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Sample records for geographic pathology chronic

  1. Pathology of Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion

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    Kenichi Sakakura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for percutaneous revascularization procedures of coronary Chronic Total Occlusion (CTO, because many patients with severe coronary artery disease have limited options for revascularization. Although the success rate of percutaneous revascularization of CTOs was unsatisfactory from the 1990s to the 2000s, recent technological advances in interventional strategies have improved the success rate to 85%. Detailed histological assessment of human autopsy studies of CTO has contributed significantly to the refinement in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI techniques and device development. We have recently reported the pathological findings and characteristics of CTOs that occur in different clinical scenarios. In this review, we discuss the pathology of CTOs to facilitate greater understanding of revascularization strategies for CTOs.

  2. Ethnicity and geographic distribution of pediatric chronic ataxia in Manitoba.

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    Salman, Michael S; Masood, Shaheen; Azad, Meghan; Chodirker, Bernard N

    2014-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are important determinants of disease distribution. Several disorders associated with ataxia are known to occur more commonly in certain ethnic groups; for example, the disequilibrium syndrome in the Hutterites. The aim of this study was to determine the ethnic and geographic distribution of pediatric patients with chronic ataxia in Manitoba, Canada. We identified 184 patients less than 17 years-of-age with chronic ataxia during 1991-2008 from multiple sources. Their diagnosis, ethnicity and place of residence were determined following a chart review. Most patients resided in Manitoba (N=177) and the majority in Winnipeg, the provincial capital. Thirty five Aboriginal, 29 Mennonite and 11 Hutterite patients resided in Manitoba. The latter two groups were significantly overrepresented in our cohort. Ataxia telangiectasia, mitochondrial disorders, and non-progressive ataxia of unknown etiology associated with pyramidal tracts signs and developmental delay were significantly more common in Mennonite patients. Four of five patients with neuronal migration disorders associated with chronic ataxia were Aboriginal. Few isolated disorders with chronic ataxia occurred in the 11 Hutterite patients including a Joubert syndrome related disorder. Three disorders associated with chronic ataxia were more prevalent than expected in Mennonites in Manitoba. Few rare disorders were more prevalent in the Hutterite and Aboriginal population. Further research is needed to determine the risk factors underlying these variations in prevalence within different ethnic groups. The unique risk factor profiles of each ethnic group need to be considered in health promotion endeavors. Ethnie et distribution géographique de l'ataxie chronique chez des patients d'âge pédiatrique au Manitoba.

  3. [Pathologic diagnosis and clinical analysis of chronic extrinsic allergic alveolitis].

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    Diao, Xiao-li; Jin, Mu-lan; Dai, Hua-ping; Li, Xue; Wei, Ping; Zhang, Yun-gang

    2011-11-01

    To study the clinicopathologic features and diagnostic approach of chronic extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA). Seven cases of chronic EAA diagnosed by open lung biopsy or lung transplant were enrolled into the study. The clinical and pathologic features were analyzed and the literature was reviewed. There were altogether 4 men and 3 women. The age of the patients ranged from 30 to 65 years (mean = 48 years). All cases represented chronic form and five cases diagnosed by open lung biopsy also showed features of recent aggravation, leading to hospitalization. Four cases had known history of exposure to inciting gases, pollens and pets, and only 2 cases were positive for allergens. High-resolution CT scan showed ground-glass attenuation and reticular pattern that often had a patchy distribution and central predominance. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis showed marked lymphocytosis, with CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio less than 1. Lung function test demonstrated a restrictive ventilatory defect, with decreased compliance, reduced diffusion capacity and high airway obstruction. Five cases had open lung biopsy performed and two cases had undergone lung transplantation. Pathologic examination showed bronchiolocentric cellular interstitial pneumonia, interstitial fibrosis, non-caseating epithelioid granulomas, epithelioid histiocytic infiltrate in the respiratory bronchioles and intraluminal budding fibrosis. The five cases with open lung biopsy performed also showed neutrophilic infiltrate in the alveoli. The two lung transplant cases were complicated by severe fibrotic changes. Chronic EAA demonstrates characteristic pathologic features. Definitive diagnosis requires correlation with clinical and radiologic findings due to possible morphologic mimicry of other diffuse parenchymal lung diseases.

  4. Childhood chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with nonuniform pathologic features.

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    Luan, Xinghua; Zheng, Riliang; Chen, Bin; Yuan, Yun

    2010-08-01

    Nonuniform pathologic changes in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy were previously reported only in adult humans. We analyzed the pathologic features of 12 children, aged 2-17 years, with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Six patients manifested a preceding illness. Five patients presented a chronic, monophasic course, and seven presented a relapsing-remitting course. Three patients exhibited multiple cranial-nerve involvement. Five of 12 (41.7%) patients presented nonuniform features. Two subtypes of nonuniform lesions were revealed. One exhibited varying myelinated fiber content between nerve fascicles, and one exhibited onion bulbs involving a variable number of fascicles. Macrophages were evident in 11 patients, and the number of CD3-positive T cells in the nonuniform group was greater compared with the uniform group (P = 0.045). Our results demonstrate that childhood chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy exhibits pathologically nonuniform features, thus providing more evidence to assist in differential diagnoses of pediatric patients. However, clinical and electrophysiologic features, as well as responses to treatment, were similar in the nonuniform and uniform groups.

  5. A geographical analysis of speech-language pathology services to support multilingual children.

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    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; McDonald, Simon

    2014-06-01

    The speech-language pathology workforce strives to provide equitable, quality services to multilingual people. However, the extent to which this is being achieved is unknown. Participants in this study were 2849 members of Speech Pathology Australia and 4386 children in the Birth cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Statistical and geospatial analyses were undertaken to identify the linguistic diversity and geographical distribution of Australian speech-language pathology services and Australian children. One fifth of services offered by Speech Pathology Australia members (20.2%) were available in a language other than English. Services were most commonly offered in Australian Sign Language (Auslan) (4.3%), French (3.1%), Italian (2.2%), Greek (1.6%), and Cantonese (1.5%). Among 4-5-year-old children in the nationally representative LSAC, 15.3% regularly spoke and/or understood a language other than English. The most common languages spoken by the children were Arabic (1.5%), Italian (1.2%), Greek (0.9%), Spanish (0.9%), and Vietnamese (0.9%). There was a mismatch between the location of and languages in which multilingual services were offered, and the location of and languages spoken by children. These findings highlight the need for SLPs to be culturally competent in providing equitable services to all clients, regardless of the languages they speak.

  6. [Halitosis concomitant with chronic ENT pathology in children].

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    Tulupov, D A; Bakhmutov, D N; Karpova, E P

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the potential of gas chromatography as a tool for diagnostics of chronic ENT pathology in the children. A total of 37 patients aged between 5 and 18 years with chronic ENT diseases and complaints of foul breath were available for the examination. Thirty one children presented with chronic tonsillitis, 3 with chronic adenoiditis, 2 with chronic rhinosinusitis, and 1 with subatrophic rhinitis. It was shown with the use of gas chromatography that the exhaled air from 34 (91.9%) patients contained cadaverin at a concentration of 0.004-0.0009 mg/ml. Three (8.1%) children exhaled methyl mercaptan (0.01-0.025 mg/m3) and hydrogen sulfide (0.002-0.006 mg/m3), and 2 (5.4%) patients exhaled the air containing dimethyl disulfide (0.009-0.002 mg/m3). The volatile sulfur-containing compounds were detected only in the children aged above 14 years. It is concluded that chronic tonsillitis is the leading etiological factor responsible for the development of the extraoral form of halitosis in the children. The foul breath in the children unlike that in the adults is most frequently due to the enhanced cadaverin concentration in the exhaled air rather than the production of volatile sulfur-containing compounds.

  7. Problems of combined chronic pathology in newcomers of the north.

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    Mitrofanov, I M; Grishin, O V

    2001-04-01

    The problem of a combination of diseases is of great in the clinical treatment of internal diseases. Syntropy is of great significance to the northern population. A total of 617 patients living in Yakutia were studied. Analysing the combination of chronic pathology by means of the international classification of diseases was revealed that 7.4% of patients have only one nosological form and 55.1% had been diagnosed with 5 and more nosologies. When analysing the combination of the classes of the international classification of diseases it was seen that patients with one class constituted 14.0%. At same time the number of classes of the diagnosed pathology comprised 3 and more in 44.3% of the patients. In our opinion the process of long human adaptation to severe climatic conditions leads to a decrease of the functional reserves in an organism and disadaptation in newcomers. It leads to the development of severe chronic polynosological pathology, pathogenesis of which is defined by the for need complex of disadaptive disorder.

  8. Pathological consequences of chronic low daily dose gamma irradiation

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    Seed, T.M.; Miller, A.C.; Ramakrishnan, N. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States); Fritz, T.E.

    2000-07-01

    The quantitative relationships between the chronic radiation exposure parameters of dose-rate and total dose in relation to associated health risks was examined in dogs. At a dose-rate of 75, 128, and 263 mGy/d the incidence of acute lymphohematopoietic suppression (aplastic anemia) and associated septic complications was 73%, 87%, and 100%, respectively, and it increased in dose-dependent manner. By contrast, at dose-rates below 75 mGy/d, late cancers contributed significantly to the death of relatively long-lived animals, whose mean survival time was 1800 days. Myeloproliferative disease (MPD), mainly myeloid leukemia, was the dominant pathology seen at the higher daily dose-rates (18.8-75 mGy/d). When daily exposure was carried out continuously, the incidence of MPD was quite high. It should be noted that the induction radiation-induced MPD in this study was highly significant, because spontaneous MPD is exceedingly rare in the dog. However, when the daily dose-rate was reduced further or exposure was discontinued, the incidence of MPD declined significantly. At these lower dose-rates, solid tumors contributed heavily to the life-shortening effects of chronic irradiation. The induction and progression of these survival-compromising, late forms of pathology appeared to be driven by the degree of hematopoietic suppression that occurred early during the exposure phase, and in turn by the capacity of hematopoietic system to repair itself, recover, and to accommodate under chronic radiation stress. (K.H.)

  9. Chronic meralgia paresthetica and neurectomy: a clinical pathologic study.

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    Berini, Sarah E; Spinner, Robert J; Jentoft, Mark E; Engelstad, Janean K; Staff, Nathan P; Suanprasert, Narupat; Dyck, P James B; Klein, Christopher J

    2014-04-29

    To understand the pathologic and clinical correlates of patients with chronic meralgia paresthetica (MP) undergoing lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) neurectomy. A retrospective cohort approach was utilized to identify 7 patients undergoing LFCN neurectomy for intractable pain. Control autopsied LFCN was obtained. Clinical, radiologic, and electrophysiologic features were reviewed. In identified cases, preoperative symptoms included severe lateral thigh pain and numbness. The duration of symptoms prior to surgery ranged from 2 to 15 years. Body mass index (BMI) varied from 20 kg/m(2) to 44.8 kg/m(2) (normal-morbidly obese), with 6 out of 7 patients being obese. No patients were diabetic. Focal nerve indentation at the inguinal ligament was seen intraoperatively and on gross pathology in 4 of 7 cases. Multifocal fiber loss, selective loss of large myelinated fibers, thinly myelinated profiles, regenerating nerve clusters, perineurial thickening, and subperineurial edema were seen. None of these features were observed in control nerve. Morphometric analysis confirmed loss of large myelinated fibers with small and intermediate size fiber predominance. Five patients had varying degrees of intraneural and epineurial inflammation. Six of 7 reported improved pain after neurectomy, sometimes dramatic. Patients with chronic MP and intractable pain have an LFCN mononeuropathy with loss of nerve fibers. Pathologic and clinical study supports a compressive pathogenesis as the primary mechanism. Abnormal nerve inflammation coexists and may play a role in pathogenesis. These selected patients typically benefited from neurectomy at a site of inguinal ligament compression. This study provides Class IV evidence that patients with chronic MP LFCN neurectomy experience improvement in MP-related pain.

  10. Systemic pathological effects induced by cobra (Naja naja) venom from geographically distinct origins of Indian peninsula.

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    Shashidharamurthy, R; Mahadeswaraswamy, Y H; Ragupathi, L; Vishwanath, B S; Kemparaju, K

    2010-11-01

    Indian cobra (Naja naja) venom from different geographical locations varied in its composition and biochemical, pharmacological and immunological properties. Recently it has been shown that the variation in composition of venom from different geographical origin of Indian peninsula is due to the quantitative difference in the same components and also the presence of different biochemical entities with respect to their origin. This disparity in venom composition may be due to several environmental factors. However, very little is known about the systemic effects on vital organs caused by the venom due to regional variation. In the present investigation, the venom samples procured from eastern, western and southern regions were compared for histopathological effects on skeletal muscle and some vital organs (heart, lungs, liver and kidney) in the mouse model. All the three venom samples damaged vital organs such as cardiac muscle, gastrocnemius muscle, liver, lungs and kidneys; however, the extent of damage varied greatly. Eastern venom predominantly damaged cardiac muscle and kidney, western venom injured the liver and the southern venom affected the lung. In addition, the eastern venom caused the recruitment of a flux of inflammatory cells in the skeletal muscle unlike southern and western venom samples. These results suggest the diversity of target-specific toxins in all the three regional venoms. Thus, the study explores the possible variations in the pathological effects of cobra (Naja naja) venom samples on vital organs due to geographical distribution in the Indian subcontinent. It also emphasizes the importance of intra-specific variation of venom samples for the production of efficacious and region-specific therapeutic antivenom. Copyright © 2009. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. Bone Marrow Pathology Predicts Mortality in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

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    Cheng-Hao Weng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A bone marrow biopsy is a useful procedure for the diagnosis and staging of various hematologic and systemic diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the findings of bone marrow studies can predict mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients. Methods. Seventy-eight end-stage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis underwent bone marrow biopsies between 2000 and 2011, with the most common indication being unexplained anemia followed by unexplained leukocytosis and leukopenia. Results. The survivors had a higher incidence of abnormal megakaryocyte distribution P=0.001, band and segmented cells P=0.021, and lymphoid cells P=0.029 than the nonsurvivors. The overall mortality rate was 38.5% (30/78, and the most common cause of mortality was sepsis (83.3% followed by respiratory failure (10%. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, both decreased (OR 3.714, 95% CI 1.671–8.253, P=0.001 and absent (OR 9.751, 95% CI 2.030–45.115, P=0.004 megakaryocyte distribution (normal megakaryocyte distribution as the reference group, as well as myeloid/erythroid ratio (OR 1.054, CI 1.012–1.098, P=0.011, were predictive of mortality. Conclusion. The results of a bone marrow biopsy can be used to assess the pathology, and, in addition, myeloid/erythroid ratio and abnormal megakaryocyte distribution can predict mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients.

  12. Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism pathologically showing homogeneous cellular alveolitis.

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    Miwa, Seiichi; Shirai, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Kaida, Yusuke; Suda, Takafumi; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Chida, Kingo

    2011-01-01

    A 60-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of general malaise. Examination of arterial blood gases on room air revealed hypoxia. Pulmonary function test showed restrictive abnormality. Chest high-resolution CT showed diffuse mosaic attenuation without evident pulmonary artery abnormality on contrast chest CT. Based on these findings, interstitial pneumonia or chronic pulmonary thromboembolism was suspected. The findings of bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 4.4×10(5) cells/mL, including 89.6% macrophages, 9.4% lymphocytes, and 1.0% neutrophils. TBLB showed marked alveolitis. Moreover video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical biopsy was performed. Biopsies of the lung specimen showed focal infarct with surrounding mild mononuclear cell infiltrates (homogenous cellular alveolitis). (99m)Tc pulmonary perfusion and (81m)Kr ventilation scintigraphy showed V/Q mismatch. Furthermore, pulmonary angiography also revealed inadequate artery flow corresponding to the mismatch area of scintigraphy. Collagen vascular diseases and abnormality of coagulation factors were not detected. Multiple perfusion defects persisted for more than 6 months. Thus, finally the patient was diagnosed with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, pathologically showing homogenous cellular alveolitis.

  13. [Systemic immunological response in children with chronic gingivitis and gastro-intestinal pathology].

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    Romanenko, E G

    2014-01-01

    Study of the immune system mechanisms in chronic catarrhal gingivitis in children with gastrointestinal pathology was performed in 102 children (49 with chronic gastritis and duodenitis and 53 with no signs of gastrointestinal pathology). Forty-eight children with healthy periodontium constituted control group. Generalized chronic catarrhal gingivitis in children with gastroduodenal pathology is characterized by intense humoral response by simultaneous T-cell immunity suppression. Detection of high serum titers of circulating immune complexes in patients with chronic catarrhal gingivitis suggests a role of immune response in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease increases with concomitant diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

  14. Clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and molecular characterization of feline chronic gingivostomatitis.

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    Rolim, Veronica Machado; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Pignone, Viviam; Faraco, Cláudia; Muccillo, Marcelo de Souza; Roehe, Paulo Michel; da Costa, Fernanda Viera Amorim; Driemeier, David

    2017-04-01

    Objectives This study presents the clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and molecular characterization of 26 cats with feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCG). Methods Oral mucosal biopsies, blood and swabs were collected from cats presenting with oral lesions. The tissue sections were submitted for histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for feline calicivirus (FCV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). The swabs were subjected to PCR analysis for FCV, and blood for FeLV and FIV. Results The main clinical findings were dysphagia (88.2%), halitosis (76.5%), sialorrhea (47.1%), weight loss (41.2%), intense oral discomfort (35.3%), oral hemorrhage (17.6%), and lackluster and fragile coat (11.8%). Gross inspection revealed bilateral lesions across the palatoglossal fold to the lateral tongue base. The lesions were diffuse, proliferative, intensely red and friable, and bled easily upon examination in 80.8% of cases. In 23.1% of cases, the lesions were multifocal to coalescent, at times forming multiple vesicles on a reddened, edematous palatoglossal fold. Microscopic examination showed that 15.4% of lesions had moderate (grade 2) and 84.6% had severe (grade 3) inflammation. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of FeLV antigens in the epithelium and the inflammatory infiltrate of 30.8% of the cats with FCG. FCV antigens were not detected in the FCG lesions. Conclusions and relevance The FCG cases analyzed could not be correlated with FCV. It is possible that FeLV plays a role as a causal agent of lesions in cases where the presence of the virus has been confirmed by immunohistochemistry in epithelial samples.

  15. Relationship of rotator cuff tendon pathology with obesity, chronic diseases and steroid use

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    Ayse Umul; Hakan Demirtas; Ahmet Orhan Celik; Mustafa Kara; Omer Yilmaz; Bumin Degirmenci; Hasan Ali Eksili; Hikmet Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the possible relationship between rotator cuff tendon pathologies detected with magnetic resonance imaging and obesity and chronic diseases. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and sixty seven patients, who underwent shoulder MRI between 2014 January and October 2014 for pain and limitation of motion in the shoulder, were reviewed retrospectively. Tendon pathology was detected in 153 patients and they were included in the study. Tendon pathologies were examined by t...

  16. Pathology and differential diagnosis of chronic, noninfectious gastritis.

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    Polydorides, Alexandros D

    2014-03-01

    The histologic finding of chronic inflammation in an endoscopic mucosal biopsy of the stomach (chronic gastritis) is very common and usually reflects the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. However, infectious organisms are not always present in biopsy material, and some cases of chronic gastritis do not result from H. pylori infection. Thus, the differential diagnosis of this finding is an important one for pathologists to keep in mind. This review presents the three most common and clinically significant causes of chronic, noninfectious gastritis, namely, autoimmune atrophic gastritis, lymphocytic gastritis, and gastric involvement in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease, especially Crohn disease. For each entity, a brief discussion of its etiology and pathogenesis, a review of the clinical and endoscopic features, and a description of the microscopic findings are presented in the context of the differential diagnosis of chronic gastritis with emphasis on helpful histopathologic hints and long-term sequelae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain shrinkage in chronic alcoholics: a pathological study.

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    Harper, C G; Kril, J J; Holloway, R L

    1985-02-16

    A quantitative neuropathological necropsy study of 22 control and 22 chronic alcoholic subjects showed a statistically significant loss of brain tissue in the chronic alcoholic group. The loss of tissue appeared to be from the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres rather than the cerebral cortex. This may reflect a primary alteration in the composition or structure of the white matter or it may be secondary to loss of nerve cells from the cortex with subsequent degeneration of the axons in the white matter. Further morphometric analyses including cortical neuronal counts will be necessary to clarify this issue.

  18. [Geographic information system based spatial analysis on chronic arsenic poisoning in a tin mining area, Thailand].

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    Zhang, Jianjun; Wu, Liping; Lin, Kun

    2007-05-01

    To explore the spatial features of arsenic contamination and its association with chronic arsenic poisoning in a tin mining area of Thailand. Geographic information system(GIS) was built up with integration of arsenic concentration in varied environmental media and occurring location data of chronic arsenism patients. Then, the spatial interpolation (IDW), buffer zoning, query and rank correlation analysis were applied. Groundwater and surface farming land were classified according to local environmental arsenic standards; the relative risk areas were identified. The incidence of chronic arsenic poisoning was significantly correlated with arsenic level in groundwater and soil type (P water soluble arsenic in soil (P > 0.05). The arsenic content in drinking water could be critical to chronic arsenic poisoning. The soil type could be an important factor affecting such poisoning. Trend analysis in GIS could provide a valuable tool for understanding the pollution situation and disease surveillance.

  19. Change of liver echogenicity in chronic renal failure: Correlation with serologic test and pathologic findings

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    Eun, Hyo Won; Cho, Kyoung Sik; Kim, Jeong Kon [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Hoon [Soonchunhyang University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    To correlate serologic test and pathologic findings with change of hepatic parenchymal echogenicity on ultrasound (US) in patients with chronic renal failure. From January 1995 to April 2000, among eight hundred eighty four patients with kidney transplantation due to chronic renal failure, sixty seven patients who underwent US-guided liver biopsy were selected. Change of liver echogenicity on US was analyzed, and this change was compared with serologic test and pathologic findings. Among sixty seven patients, pathologic findings of thirty four patients with the normal liver echogenicity on US revealed normal in 15 patients (44%), viral hepatitis in 18 (53%), and liver cirrhosis in one patient (3%). Meanwhile, twenty seven patients with chronic liver disease on US were pathologically confirmed as normal in 13 patients (48%), viral hepatitis in 11 (40%), liver cirrhosis in four patients (11%); six patients with cirrhotic change on US, liver cirrhosis in four patients (67%) and viral hepatitis on two patients (33%). Serologic test of thirty four patients with the normal liver echogenicity on US showed positive HBs Ag in 17 patients (50%), positive anti-HCV Ab in 11 (32%), positive in both HBs Ag and anti-HCV Ab in one (3%), and normal result in five patients (15%). In patients with chronic renal failure, it is nor enough to determine the presence of liver disease only based on change of echogenicity on US. A careful correlation with serologic test and, if needed, pathologic confirmation are recommended for the accurate preoperative evaluation of the liver.

  20. Clinical and pathological analysis of IgA nephropathy with chronic renal failure.

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    Liu, Yuyuan; Hu, Qinfeng; Shen, Ping; Tang, Li; Yuan, Gang; Zhou, Yongmei; Chai, Huaqi

    2016-10-01

    To investigative clinical and pathological characteristics of IgA nephropathy with chronic renal failure. Clinical and pathological findings from 65 cases of IgA nephropathy with chronic renal failure were reviewed. Pathological characteristics of all the cases were analyzed according to WHO definition and Oxford Classification. Evaluating the severity of pathological lesions by the Katafuchi R semiquantitative scoring system, and analyzing their relationship with clinical indexes of renal function. Of all 65 cases the male and female ratio was 1.4, and the mean age was 37 ± 13 years old. Levels of systolic pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), uric acid (UA), album (Alb), serum IgG and 24 h urinary protein were related with eGRF level (p IgA deposition was the most common immunopathologic type. Of all the cases, 44.6% accompanied with C3 while 4.6% with C1q. Further analysis revealed there were no relationships between severity of pathological lesion and levels of clinical indexes (Scr and eGRF) (p > 0.05). IgA nephropathy with chronic renal failure usually occurred in young adults, and it had severe clinical condition and pathological changes, while there was no significant relationship between them.

  1. Concomitant glenohumeral pathologies associated with acute and chronic grade III and grade V acromioclavicular joint injuries.

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    Jensen, Gunnar; Millett, Peter J; Tahal, Dimitri S; Al Ibadi, Mireille; Lill, Helmut; Katthagen, Jan Christoph

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the risk of concomitant glenohumeral pathologies with acromioclavicular joint injuries grade III and V. Patients who underwent arthroscopically-assisted stabilization of acromioclavicular joint injuries grade III or grade V between 01/2007 and 12/2015 were identified in the patient databases of two surgical centres. Gender, age at index surgery, grade of acromioclavicular joint injury (Rockwood III or Rockwood V), and duration between injury and index surgery (classified as acute or chronic) were of interest. Concomitant glenohumeral pathologies were noted and their treatment was classified as debridement or reconstructive procedure. A total of 376 patients (336 male, 40 female) were included. Mean age at time of arthroscopic acromioclavicular joint reconstruction surgery was 42.1 ± 14.0 years. Overall, 201 patients (53%) had one or more concomitant glenohumeral pathologies. Lesions of the biceps tendon complex and rotator cuff were the most common. Forty-five patients (12.0%) had concomitant glenohumeral pathologies that required an additional repair. The remaining 156 patients (41.5%) received a debridement of their concomitant pathologies. Rockwood grade V compared to Rockwood grade III (p = 0.013; odds ratio 1.7), and chronic compared to acute injury were significantly associated with having a concomitant glenohumeral pathology (p = 0.019; odds ratio 1.7). The probability of having a concomitant glenohumeral pathology was also significantly associated with increasing age (p acromioclavicular joint injury of either grade III or V. Twenty-two percent of these patients with concomitant glenohumeral pathologies received an additional dedicated repair procedure. Although a significant difference in occurrence of concomitant glenohumeral pathologies was seen between Rockwood grades III and V, and between acute and chronic lesions, increasing age was identified as the most dominant predictor. Level IV, case series.

  2. Advances in our understanding of the pathology of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

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    De Giorgio, R; Sarnelli, G; Corinaldesi, R; Stanghellini, V

    2004-11-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) represents a particularly difficult clinical challenge. It is a rare and highly morbid syndrome characterised by impaired gastrointestinal propulsion together with symptoms and signs of bowel obstruction in the absence of any lesions occluding the gut lumen. CIP can be classified as either "secondary" to a wide array of recognised pathological conditions or "idiopathic" (CIIP). This review will focus on CIIP, and specifically on the underlying pathological abnormalities. Combined clinical and histopathological studies are needed to highlight new perspectives in the understanding and management of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

  3. Mustard gas toxicity: the acute and chronic pathological effects.

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    Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S; Ghanei, Mostafa; Ansarin, Khalil; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2010-10-01

    Ever since it was first used in armed conflict, mustard gas (sulfur mustard, MG) has been known to cause a wide range of acute and chronic injuries to exposure victims. The earliest descriptions of these injuries were published during and in the immediate aftermath of the First World War, and a further series of accounts followed the Second World War. More recently, MG has been deployed in warfare in the Middle East and this resulted in large numbers of victims, whose conditions have been studied in detail at hospitals in the region. In this review, we bring together the older and more recent clinical studies on MG toxicity and summarize what is now known about the acute and chronic effects of the agent on the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other physiological systems. In the majority of patients, the most clinically serious long-term consequences of MG poisoning are on the respiratory system, but the effects on the skin and other systems also have a significant impact on quality of life. Aspects of the management of these patients are discussed.

  4. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: from pathology to phenotype.

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    Mathey, Emily K; Park, Susanna B; Hughes, Richard A C; Pollard, John D; Armati, Patricia J; Barnett, Michael H; Taylor, Bruce V; Dyck, P James B; Kiernan, Matthew C; Lin, Cindy S-Y

    2015-09-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an inflammatory neuropathy, classically characterised by a slowly progressive onset and symmetrical, sensorimotor involvement. However, there are many phenotypic variants, suggesting that CIDP may not be a discrete disease entity but rather a spectrum of related conditions. While the abiding theory of CIDP pathogenesis is that cell-mediated and humoral mechanisms act together in an aberrant immune response to cause damage to peripheral nerves, the relative contributions of T cell and autoantibody responses remain largely undefined. In animal models of spontaneous inflammatory neuropathy, T cell responses to defined myelin antigens are responsible. In other human inflammatory neuropathies, there is evidence of antibody responses to Schwann cell, compact myelin or nodal antigens. In this review, the roles of the cellular and humoral immune systems in the pathogenesis of CIDP will be discussed. In time, it is anticipated that delineation of clinical phenotypes and the underlying disease mechanisms might help guide diagnostic and individualised treatment strategies for CIDP.

  5. Pathology of complete atrioventricular block in chronic chagas' myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilton A. Andrade

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Sclero-atrophy, fibrosis, vascular ectasia, phlebosclerosis and mild non-specific chronic inflammatory changes were observed in variable location and proportion involving the atrioventricular conducting tissue of the heart in five human cases of chronic Chagas' myocarditis associated with complete atrioventricular block. One case presented complete destruction of the A-V conduction system. In three cases the lesions were disseminated all along the conducting tissue but did not cause anywhere a complete disruption in the continuity of the system. The distal portion of the bundle branches were the most damaged sector of the system, exceptfor the fasciculi of the posterior division of the left bundle branch which were relatively preserved. One case exhibited bilateral sclero-atrophy of the bundle branches as the main change; and another showed early and mild fibrocalcific damage of the penetrating portion of the His bundle. The A-V node appeared as the least involved part of the conducting system in the cases studied. Demonstration of the lesions in this series of cases seems important because: a it reveals that complete atrioventriculr block in chronic Chagas' disease results from disseminated lesions and not from focal disruptive change as has been commonly observed in cases of other etiologies; b it shows that chronic inflammation can produce at the end variable and widespread vascular, degenerative andfibrotic alterations within the conducting tissue of the heart, which may lead to its total destruction.O estudo do sistema de condução atrioventricular através cortes seriados completos em cinco casos humanos de miocardite crônica chagásica e bloqueio A-V total revelou a presença de lesões de esclero-atrofia, fibrose, ectasia vascular, fleboesclerose e inflamação crônica inespeclfica envolvendo o sistema de maneira disseminada, mas com distribuição e intensidade variáveis de caso para caso. Em um caso, todo o sistema, do nódulo A

  6. Plant phosphates, phytate and pathological calcifications in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buades Fuster, Juan Manuel; Sanchís Cortés, Pilar; Perelló Bestard, Joan; Grases Freixedas, Félix

    Phytate, or myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis dihydrogen phosphate (InsP6), is a naturally occurring phosphorus compound that is present in many foods, mainly legumes, whole grains and nuts. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have cardiovascular disease mortality up to 30times higher than the general population. Vascular calcifications (VCs) directly contribute to overall morbidity and mortality, especially in CKD. In part, this high mortality is due to elevated levels of phosphorus in the blood. Therefore, control of dietary phosphorus is essential. Dietary phosphorus can be classified according to its structure in organic phosphorus (plant and animal) and inorganic (preservatives and additives). Plant-phosphorus (legumes and nuts), mainly associated with InsP6, is less absorbable by the human gastrointestinal tract as the bioavailability of phosphorous from plant-derived foods is very low. Recent data indicate that restriction of foods containing plant phosphates may compromise the adequate supply of nutrients that have a beneficial effect in preventing cardiovascular events, such as InsP6 or fibre found in legumes and nuts. Experimental studies in animals and observational studies in humans suggest that InsP6 can prevent lithiasis and VCs and protect from osteoporosis. In conclusion, we need prospective studies to elucidate the potential benefits and risks of phytate (InsP6) through the diet and as an intravenous drug in patients on haemodialysis.

  7. Chronic oral pathology and ischemic heart disease and its complications

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    Ivaschenko Y.Y.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to establish the relationship of chronic generalized periodontitis, multiple cavities and dentofacial anomalies with various forms of coronary heart disease and its complications. Material and methods. The study included 294 patients with coronary heart disease and its complications. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I included 89 patients with acute Q-myocardial infarction, which was placed in the presence of at least 2 of the following criteria identified on the basis of a comprehensive clinical and instrumental examination: clinical, laboratory confirmation (CK-MB, electrocardiographic signs of damage or myocardial necrosis. The following statistical methods were used: multi-variate and univariate analysis of variance, non-parametric tests, crosstabulation, chi-square test, Fisher»s exact test. As a measure of variability of the normal distribution standard deviation was used. Results. It is noted that in patients with myocardial infarction more likely than in patients without coronary heart attack in history severe generalized periodontitis, dentofacial anomalies and multiple dental caries have appeared. In patients with acute myocardial infarction, severe periodontal disease has been associated with increased fibrinogen levels in the blood and an increase in the dispersion of the interval QT, which are known to be indicators of poor prognosis in acute coronary disease.

  8. Geographic disparities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD hospitalization among Medicare beneficiaries in the United States

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    Holt JB

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available James B Holt, Xingyou Zhang, Letitia Presley-Cantrell, Janet B CroftNational Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USABackground: Hospitalizations for persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD result in significant health care resource use and excess expenditures. Despite well-documented sociodemographic disparities in COPD outcomes, no study has characterized geographic variations in COPD hospitalization across the US.Methods: Almost 3.8 million COPD hospitalization records were extracted from Medicare claims for 1995–2006, and the total population of eligible Medicare beneficiaries was extracted from the Medicare enrollment records to calculate COPD hospitalization rates by Health Service Area (HSA, (n = 949. Spatial cluster analysis and Bayesian hierarchical spatial modeling were used to characterize the geography of COPD hospitalizations.Results: The overall COPD hospitalization rate was 11.30 per 1,000 beneficiaries for the aggregated period 1995–2006. HSA-level COPD hospitalization rates had a median of 11.7 and a range of 3.0 (Cache, UT to 76.3 (Pike, KY. Excessive hospitalization risk was concentrated in Appalachia, the southern Great Lakes, the Mississippi Delta, the Deep South, and west Texas. In the Bayesian spatial mixture model, 73% of variability of COPD hospitalization relative risk was attributed to unidentified regional social and physical environments shared by HSAs rather than to unique local HSA factors (27%.Conclusion: We discovered distinct geographic patterns in COPD hospitalization rates and risks attributed to both regionally-shared environmental risk factors and HSA-unique environmental contexts. The correlates of these geographic patterns remain to be determined. Geographic comparisons of COPD hospitalization risk provide insights for better public health practice, policies, and programs for COPD prevention

  9. Diffusion-weighted imaging in assessing renal pathology of chronic kidney disease: A preliminary clinical study

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    Li, Qinghai; Li, Jinning; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Minming [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009 (China); Yan, Fuhua, E-mail: zemylife@163.com [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2014-05-15

    Objective: To investigate the clinical potential of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in assessing renal pathology of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: Seventy-one CKD patients and twelve healthy volunteers were examined using DWI with prospective acquisition correction. Renal biopsy specimens from the CKD patients were scored based on the severity of renal pathology and to confirm pathology type. CKD patients were divided into three groups according to pathology scores: mild, moderate, or severe. The association between renal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and pathology scores was investigated using Pearson's correlation and single factor analysis of variance. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore associations between renal ADC values and pathology score, glomerular filtration rate, serum creatinine, and age. The Kruskal–Wallis H test was conducted to compare ADC values and pathology type. Results: Renal ADC values correlated negatively with pathology scores (r = −0.633, P < 0.001). The ADC values among the four groups (mild, moderate, severe impairment, and controls) were significantly different (F = 19.512, P < 0.001). However, when patients were stratified by pathology type, no significant differences were found in ADC values among these groups (χ{sup 2} = 9.929, P = 0.270). Further multiple linear regression analysis showed that only the pathology score and ADC values were related (t = −4.586, P = 0.000). Conclusions: DWI has clinical potential in assessing the severity of renal pathology in CKD and shows promise as a non-invasive and effective technique to guide therapy and follow-up.

  10. Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis as a rare pathologic aspect of chronic active pelvic inflammatory disease.

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    Yener, Nese; Ilter, Erdin; Midi, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis (XGS) is a rare form of chronic inflammation of the fallopian tubes. A 41-year old woman with a history of secondary infertility for 2 years is presented. The patient underwent bilateral salpingooopherectomy with presumptive diagnosis of adnexal mass with cystic component. Intraoperative pathology consultation was done. The diagnosis of bilateral XGS associated with chronic active follicular salpingitis was made. XGS is reported to be caused by an unsuccesfully treated pelvic inflammatory disease. Its association with chronic active follicular salpingitis has not been previously reported. Chronic active follicular salpingitis with xanthogranulomatous inflammation might give the impression of a cystic adnexal mass with septations on preoperative pelvic computed tomography. Frozen sections are necessary to rule out malignancy as done in our case.

  11. Obesity, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and chronic periodontitis: a shared pathology via oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction?

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    Bullon, Pedro; Newman, Hubert N; Battino, Maurizio

    2014-02-01

    As many diseases have been shown to have several or indirect causes (i.e. are multifactorial) the question is what is the relative importance of each factor in a given disease? Also, what happens when some diseases, although apparently disparate, share causative factors and/or tissue pathologies? Host inflammation response mechanisms are largely shared by the body's different tissues and systems and only recently has special attention been paid to the possible linkages among chronic periodontitis and other chronic systemic diseases. The aim of this review was to consider and discuss the mounting evidence that the basis for the inter-relationships between chronic periodontitis and atheromatous disease and diabetes lie at a fundamental intracellular level, namely oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, as a meeting background among such chronic diseases and periodontitis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Relationship between clinical and pathologic findings in patients with chronic liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lun-Gen Lu; Jun Ye; Xiong Cai; Cheng-Wei Chen; Ji-Yao Wang; Shan-Ming Wu; Jin-Shui Zhu; Xia-Qiu Zhou; Min-De Zeng; Yi-Min Mao; Ji-Qiang Li; De-Kai Qiu; Jing-Yuan Fang; Ai-Ping Cao; Mo-Bin Wan; Cheng-Zhong Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore the relationship between clinical findings of patients with chronic liver diseases and the pathologic grading and staging of liver tissues.METHODS: The inflammatory activity and fibrosis of consecutive liver biopsies from 200 patients were determined according to the diagnosis criteria of chronic hepatitis in China established in 1995. A comparative analysis was carried out for 200 patients with chronic liver diseases by comparing their clinical manifestations, serum biochemical markers with the grading and staging of liver tissues.RESULTS: It was revealed that age, index of clinical symptoms and physical signs were obviously relevant to the pathologic grading and staging of liver tissues (P<0.05). Blood platelet, red blood cells, aspartate aminotransferase (AST),N-terminal procollagen Ⅲ (PⅢ NP) were apparently correlated with the degree of inflammation. PGA (prothrombin time,GGT, apoprotein A1) index, PGAA (PGA+△2-macroglobublin)index, albumin and albumin/globulin were relevant to both inflammation and fibrosis. Hyaluronic acid (HA) was an accurate variable for the severity of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. The combination of serum markers for fibrosis could increase the diagnostic accuracy. It was notable that viral replication markers were not relevant to the degree of inflammation and fibrosis.CONCLUSION: There is a good correlation between clinical findings and the pathologic grading and staging of liver tissues, which may give aid to the noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis.

  13. Geographic difference in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among Japanese screened subjects: Ibaraki versus Okinawa.

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    Iseki, Kunitoshi; Horio, Masaru; Imai, Enyu; Matsuo, Seiichi; Yamagata, Kunihiro

    2009-02-01

    In Japan, there is a geographic difference in the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Few epidemiologic studies, however, have compared the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among different geographic areas. Other than genetic factors, socioeconomic conditions and lifestyle are targets for modification. We examined the prevalence of CKD among two large community-based screened populations, 40 years of age and older, in Japan: Ibaraki (N = 187,863) and Okinawa (N = 83,150). Prevalence of CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) using the coefficient modified abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (aMDRD) study equation using a standardized serum creatinine value. CKD prevalence was compared among screenees with (+) or without (-) hypertension (systolic blood pressure > or =140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mmHg) and hyperglycemia (plasma glucose > or = 126 mg/dl). Both male and female participants in Okinawa had a significantly lower prevalence of hypertension (-)/hyperglycemia (-) than did patients in Ibaraki. The prevalence of CKD in Okinawa was higher than that in Ibaraki among screenees with hypertension (-)/hyperglycemia (-), and highest among screenees with hypertension (+)/hyperglycemia (-). The regional difference in CKD prevalence may underlie the variation in ESRD prevalence observed in Japan.

  14. Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm (IPMN and Chronic Pancreatitis: Overlapping Pathological Entities? Two Case Reports

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    Athanasios Petrou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs are a recently classified pancreatic neoplasm with an increasing incidence. IPMN is often misdiagnosed as chronic pancreatitis because of symptoms of relapsing abdominal pain, pancreatitis, and steatorrhea and imaging findings of a dilated pancreatic duct of cystic lesions that are frequently confused with pseudocysts. Early recognition of IPMN allows for prompt surgical resection before malignant transformation. Case reports We report two cases of patients with long histories of chronic pancreatitis (more than 15 years that went on to develop IPMN. Both patients presented with symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea, steatorrhoea and eventually weight loss. Biochemical and radiological findings were suggestive of chronic pancreatitis although no clear causes for this were identified. Both patients were followed up with multiple repeat scans with no reported sinister findings. Many years after the initial diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis, radiological investigations identified pathological changes suggestive of neoplastic development and histology confirmed IPMN. Conclusions The cases demonstrate the ongoing challenges in diagnosing and managing IPMN effectively; highlights the important aspects of epidemiology in differentiating chronic pancreatitis and IPMN; continues the discussion surrounding the relationship between IPMN and chronic pancreatitis.

  15. Geographic information systems and chronic kidney disease: racial disparities, rural residence and forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rudolph A; Hotchkiss, John R; O'Hare, Ann M

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of health and health care provision in the United States vary substantially across regions, and there is substantial regional heterogeneity in population density, age distribution, disease prevalence, race and ethnicity, poverty and the ability to access care. Geocoding and geographic information systems (GIS) are important tools to link patient or population location to information regarding these characteristics. In this review, we provide an overview of basic GIS concepts and provide examples to illustrate how GIS techniques have been applied to the study of kidney disease, and in particular to understanding the interplay between race, poverty, rural residence and the planning of renal services for this population. The interplay of socioeconomic status and renal disease outcomes remains an important area for investigation and recent publications have explored this relationship utilizing GIS techniques to incorporate measures of socioeconomic status and racial composition of neighborhoods. In addition, there are many potential challenges in providing care to rural patients with chronic kidney disease including long travel times and sparse renal services such as transplant and dialysis centers. Geospatially fluent analytic approaches can also inform system level analyses of health care systems and these approaches can be applied to identify an optimal distribution of dialysis facilities. GIS analysis could help untangle the complex interplay between geography, socioeconomic status, and racial disparities in chronic kidney disease, and could inform policy decisions and resource allocation as the population ages and the prevalence of renal disease increases.

  16. CHRONIC URTICARIAL IN CHILDHOOD. IMMUNE PATHOLOGY OF CHRONIC URTICARIAL IN CHILDREN (PART I

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    N. A. Sinelnikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This section of our review article deals with prevalence, genetic factors, and some immune mechanisms of chronic urticaria in children. In any form of chronic urticaria, the main pathogenetic role is ascribed to mast cells and basophiles. Increased production of cyto- and chemokines, e.g., CCL2, CХCL8, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, is observed during chronic inflammatory reactions typical to this disease. Activation of mast cells and basophiles proceeds via specific receptors on the target cell membranes. Autoimmune urticaria is of special importance. In this disorder, autoantibodies are directed against IgE or FCεRIα, thus causing histamine release, due to cross-linking of α-chains of high-affinity IgE receptor, or binding of IgE fixed on the mast cells. Degranulation of basophils is followed by occurrence of activation molecules (СD203с, CD63. Some workers presumet that association between СD203с expression and positive autologous serum skin test may be a sign of autoimmune process. Increased expression of CD40L ligand on the surface of activated T cells suggests enhanced signaling for B cell activation and production of autoantibodies.

  17. Relationship between chronic pathologies of the supraspinatus tendon and the long head of the biceps tendon: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Redondo-Alonso, Lucía; Chamorro-Moriana, Gema; Jiménez-Rejano, José Jesús; López-Tarrida, Patricio; Ridao-Fernández, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic supraspinatus tendinopathy is a common clinical problem that causes functional and labor disabilities in the population. It is the most frequent cause of shoulder pain. This pathology may be frequently associated to the affectation of the long head of biceps tendon (LHBT), the main stabilizer of the glenohumeral joint together with the supraspinatus. The main aim of this work is to study the prevalence of lesions in LHBT associated to the chronic pathology of the supraspina...

  18. Mixed pathologies including chronic traumatic encephalopathy account for dementia in retired association football (soccer) players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Helen; Morris, Huw R; Neal, James W; Lees, Andrew J; Hardy, John; Holton, Janice L; Revesz, Tamas; Williams, David D R

    2017-03-01

    In retired professional association football (soccer) players with a past history of repetitive head impacts, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a potential neurodegenerative cause of dementia and motor impairments. From 1980 to 2010, 14 retired footballers with dementia were followed up regularly until death. Their clinical data, playing career, and concussion history were prospectively collected. Next-of-kin provided consent for six to have post-mortem brain examination. Of the 14 male participants, 13 were professional and 1 was a committed amateur. All were skilled headers of the ball and had played football for an average of 26 years. Concussion rate was limited in six cases to one episode each during their careers. All cases developed progressive cognitive impairment with an average age at onset of 63.6 years and disease duration of 10 years. Neuropathological examination revealed septal abnormalities in all six post-mortem cases, supportive of a history of chronic repetitive head impacts. Four cases had pathologically confirmed CTE; concomitant pathologies included Alzheimer's disease (N = 6), TDP-43 (N = 6), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (N = 5), hippocampal sclerosis (N = 2), corticobasal degeneration (N = 1), dementia with Lewy bodies (N = 1), and vascular pathology (N = 1); and all would have contributed synergistically to the clinical manifestations. The pathological diagnosis of CTE was established in four individuals according to the latest consensus diagnostic criteria. This finding is probably related to their past prolonged exposure to repetitive head impacts from head-to-player collisions and heading the ball thousands of time throughout their careers. Alzheimer's disease and TDP-43 pathologies are common concomitant findings in CTE, both of which are increasingly considered as part of the CTE pathological entity in older individuals. Association football is the most popular sport in the world and the potential link between

  19. Managing chronic pathologies with a stepped mHealth-based approach in clinical psychology and medicine

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    Gianluca eCastelnuovo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases and conditions typically require long-term monitoring and treatment protocols both in traditional settings and in out-patient frameworks. The economic burden of chronic conditions is a key challenge and new and mobile technologies could offer good solutions. mHealth could be considered an evolution of ehealth and could be defined as the practice of medicine and public health supported by mobile communication devices. mHealth approach could overcome limitations linked with the traditional, restricted and highly expensive in-patient treatment of many chronic pathologies. Possible applications include stepped mHealth approach, where patients can be monitored and treated in their everyday contexts. Unfortunately, many barriers for the spread of mHealth are still present. Due the significant impact of psychosocial factors on disease evolution, psychotherapies have to be included into the chronic disease protocols. Existing psychological theories of health behavior change have to be adapted to the new technological contexts and requirements. In conclusion, clinical psychology and medicine have to face the chronic care management challenge in both traditional and mHealth settings.

  20. Ocular fundus pathology and chronic kidney disease in a Chinese population

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    Gao Bixia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous study indicated a high prevalence of ocular fundus pathology among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, while the relationship between them has never been explored in a Chinese Population. Methods This cross-sectional study included 9 670 participants enrolled in a medical screening program. Ocular fundus examination was performed by ophthalmologists using ophthalmoscopes. The presence of eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or proteinuria was defined as CKD. Results Compared to participants without CKD, participants with CKD had higher prevalence of retinopathy (28.5% vs. 16.3%, P Conclusions Ocular fundus pathology is common among Chinese patients with CKD. Regular eye exam among persons with proteinuria is warranted.

  1. Improvement of complex therapy of patients with pathology of scrotal organs formed by chronic brucellosis infection

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    Glybochko Р. V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to improve the treatment of patients with male reproductive organs pathology, formed by chronic brucellosis infection. Material and methods: We have analyzed the dynamics of the clinical manifestations of diseases of the scrotal organs, data of physical and ultrasound studies, semen parameters, the quality of life in 22 patients with chronic brucellosis and the presence of orchitis / orchiepididymitis against conventional therapy (10 patients, and combined treatment with the inclusion of cycloferon (i/m, 2 injection rate from 5 (0.25g with a break 10 days — 12. Results: We have proved ability of cycloferon to reduce the severity of the inflammatory process in the testis and epididymis, with improving of spermatogenesis and the quality of life for patients. We have marked the reduction in the number of exacerbations of chronic orchitis / orchiepididymitis 2.4 times after the course of cycloferon, its good tolerability of patients, no side effects. Conclusion: Using these results, the presence of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory potencies, cycloferon can be recommended in treatment of inflammatory lesions of the scrotal organs in patients with chronic brucellosis.

  2. Sural nerve biopsy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: Are supportive pathologic criteria useful in diagnosis?

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    Kulkarni Girish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : According to American Academy of Neurology (AAN criteria, demonstration of demyelination in the sural nerve by teased fiber or ultrastructure is considered mandatory for diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies (CIDP. In resource-restricted settings where these techniques are not freely available, it is useful to determine the utility of ′supportive′ pathologic criteria (subperineurial edema, inflammation, onion bulb formation, and demyelination proposed by AAN for diagnosis of CIDP. Settings and Design : Tertiary care hospital, retrospective study. Patients and Methods : Forty-six patients with idiopathic CIDP (32 with progressive course and 14 with relapsing-remitting course satisfying AAN clinical and electrophysiologic criteria evaluated between January 1991 and August 2004 were reviewed. Frequency of specific pathological alterations such as demyelination, inflammation, onion bulb formation, and axonal changes in sural nerve biopsies was evaluated. Statistical Analysis : SPSS statistical package was used to calculate mean, range, and standard deviation. Student′s t test, chi-square test, and ANOVA were used for determining statistical significance. Results and Conclusion : Reduction in myelinated fiber density was most frequent (93.5%, followed by demyelination (82.8%, inflammation (58.7%, and onion bulb formation (28.3%. Endoneurial inflammation was frequent in the relapsing-remitting form and epineurial inflammation and axonal changes in those with progressive course. Greater disability at presentation, poor response to immunomodulation, and lower CSF protein levels was seen in those with axonal pathology. Pathological abnormalities were demonstrable in all (100%, whereas electrophysiological abnormalities were detected in 90.8%, suggesting that supportive histologic AAN criteria are helpful in diagnosis of CIDP.

  3. Endogenous LXA4 circuits are determinants of pathological angiogenesis in response to chronic injury.

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    Leedom, Alexander J; Sullivan, Aaron B; Dong, Baiyan; Lau, Denise; Gronert, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation and angiogenesis are intimately linked, and their dysregulation leads to pathological angiogenesis in human diseases. 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) and lipoxin A(4) receptors (ALX) constitute a LXA(4) circuit that is a key feature of inflammatory resolution. LXA(4) analogs have been shown to regulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A-induced angiogenic response in vitro. 15-LOX and ALX are highly expressed in the avascular and immune-privileged cornea. However, the role of this endogenous LXA(4) circuit in pathological neovascularization has not been determined. We report that suture-induced chronic injury in the cornea triggered polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) infiltration, pathological neovascularization, and up-regulation of mediators of inflammatory angiogenesis, namely VEGF-A and the VEGF-3 receptor (FLT4). Up-regulation of the VEGF circuit and neovascularization correlated with selective changes in both 15-LOX (Alox15) and ALX (Fpr-rs2) expression and a temporally defined increase in basal 15-LOX activity. More importantly, genetic deletion of 15-LOX or 5-LOX, key and obligatory enzymes in the formation of LXA(4), respectively, led to exacerbated inflammatory neovascularization coincident with increased VEGF-A and FLT4 expression. Direct topical treatment with LXA(4), but not its metabolic precursor 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, reduced expression of VEGF-A and FLT4 and inflammatory angiogenesis and rescued 15-LOX knockout mice from exacerbated angiogenesis. In summary, our findings and the prominent expression of 15-LOX and ALX in epithelial cells and macrophages place the LXA(4) circuit as an endogenous regulator of pathological angiogenesis.

  4. Hypertension, Chronic Kidney Disease, and Renal Pathology in a Child with Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome

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    Roberto Gordillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a child with Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS and chronic kidney disease (stage II with histological diagnosis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS. A 15-year-old male of Puerto Rico ancestry with history of HPS, hypertension (HTN, asthma, obesity, and chronic kidney disease (CKD stage II presented with new-onset proteinuria without edema. His blood pressure had been controlled, serum creatinine had been 0.9–1.4 mg/dL, and first morning urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPC ranged from 0.2 to 0.38. Due to persistent nonorthostatic proteinuria with CKD, renal biopsy was performed and FSGS (not otherwise specified with chronic diffuse tubulopathy (tubular cytoplasmic droplets and acute tubular injury was reported. Ceroid-like material is known to infiltrate tissues (i.e., lungs, colon, and kidney in HPS, but the reason for the renal insufficiency is unknown. Nonspecific kidney disease and in one adult case IgA nephropathy with ANCA-positive glomerulonephritis have previously been reported in patients with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. To our knowledge, we report the first pediatric renal pathology case of HPS associated with CKD. This paper discusses presentation and management of renal disease in HPS.

  5. Hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and renal pathology in a child with hermansky-pudlak syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Roberto; Del Rio, Marcela; Thomas, David B; Flynn, Joseph T; Woroniecki, Robert P

    2011-01-01

    We report a child with Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS) and chronic kidney disease (stage II) with histological diagnosis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). A 15-year-old male of Puerto Rico ancestry with history of HPS, hypertension (HTN), asthma, obesity, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage II presented with new-onset proteinuria without edema. His blood pressure had been controlled, serum creatinine had been 0.9-1.4 mg/dL, and first morning urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPC) ranged from 0.2 to 0.38. Due to persistent nonorthostatic proteinuria with CKD, renal biopsy was performed and FSGS (not otherwise specified) with chronic diffuse tubulopathy (tubular cytoplasmic droplets) and acute tubular injury was reported. Ceroid-like material is known to infiltrate tissues (i.e., lungs, colon, and kidney) in HPS, but the reason for the renal insufficiency is unknown. Nonspecific kidney disease and in one adult case IgA nephropathy with ANCA-positive glomerulonephritis have previously been reported in patients with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. To our knowledge, we report the first pediatric renal pathology case of HPS associated with CKD. This paper discusses presentation and management of renal disease in HPS.

  6. Analysis of clinical and pathological features of chronic hepatitis B in combination with hepatic steatosis in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董红筠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical and pathological characters of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in combination with hepatic steatosis in the elderly.Methods Totally223 elderly patients with CHB and hepatic steatosis diagnosed by liver biopsy were retrospectively analyzed and220 non-elderly patients with CHB and hepatic steatosis were randomly selected as control group.Clinical and pathological features and change in liver histology were compared between the two groups.Results The inci-

  7. The effects of chronic smoking on the pathology of alcohol-related brain damage.

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    McCorkindale, A N; Sheedy, D; Kril, J J; Sutherland, G T

    2016-06-01

    Both pathological and neuroimaging studies demonstrate that chronic alcohol abuse causes brain atrophy with widespread white matter loss limited gray matter loss. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that tobacco smoking also causes brain atrophy in both alcoholics and neurologically normal individuals; however, this has not been confirmed pathologically. In this study, the effects of smoking and the potential additive effects of concomitant alcohol and tobacco consumption were investigated in autopsied human brains. A total of 44 cases and controls were divided into four groups: 16 non-smoking controls, nine smoking controls, eight non-smoking alcoholics, and 11 smoking alcoholics. The volumes of 26 gray and white matter regions were measured using an established point-counting technique. The results showed trends for widespread white matter loss in alcoholics (p smoking alone had no effect on brain atrophy and the combination of smoking and alcohol showed no additional effect. Neuronal density was analyzed as a more sensitive assay of gray matter integrity. Similar to the volumetric analysis, there was a reduction in neurons (29%) in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics, albeit this was only a trend when adjusted for potential confounders (p smoking or combinatorial effects on neuronal density in any of the three regions examined. These results do not support the hypothesis that smoking exacerbates alcohol-related brain damage. The trends here support previous studies that alcohol-related brain damage is characterized by focal neuronal loss and generalized white matter atrophy. These disparate effects suggest that two different pathogenic mechanisms may be operating in the alcoholic brain. Future studies using ultrastructural or molecular techniques will be required to determine if smoking has more subtle effects on the brain and how chronic alcohol consumption leads to widespread white matter loss.

  8. Endemic chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka: Correlation of pathology with clinical stages

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    S Wijetunge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDU is endemic among the rural farming communities in several localities in and around the North Central region of Sri Lanka. This is an interstitial type renal disease and typically has an insidious onset and slow progression. This study was conducted to identify the pathological features in the different clinical stages of CKDU. This is a retrospective study of 251 renal biopsies identified to have a primary interstitial disease from regions endemic for CKDU. Pathological features were assessed and graded in relation to the clinical stage. The mean age of those affected by endemic CKDU was 37.3 ± 12.5 years and the male to female ratio was 3.3:1. The predominant feature of stage I disease was mild and moderate interstitial fibrosis; most did not have interstitial inflammation. The typical stage II disease had moderate interstitial fibrosis with or without mild interstitial inflammation. Stage III disease had moderate and severe interstitial fibrosis, moderate interstitial inflammation, tubular atrophy and some glomerulosclerosis. Stage IV disease typically had severe interstitial fibrosis and inflammation, tubular atrophy and glomerulosclerosis. The mean age of patients with stage I disease (27 ± 10.8 years was significantly lower than those of the other stages. About 79.2%, 55%, 49.1% and 50% in stage I, II, III and IV disease respectively were asymptomatic at the time of biopsy.

  9. Endemic chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka: Correlation of pathology with clinical stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijetunge, S; Ratnatunga, N V I; Abeysekera, T D J; Wazil, A W M; Selvarajah, M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDU) is endemic among the rural farming communities in several localities in and around the North Central region of Sri Lanka. This is an interstitial type renal disease and typically has an insidious onset and slow progression. This study was conducted to identify the pathological features in the different clinical stages of CKDU. This is a retrospective study of 251 renal biopsies identified to have a primary interstitial disease from regions endemic for CKDU. Pathological features were assessed and graded in relation to the clinical stage. The mean age of those affected by endemic CKDU was 37.3 ± 12.5 years and the male to female ratio was 3.3:1. The predominant feature of stage I disease was mild and moderate interstitial fibrosis; most did not have interstitial inflammation. The typical stage II disease had moderate interstitial fibrosis with or without mild interstitial inflammation. Stage III disease had moderate and severe interstitial fibrosis, moderate interstitial inflammation, tubular atrophy and some glomerulosclerosis. Stage IV disease typically had severe interstitial fibrosis and inflammation, tubular atrophy and glomerulosclerosis. The mean age of patients with stage I disease (27 ± 10.8 years) was significantly lower than those of the other stages. About 79.2%, 55%, 49.1% and 50% in stage I, II, III and IV disease respectively were asymptomatic at the time of biopsy.

  10. Chronic kidney disease: pathological and functional assessment with diffusion tensor imaging at 3T MR

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    Liu, Zhiling; Zhang, Jie; Cai, Shifeng; Yuan, Xianshun; Liu, Qingwei [Shandong University, Department of Radiology, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan (China); Xu, Ying; Wang, Rong [Shandong University, Department of Nephrology, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan (China); Zhen, Junhui [Shandong University, Department of Pathology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2014-10-11

    Our objective was to evaluate pathological and functional changes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 T. There were fifty-one patients with CKD who required biopsy and 19 healthy volunteers who were examined using DTI at 3 T. The mean values of fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were obtained from the renal parenchyma (cortex and medulla). Correlations between imaging results and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), as well as pathological damage (glomerular lesion and tubulointerstitial injury), were evaluated. The renal cortical FA was significantly lower than the medullary in both normal and affected kidneys (p < 0.001). The parenchymal FA was significantly lower in patients than healthy controls, regardless of whether eGFR was reduced. There were positive correlations between eGFR and FA (cortex, r = 0.689, p = 0.000; and medulla, r = 0.696, p = 0.000), and between eGFR and ADC (cortex, r = 0.310, p = 0.017; and medulla, r = 0.356, p = 0.010). Negative correlations were found between FA and the glomerular lesion (cortex, r = -0.499, p = 0.000; and medulla, r = -0.530, p = 0.000), and between FA and tubulointerstitial injury (cortex, r = -0.631, p = 0.000; and medulla, r = -0.724, p = 0.000). DTI is valuable for noninvasive assessment of renal function and pathology in patients with CKD. A decrease in FA could identify the glomerular lesions, tubulointerstitial injuries, and eGFR. (orig.)

  11. Motor Cortex Excitability and BDNF Levels in Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain According to Structural Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caumo, Wolnei; Deitos, Alícia; Carvalho, Sandra; Leite, Jorge; Carvalho, Fabiana; Dussán-Sarria, Jairo Alberto; Lopes Tarragó, Maria da Graça; Souza, Andressa; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva; Fregni, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    The central sensitization syndrome (CSS) encompasses disorders with overlapping symptoms in a structural pathology spectrum ranging from persistent nociception [e.g., osteoarthritis (OA)] to an absence of tissue injuries such as the one presented in fibromyalgia (FM) and myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). First, we hypothesized that these syndromes present differences in their cortical excitability parameters assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), namely motor evoked potential (MEP), cortical silent period (CSP), short intracortical inhibition (SICI) and short intracortical facilitation (SICF). Second, considering that the presence of tissue injury could be detected by serum neurotrophins, we hypothesized that the spectrum of structural pathology (i.e., from persistent nociception like in OA, to the absence of tissue injury like in FM and MPS), could be detected by differential efficiency of their descending pain inhibitory system, as assessed by the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm. Third, we explored whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) had an influence on the relationship between motor cortex excitability and structural pathology. This cross-sectional study pooled baseline data from three randomized clinical trials. We included females (n = 114), aged 19-65 years old with disability by chronic pain syndromes (CPS): FM (n = 19), MPS (n = 54), OA (n = 27) and healthy subjects (n = 14). We assessed the serum BDNF, the motor cortex excitability by parameters the TMS measures and the change on numerical pain scale [NPS (0-10)] during CPM-task. The adjusted mean (SD) on the SICI observed in the absence of tissue injury was 56.36% lower than with persistent nociceptive input [0.31(0.18) vs. 0.55 (0.32)], respectively. The BDNF was inversely correlated with the SICI and with the change on NPS (0-10)during CPM-task. These findings suggest greater disinhibition in the motor cortex and the descending pain inhibitory system in FM and MPS

  12. Motor Cortex Excitability and BDNF Levels in Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain According to Structural Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caumo, Wolnei; Deitos, Alícia; Carvalho, Sandra; Leite, Jorge; Carvalho, Fabiana; Dussán-Sarria, Jairo Alberto; Lopes Tarragó, Maria da Graça; Souza, Andressa; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva; Fregni, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    The central sensitization syndrome (CSS) encompasses disorders with overlapping symptoms in a structural pathology spectrum ranging from persistent nociception [e.g., osteoarthritis (OA)] to an absence of tissue injuries such as the one presented in fibromyalgia (FM) and myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). First, we hypothesized that these syndromes present differences in their cortical excitability parameters assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), namely motor evoked potential (MEP), cortical silent period (CSP), short intracortical inhibition (SICI) and short intracortical facilitation (SICF). Second, considering that the presence of tissue injury could be detected by serum neurotrophins, we hypothesized that the spectrum of structural pathology (i.e., from persistent nociception like in OA, to the absence of tissue injury like in FM and MPS), could be detected by differential efficiency of their descending pain inhibitory system, as assessed by the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm. Third, we explored whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) had an influence on the relationship between motor cortex excitability and structural pathology. This cross-sectional study pooled baseline data from three randomized clinical trials. We included females (n = 114), aged 19–65 years old with disability by chronic pain syndromes (CPS): FM (n = 19), MPS (n = 54), OA (n = 27) and healthy subjects (n = 14). We assessed the serum BDNF, the motor cortex excitability by parameters the TMS measures and the change on numerical pain scale [NPS (0–10)] during CPM-task. The adjusted mean (SD) on the SICI observed in the absence of tissue injury was 56.36% lower than with persistent nociceptive input [0.31(0.18) vs. 0.55 (0.32)], respectively. The BDNF was inversely correlated with the SICI and with the change on NPS (0–10)during CPM-task. These findings suggest greater disinhibition in the motor cortex and the descending pain inhibitory system in FM and

  13. Motor cortex excitability and BDNF levels in chronic musculoskeletal pain according to structural pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alícia Deitos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The central sensitization syndrome (CSS encompasses disorders with overlapping symptoms in a structural pathology spectrum ranging from persistent nociception [e.g., osteoarthritis (OA] to an absence of tissue injuries such as the one presented in fibromyalgia (FM and myofascial pain syndrome (MPS. First, we hypothesized that these syndromes present differences in their cortical excitability parameters assessed by TMS, namely motor evoked potential (MEP, cortical silent period (CSP, short intracortical inhibition (SICI and short intracortical facilitation (SICF. Second, considering that the presence of tissue injury could be detected by serum neurotrophins, we hypothesized that the spectrum of structural pathology (i.e., from persistent nociception like in OA, to the absence of tissue injury like in FM and MPS, could be detected by differential efficiency of their descending pain inhibitory system, as assessed by the conditioned pain modulation (CPM paradigm. Third, we explored whether BDNF had an influence on the relationship between motor cortex excitability and structural pathology. This cross-sectional study pooled baseline data from three randomized clinical trials. We included females (n=114, aged 19 to 65 years old with disability by chronic pain syndromes: FM (n= 19, MPS (n=54, OA (n=27 and healthy subjects (n=14. We assessed the serum BDNF, the motor cortex excitability by parameters the TMS measures and the change on Numerical Pain Scale [NPS (0-10] during CPM-task. The adjusted mean (SD on the SICI observed in the absence of tissue injury was 56.36% lower than with persistent nociceptive input [0.31(0.18 vs. 0.55 (0.32], respectively. The BDNF was inversely correlated with the SICI and with the change on NPS (0-10 during CPM-task. These findings suggest greater disinhibition in the motor cortex and the descending pain inhibitory system in FM and MPS than in OA and healthy subjects. Likewise, the inter-hemispheric disinhibition as well

  14. Clinical pathological study of treatment of chronic hepatitis with hyperbaric oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhao, Wei; Lu, Xiang; Zheng, Xiaogang; Luo, Chan

    2002-08-01

    To detect the feasibility and theoretic basis for treatment with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) in chronic hepatitis and to compare the changes in hepatic function, immunity, pathologic morphology, ultrastructure and HBV in hepatic tissues before and after treatment. Sixty cases of chronic hepatitis were randomly selected and divided into two groups: the experiment (n = 30) and control groups (n = 30). Patients in the experimental group were treated with HBO for 6 courses. Patients in the control group were treated for 60 days with the usual drugs used in the clinic. The function and bloodstream graph of liver were examined and liver biopsies were made before and after treatments. Routine paraffin sections were stained with HE and observed under the light microscope. Ultra thin slides from paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde fixed liver tissue were stained with lead citrate and observed with the transmission electric microscope. HBsAg and HBcAg in liver of the experimental group were detected with ABC immunohistochemistry method before and after treatment. For the experimental group, ALT, SB, gamma-GT, AKP, IgG, and IgM in blood and the degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes were remarkably decreased (P 0.05), and the expression of HBsAg and HBcAg in liver was not weakened (P hepatitis was effective and recommendable, but it could not reverse liver fibrosis. However, it might be able to delay or prevent the liver from fibrosis, so it might be more effective at the early and middle stages of chronic hepatitis. HBO could not inhibit the HB virus. So we consider that treatment with HBO should be simultaneous with anti HBV therapy.

  15. Axonal disruption in white matter underlying cortical sulcus tau pathology in chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleran, Laurena; Kim, Joong Hee; Gangolli, Mihika; Stein, Thor; Alvarez, Victor; McKee, Ann; Brody, David L

    2017-03-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disorder associated with repetitive traumatic brain injury. One of the primary defining neuropathological lesions in CTE, based on the first consensus conference, is the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in gray matter sulcal depths. Post-mortem CTE studies have also reported myelin loss, axonal injury and white matter degeneration. Currently, the diagnosis of CTE is restricted to post-mortem neuropathological analysis. We hypothesized that high spatial resolution advanced diffusion MRI might be useful for detecting white matter microstructural changes directly adjacent to gray matter tau pathology. To test this hypothesis, formalin-fixed post-mortem tissue blocks from the superior frontal cortex of ten individuals with an established diagnosis of CTE were obtained from the Veterans Affairs-Boston University-Concussion Legacy Foundation brain bank. Advanced diffusion MRI data was acquired using an 11.74 T MRI scanner at Washington University with 250 × 250 × 500 µm(3) spatial resolution. Diffusion tensor imaging, diffusion kurtosis imaging and generalized q-sampling imaging analyses were performed in a blinded fashion. Following MRI acquisition, tissue sections were tested for phosphorylated tau immunoreactivity in gray matter sulcal depths. Axonal disruption in underlying white matter was assessed using two-dimensional Fourier transform analysis of myelin black gold staining. A robust image co-registration method was applied to accurately quantify the relationship between diffusion MRI parameters and histopathology. We found that white matter underlying sulci with high levels of tau pathology had substantially impaired myelin black gold Fourier transform power coherence, indicating axonal microstructural disruption (r = -0.55, p = 0.0015). Using diffusion tensor MRI, we found that fractional anisotropy (FA) was modestly (r = 0.53) but significantly (p = 0.0012) correlated

  16. Correlation between ultrasonographic and pathologic diagnosis of liver fibrosis due to chronic virus hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Shen; Ji-Qiang Li; Min-De Zeng; Lun-Gen Lu; Si-Tao Fan; Han Bao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the validity of ultrasonographic and pathologic diagnosis of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis.METHODS: The liver fibrosis status in 324 patients was evaluated by both needle biopsy and ultrasonography.Liver fibrosis was divided into S0 -S4 stages. S4 stage was designated as definite cirrhosis. The ultrasonographic examination included qualitative variables, description of liver surface and parenchyma, and quantitative parameters, such as diameter of vessels, blood flow velocity and spleen size.RESULTS: Ultrasonographic qualitative description of liver surface and parenchyma was related with the severity of fibrosis. Among the quantitative ultrasonographic parameters, cut-off value of spleen length (12.1 cm) had a sensitivity of 0.600 and a specificity of 0.753 for diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. The diameters of spleen (8 mm) and portal vein (12 mm) had a diagnostic sensitivity of 0.600and 0.767, and a diagnostic specificity of 0.781 and 0.446,respectively. The diagnostic accuracy for liver cirrhosis was moderately satisfactory, and the negative predictive values of these parameters reached near 0.95.CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography can predict the degree of liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. A single ultrasonographic parameter is limited in sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of early cirrhosis. The presence or absence of liver cirrhosis in patients with chronic virus hepatitis can be detected using 2 or 3 quantitative and qualitative parameters, especially the length of spleen, the diameter of spleen vein and echo pattern of liver surface.

  17. Study on the pathological basis of classification of spleen deficiency in chronic gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹光耀; 张武宁; 沈小静; 何雪芬; 陈一

    2004-01-01

    Background Spleen in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is not actually the spleen in the anatomic sense designated in western medicine because its functions basically belong to the physiological category of digestive system in modern medicine, and it represents a macroscopic concept of digestion, absorption and nutrition metabolism. Spleen deficiency syndrome refers to the clinical phenomena such as hypofunction of digestion, absorption and nutrition metabolism. By integrating TCM with modern medicine , this paper is intended to explore the pathological basis of classification of spleen deficiency in chronic gastritis.Method By means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and histochemical staining, we conducted histopathological and subcellular ultrastructural (nuclei and mitochondrial) analysis of gastric mucosa of 188 patients of spleen deficiency, and that of 42 voluntary blood donors without clinical symptoms. Results The gastric mucosa of patients with spleen Qi deficiency (SQD) and spleen yang deficiency (SyangD) could either be affected by organic lesion (type G-occurring on the basis of chronic superficial gastritis (CSG), chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG)) or unaffected (type F-chiefly belonging to functional indigestion); spleen yin deficiency (SyinD) and spleen deficiency with Qi stagnation (SDQS) both occurred on the basis of CSG and CAG; and the degree of mucosa inflammatory cells infiltration, the degree of decrease in glands propria, and the incidence of IMⅡb in CSG and CAG were more serious than those of G-SQD and G-SyangD, P<0.05-0.01.Conclusion Spleen deficiency syndrome is likely to occur on the basis of organic lesion of gastric mucosa (disease with symptoms of both CSG or CAG and spleen deficiency symptoms), as well as on the basis of inorganic lesion of gastric mucosa (nondisease with symptoms, which is, despite spleen deficiency symptoms, there is no CSG or CAG). Besides, the

  18. Geographic Variation of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence: Correlation with the Incidence of Renal Cell Carcinoma or Urothelial Carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yit-Sheung Yap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD exist and are associated with incidence rates of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC, or lower tract urothelial carcinoma (LTUC. Methods. Prevalence rates of late-stage CKD for 366 townships (n>30 in Taiwan were calculated for 1,518,241 and 1,645,151 subjects aged 40 years or older in years 2010 and 2009, respectively. Late-stage CKD prevalence in year 2010 was used as a training set and its age-adjusted standardized morbidity rates (ASMR were divided into three groups as defined <1.76%, 1.76% ≤ ASMR < 2.64%, and ≥2.64%, respectively. Year 2009, defined as the validation set, was used to validate the results. Results. The ASMR of late-stage CKD in years 2010 and 2009 were 1.76%, and 2.09%, respectively. Geographic variations were observed, with notably higher rates of disease in areas of the central, southwestern mountainside, and southeastern seaboard. There were no significant differences among different combined risk groups of RCC, UTUC, and LTUC incidence. Conclusion. The substantial geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage CKD exist, but are not correlated with RCC, UTUC, or LTUC incidence.

  19. [Chronic transvenous pacemaker/implantable cardioverter defibrillator leads implantation induced pathological changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhui; Dykoski, Richard; Li, Jianming

    2015-05-01

    Widely pacemaker/implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation is also related to an increasing need for transvenous lead extraction. Understanding the location and extent of pathological changes, including adhesions and fibrous tissue formation along the course of chronic pacemaker/ICD leads, are essential for operators performing lead extraction operations in order to reduce the potential life threatening complications. Three parts are included in the research, pathological examination on 83 extracted pacemaker/ICD leads using excimer laser technique from March 2008 to March 2011, autopsy examination of one died patient during lead extraction for lead-related infective endocarditis, and anatomical analysis on pacemaker/ICD leads from 10 patients died of other non-cardiac causes. Extensive encapsulated fibrous tissue around the leads and extensive adhesion/fibrosis along the course of the leads from venous entry site to the lead/myocardial interface could be detected on transvenous pacemaker/ICD leads. Since the tissue at the junction between superior vena cava (SVC) and right atrium (RA) is very thin, free of pericardium, thus, this is a common place for extensive adhesion/fibrosis and myocardial perforation/tear during lead extraction, which accounted for one death during extraction in our cohort. Extensive adhesion and fibrosis were also observed at the tricuspid valve and subvalvular structures. Leads implanted to the right ventricular apex were close to the epicardial surface and prone to perforation through myocardium. It is common to observe thrombus on the leads or at the interface between leads and myocardial tissue, especially at right atrial appendage (RAA) at the site of lead insertion. Extensive adhesions and fibrosis can be commonly seen along the course of pacemaker/ICD leads, and at SVC to RA junction, the tricuspid valve/subvalvular structures, and RA/RV lead interface. The tissue at SVC to RA junction is very thin, making it

  20. Exploration of pathological prediction of chronic kidney diseases by a novel theory of bi-directional probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Luo, Min; Xiao, Li; Zhu, Xue-Jing; Wang, Chang; Fu, Xiao; Yuan, Shu-Guang; Xiao, Fang; Liu, Hong; Dong, Zheng; Liu, Fu-You; Sun, Lin

    2016-08-25

    In the clinic, the pathological types of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) are considered references for choosing treatment protocols. From a statistical viewpoint, a non-invasive method to predict pathological types of CKD is a focus of our work. In the current study, following a frequency analysis of the clinical indices of 588 CKD patients in the department of nephrology, a third-grade class-A hospital, a novel theory is proposed: "bi-directional cumulative probability dichotomy". Further, two models for the prediction and differential diagnosis of CKD pathological type are established. The former indicates an occurrence probability of the pathological types, and the latter indicates an occurrence of CKD pathological type according to logistic binary regression. To verify the models, data were collected from 135 patients, and the results showed that the highest accuracy rate on membranous nephropathy (MN-100%), followed by IgA nephropathy (IgAN-83.33%) and mild lesion type (MLN-73.53%), whereas lower prediction accuracy was observed for mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (0%) and focal segmental sclerosis type (21.74%). The models of bi-directional probability prediction and differential diagnosis indicate a good prediction value in MN, IgAN and MLN and may be considered alternative methods for the pathological discrimination of CKD patients who are unable to undergo renal biopsy.

  1. Canines as sentinel species for assessing chronic exposures to air pollutants: part 2. Cardiac pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Gambling, T M; Acuña, H; García, R; Osnaya, N; Monroy, S; Villarreal-Calderón, A; Carson, J; Koren, H S; Devlin, R B

    2001-06-01

    The principal objective of this study is to evaluate by light and electron microscopy (LM, EM) the heart tissues in stray southwest and northeast metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC, NEMMC) dogs and compare their findings to those from 3 less polluted cities (Cuernavaca, Tlaxcala, and Tuxpam). Clinically healthy mongrel dogs, including 109 from highly polluted SWMMC and NEMMC, and 43 dogs from less polluted cities were studied. Dogs residing in cities with lower levels of pollutants showed little or no cardiac abnormalities. Mexico City and Cuernavaca dogs exhibited LM myocardial alterations including apoptotic myocytes, endothelial and immune effector cells, degranulated mast cells associated with scattered foci of mononuclear cells in left and right ventricles and interventricular septum, and clusters of adipocytes interspersed with mononuclear cells. Vascular changes included scattered polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) margination and microthrombi in capillaries, and small venous and arteriolar blood vessels. Small veins exhibited smooth muscle cell hyperplasia, and arteriolar blood vessels showed deposition of particulate matter (PM) in the media and adventitia. Unmyelinated nerve fibers showed endoneural and epineural degranulated mast cells. EM examination of myocardial mast cells showed distended and abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum with few secretory granules. Myocardial capillaries exhibited fibrin deposition and their endothelial cells displayed increased luminal and abluminal pinocytic activity and the formation of anemone-like protrusions of the endothelium into the lumen. A close association between myocardial findings, lung epithelial and endothelial pathology, and chronic inflammatory lung changes was noted. The myocardial changes described in dogs exposed to ambient air pollutants may form the basis for developing hypothesis-driven mechanistic studies that might explain the epidemiological data of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in

  2. Chronic copper exposure exacerbates both amyloid and tau pathology and selectively dysregulates cdk5 in a mouse model of AD

    OpenAIRE

    Kitazawa, Masashi; Cheng, David; Frank M LaFerla

    2009-01-01

    Excess copper exposure is thought to be linked to the development of Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology. However, the mechanism by which copper affects the central nervous system remains unclear. To investigate the effect of chronic copper exposure on both beta-amyloid and tau pathologies, we treated young triple transgenic (3xTg-AD) mice with 250 ppm copper-containing water for the period of 3 or 9 months. Copper exposure resulted in altered APP processing; increased accumulation of the a...

  3. Shear wave elastography imaging for assessing the chronic pathologic changes in advanced diabetic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan K

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kamal Hassan,1,2 Norman Loberant,3 Nur Abbas,4 Hassan Fadi,5 Hassan Shadia,5 Khaled Khazim2 1Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee, Bar-Ilan University, Safed, 2Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Peritoneal Dialysis Unit – Galilee Medical Center, 3Department of Radiology, Galilee Medical Center, Nahariya, 4The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 5Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Objective: The assessment of the grade of renal fibrosis in diabetic kidney disease (DKD requires renal biopsy, which may be associated with certain risks. To assess the severity of chronic pathologic changes in DKD, we performed a quantitative analysis of renal parenchymal stiffness in advanced DKD, using shear wave elastography (SWE imaging. Patients and methods: Twenty-nine diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD grades 3–4 due to DKD, and 23 healthy subjects were enrolled. Combined conventional ultrasound and SWE imaging were performed on all participants. The length, width, and cortical thickness and stiffness were recorded for each kidney. Results: Cortical thickness was lower in patients with DKD than in healthy subjects (13.8±2.2 vs 14.8±1.6 mm; P=0.002 and in DKD patients with CKD grade 4 than in those with grade 3 (13.0±3.5 vs 14.7±2.1 mm; P<0.001. Cortical stiffness was greater in patients with DKD than in healthy subjects (23.72±14.33 vs 9.02±2.42 kPa; P<0.001, in DKD patients with CKD grade 4 than in those with grade 3 (30.4±16.2 vs 14.6±8.1 kPa; P<0.001, and in DKD patients with CKD grade 3b, than in those with CKD grade 3a (15.7±6.7 vs 11.0±4.2 kPa; P=0.03. Daily proteinuria was higher in DKD patients with CKD grade 4 than in those with grade 3 (5.52±0.96 vs 1.13±0.72; P=0.001, and in DKD patients with CKD grade 3b, than in those with CKD grade 3a (1.59±0.59 vs 0.77±0.48; P<0.001. Cortical stiffness was inversely correlated with the

  4. Relationship of rotator cuff tendon pathology with obesity, chronic diseases and steroid use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Umul

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: In our study, statistically significant correlation was observed between the supraspinatus tendon pathology with increasing age and increasing BMI. Aging process can not be changed, however prevention of obesity may provide a positive contribution to the conservation of the rotator cuff tendon pathology. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 648-652

  5. The effect of lipopolysaccharide-induced obesity and its chronic inflammation on influenza virus-related pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sun-Young; Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Lee, Sang-Yeon; Park, Hye-Lim; Park, Yong-Wook; Kim, Hun; Nam, Jae-Hwan

    2015-11-01

    Obese individuals show increased susceptibility to infection, low vaccine efficacy, and worse pathophysiology. However, it is unclear how obesity affects these events. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of obesity-triggered chronic inflammation on immune cells after influenza virus infection. Control and lipopolysaccharide mice, in which an osmotic pump continually released Tween saline or lipopolysaccharide, were prepared and 3 weeks later were infected with pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza A virus. In lipopolysaccharide mice, we found a reduction in macrophage activation markers in the steady state, and reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6, in restimulated peritoneal macrophages. Interestingly, lipopolysaccharide-triggered chronic inflammation exacerbated the severity of pathological symptoms in the lungs after challenge with influenza virus. Taken together, the increased severity of virus-induced symptoms in obese individuals with chronic inflammation may be, at least partially, caused by macrophage dysfunction.

  6. An addition to geographic hematology: chronic myeloproliferative diseases are infrequent in Mexican Mestizos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J; López-Martínez, Briceida; Lobato-Mendizábal, Eduardo; Ruiz-Delgado, Guillermo J

    2002-06-01

    The chronic myeloproliferative diseases (CMPDs) include chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), primary (essential) thrombocythemia (PT), agnogenic myeloid metaplasia (AMM), and polycythemia vera (PV). Certain hematological malignancies have a different prevalence in our country than in countries with Caucasian populations. Data indicate that the prevalence of CML in our country is similar to that found in Caucasians; however, the prevalence of the other CMPDs has not been studied. In a total of 8069 individuals studied between June 1983 and March 2001 in the Centro de Hematologia y Medicina Interna de Puebla, we assessed the prevalence of CML, PT, AMM, and PV. Some of the clinical features of these individuals were also assessed. Forty-nine patients with CML, 14 with PT, 7 with AMM, and 3 with PV were identified. The clinical presentations of these CMPDs were not different from those described in Caucasians. We found that CML was more than 3 times more frequent than PT, that both PV and AMM were exceptional, and that PT, AMM, and PV were significantly less frequent in Mexican than in Caucasian populations (P < .01).

  7. Chronic but not acute antidepresant treatment alters serum zinc/copper ratio under pathological/zinc-deficient conditions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlyniec, K; Ostachowicz, B; Krakowska, A; Reczynski, W; Opoka, W; Nowak, G

    2014-10-01

    Depression is the leading psychiatric disorder with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinical studies report lower serum zinc in depressed patients, suggesting a strong link between zinc and mood disorders. Also copper as an antagonistic element to zinc seems to play a role in depression, where elevated concentration is observed. In the present study we investigated serum copper and zinc concentration after acute or chronic antidepressant (AD) treatment under pathological/zinc-deficient conditions. Zinc deficiency in mice was induced by a special diet administered for 6 weeks (zinc adequate diet - ZnA, contains 33.5 mgZn/kg; zinc deficient diet - ZnD, contains 0.2 mgZn/kg). Animals received acute or chronically saline (control), imipramine, escitalopram, reboxetine or bupropion. To evaluate changes in serum copper and zinc concentrations the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was performed. In ZnD animals serum zinc level was reduced after acute ADs treatment (similarly to vehicle treatment), however, as demonstrated in the previous study after chronic ADs administration no differences between both ZnA and ZnD groups were observed. Acute ADs in ZnD animals caused different changes in serum copper concentration with no changes after chronic ADs treatment. The calculated serum Zn/Cu ratio is reduced in ZnD animals (compared to ZnA subjects) treated with saline (acutely or chronically) and in animals treated acutely with ADs. However, chronic treatment with ADs normalized (by escitalopram, reboxetine or bupropion) or increased (by imipramine) this Zn/Cu ratio. Observed in this study normalization of serum Zn/Cu ratio in depression-like conditions by chronic (but not acute) antidepressants suggest that this ratio may be consider as a marker of depression or treatment efficacy.

  8. Widespread geographical disparities in chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalem, Aïcha; Selmani, Karima; Narjes, Hihi; Bencherifa, Nesrine; Soltani, Mahdia; Mostefaoui, Fatma; Kerioui, Cherif; Pineau, Pascal; Berkane, Saadi; Debzi, Nabil

    2017-02-24

    Algeria is the largest country of Africa, with a population of 40 million inhabitants living in disparate environments from the Sahara to the large cities of the Mediterranean coast. The molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants has been partially described, but variations in the seroprevalence of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) throughout the Algerian territories are still poorly described. We analyzed demographic features of new cases of chronic infection collected in 41 administrative regions (covering 92% of the population) in 2013. The mean age of the 1876 HBsAg(+) patients was 36.8 ± 14.2 years, with a slight excess of males (54%). The seroprevalence of HBV early antigen (HBeAg) was 9.3%, and the mean virus load was 3.2 ± 1.8 log IU/ml. A subset of 15.2% of patients was already cirrhotic at disease discovery. An important heterogeneity was observed throughout the country, with nine regions displaying a significant excess of cases. These regions formed four distinct foci located in distant parts of the country: Adrar-Bechar (southwest), El-Oued-Tebessa (east), M'Sila-Sétif (north central) and Oran-Aïn Temouchent (northwest). An excess of cases was found as well in the national capital Algiers. Patients from southern regions with an excess of cases (Bechar, Adrar, El Oued) were significantly younger (32.0 ± 10.7 years), as were patients from the regions of Bejaia and Bouira (32.1 ± 10.6). The southwestern regions were also marked by a significant imbalance of the sex ratio (58 vs 39% of female cases, P = 4.5 E-5). The highest HBeAg seroprevalence was observed in Setif (26.4 vs. 7.6%, OR = 4.3, 95% CI 2.6-6.5, P = 1.1 × 10(-11)) in accordance with the higher virus loads observed in the patients (3.9 ± 2.3 vs. 3.1 ± 1.6, P = 0.0002). In conclusion, we observed heterogeneity in HBsAg seroprevalence, demographic traits, and disease evolution in Algeria. Further studies are now warranted to shed light on these

  9. Ahmedabad tolerance induction protocol and chronic renal allograft dysfunction: pathologic observations and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivedi Hargovind L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic Renal Allograft Dysfunction (CRAD is responsible for a large number of graft failures. We have abrogated acute T-cell rejections using Ahmedabad Tolerance Induction Protocol (ATIP with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT under non-myeloablative conditioning pre-transplant. However B-cell mediated rejections and CRAD continue to haunt us. We carried out retrospective analysis of renal allograft biopsies performed in the last 4 years to evaluate the effect of ATIP on CRAD. Materials and methods Biopsies diagnosed as per modified Banff criteria belonged to 2 groups: ATIP under low dose immunosuppression of cyclosporine/Azathioprine/Mycofenolate mofetil+ Prednisolone, subjected to donor leucocyte transfusion, anti-T/B cell antibodies, low dose target specific irradiation, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin followed by HSCT pre-transplant; controls who opted out of ATIP were transplanted under standard triple drug immunosuppression. Demographics of both groups were comparable. Results Incidence of chronic changes was higher in controls (17.5% vs. 10.98% in ATIP over a mean follow up of 151.9 months in the former and 130.9 months in the latter. Proteinuria and hypertension were higher in controls (48.4% vs. ATIP (32.7% with chronic transplant glomerulopathy, focal global sclerosis in 67.7% in controls vs. 46.7% in ATIP, acute on chronic T/B cell rejection in 51.6% controls vs. 28.1% ATIP, with peritubular capillary C4d deposits in 19.4% controls vs. 1.9% ATIP biopsies. Acute on chronic calcineurin inhibitor toxicity was higher in ATIP (71.9% vs. 48.4% in controls. Conclusion Chronic immune injury was less with ATIP vs controls as compared to a higher incidence of chronic calcineurin inhibitor toxicity in the former.

  10. Рrediction risk factors of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children and adolescents with chronic gastroduodenal pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Boiarskа

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to the modern literature gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is multifactorial illness. The main risk factors of its development are acid-peptic factor, Н.pylori, the autonomic nervous system dysfunction, rapid growth, heredity, burdened perinatal history, dysplasia of connective tissue structures (DCTS, environmental factors and lifestyle. Among the contradictory questions is intercurrent factors influence on the development and course of the disease. Aim of the work. To determine the risk factors for GERD in children and adolescents with chronic gastroduodenal pathology with the creation of mathematical forecasting model of the disease development and course. Materials and methods. The study involved 138 children with chronic gastroduodenal pathology who were treated inZaporozhyeCityPediatricHospital #5, aged 9 to 17 years. The main group consisted of 97 children with GERD (Group 1 - 46 children with GERD with esophagitis, Group 2 - GERD without esophagitis, comparison group comprised 41 children without clinical and endoscopic manifestations of the esophagus pathology. The following methods were conducted: clinical and medical history, instrumental - fibroesophagogastroduodenoscopy, intragastric pH-metry, ambulatory around-the clock pH monitoring in the esophagus, functional - Holter cardiac monitoring, respiratory HELIK urease test, mathematics and statistics - variational statistics, correlation analysis, binary logistic regression and multivariate regression analysis. Study results. According to the clinical and anamnestic analysis identified risk factors for GERD in children with chronic gastroduodenal pathology: hereditary predisposition (RR=1,79(1,27-2,66, р<0,05, abnormal pregnancy (ВР=1,62(1,31-1,81, р<0,05, early artificial feeding (RR = 1.31 (1,03-1,6, р<0,05, the presence of neurological symptoms during the first year life (RR = 1,32 (1,01-1,51, p <0.05, impaired diet (RR = 1,92 (1,24-2,82, p <0

  11. Chronic cortical and subcortical pathology with associated neurological deficits ensuing experimental herpes encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armien, Anibal G; Hu, Shuxian; Little, Morgan R; Robinson, Nicholas; Lokensgard, James R; Low, Walter C; Cheeran, Maxim C-J

    2010-07-01

    Long-term neurological sequela is common among herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) survivors. Animal models for HSE are used to investigate mechanisms of acute disease, but little has been done to model chronic manifestations of HSE. The current study presents a detailed, systematic analysis of chronic neuropathology, including characterization of topography and sequential progression of degenerative lesions and inflammation. Subsequent to intranasal HSV-1 infection, inflammatory responses that were temporally and spatially distinct persisted in infected cortical and brain stem regions. Neutrophils were present exclusively within the olfactory bulb and brain stem regions during the acute phase of infection, while the chronic inflammation was marked by plasma cells, lymphocytes and activated microglia. The chronic lymphocytic infiltrate, cytokine production, and activated microglia were associated with the loss of cortical neuropile in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. Animals surviving the acute infection showed a spectrum of chronic lesions from decreased brain volume, neuronal loss, activated astrocytes, and glial scar formation to severe atrophy and cavitations of the cortex. These lesions were also associated with severe spatial memory deficits in surviving animals. Taken together, this model can be utilized to further investigate the mechanisms of neurological defects that follow in the wake of HSE.

  12. Pathologic Changes of the Peripheral Vestibular System Secondary to Chronic Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Monsanto, Rafael; Erdil, Mehmet; Pauna, Henrique F; Kwon, Geeyoun; Schachern, Patricia A; Tsuprun, Vladimir; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the histopathologic changes of dark, transitional, and hair cells of the vestibular system in human temporal bones from patients with chronic otitis media. Comparative human temporal bone study. Otopathology laboratory. To compare the density of vestibular dark, transitional, and hair cells in temporal bones with and without chronic otitis media, we used differential interference contrast microscopy. In the chronic otitis media group (as compared with the age-matched control group), the density of type I and type II hair cells was significantly decreased in the lateral semicircular canal, saccule, and utricle (P otitis media group in the posterior semicircular canal (P = .005), but that of type II cells was not (P = .168). The mean number of dark cells was significantly decreased in the chronic otitis media group in the lateral semicircular canal (P = .014) and in the posterior semicircular canal (P = .002). We observed no statistically significant difference in the density of transitional cells between the 2 groups (P > .1). The findings of our study suggest that the decrease in the number of vestibular sensory cells and dark cells could be the cause of the clinical symptoms of imbalance of some patients with chronic otitis media. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  13. Microproteinuria during Opisthorchis viverrini infection: a biomarker for advanced renal and hepatobiliary pathologies from chronic opisthorchiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasert Saichua

    Full Text Available Approximately 680 million people are at risk of infection with Opisthorchis viverrini (OV and Clonorchis sinensis, with an estimated 10 million infected with OV in Southeast Asia alone. While opisthorchiasis is associated with hepatobiliary pathologies, such as advanced periductal fibrosis (APF and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA, animal models of OV infection show that immune-complex glomerulonephritis is an important renal pathology that develops simultaneously with hepatobiliary pathologies. A cardinal sign of immune-complex glomerulonephritis is the urinary excretion of immunoglobulin G (IgG (microproteinuria. In community-based studies in OV endemic areas along the Chi River in northeastern Thailand, we observed that over half of the participants had urine IgG against a crude OV antigen extract (OV antigen. We also observed that elevated levels of urine IgG to OV antigen were not associated with the intensity of OV infection, but were likely the result of immune-complex glomerulonephritis as seen in animal models of OV infection. Moreover, we observed that urine IgG to OV antigen was excreted at concentrations 21 times higher in individuals with APF and 158 times higher in individuals with CCA than controls. We also observed that elevated urine IgG to OV antigen could identify APF+ and CCA+ individuals from non-cases. Finally, individuals with urine IgG to OV antigen had a greater risk of APF as determined by Odds Ratios (OR = 6.69; 95%CI: 2.87, 15.58 and a greater risk of CCA (OR = 71.13; 95%CI: 15.13, 334.0 than individuals with no detectable level of urine IgG to OV antigen. Herein, we show for the first time the extensive burden of renal pathology in OV endemic areas and that a urine biomarker could serve to estimate risk for both renal and hepatobiliary pathologies during OV infection, i.e., serve as a "syndromic biomarker" of the advanced pathologies from opisthorchiasis.

  14. Severe digestive pathology associated with chronic Chaga's disease in Ecuador: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel G. Guevara

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available DNA extracted from peripheral blood of two Ecuadorian patients showing severe digestive pathology was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using a Trypanosoma cruzi specific oligonucleotide primers derived from the primary sequence of a cDNA encoding for a 24 kDa excretory/secretory protein. The positive PCR results together with the clinical findings confirmed that both patients had a digestive pathology due to Chagas' disease. This pathology could be more frequent than previously described in the chagasic endemic regions of Andean countries.DNA obtido do sangue periférico de dois pacientes equatorianos, que apresentavam severa patologia digestiva, foi amplificado pela "polymerase chain reaction" (PCR utilizando os oligonucleotídoes específicos do Trypanosoma cruzi, derivados de uma seqüência primária de cDNA codificado de 24 kDa proteína excretória/secretória. Os resultados positivos da PCR junto com os achados clínicos confirmam que os dois pacientes tinham uma patologia digestiva de origem chagásica. Esta patologia poderia ser mais freqüente que a descrita previamente nas regiões endêmicas chagásicas das cidades dos Andes.

  15. Brief but chronic increase in allopregnanolone cause accelerated AD pathology differently in two mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Sara K; Johansson, Maja; Backstrom, Torbjorn; Nitsch, Roger M; Wang, Mingde

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that chronic treatment with allopregnanolone (ALLO) for three months impaired learning function in the Swe/PS1 mouse model. ALLO is a neurosteroid, produced in the CNS and a GABAA receptor agonist. ALLO modulates the general inhibitory system in the CNS by enhancing the effect of GABA. Chronic treatment with other GABAA receptor active compounds, such as benzodiazepines, ethanol and medroxy-progesterone acetate has been associated to cognitive decline and/or increased risk for dementia. In this study, we sufficed with a treatment period of one month for the Swe/PS1 mouse, and included another Alzheimer's disease mouse model; the Swe/Arc model. We found that one month of chronic treatment with elevated ALLO levels within physiological range impaired learning and memory function in the Swe/Arc female and male mice. Male Swe/PS1 mice also showed marginally impaired function, while the female mice did not. Furthermore, the chronic ALLO treatment caused increased levels of soluble Aβ in the Swe/PS1 mouse model while the levels were unchanged in the Swe/Arc model. Therefore, both Swe/Arc and Swe/PS1 mice showed signs of accelerated disease progression. Still, further studies are required to determine the mechanisms behind the cognitive impairment and the increased Aβ-levels caused by mildly elevated ALLO-levels.

  16. [A quality evaluation in requests for thoracic radiology in chronic pathology at a health center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabedo García, V R; Cantos Escudero, R; Corbella y Jané, A; Saturno, P J

    1994-02-15

    To improve the quality of thoracic x-ray requests during chronic illness, presenting criteria for indication in HTA, LCFA and TBC. Intervention study of quality improvement. Can Misses Health Centre in Ibiza. The General Practitioners at the above centre. In this study we proposed to evaluate the work of the doctors at our Health Centre in correctly requesting x-ray explorations on the basis of two explicit, standard criteria: 1) the reason for the thorax x-ray request must be stated in the clinical notes. 2) Thorax x-rays requested for LCFA, HTA and TBC must be correctly indicated. The use of structured criteria in thorax x-ray requests for chronic patients appears to lead to greater quality in requests for this complementary exploration.

  17. Clinical and Pathologic Evaluation of Chronic Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae Infection in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Kordick, Dorsey L.; Brown, Talmage T; Shin, KwangOk; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    1999-01-01

    Human Bartonella infections result in diverse medical presentations, whereas many cats appear to tolerate chronic bacteremia without obvious clinical abnormalities. Eighteen specific-pathogen-free cats were inoculated with Bartonella henselae- and/or Bartonella clarridgeiae-infected cat blood and monitored for 454 days. Relapsing bacteremia did not correlate with changes in protein profiles or differences in antigenic protein recognition. Intradermal skin testing did not induce a delayed type...

  18. Selective Activation of the Prostaglandin E2 Circuit in Chronic Injury-Induced Pathologic Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liclican, Elvira L.; Nguyen, Van; Sullivan, Aaron B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a prevalent and established mediator of inflammation and pain in numerous tissues and diseases. Distribution and expression of the four PGE2 receptors (EP1-EP4) can dictate whether PGE2 exerts an anti-inflammatory or a proinflammatory and/or a proangiogenic effect. The role and mechanism of endogenous PGE2 in the cornea, and the regulation of EP expression during a dynamic and complex inflammatory/reparative response remain to be clearly defined. Methods. Chronic or acute self-resolving inflammation was induced in mice by corneal suture or epithelial abrasion, respectively. Reepithelialization was monitored by fluorescein staining and neovascularization quantified by CD31/PECAM-1 immunofluorescence. PGE2 formation was analyzed by lipidomics and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration quantified by myeloperoxidase activity. Expression of EPs and inflammatory/angiogenic mediators was assessed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Mice eyes were treated with PGE2 (100 ng topically, three times a day) for up to 7 days. Results. COX-2, EP-2, and EP-4 expression was upregulated with chronic inflammation that correlated with increased corneal PGE2 formation and marked neovascularization. In contrast, acute abrasion injury did not alter PGE2 or EP levels. PGE2 treatment amplified PMN infiltration and the angiogenic response to chronic inflammation but did not affect wound healing or PMN infiltration after epithelial abrasion. Exacerbated inflammatory neovascularization with PGE2 treatment was independent of the VEGF circuit but was associated with a significant induction of the eotaxin-CCR3 axis. Conclusions. These findings place the corneal PGE2 circuit as an endogenous mediator of inflammatory neovascularization rather than general inflammation and demonstrate that chronic inflammation selectively regulates this circuit at the level of biosynthetic enzyme and receptor expression. PMID:20610836

  19. Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm (IPMN) and Chronic Pancreatitis: Overlapping Pathological Entities? Two Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Petrou; Alexandros Papalambros; Nicholas Brennan; Evangelos Prassas; Thoedora Margariti; Konstadinos Bramis; Theofilos Rozemberg; Efstathios Papalambros

    2011-01-01

    Context Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are a recently classified pancreatic neoplasm with an increasing incidence. IPMN is often misdiagnosed as chronic pancreatitis because of symptoms of relapsing abdominal pain, pancreatitis, and steatorrhea and imaging findings of a dilated pancreatic duct of cystic lesions that are frequently confused with pseudocysts. Early recognition of IPMN allows for prompt surgical resection before malignant transformation. Case reports We report ...

  20. Pediatric respiratory and systemic effects of chronic air pollution exposure: nose, lung, heart, and brain pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Henriquez-Roldán, Carlos; Barragán-Mejía, Gerardo; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderón, Rafael; Reed, William

    2007-01-01

    Exposures to particulate matter and gaseous air pollutants have been associated with respiratory tract inflammation, disruption of the nasal respiratory and olfactory barriers, systemic inflammation, production of mediators of inflammation capable of reaching the brain and systemic circulation of particulate matter. Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to significant amounts of ozone, particulate matter and associated lipopolysaccharides. MC dogs exhibit brain inflammation and an acceleration of Alzheimer's-like pathology, suggesting that the brain is adversely affected by air pollutants. MC children, adolescents and adults have a significant upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in olfactory bulb and frontal cortex, as well as neuronal and astrocytic accumulation of the 42 amino acid form of beta -amyloid peptide (Abeta 42), including diffuse amyloid plaques in frontal cortex. The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by brain inflammation and the accumulation of Abeta 42, which precede the appearance of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the pathological hallmarks of AD. Our findings of nasal barrier disruption, systemic inflammation, and the upregulation of COX2 and IL-1beta expression and Abeta 42 accumulation in brain suggests that sustained exposures to significant concentrations of air pollutants such as particulate matter could be a risk factor for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Renal pathology and urinary protein excretion in a 14-month-old Bernese mountain dog with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raila, J; Aupperle, H; Raila, G; Schoon, H-A; Schweigert, F J

    2007-04-01

    The renal pathology and urinary protein pattern of a 14-month-old female Bernese mountain dog with chronic renal failure was investigated. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis and subsequent Western blot analysis of urine showed the presence of heavy and light chains of immunoglobulin, transferrin, albumin, vitamin D-binding protein, transthyretin and retinol-binding protein (RBP), but no excretion of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP). Histopathological examinations of the kidneys revealed severe membranous glomerulonephritis accompanied by tubular dilatation, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. The renal expression of megalin, the main endocytic receptor for the re-uptake of proteins in proximal tubules, RBP and THP was reduced or completely absent, indicating severe tubular dysfunction. The identified urinary proteins may be of interest as additional markers for the diagnosis of juvenile nephropathy in Bernese mountain dogs.

  2. Ginseng treatment reduces bacterial load and lung pathology in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Z; Johansen, H K; Faber, V

    1997-01-01

    the inflammation and antibody responses could be changed by treatment with the Chinese herbal medicine ginseng. An aqueous extract of ginseng was injected subcutaneously, and cortisone and saline were used as controls. Two weeks after challenge with P. aeruginosa, the ginseng-treated group showed a significantly...... against P. aeruginosa sonicate and a shift from an acute type to a chronic type of lung inflammation compared to those in the control and cortisone-treated groups were observed. These findings indicate that ginseng treatment of an experimental P. aeruginosa pneumonia in rats promotes a cellular response...

  3. The Spectrum of Kidney Pathology in B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia / Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma: A 25-Year Multicenter Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitou-Verkinder, Anne-Laure; Francois, Arnaud; Drieux, Fanny; Lepretre, Stéphane; Legallicier, Bruno; Moulin, Bruno; Godin, Michel; Guerrot, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma are 2 different presentations of the most common B-cell neoplasm in western countries (CLL/SLL). In this disease, kidney involvement is usually silent, and is rarely reported in the literature. This study provides a clinicopathological analysis of all-cause kidney disease in CLL/SLL patients. Methods Fifteen CLL/SLL patients with kidney biopsy were identified retrospectively. Demographic, clinical, pathological and laboratory data were assessed at biopsy, and during follow-up. Results At biopsy 11 patients presented impaired renal function, 7 patients nephrotic syndrome, 6 patients dysproteinemia, and 3 patients cryoglobulinemia. Kidney pathology revealed CLL/SLL-specific monoclonal infiltrate in 10 biopsies, glomerulopathy in 9 biopsies (5 membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, 2 minimal change disease, 1 glomerulonephritis with organized microtubular monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits, 1 AHL amyloidosis). Five patients presented interstitial granulomas attributed to CLL/SLL. After treatment of the hematological disease, improvement of renal function was observed in 7/11 patients, and remission of nephrotic syndrome in 5/7 patients. During follow-up, aggravation of the kidney disease systematically occurred in the absence of favorable response to hematological treatment. Conclusions A broad spectrum of kidney diseases is associated with CLL/SLL. In this setting, kidney biopsy can provide important information for diagnosis and therapeutic guidance. PMID:25811382

  4. Phosphorylation of PTEN increase in pathological right ventricular hypertrophy in rats with chronic hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Xin; Shi Yiwei; Yu Wenyan; Xu Jianying; Hu Xiaoyun; Du Yongcheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome ten (PTEN) acts as a convergent nodal signalling point for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy,growth and survival.However,the role of PTEN in cardiac conditions such as right ventricular hypertrophy caused by chronic hypoxic pulmonary,hypertension remains unclear.This study preliminarily discussed the role of PTEN in the cardiac response to increased pulmonary vascular resistance using the hypoxia-induced PH rats.Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to 10% oxygen for 1,3,7,14 or 21 days to induce hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy.Right ventricular systolic pressure was measured via catheterization.Hypertrophy index was calculated as the ratio of right ventricular mass to left ventricle plus septum mass.Tissue morphology and fibrosis were measured using hematoxylin,eosin and picrosirius red staining.The expression and phosphorylation levels of PTEN in ventricles were determined by real time PCR and Western blotting.Results Hypoxic exposure of rats resulted in pathological hypertrophy,interstitial fibrosis and remodelling of the right ventricle.The phosphorylation of PTEN increased significantly in the hypertrophic right ventricle compared to the normoxic control group.There were no changes in protein expression in either ventricle.Conclusion Hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension developed pathological right ventricular hypertrophy and remodelling probablv related to an increased phosohorvlation of PTEN.

  5. Pathology of chronic hepatitis C in children. Child Liver Study Group of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kage, M; Fujisawa, T; Shiraki, K; Tanaka, T; Fujisawa, T; Kimura, A; Shimamatsu, K; Nakashima, E; Kojiro, M; Koike, M; Tazawa, Y; Abukawa, D; Okaniwa, M; Takita, H; Matsui, A; Hayashi, T; Etou, T; Terasawa, S; Sugiyama, K; Tajiri, H; Yoden, A; Kajiwara, Y; Sata, M; Uchimura, Y

    1997-09-01

    Limited information is available regarding the histology of hepatitis C virus infection in children. The aim of this study was to determine the histological pattern of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in children, and liver biopsy specimens from 109 pediatric patients with CHC were examined. Each biopsy specimen was evaluated based on a numerical scoring system for the stage of fibrosis (1-4), the grade of portal/periportal necroinflammation (0-4), the grade of lobular necroinflammation (0-4), and their sum (final grade). The histological lesions considered to be characteristic of chronic hepatitis were also evaluated. None of the children had liver cirrhosis, and 105 cases (97%) were stage 1 or 2. Only 4 children were stage 3. Two of these 4 cases showed hemosiderosis. A significant correlation was observed between the staging score and the final grade in the pediatric patients (r = .59; P < .0001). The histological characteristics of adult CHC, such as lymphoid aggregate, bile duct injury, and fatty changes, were also observed in the children. In conclusion, the majority of children with CHC presented with mild fibrosis, but a few showed CHC with lobular distortion and hemosiderosis. Frequent blood transfusion may aggravate hepatic lesions in pediatric CHC.

  6. The liver in itai-itai disease (chronic cadmium poisoning): pathological features and metallothionein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Hayato; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Yazaki, Megumi; Nagata, Kohei; Minamisaka, Takashi; Tsuda, Tatsuhiro; Nomoto, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Shinichi; Miwa, Shigeharu; Nakajima, Takahiko; Nakanishi, Yuko; Aoshima, Keiko; Imura, Johji

    2013-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly hepatotoxic heavy metal, which is widely dispersed in the environment. Acute Cd hepatotoxicity has been well studied in experimental animals; however, effects of prolonged exposure to Cd doses on the liver remain unclear. In the present study, to evaluate chronic Cd hepatotoxicity, we examined specimens from cases of itai-itai disease, the most severe form of chronic Cd poisoning. We compared 89 cases of itai-itai disease with 27 control cases to assess Cd concentration in organs. We also examined 80 cases of itai-itai disease and 70 control cases for histopathological evaluation. In addition, we performed immunohistochemistry for metallothionein, which binds and detoxifies Cd. Hepatic Cd concentration was higher than Cd concentration in all other organs measured in the itai-itai disease group, whereas it was second highest following renal concentration in the control group. In the liver in the itai-itai disease group, fibrosis was observed at a significantly higher rate than that in the control group. Metallothionein expression was significantly higher in the itai-itai disease group than that in the control group. Prolonged exposure to low doses of Cd leads to high hepatic accumulation, which can then cause fibrosis; however, it also causes high expression of metallothionein, which is thought to reduce Cd hepatotoxicity.

  7. Clinical and pathological aspects of chronic Senecio spp. poisoning in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. Giaretta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an outbreak of chronic Senecio spp. poisoning in grazing sheep in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, causing the death of 10 out of 860 adult sheep. Eight sick ewes were euthanized and necropsied. Cattle from this farm were also affected. Clinical signs included progressive weight loss, apathy and photosensitization. Four out of seven tested sheep had increased gamma-glutamyl transferase serum activity and two of them presented serum elevation of alkaline phosphatase. At necropsy, three out of eight ewes presented slightly irregular toughened livers with multifocal nodules, two out of eight ewes had a whitish liver with thickened fibrotic Glisson's capsule partially adhered to the diaphragm, and three out of eight ewes had smooth and grossly normal livers. Necropsy findings attributed to liver failure included hydropericardium (7/8, ascites (5/8, icterus (2/8, hydrothorax (1/8, and edema of mesentery (1/8. The main hepatic histological findings that allowed the establishment of the diagnosis were megalocytosis, proliferation of bile ducts and fibrosis. Spongy degeneration was observed in the brains of all eight necropsied sheep and was more severe at the cerebellar peduncles, mesencephalon, thalamus, and pons. These are suggested as the portions of election to investigate microscopic lesions of hepatic encephalopathy in sheep with chronic seneciosis. The diagnosis of Senecio spp. poisoning was based on epidemiology, clinical signs, laboratory data, necropsy and histological findings.

  8. [Chronic lead poisoning in children today. A pathology of poverty and social exclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnaeve, O; Berthier, M; Guillard, O; Perault, M C; Oriot, D

    1999-07-01

    Despite the recognition of lead poisoning in children as a major public health problem in France since the 1980's, the setting-up of systematic detection of lead poisoning at a national level has not yet been done. The main source of intoxication in children is in paintings containing ceruse in housing built before 1948. Moderate chronic poisoning, although leading to irreversible lesions, particularly of the central nervous system, remains usually unnoticed. The biological diagnosis is mainly based upon blood lead level, completed by the protoporphyrine-zinc level. Large scale identification of dangerous housing and the control of rehabilitation are the only means available to decrease the incidence of lead posioning. Targeted screening is difficult because it concerns children excluded from classical health care systems. Prevention and long-term treatment requires elimination of the source of lead intoxication after an environmental inquiry. This raises the problems of rehousing and follow-up of intoxicated children.

  9. Long-term Tympanic Membrane Pathology Dynamics and Spontaneous Healing in Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ramon Gordon; Koch, Anders; Homøe, Preben

    2012-01-01

    of spontaneous healing was not influenced by the age at which CSOM was diagnosed in the initial study. Thirty-nine individuals (17%) had CSOM in either the initial study or at follow-up. Of these, 2 had never received antibiotic treatment for otitis media, and 15 had been treated less than 3 times. Eighty......BACKGROUND:: Children in the developing parts of the world have a high prevalence of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). It is estimated that 65 to 330 million people worldwide have CSOM, yet very little is known about the natural course of the disease. The Inuit population of the Arctic......-based cohort of 591 children originally examined during 1993 to 1994 at 3 to 8 years of age. Follow-up was attempted among 348 individuals still living in the areas. Video otoscopy and tympanometry were used. Data on otologic disease, ear surgery, and antibiotic use for otitis media were collected from medical...

  10. Lung Pathologies in a Chronic Inflammation Mouse Model Are Independent of Eosinophil Degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Elizabeth A; Ochkur, Sergei I; Doyle, Alfred D; LeSuer, William E; Li, Wen; Protheroe, Cheryl A; Colbert, Dana; Zellner, Katie R; Shen, HuaHao H; Irvin, Charles G; Lee, James J; Lee, Nancy A

    2017-05-15

    The release of eosinophil granule proteins in the lungs of patients with asthma has been dogmatically linked with lung remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness. However, the demonstrated inability of established mouse models to display the eosinophil degranulation occurring in human subjects has prevented a definitive in vivo test of this hypothesis. To demonstrate in vivo causative links between induced pulmonary histopathologies/lung dysfunction and eosinophil degranulation. A transgenic mouse model of chronic T-helper cell type 2-driven inflammation overexpressing IL-5 from T cells and human eotaxin 2 in the lung (I5/hE2) was used to test the hypothesis that chronic histopathologies and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness occur as a consequence of extensive eosinophil degranulation in the lung parenchyma. Studies targeting specific inflammatory pathways in I5/hE2 mice surprisingly showed that eosinophil-dependent immunoregulative events and not the release of individual secondary granule proteins are the central contributors to T-helper cell type 2-induced pulmonary remodeling and lung dysfunction. Specifically, our studies highlighted a significant role for eosinophil-dependent IL-13 expression. In contrast, extensive degranulation leading to the release of major basic protein-1 or eosinophil peroxidase was not causatively linked to many of the induced pulmonary histopathologies. However, these studies did define a previously unappreciated link between the release of eosinophil peroxidase (but not major basic protein-1) and observed levels of induced airway mucin. These data suggest that improvements observed in patients with asthma responding to therapeutic strategies ablating eosinophils may occur as a consequence of targeting immunoregulatory mechanisms and not by simply eliminating the destructive activities of these purportedly end-stage effector cells.

  11. Characterization of an immunodominant antigenic epitope from Trypanosoma cruzi as a biomarker of chronic Chagas' disease pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M Carmen; Fernández-Villegas, Ana; Carrilero, Bartolomé; Marañón, Concepción; Saura, Daniel; Noya, Oscar; Segovia, Manuel; Alarcón de Noya, Belkisyolé; Alonso, Carlos; López, Manuel Carlos

    2012-02-01

    Nowadays, the techniques available for chronic Chagas' disease diagnosis are very sensitive; however, they do not allow discrimination of the patient's clinical stages of the disease. The present paper describes that three out of the five different repeats contained in the Trypanosoma cruzi TcCA-2 membrane protein (3972-FGQAAAGDKPPP, 6303-FGQAAAGDKPAP, and 3973-FGQAAAGDKPSL) are recognized with high sensitivity (>90%) by sera from chronic Chagas' disease patients and that they are not recognized by sera from patients in the acute phase of the disease. A total of 133 serum samples from chagasic patients and 50 serum samples from healthy donors were tested. In addition, sera from 15 patients with different autoimmune diseases, 43 serum samples from patients suffering an infectious disease other than Chagas' disease, and 38 serum samples from patients with nonchagasic cardiac disorders were also included in this study. The residue 3973 peptide shows a specificity of >98%, as it is not recognized by individuals with autoimmune and inflammatory processes or by patients with a nonchagasic cardiomyopathy. Remarkably, the levels of antibody against the 3973 epitope detected by the sera from Chagas' disease patients in the symptomatic chronic phase, involving cardiac or digestive alterations, are higher than those detected by the sera from Chagas' disease patients in the indeterminate phase of the disease. It is suggested that the diagnostic technique described could also be used to indicate the degree of pathology. The amino acids F, Q, and DKP located in the peptide at positions 1, 3, and 8 to 10, respectively, are essential to conform to the immunodominant antigenic epitope.

  12. Comparison of pathology of chronic total occlusion with and without coronary artery bypass graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakura, Kenichi; Nakano, Masataka; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Yahagi, Kazuyuki; Kutys, Robert; Ladich, Elena; Finn, Aloke V.; Kolodgie, Frank D.; Virmani, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Aims The aim of our study was to investigate chronic total occlusion (CTO) in human coronary arteries to clarify the difference between CTO with prior coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and those without prior CABG. Methods and results A total of 95 CTO lesions from 82 patients (61.6 ± 14.0 years, male 87.8%) were divided into the following three groups: CTO with CABG (n = 34) (CTO+CABG), CTO without CABG—of long-duration (n = 49) (LD-CTO) and short-duration (n = 12) (SD-CTO). A histopathological comparison of the plaque characteristics of CTO, proximal and distal lumen morphology, and negative remodelling between groups was performed. A total of 1127 sections were evaluated. Differences in plaque characteristics were observed between groups as follows: necrotic core area was highest in SD-CTO (18.6%) (LD-CTO: 7.8%; CTO+CABG: 4.5%; P = 0.02); calcified area was greatest in CTO+CABG (29.2%) (LD-CTO: 16.8%; SD-CTO: 12.1%; P = 0.009); and negative remodelling was least in SD-CTO [remodelling index (RI) 0.86] [CTO+CABG (RI): 0.72 and LD-CTO (RI): 0.68; P CTO patients with and without CABG. PMID:24126875

  13. PATHOLOGICAL TISSUE LESIONS INDUCED BY CHRONIC CADMIUM INTOXICATION IN SILVER CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICULA MARIOARA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to describe the histopathological effects of chronic cadmium intoxication on liver, gill, kidney, intestine and striated muscle in silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. 25 immature 1+-year-old crucian carp were obtained from a private fishfarm and acclimated to laboratory conditions. After a 21 days exposure to a sublethal cadmium concentration (1.625 ppm from a Cd (CH3COO2 x2H2O stock solution, liver, gill, kidney, small intestine and striated muscle were sampled and processed for histological examination. Histopathological alterations induced by studied heavy metal in the tissues of silver crucian carp specimenes were: nephrocite hypertrophic processes, distruction of intercellular jonctions, stratification of epitelium and congestions both in renal glomerulis and in interstitium; hyalinizations, congestions of blood vassels and vacuolations associated with lipid accumulation at the hepatic level; into intestinal mucosa revealed rich leucocyte infiltrates, with numerous leucocytes situated intraepithelial; branchial lamelles with disordered aspect and multilayered epithelium, vascular ectasias and leucocyte infiltrates into subepithelial connective tissue at the gill level; miolisis processes in peripheral muscular fibers manifested by contractile apparatus alteration on large areas.

  14. PATHOLOGICAL TISSUE LESIONS INDUCED BY CHRONIC MERCURY INTOXICATION IN SILVER CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIOARA NICULA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to describe the histopathological effects of chronic inorganic mercury intoxication on liver, gills, kidneys, small intestine and skin in silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. 20 immature 1+-year-old crucian carp were obtained from a private fishfarm and acclimatized to laboratory conditions. After a 3 weeks exposure to a sublethal mercury concentration (0.25 ppm from a HgCl2 stock solution, liver, gills, kidney, small intestine and skin were sampled and processed for histological examination.The main effects observed: numerous interstitial leukocytar infiltrates, followed by glomerulonephritis and tubulonephritis there are at the renal level; fibrosation of peri- and interlobular conjunctive tissue, including ectasiated blood vessel and numerous limphocytar infiltrates enlarged both in perilobular and intralobular conjunctive tissue at the liver level; an disorganization process of gill lamellae by superficial layer alteration, at the gill level; cells of skin epiderma exhibit hiperplazic hypertrophy, epithelial desquamation, intraepithelial edema and citoplasmatic vacuolization; light epithelial distrophic processes and an abundant leukocytar infiltrate both in vilositaire chorion and basal chorion at the small intestine level.

  15. [Chronic lead poisoning like a group pathology. Clinical report of 12 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Cornelia; Oprea, Veronica; Constantin, Brânduşa; Pintilie, Wanda; Teslariu, Elena; Pal, Cristina

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present a series of 12 cases with the chronic lead poisoning produced after a short but intensive professional exposure (in average 12-14 hours per day, 41.6 days) at mineral dust and oxides containing lead (technical revision of a oven and of a furnace network by mechanical and welding operation). After the first case with saturnine colic, all the workers of the same team (n=12) were hospitalised (average time was of 14 days) with clinical examination and by specific toxicological indicators. Particularly, for clinical picture were uncharacteristic and oligosymptomatic complaints. Occupational exposure was augmented by the level of Pb-blood (46.8-286 mg/100 ml are ranges), Pb-urine (221-637 mg/l are ranges), d-aminolevulinic urinary acid (22.9-99.1 mg/l are ranges) and increased urinary coproporphyrins (+ +, + + +) exceeding biological limits and high urinary discharge of lead induced by CaNa2-EDTA treatment. The biological effects of lead intoxication consist in the occurrence of stippled basophilic erythrocytes (2 cases with 46,000/1 mil erythrocytes), the anemia (only 4 cases with haematocrit L 40%) and the liver cytolytic syndrome (the increase of GPT, GOT and of g-GT). These changes and the polyneuropathic syndrome (the decrease of motor and sensitive speed velocity) were judged by toxic combination between ethanol and lead.

  16. [THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A 10-DAY DRUG THERAPY IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC GASTRODUODENAL PATHOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH CAGA-POSITIVE STRAINS OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnyk, V M; Rudenko, G M

    2015-01-01

    The results of triple Helicobacter-therapy (omeprazole, amoxicillin, nifuratel) in the treatment of chronic gastroduodenal pathology in children depending on the duration of it's use. The effectiveness of drug therapy was evaluated in terms of eradication of Helicobacter pylori and dynamics of pain, dyspeptic syndrome and astenovegetative syndrome.

  17. Pathology of Chronic Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis: What Is It? What Are the Diagnostic Criteria? Why Do We Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churg, Andrew; Bilawich, AnaMaria; Wright, Joanne L

    2017-05-24

    - Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP) has emerged from obscurity during the past 15 years and is now recognized as a very common form of fibrosing interstitial pneumonia but one that is frequently misdiagnosed both clinically and on surgical lung biopsy as usual interstitial pneumonia/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (UIP/IPF) or fibrotic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. - To review the pathologic features of CHP. - Clinical, pathology, and radiology literature were used. - Upper lobe-predominant fibrosis and/or air-trapping on computed tomography scan are features of CHP but not UIP/IPF; however, radiologic separation is possible in only about 50% of cases. Morphologically, CHP sometimes mimics UIP/IPF, but CHP often shows isolated foci of peribronchiolar (centrilobular) fibrosis, frequently associated with fibroblast foci, and in CHP, fibrosis may bridge from the centrilobular region to another bronchiole, an interlobular septum, or the pleura ("bridging fibrosis"). This set of findings is uncommon in UIP/IPF. In addition, CHP may produce a picture of fibrotic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Although giant cells/granulomas are usually present in subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis, they are much less frequently found in CHP, and their absence does not contradict the diagnosis. This diagnostic separation is clinically important because CHP is treated differently than UIP/IPF is (immunosuppressive agents versus antifibrotic agents); further, there are some data to suggest that removing the patient from antigen exposure improves outcome, and there is evidence that patients with CHP have a much survival prognosis after lung transplantation than do patients with UIP/IPF. In most cases, accurate diagnosis of CHP requires consultation among clinicians, radiologists, and pathologists.

  18. Clinico-pathological impact of cytogenetic subgroups in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: Experience from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PS Kadam Amare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study of 238 B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (B-CLL patients were undertaken to seek the prevalence and to evaluate clinico-pathological significance of recurrent genetic abnormalities such as del(13q14.3, trisomy 12, del(11q22.3 (ATM, TP53 deletion, del(6q21 and IgH translocation/deletion. Materials and Methods: We applied interphase - fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH on total 238 cases of B-CLL. Results: Our study disclosed 69% of patients with genetic aberrations such as 13q deletion (63%, trisomy 12 (28%, 11q deletion (18%, 6q21 deletion (11% with comparatively higher frequency of TP53 deletion (22%. Deletion 13q displayed as a most frequent sole abnormality. In group with coexistence of ≥2 aberrations, 13q deletion was a major clone indicating del(13q as a primary event followed by 11q deletion, TP53 deletion, trisomy 12, 6q deletion as secondary progressive events. In comparison with del(13q, trisomy 12, group with coexistence of ≥2 aberrations associated with poor risk factors such as hyperleukocytosis, advanced stage, and multiple nodes involvement. In a separate study of 116 patients, analysis of IgH abnormalities revealed either partial deletion (24% or translocation (5% and were associated with del(13q, trisomy 12, TP53 and ATM deletion. Two of 7 cases had t(14;18, one case had t(8;14, and four cases had other variant IgH translocation t(?;14. Conclusion: Detail characterization and clinical impact are necessary to ensure that IgH translocation positive CLL is a distinct pathological entity. Our data suggests that CLL with various cytogenetic subsets, group with coexistence of ≥2 aberrations seems to be a complex cytogenetic subset, needs more attention to understand biological significance and to seek clinical impact for better management of disease.

  19. The clinical spectrum of renal osteodystrophy in 57 chronic hemodialysis patients: a correlation between biochemical parameters and bone pathology findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazan, J A; Libbey, N P; London, M R; Pono, L; Abuelo, J G

    1991-02-01

    Fifty-nine chronic hemodialysis patients who had been on dialysis for an average of 77 months underwent bone biopsies and the pathologic findings were correlated with biochemical and demographic data. All but two had evidence of renal osteodystrophy, 23 with osteitis fibrosa (OF), 19 with osteomalacia and/or adynamic disease (OM/AD), and 15 with mixed osteodystrophy (MOD). Patients in each group were similar with regard to age, sex distribution, duration of dialysis, unstimulated serum aluminum, calcium and phosphorus. Patients with osteitis fibrosa (OF) had statistically higher DFO stimulated aluminum, alkaline phosphatase and PTHC levels than the other two groups although there was marked individual variation. The bone biopsies were also evaluated for the amount of aluminum deposited in the osteoid seam. All 23 of the patients with OF and 11 of the 15 patients with MOD had no, mild, or minimal aluminum deposition but 12 of the 19 patients with OM/AD had moderate to marked aluminum deposition. Patients with minimal to mild aluminum deposition were similar in age, duration of dialysis, sex distribution, unstimulated and DFO stimulated aluminum levels, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase to those with moderate to marked deposition but had significantly higher parathormone levels. All patients had been treated in a similar fashion regarding diet, oral phosphate binders and vitamin D; therefore, the observed differences in bone pathology were not readily explicable. However, patients who were found to have osteitis fibrosa and those with minimal to mild aluminum deposition had significantly higher parathormone levels when compared with patients in the other groups at the inception of dialysis.

  20. Chronic Sleep Deprivation Exacerbates Learning-Memory Disability and Alzheimer's Disease-Like Pathologies in AβPP(swe)/PS1(ΔE9) Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hongyan; Zhong, Rujia; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Feng; Li, Song; Le, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there is an increasing concern over the association between sleep disorders and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clinical observations have reported that chronic sleep deprivation (SD) may serve as a risk factor for AD. However, the pathological evidence for this assumption is still lacking. In the present study, we examined the potential impacts of chronic SD on learning-memory and AD-related pathologies in AβPP(swe)/PS1(ΔE9) transgenic (TG) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. Results indicated that mice (both TG and WT) exposed to 2-month SD showed an altered amyloid-β protein precursor processing, an elevated level of phosphorylated tau protein, and impaired cognitive performance as compared to non-sleep deprivation (NSD) controls. Moreover, the SD-treated TG mice exhibited more amyloid-β(1-42) production and developed more senile plaques in the cortex and hippocampus than NSD-treated TG mice. In addition, SD caused a striking neuronal mitochondrial damage, caspase cascade activation, and neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus of both TG and WT mice. More importantly, all these behavioral, neuropathological, and biochemical changes induced by chronic SD were long lasting and were irreversible during a 3-month normal housing condition. Collectively, these results indicate that chronic SD impairs learning and memory, exacerbates AD pathologies, and aggravates the mitochondria-mediated neuronal apoptosis in a long-lasting manner. Our findings provide important experimental evidence to prove that chronic SD is a risk factor for AD.

  1. Gene expression and pathologic alterations in juvenile rainbow trout due to chronic dietary TCDD exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Rise, Matthew L; Spitsbergen, Jan M; Hori, Tiago S; Mieritz, Mark; Geis, Steven; McGraw, Joseph E; Goetz, Giles; Larson, Jeremy; Hutz, Reinhold J; Carvan, Michael J

    2013-09-15

    The goal of this project was to use functional genomic methods to identify molecular biomarkers as indicators of the impact of TCDD exposure in rainbow trout. Specifically, we investigated the effects of chronic dietary TCDD exposure on whole juvenile rainbow trout global gene expression associated with histopathological analysis. Juvenile rainbow trout were fed Biodiet starter with TCDD added at 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ppb (ngTCDD/g food), and fish were sampled from each group at 7, 14, 28 and 42 days after initiation of feeding. 100 ppb TCDD caused 100% mortality at 39 days. Fish fed with 100 ppb TCDD food had TCDD accumulation of 47.37 ppb (ngTCDD/g fish) in whole fish at 28 days. Histological analysis from TCDD-treated trout sampled from 28 and 42 days revealed that obvious lesions were found in skin, oropharynx, liver, gas bladder, intestine, pancreas, nose and kidney. In addition, TCDD caused anemia in peripheral blood, decreases in abdominal fat, increases of remodeling of fin rays, edema in pericardium and retrobulbar hemorrhage in the 100 ppb TCDD-treated rainbow trout compared to the control group at 28 days. Dose- and time-dependent global gene expression analyses were performed using the cGRASP 16,000 (16K) cDNA microarray. TCDD-responsive whole body transcripts identified in the microarray experiments have putative functions involved in various biological processes including growth, cell proliferation, metabolic process, and immune system processes. Nine microarray-identified genes were selected for QPCR validation. CYP1A3 and CYP1A1 were common up-regulated genes and HBB1 was a common down-regulated gene among each group based on microarray data, and their QPCR validations are consistent with microarray data for the 10 and 100 ppb TCDD treatment groups after 28 days exposure (pppb group at 28 days, expression of complement component C3-1 and trypsin-1 precursor have a more than 10-fold induction from the microarray experiments, and their QPCR

  2. Pathological mechanism for delayed hyperenhancement of chronic scarred myocardium in contrast agent enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate possible mechanism for delayed hyperenhancement of scarred myocardium by investigating the relationship of contrast agent (CA first pass and delayed enhancement patterns with histopathological changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen pigs underwent 4 weeks ligation of 1 or 2 diagonal coronary arteries to induce chronic infarction. The hearts were then removed and perfused in a Langendorff apparatus. The hearts firstly experienced phosphorus 31 MR spectroscopy. The hearts in group I (n = 9 and II (n = 9 then received the bolus injection of Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (0.05 mmol/kg and gadolinium-based macromolecular agent (P792, 15 µmol/kg, respectively. First pass T2* MRI was acquired using a gradient echo sequence. Delayed enhanced T1 MRI was acquired with an inversion recovery sequence. Masson's trichrome and anti- von Willebrand Factor (vWF staining were performed for infarct characterization. RESULTS: Wash-in of both kinds of CA caused the sharp and dramatic T2* signal decrease of scarred myocardium similar to that of normal myocardium. Myocardial blood flow and microvessel density were significantly recovered in 4-week-old scar tissue. Steady state distribution volume (ΔR1 relaxation rate of Gd-DTPA was markedly higher in scarred myocardium than in normal myocardium, whereas ΔR1 relaxation rate of P792 did not differ significantly between scarred and normal myocardium. The ratio of extracellular volume to the total water volume was significantly greater in scarred myocardium than in normal myocardium. Scarred myocardium contained massive residual capillaries and dilated vessels. Histological stains indicated the extensively discrete matrix deposition and lack of cellular structure in scarred myocardium. CONCLUSIONS: Collateral circulation formation and residual vessel effectively delivered CA into scarred myocardium. However, residual vessel without abnormal hyperpermeability allowed Gd

  3. Mycotic aneurysm of the femoral artery resulting from mismanagement of a pathological femur fracture due to chronic osteomyelitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwaka Erisa Sabakaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mycotic aneurysms are rarely listed among the possible complications of osteomyelitis of the long bones. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of chronic osteomyelitis associated with a pathological fracture of the femur and a mycotic aneurysm of the femoral artery. Case presentation We present the case of a 13-year-old Ugandan boy who was referred to our hospital with chronic osteomyelitis associated with a pathological fracture of the right femur and a mycotic aneurysm of the femoral artery. He underwent a successful above-knee amputation and is currently undergoing rehabilitation. Conclusions Aneurysms associated with chronic osteomyelitis of the long bones are very rare. However, in Africa, where people often still believe in crude traditional remedies, they should be considered among the possible diagnoses especially where acute injuries of the limbs are massaged and manipulated.

  4. Quantification of small fiber pathology in patients with sarcoidosis and chronic pain using cornea confocal microscopy and skin biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oudejans LCJ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Linda CJ Oudejans,1 Marieke Niesters,1 Michael Brines,2 Albert Dahan,1 Monique van Velzen1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; 2Araim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Tarrytown, NY, USA Abstract: Small fiber pathology with concomitant chronic neuropathic pain is a common complication of sarcoidosis. The gold standard of diagnosis of small fiber neuropathy (SFN is the quantification of small nerve fibers in skin biopsies in combination with patient history and psychophysical tests; a new technique is the quantification of small nerve fibers in the cornea using cornea confocal microscopy (CCM. Here, we studied small fiber morphology in sarcoidosis patients with neuropathic pain using skin biopsies, CCM, and quantitative sensory testing (QST. Our aim was to construct specific phenotypes of neuropathic pain in sarcoidosis. Fifty-eight patients with a confirmed diagnosis of sarcoidosis and with moderate-to-severe neuropathic pain were tested. Decreased intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD from skin biopsies was found in 28% of patients, and CCM abnormalities were observed in 45% of patients. There was no correlation between CCM and IENFD abnormalities. Eighty-three percent of patients had abnormal thermal detection thresholds, a sign of small fiber dysfunction. Based on the presence or absence of abnormalities in IENFD and CCM, four distinct phenotypes were identified with a distinct homogeneous pattern of somatosensory symptoms. We argue that these distinct phenotypes have a similar mechanistic construct with specific phenotype-specific treatment options. Additionally, our data suggest the presence of patients with length- and nonlength-dependent SFN within this population of sarcoidosis patients. Keywords: chronic pain, sarcoidosis, small fiber neuropathy

  5. Gene expression and pathologic alterations in juvenile rainbow trout due to chronic dietary TCDD exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qing [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Lapham Hall, 3209 N. Maryland Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); School of Freshwater Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 600 E Greenfield Ave, Milwaukee, WI 53204 (United States); Rise, Matthew L. [Ocean Sciences Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1 Marine Lab Road, St. John' s, NL, A1C 5S7 (Canada); Spitsbergen, Jan M. [Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, 220 Nash Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Hori, Tiago S. [Ocean Sciences Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1 Marine Lab Road, St. John' s, NL, A1C 5S7 (Canada); Mieritz, Mark; Geis, Steven [Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, 465 Henry Mall, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); McGraw, Joseph E. [School of Pharmacy, Concordia University Wisconsin, 12800 North Lake Shore Drive, Mequon, WI 53097 (United States); Goetz, Giles [School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, 1122 Northeast Boat Street, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Larson, Jeremy; Hutz, Reinhold J. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Lapham Hall, 3209 N. Maryland Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Carvan, Michael J., E-mail: carvanmj@uwm.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Lapham Hall, 3209 N. Maryland Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); School of Freshwater Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 600 E Greenfield Ave, Milwaukee, WI 53204 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •First report of the effects of dietary TCDD in juvenile trout smaller than 20 g. •TCDD uptake was estimated using published models and confirmed by GC. •First report of dietary TCDD-induced lesions in nasal epithelium in any species. •Several useful biomarkers are identified from microarray-based transcriptomics analysis. -- Abstract: The goal of this project was to use functional genomic methods to identify molecular biomarkers as indicators of the impact of TCDD exposure in rainbow trout. Specifically, we investigated the effects of chronic dietary TCDD exposure on whole juvenile rainbow trout global gene expression associated with histopathological analysis. Juvenile rainbow trout were fed Biodiet starter with TCDD added at 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ppb (ng TCDD/g food), and fish were sampled from each group at 7, 14, 28 and 42 days after initiation of feeding. 100 ppb TCDD caused 100% mortality at 39 days. Fish fed with 100 ppb TCDD food had TCDD accumulation of 47.37 ppb (ng TCDD/g fish) in whole fish at 28 days. Histological analysis from TCDD-treated trout sampled from 28 and 42 days revealed that obvious lesions were found in skin, oropharynx, liver, gas bladder, intestine, pancreas, nose and kidney. In addition, TCDD caused anemia in peripheral blood, decreases in abdominal fat, increases of remodeling of fin rays, edema in pericardium and retrobulbar hemorrhage in the 100 ppb TCDD-treated rainbow trout compared to the control group at 28 days. Dose- and time-dependent global gene expression analyses were performed using the cGRASP 16,000 (16K) cDNA microarray. TCDD-responsive whole body transcripts identified in the microarray experiments have putative functions involved in various biological processes including growth, cell proliferation, metabolic process, and immune system processes. Nine microarray-identified genes were selected for QPCR validation. CYP1A3 and CYP1A1 were common up-regulated genes and HBB1 was a common down

  6. Shared component modelling as an alternative to assess geographical variations in medical practice: gender inequalities in hospital admissions for chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibáñez-Beroiz Berta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small area analysis is the most prevalent methodological approach in the study of unwarranted and systematic variation in medical practice at geographical level. Several of its limitations drive researchers to use disease mapping methods -deemed as a valuable alternative. This work aims at exploring these techniques using - as a case of study- the gender differences in rates of hospitalization in elderly patients with chronic diseases. Methods Design and study setting: An empirical study of 538,358 hospitalizations affecting individuals aged over 75, who were admitted due to a chronic condition in 2006, were used to compare Small Area Analysis (SAVA, the Besag-York-Mollie (BYM modelling and the Shared Component Modelling (SCM. Main endpoint: Gender spatial variation was measured, as follows: SAVA estimated gender-specific utilization ratio; BYM estimated the fraction of variance attributable to spatial correlation in each gender; and, SCM estimated the fraction of variance shared by the two genders, and those specific for each one. Results Hospitalization rates due to chronic diseases in the elderly were higher in men (median per area 21.4 per 100 inhabitants, interquartile range: 17.6 to 25.0 than in women (median per area 13.7 per 100, interquartile range: 10.8 to 16.6. Whereas Utilization Ratios showed a similar geographical pattern of variation in both genders, BYM found a high fraction of variation attributable to spatial correlation in both men (71%, CI95%: 50 to 94 and women (62%, CI95%: 45 to 77. In turn, SCM showed that the geographical admission pattern was mainly shared, with just 6% (CI95%: 4 to 8 of variation specific to the women component. Conclusions Whereas SAVA and BYM focused on the magnitude of variation and on allocating where variability cannot be due to chance, SCM signalled discrepant areas where latent factors would differently affect men and women.

  7. Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide:Biological activities in vitro and in vivo, pathological correlation to human chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Hui Luo; Jie Yan; Ya-Fei Mao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the biological activity of Helicobacter pylori (Hpylori) lipopolysaccharide (H-LPS) and understand pathological correlation between H-LPS and human chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer.METHODS: H-LPS of a clinical Hpylori strain and LPS of Escherichia coli strain O55:B5 (E-LPS) were extracted by phenol-water method. Biological activities of H-LPS and E-LPS were detected by limulus lysate assay, pyrogen assay,blood pressure test and PBMC induction test in rabbits,cytotoxicity test in NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells and lethality test in NIH mice. By using self-prepared rabbit anti-H-LPS serum as the first antibody and commercial HRP-labeled sheep anti-rabbit sera as the second antibody, H-LPS in biopsy specimens from 126 patients with chronic gastritis (68 cases) or gastric ulcer (58 cases) were examined by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: Fibroblast cytotoxicity and mouse lethality of H-LPS were weaker than those of E-LPS. But the ability of coagulating limulus lysate of the two LPSs was similar (+/0.5 ng/mL). At 0.5 h after H-LPS injection, the blood pressures of the 3 rabbits rapidly declined. At 1.0 h after H-LPS injection, the blood pressures in 2 of the 3 rabbits fell to zero causing death of the 2 animals. For the other one rabbit in the same group, its blood pressure gradually elevated. At 0.5 h after E-LPS injection, the blood pressures of the three rabbits also quickly declined and then maintained at low level for approximately 1.0 h. At 0.5 h after injection with H-LPS or E-LPS, PBMC numbers of the rabbits showed a remarkable increase. The total positivity rate of H-LPS from 126 biopsy specimens was 60.3%(76/126). H-LPS positivity rate in the biopsy specimens from chronic gastritis (50/68, 73.5%) was significantly higher than that from gastric ulcer (26/58, 44.8%) (X2=10.77,P<0.01). H-LPS positivity rates in biopsy specimens from chronic superficial gastritis (38/48, 79.2%) and chronic active gastritis (9/10, 90.0%) were significantly higher than

  8. Morphological and pathologic changes of experimental chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and the regulating mechanism of protein expression in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang-jing; CHEN Shu-jie; CHEN Zhe; CAI Jian-ting; SI Jian-min

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathologic change and molecular regulation in cell proliferation and apoptosis of gastric mucosa in rats with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), and evaluate the possible mechanisms. Methods: Rats were administered with 60% alcohol or 2% salicylate sodium, 20 mmol/L deoxycholate sodium and 0.1% ammonia water to establish chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) models. The gastric specimens were prepared for microscopic view with hematoxylin and eosin (H-E)and alcian blue (A-B) stain. The number of infiltrated inflammatory cells, the thickness of the mucosa gland layer (μm) and the number of gastric glands were calculated. The damage of barrier in mucosa with erosion or ulceration, and the thickness of mucin were examined by scanned electron microscope (SEM). The levels of PGE2, EGF (epiderminal growth factor) and gastrin in the serum were measured with radioimmunoassay or ELISA method. The immunohistochemistry method was used to observe the number of G cells, the expression of protein of EGFR (EGF receptor), C-erbB-2, p53, p16 and bcl-2 in gastric tissue. Results:Under SEM observation, the gastric mucosa was diffused erosion or ulceration and the thickness of mucin was decreased. Compared with normal rats, the grade of inflammatory cell infiltration in CAG rats was elevated, whereas the thickness and number of gastric gland were significantly lower (P<0.05). Compared with normal level of (0.61+0.28) μg/L, EGF in CAG (2.2±0.83) μg/L was significantly higher (P<0.05). The levels of PGE2 and gastrin in serum were significantly lower in CAG rats than that in normal rats (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry detection showed that the number of G cell in antrum was lower in CAG group (P<0.05). Immuno-stain showed EGFR protein expression in the basal and bilateral membrane, and the cytoplasma in atrophic gastric gland, while negative expression was observed in normal gastric epithelial cells. Positive staining of p53 and p16 protein was localized in

  9. Pathology review of proliferative lesions of the exocrine pancreas in two chronic feeding studies in rats with ammonium perfluorooctanoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Caverly Rae

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two chronic dietary studies, conducted years apart, with ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO in Sprague Dawley rats have been previously reported. Although both included male 300 ppm dietary dose groups, only the later study, conducted in 1990–1992 by Biegel et al., reported an increase in proliferative lesions (hyperplasia and adenoma of the acinar pancreas. An assessment of the significance of the differences between both studies requires careful consideration of: the diagnostic criteria for proliferative acinar cell lesions of the rat pancreas (for example, the diagnosis of pancreatic acinar cell hyperplasia versus adenoma is based on the two-dimensional size of the lesion rather than distinct morphological differences; the basis for those criteria in light of their relevance to biological behavior; and the potential diagnostic variability between individual pathologists for difficult-to-classify lesions. A pathology peer review of male exocrine pancreatic tissues from the earlier study, conducted in 1981–1983 by Butenhoff et al., was undertaken. This review identified an increase in acinar cell hyperplasia but not adenoma or carcinoma in the earlier study. Both studies observed a proliferative response in the acinar pancreas which was more pronounced in the study by Biegel et al. Definitive reasons for the greater incidence of proliferative lesions in the later study were not identified, but some possible explanations are presented herein. The relevance of this finding to human risk assessment, in the face of differences in the biological behavior of human and rat pancreatic proliferative lesions and the proposed mechanism of formation of these lesions, are questionable.

  10. Allosuppressor- and allohelper-T cells in acute and chronic graft-vs. -host (GVH) disease. III. Different Lyt subsets of donor T cells induce different pathological syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolink, A.G.; Gleichmann, E.

    1983-08-01

    Previous work from this laboratory has led to the hypothesis that the stimulatory pathological symptoms of chronic graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) are caused by alloreactive donor T helper (TH) cells, whereas the suppressive pathological symptoms of acute GVHD are caused by alloreactive T suppressor (TS) cells of the donor. We analyzed the Lyt phenotypes of B10 donor T cells required for the induction of either acute or chronic GVHD in H-2-different (B10 X DBA/2)F1 recipients. When nonirradiated F1 mice were used as the recipients, we found unseparated B10 T cells induced only a moderate formation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like autoantibodies, but a high percentage of lethal GVHD (LGVHD). In contrast, Lyt-1+2- donor T cells were unable to induce LGVHD in these recipients but were capable of inducing a vigorous formation of SLE-like autoantibodies and severe immune-complex glomerulonephritis. Lyt-1-2+ T cells were incapable of inducing either acute or chronic GVHD. The sensitivity and accuracy of the GVH system were increased by using irradiated F1 mice as recipients and then comparing donor-cell inocula that contained similar numbers of T lymphocytes. Donor-cell inocula were used that had been tested for their allohelper and allosuppressor effects on F1 B cells in vitro. In the irradiated F1 recipients unseparated donor T cells were superior to T cell subsets in inducing LGVHD. In contrast Lyt-1+2- T cells, but neither unseparated T cells nor Lyt-1-2+ T cells, were capable of inducing a vigorous formation of SLE-like auto-antibodies. We conclude that the stimulatory pathological symptoms of chronic GVHD are caused by Lyt-1+2- allohelper T cells. In contrast, the development of the suppressive pathological symptoms of acute GVHD appears to involve alloreactive Lyt-1+2+ T suppressor cells.

  11. Clinical Pathologic Study on Effect of Qianggan Capsule (强肝胶囊)in Treating Patients of Chronic Hepatitis B With Liver Cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳明; 赵延龙; 吴志荣; 陈杜芳; 岑卓英; 徐克成; 左建生; 危北海; 张万岱

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical therapeutic effect of Qianggan Capsule (QGC) in treating chronic hepatitis B with liver fibrosis from the pathological aspect. Methods: Sixty-three patients of chronic hepatitis B with liver fibrosis were randomly divided into the treated group (n=45) and the control group (n=18). Both groups were treated with general liver protective drugs, such as Glucurone and vitamins B complex for 6 months. To the treated group, QGC was used additionally. The levels of serum alanine transaminase and liver fibrosis indexes including hyaluronic acid (HA), collagen type Ⅳ (C-Ⅳ) and laminin (LN) as well as the pathological examination of liver biopsy were observed before and after treatment. Results: The liver cirrhosis indexes, HA, C-Ⅳ and LN, were improved significantly in the treated group after treatment, P0.05. Pathological examination showed that the effective rate of treatment on liver inflammatory necrosis activity grade in the treated group was 57.8% and that on liver fibrosis stage was 75.6%, which were significantly improved as compared with those before treatment (P0.05). Conclusion: QGC has marked effects in reversing liver fibrosis and alleviating hepatic inflammatory necrosis in patients of chronic hepatitis B with liver fibrosis, and could lower the serum liver fibrosis related indexes effectively.

  12. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and variation in risk factors across four geographically diverse resource-limited settings in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganath, Devan; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Wise, Robert A; Diette, Gregory B; Miele, Catherine H; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Checkley, William

    2015-03-18

    It is unclear how geographic and social diversity affects the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to characterize the prevalence of COPD and identify risk factors across four settings in Peru with varying degrees of urbanization, altitude, and biomass fuel use. We collected sociodemographics, clinical history, and post-bronchodilator spirometry in a randomly selected, age-, sex- and site-stratified, population-based sample of 2,957 adults aged ≥35 years (median age was 54.8 years and 49.3% were men) from four resource-poor settings: Lima, Tumbes, urban and rural Puno. We defined COPD as a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC Peru was not uniform and, unlike other settings, was not predominantly explained by tobacco smoking. This study emphasizes the role of biomass fuel use, and highlights pulmonary tuberculosis as an often neglected risk factor in endemic areas.

  13. Interactions of pannexin 1 with NMDA and P2X7 receptors in central nervous system pathologies: Possible role on chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, D; Maturana, C J; Pelissier, T; Hernández, A; Constandil, L

    2015-11-01

    Pannexin 1 (Panx1) is a glycoprotein that acts as a membrane channel in a wide variety of tissues in mammals. In the central nervous system (CNS) Panx1 is expressed in neurons, astrocytes and microglia, participating in the pathophysiology of some CNS diseases, such as epilepsy, anoxic depolarization after stroke and neuroinflammation. In these conditions Panx1 acts as an important modulator of the neuroinflammatory response, by secreting ATP, by interacting with the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), and as an amplifier of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) currents, particularly in conditions of pathological neuronal hyperexcitability. Here, we briefly reviewed the current evidences that support the interaction of Panx1 with NMDAR and P2X7R in pathological contexts of the CNS, with special focus in recent data supporting that Panx1 is involved in chronic pain signaling by interacting with NMDAR in neurons and with P2X7R in glia. The participation of Panx1 in chronic pain constitutes a novel topic for research in the field of clinical neurosciences and a potential target for pharmacological interventions in chronic pain.

  14. Tubulointerstitial damage as the major pathological lesion in endemic chronic kidney disease among farmers in North Central Province of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Shanika; Komiya, Toshiyuki; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi; Senevirathna, S T M L D; Harada, Kouji H; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Gobe, Glenda; Muso, Eri; Abeysekera, Tilak; Koizumi, Akio

    2012-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) in North Central Province of Sri Lanka has become a key public health concern in the agricultural sector due to the dramatic rise in its prevalence and mortality among young farmers. Although cadmium has been suspected as a causative pathogen, there have been controversies. To date, the pathological characteristics of the disease have not been reported. Histopathological observations of 64 renal biopsies obtained at Anuradhapura General Hospital from October 2008 to July 2009 were scored according to Banff 97 Working Classification of Renal Allograft pathology. The correlations between the histological observations and clinical parameters were statistically analyzed. Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy with or without nonspecific interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration was the dominant histopathological observation. Glomerular sclerosis, glomerular collapse, and features of vascular pathology such as fibrous intimal thickening and arteriolar hyalinosis were also common. Although hypertension was identified as one of the common clinical features among the cases, it did not influence the histopathological lesions in all the cases. This study concludes that tubulointerstitial damage is the major pathological lesion in CKDu. Exposure(s) to an environmental pathogen(s) should be systematically investigated to elucidate such tubulointerstitial damage in CKDu.

  15. Upregulation of Oxidative Stress Related Genes in a Chronic Kidney Disease Attributed to Specific Geographical Locations of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanabavan Sayanthooran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To infer the influence of internal and external oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease patients of unknown etiology (CKDu in Sri Lanka, by analyzing expression of genes related directly or indirectly to oxidative stress: glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC, glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23, and NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3. Methods. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR was carried out for the selected populations: CKDu patients (n=43, chronic kidney disease patients (CKD; n=14, healthy individuals from a CKDu endemic area (GHI; n=9, and nonendemic area (KHI; n=16. Fold changes were quantified relative to KHI. Results. GCLC had greater than threefold upregulation in all three study groups, with a maximum of 7.27-fold upregulation in GHI (p=0.000. GSTM1 was not expressed in 25.6% of CKDu and 42.9% of CKD patients, but CKDu patients expressing GSTM1 showed upregulation of 2.60-fold (p<0.05. Upregulation of FGF23 and NLRP3 genes in CKD and CKDu was observed (p<0.01, with greater fold changes in CKD. Conclusion. Results suggest higher influence of external sources of oxidative stress in CKDu, possibly owing to environmental conditions.

  16. Upregulation of Oxidative Stress Related Genes in a Chronic Kidney Disease Attributed to Specific Geographical Locations of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayanthooran, Saravanabavan; Magana-Arachchi, Dhammika N; Gunerathne, Lishanthe; Abeysekera, Tilak D J; Sooriyapathirana, Suneth S

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To infer the influence of internal and external oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease patients of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka, by analyzing expression of genes related directly or indirectly to oxidative stress: glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), and NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3). Methods. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was carried out for the selected populations: CKDu patients (n = 43), chronic kidney disease patients (CKD; n = 14), healthy individuals from a CKDu endemic area (GHI; n = 9), and nonendemic area (KHI; n = 16). Fold changes were quantified relative to KHI. Results. GCLC had greater than threefold upregulation in all three study groups, with a maximum of 7.27-fold upregulation in GHI (p = 0.000). GSTM1 was not expressed in 25.6% of CKDu and 42.9% of CKD patients, but CKDu patients expressing GSTM1 showed upregulation of 2.60-fold (p CKDu was observed (p CKDu, possibly owing to environmental conditions.

  17. [The pneumoperitoneum course forecasting and surgery tactic in the group of patients with acute and chronic cholecystitis and concomitant pathology of cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkyĭ, V M; Soliaryk, S O; Tsyganok, A M; Sysak, O M

    2012-01-01

    The share of elderly and senile patients with acute cholecystitis concomitant cardiovascular pathology whom the laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been provided is increased. The heightened intraabdominal pressure has negative influence at the cardiovascular system, so the alternative ways for treatment of this group of patients are used in clinic. We propose the pneumoperitoneum model using the pneumatic belt which is fixed at the abdomen in preoperative period in patients with an acute and chronic cholecystitis. This model is useful to forecast cardiovascular disorders during future laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The arterial pressure level, pulse score and ECG are monitored during the test (90 min). Myocardial ischemia appearance seems that the risk of laparoscopic cholecystectomy with pneumoperitoneum is high. The alternative method of surgery in such group of patients (no pneumoperitoneum is applied) is laparoscopic assisted cholecystectomya from miniaccess. This method allows to reducing frequency of intra- and postoperative complications connected with pneumoperitoneum negative influence at the patients with concomitant pathology of cardiovascular system.

  18. Chronic Anatabine Treatment Reduces Alzheimer's Disease (AD)-Like Pathology and Improves Socio-Behavioral Deficits in a Transgenic Mouse Model of AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Megha; Beaulieu-Abdelahad, David; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Li, Rena; Crawford, Fiona; Mullan, Michael; Paris, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Anatabine is a minor tobacco alkaloid, which is also found in plants of the Solanaceae family and displays a chemical structure similarity with nicotine. We have shown previously that anatabine displays some anti-inflammatory properties and reduces microgliosis and tau phosphorylation in a pure mouse model of tauopathy. We therefore investigated the effects of a chronic oral treatment with anatabine in a transgenic mouse model (Tg PS1/APPswe) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) which displays pathological Aβ deposits, neuroinflammation and behavioral deficits. In the elevated plus maze, Tg PS1/APPswe mice exhibited hyperactivity and disinhibition compared to wild-type mice. Six and a half months of chronic oral anatabine treatment, suppressed hyperactivity and disinhibition in Tg PS1/APPswe mice compared to Tg PS1/APPswe receiving regular drinking water. Tg PS1/APPswe mice also elicited profound social interaction and social memory deficits, which were both alleviated by the anatabine treatment. We found that anatabine reduces the activation of STAT3 and NFκB in the vicinity of Aβ deposits in Tg PS1/APPswe mice resulting in a reduction of the expression of some of their target genes including Bace1, iNOS and Cox-2. In addition, a significant reduction in microgliosis and pathological deposition of Aβ was observed in the brain of Tg PS1/APPswe mice treated with anatabine. This is the first study to investigate the impact of chronic anatabine treatment on AD-like pathology and behavior in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Overall, our data show that anatabine reduces β-amyloidosis, neuroinflammation and alleviates some behavioral deficits in Tg PS1/APPswe, supporting further exploration of anatabine as a possible disease modifying agent for the treatment of AD.

  19. Chronic Anatabine Treatment Reduces Alzheimer's Disease (AD-Like Pathology and Improves Socio-Behavioral Deficits in a Transgenic Mouse Model of AD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Verma

    Full Text Available Anatabine is a minor tobacco alkaloid, which is also found in plants of the Solanaceae family and displays a chemical structure similarity with nicotine. We have shown previously that anatabine displays some anti-inflammatory properties and reduces microgliosis and tau phosphorylation in a pure mouse model of tauopathy. We therefore investigated the effects of a chronic oral treatment with anatabine in a transgenic mouse model (Tg PS1/APPswe of Alzheimer's disease (AD which displays pathological Aβ deposits, neuroinflammation and behavioral deficits. In the elevated plus maze, Tg PS1/APPswe mice exhibited hyperactivity and disinhibition compared to wild-type mice. Six and a half months of chronic oral anatabine treatment, suppressed hyperactivity and disinhibition in Tg PS1/APPswe mice compared to Tg PS1/APPswe receiving regular drinking water. Tg PS1/APPswe mice also elicited profound social interaction and social memory deficits, which were both alleviated by the anatabine treatment. We found that anatabine reduces the activation of STAT3 and NFκB in the vicinity of Aβ deposits in Tg PS1/APPswe mice resulting in a reduction of the expression of some of their target genes including Bace1, iNOS and Cox-2. In addition, a significant reduction in microgliosis and pathological deposition of Aβ was observed in the brain of Tg PS1/APPswe mice treated with anatabine. This is the first study to investigate the impact of chronic anatabine treatment on AD-like pathology and behavior in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Overall, our data show that anatabine reduces β-amyloidosis, neuroinflammation and alleviates some behavioral deficits in Tg PS1/APPswe, supporting further exploration of anatabine as a possible disease modifying agent for the treatment of AD.

  20. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  1. Ultrastructural characteristics of novel epithelial cell types identified in human pathologic liver specimens with chronic ductular reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    De Vos, R; Desmet, V

    1992-01-01

    Previous immunohistochemical studies on human liver biopsies with chronic ductular reaction revealed the presence of "small cells" with bile-duct type cytokeratin profile in the periportal area. This study identified similar cells by electron microscopy. The authors studied 13 human liver specimens with various liver diseases, but all characterized by chronic ductular reaction. In all specimens, variable numbers of "small cells" with common epithelial characteristics were identified in the pe...

  2. Post-transfusional vs. sporadic non-A, non-B chronic hepatitis. A clinico-pathological and evolutive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jové, J; Sánchez-Tapias, J M; Bruguera, M; Mas, A; Costa, J; Barrera, J M; Rodés, J

    1988-02-01

    The clinical, morphological and evolutive features of 60 patients with chronic hepatitis, presumably caused by non-A, non-B virus infection, have been retrospectively analyzed. In all the cases the disease began as an acute episode of viral hepatitis that was followed by persistently abnormal liver function tests. No patient had evidence of current or past hepatitis B virus infection and other known causes of chronic liver disease were excluded. Thirty patients had received blood transfusions in the recent past, five were drug addicts and the source of the infection was not identified in the remaining 25, in whom the disease was considered to be sporadic. Clinical or biochemical differences between patients with post-transfusional and sporadic non-A, non-B chronic hepatitis were not observed, but liver histology showed a higher proportion of patients with chronic persistent hepatitis in the sporadic (72%) than in the transfusional group (53%). On follow-up, sustained normalization of liver function tests was observed in 46% of the cases with sporadic hepatitis but only in 13% of the cases with post-transfusion hepatitis. These observations suggest that non-A, non-B chronic hepatitis is more severe in patients with transfusion-related infection than in sporadic cases.

  3. Neutralisation of interleukin-13 in mice prevents airway pathology caused by chronic exposure to house dust mite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L Tomlinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeated exposure to inhaled allergen can cause airway inflammation, remodeling and dysfunction that manifests as the symptoms of allergic asthma. We have investigated the role of the cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13 in the generation and persistence of airway cellular inflammation, bronchial remodeling and deterioration in airway function in a model of allergic asthma caused by chronic exposure to the aeroallergen House Dust Mite (HDM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were exposed to HDM via the intranasal route for 4 consecutive days per week for up to 8 consecutive weeks. Mice were treated either prophylactically or therapeutically with a potent neutralising anti-IL-13 monoclonal antibody (mAb administered subcutaneously (s.c.. Airway cellular inflammation was assessed by flow cytometry, peribronchial collagen deposition by histocytochemistry and airway hyperreactivity (AHR by invasive measurement of lung resistance (R(L and dynamic compliance (C(dyn. Both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with an anti-IL-13 mAb significantly inhibited (P<0.05 the generation and maintenance of chronic HDM-induced airway cellular inflammation, peribronchial collagen deposition, epithelial goblet cell upregulation. AHR to inhaled methacholine was reversed by prophylactic but not therapeutic treatment with anti-IL-13 mAb. Both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with anti-IL-13 mAb significantly reversed (P<0.05 the increase in baseline R(L and the decrease in baseline C(dyn caused by chronic exposure to inhaled HDM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that in a model of allergic lung disease driven by chronic exposure to a clinically relevant aeroallergen, IL-13 plays a significant role in the generation and persistence of airway inflammation, remodeling and dysfunction.

  4. [Predictive value of liver pathologic changes in determining the effectiveness of entecavir treatment for chronic hepatitis B-An analysis of 1 366 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M M; Zhang, W; Chen, G; An, Y; Wang, Y Q; Shang, Q H

    2017-04-18

    Objective: To analyze the relationship between baseline liver pathologic changes and the effectiveness of entecavir(ETV) and investigate the predictive value of baseline liver pathologic changes in determining the effectiveness of ETV, to provide reliable basis for precision medicine in patients with chronic hepatitis B(CHB). Methods: A total of 1 366 cases with CHB were retrospectively recruited who underwent liver biopsy between January 2006 to June 2016 and were treated with ETV over 96 weeks.The relationship between baseline liver pathologic changes and the antiviral responses to ETV at 48, 96 weeks were compared. Results: Liver pathology was employed to make the definite inflammation grade and the fibrosis stage.According to the liver inflammation and fibrosis, patients were divided into 4 groups(G1, G2, G3, G4 and S1, S2, S3, S4 respectively). The complete response rate of G1, G2, G3 and G4 after 48 weeks ETV treatment was 26.3%(10/38), 30.9%(121/391), 35.3%(101/286), 44.4%(52/117) respectively in HBeAg positive patients and was 61.5%(24/39), 80.4%(148/184), 82.4%(201/244), 88.1%(59/67) respectively in HBeAg negative patients.There was statistical difference in the complete response rates among liver inflammation grades both in HBeAg positive patients(χ(2)=8.510, P0.05; χ(2)=6.729, P>0.05). The differences were still not statistical significant after 96 weeks ETV treatment (P>0.05). But after further grouping, whether HBeAg was positive or not, as the degree of fibrosis stage was aggravating, the complete response rate of G2, G3 and G4 after 48 weeks ETV treatment decreased at the same degree of inflammation grade and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The differences were still statistical significant after 96 weeks ETV treatment (P<0.05). Conclusions: The responses to ETV treatment are closely related with baseline liver pathology.The CHB patients with higher score of inflammation and lower score of fibrosis will have a good response

  5. 3-Hydroxy kynurenine treatment controls T. cruzi replication and the inflammatory pathology preventing the clinical symptoms of chronic Chagas disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina P Knubel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 3-Hydroxy Kynurenine (3-HK administration during the acute phase of Trypanosoma. cruzi infection decreases the parasitemia of lethally infected mice and improves their survival. However, due to the fact that the treatment with 3-HK is unable to eradicate the parasite, together with the known proapoptotic and immunoregulatory properties of 3-HK and their downstream catabolites, it is possible that the 3-HK treatment is effective during the acute phase of the infection by controlling the parasite replication, but at the same time suppressed the protective T cell response before pathogen clearance worsening the chronic phase of the infection. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of 3-HK treatment on the development of chronic Chagas' disease. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we treated mice infected with T. cruzi with 3-HK at day five post infection during 5 consecutive days and investigated the effect of this treatment on the development of chronic Chagas disease. Cardiac functional (electrocardiogram and histopathological studies were done at 60 dpi. 3-HK treatment markedly reduced the incidence and the severity of the electrocardiogram alterations and the inflammatory infiltrates and fibrosis in heart and skeletal muscle. 3-HK treatment modulated the immune response at the acute phase of the infection impairing the Th1- and Th2-type specific response and inducing TGF-β-secreting cells promoting the emergence of regulatory T cells and long-term specific IFN-γ secreting cells. 3-HK in vitro induced regulatory phenotype in T cells from T. cruzi acutely infected mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the early 3-HK treatment was effective in reducing the cardiac lesions as well as altering the pattern of the immune response in experimental Chagas' disease. Thus, we propose 3-HK as a novel therapeutic treatment able to control both the parasite replication and the inflammatory response.

  6. Chronic suppurative otitis media, middle ear pathology and corresponding hearing loss in a cohort of Greenlandic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avnstorp, Magnus Balslev; Homøe, Preben; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Otitis media (OM) has been observed at elevated prevalence rates in Greenlandic children. OM associated hearing loss (HL) may compromise the children's linguistic skills, social development and educational achievements. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the prevalence of chronic suppurative...... otitis media (CSOM), otitis media with effusion (OME) and tympanic membrane sequelae of OM, and compared the corresponding hearing thresholds. METHODS: In 2010 we examined a cohort of 223 Greenlandic children aged 4-10 years by video otoscopy, tympanometry and tested hearing thresholds for the low...

  7. Clinical, pathological and renal ultrasound features of chronic glomerulonephritis, chronic tubulointerstitial%慢性肾小球肾炎、慢性肾小管间质肾病及高血压肾病的特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方静; 李文歌; 郑建勋

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨不同病因慢性肾衰竭患者的临床、病理及肾脏B超特点.方法 618例慢性肾衰竭患者根据肾活检病理分为3组:慢性肾小球肾炎组(CGN)、慢性肾小管间质肾病组(CTIN)和高血压肾损害组(BN),分别从临床资料、肾脏病理及肾脏B超3方面进行分析.结果 BN组肾性贫血最不明显,而CTIN组最重;CGN组的蛋白尿和血尿最多;CTIN组的尿α1-MG升高最显著,BN组禁水12h尿渗透压下降最明显:CTIN组可伴范可尼综合征和肾小管酸中毒.肾脏病理检查示:CTIN组肾小管间质病变最严重,CGN组最轻,CTIN组和BN组的肾小球以缺血硬化为主,而CGN组以增生硬化为主.肾脏B超示:CGN组肾脏均匀萎缩,表面较光滑,轮廓较清楚;CTIN组不均匀萎缩,肾缩小和肾外形改变最显著;BN组介于二者之间.结论 病因不同的慢性肾衰竭患者临床及肾脏B超各有特点,可以辅助疾病的诊断.%Objective To identify the profile of clinical features, pathological changes and renal ultrasonography presentations due to various causes of chronic renal failure. Methods 618 patients with chronic renal failure (glomerular filtration rate was 30~89 mi/min. 1.73m2) were divided into three groups: chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN), chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy (CTIN), and benign nephrosclerosis (BN). The clinical data, pathological data, and features of renal B ultrasound were analyzed. Results Renal failure associated anemia was mildest in the BN group, while the anemia was the worst in the CTIN group. Proteinuria and hematuria were the worst in the CGN group. Urinary αl-MG was markedly elevated in the CTIN group, while urine osmotic pressure of water deprivation for 12h was remarkably decreased in the BN group. Some patients had concurrent renal tubular acidosis and/or Fanconi syndrome in the CTIN group.The tubulointerstitial lesion was most serious in the CTIN group and the slightest in the CGN group. Ischemic and

  8. Clinical and pathological analysis of 2289 cases with chronic kidney disease%2289例慢性肾脏病临床及病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林利容; 杨聚荣; 张炜炜; 李开龙; 詹俊; 张建国

    2012-01-01

    目的 总结我院近3年来慢性肾脏病患者肾脏病理类型以及不同年龄段肾脏疾病的构成比,分析慢性肾脏病分期、临床分型与病理分型之间的关系.方法 收集2009年1月~2011年12月在我科行肾活检的慢性肾脏病患者2289例,对其性别、年龄、病理类型、临床分型、CKD分期等进行回顾性分析.结果 (1)2289例患者平均年龄(46.6±25.7)岁,男女比例1.22∶1;(2)原发性肾小球疾病占68.3%,IgA肾病最常见(占40.3%);继发性肾脏疾病占31.4%,狼疮性肾炎发病率最高(28.4%),其次是糖尿病肾病(19.7%);(3)年龄<18岁组患者以肾小球轻微病变最为多见(30.4%),年龄> 60岁的老年患者中以膜性肾病和糖尿病肾损害最常见;(4)慢性肾炎综合征是最常见的临床类型(37.9%).结论 慢性肾脏病好发于中青年,不同年龄段患者肾脏疾病的病理分型明显不同.原发性肾病中IgA肾病最常见,继发性肾脏疾病以狼疮性肾炎最多见.导致慢性肾功能不全最常见的病理类型为局灶节段性肾小球硬化、IgA肾病以及糖尿病肾病.最常见的临床类型为慢性肾炎综合征和肾病综合征.%Objective To summarize the renal pathological types of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Chongqing within the recent 3 years and to investigate the most common types in patients with different age period. In the mean time, to study the relationships among chronic kidney disease stage, clinical classification and pathological type. Methods Each of 2289 patients from Daping hospital between January 2009 and December 2011 received renal biopsy. Clinical data including sex,age,pathology type, clinical classification and CKD stage were retrospectively analysed. Results Of 2289 patients, the average age was 46. 6 ± 25.7 years old( range 2 ~ 83 ) and male to female ratio was 1.22:1. The proportion of primary glomerular diseases(PGD) was 68.3% ,and IgA nephropathy(IgAN) was the most common

  9. Ultrastructural characteristics of novel epithelial cell types identified in human pathologic liver specimens with chronic ductular reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, R; Desmet, V

    1992-06-01

    Previous immunohistochemical studies on human liver biopsies with chronic ductular reaction revealed the presence of "small cells" with bile-duct type cytokeratin profile in the periportal area. This study identified similar cells by electron microscopy. The authors studied 13 human liver specimens with various liver diseases, but all characterized by chronic ductular reaction. In all specimens, variable numbers of "small cells" with common epithelial characteristics were identified in the periportal area. They could be classified into three types. Type I cells showed an oval cell shape and oval nucleus, early or established formation of junctional complexes with adjacent cells, a full assortment of cytoplasmic organelles, and bundles of tonofilaments. Type II cells showed features of bile-duct cell differentiation, including lateral interdigitations, apical microvilli, basal pinocytotic vacuoles, and basement membrane formation. In contrast, type III cells displayed additional features indicating hepatocellular differentiation, such as a more prominent nucleus, formation of a hemicanaliculus, and glycogen rosettes. It is concluded that these small cells of epithelial nature display variable differentiation characteristics of either bile-duct type cells or hepatocytes. These findings support the existence of bipotential progenitor epithelial cells in human liver. They may have implications for liver regeneration and carcinogenesis.

  10. Geographic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cases, most often related to eating hot, spicy, salty or acidic foods Many people with geographic tongue ... sensitive oral tissues, including: Hot, spicy, acidic or salty foods Tobacco products Toothpaste that contains tartar-control ...

  11. The Effects of Taoren-Honghua Herb Pair on Pathological Microvessel and Angiogenesis-Associated Signaling Pathway in Mice Model of CCl4-Induced Chronic Liver Disease

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    Shengyan Xi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic liver disease is one of the most common diseases that threaten human health. Effective treatment is still lacking in western medicine. Semen Persicae (Taoren and Flos Carthami (Honghua are known to relieve acute hepatic injury and inflammation, improve microcirculation, and reduce tissue fiber. The aim of our study is to investigate the potential mechanisms of Taoren-Honghua Herb Pair (THHP in murine model of chronic liver disease caused by Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4. Mice were randomly divided into seven groups: (1 blank, (2 model, (3 control (colchicine, 0.1 mg/kg, (4 THHP (5.53, 2.67, and 1.33 g/kg, and (5 Tao Hong Siwu Decoction (THSWD (8.50 g/kg. Histological change and microvessels density were examined by microscopy. Hepatic function, serum fibrosis related factors, and hepatic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured with ELISA. VEGF, kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR, Flt-1, and Akt mRNA expression in hepatic tissue were determined with PCR. Tissues of Akt, pAkt, KDR, and Flt-1 were measured with western blotting. Data from this study showed that THHP improved hepatic function and restrained the hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Its role in inhibiting pathological angiogenesis and hepatic fibrogenesis may be through affecting the angiogenesis-associated VEGF and its upstream and downstream signaling pathways.

  12. The Effects of Taoren-Honghua Herb Pair on Pathological Microvessel and Angiogenesis-Associated Signaling Pathway in Mice Model of CCl4-Induced Chronic Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Shengyan; Yue, Lifeng; Shi, Mengmeng; Peng, Ying; Xu, Yangxinzi; Wang, Xinrong; Li, Qian; Kang, Zhijun; Li, Hanjing; Wang, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Chronic liver disease is one of the most common diseases that threaten human health. Effective treatment is still lacking in western medicine. Semen Persicae (Taoren) and Flos Carthami (Honghua) are known to relieve acute hepatic injury and inflammation, improve microcirculation, and reduce tissue fiber. The aim of our study is to investigate the potential mechanisms of Taoren-Honghua Herb Pair (THHP) in murine model of chronic liver disease caused by Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4). Mice were randomly divided into seven groups: (1) blank, (2) model, (3) control (colchicine, 0.1 mg/kg), (4) THHP (5.53, 2.67, and 1.33 g/kg), and (5) Tao Hong Siwu Decoction (THSWD) (8.50 g/kg). Histological change and microvessels density were examined by microscopy. Hepatic function, serum fibrosis related factors, and hepatic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured with ELISA. VEGF, kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR), Flt-1, and Akt mRNA expression in hepatic tissue were determined with PCR. Tissues of Akt, pAkt, KDR, and Flt-1 were measured with western blotting. Data from this study showed that THHP improved hepatic function and restrained the hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Its role in inhibiting pathological angiogenesis and hepatic fibrogenesis may be through affecting the angiogenesis-associated VEGF and its upstream and downstream signaling pathways.

  13. A lympho-follicular microenvironment is required for pathological prion protein deposition in chronically inflamed tissues from scrapie-affected sheep.

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    Caterina Maestrale

    Full Text Available In sheep scrapie, pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc deposition occurs in the lymphoreticular and central nervous systems. We investigated PrP(Sc distribution in scrapie-affected sheep showing simultaneous evidence of chronic lymphofollicular, lymphoproliferative/non-lymphofollicular, and/or granulomatous inflammations in their mammary gland, lung, and ileum. To do this, PrP(Sc detection was carried out via immunohistochemistry and Western Blotting techniques, as well as through inflammatory cell immunophenotyping. Expression studies of gene coding for biological factors modulating the host's inflammatory response were also carried out. We demonstrated that ectopic PrP(Sc deposition occurs exclusively in the context of lymphofollicular inflammatory sites, inside newly formed and well-organized lymphoid follicles harboring follicular dendritic cells. On the contrary, no PrP(Sc deposition was detected in granulomas, even when they were closely located to newly formed lymphoid follicles. A significantly more consistent expression of lymphotoxin α and β mRNA was detected in lymphofollicular inflammation compared to the other two types, with lymphotoxin α and β signaling new lymphoid follicles' formation and, likely, the occurrence of ectopic PrP(Sc deposition inside them. Our findings suggest that, in sheep co-affected by scrapie and chronic inflammatory conditions, only newly formed lymphoid follicles provide a suitable micro-environment that supports the scrapie agent's replication in inflammatory sites, with an increased risk of prion shedding through body secretions/excretions.

  14. A lympho-follicular microenvironment is required for pathological prion protein deposition in chronically inflamed tissues from scrapie-affected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrale, Caterina; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Cancedda, Maria Giovanna; Marruchella, Giuseppe; Masia, Mariangela; Sechi, Stefania; Macciocu, Simonetta; Santucciu, Cinzia; Petruzzi, Mara; Ligios, Ciriaco

    2013-01-01

    In sheep scrapie, pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition occurs in the lymphoreticular and central nervous systems. We investigated PrP(Sc) distribution in scrapie-affected sheep showing simultaneous evidence of chronic lymphofollicular, lymphoproliferative/non-lymphofollicular, and/or granulomatous inflammations in their mammary gland, lung, and ileum. To do this, PrP(Sc) detection was carried out via immunohistochemistry and Western Blotting techniques, as well as through inflammatory cell immunophenotyping. Expression studies of gene coding for biological factors modulating the host's inflammatory response were also carried out. We demonstrated that ectopic PrP(Sc) deposition occurs exclusively in the context of lymphofollicular inflammatory sites, inside newly formed and well-organized lymphoid follicles harboring follicular dendritic cells. On the contrary, no PrP(Sc) deposition was detected in granulomas, even when they were closely located to newly formed lymphoid follicles. A significantly more consistent expression of lymphotoxin α and β mRNA was detected in lymphofollicular inflammation compared to the other two types, with lymphotoxin α and β signaling new lymphoid follicles' formation and, likely, the occurrence of ectopic PrP(Sc) deposition inside them. Our findings suggest that, in sheep co-affected by scrapie and chronic inflammatory conditions, only newly formed lymphoid follicles provide a suitable micro-environment that supports the scrapie agent's replication in inflammatory sites, with an increased risk of prion shedding through body secretions/excretions.

  15. Update on the pathological processes, molecular biology, and clinical utility of N-acetylcysteine in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Tse HN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hoi Nam Tse, Cee Zhung Steven TsengMedical and Geriatric Department, Kwong Wah Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative RegionAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common and morbid disease characterized by high oxidative stress. Its pathogenesis is complex, and involves excessive oxidative stress (redox imbalance, protease/antiprotease imbalance, inflammation, apoptosis, and autoimmunity. Among these, oxidative stress has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of COPD by initiating and mediating various redox-sensitive signal transduction pathways and gene expression. The protective physiological mechanisms of the redox balance in the human body, their role in the pathogenesis of COPD, and the clinical correlation between oxidative stress and COPD are reviewed in this paper. N-acetylcysteine (NAC is a mucolytic agent with both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This paper also reviews the use of NAC in patients with COPD, especially the dose-dependent properties of NAC, eg, its effects on lung function and the exacerbation rate in patients with the disease. Earlier data from BRONCUS (the Bronchitis Randomized on NAC Cost-Utility Study did not suggest that NAC was beneficial in patients with COPD, only indicating that it reduced exacerbation in an "inhaled steroid-naïve" subgroup. With regard to the dose-dependent properties of NAC, two recent randomized controlled Chinese trials suggested that high-dose NAC (1,200 mg daily can reduce exacerbations in patients with COPD, especially in those with an earlier (moderately severe stage of disease, and also in those who are at high risk of exacerbations. However, there was no significant effect on symptoms or quality of life in patients receiving NAC. Further studies are warranted to investigate the effect of NAC at higher doses in non-Chinese patients with COPD.Keywords: N-acetylcysteine, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  16. HDAC6 contributes to pathological responses of heart and skeletal muscle to chronic angiotensin-II signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos-Davies, Kimberly M; Ferguson, Bradley S; Cavasin, Maria A; Mahaffey, Jennifer H; Williams, Sarah M; Spiltoir, Jessica I; Schuetze, Katherine B; Horn, Todd R; Chen, Bo; Ferrara, Claudia; Scellini, Beatrice; Piroddi, Nicoletta; Tesi, Chiara; Poggesi, Corrado; Jeong, Mark Y; McKinsey, Timothy A

    2014-07-15

    Little is known about the function of the cytoplasmic histone deacetylase HDAC6 in striated muscle. Here, we addressed the role of HDAC6 in cardiac and skeletal muscle remodeling induced by the peptide hormone angiotensin II (ANG II), which plays a central role in blood pressure control, heart failure, and associated skeletal muscle wasting. Comparable with wild-type (WT) mice, HDAC6 null mice developed cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in response to ANG II. However, whereas WT mice developed systolic dysfunction upon treatment with ANG II, cardiac function was maintained in HDAC6 null mice treated with ANG II for up to 8 wk. The cardioprotective effect of HDAC6 deletion was mimicked in WT mice treated with the small molecule HDAC6 inhibitor tubastatin A. HDAC6 null mice also exhibited improved left ventricular function in the setting of pressure overload mediated by transverse aortic constriction. HDAC6 inhibition appeared to preserve systolic function, in part, by enhancing cooperativity of myofibrillar force generation. Finally, we show that HDAC6 null mice are resistant to skeletal muscle wasting mediated by chronic ANG-II signaling. These findings define novel roles for HDAC6 in striated muscle and suggest potential for HDAC6-selective inhibitors for the treatment of cardiac dysfunction and muscle wasting in patients with heart failure. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Characteristics of pathological findings in women with chronic pelvic pain using conscious mini-laparoscopic pain mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hong-mei; ZHANG Na-wei; ZHANG Zhen-yu; LI Shu-hong; SHI Xiu-ting; LIU Chong-dong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a common and disabling disorder of women that may have a significant impact on a woman's personal health and quality of life.Data have shown an annual prevalence of 3.8% in women 15 to 73 years of age, making its prevalence comparable to that of asthma (3.7%), back pain (4.1%), and migraines (2.1%). CPP in women is described as "intermittent or constant pain in the lower abdomen or pelvis of at least six months duration, not occurring exclusively with menstruation or intercourse and not associated with pregnancy". In addition, the condition is considered as a symptom, not a diagnosis. CPP is estimated to account for 10% of all referrals to gynecologists, 12% of all hysterectomies, and more than 40% of gynecologic diagnostic laparoscopies. The etiology is complex and may involve disorders of the reproductive tract,gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, musculoskeletal system, and psychoneurological system. The diagnosis is often difficult, especially when nothing positive is found on physical examimation and imaging studies. The optimal management is usually difficult due to the unknown etiology.

  18. Sub-chronic inhalation of high concentrations of manganese sulfate induces lower airway pathology in rhesus monkeys

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    Wong Brian A

    2005-10-01

    associated with increased lung manganese concentrations and small airway inflammatory changes in the absence of observable clinical signs. Subchronic exposure to manganese sulfate at exposure concentrations (≤0.3 mg Mn/m3 similar to the current 8-hr occupational threshold limit value established for inhaled manganese was not associated with pulmonary pathology.

  19. Peculiarities of mental status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in different phases of the pathological process

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    Pertseva T.O.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has a significant impact on various aspects of life of patients due to of daily symptoms, frequent exacerbations, comorbid conditions, including anxiety and depression. In the scientific literature there are different data on the relationship between the frequency of occurrence and severity of exacerbations of COPD on the one hand and concomitant depression and increased anxiety on the other hand. The aim of our study – to examine frequency and se­verity of depression and anxiety in patients with COPD exacerbation and in stable phase of the disease in patients with varying terms of remission. We examined 108 patients with COPD, which were divided into two groups. The main group – 16 patients with COPD were examined in two visits: in exacerbation and after two months of its completion. A comparison group – 92 patients with COPD in stable phase of the disease for at least three months. Examination of pa­tients included general clinical methods, evaluation of clinical symptoms of COPD, evaluation of mental status using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. It was found that symptoms of depression and anxiety are more expressied in pa­tients with COPD exacerbation than in the stable phase. It was determined that the frequency of depression and anxiety in patients with COPD tends to decrease in two months after the exacerbation. It was also shown that mild depression and anxiety prevail in COPD patients with impaired mental state. In addition, there was found correlation between severity of dyspnea and depression severity in COPD patients with concomitant depression in the stable phase of the disease.

  20. The pharmacology of neurotrophic treatment with Cerebrolysin: brain protection and repair to counteract pathologies of acute and chronic neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masliah, E; Díez-Tejedor, E

    2012-04-01

    Neurotrophic factors are considered as part of the therapeutic strategy for neurological disorders like dementia, stroke and traumatic brain injury. Cerebrolysin is a neuropeptide preparation which mimics the action of endogenous neurotrophic factors on brain protection and repair. In dementia models, Cerebrolysin decreases β-amyloid deposition and microtubule-associated protein tau phosphorylation by regulating glycogen synthase kinase-3β and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activity, increases synaptic density and restores neuronal cytoarchitecture. These effects protect integrity of the neuronal circuits and thus result in improved cognitive and behavioral performance. Furthermore, Cerebrolysin enhances neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, the basis for neuronal replacement therapy in neurodegenerative diseases. Experimental studies in stroke animal models have shown that Cerebrolysin stabilizes the structural integrity of cells by inhibition of calpain and reduces the number of apoptotic cells after ischemic lesion. Cerebrolysin induces restorative processes, decreases infarct volume and edema formation and promotes functional recovery. Stroke-induced neurogenesis in the subventricular zone was also promoted by Cerebrolysin, thus supporting the brain's self-repair after stroke. Both, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury conditions stimulate the expression of natural neurotrophic factors to promote repair and regeneration processes -axonal regeneration, neuronal plasticity and neurogenesis- that is considered to be crucial for the future recovery. Neuroprotective effects of Cerebrolysin on experimentally induced traumatic spinal cord injury have shown that Cerebrolysin prevents apoptosis of lesioned motoneurons and promotes functional recovery. This section summarizes the most relevant data on the pharmacology of Cerebrolysin obtained from in vitro assays (biochemical and cell cultures) and in vivo animal models of acute and chronic neurological disorders.

  1. Chronic suppurative otitis media, middle ear pathology and corresponding hearing loss in a cohort of Greenlandic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avnstorp, Magnus Balslev; Homøe, Preben; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jensen, Ramon Gordon

    2016-04-01

    Otitis media (OM) has been observed at elevated prevalence rates in Greenlandic children. OM associated hearing loss (HL) may compromise the children's linguistic skills, social development and educational achievements. We investigated the prevalence of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), otitis media with effusion (OME) and tympanic membrane sequelae of OM, and compared the corresponding hearing thresholds. In 2010 we examined a cohort of 223 Greenlandic children aged 4-10 years by video otoscopy, tympanometry and tested hearing thresholds for the low-frequencies: 500, 1000 and 2000Hz and the high-frequencies: 4000 and 6000Hz. HL was categorized according to the worst hearing ear and was compared within the groups: CSOM, OME, tympanic membrane sequelae of OM and normal. Of 207 children, 5.8% had CSOM, 13.9% had OME and 55.6% had tympanic membrane sequelae of OM. The median pure tone average in low-frequencies/high-frequencies were: CSOM: 34.2/31.3dB, OME: 23.3/22.5dB, Sequelae of OM: 13.3/15dB and normal ears: 11.7/12.5dB. We found a significant difference (p15dB in any frequency was found, while 6.5% suffered from a bilateral low-frequency HL>25dB. The severity of OM significantly corresponded to increased HL. The burden of CSOM and HL remains high in young Greenlandic children. Aggressive treatment with antibiotics, improved hearing rehabilitation, sound field amplification in classrooms and otosurgical capacity should be further promoted in Greenland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An unusual pathological finding of chronic lymphocitic leukemia and adenocarcinoma of the prostate after transurethral resection for complete urinary retention: case report

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    Ruggera Lorenzo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe a patient who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate for urinary obstructive symptoms and had histological findings of adenocarcinoma of the prostate with prostatic localization of chronic lymphocitic leukemia (CLL.The contemporary presence of CLL, adenocarcinoma of the prostate and residual prostatic gland after transurethral resection has never been reported before and the authors illustrate how they managed this unusual patient. Case presentation A 79-years-old white man, presented with acute urinary retention, had a peripheral blood count with an elevated lymphocytosis (21.250/mL with a differential of 65.3% lymphocytes and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA value was 3.38 ng/mL with a percent free PSA of 8.28%. The transrectal ultrasound (TRUS indicated an isoechonic and homogenic enlarged prostate of 42 cm3 and the abdomen ultrasound found a modest splenomegaly and no peripheral lymphadenophaty. The patient underwent transurethral resection of the prostate and had a pathological finding of adenocarcinoma in the prostate with a Gleason Score 4 (2+2 of less than 5% of the material (clinical stage T1a, associated with a diffused infiltration of chronic lymphocitic leukemia elements. Conclusions The incidental finding of a prostatic localization of a low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma does not modify eventually further treatments for neither prostate cancer nor lymphoma. The presence of a low-grade and low-stage lymphoma, confirmed by a hematological evaluation, and the simultaneous evidence of an adenocarcinoma after transurethral resection of the prostate for acute urinary retention do not require any immediate treatment due to its long-term survival rate and the follow-up remains based on periodical PSA evaluation and complete blood count.

  3. Selected case from the Arkadi M. Rywlin International Pathology Slide Series: Mitochondrial myopathy presenting with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisceglia, Michele; Crociani, Paola; Fogli, Danilo; Centola, Antonio; Galliani, Carlos A; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea

    2014-11-01

    A 43-year-old female patient diagnosed with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) because of mitochondrial myopathy documented by muscle biopsy is presented. The chief complaints were represented by blepharoptosis and ophthalmoplegia. The muscle biopsy was evaluated by histology, using the appropriate histochemical and histoenzimological stains. Ragged red fibers with Gomori trichrome stain were seen, which showed cytochrome c oxydase deficiency and abnormal succinate dehydrogenase staining in around 20% of muscle fibres. Electron microscopy was also performed which demonstrated abnormal, hyperplastic, pleomorphic, and hypertrophic mitochondria, characterized by paracrystalline inclusions arranged in parallel rows ("parking-lot" inclusions), consisting of rectangular arrays of mitochondrial membranes in a linear or grid-like pattern. In conclusion, mitochondrial myopathy was definitely diagnosed. Although molecular analysis, which was subsequently carried out, failed to reveal mutations in the mitochondrial DNA or in selected nuclear genes, the pathologic diagnosis was not changed. The differential diagnosis of CPEO with other forms of ocular myopathies as well as the possible association of CPEO with systemic syndromes is discussed. Ophtalmologists and medical internists should always suspect CPEO when dealing with patients affected by ocular myopathy, either in its pure form or in association with other myopathic or systemic signs.

  4. Measurement of the hepatitis B core-related antigen is valuable for predicting the pathological status of liver tissues in chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan-Qing; Lu, Wei; Wang, Yan-Bing; Weng, Qi-Cheng; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Feng, Yan-Ling

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the validities of serum hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) for predicting the pathological status of liver tissues of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). A total of 205 Chinese patients with CHB, including 121 HBeAg-positive and 84 HBeAg-negative patients, were enrolled in this study. In HBeAg-positive patients, AUCs of serum HBcrAg for predicting severe necro-inflammation and advanced fibrosis were greater than 0.70; using serum HBcrAgHBcrAg for predicting significant necro-inflammation and significant fibrosis were greater than 0.70; using serum HBcrAg>=1.70×10(2)kUmL(-1) and >=4.02kUmL(-1) as cutoffs, the sensitivities, specificities, accuracies for predicting significant necro-inflammation and significant fibrosis were 0.929, 0.964, 0.952 and 1.000, 1.000, 1.000, respectively. These results indicated favorable performances of serum HBcrAg for predicting severe necro-inflammation and advanced fibrosis in HBeAg-positive patients and significant necro-inflammation and significant fibrosis in negative patients.

  5. Geographical Tatoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cazetta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with maps tattooed on bodies. My interest in studying the corporeality is inserted in a broader project entitled Geographies and (in Bodies. There is several published research on tattoos, but none in particular about tattooed maps. However some of these works interested me because they present important discussions in contemporary about body modification that helped me locate the body modifications most within the culture than on the nature. At this time, I looked at pictures of geographical tattoos available in several sites of the internet.

  6. Contributions of societal and geographical environments to "chronic Lyme disease": the psychopathogenesis and aporology of a new "medically unexplained symptoms" syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, Leonard H; Hassett, Afton L

    2002-08-01

    Lyme disease is a relatively well-described infectious disease with multisystem manifestations. Because of confusion over conflicting reports, anxiety related to vulnerability to disease, and sensationalized and inaccurate lay media coverage, a new syndrome, "chronic Lyme disease," has become established. Chronic Lyme disease is the most recent in a continuing series of "medically unexplained symptoms" syndromes. These syndromes, such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and multiple chemical sensitivity, meet the need for a societally and morally acceptable explanation for ill-defined symptoms in the absence of objective physical and laboratory findings. We describe factors involved in the psychopathogenesis of chronic Lyme disease and focus on the confusion and insecurity these patients feel, which gives rise to an inability to adequately formulate and articulate their health concerns and to deal adequately with their medical needs, a state of disorganization termed aporia.

  7. Awareness and management of chronic disease, insurance status, and health professional shortage areas in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS: a cross-sectional study

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    Durant Raegan W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited financial and geographic access to primary care can adversely influence chronic disease outcomes. We examined variation in awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia according to both geographic and financial access to care. Methods We analyzed data on 17,458 participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS study with either hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or diabetes and living in either complete Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA counties or non-HPSA counties in the U.S. All analyses were stratified by insurance status and adjusted for sociodemographics and health behaviors. Results 2,261 residents lived in HPSA counties and 15,197 in non-HPSA counties. Among the uninsured, HPSA residents had higher awareness of both hypertension (adjusted OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.08, 4.89 and hyperlipidemia (adjusted OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.01, 2.22 compared to non-HPSA residents. Also among the uninsured, HPSA residents with hypertension had lower blood pressure control (adjusted OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.29, 0.71 compared with non-HPSA residents. Similar differences in awareness and control according to HPSA residence were absent among the insured. Conclusions Despite similar or higher awareness of some chronic diseases, uninsured HPSA residents may achieve control of hypertension at lower rates compared to uninsured non-HPSA residents. Federal allocations in HPSAs should target improved quality of care as well as increasing the number of available physicians.

  8. Osler's pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, S A

    2000-12-01

    Sir William Osler, one of the giants of clinical medicine, had his initial training as a pathologist. He was one of the physicians responsible for the impact that autopsies have had on medicine. He also contributed to the development of laboratory medicine. Osler made significant discoveries in anatomic pathology and hematology. His expertise was restricted not just to human pathology, but also to veterinary pathology. His mentors played a fundamental role in his achievements in academics.

  9. [Pathological jealousy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, A

    2004-10-28

    Pathological jealousy can make life unbearable for all concerned. The proximity of this condition to obsessive-compulsive phenomena has given rise to the notion that it might respond to substances of proven value in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders. This case history exemplifies the successful treatment of pathological jealousy with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine. The substance not only proved to be a successful antidepressant, but also effectively mitigated the anguish of the patient's pathological jealousy. On the basis of these findings, fluoxetine--as also other SSRIs--should always be considered as a possible effective pharmacological strategy for the treatment of pathological jealousy.

  10. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a physiotherapy program for chronic rotator cuff pathology: A protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Anthony

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic rotator cuff pathology (CRCP is a common shoulder condition causing pain and disability. Physiotherapy is often the first line of management for CRCP yet there is little conclusive evidence to support or refute its effectiveness and no formal evaluation of its cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will involve 200 participants with CRCP recruited from medical practices, outpatient departments and the community via print and radio media. Participants will be randomly allocated to a physiotherapy or placebo group using concealed allocation stratified by treating physiotherapist. Both groups will receive 10 sessions of individual standardised treatment over 10 weeks from one of 10 project physiotherapists. For the following 12 weeks, the physiotherapy group will continue a home exercise program and the placebo group will receive no treatment. The physiotherapy program will comprise shoulder joint and spinal mobilisation, soft tissue massage, postural taping, and home exercises for scapular control, posture and rotator cuff strengthening. The placebo group will receive inactive ultrasound and gentle application of an inert gel over the shoulder region. Blinded assessment will be conducted at baseline and at 10 weeks and 22 weeks after randomisation. The primary outcome measures are self reported questionnaires including the shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI, average pain on an 11-point numeric rating scale and participant perceived global rating of change. Secondary measures include Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form (SF-36, Assessment of Quality of Life index, numeric rating scales for shoulder pain and stiffness, participant perceived rating of change for pain, strength and stiffness, and manual muscle testing for shoulder strength using a handheld dynamometer. To evaluate cost-effectiveness, participants will record the use of all health

  11. Alterations of Hair and Nail Content of Selected Trace Elements in Nonoccupationally Exposed Patients with Chronic Depression from Different Geographical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Błażewicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine if altered levels of selected trace elements manifest themselves during chronic depression. To identify elements strongly associated with chronic depression, relationships between the elemental contents of hair and nails and the interelement correlations were checked. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ion chromatography were used to evaluate the contents of Zn, Cu, Co, Pb, Mn, and Fe in hair and nail samples from a total of 415 subjects (295 patients and 120 healthy volunteers. The study included logistic regression models to predict the probability of chronic depression. To investigate possible intercorrelations among the studied elements, the scaled principal component analysis was used. The research has revealed differences in TE levels in the group of depressed men and women in comparison to the healthy subjects. Statistically significant differences in both hair and nails contents of several elements were observed. Our study also provides strong evidence that the intermediary metabolism of certain elements is age- and gender-dependent. Zn, Mn, Pb, and Fe contents in hair/nails seem to be strongly associated with chronic depression. We found no statistically significant residence-related differences in the contents of studied elements in nonoccupationally exposed patients and healthy subjects.

  12. 慢性宫颈炎行电圈切除术后的病理分析%Pathological Analysis of Chronic Cervicitis Treated with Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江卫红; 贺晓红; 赵勤

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the significance of pathological examination for chronic cervicitis patients that have normal TCT result and LEEP treatment.Methods:350 Chronic cervicitis case who had normal TCT results and clinical symptoms were voluntary treated with LEEP,then specimens sent for pathological examination.Results:The care rate of LEEP treatment for chronic cervicitis was about 92.31%~100%;The pathological examination results show that 20% of chronic cervititis case wer CIN,particularly 12% were severe CIN.Conclusion:TCT is a better method of screening cervical precancerous lesion,but there is still some false negative rate;HR-HPV detection combined with TCT has become the best solution to cervical cancer screening;LEEP in the treatment of chronic cervicitis one hand to achieved a good therapeutic effect,on the hand to avoided severe CIN;Ablation for simplex cervicitis therapeutic effect,but no pathological specimens,should be combined preoperative TCT and HR-HPV testing.%目的:探讨超薄液基细胞学检测(thinprep cytological test,TCT)结果正常的慢性宫颈炎患者行电圈切除术(1oop electrosurgical excision procedure,LEEP)病理送检的意义.方法:临床工作中经TCT检测结果正常的慢性宫颈炎、有临床症状且自愿行LEEP治疗患者350例,LEEP术后予送病理检查.结果:LEEP治疗慢性宫颈炎的治愈率在92.31%~100%;慢性宫颈炎的病例中有近20%为宫颈上皮内变(cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,CIN),尤其12%为重度CIN.结论:TCT为较好的宫颈癌前病变筛查的方法,但仍有一定的假阴性率;高危型人乳头瘤病毒(HR-HP V)检测联合TCT检查已成为子宫颈癌筛查的最佳方案;慢性宫颈炎LEEP术治疗一方面达到了良好的治疗效果,另一方面避免了重度上皮内瘤变的漏诊;单纯型宫颈炎行消融术达到很好疗效,但因无病理标本,术前宜联合TCT检测及HR-HPV检测.

  13. The duplex-Doppler colour echography of the scrotum and testicles in adults and boys. III. Assessment of chronic scrotal pathology; Ecografia duplex-Doppler color del escroto y el testiculo en el adulto y el nino. III. Valoracion de la patologia escrotal cronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel-Villalobos, E.; Benjumeda, A.; Jimenez-Castellanos, R.; Linares, A.; Blanco, A [Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena. Sevilla (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    To show the most outstanding findings from the chronic scrotal pathology of adults and boys, determining the benefits of the Doppler echography in the diagnostical valuation of the different cases analysed. 40 patients (19 adults and 21 boys) with chronic scrotal symptomatology were examined using a B mode echography followed by a colour duplex-Doppler (CDD) echography with a lineal 7.5 MHz transducer. We compared the findings obtained with those corresponding to the contralateral testicle and, depending on the pathology, we co-related them with surgery, pathologic anatomy or clinical-echograph evolution. The pathology found was very varied, it was distributed into: varicoceles (12), testicle tumours (9), extra-testicle tumours (4) and miscellaneous pathology (13). Two patients showed no changes, currently remaining asymptomatic. The treatment was surgical in 28 (70%) of the patients and traditional in the others. The B mode echography played a fundamental role in the diagnosis of chronic scrotal pathology, which in the majority of the cases was definitive, being completed with the application of the Doppler echograph to analyse the vascular condition of the lesions and the anatomical structures. The diagnosis utility of the CDD echograph in chronic scrotal pathology is controversial, it is not specific for testicle tumors, it is very useful for variocele and complementary, tp the B mode echograph for miscellaneous pathology. (Author) 31 refs.

  14. Oral pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  15. Pathology Milestones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stacey Klutts MD, PhD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available All Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredited pathology residency training programs are now required to evaluate residents using the new Pathology Milestones assessment tool. Similar to implementation of the 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies a decade ago, there have been challenges in implementation of the new milestones for many residency programs. The pathology department at the University of Iowa has implemented a process that divides the labor of the task in rating residents while also maintaining consistency in the process. The process is described in detail, and some initial trends in milestone evaluation are described and discussed. Our experience indicates that thoughtful implementation of the Pathology Milestones can provide programs with valuable information that can inform curricular changes.

  16. [The cognitive disorders and raised free-radical activity of a brain of posterity of rats-females with experimental chronic alcoholic pathology of a liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhnin, V A; Brukhin, G V

    2014-01-01

    It is established, that chronic alcoholic defeat of hepatobiliarity sistems leads to infringement of cognitive functions at posterity. At the given group of animals revealed distress of memory and ability to orientation in space in the conditions of Morris water maze is, the research behavior is oppressed. Besides, the animals, born from mothers with chronic alcoholic defeat of hepatobiliarity systems have raised free-radical activity, which plays an important role in maintenance of adaptive possibilities of a brain.

  17. Digital pathology

    CERN Document Server

    Sucaet, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Digital pathology has experienced exponential growth, in terms of its technology and applications, since its inception just over a decade ago. Though it has yet to be approved for primary diagnostics, its values as a teaching tool, facilitator of second opinions and quality assurance reviews and research are becoming, if not already, undeniable. It also offers the hope of providing pathology consultant and educational services to under-served areas, including regions of the world that could not possibly sustain this level of services otherwise. And this is just the beginning, as its adoption b

  18. Inguinoscrotal pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Luis; Leonard, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Infants, children, and adolescents with inguinoscrotal pathology comprise a significant proportion of emergency department and outpatient visits. Visits to the emergency department primarily comprise individuals presenting with scrotal pain due to testicular torsion or torsion of the testicular appendages. At such time, immediate urological consultation is sought. Outpatient visits comprise those individuals with undescended testes, hydroceles, and varicoceles. Rare, but important problems, such as pediatric testicular tumours, may also present in the office setting. Many of these outpatient visits are to primary care physicians, who should have an appreciation of the timing and need for referral. The purpose of this review is to familiarize the general urologist and primary care physician with these varied pathologies and give insight into their assessment and management. Some of these same conditions are seen in adult patients, but there are some significant differences in their management in the pediatric group. In addition, the utility of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, are discussed within each pathological entity. It is hoped that this overview will assist our general urology and primary care colleagues in patient management for diverse inguinoscrotal pathologies. PMID:28265317

  19. 幽门螺杆菌和慢性胃炎胃黏膜病理变化的关系研究%Study on the relationship between the pathologic change of chronic atrophic gastritis and helicobacer pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慕然; 刘艳迪; 唐涛; 李文

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨幽门螺旋杆菌(H.pylori)感染与慢性胃炎胃黏膜病理变化间的关系。方法收集2011年11月—2013年3月天津市人民医院门诊和住院慢性胃炎患者共250例,全部患者行胃镜、病理和14C呼气试验检查,其中慢性萎缩性胃炎(CAG)组153例,非CAG组97例,比较2组的H.pylori阳性率,同时比较不同部位(胃窦、胃窦胃体)CAG患者的H.pylori阳性率。比较不同病理特征下慢性胃炎活动性、炎症程度、萎缩程度、肠化分级的H.pylori阳性率。结果 CAG组的H.pylori阳性率高于非CAG组(70.6%vs 35%,χ2=30.552),CAG组中胃窦胃体均萎缩患者的H.pylori阳性率高于仅胃窦萎缩患者(82.6%vs 65.4%,χ2=4.578),随着慢性胃炎活动性、炎症程度、萎缩程度、肠化分级的加重,其H.pylori阳性率增高(χ2分别为200.643、206.715、73.286、218.432)。结论 H.pylori感染与慢性胃炎、慢性萎缩性胃炎关系密切,尤其与胃窦胃体均萎缩的萎缩性胃炎关系更为密切。%Objective To investigate the correlation between helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection with gastric muco⁃sa pathologic changes in chronic gastritis. Methods A total of 250 patients with chronic gastritis who came to Tianjin Union Medicine Center from November 2011 to March 2013 were collected in this study. Electronic gastroscope examina⁃tions, pathology and Urea-14C breath tests were performed in patients. There were 153 cases with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG group), and 97 cases without chronic atrophic gastritis (non-CAG group). The positive rate of H.pylori was compared between two groups. At the same time the positive rate of H.pylori was compared between different parts of CAG patients. The positive rates of H.pylori were compared between different pathologic features of chronic gastritis (active degree, the de⁃gree of inflammation, atrophy and intestinal classification). Results The positive

  20. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1970-1992: The JANUS Program Survival and Pathology Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahn, D.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.; Williamson, F.S.; Fox, C.

    1995-02-01

    A research reactor for exclusive use in experimental radiobiology was designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory in the 1960`s. It was located in a special addition to Building 202, which housed the Division of Biological and Medical Research. Its location assured easy access for all users to the animal facilities, and it was also near the existing gamma-irradiation facilities. The water-cooled, heterogeneous 200-kW(th) reactor, named JANUS, became the focal point for a range of radiobiological studies gathered under the rubic of {open_quotes}the JANUS program{close_quotes}. The program ran from about 1969 to 1992 and included research at all levels of biological organization, from subcellular to organism. More than a dozen moderate- to large-scale studies with the B6CF{sub 1} mouse were carried out; these focused on the late effects of whole-body exposure to gamma rays or fission neutrons, in matching exposure regimes. In broad terms, these studies collected data on survival and on the pathology observed at death. A deliberate effort was made to establish the cause of death. This archieve describes these late-effects studies and their general findings. The database includes exposure parameters, time of death, and the gross pathology and histopathology in codified form. A series of appendices describes all pathology procedures and codes, treatment or irradiation codes, and the manner in which the data can be accessed in the ORACLE database management system. A series of tables also presents summaries of the individual experiments in terms of radiation quality, sample sizes at entry, mean survival times by sex, and number of gross pathology and histopathology records.

  1. Geographical networks: geographical effects on network properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong-qing YANG; Lei YANG; Bai-hua GONG; Zhong-cai LIN; Hong-sheng HE; Liang HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Complex networks describe a wide range of sys-tems in nature and society. Since most real systems exist in certain physical space and the distance between the nodes has influence on the connections, it is helpful to study geographi-cal complex networks and to investigate how the geographical constrains on the connections affect the network properties. In this paper, we briefly review our recent progress on geo-graphical complex networks with respect of statistics, mod-elling, robustness, and synchronizability. It has been shown that the geographical constrains tend to make the network less robust and less synchronizable. Synchronization on random networks and clustered networks is also studied.

  2. Activation of microglia and pathological changes in chronically hypoperfused brain of rats%大鼠慢性脑灌注不足脑内小胶质细胞活化和脑的病理改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李露斯; 刘之荣

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the pattern of activities of microglia, the patholgical changes of chronically hypoperfused brain of rats and the interrelationship between them. Methods Model of chronically hypoperfused brain was established in rat by the ligation of both common carotid arteries, and the histopathological changes of brain were observed with light microscope. The activity of microglia of the brain were also observed with immunohistochemistry method and the number of microglia was measured with image analyzer. Results Extensive activation of microglia was observed after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and the activation was increased with the elapse of time of hypoperfusion. There were obvious pathological change in the brain after the chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, such as myelinic degeneration and formation of glial nodule in white matter. After treated with cyclosporin A, the number of microglia was obviously reduced, but the pathological change was evidently decreased. Conclusion The activation of microglia resulted from chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is relates to the pathological changes of the brain. However, cyclosporin A can decrease the pathological change and inhibit the activation of microglia.%目的 探讨慢性脑灌注不足脑内小胶质细胞活化规律与脑病理改变的关系。方法 利用大鼠双侧颈总动脉持久性结扎所致慢性脑灌注不足的动物模型,用OX18抗MHC Ⅰ类抗原和OX6抗MHC Ⅱ类抗原的免疫组化染色,观察不同脑区小胶质细胞变化规律;用光镜观察脑的病理改变。结果 慢性脑灌注不足可引起脑内小胶质细胞的活化,随着缺血时间的延长,小胶质细胞在皮层和白质的活化有所增加;缺血后脑的病理改变以神经细胞变性、固缩和退变,皮层下白质的神经纤维和髓鞘溃变为主,普遍存在胶质细胞增生,形成胶质小结。经环孢素A治疗后以上变化明显减轻。结论 慢性脑

  3. The duration of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection and associated chronic pathological changes are reduced in IL-17 knockout mice but protection is not increased further by immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Dean W; Cochrane, Melanie; Schripsema, Justin H; Ramsey, Kyle H; Dando, Samantha J; O'Meara, Connor P; Timms, Peter; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i) the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii) the development of oviduct pathology and (iii) the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT) BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/-) to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarumMajor Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFNγ production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated, however

  4. The duration of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection and associated chronic pathological changes are reduced in IL-17 knockout mice but protection is not increased further by immunization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean W Andrew

    Full Text Available IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii the development of oviduct pathology and (iii the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/- to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarumMajor Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFNγ production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated

  5. Oxidant Status and Lipid Composition of Erythrocyte Membranes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes, Chronic Liver Damage, and a Combination of Both Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Hernández-Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an important set of cirrhotic and diabetic patients that present both diseases. However, information about metabolic and cellular blood markers that are altered, in conjunction or distinctively, in the 3 pathological conditions is scarce. The aim of this project was to evaluate several indicators of prooxidant reactions and the membrane composition of blood samples (serum and red blood cells (RBCs from patients clinically classified as diabetic (n=60, cirrhotic (n=70, and diabetic with liver cirrhosis (n=25 as compared to samples from a similar population of healthy individuals (n=60. The results showed that levels of TBARS, nitrites, cysteine, and conjugated dienes in the RBC of cirrhotic patients were significantly increased. However, the coincidence of diabetes and cirrhosis partially reduced the alterations promoted by the cirrhotic condition. The amount of total phospholipids and cholesterol was greatly enhanced in the patients with both pathologies (between 60 and 200% according to the type of phospholipid but not in the patients with only one disease. Overall, the data indicate that the cooccurrence of diabetes and cirrhosis elicits a physiopathological equilibrium that is different from the alterations typical of each individual malady.

  6. Chronic administration of a leupeptin-derived calpain inhibitor fails to ameliorate severe muscle pathology in a canine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K Childers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calpains likely play a role in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Accordingly, calpain inhibition may provide therapeutic benefit to DMD patients. In the present study, we sought to measure benefit from administration of a novel calpain inhibitor, C101, in a canine muscular dystrophy model. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that treatment with C101 mitigates progressive weakness and severe muscle pathology observed in young dogs with golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD. Young (6 week-old GRMD dogs were treated daily with either C101 (17mg/kg twice daily oral dose, n=9 or placebo (vehicle only, n=7 for 8 weeks. A battery of functional tests, including tibiotarsal joint angle, muscle/fat composition, and pelvic limb muscle strength were performed at baseline and every two weeks during the 8-week study. Results indicate that C101-treated GRMD dogs maintained strength in their cranial pelvic limb muscles (tibiotarsal flexors while placebo-treated dogs progressively lost strength. However, concomitant improvement was not observed in posterior pelvic limb muscles (tibiotarsal extensors. C101 treatment did not mitigate force drop following repeated eccentric contractions and no improvement was seen in the development of joint contractures, lean muscle mass or muscle histopathology. Taken together, these data do not support the hypothesis that treatment with C101 mitigates progressive weakness or ameliorates severe muscle pathology observed in young dogs with GRMD.

  7. Assessment of serum biochemical parameters and pathological changes in broilers with chronic aflatoxicosis fed glucomannan-containing yeast product (Mycosorb and sodium bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizpour Aidin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of yeast glucomannan (YG and sodium bentonite (SB in reducing the toxicity in broilers fed a diet naturally contaminated with aflatoxin. Three hundred 7-day-old Ross 308 strain broilers were chosen and randomly assigned to 10 dietary treatments. Serum biochemical parameters and pathological changes in the liver were investigated at 42 d of age. Chickens fed a diet containing 250 ppb of aflatoxin displayed a decrease in uric acid, cholesterol, and triglycerides, and an increase in serum activities of AST and ALT when compared to control group. There were considerable gross and histopathological hepatic lesions (P < 0.05 in the form of small to moderate hydropic and/or fatty degeneration, bile duct hyperplasia, periportal fibrosis, cells infiltration, and congestion, in chickens fed the 250 ppb aflatoxincontaining diet. The addition of YG and SB to the aflatoxin-containing diet partially reduced the negative effects of aflatoxin. The 0.1% YG supplementation to the aflatoxin-contaminated diet significantly prevented the pathological effect of aflatoxin on serum biochemical parameters and liver, and was found to be more effective than other treatments.

  8. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  9. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma-associated Proteobacteria, but not commensal Prevotella spp., promote Toll-like receptor 2-independent lung inflammation and pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Musavian, Hanieh Sadat; Butt, Tariq Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of healthy human airways have revealed colonization by a distinct commensal bacterial microbiota containing Gram-negative Prevotella spp. However, the immunological properties of these bacteria in the respiratory system remain unknown. Here we compare the innate respiratory immune......-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-independent COPD-like inflammation characterized by predominant airway neutrophilia, expression of a neutrophilic cytokine/chemokine profile in lung tissue, and lung immunopathology. In comparison, P.nanceiensis induced a diminished neutrophilic airway inflammation and no detectable lung...... pathology. Interestingly, the inflammatory airway response to the Gram-negative bacteria P.nanceiensis was completely TLR2-dependent. These findings demonstrate weak inflammatory properties of Gram-negative airway commensal Prevotella spp. that may make colonization by these bacteria tolerable...

  11. [Paradigm shifts in aortic pathology: clinical and therapeutic implications. Clinical imaging in chronic and acute aortic syndromes. The aorta as a cause of cardiac disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistri, Stefano; Roghi, Alberto; Mele, Donato; Biagini, Elena; Chiodi, Elisabetta; Colombo, Ettore; d'Amati, Giulia; Leone, Ornella; Angelini, Annalisa; Basso, Cristina; Pepe, Guglielmina; Rapezzi, Claudio; Thiene, Gaetano

    2014-06-01

    Multimodal imaging plays a pivotal role in the assessment of the thoracic aorta, both in chronic and acute settings. Moving from improved knowledge on the structure and function of the aortic wall, as well as on its pathophysiology and histopathology, appropriate utilization of each imaging modality results into a better definition of the patient's need and proper treatment strategy. This review is aimed at highlighting the most critical aspects in this field, providing cardiologists with some novel clues for the imaging approach to patients with thoracic aortic disease.

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma-associated Proteobacteria, but not commensal Prevotella spp., promote Toll-like receptor 2-independent lung inflammation and pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Musavian, Hanieh Sadat; Butt, Tariq Mahmood;

    2015-01-01

    response to three Gram-negative commensal Prevotella strains (Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella nanceiensis and Prevotella salivae) and three Gram-negative pathogenic Proteobacteria known to colonize lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma (Haemophilus influenzae...... B, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis). The commensal Prevotella spp. and pathogenic Proteobacteria were found to exhibit intrinsic differences in innate inflammatory capacities on murine lung cells in vitro. In vivo in mice, non-typeable H.influenzae induced severe Toll...

  13. Geographic Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  14. Pathological Renal Findings of Chronic Renal Failure in a Patient with the E66Q Mutation in the α-galactosidase A Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomura, Atsushi; Fujita, Takayuki; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Kusano, Hiroyuki; Takayama, Eiichi; Hamada, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with interstitial nephritis on a renal biopsy at 45 years of age and began to receive hemodialysis at 65 years of age. He was suspected of having Fabry disease as a result of a screening study for Fabry disease performed in hemodialysis patients. He had an E66Q mutation in the α-galactosidase A gene. We conducted an electron microscopic examination of a renal biopsy specimen obtained when the patient was diagnosed with chronic renal failure at 45 years of age in order to elucidate the pathogenicity of the E66Q mutation. Interestingly, an electron microscopic examination of the renal biopsy specimen indicated no characteristic findings of Fabry disease.

  15. The resistive index is a marker of renal function, pathology, prognosis, and responsiveness to steroid therapy in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanamura, Kikuno; Tojo, Akihiro; Kinugasa, Satoshi; Asaba, Kensuke; Fujita, Toshiro

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of the renal resistive index (RI) as a noninvasive marker of renal histological damage and a prognostic indicator, we examined RI by Doppler ultrasonography in 202 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients who underwent renal biopsy. RI increased as the CKD stage progressed and correlated with age, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and renal histological changes, including glomerulosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, and tubulointerstitial damage. Prognostic evaluation with a median follow-up period of 38.5 months revealed that patients with RI ≥ 0.7 (high RI group, n = 39) had significantly poorer renal survival than those with RI histological damage, and renal prognosis, and a possible determinant of indication for steroids.

  16. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omata, Momoyo; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Kakuta, Takatoshi

    2015-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), is sequential pathophysiology that starts in the very early stages of CKD. Three major aspects of CKD-MBD are laboratory abnormalities, bone abnormalities and vascular calcification. In dialysis patients, the prevalence of death due to cardiovascular disease accounts for more than 40% of all-cause mortality. Therefore, arteriosclerosis with vascular calcification may be an important pathophysiological mechanism in the development of cardiovascular disease. Vascular calcification is known to be an important risk factor influencing mortality in CKD patients. A number of studies have suggested a close association between serum FGF23 concentration and the risks of mortality, cardiovascular disease vascular calcification as well as CKD progression. Renal insufficiency leads to decline in klotho level and impaired phosphate excretion. However serum phosphate levels are maintained in the normal range by up regulation of FGF23 and PTH in early CKD stage. Early treatment intervention is necessary to improve the prognosis of the CKD patient.

  17. The Resistive Index Is a Marker of Renal Function, Pathology, Prognosis, and Responsiveness to Steroid Therapy in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuno Hanamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the significance of the renal resistive index (RI as a noninvasive marker of renal histological damage and a prognostic indicator, we examined RI by Doppler ultrasonography in 202 chronic kidney disease (CKD patients who underwent renal biopsy. RI increased as the CKD stage progressed and correlated with age, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, and renal histological changes, including glomerulosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, and tubulointerstitial damage. Prognostic evaluation with a median follow-up period of 38.5 months revealed that patients with RI≥0.7 (high RI group, n=39 had significantly poorer renal survival than those with RI<0.65 (normal RI group, n=120 and 0.65≤RI<0.7 (high-normal RI group, n=43. The patients in the high-normal RI group showed good response to steroids. However, in the high RI group, steroid therapy did not significantly improve renal survival. Of the clinical indices studied, RI≥0.7, hypertension, proteinuria, and low eGFR at diagnosis were independent risk factors for worsening renal dysfunction. In conclusion, RI in CKD patients was considered as a marker of renal function, histological damage, and renal prognosis, and a possible determinant of indication for steroids.

  18. [Pathological peculiarities of chronic kidney disease in patient from sub-Saharan Africa. Review of data from the Democratic Republic of the Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakasa, Nestor-M; Sumaïli, Ernest-K

    2012-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major global public health problem. But kidney involvement is more common and appears more severe in Africa than in developed countries. The likely causes of end stage renal disease (ESRD) or CKD stage 3 and above in developed countries are diabetes, hypertension and less frequently glomerular diseases. In contrast, in decreasing order in Africa are glomerulopathies, hypertension and diabetes. The reasons for this preponderance of glomerular diseases are not fully known but may be linked to the persistence or reemergence of tropical diseases. This study reviews the kidney involvements more associated with common tropical diseases including HIV/AIDS. The most common HIV/AIDS lesion is a specific focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) termed HIV-associated nephropathy (HIV-AN). Renal complications of tropical parasites are heterogenous. Various glomerulopathies like FSGS occur during various filariasis infections. Schistosoma mansoni is responsible for membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and amyloidosis. Human African trypanosomiasis is associated with cryoglobulinemic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. The Plasmodium malariae is mainly responsible for membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Acute patterns (acute tubular necrosis or acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis) are observed during Plasmodium falciparum infection. Several other viral, bacterial or mycobacterial infections like leprosy and tuberculosis still prevalent in Africa can also affect the kidney. Sickle cell disease is responsible for a variety of renal injuries. In conclusion, kidney lesions linked to tropical diseases partly explain the peculiar pattern of CKD of the black race and play a significant role in the current outbreak of the CKD in Subsaharan Africa.

  19. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  20. 慢性应激引起的大鼠海马神经细胞形态结构的改变%The pathological change in the neurons of hippocampus of rat after chronic unpredictable mild stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志雄; 殷静雯; 罗旭东

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To identify The Change in the neurons of Hippocampus of Rat and depressive-like behavior after Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress ( CUMS). Method: The mice were subjected to various unpredictable stressors during the 21 days CUMS procedures. The depressive-like behavior and pathological change was observed.Results:The number of neurons of hippocampus after stress was significantly different (P<0.01).Conclusion:Rats after chronic unpredictable mild stress appeared depressive-like behavior correlated with decreased of neurons hippocampus.%目的:探讨慢性应激引起的抑郁样行为与海马神经细胞形态结构的变化。方法:建立慢性轻度不可预见性应激大鼠抑郁模型,检测大鼠快感缺乏,行为活动减少,体质量减轻等抑郁样症状,观察海马区病理改变。结果:实验组和对照组大鼠行为学评分存在显著差异(P<0.01),实验组海马椎体细胞萎缩,神经细胞层数减少,细胞数目明显减少(P<0.01)。结论:应激可导致大鼠抑郁样行为的发生,同时影响神经细胞的生长和存活。

  1. Assessing Geographic Information Enhancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loenen, B.; Zevenbergen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of geographic information infrastructures (or spatial data infrastructures) is increasingly attracting the attention of researchers in the Geographic information (GI) domain. Especially the assessment of value added GI appears to be complex. By applying the concept of value chain analysis

  2. Environmental geographic information system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W; Helfrich, Donald Alan; Gorman, Susan

    2010-08-01

    This document describes how the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) was used, along with externally received data, to create maps for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) Source Document project. Data quality among the various classes of geographic information system (GIS) data is addressed. A complete listing of map layers used is provided.

  3. Canine and feline oral pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, S.; Pais, B.; Almeida, D.; Simões, J.; Mega, A. C.; Vala, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to present a brief review of the main conditions affecting the oral cavity of dogs and cats. In recent years there has been increased attention with regard to veterinary dentistry, being several and frequent the pathologies located in the oral cavity of our pets. These diseases mainly affect the teeth and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, and may, in chronic cases, also affect vital organs. This condition could have different causes, including hereditary, conge...

  4. Curriculum Guidelines for Pathology and Oral Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines for dental school pathology courses describe the interrelationships of general, systemic, and oral pathology; primary educational goals; prerequisites; a core curriculum outline and behavioral objectives for each type of pathology. Notes on sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational hazards are included. (MSE)

  5. A contextual approach on sex-related biases in pain judgements: the moderator effects of evidence of pathology and patients' distress cues on nurses' judgements of chronic low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Sónia F; Lima, Maria Luísa

    2011-12-01

    Although women report feeling more pain than men, their pain is often underdiagnosed and undertreated. By proposing a gender-based theoretical conceptualisation, we argue that such sex-related biases may be enhanced or suppressed by contextual variables pertaining to the clinical situation, the perceiver or the patient. Consequently, we aimed to explore the moderator role of two clinically relevant variables in a chronic low-back pain (CLBP) scenario: diagnostic evidence of pathology (EP) and pain behaviours conveying distress. One-hundred and twenty-six female nurses (M = 35.33, SD = 7.64) participated in an experimental between-subjects design, 2 (patient's sex) × 2 (EP: present vs. absent) × 2 (pain behaviours: with vs. without distress). Independent variables were operationalised by vignettes depicting a patient with CLBP. Nurses judged the patient's pain on several dimensions: (1) credibility; (2) disability; (3) severity of the clinical situation; (4) psychological attributions and (5) willingness to offer support. Main findings showed that judgements of women's pain were influenced by EP, while judgements of men's pain were not. Moreover, nurses showed biases against men, but only in the presence of EP. The influence of distress cues was less consistent. Theoretical and practical implications are drawn.

  6. Advance in Pathological Research and Pharmacological Therapies of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease%慢性阻塞性肺疾病的发病机制和临床药物研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向左娟; 孙宏斌

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health problem with a rising incidence. The pathogenesis of this disease is associated with abnormal inflammatory immune responses of the lung to noxious particles and gases. Several long acting inhaled bronchodilators, anti-inflammatory drugs and their combinations are now in development. This review summarizes the pathological mechanisms of COPD and therapeutic agents in clinical development.%慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)作为一个发病率越来越高的健康杀手,其发病机制被认为与肺脏因吸入有害气体或颗粒而引起的异常炎症反应有关.用于治疗COPD的药物包括支气管扩张剂和抗炎药物,目前多种长效支气管扩张剂及其复方制剂正在进行临床研究.本文对COPD的发病机制和临床药物进展作一综述.

  7. MULTIMEDIA ON GEOGRAPHIC NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Merlanti, Danilo

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the topic of the multimedia contents distribution on a geo- graphic network which is a rarefied and huge field. First of all we have to classify the main parts necessary in the multimedia distribution on a geographic network. The main aspects of a geographic network that will be highlighted in this thesis are: the mechanism used to retrieve the sources of the multimedia content; in the case of the peer-to-peer network on geographic network one of t...

  8. Pathologic diagnosis and clinical analysis of chronic extrinsic allergic alveolitis%慢性外源性过敏性肺泡炎七例病理诊断和临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁小莉; 金木兰; 代华平; 李雪; 韦萍; 张云岗

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性外源性过敏性肺泡炎的病理诊断及其诊断思路.方法 收集首都医科大学附属北京朝阳医院2006年10月至2009年3月收治的、经病理确诊且有完整临床资料的慢性外源性过敏性肺泡炎7例,对其病理组织学形态和临床资料进行综合分析,并对文献进行复习.结果 7例慢性外源性过敏性肺泡炎患者,男性4例,女性3例,年龄30~65岁,平均年龄48岁,均表现为慢性起病,5例因近期加重入院,其中4例有刺激性气体或粉尘、宠物接触史;2例常见过敏原检测阳性;胸部高分辨CT显示小叶中心性小结节影及纤维条索影、磨玻璃影和小叶间隔增厚;支气管肺泡灌洗液淋巴细胞数量增高,CD4+/CD8+细胞比值<1;肺功能检查均显示肺活量降低、肺总量降低、呼吸总气道阻力增高及周边气道阻力增高为主.5例行开胸肺活检,2例行肺移植手术.病理组织学均表现为:细支气管周围慢性炎及间质纤维化,不典型非干酪性上皮样肉芽肿,支气管腔内可见上皮样吞噬细胞渗出和新生的纤维息肉样组织形成;5例开胸肺活检的病例支气管腔内可见中性粒细胞渗出,5例均确诊为慢性外源性过敏性肺泡炎伴急性发作;2例慢性外源性过敏性肺泡炎终末纤维化期行肺移植手术.结论 慢性外源性过敏性肺泡炎组织病理学表现具有一定的诊断特征,但与其他诸多弥漫性肺实质性疾病具有相似的病理改变,须结合病史、影像学等临床信息综合分析,从而明确诊断,进行有效治疗.%Objective To study the clinicopathologic features and diagnostic approach of chronic extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA).Methods Seven cases of chronic EAA diagnosed by open lung biopsy or lung transplant were enrolled into the study.The clinical and pathologic features were analyzed and the literature was reviewed.Results There were altogether 4 men and 3 women.The age of the

  9. Chronic pelvic pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It affects all spheres of life, from physical and psychological health to relationship intimacy .... pelvic and sexual pain, in the absence of obvious pathology, has a strong .... Uterine orientation, size, mobility and sensitivity can point to a chronic ...

  10. The Danish Pathology Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Beth; Larsen, Ole B

    2011-01-01

    The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established.......The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established....

  11. Forensic Pathology Education in Pathology Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Wayne K.; Domen, Ronald E.

    2017-01-01

    Forensic pathology is a fundamental part of anatomic pathology training during pathology residency. However, the lack of information on forensic teaching suggests the highly variable nature of forensic education. A survey of pathology residency program directors was performed to determine key aspects of their respective forensic rotations and curriculum. A total of 38.3% of programs from across the country responded, and the survey results show 5.6% don’t require a forensic pathology rotation. In those that do, most forensic pathology rotations are 4 weeks long, are done at a medical examiner’s office, and require set prerequisites. A total of 21.1% of responding programs have residents who are not receiving documented evaluations for this rotation. While 39.6% of programs have a defined forensics curriculum, as many as 15% do not. Furthermore, nearly 43% of programs place no limit on counting forensic autopsies when applying for pathology board examinations. Our survey confirmed the inconsistent nature of forensic pathology training in resident education. Additionally, our curriculum was reorganized to create a more robust educational experience. A pre- and post-forensic lecture quiz and Resident In-Service Examination scores were analyzed to determine our curriculum’s impact and effectiveness. Analysis of our pre- and post-lecture quiz showed an improved overall average as well as an increase in Resident In-Service Examination scores, indicating improved general forensic pathology knowledge. Using this knowledge, along with changes in our curriculum, we generated a number of recommendations for improving forensic pathology education in pathology residency. PMID:28913415

  12. Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, William F; Delmerico, Alan M

    2009-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the development, capabilities, and utilization of geographic information systems (GIS). There are nearly an unlimited number of applications that are relevant to GIS because virtually all human interactions, natural and man-made features, resources, and populations have a geographic component. Everything happens somewhere and the location often has a role that affects what occurs. This role is often called spatial dependence or spatial autocorrelation, which exists when a phenomenon is not randomly geographically distributed. GIS has a number of key capabilities that are needed to conduct a spatial analysis to assess this spatial dependence. This chapter presents these capabilities (e.g., georeferencing, adjacency/distance measures, overlays) and provides a case study to illustrate how GIS can be used for both research and planning. Although GIS has developed into a relatively mature application for basic functions, development is needed to more seamlessly integrate spatial statistics and models.The issue of location, especially the geography of human activities, interactions between humanity and nature, and the distribution and location of natural resources and features, is one of the most basic elements of scientific inquiry. Conceptualizations and physical maps of geographic space have existed since the beginning of time because all human activity takes place in a geographic context. Representing objects in space, basically where things are located, is a critical aspect of the natural, social, and applied sciences. Throughout history there have been many methods of characterizing geographic space, especially maps created by artists, mariners, and others eventually leading to the development of the field of cartography. It is no surprise that the digital age has launched a major effort to utilize geographic data, but not just as maps. A geographic information system (GIS) facilitates the collection, analysis, and reporting of

  13. Symposium on Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felleman, John, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Six papers on geographic information systems cover the future of geographic information systems, land information systems modernization in Wisconsin, the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) System of the U.S. Bureau of the Census, satellite remote sensing, geographic information systems and sustainable development,…

  14. CT in vascular pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolozzi, C.; Neri, E.; Caramella, D. [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Department of Oncology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, I-56100 Pisa (Italy)

    1998-06-02

    Since the introduction of helical scanners, CT angiography (CTA) has achieved an essential role in many vascular applications that were previously managed with conventional angiography. The performance of CTA is based on the accurate selection of collimation width, pitch, reconstruction spacing and scan delay, which must be modulated on the basis of the clinical issue. However, the major improvement of CT has been provided by the recent implementation of many post-processing techniques, such as multiplanar reformatting, shaded surface display, maximum intensity projections, 3D perspectives of surface and volume rendering, which simulate virtual intravascular endoscopy. The integration of the potentialities of the scanner and of the image processing techniques permitted improvement of: (a) the evaluation of aneurysms, dissection and vascular anomalies involving the thoracic aorta; (b) carotid artery stenosis; (c) aneurysms of abdominal aorta; (d) renal artery stenosis; (e) follow-up of renal artery stenting; and (f) acute or chronic pulmonary embolism. Our experience has shown that the assessment of arterial pathologies with CTA requires the integration of 3D post-processing techniques in most applications. (orig.) With 4 figs., 34 refs.

  15. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...

  16. Making Geographical Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John

    2015-01-01

    Although there are surprisingly few academic books about geography with the term "future" or "futures" in their titles, this paper indicates that for much of the twentieth century geographers contributed to important discussions about the shape of worlds to come. The paper offers a review of these debates within Anglo-American…

  17. Geographic profiling survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emeno, Karla; Bennell, Craig; Snook, Brent; Taylor, Paul Jonathon

    Geographic profiling (GP) is an investigative technique that involves predicting a serial offender?s home location (or some other anchor point) based on where he or she committed a crime. Although the use of GP in police investigations appears to be on the rise, little is known about the procedure

  18. Clinical and histo-pathological characteristics of 2874 cases with chronic kidney diseases in Southern parts of Hebei province%2874例肾病患者病理类型及其临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴华颖; 张雨; 傅淑霞; 杨林; 张丽萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics ot patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Southern parts of Hebei province.Methods Records of 2874 CKD patients during January,2008 to May,2011 were retrospectively reviewed.Demographic,clinical and histo-pathological data were analyzed and compared to ones from the past five years.Results The age distribution of the groups was between 16 and 84 years old,with 62.39% of them between 20 and 50.All patients underwent renal biopsy that with primary glomerulonephritis occurring in 1966 cases (68.41%),secondary glomerulonephritis in 826 cases (28.74%).The frequently seen pathological patterns were IgA nephropaty ( IgAN ),membranous nephropathy (MN) and minimal change disease (MCD) in proper order in the former group while Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) and lupus nephritis (LN) were seen in the latter group.Comparing to data of the past five years,the incidence rates of MN,MCD and HBV-GN increased to 16.84%,15.73%and 4.41% respectively,but all IgAN,HSPN and LN had respectively decreased to 24.70%,5.50% and 6.65%.MN,IgAN,MCD were commonly appeared in histo-pathological patterns among patients over 50 years of age.Conclusion IgAN was still the most commonly seen renal disease.Compared to data of the past five years,the incidence rates of MN,MCD and HBV-GN showed an increase at different levels.Epidemiological and pathological pattern of patients with CKD in Southern Hebei province had only mild changes over the last 3 years.%目的 了解河北省南部地区慢性肾病病理类型及其临床特征.方法 回顾性分析2008年1月至2011年5月2874例因肾病而行肾活检患者的病理类型和临床特征,并与5年前资料对比.结果 2874例患者年龄16 ~ 84岁,其中20 ~ 50岁者占62.39%,男女比例为1.23∶1.原发性肾小球肾炎1966例(68.41%),继发性肾小球肾炎826例(28.74%),肾小管-间质病变79例(2.75%),遗传性疾病3例.

  19. Geographical orientation. An integral geoperspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Cobo Arízaga

    2013-12-01

    This approach seeks to create a new line of discussion, to launch a proposal that is scientifically challenging to the hegemony of geographical thought and that provides new geographical rationality structures.

  20. Application of Molecular Pathology in Endocrine Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Ebru Serinsoz; Tezel, Gaye Güler

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth in knowledge of cell and molecular biology led to the increased usage of molecular techniques in anatomical pathology. This is also due to the advances achieved in the techniques introduced in the last few years which are less laborious as compared to the techniques used at the beginning of the "molecular era". The initial assays were also very expensive and were not performed except for selected centers. Moreover, the clinicians were not sure how to make use of the accumulating molecular information. That situation has also changed and molecular techniques are being performed in a wide variety of medical settings which also has a reflection on the endocrine system pathology among other organ systems. This review will provide an update of genetic changes observed in different endocrine system pathologies and their diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic values.

  1. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...... inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  2. Handheld computing in pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI, new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology.

  3. Handheld computing in pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

  4. Pathology in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  5. The Geographical Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Schweikart

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Geographical Information System, normally called GIS, is a tool for representing spatial relationships and real processes with the help of a model. A GIS is a system of hardware, software and staff for collecting, managing, analysing and representing geospatial information. For example, we can study the evolution of an infectious disease in a certain territory, perform market analysis, or locate the best ways to choose a new industrial site. In substance, it is data manipulation software for that allows us to have, both the graphic component, that is a territorial representation of the reality that you want to represent, and the data components in the form of a database or more commonly, calculation sheets. Geographical data are divided in spatial data and attribute data: Spatial data are recorded as points, lines and polygons (vectorial structure. In other words, the survey systems have been projected to acquire information in accordance to elementary cells corresponding to a territorial grid (raster structure. It also includes remote sensing data.

  6. Continuum model of tendon pathology - where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreesh, Karen; Lewis, Jeremy

    2013-08-01

    Chronic tendon pathology is a common and often disabling condition, the causes of which remain poorly understood. The continuum model of tendon pathology was proposed to provide a model for the staging of tendon pathology and to assist clinicians in managing this often complex condition (Br. J. Sports Med., 43, 2009, 409). The model presents clinical, histological and imaging evidence for the progression of tendon pathology as a three-stage continuum: reactive tendinopathy, tendon disrepair and degenerative tendinopathy. It also provides clinical information to assist in identifying the stage of pathology, in addition to proposed treatment approaches for each stage. The usefulness of such a model is determined by its ability to incorporate and inform new and emerging research. This review examines the degree to which recent research supports or refutes the continuum model and proposes future directions for clinical and research application of the model. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2013 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  7. Hip joint pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tijssen, M; van Cingel, R E H; de Visser, E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to (a) describe the clinical presentation of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and hip labral pathology; (b) describe the accuracy of patient history and physical tests for FAI and labral pathology as confirmed by hip arthroscopy. Patients (18-6...

  8. Pathologic approach to spinal cord infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tihan, Tarik

    2015-05-01

    The pathologic evaluation of spinal cord infections requires comprehensive clinical, radiological, and laboratory correlation, because the histologic findings in acute, chronic, or granulomatous infections rarely provide clues for the specific cause. This brief review focuses on the pathologic mechanisms as well as practical issues in the diagnosis and reporting of infections of the spinal cord. Examples are provided of the common infectious agents and methods for their diagnosis. By necessity, discussion is restricted to the infections of the medulla spinalis proper and its meninges, and not bone or soft tissue infections.

  9. Updates in ophthalmic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pia R; Grossniklaus, Hans E

    2017-05-01

    Ophthalmic pathology has a long history and rich heritage in the field of ophthalmology. This review article highlights updates in ophthalmic pathology that have developed significantly through the years because of the efforts of committed individuals and the confluence of technology such as molecular biology and digital pathology. This is an exciting period in the history of ocular pathology, with cutting-edge techniques paving the way for new developments in diagnostics, therapeutics, and research. Collaborations between ocular oncologists and pathologists allow for improved and comprehensive patient care. Ophthalmic pathology continues to be a relevant specialty that is important in the understanding and clinical management of ocular disease, education of eye care providers, and overall advancement of the field.

  10. Analyzing geographic clustered response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. 有氧运动对慢性心力衰竭大鼠病理性心脏肥大的影响%Effects of aerobic exercise on the pathological cardiac hypertrophy of rats suffering chronic heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施曼莉; 李晓霞

    2015-01-01

    LVPWDs、LVEDP、CSA、CVF、ANF、β-MHC、Col-I 和 Col-III mRNA以及CaNAβ、NFAT3和Caspase-3蛋白表达量升高(P<0.05);(2)与心衰对照组比较,心衰运动组最大跑速、力竭时间、LVW、LVMI、LVIDd、LVFS、LVEF、LVSP、±dp/dtmax、CSA,α-MHC、SERCA2a mRNA以及PI3K(p110α)和p-Akt蛋白表达水平升高(P<0.05),LVEDP、CVF,ANF、β-MHC、Col-I和Col-III mRNA以及CaNAβ、NFAT3和Caspase-3蛋白表达量降低(P<0.05)。结果表明:长期有氧运动促使心衰大鼠心脏由病理性肥大向生理性肥大转变,左室重塑得到抑制,心功能和运动耐力改善,其机制与运动抑制CaN-NFAT信号通路并激活PI3K-Akt信号途径进而下调胚胎基因表达、上调收缩蛋白表达、减轻心肌纤维化和抑制心肌细胞凋亡有关。%In order to probe into the effects of aerobic exercise on the pathological cardiac hypertrophy of rats suf-fering chronic heart failure and the possible mechanism, and to provide a theoretical criterion for exercise recovery from heart failure, the authors established a chronic heart failure model by ligating the coronary artery of Wistar rats, randomly divided the rats into a sham operation control group (SC), a sham operation exercise group (SE), a heart failure control group (HC) and a heart failure exercise group (HE) after operation, let the rats in groups SE and HE carry out 10-week treadmill training, let the rats in groups SC and HC maintain a calm condition, measured the rats’ exercise endurance (maximum running speed and time to exhaustion) by utilizing the experiment of exercise whose load was gradually increased via the treadmill, by means of echocardiogram, measured cardiac structure and function parameters, which included left ventricular internal diameter during diastole (LVIDd), left ventricular in-ternal diameter during systole (LVIDs), left ventricular anterior wall diameter during diastole (LVAWDd), left ven-tricular anterior wall diameter during systole (LVAWDs), left ventricular posterior wall

  12. [Pathology- a new revival].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshack, Iris

    2013-06-01

    The field of pathology has undergone considerable change in recent years. The editor and editorial board of this journal are to be commended for their decision to devote a special issue to the field of pathology. Pathology deals with the characterization, investigation, and diagnosis of disease and disease processes and as such, has Long been considered one of the foundations of medicine. It is a rich and multi-faceted field which has retained its breadth of scope in the face of ever-increasing specialization and sub-specialization in medicine. In addition to its classic roles in autopsy, case description, and the diagnosis of pathoLogic processes, new and innovative spheres of activity are becoming integral to the field, especially in the realm of molecular pathology. Pathology is a Leading player in the new age of "personalized cancer therapy", where pathologists are responsible not only for diagnosing disease in the tissue, but also for conducting additional tests which may predict its response to specific drug therapies. In this context, moLecular pathology has become essential to the field both in the provision of cLinical service and research. To fully implement this trend, we are witness to the rise of tissue collection and tissue banking initiatives for both diagnostic and research purposes. A national tissue banking project in Israel has recently received considerable attention.

  13. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, but not including roads and highways. The database also contains geographic names in Antarctica. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other feature attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature class, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories of features the geometric boundaries. The database assigns a unique feature identifier, a random number, that is a key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling GNIS data with other data sets. The GNIS is our Nation's official repository of domestic geographic feature names information.

  14. Pathology of hepatic iron overload

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yves Deugnier; Bruno Turlin

    2007-01-01

    Although progress in imaging and genetics allow for a noninvasive diagnosis of most cases of genetic iron overload, liver pathology remains often useful (1) to assess prognosis by grading fibrosis and seeking for associated lesions and (2) to guide the etiological diagnosis, especially when no molecular marker is available.Then, the type of liver siderosis (parenchymal, mesenchymal or mixed) and its distribution throughout the lobule and the liver are useful means for suggesting its etiology: HLA-linked hemochromatosis gene (HFE) hemochromatosis or other rare genetic hemochromatosis,nonhemochromatotic genetic iron overload (ferroportin disease, aceruloplasminemia), or iron overload secondary to excessive iron supply, inflammatory syndrome,noncirrhotic chronic liver diseases including dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome, cirrhosis, and blood disorders.

  15. [Gunshot wounds: forensic pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2012-02-01

    Gunshot wounds are among the most complex traumatic lesions encountered in forensic pathology. At the time of autopsy, careful scrutiny of the wounds is essential for correct interpretation of the lesions. Complementary pathological analysis has many interests: differentiation between entrance and exit wounds, estimation of firing distance, differentiation between vital and post mortem wounds and wounds dating. In case of multiple headshots, neuropathological examination can provide arguments for or against suicide. Sampling of gunshot wounds at autopsy must be systematic. Pathological data should be confronted respectively to autopsy and death scene investigation data and also ballistic studies. Forensic pathologist must be aware of the limits of optic microscopy.

  16. Pathologic overproduction: the bad side of adenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borea, Pier Andrea; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Varani, Katia

    2017-03-02

    Adenosine is an endogenous ubiquitous purine nucleoside, increased by hypoxia, ischemia and tissue damage that mediates a number of physiopathological effects by interacting with four G-protein-coupled receptors, identified as A1 , A2A , A2B , and A3 . Physiological and acutely-increased adenosine is associated with beneficial effects mostly including vasodilation and decrease of inflammation. In contrast chronic overproduction of adenosine occurs in important pathological states, where long lasting increases in the nucleoside levels are responsible for the bad side of adenosine associated with chronic inflammation, fibrosis and organ damage. In this review we describe and critically discuss the pathologic overproduction of adenosine analysing when, where and how adenosine exerts its detrimental effects through the body.

  17. Experimental chronic periodontitis morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Morphogenesis of periodontium tissue in a model of chronic periodontitis was studied. Adult Wistar rats wereused in a model; chronic periodontitis was developed through mastication-related loading decrease. Histological assessmentof periodontium tissue was conducted at Days 7, 14, 21 and 30. It was demonstrated that dystrophic tissue changes prevailover the inflammatory one in this particular experimental model. The structural elements of periodontium were involved intothe pathologic process ...

  18. Pathological assessment of liver fibrosis regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Bingqiong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic fibrosis is the common pathological outcome of chronic hepatic diseases. An accurate assessment of fibrosis degree provides an important reference for a definite diagnosis of diseases, treatment decision-making, treatment outcome monitoring, and prognostic evaluation. At present, many clinical studies have proven that regression of hepatic fibrosis and early-stage liver cirrhosis can be achieved by effective treatment, and a correct evaluation of fibrosis regression has become a hot topic in clinical research. Liver biopsy has long been regarded as the gold standard for the assessment of hepatic fibrosis, and thus it plays an important role in the evaluation of fibrosis regression. This article reviews the clinical application of current pathological staging systems in the evaluation of fibrosis regression from the perspectives of semi-quantitative scoring system, quantitative approach, and qualitative approach, in order to propose a better pathological evaluation system for the assessment of fibrosis regression.

  19. Non cancerous diseases following a chronic intern contamination by caesium 137: cataracts and cardiac arrhythmias; Pathologies non cancereuses potentiellement consecutives a une contamination interne chronique par le cesium 137: cataractes et arythmies cardiaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landon, G

    2008-07-15

    This work of thesis joins within the framework of an analysis of the sanitary consequences of the nuclear accident of Chernobylsk. Since 2005, the I.R.S.N. is interested in the not cancerous pathologies (cataracts, and cardiac arrhythmias) observed among the children living on the contaminated territories after the fallout of Chernobylsk and has in this aim implemented a research programme called E.P.I.C.E. (Evaluation of the pathologies induced by a chronicle contamination by cesium) whom objective is to show an eventual link between the chronicle ingestion of contaminated food and these pathologies emergence. An exploitation of the results of the pilot study,first phase of the E.P.I.C.E. program was realized. The analysis was completed by two bibliographical reviews relative to the knowledge available on these diseases. The results of this pilot study suggest: on one hand, an absence of link between the activity in cesium 137 at the level of the heart, of the whole body and the emergence of disorder of the heart rhythm; on the other hand, for the cases of cataract, a link between the load in cesium 137 at the neck level and the emergence of the disease in 40 % of the cases. However, these results must be considered with caution because several limits and, in particular, a way of selection affect this study. concerning the scientific literature, this one stays rather poor because only thee articles make reference to a relationship between cesium 137 and the emergence of these non cancerous pathologies. After having exposed the context, this thesis draws up the situation of knowledge relative to cataracts and to cardiac arrhythmias and their possible relationship with ionizing radiations, collect the results stemming from the analysis of the pilot study and envisages future epidemiological studies. (N.C.)

  20. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  1. Determinants of pathologic mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Physiologic mineralization is necessary for the formation of skeletal tissues and for their appropriate functions during adulthood. Mineralization has to be controlled and restricted to specific regions. If the mineralization process occurs in regions that normally do not mineralize, there can be severe consequences (pathologic or ectopic mineralization). Recent findings have indicated that physiologic and pathologic mineralization events are initiated by matrix vesicles, membrane-enclosed particles released from the plasma membranes of mineralization-competent cells. The understanding of how these vesicles are released from the plasma membrane and initiate the mineralization process may provide novel therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic mineralization. In addition, other regulators (activators and inhibitors) of physiologic mineralization have been identified and characterized, and there is evidence that the same factors also contribute to the regulation of pathologic mineralization. Finally, programmed cell death (apoptosis) may be a contributor to physiologic mineralization and if occurring after tissue injury may induce pathologic mineralization and mineralization-related differentiation events in the injured and surrounding areas. This review describes how the understanding of mechanisms and factors regulating physiologic mineralization can be used to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic or ectopic mineralization events.

  2. Sensorineural Tinnitus: Its Pathology and Probable Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aage R. Møller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is not a single disease but a group of different diseases with different pathologies and therefore different treatments. Regarding tinnitus as a single disease is hampering progress in understanding of the pathophysiology of tinnitus and perhaps, more importantly, it is a serious obstacle in development of effective treatments for tinnitus. Subjective tinnitus is a phantom sound that takes many different forms and has similarities with chronic neuropathic pain. The pathology may be in the cochlea, in the auditory nerve, or, most commonly, in the brain. Like chronic neuropathic pain tinnitus is not life threatening but influences many normal functions such as sleep and the ability to concentrate on work. Some forms of chronic tinnitus have two components, a (phantom sound and a component that may best be described as suffering or distress. The pathology of these two components may be different and the treatment that is most effective may be different for these two components. The most common form of treatment of tinnitus is pharmacological agents and behavioral treatment combined with sound therapy. Less common treatments are hypnosis and acupuncture. Various forms of neuromodulation are becoming in use in an attempt to reverse maladaptive plastic changes in the brain.

  3. International Refugees: A Geographical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demko, George J.; Wood, William B.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the problem of international refugees from a geographical perspective. Focuses on sub-saharan Africa, Afghanistan, Central America, and southeast Asia. Concludes that geographers can and should use their skills and intellectual tools to address and help resolve this global problem. (JDH)

  4. Adaptive Cartography and Geographical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecny, Milan; Stanek, Karel

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on adaptive cartography and its potential for geographical education. After briefly describing the wider context of adaptive cartography, it is suggested that this new cartographic approach establishes new demands and benefits for geographical education, especially in offering the possibility for broader individual…

  5. 膝关节树枝状脂肪瘤与慢性滑膜炎脂肪增生的MRI和病理表现%Study on MRI-pathologic in lipoma arborescens and chronic synovitis adipose hyperplasia of knee joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫鹏; 林海韬; 姚沛旭; 倪仰鹏; 刘祖宏; 杨赞礼; 钟柱

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究膝关节树枝状脂肪瘤(LA)的磁共振特征表现,结合影像病理探讨膝关节LA与慢性滑膜炎脂肪增生存在的联系。材料与方法回顾性分析14例膝关节滑膜病变,其中4例诊断LA,10例诊断慢性滑膜炎伴滑膜脂肪增生。所有病例均行病灶切除术,制作成病理标本,行HE染色。结果14例中4例确诊LA的MRI及病理表现呈叶状、树枝状、乳头状的脂肪组织,轻度的滑膜增生,其中2例除了看到明显成团大量成熟的脂肪细胞,还可以见散在的点絮状的脂肪组织;10例确诊慢性滑膜炎脂肪增生MRI表现与病理上表现明显增生的滑膜组织、少量散在的脂肪细胞,部分较少量脂肪在MRI上观察不到。二者均可以伴随膝关节炎性、退行性改变。结论本研究表明LA与慢性滑膜炎脂肪增生在影像及病理均表现为关节下滑膜脂肪细胞的增生,而不同之处在于滑膜下脂肪的形态以及含量。推测LA与慢性滑膜炎脂肪增生是同一种病不同的表现。%Objective:To investigate the typical MRI features of lipoma arborescens (LA) of the knee, this paper compares and analyzes it with chronic synovitis lipohypertrophyofimagingandpathologyresults.Materials and Methods:Retrospective analysis was performed in 14 cases including 4 cases with LA proved by pathological diagnosis and 10 with chronic synovitis lipohypertrophy with datas of MRI and pathology. Lesionectomy was performed in all patients and specimen were observed in HE staining. Results:Four of 14 cases were diagnosed with LA. The adipose tissue by which characterized“tufted”,“dendritic”or“fluffy”, mild synovial hyperplasia as well, were revealed by the MRI and pathologic results. Two cases can not only see clusters of mature adipocyte, but also scattered ones. The others diagnosed with chronic synovitis adipose hyperplasia, both in MRI and pathology, showed synovial hyperplasia obviously and

  6. Eponyms in forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nečas, Pavel; Hejna, Petr

    2012-12-01

    The phenomenon of eponymous terms in forensic pathology is described in this paper. The authors analyzed representative textbooks (monographs) dealing with forensic pathology in both English and German and identified several eponymous terms. The paper aims to present to the reader the most important eponymous terms in forensic pathology. Included in the paper are the following terms: Beckwith's Sign, Casper's Rule, Krönlein's Shot, Lichtenberg's Figures, Nysten's Law, Paltauf's Spots, Puppe's Rule, Sehrt's Sign, Simon's Sign, Sveshnikov's Sign, Tardieu's Spots, Wischnewski Spots, Wydler's Sign. The spread of eponymous terms throughout various languages is mentioned. The linguistic basis of such terms as well as their advantages and disadvantages in specialist fields, and indeed in even wider circles, is discussed. The authors state that the main function of these terms is to facilitate the open flow of unambiguous information among scholars. Eponymous terms in forensic pathology are characteristic for the German speaking countries and for all countries influenced by the German school of forensic pathology. Their usage in the Anglo-Saxon world is much less widespread, meaning they do not occur very often in English monographs and textbooks.

  7. Inflammation in Chronic Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruilong; Liang, Helena; Clarke, Elizabeth; Jackson, Christopher; Xue, Meilang

    2016-12-11

    Non-healing chronic wounds present a major biological, psychological, social, and financial burden on both individual patients and the broader health system. Pathologically extensive inflammation plays a major role in the disruption of the normal healing cascade. The causes of chronic wounds (venous, arterial, pressure, and diabetic ulcers) can be examined through a juxtaposition of normal healing and the rogue inflammatory response created by the common components within chronic wounds (ageing, hypoxia, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and bacterial colonisation). Wound bed care through debridement, dressings, and antibiotics currently form the basic mode of treatment. Despite recent setbacks, pharmaceutical adjuncts form an interesting area of research.

  8. Macroscopic Anomalies and Pathological Findings in and Around the Achilles Tendon: Observations From 1661 Operations During a 40-Year Period

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johansson, Kristian; Lempainen, Lasse; Sarimo, Janne; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina; Orava, Sakari

    2014-01-01

    ...; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The main macroscopic pathologies of 1661 chronic Achilles tendon overuse injuries, which were diagnosed and surgically treated by a single surgeon, were reviewed...

  9. The role of TGF-β activation on different pathological phenotypes in chronic rhinosinusitis%TGF-β胞外活化调控及对慢性鼻-鼻窦炎不同病理表型的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项锦银; 申迹; 洪苏玲

    2012-01-01

    Summary Transforming growth factor-g(TGF-(3) as a main switch has a crucial role in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) .subtypes. The physiological functions of the secreted inactive TGF-p are precisely regulated by suppressing factors, such as latency-associated peptide (LAP), latent TGF-(3-binding protein(LTBP) and fibrillin, as well as activating factors, such as integrins, proteases and thrombospondjn-L-- With progress in understanding the factors responsible for regulating TGF-J3 functions, it has been revealed that the dysregulation of TGF-J3 activation is closely associated with lung fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Since the imbalance between TGF-(B-regulating factors may be one of the main reasons for different phenotypes of CRS, we reviewed the advancement in the research of TGF-fi activation and its role in CRS pathogenesis, to provide insight into the CRS investigation in human.

  10. Chronic ethanol consumption in mice alters hepatocyte lipid droplet properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Hepatosteatosis is a common pathological feature of impaired hepatic metabolism following chronic alcohol consumption. Although often benign and reversible, it is widely believed that steatosis is a risk factor for development of advanced liver pathologies, including steatohepatitis and ...

  11. Geographical Effects on Complex Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhong-Cai; YANG Lei; YANG Kong-Qing

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate how the geographical structure of a complex network affects its network topology, synchronization and the average spatial length of edges. The geographical structure means that the connecting probability of two nodes is related to the spatial distance of the two nodes. Our simulation results show that the geographical structure changes the network topology. The synchronization tendency is enhanced and the average spatial length of edges is enlarged when the node can randomly connect to the further one. Analytic results support our understanding of the phenomena.

  12. Atopic dermatitis severity in the patients with hepatobilliary pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Melnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to define severity of atopic dermatitis (AtD in the patients with hepatobiliary pathology. 221 patients with AtD were under investigation. 51 of them had associated biliary dyskinesia, 45 patients had chronic viral hepatitis (CVH without replecative kinesis, 65 patients had chronic viral hepatitis (CVH with replecative kinesis, and 50 patients had no hepatobiliary pathology. The results obtained showed marked effect of the hepato-biliary system pathology on the severity of the AtD pathology. The patients with biliary dyskinesia have a lichenoid kind of AtD and patients with deep-rooted viral hepatitis have an eczematous kind of AtD.

  13. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 165.8... Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic...

  14. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  15. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  16. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  17. Next-Generation Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caie, Peter D; Harrison, David J

    2016-01-01

    The field of pathology is rapidly transforming from a semiquantitative and empirical science toward a big data discipline. Large data sets from across multiple omics fields may now be extracted from a patient's tissue sample. Tissue is, however, complex, heterogeneous, and prone to artifact. A reductionist view of tissue and disease progression, which does not take this complexity into account, may lead to single biomarkers failing in clinical trials. The integration of standardized multi-omics big data and the retention of valuable information on spatial heterogeneity are imperative to model complex disease mechanisms. Mathematical modeling through systems pathology approaches is the ideal medium to distill the significant information from these large, multi-parametric, and hierarchical data sets. Systems pathology may also predict the dynamical response of disease progression or response to therapy regimens from a static tissue sample. Next-generation pathology will incorporate big data with systems medicine in order to personalize clinical practice for both prognostic and predictive patient care.

  18. Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

  19. Geographic Tongue in Monozygotic Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Shekhar M, Guna

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a case of 5-year-old girl monozygotic twins who were suffering from geographic tongue (GT), a benign inflammatory disorder of the tongue which is characterized by circinate, irregular erythematous lesions on the dorsum and lateral borders of the tongue caused by loss of filiform papillae of the tongue epithelium. Whilst geographic tongue is a common entity, reports on this condition are uncommon in the literature. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report which...

  20. 从病理学角度谈慢性胃炎与功能性消化不良的诊断与治疗%Differential diagnosis and therapy between functional dyspepsia and chronic gastritis with pathology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱薇; 张亚历

    2013-01-01

    It is easy to confuse chronic gastritis and functional dyspepsia (FD) in clinical practice. In theory, chronic gastritis is an organic disease, which shows gastric mucosal erosions or atrophy lesions on endoscopic and active inflammation whose symbol is neutrophil infiltration and glandular epithelium damage on biopsy. Also, when it is atrophic gastritis , it manifests as the reduction of the glands, intestinal metaplasia, dyspepsia and so on. Although, on endoscopic, FD can be diagnosed as chronic superficial gastritis, there are no significant gastric mucosal erosion or atrophy lesions. On the other hand, there may be infiltration of lymphocytes on biopsy, but no active inflammation and glandular epithelial lesions. It' s important to master the differences of the two diseases on the etiology, diagnosis and treatment for standardizing the diagnosis and treatment of chronic gastritis and FD.%慢性胃炎与FD临床上两者容易造成混淆,理论上,慢性胃炎属于器质性病变,内镜下胃黏膜有糜烂或萎缩病变,病理活检表现为活动性炎症,以中性粒细胞浸润和腺上皮损害为标志;萎缩性胃炎则表现为固有腺体的减少、肠上皮化生和异型增生等.FD内镜虽也可诊断为慢性浅表性胃炎,但胃黏膜并无明显糜烂或萎缩病变;病理活检可出现淋巴细胞浸润,但并无活动性炎症和腺上皮病变等特征.掌握两种疾病在病因、诊断和治疗上的不同特点,对规范慢性胃炎和FD的诊治有重要意义.

  1. Chronic neuron- and age-selective down-regulation of TNF receptor expression in triple-transgenic Alzheimer disease mice leads to significant modulation of amyloid- and Tau-related pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Sara L; Narrow, Wade C; Mastrangelo, Michael A; Olschowka, John A; O'Banion, M Kerry; Bowers, William J

    2013-06-01

    Neuroinflammation, through production of proinflammatory molecules and activated glial cells, is implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. One such proinflammatory mediator is tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), a multifunctional cytokine produced in excess and associated with amyloid β-driven inflammation and cognitive decline. Long-term global inhibition of TNF receptor type I (TNF-RI) and TNF-RII signaling without cell or stage specificity in triple-transgenic AD mice exacerbates hallmark amyloid and neurofibrillary tangle pathology. These observations revealed that long-term pan anti-TNF-α inhibition accelerates disease, cautions against long-term use of anti-TNF-α therapeutics for AD, and urges more selective regulation of TNF signaling. We used adeno-associated virus vector-delivered siRNAs to selectively knock down neuronal TNF-R signaling. We demonstrate divergent roles for neuronal TNF-RI and TNF-RII where loss of opposing TNF-RII leads to TNF-RI-mediated exacerbation of amyloid β and Tau pathology in aged triple-transgenic AD mice. Dampening of TNF-RII or TNF-RI+RII leads to a stage-independent increase in Iba-1-positive microglial staining, implying that neuronal TNF-RII may act nonautonomously on the microglial cell population. These results reveal that TNF-R signaling is complex, and it is unlikely that all cells and both receptors will respond positively to broad anti-TNF-α treatments at various stages of disease. In aggregate, these data further support the development of cell-, stage-, and/or receptor-specific anti-TNF-α therapeutics for AD.

  2. The National Map - geographic names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Lou; Carswell, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about the official names for places, features, and areas in the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the territories and outlying areas of the United States, including Antarctica. It is the geographic names component of The National Map. The BGN maintains working relationships with State names authorities to cooperate in achieving the standardization of geographic names. The GNIS contains records on more than 2 million geographic names in the United States - from populated places, schools, reservoirs, and parks to streams, valleys, springs, ridges, and every feature type except roads and highways. Entries include information such as the federally-recognized name and variant names and spellings for the feature; former names; the status of the name as determined by the BGN; county or counties in which each named feature is located; geographic coordinates that locate the approximate center of an aerial feature or the mouth and source of a linear feature, such as a stream; name of the cell of the USGS topographic map or maps on which the feature may appear; elevation figures derived from the National Elevation Dataset; bibliographic code for the source of the name; BGN decision dates and historical information are available for some features. Data from the GNIS are used for emergency preparedness, mapmaking, local and regional planning, service delivery routing, marketing, site selection, environmental analysis, genealogical research, and other applications.

  3. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH PATHOLOGY OF TONSILS AND ADENOIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Александровна Нагаева

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There was conducted a study of the physical development of 85 4-6 year old preschool children with pathology of the tonsils and adenoids. Chronic diseases of adenotonsillar system (chronic tonsillitis, chronic adenoids were observed in 40 children, functional pathology (adenoid hypertrophy, hypertrophy of the tonsils – 45 children. Analysis of the parameters of physical development of the examined preschool children showed that 39,2 % of preschool children with diseases of the tonsils and adenoids manifest developmental disabilities, the severity of which depends on the nature of the pathology. Children with chronic diseases of tonsils and adenoids significantly more often have low values of height and weight. Children with functional disorders of adenotonsillar system oftener have high growth parameters, at the same time deviations of mass index of multidirectional nature are equally represented with deficiency (35,6 % and abundant (37,8 % of body weight. There was determined disharmonious physical development among majority of pre-school children (70 % with the pathology of the tonsils and adenoids. The survey results demonstrate the need for a differentiated approach to the assessment of physical development in children with tonsils and adenoids pathology depending on the form of defeat of epipharynx.

  4. Immunological response to re-infections with clones of the Colombian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi with different degrees of virulence: influence on pathological features during chronic infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lazaro da Silva Guerreiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Re-infections with Trypanosoma cruzi are an aggravating factor for Chagas disease morbidity. The Colombian strain of T. cruzi represents multiclonal populations formed by clonally propagating organisms with different tropisms and degrees of virulence. In the present study, the influence of successive inoculations with clones of the Colombian strain, exhibiting different degrees of virulence, on chronic myocarditis and the humoral and cellular immune responses (Col-C1 high virulence, Col-C8 medium virulence and Col-C5 low virulence were demonstrated. Mice from three groups with a single infection were evaluated during the acute (14th-30th day and chronic phases for 175 days. An immunofluorescence assay, ELISA and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH cutaneous test were also performed. Mice with a triple infection were studied on the 115th-175th days following first inoculation. The levels of IgM and IgG2a were higher in the animals with a triple infection. DTH showed a higher intensity in the inflammatory infiltrate based on the morphometric analysis during a 48 h period of the triple infection and at 24 h with a single infection. The histopathology of the heart demonstrated significant exacerbation of cardiac inflammatory lesions confirmed by the morphometric test. The humoral responses indicate a reaction to the triple infection, even with clones of the same strain.

  5. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mandelker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program′s core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists.

  6. Feline oral pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, S.; Pais, B.; Almeida, D.; Simões, J.; Mega, A. C.; Vala, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The main pathologies of the oral cavity are of utmost importance, not only by the number of exposed individuals, but also by the consequences which stems. With the development of this work, we intend to conduct a brief approach to the same, since, specifically affecting domestic felines. Feline Lymphoplasmatic Gingivostomatitis (GELF), the Feline Odontoclastic Reabsorption Lesions (LROF) Complex and gingivitis-stomatitis-pharyngitis, have been studied, some of which are considered an enigma i...

  7. Envy's pathology: Historical contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minou, Lina

    2017-01-01

    This article is concerned with the physicality of envy primarily in early -modern, but also in eighteenth-century health contexts. The discussion brings together descriptions of the effects of envy on the body of the envier, mainly from works of physiology and health preservation, but also from literary and spiritual writings. These depictions of envy are studied beyond their symbolism and with a view to establish whether they are meaningful according to the medical theories of the time in which they occur. The discussion begins by acknowledging the status of envy as a 'disease' and looks to the specific ways in which the discourse of envy conveys this sense. I find that in the early modern discourse envy is always pathological, that is, it is experienced as disease and signifies disease in general and several diseases in particular. Moreover, envy is uniquely placed to convey pathology on account of its being connected to inherently pathogenic elements of the humoural theory. Specifically, envy is physiologically connected to melancholy, and the way it is presented comes close to attributes assigned to black bile. In addition, envy realizes pathology, the occurrence of disease in the body, by impairing the vital process of digestion and thus depriving the person from proper nourishment and sustenance. The analysis further considers how this impairment of the body fits with the physiological manifestation of envy as 'corrosion' and 'consumption'. Finding commonalities with other maladies mediated by these physiological signs the article concludes by considering the function of pathology in the conception of early modern envy.

  8. Cerebral pathological changes and serous ET-1 levels of rats with chronic alcoholic encephalopathy%慢性酒精中毒脑病大鼠脑部血管及组织病理改变和血浆 ET-1变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 马钊; 沈丽; 杨雪

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察慢性酒精中毒脑病大鼠脑血管和脑组织病理改变及血浆ET-1变化。方法用灌胃法制备慢性酒精中毒脑病大鼠的动物模型;提取对照组和酒精组大鼠额叶、小脑及海马进行病理学观察,并采用放免法于造模后4,8,12,16周末测定各组血浆ET-1水平。结果酒精组额叶血管出现内皮细胞脱落、内弹力膜出现皱褶、管壁轻度增厚,管腔轻度狭窄等一系列病理改变;额叶大脑皮质及海马神经细胞数目缺失,排列不规则,细胞核固缩;小脑皮质浦肯野细胞明显减少,细胞外形不规则,胞体呈明显三角形改变,部分逐渐溶解及消失,颗粒细胞层细胞减少。酒精组血浆ET-1水平较对照组显著升高( P<0.05)。结论慢性酒精中毒会导致一系列脑组织及脑血管病理改变,酒精导致的脑血管损害是酒精中毒性脑病发生的病理机制之一。ET-1参与了酒精中毒性脑病的病理过程。%Objective To investigate the cerebral pathologi-cal changes and serous ET-1 levels of rats with chronic alcoholic encephalopathy.Methods The rat models of chronic alcoholic encephalopathy were established by perfusing stomach with alcohol. The frontal lobes ,cerebellums and hippocampi of rats in control and alcohol groups were separated to investigate the pathological changes. The serous ET-1 levels were detected by ra-dioimmunoassay at the 4 ,8 ,12 ,16th weekend.Results In the alcohol group ,vascular endothelial detachment ,internal elastic lamina shrinkage and vascular lacuna narrowing were shown in frontal lobar arterioles ;neuron loss ,disordered arrangement and karyopyknosis were observed in frontal lobes and hippocampi ;Purkinje cells became less and triangle shaping in cerebellar cortex. The serous ET-1 levels of alcohol group were significantly increased than control group (P<0.05).Conclusion Chron-ic alcoholism led to pathological damages of cerebral tissues and

  9. Masochism and pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Richard J

    2015-03-01

    That all pathological gamblers have an "unconscious wish to lose," an idea first expressed by Freud and Bergler, is neither true nor useful; wrong as well, however, are the reasons for neglecting masochism in relation to gambling. There is a small but clinically significant subgroup of pathological gamblers who are masochistic. I present clinical vignettes and a more extended treatment account to illustrate its importance. Masochism has been a confusing concept. As used here it refers to the deliberate seeking of pain, loss, suffering, or humiliation. There may be pleasure in pain, or an obligatory combining of pleasure and pain. A sense of power and control may be achieved through suffering. The case material illustrates clinically useful types (sexual masochism, masochistic personality disorder, moral masochism, relational masochism) as well as some common masochistic dynamics encountered in the treatment of pathological gamblers. These masochistic patterns are often identifiable during the initial evaluation. Distinguishing features may include a reversal of normal attitudes about winning and losing, the absence of an early winning phase, sometimes a memorable early loss. Gamblers may sabotage opportunities for success or create unnecessary obstacles for themselves. Losing may be more comfortable than winning or may be overtly sexualized.

  10. Practical pathology of aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper M. M. Treuting

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington.

  11. Incidental bony pathology when reporting trauma orthopantomograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macanovic, M., E-mail: mladenmaca@gmail.co [Derriford Hospital NHS Trust, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Gangidi, S.; Porter, G.; Brown, S.; Courtney, D. [Derriford Hospital NHS Trust, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Porter, J. [Community Dental Service, Plymouth Primary Care Trust, Plymouth, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Radiologists frequently report orthopantomograms (OPTs) and other views of the mandible, most often in patients who have suffered facial trauma. These examinations may reveal incidental pathology. It is important that radiologists are aware of the radiological appearances and the clinical significance of these lesions. In this review we will present examples of the more common odontogenic lesions including: radicular cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, and also examples of non-odontogenic pathology: bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) and chronic osteomyelitis. Although some of the lesions will require computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for further lesion characterization and evaluation of the surrounding tissues, we are going to focus on the plain film appearances. We will also briefly discuss the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and treatment of these lesions.

  12. Personality disorders and dimensions in pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2012-06-01

    Comorbid DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders appear to be common in pathological gambling (PG) and may contribute to the chronic problems often associated with the disorder. This study sought to examine the relationship between PG, personality disorders, and impulsivity in a sample of pathological gamblers. Personality assessments included the SCID-II, Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire, Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. A total of 77 individuals with DSM-IV PG were included in this study, of which 35 (45.5%) met criteria for at least one personality disorder. Specific aspects of impulsivity were associated with certain personality disorders in PG when grouped by cluster, yet the presence of a personality disorder was not positively correlated with gambling severity. It remains unclear how the presence of a personality disorder and aspects of impulsivity may affect treatment outcome. Further exploration of these disorders and dimensions of personality may encourage a more inclusively global treatment approach.

  13. Frozen section diagnosis in ophthalmic pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Jyotirmay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Frozen section diagnosis is extensively used in various branches of pathology, but its application in ophthalmic pathology was recognised only in the 1970s. We studied 10 sections of ocular and adenexal lesions by frozen section diagnosis, which included orbital lesions (4 cases, lid lesions (3 cases, and intraocular tissue (1 case. The time taken for processing ranged between 10 to 15 minutes. Diagnoses based on frozen section evaluation included lymphoma, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, solar keratosis, compound naevus, silicone oil globules in cataractous lens, neurofibromatosis, pseudotumour, retinoblastoma, and chronic blepharitis. Although further histopathologic examination correlated well with the frozen section (100% observations, the diagnosis was deferred in the case of naevus and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Our study shows that frozen section diagnosis in ophthalmic surgery is quite reliable and is particularly useful in ocular adenexal lesions

  14. Cortical myoclonus and cerebellar pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Thom, M; Ellison, DW; Wilkins, P; Barnes, D; Thompson, PD; Brown, P

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the electrophysiologic and pathologic findings in three patients with cortical myoclonus. In two patients the myoclonic ataxic syndrome was associated with proven celiac disease. Background: The pathologic findings in conditions associated with cortical myoclonus commonly involve

  15. Changes at the National Geographic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwille, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    For more than 125 years, National Geographic has explored the planet, unlocking its secrets and sharing them with the world. For almost thirty of those years, National Geographic has been committed to K-12 educators and geographic education through its Network of Alliances. As National Geographic begins a new chapter, they remain committed to the…

  16. Changes at the National Geographic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwille, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    For more than 125 years, National Geographic has explored the planet, unlocking its secrets and sharing them with the world. For almost thirty of those years, National Geographic has been committed to K-12 educators and geographic education through its Network of Alliances. As National Geographic begins a new chapter, they remain committed to the…

  17. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  18. Study on the relationship of serum vitamin E and liver pathological features in the patients with chronic hepatitis B%慢性乙型肝炎患者血清维生素E水平与肝组织病理的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晓鹏; 王凯; 王国伟; 范玉琛

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study on the relationship of serum vitamin E and liver pathological features in the patients with chronic hepatitis B. Methods Sixty-six patients with chronic hepatitis B and ten healthy controls were enrolled in this present study. The serum vitamin E level was measured spectrophotometrically. Comparisons of liver function test, HBeAg and HBV DNA level were conducted among different liver pathological features including inflammatory grading and fibrosis staging. Results Compared with healthy controls, the serum level of vitamin E was significantly decreased in the patients with chronic hepatitis B, especially in those with elevated ALT activity. In comparison between HBeAg positive group and HBeAg negative group, the serum level of vitamin E of the former group did not significantly changed (P 0.05). Furthermore, the serum level of vitamin E has been demonstrated to be negatively associated with the inflammation grading in the patients with chronic hepatitis B. However, there was no significant association between the serum vitamin E and liver fibrosis staging. Conclusion Vitamin E, as one of the important anti-oxidants, was demonstrated to be implicated in the progression of liver inflammation in the patients with chronic hepatitis B. Furthermore, the supplement of vitamin E would be a potential therapy for attenuate the inflammatory response.%目的 探讨慢性乙型肝炎(CHB)患者血清维生素E水平与肝组织病理的关系.方法 选择66例慢性乙型肝炎患者进行肝穿刺病理学检查,健康对照组10例.化学比色法检测血清维生素E表达水平,同时检测HBV DNA、HBeAg及肝功能.结果 与正常对照组相比,慢性乙型肝炎患者血清维生素E水平明显降低(P<0.01);HBeAg阳性组与HBeAg阴性组比较,血清维生素E水平无明显差别(P0.05).CHB患者血清维牛素E水平与肝脏组织炎症呈负相关关系(r=-0.451,P<0.05),而与肝脏组织纤维化程度无明显相关(r=0.02,P0.05).结论

  19. 慢性重型肝炎患者离体肝组织病理与临床诊断的相关性%Correlation research of isolated liver tissue pathology and clinical diagnosis in patients with chronic severe hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静; 于红卫; 刘钊; 刘晖; 张强; 姚勤伟; 冯岩梅; 李娟; 孟庆华

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究慢性重型肝炎患者的病理诊断与临床诊断的符合率,筛选与病理诊断符合率高的临床诊断指标.方法 选取2004年11月-2009年6月于北京佑安医院住院并进行肝移植的病例,筛选出临床诊断为慢性乙型重型肝炎和(或)病理诊断为慢性乙型重型肝炎的病例为研究对象.检测患者白细胞、血小板、平均红细胞体积、总胆红素、直接胆红素、白蛋白、ALT、AST、尿素氮、肌酐、血糖、胆碱酯酶、总胆固醇、γ-谷氨酰转移酶、碱性磷酸酶、血清钾、血清钠、凝血酶原活动度及血氨水平,彩色超声检查测量门静脉宽度及脾静脉厚度,并对其在不同组别患者间的差别进行比较.2组间数据比较用独立样本t检验,3组间数据比较用F检验.结果 51例患者中,临床及病理诊断符合率64.7%.慢性重型肝炎组ALT及AST分别为(675.0±510.0)U/L和(392.0±370.0)U/L,均高于活动性肝硬化组的(67.0±45.0)U/L和(103.0±59.0)U/L(t值分别为2.349和2.332,P值均<0.01);慢性重型肝炎组中发病时间<30d者的ALT为(761.0±743.0)U/L,明显高于发病时间≥30d者的(117.0±112.0)U/L(t=2.928,P<0.01);慢性重型肝炎组和活动性肝硬化组的酶-胆分离现象发生率分别为78.9%及0.结论 慢性乙型重型肝炎的临床与病理诊断符合率不高,观察ALT和AST升高幅度及疾病过程中有无酶-胆分离现象有助于提高慢性重型肝炎的诊断符合率.%Objective To study the coincidence rate of clinical diagonisis with pathological diagnosis for chronic severe hepatitis, and to screen out clinical indicators consistent with pathological diagnosis.Methods Fifty-one patients diagnosed as chronic severe hepatitis and underwent liver transplantation in Beijing You'an hospital from November 2004 to June 2009 participated in this study. The clinical data were selected as following: ALT, AST, urea nitrogen, creatininc, glucose, cholinesterase, total

  20. The Andes: A Geographical Portrait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bebbington

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: The Andes: A Geographical Portrait. By Axel Borsdorf and Christoph Stadel. Translated by Brigitte Scott and Christoph Stadel. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2015. xiv + 368 pp. US$ 139.00. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-319-03529-1.

  1. Geographic Projection of Cluster Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nerbonne, J.; Bosveld-de Smet, L.M.; Kleiweg, P.; Blackwell, A.; Marriott, K.; Shimojima, A.

    2004-01-01

    A composite cluster map displays a fuzzy categorisation of geographic areas. It combines information from several sources to provide a visualisation of the significance of cluster borders. The basic technique renders the chance that two neighbouring locations are members of different clusters as the

  2. Geographical Concepts in Turkish Lullabys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çifçi, Taner

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a collection of lullabies which have an important place in Turkish culture and which form an important genre in folk literature are examined to find out distribution and presentation of geographical terms in the lullabies in this collection. In the study, 2480 lullabies in Turkish Lullabies which is one of the leading collections in…

  3. Territorial Decentration and Geographic Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltman, Joseph P.

    Territorial decentration is a question of major significance to geographic educators. This paper reports the findings of a research project designed to determine the territorial decentration of an American sample of children. The primary purpose of the research was to determine if Piaget's territorial decentration stages are appropriate for…

  4. 儿童慢性炎症性脱鞘性多神经病的临床和病理改变特点%Clinical and pathological features in the childhood chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾兴华; 郑日亮; 陈彬; 常杏芝; 熊辉; 吕俊兰; 袁云

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨儿童慢性炎症性脱鞘性多神经病(chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy,CI-DP)的临床及病理改变特点.方法 根据欧洲神经肌肉病中心修订的儿童CIDP诊断标准诊断的10例17岁以下患者,收集其临床资料,进行周围神经电生理以及腓肠神经的病理检查.结果 所有患者主要表现为肢体无力,分别有4例和3例出现四肢感觉减退和颅神经损害.9例有脑脊液蛋白细胞分离现象.10例均出现运动或感觉神经传导速度减慢及远端潜伏期延长,9例患者的动作电位波幅降低.所有患者的有髓神经纤维出现轻-重度减少,其中3例患者的纤维脱失程度在不同束间存在差异,6例患者以脱髓鞘为主;3例以轴索损害为主.1例患者仅出现轻微改变.9例患者存在炎细胞浸润.结论 儿童CIDP以肢体无力为主.部分患者以轴索损害为主,神经纤维脱失程度可以存在束间差异.

  5. Pathology of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijgen, Sandrine; Terris, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCC) is a primary carcinoma of the liver with increasing significance and major pathogenic, clinical and therapeutic challenges. Classically, it arises from malignant transformation of cholangiocytes bordering small portal bile duct (BD) to second-order segmental large BDs. It has three major macroscopic growth pattern [mass-forming (MF), periductal infiltrative (PI), and intraductal growth (IG)] and histologically is a desmoplastic stroma-rich adenocarcinoma with cholangiocyte differentiation. Recent data pointed out noteworthy degree of heterogeneity in regards of their epidemiology and risk factors, pathological and molecular features, pathogenesis, clinical behaviors and treatment. Notably, several histological variants are described and can coexist within the same tumor. Several different cells of origin have also been depicted in a fraction of iCCs, amongst which malignant transformation of ductules, of hepatic stem/progenitor cells, of periductal glands or through oncogenic reprogramming of adult hepatocytes. A degree of pathological overlap with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be observed in a portion of iCC. A series of precursor lesions are today characterized and emphasize the existence of a multistep carcinogenesis process. Overall, these new data have brought up in proposal of new histological or molecular classifications, which could soon replace current anatomic-based classification and could have major impact on establishment of prognosis and on development of novel target treatment approaches. PMID:28261592

  6. [(Impending) pathological fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, P M; Regazzoni, P

    2002-01-01

    Pathological fractures will be encountered in increasing frequency due to more patients with cancer, surviving a longer period. The skeleton is the third most frequent localization for metastases. Breast cancer is still the most common primary tumor, but bone metastases from lung cancer seem to be diagnosed more and more. Despite of finding metastases most often in the spinal column, fractures are seen mostly at the femoral site. A pathological fracture and, in almost all cases, an impending fracture are absolute indication for operation. An exact definition of an "impending fracture" is still lacking; it is widely accepted, that 50 per cent of bone mass must be destroyed before visualization in X-ray is possible, thus defining an impending fracture. The score system by Mirels estimates the fracture risk by means of four parameters (localization, per cent of destructed bone mass, type of metastasis, pain). Improving quality of life, relieving pain, preferably with a single operation and a short length of stay are the goals of (operative) treatment. For fractures of the proximal femur, prosthetic replacement, for fractures of the subtrochanteric region or the shaft, intramedullary nails are recommended. Postoperative radiation therapy possibly avoids tumor progression. In patient with a good long term prognosis, tumor should be removed locally aggressive.

  7. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Foer, Bert [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: bert.defoer@GZA.be; Kenis, Christoph [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: christophkenis@hotmail.com; Van Melkebeke, Deborah [Department of Neurology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Deborah.vanmelkebeke@Ugent.be; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: jphver@yahoo.com; Somers, Thomas [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Thomas.somers@GZA.be; Pouillon, Marc [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: marc.pouillon@GZA.be; Offeciers, Erwin [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Erwin.offeciers@GZA.be; Casselman, Jan W. [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Jan AV Hospital, Ruddershove 10, Bruges (Belgium); Consultant Radiologist, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Academic Consultent, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: jan.casselman@azbrugge.be

    2010-05-15

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  8. LATE RENAL GRAFT REJECTION: PATHOLOGY AND PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Stolyarevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rejection has always been one of the most important cause of late renal graft dysfunction. Aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of different clinico-pathological variants of rejection that cause late graft dysfunction, and evaluate their impact on long-term outcome. Materials and methods. This is a retrospective study that analyzed 294 needle core biopsy specimens from 265 renal transplant recipients with late (48,8 ± 46,1 months after transplantation allograft dysfunction caused by late acute rejection (LAR, n = 193 or chronic rejection (CR, n = 78 or both (n = 23. C4d staining was performed by immunofl uorescence (IF on frozen sections using a standard protocol. Results. Peritubular capillary C4d deposition was identifi ed in 36% samples with acute rejection and in 62% cases of chronic rejection (including 67% cases of transplant glomerulopathy, and 50% – of isolated chronic vasculopathy. 5-year graft survival for LAR vs CR vs their combination was 47, 13 and 25%, respectively. The outcome of C4d– LAR was (p < 0,01 better than of C4d+ acute rejection: at 60 months graft survival for diffuse C4d+ vs C4d− was 33% vs 53%, respectively. In cases of chronic rejection C4d+ vs C4d– it was not statistically signifi cant (34% vs 36%. Conclusion. In long-term allograft biopsy C4d positivity is more haracteristic for chronic rejection than for acute rejection. Only diffuse C4d staining affects the outcome. C4d– positivity is associated with worse allograft survival in cases of late acute rejection, but not in cases of chronic rejection. 

  9. Chronic pneumonitis of infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Katsumi; Kamata, Noriko; Okazaki, Eiwa [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Moriyama, Sachiko; Funata, Nobuaki [Department of Pathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Takita, Junko; Yamada, Hideo; Takayama, Naohide [Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare lung disease in infants and young children. We report a 33-day-old infant with CPI, focusing on the radiologic aspects of the disease. Chest radiographs showed variable and non-specific appearances including ground-glass shadowing, consolidation, volume loss, and hyperinflation. Dense alveolar opacities progressed as CPI advanced. The radiologic features of our case reflected pathologic changes. (orig.)

  10. Study on Correlation between TCM Syndrome Type and Pathological Changes of Liver Tissue in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B%慢性乙型肝炎患者中医证型与肝组织病理改变的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾香英; 符林春; 谭行华; 范慧敏; 张爱民

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the correlation between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome type and liver tissue pathological changes in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in order to provide a more objective evidence in modernization research of TCM Syndrome. Methods:80 cases of CHB patients were collected and carried out liver tissue pathological biopsy and TCM syndrome types respectively. Liver tissue inflammation grading and fibrosis staging criteria with reference to Prevention and Treatment Plan of Viral Hepatitis and the relationship between TCM syndrome types and liver tissue pathological changes were investigated. Results: All patients were divided into three TCM syndrome types;liver stagnation with spleen deficiency syndrome (type 1,28 cases,accouting for 35% ) , liver-gallbladder dampness-heat syndrome( type 2,32 cases,accouting for 40% ) and liver-kidney yin deficiency syndrome (type 3 ,20 cases, accouting for 25% ). The inflammation grading of the liver tissue in the three types of patients was G1 in type 1, G2 in type 2, and G3 in type 3. The main stage of liver fibrosis was S1 or S2 in type 1 ,S2 in type 2,and S2 or S3 in type 3. The inflammation grading of the liver tissue and stage of liver fibrosis in each syndrome type were distinctly different from other two types( P < 0. 01). Conclusion: Liver tissue pathological change of CHB patients is highly correlated to distribution of the TCM syndrome type in this study. With the development of TCM syndrome from liver stagnation with spleen deficiency syndrome to liver-gallbladder dampness-heat syndrome, and lastly to liver-kidney yin deficiency syndrome, the liver pathological lesion has the tendency to become more severe.%目的:对慢性乙型肝炎患者常见的中医证型与肝组织病理改变进行相关性研究,以期为中医证型现代化研究提供客观依据.方法:收集80例慢性乙型肝炎患者,分别进行肝组织病理活检及中医辨证分型,肝组织的炎症分级

  11. No pain, no pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Devesh; Govind, Abha

    2012-10-26

    A 22-year-old girl who had a background of reflux nephropathy and urinary tact infection presented during the night with renal angle pain and vomiting. She was treated on the emergency department (ED) pyelonephritis protocol and admitted to the short stay ward. When reviewed the next morning she was aymptomatic and feeling better. It seemed likely that she would be discharged but an ED ultrasound showed right-sided hydronephrosis and some fluid between the liver and the right kidney. CT examination confirmed the suspicion of renal tract obstruction and ruptured calyx. An 8 mm calculus was found to be the cause of the pathology. Urgent urological review was organised and the system formally decompressed with a J-J stent inserted cystoscopically later that day.

  12. Clinical and experimental pathology of Moyamoya disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶明俐; 张海鸥; 刘群; 张淑琴; 胡林森; 邓方

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the etiology, pathology, and mechanism of pathogenesis of Moyamoya disease.Methods A total of 15 human autopsies were analyzed. In addition, in order to create an animal model of the disease, 21 Japanese rabbits were divided randomly into two groups and subjected to injections of horse serum either intravenously or locally in the area of the sympathetic ganglia. Pathological and immunohistochemical characteristics were observed.Results The pathological features of the autopsies and the animal models both involved intima hyperplasia and stenosis or even occlusion of the lumen in the terminal ends of the internal carotid artery and the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. Disconnections or even breakages of the inner layer of the lumen were also observed, without an obvious inflammatory response. Hyperplasic smooth muscle cells of the medial membrane had extended inward through broken portions of the internal elastic lamina, with intima cell hyperplasia resulting in lumen stenosis. The hyperplastic vascular walls were positive for IgG and IgM.Conclusions The etiology of Moyamoya disease may involve allergic angiitis. A possible mechanism is that proximal portions of the circle of Willis first develop chronic stenosis or occlusion, leading to compensatory small vessel proliferation, which perforates into the cerebral parenchyma.

  13. Pathological conditions associated with rhinitis medicamentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Dušanka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinitis medicamentosa (nose-drop-nose" is a term used for pathological condition of the nasal mucous membrane that results from long-term abuse with intranasal vasoconstrictors. The aim of this work was to examine what lead the patients with nosedropnose rhinitis to the initial usage of intranasal vasoactive drugs, in this prospective study, 92 patients with rhinitis medicamentosa were included. The evaluation of all study subjects comprised the history, ORL, microbiological and radiological examination, skin prick tests with a battery of routine respiratory and nutritive allergens and nasal cytology. The results of this study showed that the pathological conditions for initial use of intranasal vasoactive drugs were: acute upper respiratory infections in 293%, vasomotor rhinitis in 21.7%, allergic rhinitis in 16.3%, deviated nasal septum in 13.0%, nasal polyposis in 12%, rhinitis induced by mechanical trauma in 4.4%, and hormonal rhinitis in 3.3% of patients with rhinitis medicamentosa. In conclusion, the most common pathological conditions for developing rhinitis medicamentosa were chronic inflammatory and structural diseases manifested by permanent nasal obstruction as well as acute upper respiratory infections are.

  14. [Pathology of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Although genetic testing is available, nerve biopsy is useful in selected patients for the diagnosis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). These are sporadic cases of hereditary neuropathy, or familial cases in which genetic testing is negative. CMT is caused by mutations of various genes. The pathological features of CMT have mostly been investigated using nerve biopsy, which may shed light on the presumed functions of mutated gene products. PMP22 duplication in CMT1A induces numerous large onion bulb lesions (OB). Compared to chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, the differential features of CMT1A are patchy distribution of OB and non-inflammatory lesions. CMT1B also manifests as OB, but presents abnormal compaction of myelin sheaths caused by uncompacted myelin or excessive myelin folding. CMT2 includes axonal neuropathies and many causative genes have been found. CMT2A (MFN2 mutation) shows abnormal mitochondria with a spherical morphology instead of tubular in the longitudinal direction. CMT4 consists of autosomal recessive forms with demyelinating pathology. Most subtypes have mutations of genes relating to myelin maintenance, and pathologically, they show abnormal folding of the myelin structure.

  15. Digital pathology: Attitudes and practices in the Canadian pathology community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaleni Bellis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital pathology is a rapidly evolving niche in the world of pathology and is likely to increase in popularity as technology improves. We performed a questionnaire for pathologists and pathology residents across Canada, in order to determine their current experiences and attitudes towards digital pathology; which modalities digital pathology is best suited for; and to assess the need for training in digital pathology amongst pathology residents and staff. An online survey consisting of 24 yes/no, multiple choice and free text questions regarding digital pathology was sent out via E-mail to all members of the Canadian Association of Pathologists and pathology residents across Canada. Survey results showed that telepathology (TP is used in approximately 43% of institutions, primarily for teaching purposes (65%, followed by operating room consults (46%. Seventy-one percent of respondents believe there is a need for TP in their practice; 85% use digital images in their practice. The top two favored applications for digital pathology are teaching and consultation services, with the main advantage being easier access to cases. The main limitations of using digital pathology are cost and image/diagnostic quality. Sixty-two percent of respondents would attend training courses in pathology informatics and 91% think informatics should be part of residency training. The results of the survey indicate that Pathologists and residents across Canada do see a need for TP and the use of digital images in their daily practice. Integration of an informatics component into resident training programs and courses for staff Pathologists would be welcomed.

  16. Annotation Bibliography for Geographical Science Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukendra Martha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This annotated bibliography is gathered specially for the field of geography obtained from various scientific articles (basic concept in geography of different geographical journals. This article aims to present information particulary for geographers who will undertake researches, and indeed need the geographical References with all spatial concepts. Other reason defeated by the rapid development of the branch of technical geography such as geographical information systems (GIS and remote sensing. It hopes that this bibliography can contribute of remotivating geographers to learn and review their original geographical thought.

  17. IL FENOMENO VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Lupia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution addresses the phenomenon of Voluntereed Geographic Informationexplaining these new and burgeoning sources of information offers multidisciplinary scientists an unprecedented opportunity to conduct research on a variety of topics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In particular the contribution refers to two COST Actions which have been recently activated on the subject which areparticularly relevant for the growing of the European scientific community.

  18. Geographic Luck and Dependency Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziheng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Economic disparity is a huge global issue nowadays which threatens the economic justice and thus in some sense decides the fate of human be-ing,especially those from developing countries.This essay analyzes economic disparity by using Geographic Luck and Dependency Theory.None of the two theories could explain the economic disparity individually.China,Britain and Iran are used as three examples to support the thesis.

  19. Geographic Information System Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Chad; Casad, Christopher; Floriano, Luis G.; Hill, Tracie; Johnson, Rashida K.; Locklear, J. Mark; Penn, Stephen; Rhoulac, Tori; Shay, Adam H.; Taylor, Antone; hide

    1995-01-01

    Data was collected in order to further NASA Langley Research Center's Geographic Information System(GIS). Information on LaRC's communication, electrical, and facility configurations was collected. Existing data was corrected through verification, resulting in more accurate databases. In addition, Global Positioning System(GPS) points were used in order to accurately impose buildings on digitized images. Overall, this project will help the Imaging and CADD Technology Team (ICTT) prove GIS to be a valuable resource for LaRC.

  20. Geographic names of the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,; ,; ,; Alberts, Fred G.

    1995-01-01

    This gazetteer contains 12,710 names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and the Secretary of the Interior for features in Antarctica and the area extending northward to the Antarctic Convergence. Included in this geographic area, the Antarctic region, are the off-lying South Shetland Islands, the South Orkney Islands, the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia, Bouvetøya, Heard Island, and the Balleny Islands. These names have been approved for use by U.S. Government agencies. Their use by the Antarctic specialist and the public is highly recommended for the sake of accuracy and uniformity. This publication, which supersedes previous Board gazetteers or lists for the area, contains names approved as recently as December 1994. The basic name coverage of this gazetteer corresponds to that of maps at the scale of 1:250,000 or larger for coastal Antarctica, the off-lying islands, and isolated mountains and ranges of the continent. Much of the interior of Antarctica is a featureless ice plateau. That area has been mapped at a smaller scale and is nearly devoid of toponyms. All of the names are for natural features, such as mountains, glaciers, peninsulas, capes, bays, islands, and subglacial entities. The names of scientific stations have not been listed alphabetically, but they may appear in the texts of some decisions. For the names of submarine features, reference should be made to the Gazetteer of Undersea Features, 4th edition, U.S. Board on Geographic Names, 1990.

  1. Evaluation of serum HBsAg, HBcrAg and HBV DNA in prediction of the pathological status of liver in patients with chronic hepatitis B%血清HBsAg、HBcrAg和HBV DNA预测慢性乙型肝炎肝脏病理状态的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张占卿; 陆伟; 翁齐铖; 张智勇; 沈芳; 王雁冰; 冯艳玲

    2016-01-01

    目的:评价血清乙型肝炎病毒表面抗原(HBsAg)、乙型肝炎病毒核心相关抗原(HBcrAg)和乙型肝炎病毒DNA(HBV DNA)预测慢性乙型肝炎(CHB)患者肝脏不同病理学分级和分期的有效性。方法共选取CHB患者211例,其中HBeAg阳性和阴性分别为125例和86例。血清HBsAg、HBeAg和HBcrAg分别采用化学发光微粒子免疫法和化学发光酶免疫法检测,血清HBV DNA采用实时荧光定量PCR检测。结果 HBeAg阳性患者,血清HBsAg、HBcrAg和HBV DNA与肝脏病理学分级和分期均呈显著负相关(P均<0.05);HBeAg阴性患者,血清HBcrAg和HBV DNA与肝脏病理学分级和分期均呈显著正相关(P均<0.01)。Bayes逐步判别分析显示,HBeAg阳性患者,仅血清HBsAg符合判别肝脏不同病理学分级和分期的方程纳入自变量的标准(F >3.84),Fisher判别函数预测肝脏病理学分级G1、G3和分期S1、S4的正确率分别为62.7%、58.8%和63.8%、69.6%;HBeAg阴性患者,血清HBV DNA和HBcrAg分别符合判别肝脏不同病理学分级和分期的方程纳入自变量的标准(F >3.84),Fisher判别函数预测肝脏病理学分级G1、G3和分期S1、S4的正确率分别为79.3%、66.7%和71.7%、75.0%。结论血清HBsAg对HBeAg阳性患者以及血清HBV DNA和HBcrAg分别对HBeAg阴性患者的肝脏病理学分级G1、G3和分期S1、S4有显著的预测意义。%Objective To evaluate the efficacy of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) and hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV DNA) in predicting the pathological grading and staging of liver in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods Total of 211 patients with CHB, including 125 cases with HBeAg-positive and 86 cases with HBeAg-negative, were enrolled. The levels of serum HBsAg, HBcrAg and HBV DNA were measured by chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay, chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay and real time

  2. Nontraditional applications in clinical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Holly L; Register, Thomas C; Tripathi, Niraj K; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Everds, Nancy; Zelmanovic, David; Poitout, Florence; Bounous, Denise I; Wescott, Debra; Ramaiah, Shashi K

    2014-10-01

    Most published reviews of preclinical toxicological clinical pathology focus on the fundamental aspects of hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis in routine toxicology animal species, for example, rats, mice, dogs, and nonhuman primates. The objective of this continuing education course was to present and discuss contemporary examples of nonroutine applications of clinical pathology endpoints used in the drug development setting. Area experts discussed bone turnover markers of laboratory animal species, clinical pathology of pregnant and growing laboratory animals, clinical pathology of nonroutine laboratory animal species, and unique applications of the Siemens Advia(®) hematology analyzer. This article is a summary based on a presentation given at the 31st Annual Symposium of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology, during the Continuing Education Course titled "Nontraditional Applications of Clinical Pathology in Drug Discovery and Preclinical Toxicology."

  3. Geographic tongue and psoriasis: clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and genetic correlation - a literature review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciani, Bruna Lavinas Sayed; Domingos, Tábata Alves; Teixeira-Souza, Thays; dos Santos, Vanessa de Carla Batista; Gonzaga, Heron Fernando de Sousa; Cardoso-Oliveira, Juliana; Gripp, Alexandre Carlos; Dias, Eliane Pedra; Carneiro, Sueli

    2016-01-01

    Geographic tongue is a chronic, inflammatory, and immune-mediated oral lesion of unknown etiology. It is characterized by serpiginous white areas around the atrophic mucosa, which alternation between activity, remission and reactivation at various locations gave the names benign migratory glossitis and wandering rash of the tongue. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with frequent cutaneous involvement and an immunogenetic basis of great importance in clinical practice. The association between geographic tongue and psoriasis has been demonstrated in various studies, based on observation of its fundamental lesions, microscopic similarity between the two conditions and the presence of a common genetic marker, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) HLA-C*06. The difficulty however in accepting the diagnosis of geographic tongue as oral psoriasis is the fact that not all patients with geographic tongue present psoriasis. Some authors believe that the prevalence of geographic tongue would be much greater if psoriatic patients underwent thorough oral examination. This study aimed to develop a literature review performed between 1980 and 2014, in which consultation of theses, dissertations and selected scientific articles were conducted through search in Scielo and Bireme databases, from Medline and Lilacs sources, relating the common characteristics between geographic tongue and psoriasis. We observed that the frequency of oral lesions is relatively common, but to establish a correct diagnosis of oral psoriasis, immunohistochemical and genetic histopathological analyzes are necessary, thus highlighting the importance of oral examination in psoriatic patients and cutaneous examination in patients with geographic tongue. PMID:27579734

  4. [Psychiatric comorbidity in pathological gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokauskas, Norbertas; Satkeviciūte, Regina; Burba, Benjaminas

    2003-01-01

    In this article the peculiarities of psychiatric comorbidity in pathological gambling were investigated. The authors were based both on the data of many foreign scientists and on their own one. Our data on 77 cases of pathological gambling were collected based on interviews of Lithuanian psychiatrists and psychotherapists about their patients with gambling addiction in period from 1991 to 2001. The data that we publish and analyze allows us to make conclusions that pathological gambling can reveal together with very wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders, but more often with alcoholism and depression. The mechanism of psychiatric comorbidity in pathological gambling is very complex.

  5. Recommendations for pathology peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Daniel; Sellers, Rani S; Barale-Thomas, Erio; Bolon, Brad; George, Catherine; Hardisty, Jerry F; Irizarry, Armando; McKay, Jennifer S; Odin, Marielle; Teranishi, Munehiro

    2010-12-01

    Pathology peer review verifies and improves the accuracy and quality of pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Pathology peer review is recommended when important risk assessment or business decisions are based on nonclinical studies. For pathology peer review conducted before study completion, the peer-review pathologist reviews sufficient slides and pathology data to assist the study pathologist in refining pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Materials to be reviewed are selected by the peer-review pathologist. Consultations with additional experts or a formal (documented) pathology working group may be used to resolve discrepancies. The study pathologist is solely responsible for the content of the final pathology data and report, makes changes resulting from peer-review discussions, initiates the audit trail for microscopic observations after all changes resulting from peer-review have been made, and signs the final pathologist's report. The peer-review pathologist creates a signed peer-review memo describing the peer-review process and confirming that the study pathologist's report accurately and appropriately reflects the pathology data. The study pathologist also may sign a statement of consensus. It is not necessary to archive working notes created during the peer-review process.

  6. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Admin Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  7. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Antarctica Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  8. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  9. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  10. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Community Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  11. Geographic Place Names, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geographic Place Names dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent...

  12. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Landform Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  13. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Historical Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  14. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Transportation Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  15. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Cultural Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  16. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  17. [Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliasnyĭ, M M

    1991-01-01

    Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness.

  18. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... Chronic myelogenous leukemia is grouped into phases: Chronic Accelerated Blast crisis The chronic phase can last for ...

  19. Geographic atrophy: Etiopathogenesis and current therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Ibáñez, M; Barreiro-González, A; Gallego-Pinazo, R; Dolz-Marco, R; García-Armendariz, B

    2017-09-05

    Geographic atrophy is characterized by severe visual deficit whose etiology and pathophysiology are yet to be elucidated. As a working hypothesis, oxidative damage could trigger a chronic inflammation in Bruch's membrane-RPE-choriocapillaris complex, mostly due to complement pathway overactivation. Some individuals with mutations in the complement system and other factors have diminished capacity in the modulation of the inflammatory response, which results in cell damage and waste accumulation. This accumulation of intracellular and extracellular waste products manifests as drusen and pigmentary changes that precede the atrophy of photoreceptors, RPE, choriocapillaris with an ischemic process with decreased choroid flow. All these processes can be detected as tomographic findings and autofluorescence signals that are useful in the evaluation of patients with atrophic AMD, which helps to establish an individualized prognosis. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and therapies that decrease the accumulation of toxins for the preservation of the RPE cells and photoreceptors are being investigated in order to slow down the progression of this disease. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of serum hepatitis B core-related antigen in prediction of the pathological status of liver tissue in patients with chronic hepatitis B%血清乙型肝炎核心相关抗原预测慢性乙型肝炎肝组织病理状态的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张占卿; 陆伟; 翁齐铖; 张智勇; 沈芳; 王雁冰; 冯艳玲

    2015-01-01

    (HBcrAg)in prediction of the inflammatory activity and fibrotic level of liver tissue in patients with chronic hepatitis B.Methods Two hundred and eleven patients with chronic hepatitis B,including 125 hepatitis B e antigen (HbeAg)-positive and 86 HBeAg-negative patients, were enrolled in the study.Serum HBcrAg were measured by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay.SPSS 16.0 software was used for data processes and statistical analyses.Results In HBeAg-positive patients,serum HBcrAg had a significantly negative correlation with pathological grading and staging (rs = -0.305,P =0.001 和 rs = -0.370,P =0.000),which showed statistically significant differences in different pathological grading and staging (rs = 16.756,P =0.000 和 rs =25.003,P =0.000).In HBeAg-negative patients,serum HBcrAg was significantly positively correlated with pathological grading and staging (rs =0.476,P =0.000 和 rs =0.556,P =0.000),which showed statistically significant difference in different pathological grading and staging (rs =22.529,P =0.000 和 rs =26.416,P =0.000).In HBeAg-positive patients, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC)curve of serum HBcrAg in prediction of pathological grading ≥G3 and staging ≥S3 were 0.722 and 0.739 (P =0.000 and P =0.000),respectively.The sensitivities,specificities and accuracies in prediction of pathological grading ≥ G3 and staging ≥ S3 were 0.706,0.714,0.712 and 0.821 ,0.698, 0.736,respectively,when the cut-off values of serum HBcrAg were not more than 4.81 ×104 kU/mL and 8.13×104 kU/mL.In HBeAg-negative patients,the areas under the ROC curve of serum HBcrAg in prediction of pathological grading ≥G2 and staging ≥S2 were 0.807 and 0.799 (P =0.000 and P =0.000),respectively.taking serum HBcrAg ≥40.18 kU/mL and ≥10.64 kU/mL as cut-offs,The sensitivities,specificities and accuracies in prediction of pathological grading ≥G2 and staging ≥S2 were 0.821 ,0.724,0.756 and 0.775,0.696,0.733,respectively,when the cut

  1. How a Geographer Looks at Globalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natoli, Salvatore J.

    1990-01-01

    Argues a global perspective is inherent to all geographic research and education. Quotes several influential geographers concerning their views on globalism and geography as a discipline. Examines geography's five fundamental themes and their applicability to a global perspective. Considers roles geographers can play in solving world environmental…

  2. Relevance Measures Using Geographic Scopes and Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andogah, Geoffrey; Bouma, Gosse; Peters, C; Jikoun,; Mandl, T; Muller, H; Oard, DW; Penas, A; Petras,; Santos, D

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes two kinds of relevance measures to rank documents by geographic restriction: scope-based and type-based. The non-geographic and geographic relevance scores are combined using a weighted harmonic mean. The proposed relevance measures and weighting schemes are evaluated on GeoCLEF

  3. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 166.103...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY SHIPPING SAFETY FAIRWAYS General § 166.103 Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not intended for plotting on maps...

  4. 33 CFR 167.3 - Geographic coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 167.3...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES General § 167.3 Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates are defined using North American 1927 Datum (NAD 27) unless indicated otherwise....

  5. Network sensitivity to geographical configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, A C; McClelland, D E; Searle, Antony C; Scott, Susan M; Clelland, David E Mc

    2002-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy will require the coordinated analysis of data from the global network of gravitational wave observatories. Questions of how to optimally configure the global network naturally arise in this context. We propose a formalism to compare different configurations of the network, using both the coincident network analysis method and the coherent network analysis method, and construct a model to compute a figure-of-merit based on the detection rate for a population of standard-candle binary inspirals. We find that this measure of network quality is very sensitive to the geographic location of component detectors under a coincident network analysis, but comparatively insensitive under a coherent network analysis.

  6. Relationship between pathological change of gastric mucosa in children with chronic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection%幽门螺杆菌感染与儿童慢性胃炎胃黏膜病理变化关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余熠; 张寅; 王筱金; 许春娣

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨幽门螺杆菌(HP)感染对不同年龄组儿童慢性胃炎胃黏膜病理变化的影响.方法 2007年1月至2010年12月,对上海交通大学医学院附属瑞金医院1634例反复上消化道症状儿童行电子胃镜检查,取胃窦部黏膜组织检测HP,按1996年悉尼标准进行病理评分,分析HP感染与炎症严重程度及活动性的关系.并根据年龄分为4组:<4岁组69例,4~<7岁组313例,7~<11岁组706例,11 ~ 18岁组546例,比较各组HP感染率、活动性病变发生率以及淋巴滤泡检出率的差异.结果 1634例患儿中HP阳性524例(32.1%),阳性率随年龄增长而升高.HP阳性患儿活动性炎症、中重度炎症、中性粒细胞浸润、淋巴细胞重度浸润和淋巴滤泡的检出率均高于阴性者(P<0.01).胃黏膜病理示慢性浅表性胃炎(CSG)中、重度炎症及慢性萎缩性胃炎(CAG)中度炎症的发生率,HP阳性患儿均高于阴性者(P<0.01).除婴幼儿组外,各年龄组HP感染患儿的活动性病变发生率和淋巴滤泡检出率均显著高于HP阴性者(P<0.05).结论 儿童HP感染率随年龄增长而升高.HP感染与胃黏膜炎症严重程度、活动性炎症发生率以及滤泡样改变均密切相关,与慢性胃炎不同病理类型的严重程度也密切相关.%Objective To investigate the correlation between the Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection in children with chronic gastritis of different age and the pathologic change of their gastric mucosa. Methods Electronic gastroscope examinations were performed in 1634 children who came to Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine for repeated upper gastrointestinal symptoms from January 2007 to December 2010. Then the antral mucosal tissues were extracted for the. HP detection and pathologic analysis. The histopathologieal findings were scored and classified according to the Sydney System. Correlations between the inflammatory severity and HP infection were

  7. Podocyte Pathology and Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eMerscher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are components of the lipid rafts in plasma membranes, which are important for proper function of podocytes, a key element of the glomerular filtration barrier. Research revealed an essential role of sphingolipids and sphingolipid metabolites in glomerular disorders of genetic and non-genetic origin. The discovery that glucocerebrosides accumulate in Gaucher disease in glomerular cells and are associated with clinical proteinuria initiated intensive research into the function of other sphingolipids in glomerular disorders. The accumulation of sphingolipids in other genetic diseases including Tay-Sachs, Sandhoff, Fabry, hereditary inclusion body myopathy 2, Niemann-Pick and nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type and its implications with respect to glomerular pathology will be discussed. Similarily, sphingolipid accumulation occurs in glomerular diseases of non-genetic origin including diabetic kidney disease (DKD, HIV-associated nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS and lupus nephritis. Sphingomyelin metabolites, such as ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate have also gained tremendous interest. We recently described that sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like 3b (SMPDL3b is expressed in podocytes where it modulates acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase activity and acts as a master modulator of danger signaling. Decreased SMPDL3b expression in post-reperfusion kidney biopsies from transplant recipients with idiopathic FSGS correlates with the recurrence of proteinuria in patients and in experimental models of xenotransplantation. Increased SMPDL3b expression is associated with DKD. The consequences of differential SMPDL3b expression in podocytes in these diseases with respect to their pathogenesis will be discussed. Finally, the role of sphingolipids in the formation of lipid rafts in podocytes and their contribution to the maintenance of a functional slit diaphragm in the glomerulus will be discussed.

  8. Research on Geographical Urban Conditions Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    by LUO A1inghai Abstract Geographical national conditions monitoring has become an important task of surveying and geographical information industry, and will make a profound influence on the development of surveying and ge- ographical information. This paper introduced the basic concept of ge- ographical national conditions monitoring, and discussed its main tasks including complete surveying, dynamic monitoring, statistical analysis and regular release, and expounded the main content of geographical urban conditions monitoring including urbanization monitoring, social- economic development monitoring, transportation foundation monitor- ing and natural ecological environment monitoring, and put forwards the framework system of geographical urban conditions monitoring. Key words surveying and mapping ,geographical national conditions, monitoring ( Page:l )

  9. Pathology of Minamata disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, K

    1997-01-01

    Minamata disease, or methylmercury poisoning, was first discovered in 1956 around Minamata Bay, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. A similar epidemic occurred in 1965 along the Agano River, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. The neuropathology of Minamata disease has been well studied; this review focuses on human cases of Minamata disease in Kumamoto Prefecture. Nervous system lesions associated with Minamata disease have a characteristic distribution. In the cerebral cortex, the calcarine cortex was found to be involved in all cases of Minamata disease, particularly along the calcarine fissure. The destruction of nerve tissue was prominent in the anterior portions of the calcarine cortex. Occasionally, the centrifugal route from the visual and visual association areas (internal sagittal stratum) showed secondary degeneration in prolonged cases after acute onset. Postcentral, precentral, and temporal transverse cortices showed similar changes, though they were less severe. Intense lesions in the precentral cortex caused the development of secondary bilateral degeneration of the pyramidal tracts. In the cerebellum, the lesions occurred deeper in the hemisphere. The granule cell population was most affected. In the peripheral nerves, sensory nerves were more affected than motor nerves. Secondary degeneration of Goll's tracts was occasionally seen in prolonged or chronic cases.

  10. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  11. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-04-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal.

  12. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-01-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal. PMID:28374825

  13. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  14. Geographic profiling and animal foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Comber, Steven C; Nicholls, Barry; Rossmo, D Kim; Racey, Paul A

    2006-05-21

    Geographic profiling was originally developed as a statistical tool for use in criminal cases, particularly those involving serial killers and rapists. It is designed to help police forces prioritize lists of suspects by using the location of crime scenes to identify the areas in which the criminal is most likely to live. Two important concepts are the buffer zone (criminals are less likely to commit crimes in the immediate vicinity of their home) and distance decay (criminals commit fewer crimes as the distance from their home increases). In this study, we show how the techniques of geographic profiling may be applied to animal data, using as an example foraging patterns in two sympatric colonies of pipistrelle bats, Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus, in the northeast of Scotland. We show that if model variables are fitted to known roost locations, these variables may be used as numerical descriptors of foraging patterns. We go on to show that these variables can be used to differentiate patterns of foraging in these two species.

  15. Chronicity and primary care: the role of prison health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Morral-Parente

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Prison Primary Health Care Teams in Catalonia have been integrated into the Catalan Health Institute. This integration shall facilitate¹ training and updating, while eliminating the existing differences between the health services belonging to prison institutions and those of the Catalan Health Service. It shall enable team work and coordination between Primary Health Care Teams in the community and the PHCTs in prisons within the same geographical area by sharing ongoing training, multi-sector work teams and territory-based relations, thereby facilitating continuance in care and complete and integrated treatment of chronicity. The existing information systems in Primary Health Care and the shared clinical history in Catalonia are key factors for this follow up process. Support tools for clinical decision making shall also be shared, which shall contribute towards an increase in quality and clinical safety. These tools include electronic clinical practice guides, therapeutic guides, prescription alert systems, etc. This shall be an opportunity for Prison Health Care Teams to engage in teaching and research, which in turn shall have an indirect effect on improvements in health care quality and the training of professionals in this sector. The critical factor for success is the fact that a unique chronicity health care model shall be shared, where measures for health promotion prevention can be taken, along with multi-sector monitoring of pathologies and with health care information shared between professionals and levels throughout the patient's life, both in and out of the prison environment.

  16. [Chronicity and primary care: the role of prison health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morral-Parente, R

    2015-01-01

    The Prison Primary Health Care Teams in Catalonia have been integrated into the Catalan Health Institute. This integration shall facilitate¹ training and updating, while eliminating the existing differences between the health services belonging to prison institutions and those of the Catalan Health Service. It shall enable team work and coordination between Primary Health Care Teams in the community and the PHCTs in prisons within the same geographical area by sharing ongoing training, multi-sector work teams and territory-based relations, thereby facilitating continuance in care and complete and integrated treatment of chronicity. The existing information systems in Primary Health Care and the shared clinical history in Catalonia are key factors for this follow up process. Support tools for clinical decision making shall also be shared, which shall contribute towards an increase in quality and clinical safety. These tools include electronic clinical practice guides, therapeutic guides, prescription alert systems, etc. This shall be an opportunity for Prison Health Care Teams to engage in teaching and research, which in turn shall have an indirect effect on improvements in health care quality and the training of professionals in this sector. The critical factor for success is the fact that a unique chronicity health care model shall be shared, where measures for health promotion prevention can be taken, along with multi-sector monitoring of pathologies and with health care information shared between professionals and levels throughout the patient's life, both in and out of the prison environment.

  17. Impacts of Scale on Geographic Analysis of Health Data: An Example of Obesity Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent decades. It is an important public health issue as it causes many other chronic health conditions, such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and type II diabetics. Obesity affects life expectancy and even the quality of lives. Eventually, it increases social costs in many ways due to increasing costs of health care and workplace absenteeism. Using the spatial patterns of obesity prevalence as an example; we show how different geographic units can reveal different degrees of detail in results of analysis. We used both census tracts and census block groups as units of geographic analysis. In addition; to reveal how different geographic scales may impact on the analytic results; we applied geographically weighted regression to model the relationships between obesity rates (dependent variable and three independent variables; including education attainment; unemployment rates; and median family income. Though not including an exhaustive list of explanatory variables; this regression model provides an example for revealing the impacts of geographic scales on analysis of health data. With obesity data based on reported heights and weights on driver’s licenses in Summit County, Ohio, we demonstrated that geographically weighted regression reveals varying spatial trends between dependent and independent variables that conventional regression models such as ordinary least squares regression cannot. Most importantly, analyses carried out with different geographic scales do show very different results. With these findings, we suggest that, while possible, smaller geographic units be used to allow better understanding of the studies phenomena.

  18. Sports-related brain injuries: connecting pathology to diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, James; Connolly, Ian D; Dangelmajer, Sean; Kintzing, James; Ho, Allen L; Grant, Gerald

    2016-04-01

    Brain injuries are becoming increasingly common in athletes and represent an important diagnostic challenge. Early detection and management of brain injuries in sports are of utmost importance in preventing chronic neurological and psychiatric decline. These types of injuries incurred during sports are referred to as mild traumatic brain injuries, which represent a heterogeneous spectrum of disease. The most dramatic manifestation of chronic mild traumatic brain injuries is termed chronic traumatic encephalopathy, which is associated with profound neuropsychiatric deficits. Because chronic traumatic encephalopathy can only be diagnosed by postmortem examination, new diagnostic methodologies are needed for early detection and amelioration of disease burden. This review examines the pathology driving changes in athletes participating in high-impact sports and how this understanding can lead to innovations in neuroimaging and biomarker discovery.

  19. Pathogenesis, clinical features and pathology of chronic arsenicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta Sujit

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenicosis is a multisystem disorder, with virtually no system spared from its vicious claw; though its predominant manifestations are linked to cutaneous involvement. Cutaneous effects take the form of pigmentary changes, hyperkeratosis, and skin cancers (Bowen′s disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell epithelioma. Peripheral vascular disease (blackfoot disease, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, noncirrhotic portal hypertension, hepatomegaly, peripheral neuropathy, respiratory and renal involvement, bad obstetrical outcome, hematological disturbances, and diabetes mellitus are among the other clinical features linked to arsenic toxicity. The effects are mediated principally by the trivalent form of arsenic (arsenite, which by its ability to bind with sulfhydryl groups present in various essential compounds leads to inactivation and derangement of body function. Though the toxicities are mostly linked to the trivalent state, arsenic is consumed mainly in its pentavalent form (arsenate, and reduction of arsenate to arsenite is mediated through glutathione. Body attempts to detoxify the agent via repeated oxidative methylation and reduction reaction, leading to the generation of methylated metabolites, which are excreted in the urine. Understandably the detoxification/bio-inactivation process is not a complete defense against the vicious metalloid, and it can cause chromosomal aberration, impairment of DNA repair process, alteration in the activity of tumor suppressor gene, etc., leading to genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Arsenic causes apoptosis via free radical generation, and the cutaneous toxicity is linked to its effect on various cytokines (e.g., IL-8, TGF-β, TNF-α, GM-CSF, growth factors, and transcription factors. Increased expression of cytokeratins, keratin-16 (marker for hyperproliferation and keratin-8 and -18 (marker for less differentiated epithelial cells, can be related to the histopathological findings of hyperkeratosis and dysplastic cells in the arsenicosis skin lesion.

  20. Pathology Sections: The Four Chronic Diseases of Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese Education and Society, 2007

    2007-01-01

    One might say that people bitterly detest "academic corruption" and call it immoral and dishonest academic conduct, and that the deliberate falsification, covert plagiarism, and empty rhetoric employed by certain scholars when expounding their theories and the various means they use when attempting to get their works published and…

  1. Pathology Sections: The Four Chronic Diseases of Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese Education and Society, 2007

    2007-01-01

    One might say that people bitterly detest "academic corruption" and call it immoral and dishonest academic conduct, and that the deliberate falsification, covert plagiarism, and empty rhetoric employed by certain scholars when expounding their theories and the various means they use when attempting to get their works published and awarded prizes…

  2. 内源性大麻素系统在慢性间歇低氧大鼠心肌肥厚病理过程中的作用%The Pathological Processing of Endocannabinoid System on Cardiac Hypertrophy in a Experimental Rats With Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋源; 陈彦; 肖玲; 唐茜; 王蓓; 范艳锋

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of endocannabinoid system on cardiac hypertrophy in experimental rats with chronic intermittent hypoxia and to study the impact of endocannabinoid antagonist, rimonabant in such pathological processing. Methods: A total of 48 male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups. 4 and 6 weeks of Normal control group, 4 and 6 weeks of Hypoxia group, 4 and 6 weeks of Hypoxia with rimonabant intervention group. n=8 in each group. The rats were sacrificed to measure left ventricular mass index (LVMI), the myocardial cell morphological changes were observed by optical microscope, the expression of cardiac calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) were detected by immunohistochemistry at 4 and 6 weeks respectively. Results: Compared with 4 and 6 weeks of Normal control group, the LVMI, cardiac hypertrophy condition, CaMKII and CT-1 were increased in 4 and 6 weeks of Hypoxia group, all P Conclusion: The Chronic intermittent hypoxia could induce myocardial hypertrophy via endocannabinoid system disorders, such pathological processing could be reduced by rimonabant intervention.%目的:探讨内源性大麻素系统在慢性间歇低氧大鼠心肌肥厚中作用及使用内源性大麻素受体拮抗剂利莫那班后对其的影响。  方法:48只雄性Wistar大鼠,根据实验设计在实验4、6周时随机分组,即正常对照4周组、6周组,低氧4周组、6周组,低氧+利莫那班即拮抗低氧4周组、6周组,共6组,随机取8只大鼠,处死后测左心室质量指数(LVMI),光学显微镜下观察心肌细胞形态变化,免疫组化测钙/钙调素依赖性蛋白激酶II(CaMKII)、心肌营养素-1(CT-1)表达。  结果:低氧4周组、6周组分别与正常对照4周组、6周组相比,LVMI、光镜下心肌细胞肥厚及免疫组化下CaMKII、CT-1均明显升高,组间比较差异均有统计学意义(P  结论:慢性间歇

  3. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management.

  4. Prevention Of Chronic Renal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejzi Alushi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is easier to prevent a disease than to cure it. This postulate is a foundation stone of the contemporary medicine, furthermore its mission. The Chronic Kidney Diseases (CKD, amongst them the Chronic Pyelonephrites (CP and the mass kidney reduction  take an important  place in human pathologies in general, and in particular in renal ones. The Chronic Pyelonephrites  are chronic renal pathologies, which on one side are of various causes and on the other side are multi systemic. At the same time they tend, earlier or later, depending on their course, to bring the patient towards the Chronic Kidney Insufficiency  in stage of uremia, consequently in need of substitution therapies e.g. dialysis, peritoneum dialysis or transplant. It is worthy to emphasize that from the prevention and correct cure of CP make profit the patients, the family, the state and in the last analyses  the entire society, because in that way the budget expense destined for the fore going substitution cures, dialysis, peritoneum dialysis or transplant, is considerably  reduced. The same should be mentioned  in relation to the CP and the mass kidney reduction, speaking about our country, which are still at the first place as the very cause of Chronic Kidney  Insufficiencies (CRI, later on advancing toward uremia and terminal uremia along with its grave consequences. In general  the very foundation of the CP is on  the  infections of urinary roads, in particular on the complicated ones, among them it should be mentioned-congenital kidney anomalies, renal calculosis  so much present in our country, and pathologies of segment or vesical-ureteral reflux, and rarely the pathologies of prostate.

  5. The Geographical Dimension of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Houston T.

    The events of September 11 ushered us all into a world in which our security and sense of invulnerability were savagely replaced by vulnerability and irrational fear. To the delight of our adversaries who planned these attacks, we often responded in ways that furthered their agenda by weakening the cultural colossus that we call home. Normally terrorism is viewed as intense but localized violence. Seldom is terrorism viewed in its more expansive dimensions. It is burned into our collective memories as a collapsed building, a shattered bus, an incinerated nightclub, or facilities closed by a few anthrax-laced letters. However, terrorism must be studied in dimensions larger than the view from a news camera. This conclusion forms the intellectual basis for The Geographical Dimension of Terrorism.

  6. Network sensitivity to geographical configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searle, Antony C; Scott, Susan M; McClelland, David E [Department of Physics and Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2002-04-07

    Gravitational wave astronomy will require the coordinated analysis of data from the global network of gravitational wave observatories. Questions of how to optimally configure the global network arise in this context. We have elsewhere proposed a formalism which is employed here to compare different configurations of the network, using both the coincident network analysis method and the coherent network analysis method. We have constructed a network model to compute a figure-of-merit based on the detection rate for a population of standard-candle binary inspirals. We find that this measure of network quality is very sensitive to the geographic location of component detectors under a coincident network analysis, but comparatively insensitive under a coherent network analysis.

  7. Clinical pathology of primary bile reflux gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping YAO

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the clinical and pathological features of primary bile reflux gastritis(BRG.Methods Endoscopy,Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori detection,and histopathologic examination were performed in 218 patients with primary BRG(observed group and 236 patients with simple chronic gastritis(SCG,control group as identified by gastroscope in order to analyze the endoscopic abnormalities,the frequency of H.pylori infection,pathological features and scores of inflammation.Results The frequency of H.pylori infection was 39.0%(85/218 in the observed group,which was significantly lower than that in the control group [52.1%(123/236].The topographic abnormalities of the antral mucosa as detected by gastroscopy,i.e.,congestion,hemorrhagic spots,erosion were not significantly different between BRG and SCG patients(P > 0.05.The scores of chronic and active inflammation were higher in patients when H.pylori infection was present than in patients without H.pylori infection in both groups(P < 0.05.The scores of inflammation,the detection rates of the antral intestinal metaplasia,antral atrophy and atypical hyperplasia were all higher in observed group than in control group(P < 0.05.The incidence of lengthening of gastric pits,telangiectasis or interstitial edema in BRG patients was also significantly higher than those in SCG patients(P < 0.05.Conclusions Primary BRG shows features of chemical gastritis with a higher tendency toward mucosal atrophy,intestinal metaplasia and atypical hyperplasia.Gastropic examination and biopsy should be emphasized.

  8. MLE's bias pathology motivates MCMLE

    OpenAIRE

    Yatracos, Yannis G.

    2013-01-01

    Maximum likelihood estimates are often biased. It is shown that this pathology is inherent to the traditional ML estimation method for two or more parameters, thus motivating from a different angle the use of MCMLE.

  9. Relationship Between Tau Pathology and Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalfe, Maria Jose; Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a chronic, age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Neurofibrillary tangles are among the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Neurofibrillary tangles consist of abnormal protein fibers known as paired helical filaments. The accumulation of paired helical filaments is one of the most characteristic cellular changes in Alzheimer's disease. Tau protein, a microtubule-associated protein, is the major component of paired helical filaments. Tau in paired helical fil...

  10. Systemic disorders affecting dental pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Milan R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective overview of systemic disorders which might be associated with dental pathology is made. They are grouped as follows: (a congenital dental developmental disorders, (b chromosomal anomalies, (c radiations, (d immune disorders, (e intoxications, (f neurological alterations, (g gastrointestinal diseases, (h osteodystrophy and associated conditions, (i skin diseases, (j metabolic and endocrine disorders, (k craniofacial malformation syndromes and other congenital general malformations. The associated dental pathology is described in each case.

  11. [Methods and methodology of pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushnikov, E F

    2016-01-01

    The lecture gives the state-of-the-art of the methodology of human pathology that is an area of the scientific and practice activity of specialists to produce and systematize objective knowledge of pathology and to use the knowledge in clinical medicine. It considers the objects and subjects of an investigation, materials and methods of a pathologist, and the results of his/her work.

  12. Development of pathology in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan GEDİKOĞLU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Autospy is an important tool for the development of pathology as a science. In western civilisation dissection of human body became widespread with Renaissance, in contrast in the Ottoman Empire first dissection was not performed until the 19th century. Mustafa Behçet Efendi, head physician of the Empire, was one of the Ottoman physician who suggested the importance of dissection in the medical education. The first dissection was however performed by Charles Ambroise Bernard, a foreign physician who had been invited to help establishing a new medical school; “Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Adliye-i Şâhâne”, in 1843. The first modern medical schools called “Tıphane” and “Cerrahhane-i Amire” which were founded in 1827, did not have pathology courses. Pathology courses began in “Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Adliyei Şâhâne”. Dr. Hamdi Suat (Aknar, educated in anatomic pathology in Germany, was the first pathologist who established the modern pathology in Turkey in “İstanbul Darülfünun” medical school. In 1933 “Darülfünün” was closed and İstanbul University was built and the “University Reform Commission” invited many scientists escaping from Nazi government to study in İstanbul University. Dr. Philipp Schwartz had an important role both in the invitation of these scientists and establishment of the pathology department in İstanbul University. Practical courses were increased, clinicopathologic courses were organized for the first time and a lot of autopsies were performed, as high as 1000 autopsy per year, by Dr. Philipp Schwartz. More progress has takes place in Turkey over the years since pathology was first established. Today Turkey has many pathology departments which keep up with the worldwide advances in the field.

  13. Corneal stromal dystrophies: a clinical pathologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Barbosa Abreu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Corneal dystrophy is defined as bilateral and symmetric primary corneal disease, without previous associated ocular inflammation. Corneal dystrophies are classified according to the involved corneal layer in superficial, stromal, and posterior dystrophy. Incidence of each dystrophy varies according to the geographic region studied. PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of stromal corneal dystrophies among corneal buttons specimens obtained by penetrating keratoplasty (PK in an ocular pathology laboratory and to correlate the diagnosis with patient age and gender. METHODS: Corneal button cases of penetrating keratoplasty from January-1996 to May-2009 were retrieved from the archives of The Henry C. Witelson Ophthalmic Pathology Laboratory and Registry, Montreal, Canada. The cases with histopathological diagnosis of stromal corneal dystrophies were stained with special stains (Peroxid acid Schiff, Masson trichrome, Congo red analyzed under polarized light, and alcian blue for classification and correlated with epidemiological information (age at time of PK and gender from patients' file. RESULTS: 1,300 corneal buttons cases with clinical diagnose of corneal dystrophy were retrieved. Stromal corneal dystrophy was found in 40 (3.1% cases. Lattice corneal dystrophy was the most prevalent with 26 cases (65%. Nineteen were female (73.07% and the PK was performed at average age of 59.3 years old. Combined corneal dystrophy was found in 8 (20% cases, 5 (62.5% of them were female and the average age of the penetrating keratoplasty was 54.8 years old. Granular corneal dystrophy was represented by 5 (12.5% cases, and 2 (40% of them were female. Penetrating keratoplasty was performed at average age of 39.5 years old in granular corneal dystrophy cases. Macular corneal dystrophy was present in only 1 (2.5% case, in a 36 years old female. CONCLUSION: Systematic histopathological approach and evaluation, including special stains in all stromal

  14. Meningeal and cortical grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Popescu Bogdan F

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although historically considered a disease primarily affecting the white matter of the central nervous system, recent pathological and imaging studies have established that cortical demyelination is common in multiple sclerosis and more extensive than previously appreciated. Subpial, intracortical and leukocortical lesions are the three cortical lesion types described in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices of patients with multiple sclerosis. Cortical demyelination may be the pathological substrate of progression, and an important pathologic correlate of irreversible disability, epilepsy and cognitive impairment. Cortical lesions of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis patients are characterized by a dominant effector cell population of microglia, by the absence of macrophagic and leukocytic inflammatory infiltrates, and may be driven in part by organized meningeal inflammatory infiltrates. Cortical demyelination is also present and common in early MS, is topographically associated with prominent meningeal inflammation and may even precede the appearance of classic white matter plaques in some MS patients. However, the pathology of early cortical lesions is different than that of chronic MS in the sense that early cortical lesions are highly inflammatory, suggesting that neurodegeneration in MS occurs on an inflammatory background and raising interesting questions regarding the role of cortical demyelination and meningeal inflammation in initiating and perpetuating the disease process in early MS.

  15. Geographic versus industry diversification: constraints matter

    OpenAIRE

    Ehling, Paul; Ramos, Sofia Brito

    2005-01-01

    This research addresses whether geographic diversification provides benefits over industry diversification. In the absence of constraints, no empirical evidence is found to support the argument that country diversification is superior. With short-selling constraints, however, the geographic tangency portfolio is not attainable by industry portfolios. Results with upper and lower constraints on portfolio weights as well as an out-of-sample analysis show that geographic diversification almost c...

  16. Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type ...

  17. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem you need to take care of. Chronic pain is different. The pain signals go on ... there is no clear cause. Problems that cause chronic pain include Headache Low back strain Cancer Arthritis ...

  18. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. × ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. ...

  19. Minimally invasive surgery for Achilles tendon pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Maffulli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Maffulli1, Umile Giuseppe Longo2, Filippo Spiezia2, Vincenzo Denaro21Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, England; 2Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Minimally invasive trauma and orthopedic surgery is increasingly common, though technically demanding. Its use for pathologies of the Achilles tendon (AT hold the promise to allow faster recovery times, shorter hospital stays, and improved functional outcomes when compared to traditional open procedures, which can lead to difficulty with wound healing because of the tenuous blood supply and increased chance of wound breakdown and infection. We present the recent advances in the field of minimally invasive AT surgery for tendinopathy, acute ruptures, chronic tears, and chronic avulsions of the AT. In our hands, minimally invasive surgery has provided similar results to those obtained with open surgery, with decreased perioperative morbidity, decreased duration of hospital stay, and reduced costs. So far, the studies on minimally invasive orthopedic techniques are of moderate scientific quality with short follow-up periods. Multicenter studies with longer follow-up are needed to justify the long-term advantages of these techniques over traditional ones.Keywords: tendinopathy, rupture, percutanous repair, less invasive

  20. The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System (OGIRS) is a highly interactive data entry, storage, manipulation, and display software system for use with geographically referenced data. Although originally developed for a project concerned with coal strip mine reclamation, OGIRS is capable of handling any geographically referenced data for a variety of natural resource management applications. A special effort has been made to integrate remotely sensed data into the information system. The timeliness and synoptic coverage of satellite data are particularly useful attributes for inclusion into the geographic information system.

  1. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures Report (GDX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures Report (GDX) located on the Expenditures page in the Expenditure Tables category. This report details VA expenditures at...

  2. Behçet's disease departs the 'Silk Road': a case report and brief review of literature with geographical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zohair; Rossi, Maria L; Yong, Sherri; Martin, Daniel K; Walayat, Saqib; Cashman, Michael; Tsoraides, Steven; Dhillon, Sonu

    2016-01-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic multisystem inflammatory disease most prevalent in Eastern Asia and along the Mediterranean basin, an area referred to as the 'Silk Road'. The diagnosis of BD is largely based on the International Study Group (ISG) criteria, which are more specific than sensitive. ISG criteria do not include intestinal manifestations, a feature more commonly seen in the West. Intestinal BD is one of several findings that are not typically seen along the 'Silk Road'. Herein we report a rare case of intestinal BD and compare Western versus traditional BD. A 25-year-old male with a history of painful oral aphthous ulcers, pericarditis, and diffuse papulopustular rash presented to the emergency department with two terminal ileal perforations. Pathology demonstrated mucosal necrosis with active inflammation and no chronic inflammatory changes. Post-surgical laboratory studies showed an elevated c-reactive protein of 35.57 mg/dL, erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 82 mm/h, and a positive anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody. Rheumatological workup including ANA, RF, PR3 antibody, MPO antibody, ANCA, SSA and SSB, Smith antibody, SCL-70, and anti-Jo-1 antibodies were all negative. His pericarditis symptoms improved with colchicine and prednisone prior to discharge. Our patient did not meet the current ISG criteria for traditional BD; however, he clearly showed findings typically seen in Western patients with BD, which include intestinal manifestations, cardiac involvement, and lack of pathergy reaction and ocular changes. Our investigation demonstrates that the clinical manifestations common to this disorder vary among geographic and ethnic populations. Commonly used criteria for the diagnosis of BD may not be sensitive for some populations, such as Western BD, potentially leading to underdiagnoses and mismanagement. Recognition and select inclusion of these differences may be one way to assist with diagnosing Western BD in the future. As our knowledge

  3. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Brian; Schaeffer, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome [CP/CPPS]). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  4. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Le, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  5. [Estimation of a geographic accessibility index of different health centers in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Elizondo, María Eugenia; Salinas-Martínez, Ana María; Núñez-Rocha, Georgina Mayela; Villarreal Ríos, Enrique; Vásquez-Treviño, María Guadalupe; Vásquez-Salazar, María Guadalupe

    2008-12-01

    The accessibility to health centers is a limitation to the use of preventive and curative health centers. To assess geographic accessibility using a parameter that integrates information about the use of preventive services and travelling time from home to the health center. We analyzed target geographical areas of 10 community centers located at the Northeast of Mexico. A survey was conducted to collect information about the utilization of preventive services for detection of diabetes and hypertension within last year and in women, detection of cervical and breast cancer. The time required to travel between the health center and the farthest location point at every neighborhood of each geographic area, using public or private transportation, was calculated. Health service use and transportation time were condensed in a single parameter, called geographic accessibility index. Data was normalized using z scores. Three geographical areas denominated 7, 8 and 10 had the lowest detection rates of chronic diseases, with values ranging from 45% to 48%. By car, area number 3 had the longest travelling time, corresponding to 14 minutes. The longest travelling times by public transportation were detected in areas 1 and 3, corresponding to 27 and 29 minutes, respectively The geographic accessibility index showed that the least favorable z scores travelling by car corresponded to areas 6 and 10 and, when travelling on public transportation, to areas 8 and 10. The geographic accessibility index identified areas that required improvements in accessibility.

  6. PLACENTAL PATHOLOGY IN INTRA UTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Sheela

    2015-04-01

    between case and control groups . RESULTS: In current study , 60% of the cases are with IUGR due to Hypertensive disorders and 40% are normo tensives and 50 women with appropriate for gestational age in control group . Hypertensive IUGR cases were delivered at preterm than appropriate for gestational age and normotensive IUGR group . The birth weights are lower in hypertensive group compared to t hose of AGA and normotensive group [Pvalue 0 . 9] Most of the cases with IUGR are primi gravida . The fetal outcome in women with appropriate for gestational age is good whereas with IUGR the fetal outcome is poor . Incidence of intrauterine deaths , stillbirt hs , perinatal deaths and babies with low apgar are more in hypertensive group when compared normotensive IUGR group [p value0 . 8] . 40% of the babies with hypertensive IUGR were delivered by caesarean operation [ p value 0 . 147] . Mean placental weights were lower in IUGR group when compared to AGA group . But no significant change in thickness of placenta . Incidence of placental infarction and retroplacental haematoma was more in IUGR group when compared to AGA group[p value 0 . 2] Out of 19 cases of bad perina tal outcome 10 cases had feature of ischemic necrosis ( pvalue - o . oo5 and placental infarcts ( p value o . ooo1 had significantly associated with bad perinatal outcome CONCLUSION: the abnormal uteroplacental vasculature , chronic uteroplacental insufficiency coagulation pathology in uteroplacental , intervillous and fetoplacental vasculature and chronic inflammatory lesions may be primary disease process related to the placental pathology of IUGR . Although the cause of IUGR in pregnancies is heterogenous , care ful clinico - pathological correlations in individual cases are necessary for interpretation of placental lesions of IUGR .

  7. Geographic Determinants of Chinese Urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccord, G. C.; Christensen, P.

    2011-12-01

    In the first years of the 21st century, the human race became primarily urban for the first time in history. With countries like India and China rapidly undergoing structural change from rural agricultural-based economies to urbanized manufacturing- and service-based economies, knowing where the coming waves of urbanization will occur would be of interest for infrastructure planning and for modeling consequences for ecological systems. We employ spatial econometric methods (geographically weighted regression, spatial lag models, and spatial errors models) to estimate two determinants of urbanization in China. The first is the role of physical geography, measured as topography-adjusted distance to major ports and suitability of land for agriculture. The second is the spatial agglomeration effect, which we estimate with a spatial lag model. We find that Chinese urbanization between 1990 and 2000 exhibited important spatial agglomeration effects, as well as significant explanatory power of nearby agricultural suitability and distance to ports, both in a nationwide model and in a model of local regression estimates. These results can help predict the location of new Chinese urbanization, and imply that climate change-induced changes in agricultural potential can affect the spatial distribution of urban areas.

  8. Geographical National Condition and Complex System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jiayao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of studying the complex system of geographical national conditions lies in rationally expressing the complex relationships of the “resources-environment-ecology-economy-society” system. Aiming to the problems faced by the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions, including the disunity of research contents, the inconsistency of range, the uncertainty of goals, etc.the present paper conducted a range of discussions from the perspectives of concept, theory and method, and designed some solutions based on the complex system theory and coordination degree analysis methods.By analyzing the concepts of geographical national conditions, geographical national conditions survey and geographical national conditions statistical analysis, as well as investigating the relationships between theirs, the statistical contents and the analytical range of geographical national conditions are clarified and defined. This investigation also clarifies the goals of the statistical analysis by analyzing the basic characteristics of the geographical national conditions and the complex system, and the consistency between the analysis of the degree of coordination and statistical analyses. It outlines their goals, proposes a concept for the complex system of geographical national conditions, and it describes the concept. The complex system theory provides new theoretical guidance for the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions. The degree of coordination offers new approaches on how to undertake the analysis based on the measurement method and decision-making analysis scheme upon which the complex system of geographical national conditions is based. It analyzes the overall trend via the degree of coordination of the complex system on a macro level, and it determines the direction of remediation on a micro level based on the degree of coordination among various subsystems and of single systems. These results establish

  9. 呈慢性肾炎的IgA肾病96例临床病理和预后分析%Analysis of clinico-pathological characteristics and prognosis in 96 patients of IgA nephropathy with chronic glomerulonephritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓燕; 黄朝兴

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the early diagnostic criterion of chronic glomerulonephritis in primary IgA Nephropathy (IgAN). Methods: From march 1993 to august 2009, 96 biopsy-proven IgAN patients from The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College with serum creatinine level above the upper limit (Scr≥ 105 μ mol/L by picric kinetic method) were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into two groups according to creatinine clearance rate (Ccr): Group A (Ccr≥ 60 mL/min, n=43), and group B (Ccr<60 mL/min, n=53). Two groups of patients with clinico-pathological characteristics and prognosis were compared and analyzed. Endpoint was defined as double of baseline serum creatinine or Ccr<15 mL/min.Results:Among 96 cases with IgAN, incidence of proteinuria>1.O g/day, severe glomerular sclerosis, moderate to severe tubelointerstitial lesions was 73.0%,82.3%and 76.0%respectively,and the average Ccr at renal biopsy was (59.15± 20.73) mL/min. All cases with a median followup of 18.5 months, 21 patients developed to ESRD. The incidence of intermediate to severe tubulointerstitial lesions and nephrotic-range proteinuria in group B was significantly higher than that in group A (84.9% vs 65.1%, P<O.05 and 41.5% vs 18.6%, P<O.05, respectively).Patients in B and A groups were followed-up for a median duration of 33 and 21 months,respectively, 28,0% and 14.0% patients reaching the endpoint. Conclusion: For patients with IgAN, the fundamental clinico-pathological features of chronic glomerulonephritis are as follows:①durative proteinuria>1.O g/day; ②lasting Ccr decrease; ③moderate to severe tubulointerstitial lesions accompanied with severe glomerular sclerosis. The three items mentioned above may be used as the early diagnostic criterion for chronic glomerulonephritis.%目的:探讨在原发性IgA肾病(IgAN)中如何早期作出慢性肾小球肾炎(慢性肾炎)的临床诊断.方法:于1993年3月-2009年8月我院肾活检

  10. IMAGING OF HIP JOINT PATHOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Dutta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The hip joint is a large and complex articulation and can be involved by numerous pathologic conditions like congenital and developmental, infective, arthritic, and neoplastic. Early diagnosis and characterisation of pathology has vital role in proper management and follow up of the disease for the clinicians. Present study was conducted in 45 patients who underwent clinical, radiological, and pathological examination in GMCH. Maximum no of patient between age group of 10-30 yrs. male-female ratio was 1.8:1 and 30% cases are unilateral. FSE STAIR images were most useful in delineating pathologies. Gadolinium-enhanced scan were used to evaluate the extent of the disease and the pattern of involvement. AVN was the most common pathology detected comprising 29%. The next common abnormality detected was infective arthritis found in 26% of cases. In case of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, there was abnormal linear increase in the signal intensity at junction of the epiphyseal cartilage. Ultrasonography is useful for the screening of paediatric hip cases and also for guided aspiration for histopathology. CT scan shows better resolution of soft tissue then the radiograph. The importance of early diagnosis can be gauzed from the fact that early initiation of treatment creates the difference between a responsible, worthwhile life, and a cripple handicapped life. The role of imaging can never be undermined considering the fact that early suspicion and detection is within the realms of imaging.

  11. Fellowship trends of pathology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagwinski, Nikolaj; Hunt, Jennifer L

    2009-09-01

    Recent changes in pathology residency education have included a decrease in the program length (from 5 years to 4 years for combined anatomic and clinical pathology training) and a national mandate for programs to assess 6 general competencies of trainees. These have undoubtedly led to changes in program curricula and in residents' desires to seek fellowship training. This study was designed to gather information about what residents are seeking from fellowship training programs. This study used an online survey to assess attitudes of residents in training programs toward fellowship training. The survey instrument had 26 questions pertaining to fellowship choices, motivations for pursuing fellowships, expectations of the fellowships, and postresidency concerns. There were 213 respondents from a mix of program types and representing each postgraduate year. Most residents will seek at least 1 or 2 fellowships after residency training. The most popular first-choice fellowship was surgical pathology (26%), followed by cytopathology (16%), hematopathology (15%), gastrointestinal pathology (10%), dermatopathology (8%), and forensic pathology (5%). The most common reasons for pursuing fellowship training were to "increase marketability" (43%) or to "become an expert in a particular area" (33%). Most trainees got their information about fellowship training programs from Internet sources. Fellowship programs will benefit from an optimally designed Web site because residents seek information predominantly from the Internet. Residents seeking fellowships are particularly concerned with selecting programs that provide job connections, an increase in their marketability, and the opportunity to develop diagnostic expertise.

  12. Communication skills in diagnostic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Hans-Anton; Bosman, Fred T

    2016-01-01

    Communication is an essential element of good medical practice also in pathology. In contrast to technical or diagnostic skills, communication skills are not easy to define, teach, or assess. Rules almost do not exist. In this paper, which has a rather personal character and cannot be taken as a set of guidelines, important aspects of communication in pathology are explored. This includes what should be communicated to the pathologist on the pathology request form, communication between pathologists during internal (interpathologist) consultation, communication around frozen section diagnoses, modalities of communication of a final diagnosis, with whom and how critical and unexpected findings should be communicated, (in-)adequate routes of communication for pathology diagnoses, who will (or might) receive pathology reports, and what should be communicated and how in case of an error or a technical problem. An earlier more formal description of what the responsibilities are of a pathologist as communicator and as collaborator in a medical team is added in separate tables. The intention of the paper is to stimulate reflection and discussion rather than to formulate strict rules.

  13. Dynamic changes in spirometry and pathology of smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rat%烟熏法建立的慢性阻塞性肺疾病鼠肺功能和病理的动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茜; 郭雪君; 管小俊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the dynamic changes in spirometry and pathology of smokeinduced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rat,and provide a theoretical basis for the successful establishment of COPD rat model.Methods Thirty SD rats at 8 weeks of age were randomized divided into 6 weeks smoke-exposed group (E1 group) and 6 week sham-exposed group (C1 group),12weeks smoke-exposed group (E2 group) and 12 weeks sham-exposed group (C2 group),interval smokeexpose group (normal feeding 6 weeks after smoke for 12 weeks,E3 group).Using Buxco research system to obtain the spirometry data and HE staining to observe the pathological changes of lung tissue.Results ①Compared with C1 group,FRC,IC,VC and TLC of E1 group were increased (P <0.05),FEV100/FVC,FEV200/FVC were reduced by 22%,11% respectively (P <0.01).②Compared with C2 group,the FRC of E2 group was increased while IC,VC,TLC were decreased (P <0.05),FEV100/FVC and FEV200/FVC were reduced by 28% and 21% (P <0.01).③Compared with E2 group,IC,VC,TLC of E3 group were increased (P < 0.05),while no difference in FEV100/FVC,FEV200/FVC.④ The pathological examination of lungs from E1 group displayed narrowed alveolar septa which was the performance of mild emphysema,and with partial infiltration of characteristic inflammatory cells.The alveolar of E2 group displayed typical performance of emphysema with infiltration of a large number of inflammatory cell surrouding bronchioles and vesseles.E3 group displayed obvious emphysema while no significant inflammation was detected.C1 and C2 group showed the structural intergity of airway epithelium and alveolar septa.Conclusions Smoking time affects the spirometry and pathology of smoke induced rat typically.With 6 weeks smoking time,the rats performed early-stage COPD while with 12 weeks smoking time performed typical COPD.%目的 动态观察不同烟熏时间建立的慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)大鼠肺功能和病理的改变,为成功建立COPD大

  14. Oriental Medical Treatment of chronic Acalculous Cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Yeon Lee

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic acalculous cholecystitis gets possession of about 12 to 13 percent of patients with chronic cholecystitis. Pathologically it is characterised by chronic inflammation and thickening of the gallbladder wall but doesn't come across stones. Clinical symptoms are vague and include abdominal discomfort and distension, nausea, flatulence and intolerance of fatty foods. A patient on chronic acalculous cholecystitis diagnosed from his clinical symtoms and abdominal ultrasonogram was treated by Geonbihwan, acupuncture and herbal acupuncture. Satisfactory symptomatic improvement was achieved and findings of abdominal ultrasonogram came also normal.

  15. Conceptual Model of Dynamic Geographic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Rosales Miguel Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In geographic environments, there are many and different types of geographic entities such as automobiles, trees, persons, buildings, storms, hurricanes, etc. These entities can be classified into two groups: geographic objects and geographic phenomena. By its nature, a geographic environment is dynamic, thus, it’s static modeling is not sufficient. Considering the dynamics of geographic environment, a new type of geographic entity called event is introduced. The primary target is a modeling of geographic environment as an event sequence, because in this case the semantic relations are much richer than in the case of static modeling. In this work, the conceptualization of this model is proposed. It is based on the idea to process each entity apart instead of processing the environment as a whole. After that, the so called history of each entity and its spatial relations to other entities are defined to describe the whole environment. The main goal is to model systems at a conceptual level that make use of spatial and temporal information, so that later it can serve as the semantic engine for such systems.

  16. Foreword to Journal of Geographical Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@In order to strengthen academic exchange of geography between China and other countries,and to offer a publication for exchanging academic ideas of geog-raphers in the world,The Journal of AChinese Geog-raphyis changed to Journal of Geographical Sciences in 2001.

  17. 38 CFR 36.4214 - Geographical limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4214 Section 36.4214 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Preparation General Provisions § 36.4214 Geographical limits. The site for any manufactured home...

  18. 38 CFR 36.4411 - Geographical limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4411 Section 36.4411 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Geographical limits. Any real property purchased, constructed, altered, improved, repaired, or...

  19. 38 CFR 36.4523 - Geographical limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4523 Section 36.4523 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Direct Loans § 36.4523 Geographical limits. Any real property purchased, constructed,...

  20. 38 CFR 36.4332 - Geographical limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4332 Section 36.4332 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Geographical limits. Any real property purchased, constructed, altered, improved, or repaired with the...

  1. Ontology-Based Geographic Data Set Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitermark, Henricus Theodorus Johannes Antonius

    2001-01-01

    Geographic data set integration is particularly important for update propagation, i.e. the reuse of updates from one data set in another data set. In this thesis geographic data set integration (also known as map integration) between two topographic data sets, GBKN and TOP10vector, is described. GBK

  2. 34 CFR 642.33 - Geographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic distribution. 642.33 Section 642.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY... Grant? § 642.33 Geographic distribution. The Secretary, to the greatest extent possible, awards...

  3. 7 CFR 3565.213 - Geographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic distribution. 3565.213 Section 3565.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.213 Geographic distribution....

  4. Blood-based biomarkers of microvascular pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ewers, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) is a genetically complex and chronically progressive neurodegenerative disorder with molecular mechanisms and neuropathologies centering around the amyloidogenic pathway, hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau protein, and neurofibrillary degeneration. While cerebrovascular changes have not been traditionally considered to be a central part of AD pathology, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that they may, in fact, be a characteristic feature of the AD brain as well. In particular, microvascular abnormalities within the brain have been associated with pathological AD hallmarks and may precede neurodegeneration. In vivo assessment of microvascular pathology provides a promising approach to develop useful biological markers for early detection and pathological characterization of AD. This review focuses on established blood-based biological marker candidates of microvascular pathology in AD. These candidates include plasma concentration of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) that are increased in AD. Measures of endothelial vasodilatory function including endothelin (ET-1), adrenomedullin (ADM), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), as well as sphingolipids are significantly altered in mild AD or during the predementia stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), suggesting sensitivity of these biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis. In conclusion, the emerging clinical diagnostic evidence for the value of blood-based microvascular biomarkers in AD is promising, however, still requires validation in phase II and III diagnostic trials. Moreover, it is still unclear whether the described protein dysbalances are early or downstream pathological events and how the detected systemic microvascular alterations relate to cerebrovascular and neuronal pathologies in the AD brain.

  5. Chronic pancreatitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Penny

    2012-08-01

    Chronic pancreatitis used to be considered uncommon in dogs, but recent pathological and clinical studies have confirmed that it is in fact a common and clinically significant disease. Clinical signs can vary from low-grade recurrent gastrointestinal signs to acute exacerbations that are indistinguishable from classical acute pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a significant cause of chronic pain in dogs, which must not be underestimated. It also results in progressive impairment of endocrine and exocrine function and the eventual development of diabetes mellitus or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency or both in some affected dogs at end stage. The etiology is unknown in most cases. Chronic pancreatitis shows an increased prevalence in certain breeds, and recent work in English Cocker Spaniels suggests it is part of a polysystemic immune-mediated disease in this breed. The histological and clinical appearance is different in different breeds, suggesting that etiologies may also be different. Diagnosis is challenging because the sensitivities of the available noninvasive tests are relatively low. However, with an increased index of suspicion, clinicians will recognize more cases that will allow them to institute supportive treatment to improve the quality of life of the patient.

  6. [Pathological buying -- a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Reinecker, Hans; Jacobi, Corinna; Reisch, Lucia; de Zwaan, Martina

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes the literature on pathological buying published during the past 15 years. Pathological or compulsive buying is defined as frequent preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy that are experienced as irresistible, intrusive, and/or senseless. The buying behavior causes marked distress, interferes with social functioning, and often results in financial problems. Studies on the phenomenology, diagnosis, classification, comorbidity, epidemiology, and treatment are presented. Pathological buying should be diagnosed as impulse control disorder not otherwise specified (ICD-10 F63.9). Psychiatric comorbidity is frequent, particulary mood, anxiety, substance use, eating, impulse control and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The positive results of pharmacological treatment with antidepressants (usually SSRI) and opioid antagonists could not be confirmed in controlled trials. A disorder specific cognitive-behavioral group treatment manual was published in USA. A controlled study is currently conducted in USA and since 2003 at the Department of Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy at the University Hospital Erlangen.

  7. [Pathology of the vitreomacular interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Monica; Gheorghe, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Vitreous role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases has increased importantly over the recent years. This was possible using Optical Coherence Tomography which reviewed the way the vitreoretinal interface should be looked at and defined and classified new pathologies such as Vitreoretinal Traction Syndrome. Vitreous is not an empty space but an important anatomical structure with role in ocular physiology. With age biochemical changes occur so that vitreous starts to liquefy. Once the vitreous is liquefied (sinchisis) it collapses and passes in the retrohialoid space (sineresis). In complete PVD besides sinchisis there is a weakness of the adherence between the posterior cortex and ILM with total detachment of posterior cortex. Abnormal adhesions are associated with incomplete PVD. The definition and understanting of vitreoretinal pathology is an active and continuous process, PVD being the trigger of a lot of retinal pathologies: epiretinal membrane, macular hole, tractional macular oedema, VMTS, myopic traction maculopathy, exacerbations of exudative ARMD.

  8. Geographic constraints on social network groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka-Pekka Onnela

    Full Text Available Social groups are fundamental building blocks of human societies. While our social interactions have always been constrained by geography, it has been impossible, due to practical difficulties, to evaluate the nature of this restriction on social group structure. We construct a social network of individuals whose most frequent geographical locations are also known. We also classify the individuals into groups according to a community detection algorithm. We study the variation of geographical span for social groups of varying sizes, and explore the relationship between topological positions and geographic positions of their members. We find that small social groups are geographically very tight, but become much more clumped when the group size exceeds about 30 members. Also, we find no correlation between the topological positions and geographic positions of individuals within network communities. These results suggest that spreading processes face distinct structural and spatial constraints.

  9. Pathology and classification of urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Malcolm W

    2014-02-01

    Chronic urticaria is defined as daily or almost daily urticaria for more than 6 weeks. Chronic urticaria is normally subdivided into physical urticaria (wheals evoked by a physical stimulus such as pressure friction or cold contact) and spontaneous urticaria. A patient with a history of less than 6 weeks is traditionally designated as having acute urticaria. Patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria have an increased frequency of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ alleles characteristically associated with autoimmune disease. Some of these patients have functional anti-FceR1 and/or anti-IgE autoantibodies which are considered to be the cause of the urticaria.

  10. Pathology Imagebase - A Reference Image Database for Standardization of Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egevad, Lars; Cheville, John; Evans, Andrew J; Hörnblad, Jonas; Kench, James G; Kristiansen, Glen; Leite, Katia R M; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Pan, Chin-Chen; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Srigley, John R; True, Lawrence; Zhou, Ming; Clements, Mark; Delahunt, Brett

    2017-07-19

    Despite efforts to standardize histopathology practice through the development of guidelines, the interpretation of morphology is still hampered by subjectivity. We here describe Pathology Imagebase, a novel mechanism for establishing an international standard for the interpretation of pathology specimens. The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) established a reference image database through the input of experts in the field. Three panels were formed, one each for prostate, urinary bladder and renal pathology, consisting of 24 international experts. Each of the panel members uploaded microphotographs of cases into a non-public database. The remaining 23 experts were asked to vote from a multiple-choice menu. Prior to and while voting panel members were unable to access the results of voting by the other experts. When a consensus level of at least 2/3 or 16 votes was reached, cases were automatically transferred to the main database. Consensus was reached in a total of 287 cases across five projects on the grading of prostate, bladder and renal cancer and classification of renal tumours and flat lesions of the bladder. The full database is available to all ISUP members at www.isupweb.org. Non-members may access a selected number of cases. It is anticipated that the database will assist pathologists in calibrating their grading and will also promote consistency in the diagnosis of difficult cases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Pathological Gambling in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Linnet, Jakob; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer

    Pathological Gambling in Parkinson’s Disease Mette Buhl Callesen, Jakob Linnet, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Albert Gjedde, Arne Møller PET Center, Aarhus University Hospital and Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University.   The neurotransmitter dopamine is central to many...... aspects of human functioning, e.g., reward, learning, and addiction, including Pathological Gambling (PG), and its loss is key to Parkinson’s Disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenrative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain [1]. One type of treatment of PD symptoms...

  12. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way.

  13. Pathologies sociales de la communication

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    La communication, dans sa généralité et dans la perspective des travaux récents de l'Ecole de Francfort, est généralement pensée comme solution à diverses pathologies sociales (isolement, malentendus réciproques, aliénation, etc.). Le présent article l'envisage comme un vecteur de pathologies spécifiques : anomie, censure, propagande, production d'idéologèmes divers. Peer reviewed

  14. Interactive segmentation for geographic atrophy in retinal fundus images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Noah; Smith, R Theodore; Laine, Andrew F

    2008-10-01

    Fundus auto-fluorescence (FAF) imaging is a non-invasive technique for in vivo ophthalmoscopic inspection of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of blindness in developed countries. Geographic atrophy (GA) is an advanced form of AMD and accounts for 12-21% of severe visual loss in this disorder [3]. Automatic quantification of GA is important for determining disease progression and facilitating clinical diagnosis of AMD. The problem of automatic segmentation of pathological images still remains an unsolved problem. In this paper we leverage the watershed transform and generalized non-linear gradient operators for interactive segmentation and present an intuitive and simple approach for geographic atrophy segmentation. We compare our approach with the state of the art random walker [5] algorithm for interactive segmentation using ROC statistics. Quantitative evaluation experiments on 100 FAF images show a mean sensitivity/specificity of 98.3/97.7% for our approach and a mean sensitivity/specificity of 88.2/96.6% for the random walker algorithm.

  15. 慢性移植物抗宿主病相关性多发性肌炎一例临床和骨骼肌病理特点%Clinical and muscular pathological features with chronic graft-versus-host disease-related polymyositis: one case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟令超; 张巍; 王朝霞; 高枫; 袁云

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report the clinical and pathological features of chronic graft-versus-host disease-related polymyositis by summarizing the clinical data of the patient with chronic graft-versus-host disease-related polymyositis. Methods One patient with chronic graft-versus-host disease-related polymyositis was hospitalized in our hospital on December 29,2010.The patient,40 years old,female,underwent allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation because of acute granulocytic-monocytic leukemia.Fourteen months later she manifested as slowly progressive muscle weakness and myalgia in all limbs.Serum creatine kinase level was between 426-1948 U/L. Myositis antibody EJ was strongly positive.Electromyogram showed a neurogenic impairment and slow peripheral nerve conduction speed.Muscle biopsies were carried out in the left biceps brechii.In addition of standard histological and enzyme histochemical staining for the muscle sections,immunohistochemical workup was performed with mouse antiCDs,anti-CD20,anti-CD68 and anti major histocompatibility complex- Ⅰ ( MHC- Ⅰ ) monoclonal antibodies as first antibodies.Results The muscle biopsy showed large variation of fiber size,with muscle fiber necrosis,regeneration.Some angular fibers distributed in small cluster.The inflammatory cells infiltrated around the small vessel or in the endomysium,mainly CD8+ T-lymphocytes and CD6+8 macrophages.The most muscle fibers were MHC-Ⅰ positive. Conclusion The graft-versus-host disease-related polymyositis manifests as chronic myositis process with neurogenic lesions.%目的 报道1例慢性移植物抗宿主病相关性多发性肌炎患者的临床和骨骼肌病理改变特点.方法 我院于2010年12月29日收治1例慢性移植物抗宿主病相关性多发性肌炎患者,该患者为女性,40岁,因急性粒单核细胞白血病于20个月前行异基因造血干细胞移植术.术后给予环孢素A抗排异治疗13个月,6个月前缓慢出现进行性四肢近端无力,

  16. Mathematical Pathologies as Pathways into Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Bharath; Dickman, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the role of mathematical pathologies as a means of fostering creativity in the classroom is discussed. In particular, it delves into what constitutes a mathematical pathology, examines historical mathematical pathologies as well as pathologies in contemporary classrooms, and indicates how the Lakatosian heuristic can be used to…

  17. SYSTEMIC DISORDERS AFFECTING DENTAL PATHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic R. Milan; Andjelic S. Gordana; Knezevic M. Milena

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective overview of systemic disorders which might be associated with dental pathology is made. They are grouped as follows: (a) congenital dental developmental disorders, (b) chromosomal anomalies, (c) radiations, (d) immune disorders, (e) intoxications, (f) neurological alterations, (g) gastrointestinal diseases, (h) osteodystrophy and associated conditions, (i) skin diseases, (j) metabolic and endocrine disorders, (k) craniofacial malformation syndromes and other congenital g...

  18. Giving your heart to pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Jim

    2015-10-17

    Jim KIaassen recently joined Axiom Veterinary Laboratories as a clinical pathologist. During his career, Dr Klaassen has worked in small animal practice, lectured in clinical pathology, undertaken preclinical research and held senior roles in commercial veterinary laboratories in the USA, including as chief medical officer of Antech Diagnostics.

  19. Physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ippei; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-08-01

    The heart must continuously pump blood to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients. To maintain the high energy consumption required by this role, the heart is equipped with multiple complex biological systems that allow adaptation to changes of systemic demand. The processes of growth (hypertrophy), angiogenesis, and metabolic plasticity are critically involved in maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Cardiac hypertrophy is classified as physiological when it is associated with normal cardiac function or as pathological when associated with cardiac dysfunction. Physiological hypertrophy of the heart occurs in response to normal growth of children or during pregnancy, as well as in athletes. In contrast, pathological hypertrophy is induced by factors such as prolonged and abnormal hemodynamic stress, due to hypertension, myocardial infarction etc. Pathological hypertrophy is associated with fibrosis, capillary rarefaction, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and cellular dysfunction (impairment of signaling, suppression of autophagy, and abnormal cardiomyocyte/non-cardiomyocyte interactions), as well as undesirable epigenetic changes, with these complex responses leading to maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. This review describes the key molecules and cellular responses involved in physiological/pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Do you really know precise radiologic–pathologic correlation of usual interstitial pneumonia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johkoh, Takeshi, E-mail: johkoht@aol.com [Department of Radiology, Kinki Central Hospital of Mutual Aid Association of Public School Teachers, Itami (Japan); Sumikawa, Hiromotsu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Fukuoka, Junya; Tanaka, Tomonori [Department of Pathology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Toyama (Japan); Fujimoto, Kiminori [Department of Radiology and Center for Diagnostic Imaging, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Takahashi, Masashi [Department of Radiology, Shiga Medical University, Otsu (Japan); Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Kondo, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki [Department of Respiratory and Allergic Medicine, Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    Although usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most common chronic interstitial pneumonia, understanding of pathologic backgrounds of CT findings has still not been enough. Since honeycombing on either scanning microgram or CT is essential for diagnosis of UIP in 2010 ATS-ERS-JRS-ALAT guide line, the role of radiologists has become much more important. We will summarize common and uncommon CT findings with radiologic–pathological correlation.

  1. Correlation of androgen receptor and estrogen receptor-αwith pathological status in liver tissue in patients with chronic hepatitis B%肝组织内性甾体激素受体与慢性乙型肝炎肝组织病理状态的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣芋; 张小楠; 张占卿; 陆伟; 沈芳; 冯艳玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨肝组织内性雄激素受体(AR)mRNA和雌激素受体-α(ERα)mRNA表达水平对慢性乙型肝炎(CHB)肝组织病理学状态的影响。方法收集135例CHB患者,其中HBeAg阳性患者80例,HBeAg阴性患者55例。肝组织内AR mRNA和ERαmRNA采用反转录定量PCR检测。结果HBeAg阳性患者的平均年龄在肝组织不同炎症分级和纤维化分期之间的差异均具有统计学意义(P均<0.01);肝组织内平均AR mRNA和ERαmRNA含量在肝组织不同炎症分级和纤维化分期之间的差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.01)。HBeAg阴性患者的平均年龄在肝组织不同炎症分级之间的差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05),在不同纤维化分期之间的差异具有统计学意义(P均<0.01);肝组织内平均AR mRNA和ERα mRNA含量在不同炎症分级和纤维化分期之间的差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05)。根据有序Logistic回归分析结果,HBeAg阳性患者,只有肝组织内AR mRNA含量有预测肝组织炎症分级和纤维化分期的意义(P均<0.01);HBeAg阴性患者,仅肝组织内AR mRNA含量有预测肝组织炎症分级的意义(P均<0.01)。结论肝组织内AR mRNA含量是影响CHB肝组织病理学状态的一个独立因素。%Objective To investigate the influences of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor-α(ERα) on pathological status in liver tissue in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods Total of 135 patients with CHB were enrolled, among which, 80 patients and 55 patients were HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative, respectively. AR mRNA and ERαmRNA were assayed by reverse quantitative PCR. Results In HBeAg-positive patients, there were signiifcant differences of the mean ages among different inlfammatory grading and ifbrotic staging in liver tissue (P all0.05), and there were signiifcant differences in the mean ages among different ifbrotic staging in liver tissue (P all<0

  2. Punch Biopsy Results of Nasopharynx Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsa Özbay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although nasopharynx (NF has an anatomi­cally distant sites to view, biopsy can be taken easily from NF by the help of an endoscope in order to reach a defini­tive diagnosis. In this study, NF pathology results in the patient group were analyzed retrospectively. Methods: NF biopsy results of 80 patients who were ad­mitted to Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT clinic of Dumlupınar University Evliya Celebi Education and Research Hospital between September 2012-February 2016 were included in the study, retrospectively. NF has been viewed to rule out NF cancer under general or local anesthesia by rigid or flexible endoscopes and punch biopsies were taken. Results: NF patients who underwent biopsy were com­posed of 25 (31.2% females and 55 (68.8% males and the average age was 35.33. Histopathological results in 3 patients (3.7% were malignant. The pathology (96.3% were identified as chronic lymphoid hyperplasia and lym­phoid processes in the remaining 77 patients. 4 patients underwent repeat biopsy follow-on clinical suspicion of malignancy, but ultimately malignancy was not observed. Conclusion: NF biopsy is a method which is easily ap­plied in the examination of the cancer and other masses of NF. In this study, age, sex, clinical and histopathologic analysis of the patients who underwent NF biopsies were discussed in the light of the literature. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (1: 83-86

  3. Advances in the pathology of penile carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Alcides; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of penile cancer varies from country to country, with the highest figures reported for countries in Africa, South America, and Asia and lowest in the United States and Europe. Causes of this variation are not clear, but they are thought to be related to human papillomavirus infection, smoking, lack of circumcision, chronic inflammation, and poor genital hygiene. Most penile tumors are squamous cell carcinomas, and a variegated spectrum of distinct morphologies is currently recognized. Each one of these subtypes has distinctive pathologic and clinical features. About half of penile carcinomas are usual squamous cell carcinomas, and the rest corresponds to verrucous, warty, basaloid, warty-basaloid, papillary, pseudohyperplastic, pseudoglandular, adenosquamous, sarcomatoid, and cuniculatum carcinomas. Previous studies have found a consistent association of tumor cell morphology and human papillomavirus presence in penile carcinomas. Those tumors composed of small- to intermediate-sized, basaloid ("blue") cells are often human papillomavirus positive, whereas human papillomavirus prevalence is lower in tumors showing large, keratinizing, maturing eosinophilic ("pink") cells. Human papillomavirus-related tumors affect younger patients, whereas human papillomavirus-unrelated tumors are seen in older patients with phimosis, lichen sclerosus, or squamous hyperplasia. This morphologic distinctiveness is also observed in penile intraepithelial neoplasia. The specific aim of this review is to provide a detailed discussion on the macroscopic and microscopic features of all major subtypes of penile cancer. We also discuss the role of pathologic features in the prognosis of penile cancer, the characteristics of penile precursor lesions, and the use of immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of invasive and precursor lesions.

  4. [Features of neurologic semiotics at chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, I V; Baranov, V L; Kolcheva, Iu A

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is actual pathology, when it forms the mixed hypoxemia. In the conditions of a chronic hypoxemia structures of organism with high level of metabolic processes, namely brain tissues, suffer. Character of defeat of the central nervous system at that pathology is insufficiently studied. In this article we studied and analysed the presence of such changes as depression, anxiety, cognitive impairment and features of neurologic semiotics at COPD in 50 patients.

  5. Oxidative stress in patients with endodontic pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengerfeldt V

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Veiko Vengerfeldt,1 Reet Mändar,2,3 Mare Saag,1 Anneli Piir,2 Tiiu Kullisaar2 1Institute of Dental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 2Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 3Competence Centre on Health Technologies, Tartu, Estonia Background: Apical periodontitis (AP is an inflammatory disease affecting periradicular tissues. It is a widespread condition but its etiopathogenetic mechanisms have not been completely elucidated and the current treatment options are not always successful.Purpose: To compare oxidative stress (OxS levels in the saliva and the endodontium (root canal [RC] contents in patients with different endodontic pathologies and in endodontically healthy subjects.Patients and methods: The study group of this comparison study included 22 subjects with primary chronic apical periodontitis (pCAP, 26 with posttreatment or secondary chronic apical periodontitis (sCAP, eight with acute periapical abscess, 13 with irreversible pulpitis, and 17 healthy controls. Resting saliva samples were collected before clinical treatment. Pulp samples (remnants of the pulp, tooth tissue, and/or previous root filling material were collected under strict aseptic conditions using the Hedström file. The samples were frozen to −80°C until analysis. OxS markers (myeloperoxidase [MPO], oxidative stress index [OSI], 8-isoprostanes [8-EPI] were detected in the saliva and the endodontium. Results: The highest MPO and 8-EPI levels were seen in pCAP and pulpitis, while the highest levels of OSI were seen in pCAP and abscess patients, as well as the saliva of sCAP patients. Controls showed the lowest OxS levels in both RC contents and saliva. Significant positive correlations between OxS markers, periapical index, and pain were revealed. Patients with pain had significantly higher OxS levels in both the endodontium (MPO median 27.9 vs 72.6 ng/mg protein, p=0.004; OSI 6.0 vs 10.4, p<0

  6. [Application value of core needle biopsy technique in the pathological diagnosis of locally advanced pancreatic cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Xu; Zhang, Jianwei; Chen, Yingtai; Sun, Yuemin; Wang, Chengfeng

    2015-04-14

    To explore the application value of core needle biopsy technique in the pathological diagnosis of locally advanced pancreatic cancer patients. During April 2007 to April 2014, retrospective analysis was conducted for 36 patients of locally advanced pancreatic cancer to summarize the clinical data of core needle biopsy technique. And the relevant data included clinical features, pathological findings and puncture-related complications. Regular postoperative follow-ups were conducted. All received pathological examination of core needle biopsy. And the pathological diagnoses were pancreatic cancer (n=29), pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (n=2) and chronic pancreatitis (n=5). During the follow-ups, liver metastasis was pathologically confirmed postoperatively at Months 4 and 6 months among 5 chronic pancreatitis patients. The remainder was followed up for over 12 months. There was neither change in size nor metastasis. One case was diagnosed at Peking Union Hospital as autoimmune pancreatitis while another 2 cases had a clinical diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. The accuracy of core needle puncture was 94.4%. There were 2 cases of postoperative pancreatic fistula in class A. Bleeding complication was absent. The application of core needle biopsy technique is both safe and effective in the pathological diagnosis of locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

  7. Diagnostics and surgical treatment of pathological deformation of the carotid arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Sh I; Tursunov, B Z; Sunnatov, R D; Irnazarov, A A; Keldiiarov, B K; Akhmatov, A M; Iulbarisov, A A; Asrarov, U A; Alizhanov, Kh K

    2010-01-01

    The most effective way of preventive maintenance of sharp and chronic disturbances of brain blood circulation are reconstructive operations on branches of an arch of an aorta. Pathological deformation meets far quite often in clinical practice and is the reason of cerebral-vascular insufficiency of various degree, including ischemic strokes. Research objective - improvement of diagnostics and tactics of treatment of the patients with pathological deformation of carotid arteries. 132 patients have entered into research with various kinds of pathological deformation. Have been made 143 reconstructive operations. Indications to operative treatment revealed by means of duplex investigation and angiography. At the same time defined hemodynamic changes on carotids with an obligatory estimation of a condition intracranial vascular channel. By the indication to operative treatment of the given category of patients it is considered: hemodynamic significant pathological deformations of an internal carotid, pathological deformation of an internal carotid in a combination with embologenal plaque, pathological deformation of an internal carotid with all types of atherosclerotic plaques narrowing a vessel gleam on 60% and more, in the presence of symptoms of cerebral-vascular insufficiency, especially at transient ischemic attacks and at an ischemic stroke. Positive clinical effect has been reached at 100% of patients with I and II degree chronic vascular-brain insufficiency, at 80,6% of patients with chronic vascular-brain insufficiency of III degree, and at 45,8% of patients which in the anamnesis have transferred sharp infringement of brain blood circulation.

  8. Chronic stress, cognitive functioning and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Marie-France; Lord, Catherine; Andrews, Julie; Juster, Robert-Paul; Sindi, Shireen; Arsenault-Lapierre, Geneviève; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Lupien, Sonia J

    2011-11-01

    This review aims to discuss the evidence supporting the link between chronic stress, cognitive function and mental health. Over the years, the associations between these concepts have been investigated in different populations. This review summarizes the findings that have emerged from older populations as well as from populations suffering from pathological aging, namely Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease. Although older adults are an interesting population to study in terms of chronic stress, other stress-related diseases can occur throughout the lifespan. The second section covers some of these stress-related diseases that have recently received a great deal of attention, namely burnout, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Given that chronic stress contributes to the development of certain pathologies by accelerating and/or exacerbating pre-existing vulnerabilities that vary from one individual to the other, the final section summarizes data obtained on potential variables contributing to the association between chronic stress and cognition.

  9. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligio Pizzigallo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.. However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious. Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse

  10. Intraoperative pathology consultation for pulmonary lesions: errors and deferrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyildiz, Elif Ulker

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy rate of frozen section constitutes an important step of quality assessment step in pathology practice. This study aimed to investigate pulmonary lesions that were incorrectly diagnosed or postponed for routine examination by pathologists at frozen section examination; it also aimed to discuss the reasons for difficult diagnoses and the various clues enabling the correct diagnosis to be made when such lesions are encountered. This study retrospectively reviewed the medical data of the thoracic surgery cases that underwent frozen section examination between 2009 and 2014. Frozen section errors and deferrals were identified in 25 cases. Fourteen (56%) lesions were of pulmonary parenchymal origin and 11 (44%) were of pleural origin. The number of cases in which the pathologists postponed the diagnosis without making any approach was 14. Of these, 9 (64%) were benign lesions such as bronchiectasis, fibrosis anthracosis, chronic inflammatory cell infiltration, chronic pleuritis, and mesothelial proliferation. The number of misdiagnosed cases was 11. Of these, 7 (64%) were of pulmonary and 4 (36%) were of pleural origin. Because the examination techniques of each pathology department may differ from one another, the comparative examination of frozen sections and routine sections would aid in becoming familiar with various pathologies and would be beneficial for pathologists in minimizing their diagnostic errors.

  11. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 detection in the urinary bladder of cattle with chronic enzootic haematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila R Wosiacki

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 involvement in the aetiology of chronic enzootic haematuria associated to bracken fern ingestion has been suggested for a long time. However, a few reports have shown the presence of the BPV-2 in urinary bladder tumors of cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of the BPV-2 infection in the urinary bladder of cattle with chronic enzootic haematuria in Brazilian cattle herds. Sixty-two urinary bladders were collected from adult cattle in beef herds from the north region of the state of Paraná, Brazil. According to clinical and pathological finds the specimens were distributed in three groups: the group A was constituted by 22 urinary bladders with macroscopic lesions collected at necropsy of cattle with clinical signs of chronic enzootic haematuria; the group B by 30 urinary bladders with macroscopic lesions collected in a slaughterhouse of cows coming from bracken fern-endemic geographical region; and the group C (control by 10 urinary bladders without macroscopic lesions collected from asymptomatic cattle in a bracken fern-free geographical region. By a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay, with an internal control, a fragment of the BPV-2 L1 gene with 386 bp length was amplified in 36 (58% urinary bladder. The rate of BPV-2 positive urinary bladders was 50% (11/22 for group A, 80% (24/30 for group B, and 10% (1/10 for group C (control. The rate of the positive results found in groups A and B that included urinary bladder samples with macroscopic lesions was 67% (35/52 and the detection of the BPV-2 in both groups was significantly higher (P < 0.05 than in the control group. RFLP with Rsa I and Hae III enzymes evaluated the specificity of the BPV-2 amplicons. The PCR internal control that amplified a 626 bp fragment of the ND5 gene of the bovine mitochondrial genome was amplified in all analyzed samples and excluded false-negatives or invalid results in the semi

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Vijayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec to FVC (forced vital capacity ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure, hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity, bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia, stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, V K

    2013-02-01

    The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines recommend influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations.

  14. [Chronicity, chronicization, systematization of delusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapet, P; Fernandez, C; Galtier, M C; Gisselmann, A

    1984-05-01

    Chronicity in psychopathology is indicative of a term, a decay. Chronicization only leads the way to this term. Here, chronicization is taken literally as an inscription in the time course of delusions. The mechanism of systematization seems to be a central mark in the approach to chronic delusions. It is not an alienation or an irreversible closing but an attempted accommodation with reality in the life of psychotic subjects, irrespective of the delusional structure. The role of therapy and drug treatment as a follow-up may in that case assume another meaning.

  15. The relationship between pathological type and blood pressure level or its circadian rhythm in patients with chronic kidney disease%慢性肾脏病患者病理类型与血压水平及昼夜节律变化的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方曙波; 王国政; 王方芳; 王军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between pathological type and blood pressure level or its circadian rhythm,as well as the relationship between the latter and the lesion degree of renal arterioles in patients with chronic kidney disease.Methods Data of 1746 cases with chronic kidney disease were collected form our hospitals who underwent renal biopsies and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring from 2008-2013,and were analyzed according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension Practice Guidelines.24 h average blood pressure ≥ 130/80 mmHg was referred to as hypertension. Nocturnal blood pressure decline rate =[(daytime blood pressure-nocturnal blood pressure)/daytime blood pressure]×100%.Nocturnal blood pressure decline >20% was referred to as extreme dippers rhythm, 10%-20% as dippers rhythm,<10% as nondipper rhythm,and <0% as risers rhythm.Both the extreme dippers rhythm and the dippers rhythm were defined as normal circadian rhythm,while the nondipper and risers rhythms defined as the abnormal blood pressure rhythm.The pathological diagnosis and typing were in reference to the 1995 WHO Glomerular Diseases Histological Type Amendments and the domestic 2001 Renal Biopsy Pathological Diagnosis Standard Guidance.Renal arteriole injury score standard was in reference to the IgA nephropathy Oxford typing score system.Results (1 )Age range of the 1746 cases was 47.4 ± 24.9 years,including 929 male cases (53.2%).The 24 h average blood pressure was≥130/80 mmHg in 560 cases (32.1%),the daytime average blood pressure ≥ 135/85 mmHg in 474 cases (27.1%),and the nocturnal average blood pressure ≥ 120/70 mmHg in 762 cases (43.6%).Extreme dippers blood pressure was in 38 cases (2.2%),dippers blood pressure in 647 cases (37.1%),nondipper blood pressure in 908 cases (52%),and risers blood pressure in 155 cases (8.9%).(2)The incidence of hypertension in patients with different pathological types of CKD was 75 .5% (74 cases ) in diabetic nephropathy,41

  16. Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector line data that were input into the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0,...

  17. Representations built from a true geographic database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars

    2005-01-01

    the whole world in 3d and with a spatial reference given by geographic coordinates. Built on top of this is a customised viewer, based on the Xith(Java) scenegraph. The viewer reads the objects directly from the database and solves the question about Level-Of-Detail on buildings, orientation in relation...... a representation based on geographic and geospatial principles. The system GRIFINOR, developed at 3DGI, Aalborg University, DK, is capable of creating this object-orientation and furthermore does this on top of a true Geographic database. A true Geographic database can be characterized as a database that can cover...... to terrain and rendering of the model. All this is done in something very close to real-time. GRIFINOR is at the moment working within a limited edition of the world. Only a few classes have been selected for representation in GRIFINOR. These are buildings, cadastre, trees, grass, roads. This paper...

  18. Medicare Geographic Variation - Public Use File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Geographic Variation Public Use File provides the ability to view demographic, utilization and quality indicators at the state level (including...

  19. Training for Internationalization through Domestic Geographical Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santangelo, Grazia D.; Stucchi, Tamara

    organizational learning, we seek to solve this puzzle in relation to the internationalization of Indian BGs. In particular, we argue that in heterogeneous domestic emerging markets BG’s geographical dispersion across sub-national states provides training for internationalization. To internationalize successfully......, BGs need to develop the capability of managing geographically dispersed units in institutional heterogeneous contexts. Domestic geographical dispersion would indeed help the BG dealing with different regulations, customers and infrastructures. However, there is less scope for such training as BGs...... become more internationally experienced, and the benefits of domestic geographical dispersions are limited by the degree of urbanization of sub-national states. We test our argument on a sample of 693 Indian BGs over the period 2001-2010....

  20. Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector line data that were input into the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0,...

  1. Recommendation Of A National Geographic Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to provide guidance relative to building capacity and geographically focusing efforts to implement landscape scale conservation...

  2. Progress and Prospects of Geographical Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Du

    2001-01-01

    Contemporary geography includes physical geography, human geography and geographical information science. Advanced trends in geographical research are characterized by the following aspects:intersection and infiltration with various disciplines, the strengthening of integrated studies within geography, the deepening of micro-scale studies of geographical processes, the broadening of applied research fields, experimental geography and the introduction of new techniques and the transformation of theoretical concepts. In order to promote the development of earth system science and to coordinate the man-land relationship, geographers may make contributions in aspects such as the process and pattern of the terrestrial surface, global change and its regional response, natural resources security and eco-reconstruction, sustainable regional development, mechanism of the man-land relationship and its coordination, geo-information science and technology, digital earth research.

  3. Identifying Geographic Clusters: A Network Analytic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Catini, Roberto; Penner, Orion; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the role of networks and clusters in the global economy. Despite being a popular research topic in economics, sociology and urban studies, geographical clustering of human activity has often studied been by means of predetermined geographical units such as administrative divisions and metropolitan areas. This approach is intrinsically time invariant and it does not allow one to differentiate between different activities. Our goal in this paper is to present a new methodology for identifying clusters, that can be applied to different empirical settings. We use a graph approach based on k-shell decomposition to analyze world biomedical research clusters based on PubMed scientific publications. We identify research institutions and locate their activities in geographical clusters. Leading areas of scientific production and their top performing research institutions are consistently identified at different geographic scales.

  4. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  5. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M.; Froeling, Fieke EM

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas owing to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects 3–9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  6. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M.; Kadaba, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas due to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects between 3 and 9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  7. The political economy of geographical indications

    OpenAIRE

    Deconinck, Koen; Swinnen, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing importance of geographical indications (GI), relatively little attention has been devoted to studying the optimal size of a GI region, as well as how lobbying by interest groups may affect the actual size. We develop a political economy model of the size of geographical indications, taking into account possible effects on perceived quality as well as on cost sharing among producers. We show that the political process may result in a GI area that is smaller or larger than t...

  8. Pathological Gambling in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Linnet, Jakob; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer

    Pathological Gambling in Parkinson’s Disease Mette Buhl Callesen, Jakob Linnet, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Albert Gjedde, Arne Møller PET Center, Aarhus University Hospital and Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University.   The neurotransmitter dopamine is central to many...... aspects of human functioning, e.g., reward, learning, and addiction, including Pathological Gambling (PG), and its loss is key to Parkinson’s Disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenrative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain [1]. One type of treatment of PD symptoms...... is medication that binds to dopamine receptors in the brain, i.e., dopamine agonists [1]. Unfortunately, for some PD patients a very serious side effect to this specific kind of treatment is developing PG. PG is an Impulse Control Disorder characterized by recurrent maladaptive behavior associated with personal...

  9. Lung Pathology in Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Reshetnyak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional lesions of organs depend on the size of a diseased vessel and frequently require the use of intensive therapy methods. The commonest manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is deep vein thrombosis of the leg and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE.Objective: to estimate the frequency of lung lesions in primary APS (PAPS, secondary (in the presence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and catastrophic APS and to assess a relationship between lung pathology and other clinical and laboratory manifestations of the disease.Subjects and methods. The study covered 372 patients followed up at the Institute of Rheumatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, since 1990, of whom 290 and 82 patients had SLE and PAPS, respectively. Among the 290 patients with SLE, there were 96 males and 194 females. At the moment of the study, the patients’ age was 31.2±11.1 years and the duration of the disease was 8.6±7.2 years. The group of patients with PAPS comprised 20 males and 62 females. Their mean age was 35.6±9.9 years and the duration of the disease was 11.9±8.5 years. Thrombotic events were verified only by instrumental studies. Lung pathology was instrumentally confirmed; all the patients underwent lung X-ray study, if required, scintigraphy and computed tomography.Results. Lung lesion associated with the pathology of vessels was revealed in 28% of the examined patients (105/372. There were prevalent patients with PTE, followed by the development of lung infarcts, which was present in 96 (91% of the 105 patients with pulmonary vascular pathology. Autopsy revealed pulmonary microangiopathy was in 12 patients, which was concurrent with focal pneumonia in 7 of them, with pneumonitis and exudative pleuritis in 5. Hemorrhagic alveolitis detected at autopsy in combination with occlusions of the pulmonary arterioles was in 3 patients who had been diagnosed as having thromboembolism of small branches of the pulmonary artery. Thrombosis of the

  10. Pharmacological Treatments in Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2012-01-01

    demonstrated mixed results in controlled clinical trials. Although limited information is available, opioid antagonists and glutamatergic agents have demonstrated efficacious outcomes, especially for individuals with PG suffering from intense urges to engage in the behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Given that several......AIMS: Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and often disabling psychiatric condition characterized by intrusive urges to engage in deleterious gambling behavior. Although common and financially devastating to individuals and families, there currently exist no formally approved...... pharmacotherapeutic interventions for this disorder. This review seeks to examine the history of medication treatments for PG. METHODS: A systematic review of the 18 double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy studies conducted for the treatment of pathological gambling was conducted. Study outcome and the mean...

  11. Innovations in teaching plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G L

    2003-01-01

    The teaching environment for plant pathology is changing in both positive and negative ways. Teaching expectations are increasing and resources are decreasing, but recent educational research and instructional technology offer new approaches to meet these challenges. Plant pathologists are teaching courses that may attract new students to the discipline or at least improve agricultural awareness. The Internet offers rapid access to information and images for both students and instructors. Instructional technology provides new tools for classroom presentations, communication with students, reaching new audiences, and distance learning, but using these new tools to enhance learning requires skilled and creative instructors. In the past, many plant pathology instructors worked in relative isolation, but new communication technologies and publishing opportunities for teaching scholarship should improve the sharing of instructional resources and methods.

  12. Interleukin-22: immunobiology and pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudakov, Jarrod A.; Hanash, Alan M.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently described IL-10 family cytokine that is produced by T-helper (Th)-17 cells, γδ T cells, NKT cells and newly described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Knowledge of IL-22 biology has rapidly evolved since its discovery in 2000, and a role for IL-22 has been identified in numerous tissues including the intestines, lung, liver, kidney, thymus, pancreas and skin. IL-22 primarily targets non-hematopoietic epithelial and stromal cells where it can promote proliferation and play a role in tissue regeneration. In addition, IL-22 regulates host defense at barrier surfaces. However, IL-22 has also been linked to several conditions involving inflammatory tissue pathology. In this review, we will assess the current understanding of this cytokine, including its physiologic and pathologic effects on epithelial cell function. PMID:25706098

  13. Quality in pathology laboratory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, S

    1995-06-01

    Quality refers not only to analytical quality control, a traditional area of laboratory excellence, but to the entire science of quality management. As measures of quality, structural indicators refer to staffing and physical facilities, process indicators to the institutions operations and, perhaps most importantly, outcome indicators address the ultimate patient care uses that pathology information is put to. Comparison of performance to peer laboratories, external quality control, is a practical, if limited, yardstick of performance. Customer satisfaction and turn-around-time of tests are receiving more recent attention as quality measures. Blood banking, because of its inherently complex cycle from donor phlebotomy to product infusion, requires special considerations with regard to quality management. Reporting of anatomical pathology, where the only gold standard is a consensus of experts, also does not lend itself to classical numerical quality assessment.

  14. Pathological fear of cot death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weightman, H; Dalal, B M; Brockington, I F

    1998-01-01

    Cot death (sudden infant death syndrome) is one of the most common causes of death in the first year of life. Four cases with a pathological fear of cot death are presented. All the patients were depressed and in 2 cases the fear of cot death had an obsessional quality. In all cases there were complications during pregnancy (miscarriage, threatened abortion, recurrent vomiting in last trimester). In 1 case, the patient knew 3 mothers who had suffered cot deaths; in another, the infant was gravely ill in the neonatal period. Pathological fear of cot death can be recognised by the presence of two central features - overvigilance and excessive nocturnal checking of the baby's breathing. Therapeutic interventions are discussed.

  15. Pathological differences between white and grey matter multiple sclerosis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Marloes; Schul, Emma; Geurts, Jeroen; van der Valk, Paul; Drukarch, Benjamin; van Dam, Anne-Marie

    2015-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease characterized by demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in widespread formation of white matter lesions (WMLs) and grey matter lesions (GMLs). WMLs are pathologically characterized by the presence of immune cells that infiltrate the CNS, whereas these immune cells are barely present in GMLs. This striking pathological difference between WMLs and GMLs raises questions about the underlying mechanism. It is known that infiltrating leukocytes contribute to the generation of WMLs; however, since GMLs show a paucity of infiltrating immune cells, their importance in GML formation remains to be determined. Here, we review pathological characteristics of WMLs and GMLs, and suggest some possible explanations for the observed pathological differences. In our view, cellular and molecular characteristics of WM and GM, and local differences within WMLs and GMLs (in particular, in glial cell populations and the molecules they express), determine the pathway to demyelination. Further understanding of GML pathogenesis, considered to contribute to chronic MS, may have a direct impact on the development of novel therapeutic targets to counteract this progressive neurological disorder.

  16. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura eEl Khoury

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD include senile plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF. NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD.Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99% is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease.Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting on Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia.

  17. Informational pathologies and interest bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Wiewiura, Joachim Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    This article contends that certain configurations of information networks facilitate specific cognitive states that are instrumental for decision and action on social media. Group-related knowledge and belief states—in particular common knowledge and pluralistic ignorance—may enable strong public...... signals. Indeed, some network configurations and attitude states foster informational pathologies that may fuel interest bubbles affecting agenda-setting and the generation of narratives in public spheres....

  18. [The normal and the pathological].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, B

    1995-12-10

    The main problem of modern health care is to express its goals and its limits. To do this it is necessary to answer the fundamental question: what is normal and what is pathological? The French physician and philosopher Georges Canguilhem has tried to answer this question. He claims that for medicine, the difference between these fundamentals is determined by normativity and not by science. In doing this he wishes to save the autonomy of the individual patient and to delimit medicine from science.

  19. Medical discourse in pathological anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, R; Tatsenko, N; Romanyuk, A; Perelomova, O; Moskalenko, Yu

    2012-05-01

    The paper is devoted to the peculiarities of medical discourse in pathological anatomy as coherent speech and as a linguistic correlate of medical practice taking into account the analysis of its strategies and tactics. The purpose of the paper is to provide a multifaceted analysis of the speech strategies and tactics of pathological anatomy discourse and ways of their implementation. The main strategies of medical discourse in pathological anatomy are an anticipating strategy, a diagnosing strategy and an explaining one. The supporting strategies are pragmatic, conversational and a rhetorical one. The pragmatic strategy is implemented through contact establishing tactics, the conversational one - with the help of control tactics, the rhetorical one - with the help of attention correction tactics. The above mentioned tactics and strategies are used in the distinguishing of major, closely interrelated strategies: "the contact strategy" (to establish contact with a patient's relatives - phatic replicas of greeting and addressing) and "the strategy of explanation" (used in the practice of a pathologist for a detailed explanation of the reasons of a patient's death). The ethic aspect of speech conduct of a doctor-pathologist is analyzed.

  20. Diagnostic pathology in 2012: development of digital pathology in an open access journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayser Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herein we describe and interpret the digital world of diagnostic surgical pathology, and take the in Pathology leading Open Access Journal Diagnostic Pathology as example. Virtual slide http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1944221953867351

  1. AID Biology: A pathological and clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Meenal; Tamrakar, Anubhav; Singh, Amit Kumar; Jain, Monika; Jaiswal, Ankit; Kodgire, Prashant

    2017-09-21

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), primarily expressed in activated mature B lymphocytes in germinal centers, is the key factor in adaptive immune response against foreign antigens. AID is responsible for producing high-affinity and high-specificity antibodies against an infectious agent, through the physiological DNA alteration processes of antibody genes by somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) and functions by deaminating deoxycytidines (dC) to deoxyuridines (dU), thereby introducing point mutations and double-stranded chromosomal breaks (DSBs). The beneficial physiological role of AID in antibody diversification is outweighed by its detrimental role in the genesis of several chronic immune diseases, under non-physiological conditions. This review offers a comprehensive and better understanding of AID biology and its pathological aspects, as well as addresses the challenges involved in AID-related cancer therapeutics, based on various recent advances and evidence available in the literature till date. In this article, we discuss ways through which our interpretation of AID biology may reflect upon novel clinical insights, which could be successfully translated into designing clinical trials and improving patient prognosis and disease management.

  2. Features of patients with comorbid pathology treatment in internal medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Kuznetsova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Nowadays more attention is paid to the comorbid pathologies in the internal medicine as they have important social and medical value. Different combinations of the arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease, osteoartrosis and anemia influences are now studied. The article underlines the main features of the therapeutic tactics in these patients. Methods and results. The paper presents a case of a patient with mentioned pathology, sets out the main guidelines for the management of patients with such comorbid conditions. Conclusion. Treatment tactics should include: minimum interoperability path of excretion, metabolic neutrality, good tolerability and a positive impact on the affected organ, all of which may contribute not only to improve health and improve the quality of life of patients, but also its extension.

  3. Niche breadth and geographical range: ecological compensation for geographical rarity in rainforest frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Yvette M; Williams, Stephen E.; Ross A Alford; Waycott, Michelle; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between diet specialization and geographical range in Cophixalus, a genus of microhylid frogs from the Wet Tropics of northern Queensland, Australia. The geographical ranges of these species vary from a few square kilometres in species restricted to a single mountain top to the entire region for the widespread species. Although macroecological theory predicts that species with broad niches should have the largest geographical ranges, we found the opposite: geo...

  4. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) for Lousiana, Geographic NAD83, USGS (2007) [GNIS_LA_USGS_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  5. Natural Killer Cells in the Orchestration of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Parisi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation, altered immune cell phenotype, and functions are key features shared by diverse chronic diseases, including cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. Natural killer cells are innate lymphoid cells primarily involved in the immune system response to non-self-components but their plasticity is largely influenced by the pathological microenvironment. Altered NK phenotype and function have been reported in several pathological conditions, basically related to impaired or enhanced toxicity. Here we reviewed and discussed the role of NKs in selected, different, and “distant” chronic diseases, cancer, diabetes, periodontitis, and atherosclerosis, placing NK cells as crucial orchestrator of these pathologic conditions.

  6. Natural Killer Cells in the Orchestration of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Barbara; Tremolati, Marco; Gini, Elisabetta; Farronato, Giampietro; Bruno, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation, altered immune cell phenotype, and functions are key features shared by diverse chronic diseases, including cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. Natural killer cells are innate lymphoid cells primarily involved in the immune system response to non-self-components but their plasticity is largely influenced by the pathological microenvironment. Altered NK phenotype and function have been reported in several pathological conditions, basically related to impaired or enhanced toxicity. Here we reviewed and discussed the role of NKs in selected, different, and “distant” chronic diseases, cancer, diabetes, periodontitis, and atherosclerosis, placing NK cells as crucial orchestrator of these pathologic conditions. PMID:28428965

  7. Chronic inflammation induces telomere dysfunction and accelerates ageing in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurk, Diana; Wilson, Caroline; Passos, Joao F.; Oakley, Fiona; Correia-Melo, Clara; Greaves, Laura; Saretzki, Gabriele; Fox, Chris; Lawless, Conor; Anderson, Rhys; Hewitt, Graeme; Pender, Sylvia L. F.; Fullard, Nicola; Nelson, Glyn; Mann, Jelena; van de Sluis, Bart; Mann, Derek A.; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with normal and pathological ageing. Here we show that chronic, progressive low-grade inflammation induced by knockout of the nfkb1 subunit of the transcription factor NF-kappa B induces premature ageing in mice. We also show that these mice have reduced regenerati

  8. [The use of eurespal for the treatment of chronic laryngitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riabova, M A

    2011-01-01

    The author provides a rationale for the use of eurespal for the treatment of chronic laryngitis based on the pathogenetic concept of pathological condition. The results of a clinical study designed to evaluate the efficiency and safety of eurespal therapy in patients with chronic laryngitis are presented.

  9. Risk factors for chronic postsurgical abdominal and pelvic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijckevorsel, D.C.M. van; Vries, M. de; Schreuder, L.T.W.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Goor, H. van

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) may develop after any surgical procedure, and is a common feature after abdominal and pelvic surgery with a prevalence varying between 10 and 40%. The pathological mechanisms leading to chronic CPSP are probably inflammation, tissue and nerve damage and alter

  10. Chronic inflammation induces telomere dysfunction and accelerates ageing in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurk, Diana; Wilson, Caroline; Passos, Joao F.; Oakley, Fiona; Correia-Melo, Clara; Greaves, Laura; Saretzki, Gabriele; Fox, Chris; Lawless, Conor; Anderson, Rhys; Hewitt, Graeme; Pender, Sylvia L. F.; Fullard, Nicola; Nelson, Glyn; Mann, Jelena; van de Sluis, Bart; Mann, Derek A.; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with normal and pathological ageing. Here we show that chronic, progressive low-grade inflammation induced by knockout of the nfkb1 subunit of the transcription factor NF-kappa B induces premature ageing in mice. We also show that these mice have reduced regenerati

  11. Disparity of radioiodine and radiothallium concentrations in chronic thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimaoka, K.; Parthasarathy, K.L.; Friedman, M.; Rao, U.

    1980-01-01

    Three cases of chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease) presented with thyroid nodules, showed disparate uptakes of radioiodine and radiothallium. All patients were clinically euthyroid and had positive antithyroid antibody titers. On cytological and/or pathological examinations, they were consistent with chronic thyroiditis.

  12. Risk factors for chronic postsurgical abdominal and pelvic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijckevorsel, D.C.M. van; Vries, M. de; Schreuder, L.T.W.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Goor, H. van

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) may develop after any surgical procedure, and is a common feature after abdominal and pelvic surgery with a prevalence varying between 10 and 40%. The pathological mechanisms leading to chronic CPSP are probably inflammation, tissue and nerve damage and alter

  13. lowered serum triglyceride levels among chronic hepatitis b-infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    about the effect of the two pathological stages of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection – chronic- symptomatic .... RESULTS. The age, gender, and basal serum transaminases ... plasma lipid abnormalities associated with pa- ..... triglyceride synthesis in HepG2 cells. Me- ... as a precocious marker of autoimmune disor- ders.

  14. Extensive renovation the pathology of heritage building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures.......The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures....

  15. Extensive renovation the pathology of heritage buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures.......The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures....

  16. Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bonnie K.

    2009-01-01

    Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

  17. Personality dimensions and disorders in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling.......This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling....

  18. Diabetic patient adherence to pathology request completion in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Niamh; Johnson, Tracey; Badrick, Tony

    2016-08-11

    Objective Little research exists regarding the prevalence of patient non-adherence with completing pathology requests for chronic disease monitoring. The aims of the present study were to determine the extent to which this exists in diabetic patients and to identify possible reasons contributing to this behaviour.Methods Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited from three general practices with different demographics. Data were collected by recording demographic patient information at the time of visit. In addition, information regarding patient pathology request adherence and the reasons provided when this was not achieved were also noted. These reasons were compared with preconceptions by medical staff in each practice.Results General practitioner perceptions of poor patient adherence to pathology requests were confirmed, with rates of non-adherence up to 31% at one practice site. The primary reasons preventing completion of pathology testing included forgetfulness, time poorness, poor health literacy and, in some cases, language barriers.Conclusion A high proportion of patients do not prioritise the monitoring of their diabetes, potentially because of a lack of understanding of the importance such management has on their health. Further research should be conducted to determine the effect of the implementation of point-of-care testing on patient outcomes in such areas of low non-adherence with disease management.What is known about the topic? Little quantitative information exists regarding the adherence rate of patients to pathology request completion. Without up-to-date pathology results, a barrier is created, preventing accurate medical treatment of the patient's condition because the doctor cannot ascertain a full picture of the patient's current disease state at the time of consultation.What does this paper add? This paper quantifies the rate of non-adherence among three diabetic patient groups at different practice sites, taking into

  19. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CHEMICAL CHOLECYSTECTOMY OF PATHOLOGIC OBSERVATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To verify through animal experiment the validity of chemical cholecystectomy.Mothods:The expermental objects seven healthy juvenile pigs,hardener was infused into the gallbladder,after infusion the sapmles were collected by pathological examination,according to the different duration under anesthestize.Results:The mucous destructive and digestive process remained with one week,the inflammatory reaction in two weeks,the chronic inflammatory reaction compained a great deal of granulation tissue and scar formation occurred in 4th-8th week,10 weeks latter,the inflammatory reaction reduced,and scar tissue formed.Conlusion:Chemical cholecystecomy is safe and reliable in clinic.

  20. 不同基因型HBV感染的慢性乙型肝炎患者临床与病理改变研究%Research on clinical and pathological changes of chronic hepatitis B patients infected with different hepatitis B virus genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金华; 程书权; 唐振祥; 冼永超; 黄成军; 蔡毅峰; 张磊

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨不同基因类型的慢性乙型肝炎(Chronic hepatitis B,CHB)患者在年龄、性别和民族方面的内在关联,比较不同HBV基因类型患者的肝组织病理损害程度、HBV-DNA载量及肝功能改变.方法:荧光定量PCR仪检测94例行肝活检的CHB患者的HBV-DNA,以限制性片段长度多态性(Restriction fragment length polymorphism,RFLP)方法进行HBV基因分型.结果:本组94例CHB患者B基因型占74.5%,C基因型占25.5%.HBV基因类型与年龄、性别无关;C基因型中壮族所占比例明显高于B基因型;C基因型患者HBeAg阳性率明显低于B基因型患者(P<0.05).CHB患者肝组织病理损伤程度与B、C基因型相关,C基因型在肝组织炎症及纤维化程度较重组所占的比例高于B基因型(P<0.05);肝组织病理损伤程度与肝功能指标相关(P<0.05),但与HBV-DNA水平无关.结论:本组CHB患者HBV基因类型呈B、C2型,人群分布以B型为主,C型次之,未见其他类型或混合型;汉族患者以B基因型为主,壮族则以C型为主;相对于B基因型,C型患者肝组织炎症及纤维化程度较重,容易出现严重的肝损害和肝癌等不良预后.%Objective:To investigate the relationship of ages,genders and nationalities in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients infected with different hepatitis B virus, to compare the hepatic tissue damage degree, HBV-DNA load and the liver function change among patients with different genotype. Methods: Fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) instrument was used to test HBV DNA and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method was used to test genotypes. Results: Among 94 patients with CHB, B genotype was accounted for 74.5% and C genotype for 25. 5%. CHB patients HBV genotype had nothing to do with age and sex. Tho proportion of Zhuang nationality in C genotype was obviously higher than that in B genotype. The HBeAg positive rate of patients with G genotype was obviously

  1. 慢性发绀型肺血减少先天性心脏病幼猪模型的建立与病理学观察%Development and pathological observation on a chronic cyanotic porcine model with decreased pulmonary blood flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王栋; 刘迎龙; 吕小东; 朱耀斌; 凌锋; 刘爱军; 李刚; 续玉林

    2011-01-01

    .09) mmHg ( 1 mmHg =0.133 kpa) to ( 19.67 ± 4.76) mmHg after 4 weeks ( P = 0.011) . The arterial oxygen saturation ( SaO2) . arterial oxygen tension ( PaO2 ) , arterial carhon dioxide tension ( PaCO2 ) , hemoglobin concentration ( Hb) and hematocrit value ( Hct) were 82.35%, 68.73 mmHg , 51.83 mmHg, 13.82 g/dl and 42.67% in cyanotic model group versus 96.43% , 194.08 mmHg, 36.9 mmHg, 10.98 g/dl and 31.17% in control group, respectively ( all P <0.05) . There were significant pathologic differences of lung and heart tissue between the two groups. Conclusion : A chronic porcine model of cyanotic congenital heart disease with decreased pulmonary blood flow was successfully established by right-to-left shunting with a PA-to-LA synthetic graft with PA banding. Application of this experimental design may enhance our understanding and possibly influence the treatment of patients having congenital cyanotic heart disease with decreased pulmonary blood flow.

  2. [Chronic respiratory insufficiency and the elderly patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobarzan, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Chronic respiratory failure is a complex entity of varied etiology and physio-pathological mechanisms. It is mainly characterised by the respiratory system's difficulty in ensuring correct aeration at rest, resulting initially in insufficient oxygenation of arterial blood. Treatment is adapted to each etiology and aims to compensate for respiratory failure and to ensure the oxygenation of the organism.

  3. An intelligent method for geographic Web search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Kun; Yuan, Ying

    2008-10-01

    While the electronically available information in the World-Wide Web is explosively growing and thus increasing, the difficulty to find relevant information is also increasing for search engine user. In this paper we discuss how to constrain web queries geographically. A number of search queries are associated with geographical locations, either explicitly or implicitly. Accurately and effectively detecting the locations where search queries are truly about has huge potential impact on increasing search relevance, bringing better targeted search results, and improving search user satisfaction. Our approach focus on both in the way geographic information is extracted from the web and, as far as we can tell, in the way it is integrated into query processing. This paper gives an overview of a spatially aware search engine for semantic querying of web document. It also illustrates algorithms for extracting location from web documents and query requests using the location ontologies to encode and reason about formal semantics of geographic web search. Based on a real-world scenario of tourism guide search, the application of our approach shows that the geographic information retrieval can be efficiently supported.

  4. Comparison of immunization strategies in geographical networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Bing; Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)] [ERATO Aihara Complexity Modelling Project, JST, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8505 (Japan); Kim, Beom Jun, E-mail: beomjun@skku.ed [BK21 Physics Research Division and Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Computational Biology, School of Computer Science and Communication, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-12

    The epidemic spread and immunizations in geographically embedded scale-free (SF) and Watts-Strogatz (WS) networks are numerically investigated. We make a realistic assumption that it takes time which we call the detection time, for a vertex to be identified as infected, and implement two different immunization strategies: one is based on connection neighbors (CN) of the infected vertex with the exact information of the network structure utilized and the other is based on spatial neighbors (SN) with only geographical distances taken into account. We find that the decrease of the detection time is crucial for a successful immunization in general. Simulation results show that for both SF networks and WS networks, the SN strategy always performs better than the CN strategy, especially for more heterogeneous SF networks at long detection time. The observation is verified by checking the number of the infected nodes being immunized. We found that in geographical space, the distance preferences in the network construction process and the geographically decaying infection rate are key factors that make the SN immunization strategy outperforms the CN strategy. It indicates that even in the absence of the full knowledge of network connectivity we can still stop the epidemic spread efficiently only by using geographical information as in the SN strategy, which may have potential applications for preventing the real epidemic spread.

  5. Louisiana State Soil Geographic, General Soil Map, Geographic NAD83, NWRC (1998) [statsgo_soils_NWRC_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains vector line map information. The vector data contain selected base categories of geographic features, and characteristics of these features,...

  6. Chronic hepatitis B infection presenting with chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS): a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Ching-Fu; Chan, Ding-Cheng; Chen, Ya-Fang; Liu, Fei-Chih; Liou, Horng-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids is a brainstem disorder characterized by perivascular pathologic reaction with lymphocyte infiltration and leading to diplopia, facial palsy, dysarthria, and gait ataxia. It was thought to be an autoimmune disorder without distinct pathogenesis. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection has been proposed in correlation with autoimmune diseases, including central nervous system demyelinating di...

  7. Lung Compliance and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Papandrinopoulou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, namely, pulmonary emphysema and chronic bronchitis, is a chronic inflammatory response of the airways to noxious particles or gases, with resulting pathological and pathophysiological changes in the lung. The main pathophysiological aspects of the disease are airflow obstruction and hyperinflation. The mechanical properties of the respiratory system and its component parts are studied by determining the corresponding volume-pressure (P-V relationships. The consequences of the inflammatory response on the lung structure and function are depicted on the volume-pressure relationships.

  8. Ethics and Professionalism in Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Baral

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathologists spend most of their professional lives beyond direct view of the public, mostly inside the four walls of the lab. It is the clinicians who face the wrath of the public when something goes wrong. However, with the growing awareness of the public into the decisive role played by the Pathologists in the definitive diagnosis of the disease, the pathologists will soon be the target of the aggrieved patients and relatives.1 The issue of ethics can be dealt when professionalism comes before profession. "Professionalism in medicine requires that physician serve the interests of the patient above his or her own selfinterest." Professionalism aspires to philanthropy, answerability, excellence, duty, service and respect for others. "Professionalism in Pathology is based on the same tenets, but has additional dimensions."The qualities of professionalism for pathologists include 1. Communication with the patients and the clinicians. A small phone call with the clinician will solve most of the clinical mysteries not written in the lab requisition forms; 2. Empathy and Compassion towards patients', colleagues', and laboratory personnel's culture, age, gender, and disabilities; 3. Demonstration of passion, respect and understanding towards the patients; 4. Adherence to guidelines and regulations of the regulatory and accrediting bodies; and 5.Profeciency and knowledge in one's work is valued by the patients more than the credentials, which also enables one to identify deficiencies in peer performance. The basic competencies of professionalism are vital to every pathology report, which in turn is the mirror of the ethics practiced by the pathologist. Evaluating oneself is perhaps the most important tool in maintaining professionalism in the practice of pathology. One colleague recently defined professionalism as “all the things one does when no one is watching,” thus placing personal integrity at the top of the list.

  9. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  10. Iliopsoas: Pathology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christian N

    2016-07-01

    Disorders of the iliopsoas can be a significant source of groin pain in the athletic population. Commonly described pathologic conditions include iliopsoas bursitis, tendonitis, impingement, and snapping. The first-line treatment for iliopsoas disorders is typically conservative, including activity modification, physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroid injections. Surgical treatment can be considered if the patient fails conservative measures and typically involves arthroscopic lengthening of the musculotendinous unit and treatment of concomitant intra-articular abnormality. Tendon release has been described: in the central compartment, in the peripheral compartment, and at the lesser trochanter, with similar outcomes observed between the techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ear infection - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... up. When this happens, infection can occur. A chronic ear infection develops when fluid or an infection ...

  12. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Chronic Pelvic Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  13. Employees with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one in five Americans suffer from chronic pain (Sternberg, 2005). What is chronic pain? While acute pain ... nih.gov/disorders/chronic_pain/chronic_pain.htm Sternberg, S. (2005). Chronic pain: The enemy within. Retrieved December ...

  14. Pre-Service Geography Teachers' Confidence in Geographical Subject Matter Knowledge and Teaching Geographical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Wendy; Reitano, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This research tracked the confidence of 16 undergraduate and postgraduate pre-service geography teachers as they completed a single semester, senior phase geography curriculum course. The study focused specifically on the pre-service teachers' confidence in geographical subject matter knowledge and their confidence in teaching geographical skills.…

  15. Pre-Service Geography Teachers' Confidence in Geographical Subject Matter Knowledge and Teaching Geographical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Wendy; Reitano, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This research tracked the confidence of 16 undergraduate and postgraduate pre-service geography teachers as they completed a single semester, senior phase geography curriculum course. The study focused specifically on the pre-service teachers' confidence in geographical subject matter knowledge and their confidence in teaching geographical skills.…

  16. A Framework for Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) based on geographic ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, H. Y.; Li, H. T.; Yan, L.; Lu, X. J.

    2015-06-01

    GEOBIA (Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis) is not only a hot topic of current remote sensing and geographical research. It is believed to be a paradigm in remote sensing and GIScience. The lack of a systematic approach designed to conceptualize and formalize the class definitions makes GEOBIA a highly subjective and difficult method to reproduce. This paper aims to put forward a framework for GEOBIA based on geographic ontology theory, which could implement "Geographic entities - Image objects - Geographic objects" true reappearance. It consists of three steps, first, geographical entities are described by geographic ontology, second, semantic network model is built based on OWL(ontology web language), at last, geographical objects are classified with decision rule or other classifiers. A case study of farmland ontology was conducted for describing the framework. The strength of this framework is that it provides interpretation strategies and global framework for GEOBIA with the property of objective, overall, universal, universality, etc., which avoids inconsistencies caused by different experts' experience and provides an objective model for mage analysis.

  17. MODELING FUZZY GEOGRAPHIC OBJECTS WITHIN FUZZY FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To improve the current GIS functions in describing geographic objects w ith fuzziness,this paper begins with a discussion on the distance measure of sp atial objects based on the theory of sets and an introduction of dilation and er osion operators.Under the assumption that changes of attributes in a geographic region are gradual,the analytic expressions for the fuzzy objects of points,l ines and areas,and the description of their formal structures are presented.Th e analytic model of geographic objects by means of fuzzy fields is developed.We have shown that the 9-intersection model proposed by Egenhofer and Franzosa (19 91) is a special case of the model presented in the paper.

  18. Training for Internationalization through Domestic Geographical Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santangelo, Grazia D.; Stucchi, Tamara

    Traditionally created to deal with the unfriendly domestic environment, business groups (BGs) are increasingly internationalizing. However, how BGs can reconcile their strictly domestic orientation with an international dimension still remains an open question. Drawing on arguments from...... organizational learning, we seek to solve this puzzle in relation to the internationalization of Indian BGs. In particular, we argue that in heterogeneous domestic emerging markets BG’s geographical dispersion across sub-national states provides training for internationalization. To internationalize successfully......, BGs need to develop the capability of managing geographically dispersed units in institutional heterogeneous contexts. Domestic geographical dispersion would indeed help the BG dealing with different regulations, customers and infrastructures. However, there is less scope for such training as BGs...

  19. Thematic cartography as a geographical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Perko

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A thematic map may be a geographical application (tool in itself or the basis for some other geographical work. The development of Slovene thematic cartography accelerated considerably following the independence of the country in 1991. From the viewpoint of content and technology, its greatest achievements are the Geographical Atlas of Slovenia and the National Atlas of Slovenia, which are outstanding achievements at the international level and of great significance for the promotion of Slovenia and Slovene geography and cartography. However, this rapid development has been accompanied by numerous problems, for example, the ignoring of various Slovene and international conventions for the preparation of maps including United Nations resolutions, Slovene and international (SIST ISO, and copyright laws.

  20. Mapping the geographical diffusion of new words

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenstein, Jacob; Smith, Noah A; Xing, Eric P

    2012-01-01

    Language in social media is rich with linguistic innovations, most strikingly in the new words and spellings that constantly enter the lexicon. Despite assertions about the power of social media to connect people across the world, we find that many of these neologisms are restricted to geographically compact areas. Even for words that become ubiquituous, their growth in popularity is often geographical, spreading from city to city. Thus, social media text offers a unique opportunity to study the diffusion of lexical change. In this paper, we show how an autoregressive model of word frequencies in social media can be used to induce a network of linguistic influence between American cities. By comparing the induced network with the geographical and demographic characteristics of each city, we can measure the factors that drive the spread of lexical innovation.

  1. [The pathology of hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, Zsuzsa; Gógl, Alíz; Dóra, Réka; Halász, Tünde

    2015-05-24

    The hepatitis C virus is an RNA virus, which belongs to the genus Hepaciviruses of the family Flaviviridae. Chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and ultimately even liver cancer may develop in over 80% of infected cases. The histological features of hepatitis C and hepatitis caused by other hepatotropic viruses show many similarities, however, certain specific histological characteristics are observable. Accordingly, intense lymphocytic infiltration around the periportal areas, steatosis and biliary alterations are frequent findings. Further characteristics of hepatitis C include liver cell destruction (apoptosis, necrosis), periportal inflammation and fibrosis, the degrees of which can be determined by means of the histology activity index. Our knowledge on the hepatitis C virus genome and the mechanism of replication of the virus have established the use of modern, direct-acting antivirals in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

  2. Acute clinical onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molín, Jéssica; Márquez, Mercedes; Raurell, Xavier; Matiasek, Kaspar; Ferrer, Isidre; Pumarola, Martí

    2011-09-01

    We report a case of acute-onset ambulatory paraparesis with electrophysiological abnormalities compatible with axonal and demyelinating lesions in a Rottweiler dog. Although the clinical findings were compatible with acute canine idiopathic polyneuropathy, postmortem investigations revealed a chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy affecting the nerve roots. Due to the combination of acute clinical presentation and chronic pathologic features, this case is consistent with the acute-onset form of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (A-CIDP).

  3. Niche breadth and geographical range: ecological compensation for geographical rarity in rainforest frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Yvette M; Williams, Stephen E; Alford, Ross A; Waycott, Michelle; Johnson, Christopher N

    2006-12-22

    We investigated the relationship between diet specialization and geographical range in Cophixalus, a genus of microhylid frogs from the Wet Tropics of northern Queensland, Australia. The geographical ranges of these species vary from a few square kilometres in species restricted to a single mountain top to the entire region for the widespread species. Although macroecological theory predicts that species with broad niches should have the largest geographical ranges, we found the opposite: geographically rare species were diet generalists and widespread species were diet specialists. We argue that this pattern is a product of extinction filtering, whereby geographically rare and therefore extinction-prone species are more likely to persist if they are diet generalists.

  4. Chronic hypophosphatemic osteopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppers, B.; Schmid, L.; Hofmann, E.; Sauer, E.

    1980-07-01

    The process of chronic hypophosphatemic vitamine D-resistant rickets is described by observation of two cases. With the male patient - our first case - the disease was sporadic and had not been recognized for a long time. In his early adulthood it manifested itself as Umbauzonen (pseudofractures) in the larger context of active osteomalacia. It was possible to observe the pseudofractures before and while the patient was medicamentously treated. High doses of vitamine D 3 and dosage of phosphate mitigated the complaints although with respect to the radiological, scintigraphical, humoral and histological findings there was only slow improvement or no improvement at all. The patient's daughter is affected by the disease as well. In her case the pathological signs of her bones became better when treated with vitamine D 3.

  5. África en el National Geographic

    OpenAIRE

    Cartagena, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Por muchos años, el National Geographic Magazine sirvió como el único medio en el cual las personas leían sobre África. En mi trabajo propongo que la imagen que ha creado el National Geographic Magazine a través de sus artículos y fotos sobre el continente africano es una imagen exótica y en donde se exalta los valores imperialistas y los beneficios del colonialismo para África. Es una imagen en la que el continente es representado como un lugar a donde los estadounidenses pueden ir a hacer s...

  6. Location of geographical objects in crisis situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybansky, M.; Kratochvil, V.

    2014-02-01

    This article summarizes the various expressions of object positioning using different coordinate data and different methods, such as use of maps, exploiting the properties of digital Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) networks, Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS), Inertial Navigation Systems (INS), Inertial Measurement Systems (IMS), hybrid methods and non-contact (remote sensing) methods; all with varying level of accuracy. Furthermore, the article describes some geographical identifiers and verbal means to describe location of geographical objects such as settlements, rivers, forest, roads, etc. All of the location methods have some advantages and disadvantages, especially in emergency situations, when usually the crisis management has a lack of time in a decision process.

  7. Pathologic pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debra Ouyang; Deepti Dhall; Run Yu

    2011-01-01

    Pathologic hyperplasia of various pancreatic endocrine cells is rare but has been long known. β cell hyperplasia contributes to persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy, which is commonly caused by mutations in the islet ATP-sensitive potassium channel, and to noninsulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia in adults,which may or may not be associated with bariatric surgery.α cell hyperplasia may cause glucagonoma syndrome or induce pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. An inactivating mutation of the glucagon receptor causes α cell hyperplasia and asymptomatic hyperglucagonemia.Pancreatic polypeptide cell hyperplasia has been described without a clearly-characterized clinical syndrome and hyperplasia of other endocrine cells inside the pancreas has not been reported to our knowledge.Based on morphological evidence, the main pathogenetic mechanism for pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia is increased endocrine cell neogenesis from exocrine ductal epithelium. Pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia should be considered in the diagnosis and management of hypoglycemia, elevated islet hormone levels,and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Further studies of pathologic pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia will likely yield insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

  8. Dopamine Agonists and Pathologic Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J. Kelley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dopamine agonists ropinirole and pramipexole exhibit highly specific affinity for the cerebral dopamine D3 receptor. Use of these medications in Parkinson’s disease has been complicated by the emergence of pathologic behavioral patterns such as hypersexuality, pathologic gambling, excessive hobbying, and other circumscribed obsessive-compulsive disorders of impulse control in people having no history of such disorders. These behavioral changes typically remit following discontinuation of the medication, further demonstrating a causal relationship. Expression of the D3 receptor is particularly rich within the limbic system, where it plays an important role in modulating the physiologic and emotional experience of novelty, reward, and risk assessment. Converging neuroanatomical, physiological, and behavioral science data suggest the high D3 affinity of these medications as the basis for these behavioral changes. These observations suggest the D3 receptor as a therapeutic target for obsessive-compulsive disorder and substance abuse, and improved understanding of D3 receptor function may aid drug design of future atypical antipsychotics.

  9. Fibroadenomas: Sonographic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Sung; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Eun Ah; Lee, Sun Wha; Sung, Soon Hee [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-15

    To correlate sonographic appearance and histopathologic findings of fibroadenomas. Forty-one biopsy-proven fibroadenomas were retrospectively evaluate for sonographic-pathologic correlation. The fibroadenomas were histologically classified into sclerotic, myxoid, glandular and mixed type. The stromal cellularity and fibrosis were also classified into mild and severe. The internal echotexture and posterior acoustic enhancement of mass in ultrasonogram were correlated with histopathologic findings. The pathologic types of fibroadenomas were sclerotic in sixteen, myxoid in thirteen, and glandular or mixed in each of six cases. Most of the sclerotic type showed hypoechoic internal echotexture (68.8%) and myxoid and glandular types showed isoechoic internal echotexture (84.6%, 83.3% respectively). The hypoechoic masses showed 12 cases of mild (75.0%) and 4 cases of severe (25.0%) in cellularity and 3 cases of mild (18.7%) and 13 cases (81.3%) of sever degree in fibrosis. Most of the myxoid type (77%) showed posterior enhancement, and most of the sclerotic type (87.5%) did not show posterior enhancement on ultrasonogram. Posterior enhancement was absent in 22 cases, in which 4 cases (18.2%) showed mild and 18 cases (81.2%) showed severe degree of fibrosis. Sclerotic type with mild cellularity and severe fibrosis on histopathology showed hypoechogenicity on ultrasonogram; whereas myxoid and glandular types were predominantly isoechoic. Most of the myxoid type showed posterior enhancement. Sclerotic type with mild cellularity and severe fibrosis did not show posterior enhancement.

  10. Pathologic pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Debra; Dhall, Deepti; Yu, Run

    2011-01-01

    Pathologic hyperplasia of various pancreatic endocrine cells is rare but has been long known. β cell hyperplasia contributes to persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy, which is commonly caused by mutations in the islet ATP-sensitive potassium channel, and to non-insulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia in adults, which may or may not be associated with bariatric surgery. α cell hyperplasia may cause glucagonoma syndrome or induce pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. An inactivating mutation of the glucagon receptor causes α cell hyperplasia and asymptomatic hyperglucagonemia. Pancreatic polypeptide cell hyperplasia has been described without a clearly-characterized clinical syndrome and hyperplasia of other endocrine cells inside the pancreas has not been reported to our knowledge. Based on morphological evidence, the main pathogenetic mechanism for pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia is increased endocrine cell neogenesis from exocrine ductal epithelium. Pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia should be considered in the diagnosis and management of hypoglycemia, elevated islet hormone levels, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Further studies of pathologic pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia will likely yield insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:21245985

  11. The Norm___ and the Pathological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Gotkin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I read The Normal and the Pathological by French philosopher Georges Canguilhem for what it can offer disability theory. I examine how the field has already taken up the text but further, I argue for The Normal and the Pathological as a keystone of disability theory (currently taken up with curiously reserved energy. I start with a précis on the text before offering a condensed citation analysis of the book. In the latter part of the paper, I suggest how the monograph might inform current conversations and I offer possibilities for it to deepen and complicate core notions about disability, including the social model, norms, normalcy, and the normate. I conclude by suggesting that Canguilhem’s philosophical intervention can be understood as "propulsive atavism" – an excavation of medical epistemology in order to map and reconfigure its legacies – and I propose this as one methodological template for disability scholarship.

  12. Anatomical pathology is dead? Long live anatomical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, John M; Francis, Glenn D

    2011-10-01

    The standard diagnostic instrument used for over 150 years by anatomical pathologists has been the optical microscope and glass slide. The advent of immunohistochemistry in the routine laboratory in the 1980s, followed by in situ hybridisation in the 1990s, has increased the armamentaria available to the diagnostic pathologist, and this technology has led to changed patient management in a limited number of neoplastic diseases. The first decade of the 21 century has seen an increasing number of publications using proteomic technologies that promise to change disease diagnosis and management, the traditional role of an anatomical pathologist. Despite the plethora of publications on proteomics and pathology, to date there are actually limited data where proteomic technologies do appear to be of greater diagnostic value than the standard histological slide. Though proteomic techniques will become more prevalent in the future, it will need the expertise of an anatomical pathologist to dissect out and validate this added information.

  13. Segmental testicular infarction: sonographic findings and pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Michael; Nghiem, Hanh; Jafri, Syed Zafar; Schwartz, John; Malhotra, Rajwant; Amin, Mitual

    2013-02-01

    Segmental testicular infarction can mimic testicular carcinoma on sonography and can lead to unnecessary orchiectomy. This case series describes and correlates sonographic and histologic findings of 7 pathologically proven segmental testicular infarction cases. Segmental testicular infarction should be suspected on sonography when a geographic lesion with low or mixed echogenicity has absent or near-absent flow in a patient with scrotal pain. A hyperechoic rim and peripheral hyperemia correspond to interstitial hemorrhage and inflammatory changes. As an infarct evolves, it becomes more discrete and hypoechoic as ghost outlines replace seminiferous tubules. Follow-up or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging or sonography can increase diagnostic confidence in suspected cases and prevent unnecessary orchiectomy.

  14. Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Møller, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine players represent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathological gambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time......) on slot machines compared with non-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathological gambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased response frequency in pathological gambling is associated with symptom severity of the disorder....... This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for pathological...

  15. [Chronic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Barrios, R

    1995-01-01

    Medical literature about chronic hepatitis is reviewed. This unresolving disease caused by viruses, drugs or unknown factors may progress to in cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. A classification based on liver biopsy histology into chronic persistent and chronic active types has been largely abandoned and emphasis is placed on recognizing the etiology of the various types. One is associated with continuing hepatitis B virus infection; another is related to chronic hepatitis C virus infection and the third is termed autoinmune, because of the association with positive serum autoantibodies. A fourth type with similar clinical functional and morphologic features is found with some drug reactions. Long term corticoesteroid therapy is usually successful in autoinmune type. Associations between antibodies to liver-kidney microsomes and the hepatitis C virus can cause diagnostic difficulties. Antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C with interpheron alfa is employed, controlling symptoms and abnormal biochemistry and the progression to cirrhosis and liver cancer in 30 to 40% patients. Alternative therapies or combinations with interpheron are being evaluated waiting for final results.

  16. Renal ultrasound elastography can reflect clinical-pathological changes in chronic kidney disease patients%肾组织超声弹性成像与慢性肾脏病患者的临床病理改变相关

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭凌燕; 钟婷婷; 范秋灵; 汪旭; 刘艳君; 王学梅; 王力宁

    2016-01-01

    肾小球硬化症患者YM 髓质高于微小病变型肾病患者(P<0.05)。IgA肾病Lee分级Ⅳ、Ⅴ级患者YM 皮质、YM 髓质均高于Ⅱ⁃Ⅲ级患者(均P<0.05)。IgA肾病牛津分型T1、T2组患者YM 皮质、YM 髓质均高于T0组患者(均P<0.05)。不同分期膜性肾病患者YM 皮质、YM 髓质差异均没有统计学意义。结论YM 皮质、YM 髓质与肾功能不全的进展相关,其可能成为鉴别CKD进展和肾组织纤维化程度新的诊断指标,并为早期诊断CKD、动态监测疾病进展、评估疗效及预后提供新方法。%Objective To analyze how is the elastography of renal tissue correlated to clinical biochemical indexes and pathological changes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and toexplore the potential of renal elastography to become a new noninvasive method available for the dynamic monitoring of renal disease progression, as well as its efficacy assessment and prognosis evaluation. Methods Patients admitted to the department of nephrology of the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University and received renal biopsy from August 2014 to January 2015 were selected. One hundred and thirteen cases of CKD patients, 61 males and 52 females were enrolled, including 23 cases of IgA nephropathy, 39 cases of membranous nephropathy, 15 cases of minimal change nephropathy and 7 cases of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The Young modulus of renal cortex and medulla (YMcortex and YMmedul a) were detected by Aix Plorer type full digital color Doppler ultrasound. The correlations between the YMs and clinical biochemical indicators in blood and urine, and the difference of YMs among different pathological changes in patients with CKD were analyzed by statistics. Results The YMcortex and YMmedul a in CKD patients were higher than those in the control group (all P<0.05); and with the progression of CKD, the YMcortex and YMmedul a gradually increased. The YMcortex in CKD G5 patients was higher than that in

  17. The National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockenhauer, Mark H.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project is an inservice teacher education success story. Describes the origins, objectives, and development of the project. Summarizes the impact of the project and contends that its success is the result of the workshop format and guided practice in instructional strategies. (CFR)

  18. Enhancing Geographic Learning and Literacy through Filmmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Christina E.; Chadwick, Jacob J.

    2014-01-01

    In this media-saturated society, students need to think more critically about the media they encounter and that they are producing. Through filmmaking, students can link geographic theory and the real world, bridging the distance from readings/lectures/discussions to the geography on the ground, making the abstract concrete. But constructing films…

  19. Studying the making of geographical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2009-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of being a ‘double' insider when conducting interviews. Double insider means being an insider both in relation to one's research matter - in the authors' case the making of geographical knowledge - and in relation to one's interviewees - our colleagues. The article...... to separate the two roles, but in reality they coexist and are intertwined....

  20. Every document has a geographical scope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andogah, G.; Bouma, G.; Nerbonne, J.

    2012-01-01

    It is a useful premise to assume that every document in a collection and every query issued to an information retrieval (IR) system are geography-dependent. If one can determine what area an article is about (i.e., its geographical scope), this information can be used to improve the accuracy with wh

  1. Secure Geographic Routing Protocols: Issues and Approaches

    CERN Document Server

    sookhak, Mehdi; Haghparast, Mahboobeh; ISnin, Ismail Fauzi

    2011-01-01

    In the years, routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been substantially investigated by researches. Most state-of-the-art surveys have focused on reviewing of wireless sensor network .In this paper we review the existing secure geographic routing protocols for wireless sensor network (WSN) and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

  2. An Overview to Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Allan B.

    1995-01-01

    Provides an introduction to geographic information systems (GIS); reviews the use of GIS in libraries; and presents some challenges, strengths, and opportunities for libraries and GIS. Discusses requirements and functions of a GIS and presents examples. Six figures illustrate the discussion. (JKP)

  3. Higher-dimensional modelling of geographic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arroyo Ohori, G.A.K.

    2016-01-01

    Our world is three-dimensional and complex, continuously changing over time and appearing different at different scales. Yet, when we model it in a computer using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), we mostly use 2D representations, which essentially consist of linked points, lines and polygons. T

  4. The National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockenhauer, Mark H.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project is an inservice teacher education success story. Describes the origins, objectives, and development of the project. Summarizes the impact of the project and contends that its success is the result of the workshop format and guided practice in instructional strategies. (CFR)

  5. Diversity, Disability, and Geographic Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumari, Melati; Carr, Erika; Ndebe-Ngovo, Manjerngie

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon called digital divide was the focus of this paper. Diversity, disability, and geographical digital divide were relevant to this collaborative project. An extensive review of the literature was conducted for the completion of this project. The evidence for the digital divide in terms of race, level of education, and gender in the…

  6. Teaching Geographic Field Methods Using Paleoecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    Field-based undergraduate geography courses provide numerous pedagogical benefits including an opportunity for students to acquire employable skills in an applied context. This article presents one unique approach to teaching geographic field methods using paleoecological research. The goals of this course are to teach students key geographic…

  7. Geography and Geographical Information Science: Interdisciplinary Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Geography and Geographical Information Science (GIS) can contribute to Interdisciplinary Research (IDR), it is relevant to articulate the differences between the different types of such research. "Multidisciplinary" researchers work in a "parallel play" mode, completing work in their disciplinary work streams…

  8. General Geographical Economics Model with Congestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe derive and discuss a general, but simple geographical economics model with congestion, allowing us to explain the economic viability of small and large locations. The model generalizes some previous work and lends itself to analyzing the impact of public policy in terms of

  9. Geographical dispersal of mobile communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambiotte, Renaud; Blondel, Vincent D.; de Kerchove, Cristobald; Huens, Etienne; Prieur, Christophe; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Van Dooren, Paul

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze statistical properties of a communication network constructed from the records of a mobile phone company. The network consists of 2.5 million customers that have placed 810 million communications (phone calls and text messages) over a period of 6 months and for whom we have geographical home localization information. It is shown that the degree distribution in this network has a power-law degree distribution k-5 and that the probability that two customers are connected by a link follows a gravity model, i.e. decreases as d-2, where d is the distance between the customers. We also consider the geographical extension of communication triangles and we show that communication triangles are not only composed of geographically adjacent nodes but that they may extend over large distances. This last property is not captured by the existing models of geographical networks and in a last section we propose a new model that reproduces the observed property. Our model, which is based on the migration and on the local adaptation of agents, is then studied analytically and the resulting predictions are confirmed by computer simulations.

  10. Spatial data structures in geographic information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, P.J.M. van

    1988-01-01

    This document gives an overview of Geographic Infomation Systems (GISs) with respect to the Data Model. We introduce a classification of the types of data that one encounters in GISs. The requirements for the GIS Data Model, that we are developing, are summarized in a short list. The known solutions

  11. Geographical Study of American Blues Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Music is not often utilized in teaching geography, despite the fact that many scholars orient their research around analyzing both the historical and spatial dimensions of musical expression. This article reports on the use of a teaching module that utilizes blues culture as a lens to understand the geographical history of the United States. The…

  12. Geographical information modelling for land resource survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de S.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing popularity of geographical information systems (GIS) has at least three major implications for land resources survey. Firstly, GIS allows alternative and richer representation of spatial phenomena than is possible with the traditional paper map. Secondly, digital technology has improv

  13. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.

  14. Geometric algorithms for delineating geographic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinbacher, I.

    2006-01-01

    Everyone of us is used to geographical regions like the south of Utrecht, the dutch Randstad, or the mountainous areas of Austria. Some of these regions have crisp, fixed boundaries like Utrecht or Austria. Others, like the dutch Randstad and the Austrian mountains, have no such boundaries and are u

  15. Execution Management Solutions for Geographically Distributed Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Jansen, H.G.M.; Jansen, R.E.J.; Prins, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Managing the initialization, execution control and monitoring of HLA federates is not always straightforward, especially for a geographically distributed time managed federation. Issues include pre and post run-time data distribution and run-time data collection; starting, stopping and monitoring

  16. ADAPTEITION STRATEGY OF GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF DRAGONFLIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. A. Ketenchyev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some of the adaptive strategy of geographical distribution ofdragonflies. The basis of adaptive traits considered temperature. Together with the humidity is a major abiotic factor. Analysis of the phenomen will determine the strategy of distribution of dragonflies in the horizontal and vertical directions.

  17. Ontology-Based Geographic Data Set Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitermark, Harry T.; Oosterom, Peter J.M.; Mars, Nicolaas J.I.; Molenaar, Martien

    1999-01-01

    In order to develop a system to propagate updates we investigate the semantic and spatial relationships between independently produced geographic data sets of the same region (data set integration). The goal of this system is to reduce operator intervention in update operations between corresponding

  18. Geometric algorithms for delineating geographic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinbacher, I.

    2006-01-01

    Everyone of us is used to geographical regions like the south of Utrecht, the dutch Randstad, or the mountainous areas of Austria. Some of these regions have crisp, fixed boundaries like Utrecht or Austria. Others, like the dutch Randstad and the Austrian mountains, have no such boundaries and are

  19. Secure Geographic Routing Protocols: Issues and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi sookhak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the years, routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSN have been substantially investigated by researches Most state-of-the-art surveys have focused on reviewing of wireless sensor network .In this paper we review the existing secure geographic routing protocols for wireless sensor network (WSN and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

  20. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.

    Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis