaie, A; Muzaheed, M; Al-Ali, A

    2015-08-01

    We studied the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs7903146, rs12255372 and rs4506565 in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) susceptibility gene, transcription factor 7 like 2 (TCF7L2) with T2DM among the population of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. In a case-control study, blood samples were collected from 359 T2DM patients and 351 age and sex-matched normoglycemic controls. Genotyping was done by allele specific PCR assay. Our results revealed a strong association between risk T alleles in variants rs12255372 (OR: G/T=1.4233; T/T=2.0395) and rs4506565 (OR: A/T=1.6066; T/T=3.1301) and T2DM among the Saudi population of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. This is the first time that this association has been identified in a Saudi population. However, a common variant, rs7903146, often found to be associated with T2DM in other populations failed to demonstrate any association to T2DM with the present population. These data further strengthens the hypothesis that Saudi populations might carry a distinct risk allele in T2DM susceptibility gene TCF7L2. The present results confirm that rs12255372 and rs4506565 variants of TCF7L2 show an association, but not rs7903146, with T2DM for the Saudi population of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

  13. Puitsillad Saudi Araabiasse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Projektbüroo AS Resandi osalusel on rajatud Saudi Araabiasse Jiddahi kaheksa puidust jalgteesilda: kuus talasilda ja kaks kaarsilda. Ideekavandi valmistab ette Risto Mäkipuro, OÜ NuvoEst. Inseneriarvutused ja silla projekt tehakse AS-s Resand (insenerid Ragnar Pabort, Alar Just). Silla detailid valmistatakse Soomes. Ill: 2 joonist, värv. foto

  14. Congenital disorders of glycosylation: The Saudi experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubhi, Sarah; Alhashem, Amal; Faqeih, Eissa; Alfadhel, Majid; Alfaifi, Abdullah; Altuwaijri, Waleed; Alsahli, Saud; Aldhalaan, Hesham; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Hundallah, Khalid; Mahmoud, Adel; Alasmari, Ali; Mutairi, Fuad Al; Abduraouf, Hanem; AlRasheed, Layan; Alshahwan, Saad; Tabarki, Brahim

    2017-10-01

    We retrospectively reviewed Saudi patients who had a congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG). Twenty-seven Saudi patients (14 males, 13 females) from 13 unrelated families were identified. Based on molecular studies, the 27 CDG patients were classified into different subtypes: ALG9-CDG (8 patients, 29.5%), ALG3-CDG (7 patients, 26%), COG6-CDG (7 patients, 26%), MGAT2-CDG (3 patients, 11%), SLC35A2-CDG (1 patient), and PMM2-CDG (1 patient). All the patients had homozygous gene mutations. The combined carrier frequency of CDG for the encountered founder mutations in the Saudi population is 11.5 per 10,000, which translates to a minimum disease burden of 14 patients per 1,000,000. Our study provides comprehensive epidemiologic information and prevalence figures for each of these CDG in a large cohort of congenital disorder of glycosylation patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds using DNA markers. AAG Adam, NB Hamza, MAW Salim, KS Khalil. Abstract. The genetic variation of Najdi, Harri and Awassi breeds of Saudi sheep prevailing in Raniah province of Makka district were assessed and compared to Sudanese Desert sheep ...

  16. Detection of blaOXA-23-like and blaNDM-1 in Acinetobacter baumannii from the Eastern Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mahdy, Taghrid S; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Shibl, Atef M

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is currently considered as one of the most common successful pathogens in the healthcare system due to its ability to quickly develop resistance. Ten carbapenem-resistant A. calcoaceticus-baumannii complex were isolated from the eastern region, Saudi Arabia in 2014. All isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, however, 8 of 10 isolates were tigecycline resistant. Susceptibility test was also carried out for three aminoglycosides, resistance to gentamicin was 80%, amikacin was 90%, and tobramycin was 50%. Colistin susceptibility was seen in all isolates. The 10 isolates harbored bla OXA-23-like and ISAba1 and 9 of them also carried bla ADC . Three isolates of 10 harbored bla NDM-1 coding for NDM metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) with coexistence of bla ADC together with either bla GES or bla TEM or both. Those three isolates exhibited negative Etest MBL screening test. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the high clonal variability of the isolates, although two isolates were indistinguishable. The risk of dissemination of carbapenem resistance through presence of ISAba1 upstream of OXA-23-like in all isolates raises the concern about emergence of higher carbapenem prevalence rates in the future in our region. This study also demonstrated the importance of molecular surveillance to provide accurate and reliable data about the resistance rates of A. baumannii. Finally, the high incidence of NDM-1 among our isolates requires a routine surveillance to monitor the future prevalence of this enzyme in the region.

  17. Jörg Matthias Determann, Historiography in Saudi Arabia: Globalization and the State in the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Pétriat, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    It is a widely held view that Saudi Arabia’s history is recent, that its main elements are oil, Salafism and sectarianism, and that this recent history has been written mostly by non-Saudi scholars. In a stimulating in-depth analysis of Saudi historiography on Saudi Arabia, Jörg Matthias Determann delves into the very writing of history. He draws on an impressive range of written (including Saudi and non-Saudi historical works, dissertations, articles and textbooks) as well as oral sources. A...

  18. The effects of birth interval on intellectual development of Saudi school children in Eastern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Hassan; Khalil, Mohamed S; Al-Almaie, Sameeh M; Kurashi, Nabil Y; Wahas, Saeed

    2005-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of birth intervals on some aspects of intellectual ability of Saudi primary school boys. This is a cross-sectional study of Saudi school children comparing their intellectual ability (general intelligence) in relation to the length of the birth interval before and after the birth of the index child. The study area comprised 3 townships in the eastern province; Khobar, Thogba and Dhahran. The study was conducted in 2000/2001 and the study population comprised Saudi primary school boys aged 9-10 years from a middle class background. A 2 stage random sampling technique was adopted. Data were collected using student data sheet, a family questionnaire and the Standard Progressive Raven Matrices Test of intellectual ability, standardized for use in Saudi Arabia. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. More than 90% of children born after a birth interval greater than 35 months were classified as average and above according to the Raven Matrices Test, compared to 79% of children born after a birth interval of less than 19 months (pRaven Matrices Test to be family income and height. Longer birth intervals were shown to be associated with higher general intelligence levels in the 9-10 year olds. These results confirm those obtained in a previous study in Singapore conducted more than 2 decades ago. Our results have also shown that the succeeding birth interval is more significant than the preceding interval in relation to perceptive ability of children. The findings enable us to advise parents that by observing a birth interval between 2-3 years would make their children grow and do better at school.

  19. Conservation in Saudi Arabia; moving from strategy to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barichievy, Chris; Sheldon, Rob; Wacher, Tim; Llewellyn, Othman; Al-Mutairy, Mohammed; Alagaili, Abdulaziz

    2018-02-01

    Conservation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is relatively young, yet have made considerable gains in conservation through strategic proclamation and reintroductions. Changes in land use, illegal hunting and competition with domestic stock has decimated the native ungulates, meaning that the survival of the native ungulate species is now completely dependent on protected area network. The challenge is to sustain this network to make meaningful conservation impact into the future. We review the status of ungulate conservation in Saudi Arabia and highlight that the conservation strategy is well developed. The major challenge faced in conservation in Saudi Arabia now is to implement what has been sanctioned.

  20. Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfotouh MA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results: Approximately half of all subjects (53.3% reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001. After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01, a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001, and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001 were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively, whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%. Conclusion: Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor

  1. Socioeconomic Development Inequalities among Geographic Units ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic development inequality among geographic units is a phenomenon common in both the developed and developing countries. Regional inequality may result in dissension among geographic units of the same state due to the imbalance in socio-economic development. This study examines the inequality ...

  2. Antropogenic landscapes in Kharkiv region: information and sightseeing material for knowledge of environment in geographical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Поліщук

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to development of information material for the study of anthropogenic landscapes in Kharkiv region in the school course in Geography. Analysis of the State Standard of complete secondary education and school programs of Ukraine has showed that the features of transformation natural landscapes given in school geographical education are insufficient. In present-day natural science education it is important not only to expand educational material and increase its complexity but also to deepen the knowledge through disclosure of connections and relationships. This especially applies to geography, the content of which consists of a number of knowledge systems being formed within several courses. Thus, the focus should be directed on development of ideas about the unity of nature, indissolubility of all the components of nature, laws and mechanisms of anthropogenic impacts on the constituents of biosphere, and through them to the biosphere as a whole. Formation of a holistic image of nature begins from the study of real natural objects of the native locality (city, district, region, which allows to understand global laws and processes. Based on informational development about anthropogenic landscapes in Kharkiv region, the authors offered promising areas of work with students in the mode of excursions. Information about anthropogenic landscapes of Kharkiv region is important for visual use in obtaining knowledge about them in the geographical education and will provide attraction of students to practical research activities of study about anthropogenic landscapes. This approach will allow the students to form a spatial idea, and consciously navigate in the social and economic, social and political and environmental problems of the state and its region.

  3. The importance of silicon photovoltaic manufacturing in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elani, U.A.; Bagazi, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the potential of silicon development for photovoltaics will be discussed in conjunction with the availability of raw material and photovoltaic demand in Saudi Arabia. Recent studies suggest that silicon raw material for photovoltaic production should be considered for further investigation towards solar cells manufacturing in Saudi Arabia. (author)

  4. Soil-geographical regionalization as a basis for digital soil mapping: Karelia case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, P.; Sidorova, V.; Dubrovina, I.

    2010-12-01

    Recent development of digital soil mapping (DSM) allowed improving significantly the quality of soil maps. We tried to make a set of empirical models for the territory of Karelia, a republic at the North-East of the European territory of Russian Federation. This territory was selected for the pilot study for DSM for two reasons. First, the soils of the region are mainly monogenetic; thus, the effect of paleogeographic environment on recent soils is reduced. Second, the territory was poorly mapped because of low agricultural development: only 1.8% of the total area of the republic is used for agriculture and has large-scale soil maps. The rest of the territory has only small-scale soil maps, compiled basing on the general geographic concepts rather than on field surveys. Thus, the only solution for soil inventory was the predictive digital mapping. The absence of large-scaled soil maps did not allow data mining from previous soil surveys, and only empirical models could be applied. For regionalization purposes, we accepted the division into Northern and Southern Karelia, proposed in the general scheme of soil regionalization of Russia; boundaries between the regions were somewhat modified. Within each region, we specified from 15 (Northern Karelia) to 32 (Southern Karelia) individual soilscapes and proposed soil-topographic and soil-lithological relationships for every soilscape. Further field verification is needed to adjust the models.

  5. Neurology Research in Saudi Arabia : Urgent call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Algahtani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Research activities in Saudi Arabia are promoted at the governmental and institutional levels. However, the output and quality of research conducted in the field of neurology has not yet been measured quantitatively. This study therefore aimed to analyse neurology-related publications from Saudi Arabia. Methods: This study was conducted in January 2016. A systematic search using the PubMed® search engine (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA was conducted to identify all neurology-related articles published from Saudi Arabia between January 1996 and December 2015. Results: A total of 1,292 neurologyrelated publications were identified. Neurology research increased linearly with time, with most publications originating from Riyadh (67% and the university sector (≈47%. However, most neurology-related articles were published in journals which had an impact factor of <1 (55%. Conclusion: Neurology research in Saudi Arabia has increased substantially over the last 20 years. However, as most articles were published in low-impact journals, the quality of research remains inadequate and should be improved. It is important that an official research culture be established in both governmental and private universities as well as colleges and health institutions in Saudi Arabia. The formation of clinical academic departments staffed by research experts is recommended to ensure the quality of neurology research output.

  6. The characteristics and distribution of dentist workforce in Saudi Arabia: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz A. AlBaker

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: Most of the dental care in Saudi Arabia is provided by non-Saudi dentists in both private and public health sectors. With the rising unemployment rate among Saudi dentists, the governmental bodies that are responsible of dental labor market regulations such as the ministries of health, economy and planning, and labor should come up with a policy to gradually but carefully replace the non-Saudi dentists in both public and private sectors with Saudi dentists.

  7. Stroke in Saudi children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Anal Y.; Al-Nasser, Mohammad N.; Bahakim, Hassan M.; Kurban, Khadija M.; Zahraa, Jihad N.; Nasir, Ali A.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.; Kabiraj, Mohammad M.; Khoja, Waleed A.

    2006-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the causes, pathogenesis, and risk factors. The Retrospective Study Group (RSG) included children with stroke who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period July 1992 to February 2001. The Prospective Study Group (PSG) included those seen between February 2001 and March 2003. During the combined study periods of 10 years and 7 months, 117 children (61 males and 56 females, aged one month-12 years) were evaluated; the majority (89%) of these were Saudis. The calculated annual hospital frequency rate of stroke was 27.1/100,000 of the pediatric (1month-12 years) population The mean age at onset of the initial stroke in the 104 Saudi children was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) median and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). Large-vessel infarcts (LVI, 51.9%) were more common than small-vessel lacunar lesions (SVLL, 19.2%). Five patients (4.8%) had combined LVI and SVLL. Intracranial hemorrhage was less common (18.2%), whereas sinovenous thrombosis was diagnosed in 6 (5.8%) patients. A major risk factor was identified in 94 of 104 (89.4%) Saudi children. Significantly more hematologic disorders and coagulopathies were identified in the PSG compared to the RSG (p=0.001), reflecting a better yield following introduction of more comprehensive hematologic and cogulation laboratory tests during the prospective study period. Hematologic disorders were the most common risk factor (46.2%); presumed perinatal ischemic cerebral injury was risk factor in 23 children (22.1) and infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory system in 18 (17.3%). Congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying cause in 7 patients (6.7%) and

  8. Understanding social media usage by females in Saudi Arabia: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding social media usage by females in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive finding. ... This study was conducted to determine the effects of SM on Saudi females. ... hence more effort should be undertaken to encourage more uptake of SM for ...

  9. Development of GIS-based Wind Potential Map of Makkah Province, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyar, Z. A.; Zaigham, N. A.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Mahar, G. A.; Eusufi, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    Global energy scenario is changing drastically toward decline, as new major discoveries of fossil fuel are not coming up significantly on regional basis. In case of Saudi Arabia, one of the largest fossil fuel producers, the major oil fields have started exhausting significantly as revealed from the literature research study. Considering the future energy crisis, different other renewable options presently have became imperative to be consider anticipating for the national development. Wind energy in one of them. The development of wind energy technology requires the baseline data relevant to the wind trends and their potentials. Under the present study, an attempt has been made to develop wind power density map of the Makkah Province of Saudi Arabia based on the meteorological data collected at different sparsely located weather stations. GIS application has provided a good option to interpolate the gap areas between the sparsely located weather recording stations. This paper describe the methodology and results of the present study.

  10. Characteristics, Risk Factors, and Treatment Practices of Known Adult Hypertensive Patients in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Al-Hamdan

    2010-01-01

    Methods. Cross-sectional community-based study using the WHO stepwise approach. Saudi adults were randomly chosen from Primary Health Care Centers catchment areas. Data was collected using a questionnaire which included sociodemographic data, history of hypertension, risk factors, treatment practices, biochemical and anthropometric measurements. Collected data was cheeked, computer fed, and analysed using SPSS V17. Results. Out of 4719 subjects (99.2% response, 542 (11.5% subjects were known hypertensives or detected by health workers in the past 12 months. Hypertension was significantly associated with age, gender, geographical location, education, employment, diabetes, physical inactivity, excess body weight, and ever smoking. Multiple logistic analysis controlling for age showed that significant predictors of hypertension were diabetes mellitus, ever smoking, obesity, and hypercholesteremia. Several treatment modalities and practices were significantly associated with gender, age, education, and occupation. About 74% were under prescribed treatment by physicians, 62% on dietary modification, 37% attempted weight reduction, 27% performed physical exercise, and less than 7% used herbs, consulted traditional healers or quitted smoking. Income was not significantly associated with any treatment modality or patient practices. Conclusion. Hypertension (known and undetected is a major chronic health problem among adults in Saudi Arabia. Many patients' practices need changes. A comprehensive approach is needed to prevent, early detect, and control the disease targeting, the risk factors, and predictors identified.

  11. Is the epidemiology of alkhurma hemorrhagic fever changing?: A three-year overview in Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad A Memish

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever disease is yet to be fully understood since the virus was isolated in 1994 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. SETTING: Preventive Medicine department, Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of all laboratory confirmed cases of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever disease collected through active and passive surveillance from 1(st-January 2009 to December, 31, 2011. RESULTS: Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever (AHFV disease increased from 59 cases in 2009 to 93 cases in 2011. Cases are being discovered outside of the region where it was initially diagnosed in Saudi Arabia. About a third of cases had no direct contact with animals or its products. Almost all cases had gastro-intestinal symptoms. Case fatality rate was less than 1%. CONCLUSIONS: Findings in this study showed the mode of transmission of AHFV virus may not be limited to direct contact with animals or its products. Gastro-intestinal symptoms were not previously documented. Observed low case fatality rate contradicted earlier reports. Close monitoring of the epidemiology of AHFV is recommended to aid appropriate diagnosis. Housewives are advised to wear gloves when handling animals and animal products as a preventive measure.

  12. Indonesians in Saudi Arabia: Worhsip and Work

    OpenAIRE

    Husson, Laurence

    1997-01-01

    This article, which opens a new line of research, is intended to make a first assessment of the consequences of Indonesian migration to saudi Arabia, in particular during the first half of the 2Oth century-a period when the immigration is bound up with the pilgrimage from which Saudi Arabia draws a large part of its revenues. It must be added that while documentary evidence and partial studies on this period exist, it turns out that documentation on the contemporary peri...

  13. Survey of awareness of diabetes mellitus among the Arar population, Northern Border Region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Aseel Menwer; Abo El-Fetoh, Nagah Mohamed; Alotaibi, Hanan Khalid; Alanazi, Khalid Ayed; Alotaibi, Banan Khalid; Alshammari, Sultan Majed; Alanazi, Saud Rteamy; Alhazmi, Meshari Dalaf; Alshammari, Yousef Talal; Alshammari, Zaid Qati

    2017-09-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the most widely prevalent diseases in Saudi Arabia. Health education is considered an essential component to improve knowledge and change behavior. People affected by diabetes often have inadequate knowledge about the nature of diabetes, its risk factors and associated complication. The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of the Arar population with various aspects of diabetes mellitus. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Arar city, the capital of the Northern Province of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study was carried out on Saudi nationals from different age groups that were selected by systematic random sampling. Data was collected by means of personal interview with the participants using a pre-designed questionnaire which was administered by the medical students for each diabetic patient. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15, using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. A total of 702 participants were interviewed, among them 201 (28.6%) males and 501 (71.4%) females, and most of them (77.8%) had high educational level, 10.4% were diabetics, 78.9% did not have regular checkup visits to the doctor and 58.5% did not perform any regular exercises, including walking, 60% thought that DM was due to partial or total decrease in insulin secretion and 12.4% thought that it was due to excess sweet eating. Additionally, 48.7% of the respondents thought that lack of exercise and obesity were the major risk factors of DM, 33.2% thought that it was a genetic disease. The majority (86.3) of the participants believed that the treatment of DM was a combination of healthy diet, exercise and medication and more than half (63.1%) said that weight loss and modification of life style were the most important preventive measures of DM. Regarding participants' knowledge about DM complications, 24.5% knew about retinopathy and loss of vision, 8.3% knew about retinopathy, loss of vision, low sensation and numbness in

  14. Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urology Association combined clinical management guidelines for urothelial cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulayel Alharbi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an update to the previously published Saudi guidelines for the evaluation and medical/surgical management of patients diagnosed with urothelial cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. It is categorized according to the stage of the disease using the tumor node metastasis staging system, 7th edition. The guidelines are presented with their accompanying supporting evidence level, which is based on comprehensive literature review, several internationally recognized guidelines, and the collective expertise of the guidelines committee members (authors who were selected by the Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urological Association. Considerations to the local availability of drugs, technology, and expertise have been regarded. These guidelines should serve as a roadmap for the urologists, oncologists, general physicians, support groups, and health-care policymakers in the management of patients diagnosed with urothelial cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

  15. Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urology Association combined clinical management guidelines for urothelial cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Hulayel; Alkhateeb, Sultan; Murshid, Esam; Alotaibi, Mohammed; Abusamra, Ashraf; Rabah, Danny; Almansour, Mubarak; Alghamdi, Abdullah; Aljubran, Ali; Eltigani, Amin; Alkushi, Hussein; Ahmed, Imran; Alsharm, Abdullah; Bazarbashi, Shouki

    2018-01-01

    This is an update to the previously published Saudi guidelines for the evaluation and medical/surgical management of patients diagnosed with urothelial cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. It is categorized according to the stage of the disease using the tumor node metastasis staging system, 7 th edition. The guidelines are presented with their accompanying supporting evidence level, which is based on comprehensive literature review, several internationally recognized guidelines, and the collective expertise of the guidelines committee members (authors) who were selected by the Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urological Association. Considerations to the local availability of drugs, technology, and expertise have been regarded. These guidelines should serve as a roadmap for the urologists, oncologists, general physicians, support groups, and health-care policymakers in the management of patients diagnosed with urothelial cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

  16. Saudi Arabia: the French nuclear sector mobilized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheikh-Ali, A.

    2016-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is preparing itself to replace half fossil energies by a mix of nuclear and renewable energies. Although the nuclear program is not yet well implemented, Saudi Arabia and France have signed an agreement to develop cooperation in the nuclear sector. A joint committee was created to give a frame to assess the best practices in terms of nuclear regulations, waste management, scientific cooperation and training. Concerning nuclear regulations, waste management and scientific cooperation the French contacts of KACARE (King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy) are respectively IRSN, ANDRA and CEA. Concerning scholar and professional training, a cooperation involving I2EN (International Institute for Nuclear Energy), EDF and AREVA on one side and the King Saud University, the Prince Mohammad University, the EFFAT University and the Dar Al Hekma College on the other side, has been set to develop training in nuclear engineering in Saudi Arabia. In parallel, AREVA and EDF have developed a program to find and qualify local subcontractors. (A.C.)

  17. A case cluster of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease linked to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthart, Michael B; Geschwind, Michael D; Qureshi, Shireen; Phielipp, Nicolas; Demarsh, Alex; Abrams, Joseph Y; Belay, Ermias; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Jansen, Gerard H; Lang, Anthony E; Schonberger, Lawrence B

    2016-10-01

    As of mid-2016, 231 cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease-the human form of a prion disease of cattle, bovine spongiform encephalopathy-have been reported from 12 countries. With few exceptions, the affected individuals had histories of extended residence in the UK or other Western European countries during the period (1980-96) of maximum global risk for human exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. However, the possibility remains that other geographic foci of human infection exist, identification of which may help to foreshadow the future of the epidemic. We report results of a quantitative analysis of country-specific relative risks of infection for three individuals diagnosed with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the USA and Canada. All were born and raised in Saudi Arabia, but had histories of residence and travel in other countries. To calculate country-specific relative probabilities of infection, we aligned each patient's life history with published estimates of probability distributions of incubation period and age at infection parameters from a UK cohort of 171 variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases. The distributions were then partitioned into probability density fractions according to time intervals of the patient's residence and travel history, and the density fractions were combined by country. This calculation was performed for incubation period alone, age at infection alone, and jointly for incubation and age at infection. Country-specific fractions were normalized either to the total density between the individual's dates of birth and symptom onset ('lifetime'), or to that between 1980 and 1996, for a total of six combinations of parameter and interval. The country-specific relative probability of infection for Saudi Arabia clearly ranked highest under each of the six combinations of parameter × interval for Patients 1 and 2, with values ranging from 0.572 to 0.998, respectively, for Patient 2 (age at infection × lifetime) and

  18. The extent of use of online pharmacies in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norah Abanmy

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The popularity of purchasing medicines over the Internet is still low in Saudi Arabia. However, because the majority of respondents are willing to purchase medicines online, efforts should be made by the Saudi FDA to set regulations and monitor this activity.

  19. Characterizing sleeping habits and disturbances among Saudi adults

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Tannir, Mohamad A.; Kobrosly, Samer Y.; Al-Badr, Ahmad H.; Salloum, Nourhan A.; Altannir, Youssef M.; Sakkijha, Husam M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To characterize sleeping habits, assess sleep disturbance prevalence, and identify associated factors among Saudi adults. Methods A total of 1720 adults were approached for this observational cross-sectional study between October 2014 and March 2015. The study took place in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. We used a questionnaire to describe sleeping characteristics in relation to existing chronic diseases, smoking status, obesity, daily performance and sociodemographic variabl...

  20. Slow, slow, quick, quick, slow: Saudi Arabia's 'Gas Initiative'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, Philip

    2004-01-01

    This article sets out to analyse the Saudi gas initiative in the context of the decision-making process in Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2002. It describes the overall context in which the initiative was made. It focuses on the personalities and institutions that were important in its birth and its evolution. The article argues that a mixture of personalities (especially that of Crown Prince Abdullah and foreign minister Saud al-Faisal) and institutions (especially a clutch of new bodies formed in 1999 and 2000) were pivotal in the emergence of the initiative. It also looks at the obstacles that were placed in the way of the initiative, arguing that Saudi Aramco and the minister of oil, Ali Naimi, were key blocking players. Over time, the Saudi gas initiative has come to be seen as a benchmark of the wider cause of economic liberalization in the Kingdom. The lack of progress in the initiative since the initial indicative contract awards in June 2001 has reflected the lack of movement in the general reformist strategy

  1. First detection of Nosema sp., microsporidian parasites of honeybees (Apis mellifera in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Azeem S. Abdel-Baki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nosema sp. is recorded in Saudi Arabia for the first time, in adult Apis mellifera collected from apiaries in Riyadh city. Samples of 100 workers were collected and examined for the infection with Nosema sp. 5% of the bees were found positively infected with Nosema sp. Spores were oval to elliptical shaped and measuring 6.4 (5.0–7.0 μm in length, 3.4 (3.0–4.5 μm in width. The conclusive identification of the present Nosema species will preclude until further ultrastructure and molecular studies. The present study concluded that intensive surveys are prerequisite to identify the species of Nosema and to estimate their distribution and prevalence in different regions of Saudi Arabia.

  2. A pandemic risk assessment of middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Eifan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the initial emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV in 2012, a high incidence rate has been observed in Saudi Arabia. This suggests that the country is at continuous risk. The epidemic level of MERS-CoV infection was examined in Saudi Arabia by the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR model using a Bayesian approach for estimation of time dependent reproduction number (R across a two-year interval (May, 2013-May, 2015 in five defined clusters, followed by sensitivity analysis of the most significant clusters. Significant MERS-CoV peaks were detected in the period between March and May of each year. Moreover, MERS-CoV infection was highlighted in western (40.8% and central (31.9% regions, followed by eastern region (20%. The temporal-based Bayesian approach indicated a sub-critical epidemic in all regions in the baseline scenario (R: 0.85–0.97. However, R potential limit was exceeded in the sensitivity analysis scenario in only central and western regions (R: 1.08–1.12 that denoted epidemic level in those regions. The impact of sporadic cases was found relatively insignificant and pinpointed to the lack of zoonotic influence on MERS-CoV transmission dynamics. The results of current study would be helpful for evaluation of future progression of MERS-CoV infections, better understanding and control interventions.

  3. Public health education in Saudi Arabia: Needs and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud Abdulrahman; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H; Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, public health (PH) has come to the frontlines in Saudi Arabia. The recent outbreak of a novel corona virus (MERS-CoV) highlighted the importance of PH services and the need for a competent PH workforce. The urgency and panic induced by infectious disease outbreaks explain the heightened interest. Decision makers' interest in public health was observed through a series of decisions, including creating a position for Deputy Minister for Public Health, changing the name of "Directorate of Primary Healthcare Centers" to "Directorate of Public Health" in all health regions and initiating a special scholarship program to prepare health administration professionals in collaboration with US-based universities. A distinguished group of PH leaders in Saudi Arabia was gathered in a structured workshop that was organized by the Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, college of medicine to discuss the current status and future needs of PH education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The workshop highlighted the need for PH education development and outlined the challenges ahead. The main challenges laid out by participants in the workshop were the development of an appropriate PH curriculum, appropriate training spots for practical placement, the development of research priorities for PH to satisfy the needs of PH programs and agencies, attracting the most qualified academic staff, the enrolment of highly motivated students and finally, the establishment of a quality assurance program to ensure the quality of PH education programs. The development of a framework for graduate competencies in PH was perceived to be a top priority. Moreover, setting a PH workforce surveillance system, building partnership between PH academic institutions and PH services providers, implementing national campaigns to explain what PH is about and illuminating the role of PH workers were also of utmost importance.

  4. Exploration of Logistics Information Technology (IT) Solutions for the Royal Saudi Naval Force Within the Saudi Naval Expansion Program II (SNEP II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT EXPLORATION OF LOGISTICS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) SOLUTIONS FOR THE...INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) SOLUTIONS FOR THE ROYAL SAUDI NAVAL FORCE WITHIN THE SAUDI NAVAL EXPANSION PROGRAM II (SNEP II) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S...Expansion Program II (SNEP II). A part of this program includes upgrading and rebuilding its information technology (IT) infrastructure. The United

  5. Saudi Arabian International Graduate Students' Lived Experiences at a U.S. University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Barbara N.; Snead, Donald

    2017-01-01

    Enrollment of Saudi Arabian International students' in United States institutions of higher learning has increased substantially over the years since King Abdullah initially launched the Saudi scholarship program in 2005 that was renewed in 2010 and funded an outward flow of Saudi student, including females, to universities worldwide. A commitment…

  6. Women in Saudi Arabia and the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaikh, Mashael K; Filippidis, Filippos T; Baldove, Juren P; Majeed, Azeem; Rawaf, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Background . Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in Saudi Arabia. Saudi women in particular are more susceptible as there are sociocultural restrictions on female physical activities that may lead to high prevalence of CVD risks, especially obesity, and physical inactivity. This study aims to systematically review the published articles related to the prevalence of CVD risk among women in Saudi Arabia. The search strategy covers all published articles that assess the risk factor of CVD in Saudi Arabia from January 2000 to December 2015, using the following sources: Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO. A total of 61 studies were included. Results. Prevalence among Saudi women of smoking ranged from 1.1% to 9.1%, hypertension was 21.8%, diabetes ranged from 9.6% to 27.6%, overweight was 27%, and obesity was 40.23%, and physical inactivity ranged from 53.2% to 98.1%. Hypercholesterolemia prevalence on Saudi women on average was 24.5%, while metabolic syndrome ranged from 13.6% to 40.3%. Conclusion . The prevalence of CVD risk factors is high among women in Saudi Arabia especially in obesity and physical inactivity. Public health authorities must implement solutions from a gender specific aspect to reverse the trend and decrease the prevalence of CVDs among Saudi women.

  7. Knowledge, attitude and practice about malaria in south-western Saudi Arabia: A household-based cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Khairy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP concerning malaria and malaria prevention among rural populations residing in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This was a household-based cross-sectional survey, using structured questionnaire that was developed and distributed among households selected randomly from 19 villages (clusters located in a southwestern region of Saudi Arabia, north of the border with Yemen. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 20. A majority of respondents (98.4% reported that they had heard about malaria, but only 21.7% reported that they had sufficient information about the disease. Surprisingly, the most popular source of information was the internet and social media (proportion responding positively in parenthesis (25.5%, followed by family (21.7%, while information from health facilities contributed only 12.4%. A majority of respondents were aware that malaria is a communicable (89.1% and deadly (70% disease; however, only 30.2% of the respondents responded that malaria is a treatable disease. Almost all of the aware respondents (97.5% were inclined to seek treatment from health facilities, and 63.2% preferred to seek treatment within 24 h of presenting with symptoms. Regarding personal precautions, the most common practice adopted by respondents was indoor residual spraying IRS (47.3%, followed by anti-mosquito spraying (29.8%, mosquito bed nets (13.2% and combined anti-mosquito sprays and nets on windows (4.7%. This KAP study did not show any statistically significant differences in KAP due to age; however the practices of preventive measures against malaria differed significantly by nationality (Saudi versus non-Saudi. We conclude that most populations living in the villages have an acceptable level of knowledge and awareness about malaria and seek timely treatment. However, the positive attitudes and practices in relation to personal protection and

  8. A taxonomic survey of Saudi Arabian Red Sea octocorals (Cnidaria: Alcyonacea)

    KAUST Repository

    Haverkort-Yeh, Roxanne D.

    2013-05-04

    A preliminary survey of Saudi Arabian Alcyonacea is presented, which combines classical taxonomy, multilocus molecular barcodes, and in situ photographs. We explored 14 locations along the west coast of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the regional taxonomic diversity of non-gorgonian alcyonaceans. We collected samples from a total of 74 colonies, distributed among four families: 18 colonies of Alcyoniidae, 14 of Nephtheidae, 9 of Tubiporidae, and 33 of Xeniidae. We sequenced the octocorals using multiple nuclear [ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) and ATP Synthetase Subunit α (ATPSα)] and mitochondrial [MutS homolog (mtMutS) and Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit one (COI)] loci, providing molecular barcodes which will: (1) allow direct comparison of biodiversity from this location to others for which molecular data are available, and (2) facilitate future identifications of these taxa. Finally, this preliminary phylogeny of sampled taxa provides insights on the resolution of mitochondrial versus nuclear loci, and highlights octocoral taxa that require further taxonomic attention. © 2013 Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  9. Learning English: Experiences and Needs of Saudi Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Susan; Obeidat, Fayiz

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study, Saudi engineering students talk openly of their experiences learning English in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and as university students in the United States (US). These students reported that they learned only the basics of vocabulary and grammar in KSA. Consequently, they came to the US with few English skills. In…

  10. Preconception care in Saudi women with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Y Madanat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rate of preexisting diabetes mellitus (DM in Saudi Arabia is one of the highest in the world. The role of preconception care (PCC is well-established as a means of improving pregnancy outcomes in DM. Objectives: To assess the rate of preconception counseling, the level of PCC knowledge, and the rate of unplanned pregnancies in Saudi women with DM. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 355 Saudi women aged 18–49 years with self-reported DM. The study questionnaire contained variables about the provision of preconception counseling, knowledge of PCC facts, and the number of unplanned pregnancies after developing DM. The level of PCC knowledge was evaluated using a modified Likert scale. Statistical Package for Social Sciences 20 was used for statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation, and percentages were calculated; t-test was used for statistical significance. Results: About one-third of the participants had received preconception counseling after being diagnosed with DM. Counseling on PCC for older and married participants was significantly less. Of the 355 participants, 42.8% had little or no PCC knowledge. All pregnancies that occurred after developing DM were unplanned. Conclusions: The rate of preconception counseling, the level of PCC knowledge in the studied Saudi women with DM is suboptimal, and none of the pregnancies that occurred after developing DM was planned. The study highlights the need for PCC programs that target all Saudi women of child-bearing age with DM, and their families starting at the age of puberty and at diagnosis of type 2DM, to optimize women's health and improve pregnancy outcomes.

  11. Saudi Arabia plans future strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John.

    1996-01-01

    The future strategy of Saudi Arabia with respect to its oil production capacity is discussed. A major uncertainty affecting planning is the prospect of an Iraqi return to the market as and when Saddam Hussein falls or he manages to comply fully with all the UN resolutions and sanctions are lifted. It is believed that Iraq could at very short notice be capable of exporting 2mb/d of crude rising to 2.5 mb/d within a few months. This is 10% of OPEC's physically traded crude. Also taken seriously are Baghdad's assertions that Iraq will have a production capacity of about 6mb/d by the year 2000. Saudi officials are concerned that OPEC is not ready to tackle the impact of an Iraqi return to the market at a time when some OPEC members are producing above quota anyway. The most likely outcome is thought to be that OPEC would simply raise their nominal production ceiling. Against this background, Saudi Arabia has embarked on the exploitation of the gigantic oil reserves of the Shaybah field. This development offers the kingdom an ability, on the one hand, to increase its earnings while remaining within its OPEC quota and, on the other hand, to increase output substantially should it ever appear that its best interests are served by not adhering to quotas. (UK)

  12. The Profile of Saudi Nursing Workforce: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alboliteeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Royal Monarchy in Saudi Arabia decreed that all sectors of the workforce would be subject to a policy of “Saudisation” to reduce the reliance on the expatriate workforce and to reduce the unemployment rate of Saudi nationals (Al-Mahmoud et al., 2012. Methodology. A cross-sectional design was chosen to investigate the research questions. The population of this study comprised Saudi Registered Nurses working in MOH hospitals in Riyadh which is the main health care provider in Saudi Arabia (Aboul-Enein, 2002; MOH, 2009. Results and Findings. A total number of 1,198 questionnaires were distributed and 61.2% (n=741 were returned. The findings of the study showed that the questionnaires were collected from an equal portion of the study locale and that a sample of 741 is enough to create a strong conclusion and answer the problem set in this study and all the questions in the study have been provided with answers with enough data and literatures to supports its findings. Conclusion and Recommendations. The results indicate that an increase in the recruitment of Saudi males may simply reflect cultural issues such as gender specific facilities and the Saudisation program’s nondiscriminatory approach to employment of both genders into nursing.

  13. Gaped deficiency distribution and variants in Saudi Arabia: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A.F.; Warsy, Arjumand S.

    2001-01-01

    The first report of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Saudi population of the Eastern Province paved the way for extensive investigations to determine the distribution and molecular pathogenesis of G6PD deficiency in Saudis in different parts of the country. During a national study lasting from 1980 to 1993, 24,407 Saudi in 31 different areas of Saudi Arabia screened for G6PD deficiency using spectrophoretic estimation of enzyme activity and electrophoretic separation of the phenotypes. The results in the males and females were separately analyzed and showed a statistically significant difference in the frequency in the male (0.0905) and female (0.041) population (P<0.05). The frequency in the male varied from 0 to 0.398 and in the female from 0 to 0.214. The phenotypes identified included G6PD-A, G6PD-Mediterranean and G6PD-Med-Like with G6PD-B as the normal phenotype in all areas. This study shows that G6PD deficiency is a frequently identified single-gene disorder in Saudi Arabia and G6PD-Mediterranean is the major variant producing the severe deficiency state in this population. (author)

  14. Women’s Activism in Saudi Arabia: Male Guardianship and Sexual Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Tønnessen, Liv

    2016-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is often presented in Western media as the poster child of women’s oppression. It is the country where women are forced to cover their heads and body in black dress and cannot drive cars. Although Saudi Arabia has ratified several human rights conventions, including the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), there are many legal restrictions on Saudi women’s rights in the name of Sharia. Because Sharia, as applied by Sau...

  15. Medication administration errors in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir Sadat-Ali

    2010-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors (ME) in patients admitted to King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Medication errors are documented by the nurses and physicians standard reporting forms (Hospital Based Incident Report). The study was carried out in King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and all the incident reports were collected during the period from January 2008 to December 2009. The incident reports were analyzed for age, gender, nationality, nursing unit, and time where ME was reported. The data were analyzed and the statistical significance differences between groups were determined by Student's t-test, and p-values of <0.05 using confidence interval of 95% were considered significant. There were 38 ME reported for the study period. The youngest patient was 5 days and the oldest 70 years. There were 31 Saudis, and 7 non-Saudi patients involved. The most common error was missed medication, which was seen in 15 (39.5%) patients. Over 15 (39.5%) of errors occurred in 2 units (pediatric medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology). Nineteen (50%) of the errors occurred during the 3-11 pm shift. Our study shows that the prevalence of ME in our institution is low, in comparison with the world literature. This could be due to under reporting of the errors, and we believe that ME reporting should be made less punitive so that ME can be studied and preventive measures implemented (Author).

  16. A country on the verge of malaria elimination--the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Coleman

    Full Text Available Significant headway has been made in the global fight against malaria in the past decade and as more countries enter the elimination phase, attention is now focused on identifying effective strategies to shrink the malaria map. Saudi Arabia experienced an outbreak of malaria in 1998, but is now on the brink of malaria elimination, with just 82 autochthonous cases reported in 2012. A review of published and grey literature was performed to identify the control strategies that have contributed to this achievement. The number of autochthonous malaria cases in Saudi Arabia decreased by 99.8% between 1998 and 2012. The initial steep decline in malaria cases coincided with a rapid scaling up of vector control measures. Incidence continued to be reported at low levels (between 0.01 and 0.1 per 1,000 of the population until the adoption of artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as first line treatment and the establishment of a regional partnership for a malaria-free Arabian Peninsula, both of which occurred in 2007. Since 2007, incidence has decreased by nearly an order of magnitude. Malaria incidence is now very low, but a high proportion of imported cases, continued potential for autochthonous transmission, and an increased proportion of cases attributable to Plasmodium vivax all present challenges to Saudi Arabia as they work toward elimination by 2015.

  17. Water management during climate change using aquifer storage and recovery of stormwater in a dunefield in western Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    An average of less than 50 mm yr-1 of rainfall occurs in the hyperarid region of central Western Saudi Arabia. Climate change is projected to create greater variation in rainfall accumulation with more intense rainfall and flood events and longer

  18. Saudi dental hygienists' opinions regarding establishing a professional association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joufi, A I; Wilder, R S; Curran, A E; Brame, J L

    2018-02-28

    To assess the opinions of dental hygienists in Saudi Arabia regarding the establishment of a professional association including the role it should have to meet their professional needs. A cross-sectional electronic survey using Qualtrics was utilized. IRB exemption was obtained prior to distribution. Although there are 298 licensed Saudi dental hygienists in Saudi Arabia, email addresses were only available for 101 respondents: those obtained previously by direct contact for the purpose of initiation of a professional association and those referred by the direct contacts. Subjects were emailed a link to the survey. Seventy-seven subjects responded fully to the survey yielding a response rate of 70.3%. Most 91.5% (n = 65) of the respondents favoured the establishment of a Saudi dental hygiene professional association. Eighty-eight per cent (n = 59) responded that such an association would promote development of the profession in the country at least somewhat and 86.6% (n = 58) agreed that their professional needs could be met by its establishment. Interestingly, half of those who did not support the creation of the professional association believed it would promote development of the profession and meet professional needs. A representative sample of dental hygienists in Saudi Arabia support the establishment of a professional association and feel that it would advocate and promote the dental hygiene profession in the country and meet their professional needs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Health literacy among Saudi population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M M; Saad, Sherif Y

    2017-09-12

    Health literacy is a major problem worldwide and adversely affects an individual's health. The aim of the present study was to assess health literacy level among Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomly selected population (n = 500) in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire comprised of questions pertaining to demographic characteristics, health literacy and health information. Health literacy was measured by REALM-R test. Internal reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The majority of the respondents had intermediate (43.8%) and basic (34.4%) health literacy levels. A higher percentage among men had intermediate (59.8%) and basic (70.93%) health literacy levels compared with women. About 30% of respondents had difficulty in understanding health screening tests and disease treatment. More than half of participants (52.4%) had difficulty in finding health information. The REALM-R test revealed that about 42.6% of individuals with score of >6 had adequate health literacy compared with 57.4% with score of ≤6 had inadequate health literacy. The present study demonstrated that a majority of Saudi individuals had inadequate health literacy that associated with poor knowledge of health information. Our findings highlighted the importance of understanding the status of health literacy among Saudis and the need for educational programs to raise the health literacy awareness among Saudi population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Field accumulation risks of heavy metals in soil and vegetable crop irrigated with sewage water in western region of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkhair, Khaled S.; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater irrigated fields can cause potential contamination with heavy metals to soil and groundwater, thus pose a threat to human beings . The current study was designed to investigate the potential human health risks associated with the consumption of okra vegetable crop contaminated with toxic heavy metals. The crop was grown on a soil irrigated with treated wastewater in the western region of Saudi Arabia during 2010 and 2011. The monitored heavy metals included Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn for their bioaccumulation factors to provide baseline data regarding environmental safety and the suitability of sewage irrigation in the future. The pollution load index (PLI), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF) of these metals were calculated. The pollution load index of the studied soils indicated their level of metal contamination. The concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr in the edible portions were above the safe limit in 90%, 28%, 83% and 63% of the samples, respectively. The heavy metals in the edible portions were as follows: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cd > Mn > Pb > Cu > Fe. The Health Risk Index (HRI) was >1 indicating a potential health risk. The EF values designated an enhanced bio-contamination compared to other reports from Saudi Arabia and other countries around the world. The results indicated a potential pathway of human exposure to slow poisoning by heavy metals due to the indirect utilization of vegetables grown on heavy metal-contaminated soil that was irrigated by contaminated water sources. The okra tested was not safe for human use, especially for direct consumption by human beings. The irrigation source was identified as the source of the soil pollution in this study. PMID:26858563

  1. Prevalence of Beta-Thalassemia in premarital screening in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Suliman, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Al-Hassa area is one of the regions in Saudi Arabia where hemoglobinopathies are prevalent. The Saudi Ministry of Health designed a protocol for premarital testing after the royal decree in December 2003. The protocol was implemented in a February 2004 order. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of beta-thalassemia trait among subjects coming for premarital screening in the Al-Hassa area. From February 2004 to November 2004, healthy subjects coming to six marriages consultation centers in the Al-Hassa area underwent routine mandatory tests. Subjects were considered to have beta-thalassemia trait if they had a mean corpuscular volume (MCV), 80 fL and/or a mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) 3.2%. Venous blood was taken into ETDA tube and the complete blood count and red blood cell indices were measured by a Coulter automated cell counter on the same day of hemoglobin collection. Electrophoresis was done on cellulose acetate. All Saudi participants (n=8918), including 4218 (47.3%) males and 4700 (52.7%) females were screened. The prevalence of beta-thalassemia trait with high hemoglobin A2 and microcytic hypochromic anemia was 3.4% (307/8918). In countries with a high prelevance of hemoglobinopathies, a premarital screening program is helpful for identification and prevention of high-risk marriages. With a 3.4% prevalence of beta-thalassemia trait in premarital couples, future comprehensive programs are needed to know the actual prevalence of beta-thalassemia in Al-Hassa. (author)

  2. Nurses' Perceptions of Patient Safety Culture in Three Hospitals in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquwez, Nahed; Cruz, Jonas Preposi; Almoghairi, Ahmed Mohammed; Al-Otaibi, Raid Salman; Almutairi, Khalid Obaid; Alicante, Jerico G; Colet, Paolo C

    2018-05-14

    To assess the present patient safety culture of three general hospitals in Saudi Arabia, as perceived by nurses. This study utilized a descriptive, cross-sectional design. A convenience sample of 351 nurses working in three general hospitals in the central region of Saudi Arabia was surveyed in this study using the Hospital Survey of Patients' Safety Culture (HSOPSC) from October 2016 to April 2017. From the 12 composites of the HSOPSC, the nurses perceived only the following two patient safety areas as strengths: teamwork within units and organizational learning-continuous improvement. Six areas of patient safety were identified as weaknesses, namely overall perception of patient safety, handoffs and transitions, communication openness, staffing, frequency of events reported, and nonpunitive response to errors. Nationality, educational attainment, hospital, length of service in the hospital, work area or unit, length of service in the current work area or unit, current position, and direct patient contact or interaction were significant predictors of the nurses' perceived patient safety culture. The findings in this study clarify the current status of patient safety culture in three hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The present findings should be considered by policymakers, hospital leaders, and nurse executives in creating interventions aimed at improving the patient safety culture in hospitals. A multidimensional network intervention targeting the different dimensions of patient safety culture and involving different organizational levels should be implemented to improve patient safety. © 2018 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-maghrabi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondents’ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.

  4. Frequency of vitamin D inadequacy among Saudi males visiting a Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic of a tertiary hospital in Al-Qassim region: Effect of vitamin D supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Lotfy Fayed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D inadequacy (deficiency and insufficiency has become an epidemic with the assumption that women in Arab countries are at a higher risk due to their clothing style of wearing dark colored suits or a veil. Aim of the work: To determine the frequency of vitamin D inadequacy among young adult and early middle-aged males in Al-Qassim region and to study the effect of vitamin D supplementation. Patients and methods: Sixty Saudi males visiting Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic of a tertiary hospital in Al-Qassim region were enrolled and evaluated for musculoskeletal state including assessment of chronic diffuse musculoskeletal pains using Numeric Rating Pain Scale (NRPS and functional evaluation of lower limb proximal muscle power using chair–rise performance test. Serum 25(OHD was evaluated. Vitamin D supplementation was provided for symptomatic subjects. Follow-up clinical evaluation as well as serum 25(OHD measurement after 12 weeks vitamin D3 supplementation was performed. Results: The mean age of the patients was 43.2 ± 6.4 years. 54 (90% had vitamin D inadequacy; 42 (70% deficiency and 12 (20% had insufficiency. Significant increase in baseline serum 25(OHD (13.92 ± 5.67 ng/ml after 12 weeks of supplementation (35.94 ± 4.11 ng/ml with significant decrease in NPRS (7.42 ± 2.12 vs 2.06 ± 2.04 (p < 0.001, as well as significant improvement of functional status scores of chair–rise performance test (93.95 ± 23.56 vs 203.1 ± 58.6 (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Vitamin D inadequacy is a major health problem not only in elderly people or women with in-door residency and dark-colored clothes, but also in Saudi male young adults in Al-Qassim region.

  5. The proportion of expenditure on children to family’s income in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Al-Banawi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia has witnessed enormous socio-economic changes for the last two decades. Due to this, the standard living of most Saudi people has been improved noticeably. Accordingly, that affects on the consumption expenditure of the Saudi family particularly on the children which has been increased substantially. However, no studies with respect to cost of children have yet been undertaken in Saudi Arabia. This study is to estimate the proportion of expenditure on children, to family’s income in Saudi Arabia by estimating the cost of children in Saudi Arabia; using Jeddah as a case study. In the study, the cost of children is taken to be money expenditure that is the amount that parents actually spent on their children. The study involves a sample of (1500 respondents from the city of Jeddah. Also, explores attitudes and opinions towards certain topics related to cost of children and the family. The study highlights that cost of children rise proportionately to family income, children age, and their numbers.

  6. Antigenic evidence of bluetongue virus from small ruminant population of two different geographical regions of Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaswati Subhadarsini Pany

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to carry out antigenic detection of bluetongue virus (BTV among the small ruminant population of two different geographical regions of Odisha (coastal and central using recombinant VP7 (r-VP-7 based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (s-ELISA. Materials and Methods: Blood samples (n=274 were collected from two different geographical pockets of Odisha, which covered mostly the coastal and central regions. Of the total samples under study 185 were from goat and 89 were from sheep. The blood samples were tested for the presence of BTV antigen by r-VP7 based s-ELISA. Results: r-VP-7 s-ELISA detected BTV antigen in 52.43% and 44.94% of the goat and sheep population under study, respectively. This study highlights the antigenic persistence of BTV in the state for the 1st time. Conclusion: This high antigenic presence in both sheep and goat population suggests an alarming BTV infection in field conditions which warrants more systematic study directed toward isolation and characterization studies as well as the implementation of control strategy for BT in Odisha.

  7. Cultural competence among nursing students in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J P; Alquwez, N; Cruz, C P; Felicilda-Reynaldo, R F D; Vitorino, L M; Islam, S M S

    2017-06-01

    This study assessed the cultural competence of nursing students in a Saudi University. With the current situation of immigration in Saudi Arabia, the cultural diversity in healthcare facilities is anticipated to grow. This presents a great challenge to the members of the healthcare team. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 272 nursing students in a Saudi university using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of two parts, namely the respondents' demographics and cultural background information sheet and the Cultural Capacity Scale Arabic version. The respondents showed the highest competence in their ability to demonstrate communication skills with culturally diverse patients and lowest in the familiarity with health- or illness-related cultural knowledge or theory. Gender, academic level, clinical exposure, prior diversity training, the experience of taking care of culturally diverse patients and patients belonging to special population groups were significant factors that could likely to influence cultural competence. The findings suggest that the Saudi nursing students possess the ability to provide culturally appropriate nursing care to patients with a diverse cultural background. Despite the good cultural competence reflected in this study, some aspects in ensuring a culturally competent care rendered by Saudi nursing students need to be improved. With the country's Saudization policy in health care (replacing foreign nurses with Saudi nurses), the findings can be used in designing training and interventions to meet the needs of Saudi nursing students regarding cultural competence development, which is integral in their preparation to assume their future roles as nurses. Policy guidelines, such as including cultural competency training and foreign languages training as mandatory continuing education for nurses, as well as integrating cultural competency and foreign languages in the prelicensure curriculum, should be developed and implemented in

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors burden in Saudi Arabia: The Africa Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Amjad M; Hersi, Ahmad; Mashhoud, Walid; Arafah, Mohammed R; Abreu, Paula C; Al Rowaily, Mohammed Abdullah; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2017-10-01

    Limited data exist on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia, particularly in relation to the differences between Saudi nationals and expatriates in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this analysis was to describe the current prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients attending general practice clinics across Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional epidemiological analysis of the Africa Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) study, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking, abdominal obesity) was evaluated in adults attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia. Group comparisons were made between patients of Saudi ethnicity (SA nationals) and patients who were not of Saudi ethnicity (expatriates). A total of 550 participants were enrolled from different clinics across Saudi Arabia [aged (mean ± standard deviation) 43 ± 11 years; 71% male]. Nearly half of the study cohort (49.8%) had more than three cardiovascular risk factors. Dyslipidemia was the most prevalent risk factor (68.6%). The prevalence of hypertension (47.5%) and dyslipidemia (75.5%) was higher among expatriates when compared with SA nationals (31.4% vs. 55.1%, p  = 0.0003 vs. p  Saudi Arabia. Improving primary care services to focus on risk factor control may ultimately decrease the incidence of coronary artery disease and improve overall quality of life. The ACE trial is registered under NCT01243138.

  9. Communicating with cancer patients in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younge, D; Moreau, P; Ezzat, A; Gray, A

    1997-02-20

    The following factors are relevant to the communication problems that exist in this country: 1. The impression is that patients here cope better with terminal illness at home than do patients elsewhere. The extended family, with its strong ties, and the strong Islamic faith that encourages its members to provide for parents and children in case of need mean that any input by health professionals is magnified by the family in the care of the patient. At first, it was uncertain if foreign health professionals would be accepted into Saudi homes (which are intensely private and protected for the family) for the purpose of caring for patients. This has proved unfounded. Hospitality is a very important part of Saudi society; nurses and doctors are welcomed and respected. Much of this success is due to the use of Saudi men as drivers and translators. These people provide 24-hour service, act as social workers assessing the needs of the family, and are the link between the patient and family, the nurse, and the doctor. 2. "CURE" OR "PALLIATION": The emphasis for cancer patients in Saudi Arabia is still on "curative treatment," even after any realistic hope of a cure is gone. The problem this causes is compounded by many patients being excluded from the decision-making process. Decisions made by the family may not always reflect the patient's wishes. Greater communication is needed to guide treatment decisions. 3. TRUTH-TELLING: Denying information of the patient's illness is probably more a historical than a cultural phenomenon. Similar attitudes prevailed until very recently in practically all other countries. In this very conservative country, people are committed to preserving Islamic culture in the face of Western technology. As medicine continues to demonstrate its effectiveness as well as its limitations, people will come to realize that the right of patients to know and understand their illness allows them to cope much better, and is compatible with the

  10. Inflammatory bowel disease in the Western Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, Azhar Q; Sawan Ali S

    2009-01-01

    To observe the pattern of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) among the people of Western region of Saudi Arabia, and to correlate the findings with published data. This is a retrospective study. All colonic biopsies were reviewed which were received, and processed at the Histopathology Department of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from January 2002 to July 2007. Ethical approval was obtained from the Bioethical and Research Committee. There were 711 colonic biopsies received during this period. One hundred and twenty-two patients were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC). There were 65 males and 57 females. The age ranged between 4-73 years. Most of the UC patients presented in adolescence, and in the adult age. Crohn's disease (CD) was diagnosed in 15 patients, 7 males and 8 females. The age ranged from 1-40 years. Most of the cases were seen in the adult age group. We conclude that IBD is certainly one of the major serious colonic lesions in our society, which should be thoroughly investigated by the combined efforts of clinicians and pathologists. We also conclude that gastrointestinal tuberculosis and infective colitis should always be investigated before suggesting the specific diagnosis of IBD. We recommend a broad based epidemiological study, simultaneously involving clinicians, and pathologists, to document the characteristics of this disease in our society. (author)

  11. Fortification with vitamin D: Comparative study in the Saudi Arabian and US markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Sadat-Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is common among Saudi Arabian population. To evaluate the current status of vitamin D fortification and calcium content of commonly consumed food items by the Saudi population and to compare it to US data. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional market survey at markets of Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and State of Illinois, USA. Methods: A dietary survey was carried out for the content of calcium and vitamin D on the most commonly consumed food products by the Saudi population which are suppose to be fortified by vitamin D. The survey included different brands of fresh milk, yoghurt, powdered milk, cheese, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and orange juice. Vitamin D content in the products studied from the Saudi marketplace was compared with the suggested vitamin D content in the same products according to US Code of Federal Regulations recommendations. Results: The overall calcium content in the processed dairy products is generally higher than the content in fresh dairy products. Vitamin D content in the fresh dairy products varied from 40 IU/L to 400 IU/L. None of the cereals or orange juice in Saudi Arabia contain vitamin D supplement. The vitamin D content in the food items from the Saudi marketplace is mostly lower than recommended by the US Code of Federal Regulations. Conclusion: Most commonly consumed food products by Saudi population which are suppose to be fortified by vitamin D either not fortified or contain an amount less than recommended by guidelines set for US marketplace.

  12. Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christoper M; Prados, Alfred B

    2007-01-01

    According to the U.S. State Department 2007 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, Saudi donors and unregulated charities have been a major source of financing to extremist and terrorist groups over the past 25 years...

  13. Social Determinants of Domestic Violence Among Saudi Married Women in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquaiz, ALJohara M; Almuneef, Maha; Kazi, Ambreen; Almeneessier, Aljohara

    2017-12-01

    Intimate partner violence is a worldwide public health problem. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence and types of domestic violence, and to explore the association between social determinants (sociodemographic factors, husband-related factors, and social support) and violence against women by their intimate partner (husband). We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 18 randomly selected primary health care centers and 13 private institutions (teaching institutes, government offices, social welfare organizations) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Female data collectors took interview from 1,883 married Saudi females aged 30 to 75 years. Interviews included sociodemographic information, reproductive health variables, and social support questionnaire. Violence was measured using modified Intimate Partner Violence Against Women questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. The lifetime prevalence for any type of violence was 43.0% ( n = 810). The most frequent type was controlling behavior (36.8%), followed by emotional violence (22%), sexual violence (12.7%), and physical violence (9.0%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the following were associated with greater odds of reporting domestic violence: younger age 30 to 40 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.3, 3.0]), 41 to 50 years (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = [1.1, 2.5]); lack of emotional support (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = [1.2, 2.5]); lack of tangible support (aOR = 1.4, 95% CI = [1.1, 1.9]); and perceived poor self-health (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = [1.0, 3.0]), husbands' poor health (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI = [1.2, 2.0]), and polygamy (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = [1.5, 2.6]). Domestic violence occurs frequently in Saudi Arabia. Both social conditions and social relations are significantly associated with domestic violence against Saudi women. Furthermore, improvement in implementation of the local policies

  14. An Overview of the Current State of Women’s Leadership in Higher Education in Saudi Arabia and a Proposal for Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzah Alsubaie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the predominance of perspectives on women’s leadership, which consistently emphasize the underrepresentation of women in virtually every sphere of political and economic life in countries around the world, very little is known about women’s leadership, especially in higher education, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. This has resulted in a gap in the literature, since higher education is one area of employment where Saudi women have made progress, and in spite of complex social, religious, cultural and organisational barriers, some have broken through the glass ceiling into higher education leadership. One goal of this paper is to highlight, through a synthesis of existing literature, the current state of women’s higher education leadership in Saudi Arabia. The second goal of this paper is to propose new directions for future research to address the current dearth of empirical work on women’s leadership in higher education in Saudi Arabia. This may be relevant to other regions of the Middle East and elsewhere.

  15. Changing opinions about research by Saudi medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abulaban A

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad Abulaban, Abdulrahman Alharbi, Osama BinDajam, Mohammed Al Jarbou, Hatem Alharbi, Faiz Alanazi, Khalid Aldamiri, Ahmed Althobaiti, Abdulla Al Sayyari Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate and compare the opinions and attitudes of medical students toward medical research in five Saudi universities and examine the changes observed in these opinions and attitudes in one of these universities over a period of time.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted among medical students in five Saudi universities. This study was based on a survey undertaken in 2015. The survey consisted of five questions inquiring about the opinions and attitudes of medical students toward medical research. The same survey was carried out 8 years earlier in one of these universities (King Abdulaziz University [KAU], and the results obtained during the two periods (2007 and 2015 were compared.Results: A convenient sample of 924 students was selected from five Saudi universities. Ninety-five (10.3% of the medical students were not aware of the usefulness and importance scientific research will have on their future careers. A total of 409 (44.3% stated that they had no knowledge on how to conduct scientific research. On the other hand, a vast majority of medical students (98.1% expressed a willingness and interest to participate in scientific research if provided with an opportunity. The percentage of students from KAU strongly agreeing to participate in research rose from 33.1% in 2007 to 81.5% in 2015 (P=0.001. Of all the students surveyed, 431 (46.6% had participated in scientific research as undergraduates.Conclusion: Most students in five Saudi universities expressed enthusiasm for participating in a research project, but only a few of them had

  16. Residency Programs and Clinical Leadership Skills Among New Saudi Graduate Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dossary, Reem Nassar; Kitsantas, Panagiota; Maddox, P J

    2016-01-01

    Nurse residency programs have been adopted by health care organizations to assist new graduate nurses with daily challenges such as intense working environments, increasing patient acuity, and complex technologies. Overall, nurse residency programs are proven beneficial in helping nurses transition from the student role to independent practitioners and bedside leaders. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of residency programs on leadership skills of new Saudi graduate nurses who completed a residency program compared to new Saudi graduate nurses who did not participate in residency programs. The study design was cross-sectional involving a convenience sample (n = 98) of new graduate nurses from three hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The Clinical Leadership Survey was used to measure the new graduate nurses' clinical leadership skills based on whether they completed a residency program or not. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine leadership skills in this sample of new Saudi graduate nurses. A significant difference was found between residents and nonresidents in their leadership skills (t = 10.48, P = .000). Specifically, residents were significantly more likely to show higher levels of leadership skills compared to their counterparts. Attending a residency program was associated with a significant increase in clinical leadership skills. The findings of this study indicate that there is a need to implement more residency programs in hospitals of Saudi Arabia. It is imperative that nurse managers and policy makers in Saudi Arabia consider these findings to improve nurses' leadership skills, which will in turn improve patient care. Further research should examine how residency programs influence new graduate nurses' transition from student to practitioner with regard to clinical leadership skills in Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-perception of personal oral health in Saudi population: a social media approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShahrani, I; Tikare, S; Togoo, R A; AlAsere, Y H; AlAsmari, A A

    2015-08-27

    Subjective perceptions and perceived needs for dental care in a population can provide important information for policy-makers. This study aimed to assess self-perceived personal oral health status among the Saudi Arabia population who could be accessed through social media. A pre-tested questionnaire for completion online was designed to assess self-perceived oral health via 13 items in 4 domains with weighted scores from 1-3. The questionnaire was uploaded to the Internet and the link to it was made available through popular social networking sites in Saudi Arabia. With respondents recruited by snowball methods a total of 4618 people (57.2% males, 42.8% females) completed the questionnaire. The total mean score for the participants was 23.0 (SD 5.0) (scale range 13-39). Self-perceived oral health was rated as poor by 24.2% of respondents, average by 50.6% and good by 25.2%. Educational level, age and region but not sex were significantly associated with self-perceived oral health.

  18. Descriptive scientific analysis: progress of the educational system of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie PROFANTER

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia has set itself the goal of developing a knowledge-based society. Demographic changes and economic growth within short time in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia led to radical changes of the educational system. Higher education institutions are in expansion and international collaborations are being intensified. The policy of gender segregation based on a neopatriarchal society favored by the tribal system is an important cultural element of Saudi society and influences the Saudi educational culture.This article provides a scientific description and analyzes the main elements of the Saudi higher education system using the few data available due to the limited release of official statistics. Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University is analyzed as a case study based on the author’s experience who taught there as an academic years of 2006 and 2008. Being the first private institution to admit both male and female students it had to face several challenges. Furthermore, the impact of international collaborations is identified by exploring the «King Abdullah Scholarship Programme» which gives thousands of students the opportunity to study abroad.Education while having a global function also fulfills a national function. Therefore, collaborations with Western universities in the Kingdom have created challenges for the recent generations in balancing Western values imposed throughout their higher education with their traditional culture. Due to the policy of gender segregation, the Saudi educational system represents different obstructions and opportunities particularly for female students.

  19. Investigation of some factors related to antibacterial activity of Saudi honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Brahim, Jehan Saud Rashid

    2006-01-01

    Honey was found to have a curing effect on bacterial species known to cause wound infections. The aim of this research was to study some of the factors related to the antibacterial activity of a Saudi Honey. Honey samples from different floral sources, geographic locations and production season were used. The tested organisms presented both gram positive and gram negative bacteria causing wound infection. A zone of complete inhibition of all bacterial species was observed with honey types Samra (S-W), Samra (W-S), Saha (W-S), Samra (S-S), Sidir (S-W) and a larger zone of partial inhibition of growth was observed in all tested honey types. It can be concluded that osmolarity is involved in the antibacterial activity of the honey. Acidity might be regarded as being of primary importance. On the other hand, hydrogen peroxide was found to play a major role in the bacterial activity of honey. (author)

  20. Barriers and challenges in adopting Saudi telemedicine network: The perceptions of decision makers of healthcare facilities in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulellah Alaboudi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Despite emerging evidence about the benefits of telemedicine, there are still many barriers and challenges to its adoption. Its adoption is often cited as a failed project because 75% of them are abandoned or ‘failed outright’ and this percentage increases to 90% in developing countries. The literature has clarified that there is neither one-size-fit-all framework nor best-practice solution for all ICT innovations or for all countries. Barriers and challenges in adopting and implementing one ICT innovation in a given country/organisation may not be similar – not for the same ICT innovation in another country/organisation nor for another ICT innovation in the same country/organisation.To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive scientific study has investigated these challenges and barriers in all Healthcare Facilities (HCFs across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. This research, which is undertaken based on the Saudi Telemedicine Network roadmap and in collaboration with the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH, is aimed at identifying the principle predictive challenges and barriers in the context of the KSA, and understanding the perspective of the decision makers of each HCF type, sector, and location. Three theories are used to underpin this research: the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT, the Technology–Organisation–Environment (TOE theoretical framework, and the Evaluating Telemedicine Systems Success Model (ETSSM. This study applies a three-sequential-phase approach by using three mixed methods (i.e., literature review, interviews, and questionnaires in order to utilise the source triangulation and the data comparison analysis technique. The findings of this study show that the top three influential barriers to adopt and implement telemedicine by the HCF decision makers are: (i the availability of adequate sustainable financial support to implement, operate, and maintain the telemedicine system, (ii

  1. Association between Vitamin D Status and Coronary Heart Disease among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljefree, Najlaa M; Lee, Patricia; Alsaqqaf, Jamal M; Ahmed, Faruk

    2016-10-17

    Recent evidence has pointed out an association between vitamin D deficiency and coronary heart disease (CHD). Due to the growing epidemic of CHD and vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia, exploring the role of vitamin D in the prevention of CHD is crucial. The aim of this study was to examine the association between vitamin D status and CHD in Saudi Arabian adults. This case-control study included 130 CHD cases and 195 age-sex matched controls. Study subjects were recruited from three hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Study participants were interviewed face-to-face to collect data on their socio-demographic characteristics and family history of CHD. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum levels of vitamin D, glucose, and total cholesterol were measured. Body weight, height, and blood pressure measurements were also recorded. Severe vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 10 ng/mL) was much more prevalent in CHD cases than in controls (46% and 3%, respectively). The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL) was associated with CHD, with an odds ratio of 6.5 (95% CI: 2.7-15, p < 0.001). The current study revealed that vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with CHD, suggesting an important predictor of CHD among Saudi adults.

  2. Association between Vitamin D Status and Coronary Heart Disease among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najlaa M. Aljefree

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has pointed out an association between vitamin D deficiency and coronary heart disease (CHD. Due to the growing epidemic of CHD and vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia, exploring the role of vitamin D in the prevention of CHD is crucial. The aim of this study was to examine the association between vitamin D status and CHD in Saudi Arabian adults. This case-control study included 130 CHD cases and 195 age-sex matched controls. Study subjects were recruited from three hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Study participants were interviewed face-to-face to collect data on their socio-demographic characteristics and family history of CHD. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum levels of vitamin D, glucose, and total cholesterol were measured. Body weight, height, and blood pressure measurements were also recorded. Severe vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 10 ng/mL was much more prevalent in CHD cases than in controls (46% and 3%, respectively. The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 20 ng/mL was associated with CHD, with an odds ratio of 6.5 (95% CI: 2.7–15, p < 0.001. The current study revealed that vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with CHD, suggesting an important predictor of CHD among Saudi adults.

  3. Biodiversity of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Acacia gerrardii Benth in different habitats of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, A.; Huqail, A.A.; Alqarawi, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are the most influential and ubiquitous rhizosphere microbiome. AMF improve the soil characteristics and assist the symbiotic plants by improving plant absorption of soil nutrients particularly phosphorus. The biodiversity of native AMF highly influenced by soil nature and plant composition. The present investigation studied the enumeration and biodiversity of AMF associated with rhizosphere soil and roots of Acacia gerrardii (Talh trees) grown natively in different habitats of Saudi Arabia (SA). Soil analysis were varied with locations nonetheless, there are no distinct correlations has been estimated among the root colonization with AMF, spores number of AMF and soil properties. Fifteen mycorrhizal fungal species belong to seven genus (Funneliformis; Glomus; Rhizophagus; Septoglomus; Acaulospora; Claroideoglomus; Archaeospora) and four families (Glomeraceae; Acaulosporaceae; Claroideoglomeraceae; Archaeosporaceae) were identified from forty soil samples collected from four different locations belong to Riyadh region (Rawdhat Khuraim, Houta Bani Tamim) and Holy Madina region (Ola city, Werqaan Mountain) in SA. The present investigation extends our knowledge on the biodiversity of AMF associated with rhizosphere soil of Talh trees (A.gerrardii) grown natively in different Saudi locations. (author)

  4. Bullying among medical students in a Saudi medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzahrani Hasan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as “a “persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient”. Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0% of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.

  5. Corporate Governance and Firm Performance: Evidence from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Buallay

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to measure the impact of Corporate Governance on Firm performance of listed companies in Saudi stock exchange. The study methodology was a pooled data collected from the Saudi stock exchange (TADAUWL for the period from 2012 to 2014. The study sample is 171 listed companies. The study independent variable is Corporate Governance principals. The dependent variable is Firm performance which was measured using ROA, ROE and Tobin's Q. The study also utilized five control variables in order to help measuring the relationship between Corporate Governance and Firm Performance. In conclusion, the study found that the governance level was 61.4% in Saudi stock exchange which is considered high compared to previous studies. The results of the study test indicate that there is no significant impact for corporate governance adoption on firm's operational and financial performance in the listed companies in Saudi stock exchange. By testing the Tobin's Q model the study also concluded that there’s no significant impact for ownership of the largest shareholder and independency of Board of Directors on firm's market performance. Significant impact was found for the ownership and the size of the Board of Directors on firm's performance.

  6. Kas Saudi Araabia naftatulu leiab tee Rootsi pangandusturule? / Romet Enok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Enok, Romet

    2008-01-01

    Autor vaatleb, kes võiks enim olla huvitatud Põhjala pangandusturu ümberkorraldamisest ja kellel oleks selleks kõige rohkem vahendeid. Autori hinnangul on võimalik, et Investori ja SEB juhtide kohtumisel Saudi Araabia printsi Alwaleed bin Saudiga oli kõne all Saudi printsi kaasamine strateegilise investorina SEB kõrvale Nordeat ostma

  7. The Challenges Faced by New Science Teachers in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharari, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Growing demand for science teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fed by increasing numbers of public school students, is forcing the Saudi government to attract, recruit and retain well-qualified science teachers. Beginning science teachers enter the educational profession with a massive fullfilment and satisfaction in their roles and positions…

  8. Black lung persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Saudi experience with sildenafil and nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdulRahman M. Alnemri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the clinical presentation, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment outcome of Saudi infants with black lung persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN. Methods: This is a retrospective review of all neonates with PPHN presented to the Armed Force Hospital Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2012 to December 2014. Results: Ten term and near term infants presented with PPHN were included. Maternal diabetes and Down syndrome were the most common identified risk factors for PPHN in the study group. Nine infants were treated with oral sildenafil and did not require mechanical ventilation. Only one infant required mechanical ventilation and inhaled nitric oxide in addition to oral sildenafil. Conclusion: Most of the patients in this cohort with PPHN had risk factors, they did not require mechanical ventilation and responded well to oral sildenafil.

  9. Black lung persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Saudi experience with sildenafil and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnemri, AbdulRahman M

    2017-01-01

    To determine the clinical presentation, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment outcome of Saudi infants with black lung persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Methods: This is a retrospective review of all neonates with PPHN presented to the Armed Force Hospital Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2012 to December 2014. Results: Ten term and near term infants presented with PPHN were included. Maternal diabetes and Down syndrome were the most common identified risk factors for PPHN in the study group. Nine infants were treated with oral sildenafil and did not require mechanical ventilation. Only one infant required mechanical ventilation and inhaled nitric oxide in addition to oral sildenafil. Conclusion: Most of the patients in this cohort with PPHN had risk factors, they did not require mechanical ventilation and responded well to oral sildenafil.

  10. The New Saudi Educational Renaissance: In between the "Capacity to Aspire" and the "Capacity to Remember"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia investments in higher education have increased exponentially in recent years, and the New Saudi Educational Renaissance is attracting the attention of international academia. The purpose of this study is to draw on Saudi sources, with the aim of allowing Saudi voices to introduce their strategies for the design of a…

  11. The Saudi Thoracic Society pneumococcal vaccination guidelines-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, N. S.; Al-Barrak, A. M.; Al-Moamary, M. S.; Zeitouni, M. O.; Idrees, M. M.; Al-Ghobain, M. O.; Al-Shimemeri, A. A.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Saudi Arabia is a host to millions of pilgrims who travel annually from all over the world for Umrah and the Hajj pilgrimages and are at risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia or invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). There is also the risk of transmission of S. pneumoniae including antibiotic resistant strains between pilgrims and their potential global spread upon their return. The country also has unique challenges posed by susceptible population to IPD due to people with hemoglobinopathies, younger age groups with chronic conditions, and growing problem of antibiotic resistance. Since the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease is constantly changing, with an increase in nonvaccine pneumococcal serotypes, vaccination policies on the effectiveness and usefulness of vaccines require regular revision. As part of the Saudi Thoracic Society (STS) commitment to promote the best practices in the field of respiratory diseases, we conducted a review of S. pneumoniae infections and the best evidence base available in the literature. The aim of the present study is to develop the STS pneumococcal vaccination guidelines for healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia. We recommend vaccination against pneumococcal infections for all children Saudi Arabia population <50 years of age, many of whom have risk factors for contracting pneumococcal infections. A section for pneumococcal vaccination before the Umrah and Hajj pilgrimages is included as well. PMID:27168856

  12. Beyond the Levant: first evidence of a pre-pottery Neolithic incursion into the Nefud Desert, Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémy Crassard

    Full Text Available Pre-Pottery Neolithic assemblages are best known from the fertile areas of the Mediterranean Levant. The archaeological site of Jebel Qattar 101 (JQ-101, at Jubbah in the southern part of the Nefud Desert of northern Saudi Arabia, contains a large collection of stone tools, adjacent to an Early Holocene palaeolake. The stone tool assemblage contains lithic types, including El-Khiam and Helwan projectile points, which are similar to those recorded in Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B assemblages in the Fertile Crescent. Jebel Qattar lies ∼500 kilometres outside the previously identified geographic range of Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures. Technological analysis of the typologically diagnostic Jebel Qattar 101 projectile points indicates a unique strategy to manufacture the final forms, thereby raising the possibility of either direct migration of Levantine groups or the acculturation of mobile communities in Arabia. The discovery of the Early Holocene site of Jebel Qattar suggests that our view of the geographic distribution and character of Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures may be in need of revision.

  13. Beyond the Levant: First Evidence of a Pre-Pottery Neolithic Incursion into the Nefud Desert, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crassard, Rémy; Petraglia, Michael D.; Parker, Adrian G.; Parton, Ash; Roberts, Richard G.; Jacobs, Zenobia; Alsharekh, Abdullah; Al-Omari, Abdulaziz; Breeze, Paul; Drake, Nick A.; Groucutt, Huw S.; Jennings, Richard; Régagnon, Emmanuelle; Shipton, Ceri

    2013-01-01

    Pre-Pottery Neolithic assemblages are best known from the fertile areas of the Mediterranean Levant. The archaeological site of Jebel Qattar 101 (JQ-101), at Jubbah in the southern part of the Nefud Desert of northern Saudi Arabia, contains a large collection of stone tools, adjacent to an Early Holocene palaeolake. The stone tool assemblage contains lithic types, including El-Khiam and Helwan projectile points, which are similar to those recorded in Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B assemblages in the Fertile Crescent. Jebel Qattar lies ∼500 kilometres outside the previously identified geographic range of Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures. Technological analysis of the typologically diagnostic Jebel Qattar 101 projectile points indicates a unique strategy to manufacture the final forms, thereby raising the possibility of either direct migration of Levantine groups or the acculturation of mobile communities in Arabia. The discovery of the Early Holocene site of Jebel Qattar suggests that our view of the geographic distribution and character of Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures may be in need of revision. PMID:23894294

  14. Occurrence and fate of emerging contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plants from different geographical regions-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Reinhard, Martin; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2018-04-15

    Emerging contaminants, such as antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, hormones, and artificial sweeteners, are recognized as new classes of water contaminants due to their proven or potential adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. This review provides comprehensive data on the occurrence of 60 emerging contaminants (ECs) in influent, treated effluent, sludge, and biosolids in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In particular, data on the occurrence of ECs in the influents and effluents of WWTPs are systematically summarized and categorized according to geographical regions (Asia, Europe, and North America). The occurrence patterns of ECs in raw influent and treated effluents of WWTPs between geographical regions were compared and evaluated. Concentrations of most ECs in raw influent in Asian region tend to be higher than those in European and North American countries. Many antibiotics were detected in the influents and effluents of WWTPs at concentrations close to or exceeding the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for resistance selection. The efficacy of EC removal by sorption and biodegradation during wastewater treatment processes are discussed in light of kinetics and parameters, such as sorption coefficients (K d ) and biodegradation constants (k biol ), and physicochemical properties (i.e. log K ow and pK a ). Commonly used sampling and monitoring strategies are critically reviewed. Analytical research needs are identified, and novel investigative approaches for future monitoring studies are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheyami, Ali M.; Cunliffe, Nigel A.; Hart, C. Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the antilogy diarrhea carried out from 1982 to 2003. The prevalence of rotavirus ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in first year of life. There were significant differences in the seasonability within Saudi Arabia with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains have been G-typed. The prevalence of noticeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types... Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long elctropherotype was predominant. Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited. And there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines. (author)

  16. Indonesians in Saudi Arabia: Worhsip and Work

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Husson

    2014-01-01

    This article, which  opens a new  line of research,  is intended  to make a first assessment of the consequences  of Indonesian migration to saudi Arabia,  in particular  during  the  first half of the 2Oth century-a period when the immigration is bound  up with the pilgrimage from which Saudi Arabia draws a large part of its revenues. It must be added  that while documentary  evidence and partial studies on  this period  exist,  it turns out that documentation on the contemporary peri...

  17. Obesity, physical activity and sedentary behavior amongst British and Saudi youth: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Lyons, Mark; Collins, Peter; Al-Nuaim, Anwar; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa; Duncan, Michael J; Nevill, Alan

    2012-04-01

    This study explores differences in weight status, obesity and patterns of physical activity (PA) in relation to gender and age of youth from two culturally, environmentally and geographically diverse countries, the United Kingdom (UK) and Saudi Arabia (SA). A total of 2,290 males and females (15-17 years) volunteered to participate in this study. Participants completed a validated self-report questionnaire that contained 47 items relating to patterns of PA, sedentary activity and eating habits. The questionnaire allows the calculation of total energy expenditure in metabolic equivalent (MET-min) values per week. Significant differences in percentage of overweight/obese and levels of PA were evident between the youth from the two countries, with males being generally more physically active than females. Additionally, there were significant associations between Body Mass Index (BMI), PA and sedentary behaviors; the youth with higher BMI reported lower levels of PA and higher amounts of sedentary time. These findings highlight the diverse nature of lifestyle of youth living in different geographical areas of the world and the need for further research to explore the socio-cultural factors that impact on the prevalence of obesity and patterns of PA of youth in different populations.

  18. A unified world oil market: Regions in physical, economic, geographic, and political space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Robert K.; Banerjee, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a general consensus that the market is unified, here we quantify the factors that create regions by analyzing the price relation between 33 crude oils. ADF statistics indicate that 447 of the 528 crude oil pairings cointegrate; 81 do not. The presence/absence of cointegration is analyzed using a logit model. The likelihood that the prices for two crude oils cointegrate depends on their physical characteristics (density and sulfur content), economic factors (country risk for the nation of origin), their geographic location (distance between supply ports), and political factors (OPEC membership). Over the sample period, the technology to refine heavy crude oils penetrates the market, and this reduces the price difference between heavy and light crude oils. The effect of country risk implies that crude oils from high risk nations are not perfect substitutes for crude oils of similar quality from low risk nations. Finally, crude oils from widely separated suppliers are more likely to cointegrate than crude oils from near-by nations, which suggests consumers diversify supply across transportation chokepoints. For this sample, these sources of regionalization add $0.20 per barrel to the $2.86 average price difference between crude oils in the same market. Together, these factors have important implications for the efficacy of policy aimed at reducing dependence on unreliable suppliers and the spill-over effects of holding inventories. - Highlights: • The world oil market is not completely unified. • Regions are defined by differences in API gravity and sulfur content. • Country risk regionalizes the world oil market. • Shipping chokepoints regionalize the world oil market. • Regionalization adds $0.20 to $2.86 price difference between oils in same market

  19. The prerequisite for competition in the restructured wholesale Saudi electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Muhawesh, Tareq A.; Qamber, Isa S.

    2008-01-01

    Protection of customers against monopoly is the first and main objective of the Saudi Electricity and Co-generation Regulatory Authority (ECRA). The second important objective, as recommended by the present study, is regulating natural monopoly businesses [Saudi electricity national grid (SENG) and Saudi electricity distribution (SED)] in addition to promoting real competition in competitive businesses [power supply providers (PSPs) and customer service providers (CSPs)]. Another four main objectives of ECRA are to promote the efficient use of energy and natural resources, to ensure a reasonable rate of return for PSPs and CSPs and at the same time to be fair to end-users, to ensure reasonable charges to SENG and SED services to be adequate for them to run the organization in a break-even manner and to maintain the system's security and reliability. The present paper discusses the way to improve and restructure the Saudi electricity market

  20. A Descriptive-Evaluative Study of a Saudi EFL Textbook Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Ahlam

    2015-01-01

    This study employs checklists from Williams (1983) and Keban, Muhtar, and Zen (2012) to evaluate the "Flying High for Saudi Arabia" series, which is currently taught in high schools in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, to ensure it can achieve their pedagogical goals. Different results were obtained from each checklist. Keban et al.'s…

  1. Molecular nature of alpha-globin genes in the Saudi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Francis Borgio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-thalassemia (α-thal is a disorder caused by the deletion of single or double α-globin genes, and/or point mutations in the α-globin genes. There are 2 common types of α-globin genes; HBA2 and HBA1. Recently, it has been discovered that the HBA2 gene is replaced by a unique HBA12 gene convert in 5.7% of the Saudi population. The α-globin genes have been emerging as a molecular target for the treatment of β-thalassemia (β-thal. Hence, it is essential to understand the molecular nature of α-globin genes to treat the most prevalent hemoglobin disorders, such as sickle cell disease, α-thal, and β-thal prevalent in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Thirty-two different α-globin genotypes have been observed in the Saudi population. This review outlines the classification of the α-globin genes on the basis of their molecular nature and complex combinations of α-globin genes, and their variants predominant in Saudis.

  2. Influenza vaccination among Saudi Hajj pilgrims: Revealing the uptake and vaccination barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfelali, Mohammad; Barasheed, Osamah; Badahdah, Al-Mamoon; Bokhary, Hamid; Azeem, Mohammed I; Habeebullah, Turki; Bakarman, Marwan; Asghar, Atif; Booy, Robert; Rashid, Harunor

    2018-04-12

    Hajj is the world's largest annual mass gathering that attracts two to three million Muslims from around the globe to a religious assemblage in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The risk of acquisition and transmission of influenza among Hajj pilgrims is high. Therefore, influenza vaccination is recommended, and was monitored frequently among pilgrims from different countries. However, the vaccination uptake among Saudi pilgrims has not been assessed in recent years. This analysis aims to evaluate influenza vaccine uptake among Saudi Hajj pilgrims, and identify the key barriers to vaccination. Data on influenza vaccination were obtained from Saudi pilgrims who took part in a large trial during the Hajj of 2013, 2014 and 2015. Pilgrims were met and recruited in Mina, Makkah during the peak period of Hajj and were asked to complete a baseline questionnaire that recorded their influenza vaccination history, including reason(s) for non-receipt of vaccine. A total of 6974 Saudi pilgrims aged between 18 and 95 (median 34) years were recruited; male to female ratio was 1:1.2. Of the total, 90.8% declared their influenza vaccination history, 51.3% of them reported receiving influenza vaccine before travel to Hajj. The vaccination rates for the years 2013, 2014 and 2015 were 21.4%, 48.2% and 58.1%, respectively (P Saudi Hajj pilgrims is increasing over years but still needs further improvement. Lack of awareness and misperceptions are the main barriers. Education of Saudi pilgrims and health professionals is required to raise awareness about influenza vaccination. Further studies are needed to understand pilgrims' misperceptions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Video game addiction and psychological distress among expatriate adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Saquib, Nazmus; Saquib, Juliann; Wahid, AbdulWaris; Ahmed, Abdulrahman Akmal; Dhuhayr, Hamad Emad; Zaghloul, Mohamed Saddik; Ewid, Mohammed; Al-Mazrou, Abdulrahman

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have estimated screen time among Arab adolescents, and no studies, to date, have published data on addiction to video games or Internet games among Arab adolescents. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of addiction to video games and its correlation with mental health in a sample of expatriate high school students from the Al-Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: The survey was conducted in 2016 among 276 students enrolled in ninth through twelfth grades in t...

  4. Video game addiction and psychological distress among expatriate adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Saquib, Nazmus; Saquib, Juliann; Wahid, AbdulWaris; Ahmed, Abdulrahman Akmal; Dhuhayr, Hamad Emad; Zaghloul, Mohamed Saddik; Ewid, Mohammed; Al-Mazrou, Abdulrahman

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have estimated screen time among Arab adolescents, and no studies, to date, have published data on addiction to video games or Internet games among Arab adolescents. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of addiction to video games and its correlation with mental health in a sample of expatriate high school students from the Al-Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Methods The survey was conducted in 2016 among 276 students enrolled in ninth through twelfth grades in the...

  5. Saudi regulations for the accreditation of sleep medicine physicians and technologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S BaHammam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The professional content of sleep medicine has grown significantly over the past few decades, warranting the recognition of sleep medicine as an independent specialty. Because the practice of sleep medicine has expanded in Saudi Arabia over the past few years, a national regulation system to license and ascertain the competence of sleep medicine physicians and technologists has become essential. Recently, the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties formed the National Committee for the Accreditation of Sleep Medicine Practice and developed national accreditation criteria. This paper presents the newly approved Saudi accreditation criteria for sleep medicine physicians and technologists.

  6. Prevalence of Obesity in Hail Region, KSA: In a Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. We, therefore, aimed to provide epidemiological data on the prevalence of obesity in Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Methodology. Data were collected during cross-sectional survey which included 5000 Saudi selected from 30 primary health care centers (PHCs in Hail Region. Results. The overall prevalence of obesity in Hail was 63.6%. Moreover, the prevalence of males was 56.2% and the prevalence of females was 71%. Conclusion. Obesity is prevalent in the Hail Region which necessitates urgent interventions including health education.

  7. Willingness to Communicate in English among Saudi Female University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turjoman, Mona Obaid Alrahman Ashik

    2016-01-01

    Since the English Language teaching system differs from public schools to private ones, it is presumed that this would have a great impact of students' willingness to communicate in English in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effect of private and public school education on WTC in English among Saudi Female…

  8. Motivations and future practice plans of orthodontic residents in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamlan, Nasir; Al-Ruwaithi, Moatazbellah M.; Al-Shraim, Nasir; El-Metwaaly, Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This study aims to explore the criteria used by graduate students while selecting a career as orthodontists and their future aspirations. Materials and Methods: A list of Saudi Board of Orthodontics (SB-Ortho) residents was obtained from the Central and Western regions of the Kingdom and all orthodontic residents (excluding the 1st year residents) were invited to participate in this survey. Permission to contact the orthodontic residents was obtained from the respective program directors. The final study sample composed of 36 orthodontic residents. Results: About 39% of residents chose orthodontic specialty after graduation, nearly 33% selected the career during the undergraduate education while the rest chose the specialty at other stages. Approximately, 67% of the residents chose orthodontic specialty because it is intellectual challenging. Around 25% of residents choose orthodontic to improve their earning and 39% join orthodontic for job prestige. Around 50% of orthodontic Saudi residents planned to use self-ligating brackets; 63.9% planned to use invisalign; 86.1% plan to use temporary anchorage devices. About 72% of residents plan to use a cone-beam computerized tomography; 89% plan to use a digital imaging program; 39% plan to use indirect bonding; and 28% plan to use lingual orthodontics. More than half of the residents showed interest to participate in the research and about a quarter of them were willing to work in small cities. Conclusions: Most of the orthodontic residents in Saudi Arabia take up this specialty as they felt that it was intellectually challenging. The SB-Ortho program adequately prepares the residents in all the modern aspects of the specialty. PMID:24987645

  9. Exploring the Mismatch between Skills and Jobs for Women in Saudi Arabia in Technical and Vocational Areas: The Views of Saudi Arabian Private Sector Business Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, John R.; Al-Shetaiwi, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Gives an overview of women in both general and technical-vocational education and employment in Saudi Arabia. Reports on a survey of 220 private business managers: 83% indicated that Saudi women had limited participation in technical jobs; 63% suggested that vocational-technical education did not promote women's participation. (Contains 51…

  10. The contribution of the Saudi woman in economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haga Elimam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study is to analyze the contribution of Saudi woman in economic development of the country. This report develops an understanding of women contributions towards economic development. The method used to analyze the data was Pearson correlation. Through correlation we can determine the relationship between the variables. The study was a quantitative study. The data for five years was taken. Hypotheses development proceeded by focusing on labor work force participation, literacy rate of adult females and GDP rate within Saudi Arabia. Analysis was done on the results and the findings confirmed that there is a significant relationship between the variables. This study was of exploratory nature, it is recommended that this research be expanded to a statistically valid base within Saudi Arabia and then expand the study to additional countries. The findings showed that there was a high significant relationship between women labor work force participation and GDP. Whereas, there was moderate significant relationship between labor work force and literacy rate. Hence, there is a positive relationship between women contribution and economic development. The research is conducted within the context of Saudi Arabia and has certain limitation with further directions of conducting research in related field to get more accurate results.

  11. Chronic disease prevalence among elderly Saudi men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquib, Nazmus; Saquib, Juliann; Alhadlag, Abdulrahman; Albakour, Mohamad Anas; Aljumah, Bader; Sughayyir, Mohammed; Alhomidan, Ziad; Alminderej, Omar; Aljaser, Mohamed; Al-Mazrou, Abdulrahman

    2017-01-01

    Saudi demographic composition has changed because of increased life expectancy and decreased fertility rates. Little data are available about health conditions among older adults in Saudi Arabia, who are expected to represent 20% of the population by 2050. The study aim was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for chronic conditions among older Saudi men. The sample pertained to 400 men (age ≥55 years) from Buraidah, Al-Qassim. Research assistants recruited participants in all the mosques from the randomly selected neighborhoods (16 of 95). They administered a structured questionnaire that assessed self-reported disease history (heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, asthma, gastric/peptic ulcer, and cancer), and medication use; participants' height, weight, blood pressure, and random blood glucose (glucometer) were measured. Multinomial logistic regressions were employed to assess correlates of number of chronic diseases. The mean and standard deviation for age and body mass index (BMI) were 63.0 ± 7.5 years and 28.9 ± 4.8 (kg/m 2 ), respectively. 78% (77.8%) were overweight or obese, 35.0% were employed, 54.5% walked daily, 9.3% were current smokers, and 85.0% belonged to the middle class. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, asthma, ulcer, and cancer were: 71.3% 27.3%, 16.4%, 9.7%, 8.9%, and 2.0%, respectively. Of the participants, 31.0% had one, 34.5% had two or more, and 34.5% did not have any chronic diseases. The likelihood of chronic diseases increased with increased age, higher BMI, and current smoking. The chronic disease prevalence among the Saudi elderly men is substantial.

  12. Smartphone addiction among university students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alosaimi, Fahad D.; Alyahya, Haifa; Alshahwan, Hatem; Mahyijari, Nawal Al; Shaik, Shaffi A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and correlates of smartphone addiction among university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and March 2015. An electronic self administered questionnaire and the problematic use of mobile phones (PUMP) Scale were used. Results: Out of 2367 study subjects, 27.2% stated that they spent more than 8 hours per day using their smartphones....

  13. Saudi Arabia exporting Salafi education and radicalizing Indonesia's Muslims

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacs, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Salafis, who defend a very conservative, literal interpretation of Islam and treat Shia Muslims with hostility, are not just a phenomenon in the Middle East. They are increasingly pressuring Shias and other religious minorities in Indonesia, too. Saudi Arabia is the world’s main provider of Islamic education. In addition to promoting Salafism and maligning other religious communities, Saudi educational materials present the kingdom in a favorable light and can also exacerba...

  14. Regional, geographic, and racial/ethnic variation in glycemic control in a national sample of veterans with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egede, Leonard E; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Hunt, Kelly J; Axon, Robert N; Echols, Carrae; Gilbert, Gregory E; Mauldin, Patrick D

    2011-04-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of a national cohort of veterans with diabetes to better understand regional, geographic, and racial/ethnic variation in diabetes control as measured by HbA(1c). A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a national cohort of 690,968 veterans with diabetes receiving prescriptions for insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents in 2002 that were followed over a 5-year period. The main outcome measures were HbA(1c) levels (as continuous and dichotomized at ≥8.0%). Relative to non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), HbA(1c) levels remained 0.25% higher in non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs), 0.31% higher in Hispanics, and 0.14% higher in individuals with other/unknown/missing racial/ethnic group after controlling for demographics, type of medication used, medication adherence, and comorbidities. Small but statistically significant geographic differences were also noted with HbA(1c) being lowest in the South and highest in the Mid-Atlantic. Rural/urban location of residence was not associated with HbA(1c) levels. For the dichotomous outcome poor control, results were similar with race/ethnic group being strongly associated with poor control (i.e., odds ratios of 1.33 [95% CI 1.31-1.35] and 1.57 [1.54-1.61] for NHBs and Hispanics vs. NHWs, respectively), geographic region being weakly associated with poor control, and rural/urban residence being negligibly associated with poor control. In a national longitudinal cohort of veterans with diabetes, we found racial/ethnic disparities in HbA(1c) levels and HbA(1c) control; however, these disparities were largely, but not completely, explained by adjustment for demographic characteristics, medication adherence, type of medication used to treat diabetes, and comorbidities.

  15. Boosting Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Production With Rhizobacteria From Various Plants in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsanullah Daur

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on rhizobacteria to promote sustainable crop production in arid regions of Saudi Arabia. The study isolated 17 tightly root-adhering rhizobacteria from various plants at Hada Al Sham in Saudi Arabia. All 17 rhizobacterial isolates were confirmed as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria by classical biochemical tests. Using 16S rDNA gene sequence analyses, the strains were identified as Bacillus, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter. Subsequently, the strains were assessed for their ability to improve the physiology, nutrient uptake, growth, and yield of alfalfa plants grown under desert agriculture conditions. The field trials were conducted in a randomized complete block design. Inoculation of alfalfa with any of these 17 strains improved the relative water content; chlorophyll a; chlorophyll b; carotenoid contents; nitrogen (N, phosphorus, and potassium contents; plant height; leaf-to-stem ratio; and fresh and dry weight. Acinetobacter pittii JD-14 was most effective to increase fresh and dry weight of alfalfa by 41 and 34%, respectively, when compared to non-inoculated control plants. Nevertheless, all strains enhanced crop traits when compared to controls plants, indicating that these desert rhizobacterial strains could be used to develop an eco-friendly biofertilizer for alfalfa and possibly other crop plants to enhance sustainable production in arid regions.

  16. Boosting Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Production With Rhizobacteria From Various Plants in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Daur, Ihsanullah; Saad, Maged; Eida, Abdul Aziz; Ahmad, Shakeel; Shah, Zahid Hussain; Ihsan, Muhammad Z.; Muhammad, Yasir; Sohrab, Sayed S.; Hirt, Heribert

    2018-01-01

    This study focused on rhizobacteria to promote sustainable crop production in arid regions of Saudi Arabia. The study isolated 17 tightly root-adhering rhizobacteria from various plants at Hada Al Sham in Saudi Arabia. All 17 rhizobacterial isolates were confirmed as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria by classical biochemical tests. Using 16S rDNA gene sequence analyses, the strains were identified as Bacillus, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter. Subsequently, the strains were assessed for their ability to improve the physiology, nutrient uptake, growth, and yield of alfalfa plants grown under desert agriculture conditions. The field trials were conducted in a randomized complete block design. Inoculation of alfalfa with any of these 17 strains improved the relative water content; chlorophyll a; chlorophyll b; carotenoid contents; nitrogen (N), phosphorus, and potassium contents; plant height; leaf-to-stem ratio; and fresh and dry weight. Acinetobacter pittii JD-14 was most effective to increase fresh and dry weight of alfalfa by 41 and 34%, respectively, when compared to non-inoculated control plants. Nevertheless, all strains enhanced crop traits when compared to controls plants, indicating that these desert rhizobacterial strains could be used to develop an eco-friendly biofertilizer for alfalfa and possibly other crop plants to enhance sustainable production in arid regions.

  17. Boosting Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Production With Rhizobacteria From Various Plants in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daur, Ihsanullah; Saad, Maged M; Eida, Abdul Aziz; Ahmad, Shakeel; Shah, Zahid Hussain; Ihsan, Muhammad Z; Muhammad, Yasir; Sohrab, Sayed S; Hirt, Heribert

    2018-01-01

    This study focused on rhizobacteria to promote sustainable crop production in arid regions of Saudi Arabia. The study isolated 17 tightly root-adhering rhizobacteria from various plants at Hada Al Sham in Saudi Arabia. All 17 rhizobacterial isolates were confirmed as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria by classical biochemical tests. Using 16S rDNA gene sequence analyses, the strains were identified as Bacillus, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter . Subsequently, the strains were assessed for their ability to improve the physiology, nutrient uptake, growth, and yield of alfalfa plants grown under desert agriculture conditions. The field trials were conducted in a randomized complete block design. Inoculation of alfalfa with any of these 17 strains improved the relative water content; chlorophyll a; chlorophyll b; carotenoid contents; nitrogen (N), phosphorus, and potassium contents; plant height; leaf-to-stem ratio; and fresh and dry weight. Acinetobacter pittii JD-14 was most effective to increase fresh and dry weight of alfalfa by 41 and 34%, respectively, when compared to non-inoculated control plants. Nevertheless, all strains enhanced crop traits when compared to controls plants, indicating that these desert rhizobacterial strains could be used to develop an eco-friendly biofertilizer for alfalfa and possibly other crop plants to enhance sustainable production in arid regions.

  18. Boosting Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Production With Rhizobacteria From Various Plants in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Daur, Ihsanullah

    2018-04-04

    This study focused on rhizobacteria to promote sustainable crop production in arid regions of Saudi Arabia. The study isolated 17 tightly root-adhering rhizobacteria from various plants at Hada Al Sham in Saudi Arabia. All 17 rhizobacterial isolates were confirmed as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria by classical biochemical tests. Using 16S rDNA gene sequence analyses, the strains were identified as Bacillus, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter. Subsequently, the strains were assessed for their ability to improve the physiology, nutrient uptake, growth, and yield of alfalfa plants grown under desert agriculture conditions. The field trials were conducted in a randomized complete block design. Inoculation of alfalfa with any of these 17 strains improved the relative water content; chlorophyll a; chlorophyll b; carotenoid contents; nitrogen (N), phosphorus, and potassium contents; plant height; leaf-to-stem ratio; and fresh and dry weight. Acinetobacter pittii JD-14 was most effective to increase fresh and dry weight of alfalfa by 41 and 34%, respectively, when compared to non-inoculated control plants. Nevertheless, all strains enhanced crop traits when compared to controls plants, indicating that these desert rhizobacterial strains could be used to develop an eco-friendly biofertilizer for alfalfa and possibly other crop plants to enhance sustainable production in arid regions.

  19. Status of medical liability claims in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarkandi, A.

    2006-01-01

    With the evolution of health services in Saudi Arabia, there has been increase in the number of medical practice litigations. The author analyzed the medical malpractice litigation that was referred to the National Medico-Legal Committee (MLC) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective analysis of the official records of Medico-Legal malpractice over the period 1420H-1424H (199-2003) was performed. The incidence among different medical specialties, location, and final resolution of each claim were identified. Data analysis revealed an increasing trend in the total number of claims over the study period, with a sharp increase in the transition between 1422H and 1423H (2001-200). The distribution of claims over different medical specialties showed that obstetrical practice took the lead with 27%, followed by general surgery and subspecialties, represented by 17% each, internal medicine 13%, while pediatrics contributed 10% of claims: the fewest claims were in dentistry with 2.5%. The majority of claims were referred to the Ministry of Health and private sectors medical facilities. Most claims were from the Riyadh region over the period between 1420H to 1422H (1999-2001), while thereafter, during 1423 and 1424H (2002 and 2003), the Holy Capital had the highest number of claims referred to the MLC. Adherence to standards of medical practice is by far the best approach to avoid or reduce the incidence of litigation. (author)

  20. Social stigma related to halitosis in Saudi and British population: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yunis Saleem Bhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral malodor or halitosis is a common problem in the general population throughout the world. Results of previous research findings suggest that there is a relationship between oral malodor and social anxiety disorder. Halitosis can be very damaging to someone psychologically due to the social stigma. In this study, we tried to assess the social stigma related to halitosis and compare that in Saudi and British population. Methodology: A pretested questionnaire was distributed among Saudi and British population. Responses were obtained from 308 (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and 304 (United Kingdom participants. The purpose of this study was explained to the participants before distributing questionnaire form and the information was collected accordingly. Results: A total of 612 participants, 308 (Jeddah and Abha and 304 (Cardiff, Edinburgh, and Glasgow were selected and all the participants were aware of their halitosis. Selected Saudi population assessed their halitosis as mild (50.6%, moderate (30.12% and severe (19.28%. Selected British population assessed their halitosis as mild (39.71%, moderate (36.76%, and severe (23.53%. 71.2% of the Saudi population selected and 56.6% of the United Kingdom population selected responded that they encountered individuals with halitosis. 76.9% of Saudi population selected and 55.8% of United Kingdom population selected encountered social embarrassment due to halitosis. Conclusion: Considerable amount of stigma associated with halitosis persists in both countries. Though there are no significant differences in the social stigma attached with halitosis between the United Kingdom and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, it is still a matter of concern.

  1. Prevalence of intimate partner violence and its associated risk factors among Saudi female patients attending the primary healthcare centers in Western Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alzahrani, Turki A.; Abaalkhail, Bahaa A.; Ramadan, Iman K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among female patients, age 18-60 years, attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) and to measure its determinants, and reporting behavior. Methods: A cross-sectional study design using validated, translated, and self-administered questionnaire among 497 Saudi female patients attending PHCCs in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) from January to February 2015 was employed. A 2-stage probability sampling was ad...

  2. Hepatitis virus genotyping by Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA Enzyme immunoassay among Saudi patients in the Western Province, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osoba, A.O.; Ibrahim, M.; Abdelaal, M.A.; Al-Mowallad, A.; Al-Shareef, B.; Hussein, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia is unknown. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalent HCV genotypes among HCV seropositive Saudi patients in the Western Province and to study the relationship between types/subtypes, clinical status and liver histology. Serum samples were collected from 140 consecutive patients attending the Hematology Clinic with varying grades of liver diseases, high almandine transferees (ALT) for > 6 months, positive HCV, qualitative PCR and who had liver biopsy. HCV genotyping was determined on patients who had tested positive by both HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and the recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Of the 140 patients, 97 (69.2%) had genotype 4, 18 (12.8%) had genotype 1a, and 16 (11.4%) had genotype 1b. Genotype 2b and 5 were found in two patients (1.4%) each, while 5 patients (3.6%) had mixed infections with genotype 4 and 5. Of the 97 patients infected with genotype 4, 84 (86.6%) had chronic active hepatitis (CAH), two (2.1%) had CAH with active cirrhosis, 9(9.3%) had cirrhosis and two (2.1%) had normal liver histology (NLH). The most prevalent HCV genotype in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia was genotype 4 (69.2%). Genotype 1b was encountered in 16 (11.4%) patients. For the first time, genotype 5 was identified in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. Genotype 1b and 4 were associated with different histological grades of liver disease. (author)

  3. Referral system in the Asir Region, Saudi Arabia: knowledge, attitude, and practice of physicians working in urban areas--a comparative study of governmental and private health sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Erian, R A; Mahfouz, A A; Alakija, W; al-Khozayem, A A

    1994-01-01

    A comparative study of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding referral system was undertaken among all governmental primary health care and private dispensary physicians (56 and 50 respectively) in Abha and Kamis, Asir Region. Results show that knowledge about referral is adequate in both groups, but the attitudes and practice of both groups need to be positively modified specially among the private sector physicians. The paper recommends more orientation programs for both groups of physicians and urges the private sector physicians to be more involved in Ministry of Health training programs and activities. Cooperation in referral between the private sector and government hospitals is seen as one way of improving health care in Saudi Arabia.

  4. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.

  5. Geographical Mobility of Danish Dual-Earner Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Filges, Trine

    In this paper, we analyse the empirical relationship between geographical residence mobility and geographical job mobility for Danish dual-earner couples. Based on register data from Statistics Denmark from 1999 and 2000, we estimate three probabilities, taking the interdependence between...... the work region matters for the determination of the residence region. Furthermore, although the model stresses the importance of looking at both spouses, we do not find marked differences between the men and the women. Thus, our results do not indicate that one spouse is more important than the other...

  6. Understanding cultural competence in a multicultural nursing workforce: registered nurses' experience in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Adel F; McCarthy, Alexandra; Gardner, Glenn E

    2015-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, the health system is mainly staffed by expatriate nurses from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Given the potential risks this situation poses for patient care, it is important to understand how cultural diversity can be effectively managed in this multicultural environment. The purpose of this study was to explore notions of cultural competence with non-Saudi Arabian nurses working in a major hospital in Saudi Arabia. Face-to-face, audio-recorded, semistructured interviews were conducted with 24 non-Saudi Arabian nurses. Deductive data collection and analysis were undertaken drawing on Campinha-Bacote's cultural competence model. The data that could not be explained by this model were coded and analyzed inductively. Nurses within this culturally diverse environment struggled with the notion of cultural competence in terms of each other's cultural expectations and those of the dominant Saudi culture. The study also addressed the limitations of Campinha-Bacote's model, which did not account for all of the nurses' experiences. Subsequent inductive analysis yielded important themes that more fully explained the nurses' experiences in this environment. The findings can inform policy, professional education, and practice in the multicultural Saudi setting. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Prevalence and predictors of adolescents' cigarette smoking in Madinah, Saudi Arabia: a school-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen; Kasim, Khaled

    2015-01-21

    Although the prevalence of adolescents' cigarette smoking has increased in recent decades, little is known regarding its epidemiology in certain Saudi regions, including the Madinah region. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out in the Madinah region during 2013. A multistage stratified cluster sample was taken and included 3400 students (11-19 years) from 34 intermediate and secondary schools. Data concerning sociodemographic and smoking-related factors were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of smoking was estimated, and appropriate statistical analyses were performed, including univariate, predictive and multivariate regression analyses. The overall response rate was 97.7%. The prevalence of cigarette smoking in the respondents' 3322 adolescents was 15.17% (95% CI = 13.95-16.39) with significant differences in sociodemographic factors. The most important predictors were most or all friends smoking (OR = 12.5; 95% CI = 9.40-16.8). Other significant less important factors were parental smoking, belief in the harmful effects of smoking, cigarette advertisement in mass media, and pocket money. Cigarette smoking prevalence is a relatively low among adolescents in Madinah region. However, friends and parents smoking play an important role in the increased risk of smoking in the studied adolescents. These predictors must be included in any antismoking education programs targeting to this sector of population in the region.

  8. Outcome of stroke in Saudi children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Amal Y.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective was to report on the prognosis, neurologic outcome, and recurrence of stroke in Saudi children. We evaluated a cohort of 104 Saudi children with stroke at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). We analyzed the salient clinical, neuroimaging, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and laboratory data following retrieval from a specially designed comprehensive protocol. Of the 104 children in the cohort (aged one month to 12 years), 5 (4.8%) died during the study period and 9(8.7%) were lost to follow-up. The mean duration of follow-up for the remaining 90 children was 40 months (median 33 months). Recovery was judged complete in 6(6.7%) of these 90 children. We detected residual hemiparesis (irrespective of its effect on daily functions) in 73 (81%) and this was combined with other motor deficits in 45 children (50%). Forty-one children (46%) had residual dysphasia or language deficits, whereas 45 (50%) were judged to have had cognitive deficit. Psychometry revealed an abnormal intelligence quotient test (70) in 19 of 26 (73%) children. Other neurologic sequelae included epilepsy in 52 (58%), recurrent headaches in 13 (14%) and hydrocephalus in 4 (4.4%) patients, Six of the 95 (6.3%) children, who were ascertained to have died or kept their follow-up, had one or more occurrences, one month to 5 years after initial stroke (median 23 months). Patients who had recurrent strokes were significantly more likely to be the product of consanguineous marriages (p=0.04). Regarding the group of 23 children with perinatal stroke, neither deaths nor recurrences occurred during the follow-up period. However, 20 (87%) of them had significant delays in their developmental milestones. The toll of stroke in Saudi children is demanding, with most children demonstrating

  9. The pharmacoeconomic picture in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhenizan, Abdullah

    2014-08-01

    Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the region and it is the largest oil producing country in the world. It is one of the few countries in the world which was not affected significantly by the global economic crisis. Health care spending is led mainly by governmental expenditure. Private sector share of the health care services is supported by the government and increasing. The demands for pharmaceutical products, medical devices and health care services is fueled by the rapidly growing population and the wide spread of chronic diseases. Publications and expertise in the field of pharmacoeconomics is scarce within the country. There is an urgent need to establish a national center for pharmacoeconomics to lead the country efforts in controlling the cost of health care services. Such a center is needed to promote pharmacoeconomics research and train health care professionals in this field.

  10. Cracking the walls of leadership : women in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the obstacles to women's advancement in Saudi Arabia. The paper addresses the question ‘what are women’s experiences of becoming leaders and what influences their leadership practice ?’ It does this by drawing on gender and Middle Eastern literature, as well as empirical evidence of the perceptions, experience and challenges of women in Saudi. Design/methodology/approach The study contributes a consideration of the academic literature,...

  11. Urban Unrest and Non-Religious Radicalization in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Menoret , Pascal

    2009-01-01

    The expressions of dissent in contemporary Saudi Arabia, whether through violent action or ideological and theological constructions, are well documented today. The very contexts within which violence appears and develops are less well known. If it is essential to read and analyse the Islamic discourses and to observe and interpret the history of Islamic activism in Saudi Arabia, such an elitist focus may overlook more discrete events that might explain the way ordinary people refer to state ...

  12. 25-Hydoxyvitamin D. levels among healthy Saudi Arabian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat-Ali, M.; Al-Elq, Abdulmohsen H.; Al-Turki, HaifaA.; Al-Mulhim, Fathma A.; Al-Ali, Amein K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to assess the serum level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)among healthy Saudi Arabian women living in the eastern province. Across-sectional randomized study was conducted between February 1st 2008 andMay 31st at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of SaudiArabia in 200 Saudi women between 25-35 years (group 1) and women of >=50years (group 2). Clinical examination, laboratory tests, a complete bloodpicture, serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, parathromone, andthe serum levels of 25 OHD levels were carried out. Data on life style,dietary and demographic questionnaires were collected. Vitamin D was definedas deficient with serum level =50 years. This study indicates that hypovitaminosis D is commonin young and postmenopausal women. Efforts are required augment andencouraged women for adequate exposure to sunlight and increased intake offortified vitamin D products to maintain skeletal health. (author)

  13. The role of land surface fluxes in Saudi-KAU AGCM: Temperature climatology over the Arabian Peninsula for the period 1981-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaqur Rahman, M.; Almazroui, Mansour; Nazrul Islam, M.; O'Brien, Enda; Yousef, Ahmed Elsayed

    2018-02-01

    A new version of the Community Land Model (CLM) was introduced to the Saudi King Abdulaziz University Atmospheric Global Climate Model (Saudi-KAU AGCM) for better land surface component representation, and so to enhance climate simulation. CLM replaced the original land surface model (LSM) in Saudi-KAU AGCM, with the aim of simulating more accurate land surface fluxes globally, but especially over the Arabian Peninsula. To evaluate the performance of Saudi-KAU AGCM, simulations were completed with CLM and LSM for the period 1981-2010. In comparison with LSM, CLM generates surface air temperature values that are closer to National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) observations. The global annual averages of land surface air temperature are 9.51, 9.52, and 9.57 °C for NCEP, CLM, and LSM respectively, although the same atmospheric radiative and surface forcing from Saudi-KAU AGCM are provided to both LSM and CLM at every time step. The better temperature simulations when using CLM can be attributed to the more comprehensive plant functional type and hierarchical tile approach to the land cover type in CLM, along with better parameterization of upward land surface fluxes compared to LSM. At global scale, CLM exhibits smaller annual and seasonal mean biases of temperature with respect to NCEP data. Moreover, at regional scale, CLM demonstrates reasonable seasonal and annual mean temperature over the Arabian Peninsula as compared to the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) data. Finally, CLM generated better matches to single point-wise observations of surface air temperature and surface fluxes for some case studies.

  14. Bacterial Rhizosphere Biodiversity from Several Pioneer Desert Sand Plants Near Jizan, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Osman, Jorge R.; Zelicourt, Axel de; Bisseling, Ton; Geurts, Rene; Hirt, Heribert; DuBow, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Life in arid regions and, in particular, hot deserts is often limited due to their harsh environmental conditions, such as large temperature fluctuations and low amounts of water. These extreme environments can influence the microbial community present on the surface sands and any rhizosphere members surrounding desert plant roots. The Jizan desert area, located in Saudi Arabia, supports particular vegetation that grows in the large sandy flat terrain. We examined five different samples, four from the rhizosphere of pioneer plants plus a surface sand sample, and used pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified V1-V3 regions of 16S rDNA genes from total extracted DNA to reveal and compare the bacterial population diversity of the samples. The results showed a total of 3,530 OTUs in the five samples, calculated using ≥ 97% sequence similarity levels. The Chao1 estimation of the bacterial diversity fluctuated from 637 to 2,026 OTUs for a given sample. The most abundant members found in the samples belong to the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla. This work shows that the Jizan desert area of Saudi Arabia can contain a diverse bacterial community on the sand and surrounding the roots of pioneer desert plants. It also shows that desert sand microbiomes can vary depending on conditions, with broad implications for sandstone monument bacterial communities

  15. Bacterial Rhizosphere Biodiversity from Several Pioneer Desert Sand Plants Near Jizan, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Osman, Jorge R.

    2016-04-08

    Life in arid regions and, in particular, hot deserts is often limited due to their harsh environmental conditions, such as large temperature fluctuations and low amounts of water. These extreme environments can influence the microbial community present on the surface sands and any rhizosphere members surrounding desert plant roots. The Jizan desert area, located in Saudi Arabia, supports particular vegetation that grows in the large sandy flat terrain. We examined five different samples, four from the rhizosphere of pioneer plants plus a surface sand sample, and used pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified V1-V3 regions of 16S rDNA genes from total extracted DNA to reveal and compare the bacterial population diversity of the samples. The results showed a total of 3,530 OTUs in the five samples, calculated using ≥ 97% sequence similarity levels. The Chao1 estimation of the bacterial diversity fluctuated from 637 to 2,026 OTUs for a given sample. The most abundant members found in the samples belong to the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla. This work shows that the Jizan desert area of Saudi Arabia can contain a diverse bacterial community on the sand and surrounding the roots of pioneer desert plants. It also shows that desert sand microbiomes can vary depending on conditions, with broad implications for sandstone monument bacterial communities

  16. The large carpenter bees of central Saudi Arabia, with notes on the biology of Xylocopa sulcatipes Maa (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Xylocopinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hannan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The large carpenter bees (Xylocopinae, Xylocopa Latreille occurring in central Saudi Arabia are reviewed. Two species are recognized in the fauna, Xylocopa (Koptortosoma aestuans (Linnaeus and X. (Ctenoxylocopa sulcatipes Maa. Diagnoses for and keys to the species of these prominent components of the central Saudi Arabian bee fauna are provided to aid their identification by pollination researchers active in the region. Females and males of both species are figured and biological notes provided for X. sulcatipes. Notes on the nesting biology and ecology of X. sulcatipes are appended. As in studies for this species from elsewhere, nests were found in dried stems of Calotropis procera (Aiton (Asclepiadaceae and Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae.

  17. Assessing the current state of dental informatics in saudi arabia: the new frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nasser, Lubna; Al-Ehaideb, Ali; Househ, Mowafa

    2014-01-01

    Dental informatics is an emerging field that has the potential to transform the dental profession. This study aims to summarize the current applications of dental informatics in Saudi Arabia and to identify the challenges facing expansion of dental informatics in the Saudi context. Search for published articles and specialized forum entries was conducted, as well as interviews with dental professionals familiar with the topic. Results indicated that digital radiography/analysis and administrative management of dental practice are the commonest applications used. Applications in Saudi dental education included: web-based learning systems, computer-based assessments and virtual technology for clinical skills' teaching. Patients' education software, electronic dental/oral health records and the potential of dental research output from electronic databases are yet to be achieved in Saudi Arabia. Challenges facing Saudi dental informatics include: lack of IT infrastructure/support, social acceptability and financial cost. Several initiatives are taken towards the research in dental informatics. Still, more investments are needed to fully achieve the potential of various application of informatics in dental education, practice and research.

  18. Quality of gastroenterology research published in Saudi Arabian scientific journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaghrabi, Majed M; Alamoudi, Abdullah S; Radi, Suhaib A; Merdad, Anas A; Makhdoum, Ahmad M; Batwa, Faisal A

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine has established itself in the field of gastroenterology. In this study we aim to assess the types of study designs of gastroenterology-related articles published in Saudi scientific journals. An online review using PubMed was carried out to review gastroenterology-related articles published in six Saudi medical journals in the time interval from 2003 to 2012. To classify the level of evidence in these articles we employed the Oxford's levels of evidence. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the levels of evidence between published articles. A total of 721 gastroenterology-related articles were reviewed, of which 591 articles met our inclusion criteria; 80.7% were level IV. The three most common types of studies we encountered were cross-sectional (33.9%), case reports (27.9%), and case series (18.8%). Forty-three percent of the published research was in the field of hepatobiliary and spleen. The total number of articles increased from 260 articles in the 1 st 5-year period (2003-2007) to 330 in the 2 nd period (2008-2012). However, no statistically significant difference in the level of evidence was noted. In Annals of Saudi Medicine Journal, articles with level II increased from 0 to 10% with a P value 0.02. In our review of gastroenterology-related published articles in Saudi scientific journals, we observed an increase in the quantity of articles with the quality and level of evidence remaining unchanged. Further research is recommended to explore different reasons affecting the volume and quality of gastroenterology-related research in Saudi scientific journals.

  19. Stroke in Saudi Arabia: a review of the recent literature | Asirvatham ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is the largest country in the Middle East occupying approximately four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula supporting a population of more than 28 million. Stroke is becoming a rapidly increasing problem and an important cause of illness and deaths in Saudi Arabia. However, compared with ...

  20. Examining stress perceptions and coping strategies among Saudi nursing students: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrague, Leodoro J; McEnroe-Petitte, Denise M; De Los Santos, Janet Alexis A; Edet, Olaide B

    2018-06-01

    Stress is a perennial problem in nursing education and Saudi student nurses are not immune. Despite the growing literature examining stress in Saudi student nurses, a broader perspective on this concept has not been explored. This paper is a report of a review systematically appraising and synthesizing existing scientific articles reporting stress perceptions and coping styles in Saudi student nurses. A systematic review method guided this review. Four (SCOPUS, CINAHL, PubMed, Ovid) bibliographic databases were searched to locate relevant articles. An electronic database search was performed in August 2017 to locate studies published from 2010 onwards. The search words included: "stress" OR "psychological stress", "coping" OR "psychological adaptation", "Saudi Arabia", "student", and "nurse". Eleven (11) articles met the inclusion criteria. Review of the findings showed moderate to high stress levels in Saudi student nurses that originated mainly from heavy workloads and taking care of patients. However, when the students' demographic characteristics were taken into account, inconclusive results were found, although some evidence showed higher stress levels in higher level students. Both active and passive coping styles were used by nursing students when dealing with stress. Consistent with international studies, Saudi student nurses experience a considerable levels of stress from various sources. Findings may provide a direction for nursing faculty in formulating stress interventions that are empirically tested and culturally appropriate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Apology Strategies Employed by Saudi EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzouq Nasser Alsulayyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the apology strategies used by 30 Saudi EFL teachers in Najran, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, paying special attention to variables such as social distance and power and offence severity. The study also delineates gender differences in the respondents’ speech as opposed to studies that only examined speech act output by native and non-native speakers of English. To this end, the study employs a Discourse Completion Task (DCT that consists of 10 situations designed to test how the respondents would react if they imagine that they belong to different types of social status whether higher, lower or equal. In addition, social distance and power have been taken into consideration in designing the ten situations included in the test used in this study. The results reveal that Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID is the most used apology strategy by the Saudi respondents followed by downgrading responsibility (DR, upgrader, offer of repair, taking on responsibility and then verbal redress. The results also reveal that gender has a great impact on the use of apology strategies in various ways. For instance, the IFID strategy and the upgrader strategy are used by males more than their female counterparts, whereas females use the DR strategy more than their male counterparts. It has been argued that some of the respondents’ answers to the test were influenced by their mother tongue, as reported in previous studies conducted on apology strategies. The study discusses the results elicited via the DCT and compares them with those of previous studies on apology strategies and other speech acts. Finally, the study concludes with recommendations for further research. Keywords: pragmatics, apology strategies, Saudi EFL teachers, interlanguage pragmatics, target culture

  2. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Towards Online Shopping in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to identify factors that may affect consumer behavior in Saudi Arabia while shopping online. Although Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing ICT in the Middle East and the online shopping activities in Saudi are increasing rapidly, it is still lagging behind the global development. The four factors–website design quality, perceived trust, perceived convenience and advertisements & promotions were selected from the available literature. A survey was conducted and questionnaire that includes 25 questions was distributed randomly to a sample of 107 participants in Dammam city (in the Eastern Province of the kingdom. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS software. The result indicates one hypothesis has been accepted. The findings of the study are analyzed and discussed further at the end of this paper.

  3. Design and testing of large fog collectors for water harvesting in Asir region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abualhamayel, H. I.; Gandhidasan, P.

    2010-07-01

    The region of Asir is located in the southwestern part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between longitudes 41 - 45 E and latitudes 17 - 21 N. Known for its natural beauty and cool climate delight the visitors and the region has become a destination for tourists. One of the main problems in the Asir region is the high demand for water during tourism seasons especially in view of the rapidly growing tourism sector. Flourishing tourism in the region is challenged by the scarcity of water resources and there is urgent need to identify alternative sources of potable water. It is found that fog water collection is a viable resource and Asir region is the most suitable location for fog water harvesting. An operational fog water collection project was initiated in 2007 to provide fresh water supply. Al-Sooda, situated at an altitude of about 3,000 m, was identified as the most suitable experimental site and two large fog collectors measuring 20 m by 2 m each were erected in 2009. The distance between the two sites is about 2 km. This paper gives the methods used to select the experimental site and the design of the large fog collection system. The fog collectors are flat rectangular nets supported by a post at both ends and arranged perpendicular to the direction of the prevailing wind. The collection surface, comprising two layers of black polypropylene mesh net, is fastened laterally to the posts with a set of fastening bars. The aluminum trough located below the mesh net catches the water that runs down the net and carries it to a pipe connected to the storage tank. Because the fog collectors are long and require space for guy wires for the posts, the basic site consideration is that at least 25 m of horizontal land available for the erection. Meteorological instruments and the portable weather station are used to measure the climatic data which are recorded three times a day, namely at 7:00, 14:00 and 19:00 h. On average, yields of about 5 to 6 L/m2 per day are collected

  4. State of health economic evaluation research in Saudi Arabia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aqeel, Sinaa A

    2012-01-01

    If evaluation of economic evidence is to be used increasingly in Saudi Arabia, a review of the published literature would be useful to inform policy decision-makers of the current state of research and plan future research agendas. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of the state of health economic evaluation research within the Saudi context with regard to the number, characteristics, and quality of published articles. A literature search was conducted on May 8, 2011 to identify health economic articles pertaining to Saudi Arabia in the PubMed, Embase, and EconLit databases, using the following terms alone or in combination: "cost*", "economics", "health economics", "cost-effectiveness", "cost-benefit", "cost minimization", "cost utility analysis", and "Saudi". Reference lists of the articles identified were also searched for further articles. The tables of contents of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal and the Saudi Medical Journal were reviewed for the previous 5 years. The search identified 535 citations. Based on a reading of abstracts and titles, 477 papers were excluded. Upon reviewing the full text of the remaining 58 papers, 43 were excluded. Fifteen papers were included. Ten were categorized as full economic evaluations and five as partial economic evaluations. These articles were published between 1997 and 2010. The majority of the studies identified did not clearly state the perspective of their evaluation. There are many concerns about the methods used to collect outcome and costs data. Only one study used some sort of sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of uncertainty on the robustness of its conclusions. This review highlights major flaws in the design, analysis, and reporting of the identified economic analyses. Such deficiencies mean that the local economic evidence available to decision-makers is not very useful. Thus, building research capability in health economics is warranted.

  5. Vocational Education to Meet the Needs of a Changing Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    Faced with sizable oil revenues and the need and desire to expand and diversify its industrial potential, Saudi Arabia is improving its vocational training efforts and attempting to involve as many of its citizens in vocational training programs as possible. At present, Saudi Arabia is having to import skilled workers to keep up with necessary…

  6. Prevalence of harassment and discrimination among residents in three training hospitals in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fnais, Naif; al-Nasser, Muhammad; Zamakhshary, Mohammad; Abuznadah, Wesam; Dhukair, Shahla Al; Saadeh, Mayssa; Al-Qarni, Ali; Bokhari, Bayan; Alshaeri, Taqreed; Aboalsamh, Nouf; Binahmed, AbdulAziz

    2013-01-01

    Multiple surveys of medical residents have shown a high incidence of harassment and discrimination in academic health centers. Harassment has a negative effects on residents' health and on their ability to function. No previous study has documented the prevalence of harassment and discrimination among residents in Saudi Arabia. We aimed in this study to assess the prevalence of harassment and discrimination among residents at a tertiary care academic hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Cross-sectional survey conducted at National Guard Hospitals in Riyadh, Jeddah and Al-Ahsa'a from 27 July to 20 August 2010. The survey included questions on the prevalence of harassment of different types, inlcuding verbal, academic, physical and sexual harassment, as well as discrimination on the basis of gender, region of origin or physical appearance. Of 380 residents, 213 (56%) returned a completed questionnaire (123 male, 57.8%). At least one of type of harassment and discrimination was reported by 83.6% of respondents. The most frequently reported forms were verbal harassment and gender discrimination (61.5% and 58.3%, respectively). Sexual harassment was commonly reported (19.3%) and was experienced significantly more often by female residents than by male residents (P=.0061). Harassment and discrimination of Saudi residents is common with more than three-quarters reporting having had such an experience. Identification of the risk factors is a necessary first step in clarifying this issue and could be used when planning strategies for prevention.

  7. Prevalence of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuwat, Obaidallah Buraykan; Alzahrani, Abdulrahman Ahmad; Alzhrani, Mohammed Abdullah; Alkhathami, Ali Mesfer; Mahfouz, Mohammad Eid Mahmoud

    2018-03-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common chronic gastrointestinal tract disease. The incidence is higher in Asian and Arab countries. In Saudi Arabia, there are few studies that have assessed the prevalence of GERD among some cities' communities. Hence, this study aims to study the prevalence of GERD among the general population of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of GERD among the community of Saudi Arabia. The sample was randomly gathered through self-administered validated GERD questionnaire (GerdQ) to diagnose GERD, during the period from November to December 2016. The sociodemographic data was assessed for all participants. The data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21.0 (SPSS); the t -test was used to assess the association of GERD and sociodemographic data. The sample was comprised of 2,043 participants. Female and male were 51.8% and 48.2%, respectively. Mean age was 29.6 years with the standard deviation of 10.5 years. The GERD prevalence was 28.7%. It was found statistically significant among divorced/widow (34.9%, P = 0.003). In contrast, there was no association between GERD's prevalence and gender, age, residence status, education level, occupation, and blood group (P > 0.05). The prevalence of GERD among Saudi population is higher than that in Western countries and East Asia. It affects divorced/widow, obese and those with a sedentary lifestyle. It is advocated that national programs and educational campaigns for prevention of this disease and its complications should be established.

  8. The perception of smile attractiveness among Saudi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar HA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hadeel A Mokhtar, Layla W Abuljadayel, Reem M Al-Ali, Mohammed Yousef Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Parameters of dental beauty change across time for varying reasons. Thus, an understanding of the factors that help or harm the attractiveness of a smile is an important step in creating attractive smiles. This study aimed to identify factors that affect smile perception and attractiveness among the Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the Saudi population. Questionnaires were distributed to 130 dentists and final-year dental students, and to 130 laypersons. The questionnaire contained six smile photographs created by Photoshop® software. There was a statistically significant difference in scale ratings, based on participant background, for the “gummy: smile picture (P-value =0.003, diastema picture (P-value =0.000 and the “Reverse” smile picture (P-value =0.004. As for sex, males significantly underscored the gummy picture (P-value =0.009. Older people accepted the gummy smile less than did younger people, but diastema was considered as one of the variations that spoiled the attractiveness of the smile. “Dental background” participants significantly identified the ideal smile better than the “nondental” group. The perception of diastema as a sign of beauty among Saudi population in the past has definitely changed, according to the results of our study, where diastema and reverse smile received the lowest score in this survey. Keywords: diastema, gummy, reverse

  9. Efforts of Controlling Money Laundering of Narcotics Money in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A. ALASMARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Money laundering is a silent crime. Its goal is to cover up the source of large sums of money that criminals often gather from their criminal activities. This paper will analyze the situation of money laundering in narcotics as it applies in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this end, the paper will first define important terms such as money laundering and narcotics. It will then explain the relationship between money laundering, narcotics trade, and terrorism activities. This background information will form the base for analyzing the various efforts that the Saudi Arabia nation has in place for countering money laundering in narcotics trade. The paper will then explain the challenges facing these efforts, and the future of money laundering in Saudi Arabia. The largest criminal activity associated with money laundering is terrorism financing. The several terror attacks associated with Saudi Arabia’s terror groups like Al-Qaida have made the government realize the importance of curbing money laundering in an effort to counter terrorism. Thus, anti-money laundering strategies are set in place to address all the avenues of money laundering.

  10. Saudi Arabian Green Economy Infrastructure: Barriers, Strategies & Opportunity – An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Ismail Albanawi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia is finally catching up with the rest of the developed world in terms of environmental awareness. In the past, while much of the rest of the world spent its time pondering issues such as global warming, water, air, and soil pollution, over-exploitation of resources, and a myriad of other environmental concerns, the Saudi people and government seemed to be primarily focused on expanding their capital in a globalized economy. However, in 2015, for the first time, this trend began to show legitimate change. This new emphasis on environmental concerns has caused some interest and uproar, specifically in the economic sector. The research, therefore, concentrated on the barriers, strategies, and opportunities that might impede or encourage Saudi Arabia in its quest to develop a greener and more sustainable economic infrastructure. After carefully considering the available literature, data, and reliable statistics, the report concluded that, while change will be difficult and, possibly slow, Saudi Arabia should expect to see greener projects and initiatives transpiring in their homeland over the course of the next several years.

  11. Perception of Saudi dentists and lay people to altered smile esthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talic, Nabeel; Alomar, Samar; Almaidhan, Asma

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the perceptions of Saudi dentists and lay people to altered smile features. Thirty-six digital smile photographs with altered features were used. Altered features included the following: crown length, width, gingival level of the lateral incisors, gingival display, midline diastema, and upper midline shift. The photographs were presented to a sample of 30 dentists and 30 lay people with equal gender distribution. Each participant rated each picture with a visual analogue scale, which ranged from 0 (very unattractive) to 100 (very attractive). Dentists were more critical than lay people when evaluating symmetrical crown length discrepancies. Compared to lay people, Saudi dentists gave lower ratings to a crown length discrepancy of >2 mm (P 1 mm (P lay people towards alterations in the gingival level of the lateral incisors or towards a space between the central incisors. No significant sex difference was seen across the groups. In this sample, Saudi dentists gave significantly lower attractiveness scores to crown length and crown width discrepancies, midline deviations, and changes in gingiva to lip distance compared to Saudi lay people.

  12. Receptor modelling study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghamdi, Mansour A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Alam, Mohammed S., E-mail: m.s.alam@bham.ac.uk [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yin, Jianxin; Stark, Christopher; Jang, Eunhwa [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Harrison, Roy M., E-mail: r.m.harrison@bham.ac.uk [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I.; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-02-15

    Measurements of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been made in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with a view to establishing the concentrations in this major city, and quantifying the contributions of major sources. Particulate and vapour forms have been sampled and analysed separately. The concentrations are compared to measurements from other sites in the Middle Eastern region and are towards the lower end of the range, being far lower than concentrations reported from Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Assiut (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran) but broadly similar to those measured in Damascus (Syria) and higher than those measured in Kuwait. The partitioning between vapour and particle phases is similar to that in data from Egypt and China, but with many compounds showing a higher particle-associated percentage than in Birmingham (UK) possibly reflecting a higher concentration of airborne particulate matter in the former countries. Concentrations in Jeddah were significantly higher at a site close to the oil refinery and a site close to a major ring road than at a suburban site to the north of the city. Application of positive matrix factorisation to the pooled data elicited three factors accounting respectively for 17%, 33% and 50% of the measured sum of PAH and these are interpreted as arising from gasoline vehicles, industrial sources, particularly the oil refinery, and to diesel/fuel oil combustion. - Highlights: • Measurements of 14 PAH compounds in vapour and particulate phases at three sites. • Comparison of concentrations across Jeddah and Middle Eastern regions. • Application of positive matrix factorisation to identify possible sources.

  13. Receptor modelling study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alghamdi, Mansour A.; Alam, Mohammed S.; Yin, Jianxin; Stark, Christopher; Jang, Eunhwa; Harrison, Roy M.; Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I.; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been made in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with a view to establishing the concentrations in this major city, and quantifying the contributions of major sources. Particulate and vapour forms have been sampled and analysed separately. The concentrations are compared to measurements from other sites in the Middle Eastern region and are towards the lower end of the range, being far lower than concentrations reported from Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Assiut (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran) but broadly similar to those measured in Damascus (Syria) and higher than those measured in Kuwait. The partitioning between vapour and particle phases is similar to that in data from Egypt and China, but with many compounds showing a higher particle-associated percentage than in Birmingham (UK) possibly reflecting a higher concentration of airborne particulate matter in the former countries. Concentrations in Jeddah were significantly higher at a site close to the oil refinery and a site close to a major ring road than at a suburban site to the north of the city. Application of positive matrix factorisation to the pooled data elicited three factors accounting respectively for 17%, 33% and 50% of the measured sum of PAH and these are interpreted as arising from gasoline vehicles, industrial sources, particularly the oil refinery, and to diesel/fuel oil combustion. - Highlights: • Measurements of 14 PAH compounds in vapour and particulate phases at three sites. • Comparison of concentrations across Jeddah and Middle Eastern regions. • Application of positive matrix factorisation to identify possible sources

  14. Comparison between hybrid renewable energy systems in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham El Khashab

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates RE sources applications at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, besides a simulation using HOMER software to three proposed systems newly erected in Yanbu Industrial College Renewable Energy (RE lab. The lab represents a hybrid system, composed of PV, wind turbine, and Fuel cell systems. The cost of energy is compared in the three systems to have an actual estimation for RE in developing countries. The climatic variations at Yanbu that is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia are considered.

  15. Patterns and determinants of stress among consultant physicians working in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alosaimi FD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fahad D Alosaimi,1 Hossam S Alawad,2 Ayedh K Alamri,2 Abdullah I Saeed,2 Khalid A Aljuaydi,2 Alwaleed S Alotaibi,2 Khalid M Alotaibi,2 Eiad A Alfaris3 1Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University Chair for the Development of Medical Education, Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Physicians experience several work-related stressors that have been mounting up in recent decades. This study aimed to examine perceived stress and its risk factors and consequences among consultant physicians in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 to March 2015 among physicians who were assigned rank of consultant. The stress level was assessed using perceived stress scale (PSS.Results: A total of 582 consultants participated. The average age was 46.9±7.9 years, 71% were males, 56% were Saudi, 15% were smokers, and 68% slept ≤6 hours per night. The median PSS score was 17 (interquartile range of 14–21, which represented 44% of maximum possible PSS score. The upper tertile of PSS score (represents a high stress level was significantly associated with being younger, female, and Saudi. The majority (85% considered job environment to be stressful and ~50% attributed that to a high workload and a noncooperative administration. In the year preceding this study, half of consultants frequently contemplated or even worked toward changing their medical institutes or even moving to work outside Saudi Arabia because of perception of a stressful working environment. Over the previous year, encountering life stressors, considering job environment as stressful and experiencing passive suicidal ideation, were significantly associated with higher levels of stress

  16. Sleep habits in adolescents of Saudi Arabia; distinct patterns and extreme sleep schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdad, Roah A; Merdad, Leena A; Nassif, Rawan A; El-Derwi, Douaa; Wali, Siraj O

    2014-11-01

    There is a need for comprehensive studies on adolescents' sleep habits in the Middle Eastern region. The aim of this study was to investigate the sleep-wake patterns, prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), and disturbed sleep among adolescents in Saudi Arabia and to identify the associated factors. The study was a cross-sectional survey done on a random sample of 1035 high school students, ages 14-23 years, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The response rate was 91%. Students filled a self-reported questionnaire that included sleep-wake questions, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, academic performance, and personal data. Students slept an average of 7.0 hours on school nights, with an average delay of 2.8 and 6.0 hours in weekend sleep and rise times, respectively. Around 1 in 10 students stayed up all night and slept after returning from school (exhibiting a reversed sleep cycle) on weeknights. This pattern was more prevalent among boys and students with lower grade point averages. The prevalence of sleep disturbance was 65%, and EDS was found in 37% of the students. Predictors of EDS were school type, stress, napping and caffeine use, while gender was a predictor of disturbed sleep. Adolescents in Saudi Arabia showed a high percentage of poor sleep quality. Compared with adolescents from other countries, they had a larger delay in weekend sleep and rise times. An alarming reversed sleep cycle on weekdays is present and highlights the need for further assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Developing EFL Teaching and Learning Practices in Saudi Colleges: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liton, Hussain Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Saudi Ministry of education is highly concerned with the pursuit of excellence in effective EFL teaching-learning in the arena of education but it experiences tardy progress especially in college level. This is a common scenario in almost every stage of learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Behind this backdrop, this paper explores the new…

  18. Utilization of penile prosthesis and male incontinence prosthetics in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Alwaal

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: There is an increased utilization of penile prosthetics in Saudi Arabia. The private sector performs the majority of penile prosthesis procedures, and most of them are of the semirigid type. The governmental sector is more likely to perform inflatable penile prosthesis and male incontinence device procedures. Male incontinence prosthetics' use is very limited in Saudi Arabia.

  19. Mind Maps to Modify Lack of Attention among Saudi Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghistan, Bulquees Ismail Abdul Majid

    2016-01-01

    This research study aims at investigating the impact of Mind Maps on modifying the lack of attention in Arabic language class among Saudi Kindergarten children. To achieve the goals of this study the researcher used an experimental design with a random sample from AlRae'd Kindergarten's children in Riyadh -Saudi Arabia for the academic year…

  20. Investigation on papillomavirus infection in dromedary camels in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia