WorldWideScience

Sample records for geographic hiv type

  1. Development and implementation of an HIV/AIDS trials management system: a geographical information systems approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Busgeeth, K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available of randomised and clinically controlled trials of HIV/AIDS interventions can provide invaluable information to decision-making processes. Using the newly emerging geographical information systems (GIS) technology, researchers have developed a tool which assists...

  2. Circulation of HIV antigen in blood according to stage of infection, risk group, age and geographic origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, J.; Paul, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus antigen (HIV-ag) was determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in HIV-antibody (anti-HIV) positive as well as pre-anti-HIV seroconversion sera and the results analysed according to stage of infection, risk group, age and geographic origin. Eleven (19%) of 58 homosexual men

  3. How Do Social Capital and HIV/AIDS Outcomes Geographically Cluster and Which Sociocontextual Mechanisms Predict Differences Across Clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransome, Yusuf; Dean, Lorraine T; Crawford, Natalie D; Metzger, David S; Blank, Michael B; Nunn, Amy S

    2017-09-01

    Place of residence has been associated with HIV transmission risks. Social capital, defined as features of social organization that improve efficiency of society by facilitating coordinated actions, often varies by neighborhood, and hypothesized to have protective effects on HIV care continuum outcomes. We examined whether the association between social capital and 2 HIV care continuum outcomes clustered geographically and whether sociocontextual mechanisms predict differences across clusters. Bivariate Local Moran's I evaluated geographical clustering in the association between social capital (participation in civic and social organizations, 2006, 2008, 2010) and [5-year (2007-2011) prevalence of late HIV diagnosis and linkage to HIV care] across Philadelphia, PA, census tracts (N = 378). Maps documented the clusters and multinomial regression assessed which sociocontextual mechanisms (eg, racial composition) predict differences across clusters. We identified 4 significant clusters (high social capital-high HIV/AIDS, low social capital-low HIV/AIDS, low social capital-high HIV/AIDS, and high social capital-low HIV/AIDS). Moran's I between social capital and late HIV diagnosis was (I = 0.19, z = 9.54, P social capital was lowest and HIV burden the highest, compared with clusters with high social capital and lowest HIV burden. The association between social participation and HIV care continuum outcomes cluster geographically in Philadelphia, PA. HIV prevention interventions should account for this phenomenon. Reducing geographic disparities will require interventions tailored to each continuum step and that address socioeconomic factors such as neighborhood median income.

  4. Assessing spatial patterns of HIV knowledge in rural Mozambique using geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Charlotte P; Blevins, Meridith; Ossemane, Ezequiel B; González-Calvo, Lázaro; Ndatimana, Elisée; Vermund, Sten H; Sidat, Mohsin; Olupona, Omo; Moon, Troy D

    2015-03-01

    To conduct a cross-sectional mapping analysis of HIV knowledge in Zambézia Province, Mozambique, and to examine spatial patterns of HIV knowledge and associated household characteristics. A population-based cluster survey was administered in 2010; data were analysed from 201 enumeration areas in three geographically diverse districts: Alto Molócuè, Morrumbala and Namacurra. We assessed HIV knowledge scores (0-9 points) using previously validated assessment tools. Using geographic information systems (GIS), we mapped hot spots of high and low HIV knowledge. Our multivariable linear regression model estimated HIV knowledge associations with distance to nearest clinic offering antiretroviral therapy, respondent age, education, household size, number of children under five, numeracy, literacy and district of residence. We found little overall HIV knowledge in all three districts. People in Alto Molócuè knew comparatively most about HIV, with a median score of 3 (IQR 2-5) and 22 of 51 (43%) enumeration areas scoring ≥4 of 9 points. Namacurra district, closest to the capital city and expected to have the best HIV knowledge levels, had a median score of 1 (IQR 0-3) and only 3 of 57 (5%) enumeration areas scoring ≥4 points. More HIV knowledge was associated with more education, age, household size, numeracy and proximity to a health facility offering antiretroviral therapy. HIV knowledge is critical for its prevention and treatment. By pinpointing areas of poor HIV knowledge, programme planners can prioritize educational resources and outreach initiatives within the context of antiretroviral therapy expansion. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Geographic Region, Size, and Program Type in Family Practice Residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jolene K.; Garrard, Judith

    1981-01-01

    Research on residency education in family practice is discussed. Programmatic variables are examined: geographic region, size, and type of program. Definitions of these variables are provided, the current distribution of family practice residency programs across each of these variables is described, and data for use by other researchers is…

  6. Uptake of combination antiretroviral therapy and HIV disease progression according to geographical origin in seroconverters in Europe, Canada, and Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarrin, Inma; Pantazis, Nikos; Gill, M John

    2012-01-01

    We examined differences by geographical origin (GO) in time from HIV seroconversion (SC) to AIDS, death, and initiation of antiretroviral therapy (cART).......We examined differences by geographical origin (GO) in time from HIV seroconversion (SC) to AIDS, death, and initiation of antiretroviral therapy (cART)....

  7. Identification of conserved subdominant HIV Type 1 CD8(+) T Cell epitopes restricted within common HLA Supertypes for therapeutic HIV Type 1 vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Ingrid; Kløverpris, Henrik; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov

    2012-01-01

    The high HIV-1 prevalence, up to 4.6% in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, makes it a relevant location for testing of therapeutic vaccines. With the aim of performing a clinical study in Guinea-Bissau, after first testing the vaccine for safety in Denmark, Europe, we here describe the design...... of a universal epitope peptide-based T cell vaccine with relevance for any geographic locations. The two major obstacles when designing such a vaccine are the high diversities of the HIV-1 genome and of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. We selected 15 CD8-restricted epitopes predicted......-specific, HLA-restricted T cell specificities using peptide-MHC class I tetramer labeling of CD8(+) T cells from HIV-1-infected individuals. The selected vaccine epitopes are infrequently targeted in HIV-1-infected individuals from both locations. Moreover, we HLA-typed HIV-1-infected individuals...

  8. Patterns of geographic mobility predict barriers to engagement in HIV care and antiretroviral treatment adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Barbara S; Reyes, Emily; Levine, Elizabeth A; Khan, Shah Z; Garduño, L Sergio; Donastorg, Yeycy; Hammer, Scott M; Brudney, Karen; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2014-06-01

    Migration and geographic mobility increase risk for HIV infection and may influence engagement in HIV care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Our goal is to use the migration-linked communities of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, and New York City, New York, to determine the impact of geographic mobility on HIV care engagement and adherence to treatment. In-depth interviews were conducted with HIV+Dominicans receiving antiretroviral therapy, reporting travel or migration in the past 6 months and key informants (n=45). Mobility maps, visual representations of individual migration histories, including lifetime residence(s) and all trips over the past 2 years, were generated for all HIV+ Dominicans. Data from interviews and field observation were iteratively reviewed for themes. Mobility mapping revealed five distinct mobility patterns: travel for care, work-related travel, transnational travel (nuclear family at both sites), frequent long-stay travel, and vacation. Mobility patterns, including distance, duration, and complexity, varied by motivation for travel. There were two dominant barriers to care. First, a fear of HIV-related stigma at the destination led to delays seeking care and poor adherence. Second, longer trips led to treatment interruptions due to limited medication supply (30-day maximum dictated by programs or insurers). There was a notable discordance between what patients and providers perceived as mobility-induced barriers to care and the most common barriers found in the analysis. Interventions to improve HIV care for mobile populations should consider motivation for travel and address structural barriers to engagement in care and adherence.

  9. Use of Geographic Information Systems for Planning HIV Prevention Interventions for High-Risk Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geanuracos, Catherine G.; Cunningham, Shayna D.; Weiss, George; Forte, Draco; Henry Reid, Lisa M.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2007-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) analysis is an emerging tool for public health intervention planning. Connect to Protect, a researcher–community collaboration working in 15 cities to reduce HIV infection among youths, developed GIS databases of local health, crime, and demographic data to evaluate the geographic epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections and HIV risk among adolescents. We describe the process and problems of data acquisition, analysis, and mapping in the development of structural interventions, demonstrating how program planners can use this technology to inform and improve planning decisions. The Connect to Protect project’s experience suggests strategies for incorporating public data and GIS technology into the next generation of public health interventions. PMID:17901452

  10. Emergence of recombinant forms in geographic regions with co-circulating HIV subtypes in the dynamic HIV-1 epidemic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letiner, Thomas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Foley, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We have reexamined the subtype designations of {approx}10,000 subtype A, B, C, G, and AG, BC, BF recombinant sequences, and compared the results of the new analysis with their published designations. Intersubtype recombinants dominate HIV epidemics in three different geographical regions. The circulating recombinant from (CRF) CRF02-AG, common in West Central Africa, appears to result from a recombination event that occurred early in the divergence between subtypes A and G, although additional more recent recombination events may have contributed to the breakpoint pattern in this recombinant lineage as well. The Chinese recombinant epidemic strains CRF07 and CRF08, in contrast, result from recent recombinations between more contemporary strains. Nevertheless, CRF07 and CRF08 contributed to many subsequent recombination events. The BF recombinant epidemics in two HIV-1 epicenters in South America are not independent and BF epidemics in South America have an unusually high fraction of unique recombinant forms (URFs) that have each been found only once and carry distinctive breakpoints. Taken together, these analyses reveal a complex and dynamic picture of the current HIV-1 epidemic, and suggest a means of grouping and tracking relationships between viruses through preservation of shared breakpints.

  11. The geographic distribution patterns of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users in a national methadone maintenance treatment program in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Biao; Liang, Song; Wang, Qi-Xing; Gong, Yu-Han; Nie, Shi-Jiao; Nan, Lei; Yang, Ai-Hui; Liao, Qiang; Song, Xiu-Xia; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2014-03-10

    HIV-, HCV- and HIV/HCV co-infections among drug users have become a rapidly emerging global public health problem. In order to constrain the dual epidemics of HIV/AIDS and drug use, China has adopted a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) since 2004. Studies of the geographic heterogeneity of HIV and HCV infections at a local scale are sparse, which has critical implications for future MMTP implementation and health policies covering both HIV and HCV prevention among drug users in China. This study aimed to characterize geographic patterns of HIV and HCV prevalence at the township level among drug users in a Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Southwest of China. Data on demographic and clinical characteristics of all clients in the 11 MMTP clinics of the Yi Autonomous Prefecture from March 2004 to December 2012 were collected. A GIS-based geographic analysis involving geographic autocorrelation analysis and geographic scan statistics were employed to identify the geographic distribution pattern of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users. A total of 6690 MMTP clients was analyzed. The prevalence of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections were 25.2%, 30.8%, and 10.9% respectively. There were significant global and local geographic autocorrelations for HIV-, HCV-, and co-infection. The Moran's I was 0.3015, 0.3449, and 0.3155, respectively (P geographic autocorrelation analysis and the geographic scan statistical analysis showed that HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections in the prefecture exhibited significant geographic clustering at the township level. The geographic distribution pattern of each infection group was different. HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections among drug users in the Yi Autonomous Prefecture all exhibited substantial geographic heterogeneity at the township level. The geographic distribution patterns of the three groups were different. These findings imply that it may be necessary to inform or invent site-specific intervention strategies to better devote currently

  12. HIV pretreatment drug resistance trends in three geographic areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Claudia; Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Quiroz-Morales, Verónica S; Navarro-Álvarez, Samuel; Barrera-Arellano, Carlos A; Casillas-Rodríguez, Jesús; Romero-Mora, Karla A; Gómez-Palacio-Schjetnan, María; Murakami-Ogasawara, Akio; Ávila-Ríos, Santiago; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2017-11-01

    Pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) levels to NNRTI approaching 10% have recently been reported in Mexico. However, subnational differences may exist in PDR prevalence and transmission dynamics. We longitudinally assessed HIV PDR in three geographic areas of Mexico. HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naive individuals were recruited from 2008 to 2016, from the Central Metropolitan Zone (CMZ), Cancun and Tijuana (1194, 773 and 668 respectively). PDR was estimated using the Stanford HIVdb tool from plasma HIV pol sequences. A higher proportion of females, lower education and lower employment rate were observed in Tijuana, while a higher proportion of MSM was observed in the CMZ (P Mexico. Even when increasing trends in efavirenz resistance were observed in the three areas, our observations support that, in a large country such as Mexico, subnational surveillance and locally tailored interventions to address drug resistance may be a reasonable option. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The geographic spread of the CCR5 Delta32 HIV-resistance allele.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Novembre

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Delta32 mutation at the CCR5 locus is a well-studied example of natural selection acting in humans. The mutation is found principally in Europe and western Asia, with higher frequencies generally in the north. Homozygous carriers of the Delta32 mutation are resistant to HIV-1 infection because the mutation prevents functional expression of the CCR5 chemokine receptor normally used by HIV-1 to enter CD4+ T cells. HIV has emerged only recently, but population genetic data strongly suggest Delta32 has been under intense selection for much of its evolutionary history. To understand how selection and dispersal have interacted during the history of the Delta32 allele, we implemented a spatially explicit model of the spread of Delta32. The model includes the effects of sampling, which we show can give rise to local peaks in observed allele frequencies. In addition, we show that with modest gradients in selection intensity, the origin of the Delta32 allele may be relatively far from the current areas of highest allele frequency. The geographic distribution of the Delta32 allele is consistent with previous reports of a strong selective advantage (>10% for Delta32 carriers and of dispersal over relatively long distances (>100 km/generation. When selection is assumed to be uniform across Europe and western Asia, we find support for a northern European origin and long-range dispersal consistent with the Viking-mediated dispersal of Delta32 proposed by G. Lucotte and G. Mercier. However, when we allow for gradients in selection intensity, we estimate the origin to be outside of northern Europe and selection intensities to be strongest in the northwest. Our results describe the evolutionary history of the Delta32 allele and establish a general methodology for studying the geographic distribution of selected alleles.

  14. HIV type 2 epidemic in Spain: challenges and missing opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendoza, Carmen; Cabezas, Teresa; Caballero, Estrella; Requena, Silvia; Amengual, María J; Peñaranda, María; Sáez, Ana; Tellez, Raquel; Lozano, Ana B; Treviño, Ana; Ramos, José M; Pérez, José L; Barreiro, Pablo; Soriano, Vicente

    2017-06-19

    : HIV type 2 (HIV-2) is a neglected virus despite estimates of 1-2 million people infected worldwide. HIV-2 is less efficiently transmitted than HIV-1 by sex and from mother to child. Although AIDS may develop in HIV-2 carriers, it takes longer than in HIV-1-infected patients. In contrast with HIV-1 infection, there is no global pandemic caused by HIV-2, as the virus is largely confined to West Africa. In a less extent and due to socioeconomic ties and wars, HIV-2 is prevalent in Portugal and its former colonies in Brazil, India, Mozambique and Angola. Globally, HIV-2 infections are steadily declining over time. A total of 338 cases of HIV-2 infection had been reported at the Spanish HIV-2 registry until December 2016, of whom 63% were men. Overall 72% were sub-Saharan Africans, whereas 16% were native Spaniards. Dual HIV-1 and HIV-2 coinfection was found in 9% of patients. Heterosexual contact was the most likely route of HIV-2 acquisition in more than 90% of cases. Roughly one-third presented with CD4 cell counts less than 200 cells/μl and/or AIDS clinical events. Plasma HIV-2 RNA was undetectable at baseline in 40% of patients. To date, one-third of HIV-2 carriers have received antiretroviral therapy, using integrase inhibitors 32 individuals. New diagnoses of HIV-2 in Spain have remained stable since 2010 with an average of 15 cases yearly. Illegal immigration from Northwestern African borders accounts for over 75% of new HIV-2 diagnoses. Given the relatively large community of West Africans already living in Spain and the continuous flux of immigration from endemic regions, HIV-2 infection either alone or as coinfection with HIV-1 should be excluded once in all HIV-seroreactive persons, especially when showing atypical HIV serological profiles, immunovirological disconnect (CD4 cell count loss despite undetectable HIV-1 viremia) and/or high epidemiological risks (birth in or sex partners from endemic regions).

  15. Geographic variation in sexual behavior can explain geospatial heterogeneity in the severity of the HIV epidemic in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palk, Laurence; Blower, Sally

    2018-02-09

    In sub-Saharan Africa, where ~ 25 million individuals are infected with HIV and transmission is predominantly heterosexual, there is substantial geographic variation in the severity of epidemics. This variation has yet to be explained. Here, we propose that it is due to geographic variation in the size of the high-risk group (HRG): the group with a high number of sex partners. We test our hypothesis by conducting a geospatial analysis of data from Malawi, where ~ 13% of women and ~ 8% of men are infected with HIV. We used georeferenced HIV testing and behavioral data from ~ 14,000 participants of a nationally representative population-level survey: the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey (MDHS). We constructed gender-stratified epidemic surface prevalence (ESP) maps by spatially smoothing and interpolating the HIV testing data. We used the behavioral data to construct gender-stratified risk maps that reveal geographic variation in the size of the HRG. We tested our hypothesis by fitting gender-stratified spatial error regression (SER) models to the MDHS data. The ESP maps show considerable geographic variation in prevalence: 1-29% (women), 1-20% (men). Risk maps reveal substantial geographic variation in the size of the HRG: 0-40% (women), 16-58% (men). Prevalence and the size of the HRG are highest in urban centers. However, the majority of HIV-infected individuals (~75% of women, ~ 80% of men) live in rural areas, as does most of the HRG (~ 80% of women, ~ 85% of men). We identify a significant (P national average in districts where > 20% of women are in the HRG. Most importantly, the SER models show that geographic variation in the size of the HRG can explain a substantial proportion (73% for women, 67% for men) of the geographic variation in epidemic severity. Taken together, our results provide substantial support for our hypothesis. They provide a potential mechanistic explanation for the geographic variation in the severity

  16. Size and type of places, geographical region, satisfaction with life, age, sex and place attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Alan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the article concerns the issue of place attachment and its determinants. An analysis of place attachment was performed in terms of place identity and place dependence (Williams, Vaske, 2003. Moreover, links between place attachment and selected geographical (size and type of place, geographical region, demographic (age, sex and psychological (satisfaction with life variables were investigated.

  17. Geographical patterns of Kaposi's sarcoma, nonHodgkin lymphomas, and cervical cancer associated with HIV infection in five African populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabna, Karima; Boniol, Mathieu; de Vuyst, Hugo; Vanhems, Philippe; Antônio de Ávila Vitoria, Marco; Curado, Maria-Paula

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the most recent geographical patterns of incidence of AIDS-related cancers, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), nonHodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and cervical cancer in North African and subSaharan African populations. Data were extracted for the period 1998-2002 from five African population-based cancer registries: Kyadondo, Harare, Setif, Sousse, and Gharbiah. Age-standardized rates were calculated using the African standard population; a comparison was made between these populations by computing the standardized incidence ratio and 95% confidence intervals. The KS rate was found to be significantly higher in men than in women, and higher in Harare (women: 26.3/100,000; men: 50.4/100,000) and Kyadondo (women: 23.6/100,000; men: 30.2/100,000) than in the North African sites for both sexes (HIV/AIDS (15-49 years), and these rates were 4.5-fold higher in subSaharan populations than those in the North African sites. Thus, it was observed that the pattern of HIV prevalence is variable with the lowest prevalence in North African countries, intermediate prevalence in Uganda, and the highest prevalence in Zimbabwe. Our findings show that the incidence of NHL and cervical cancer, considered to be HIV/AIDS-related cancers, does not follow the pattern of HIV prevalence in the five studied African populations. Thus, the highest NHL incidence rate in both sexes in Gambia may be explained, at least in great part, by the highest hepatitis C virus prevalence observed there. Indeed, factors other than HIV infection likely contribute to their geographical patterns.

  18. Individual and community factors associated with geographic clusters of poor HIV care retention and poor viral suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Michael G; Yehia, Baligh R; Hillier, Amy; Voytek, Chelsea D; Fiore, Danielle J; Blank, Michael; Frank, Ian; Metzger, David S; Brady, Kathleen A

    2015-05-01

    Previous analyses identified specific geographic areas in Philadelphia (hotspots) associated with negative outcomes along the HIV care continuum. We examined individual and community factors associated with residing in these hotspots. Retrospective cohort of 1404 persons newly diagnosed with HIV in 2008-2009 followed for 24 months after linkage to care. Multivariable regression examined associations between individual (age, sex, race/ethnicity, HIV transmission risk, and insurance status) and community (economic deprivation, distance to care, access to public transit, and access to pharmacy services) factors and the outcomes: residence in a hotspot associated with poor retention-in-care and residence in a hotspot associated with poor viral suppression. In total, 24.4% and 13.7% of persons resided in hotspots associated with poor retention and poor viral suppression, respectively. For persons residing in poor retention hotspots, 28.3% were retained in care compared with 40.4% of those residing outside hotspots (P care, and longer distance to pharmacies. Factors significantly associated with residence in poor viral suppression hotspots included female sex, higher economic deprivation, and shorter distance to pharmacies. Individual and community-level associations with geographic hotspots may inform both content and delivery strategies for interventions designed to improve retention-in-care and viral suppression.

  19. Is there a relationship between geographic distance and uptake of HIV testing services? A representative population-based study of Chinese adults in Guangzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chen

    Full Text Available Achieving high coverage of HIV testing services is critical in many health systems, especially where HIV testing services remain centralized and inconvenient for many. As a result, planning the optimal spatial distribution of HIV testing sites is increasingly important. We aimed to assess the relationship between geographic distance and uptake of HIV testing services among the general population in Guangzhou, China. Utilizing spatial epidemiological methods and stratified household random sampling, we studied 666 adults aged 18-59. Computer-assisted interviews assessed self-reported HIV testing history. Spatial scan statistic assessed the clustering of participants who have ever been tested for HIV, and two-level logistic regression models assessed the association between uptake of HIV testing and the mean driving distance from the participant's residence to all HIV testing sites in the research sites. The percentage of participants who have ever been tested for HIV was 25.2% (168/666, 95%CI: 21.9%, 28.5%, and the majority (82.7% of participants tested for HIV in Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, public hospitals or STIs clinics. None reported using self-testing. Spatial clustering analyses found a hotspot included 48 participants who have ever been tested for HIV and 25.8 expected cases (Rate Ratio = 1.86, P = 0.002. Adjusted two-level logistic regression found an inverse relationship between geographic distance (kilometers and ever being tested for HIV (aOR = 0.90, 95%CI: 0.84, 0.96. Married or cohabiting participants (aOR = 2.14, 95%CI: 1.09, 4.20 and those with greater social support (aOR = 1.04, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.07 were more likely to be tested for HIV. Our findings underscore the importance of considering the geographical distribution of HIV testing sites to increase testing. In addition, expanding HIV testing coverage by introducing non-facility based HIV testing services and self-testing might be useful to achieve the goal that

  20. Comparison of geographic methods to assess travel patterns of persons diagnosed with HIV in Philadelphia: how close is close enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Michael G; Share, Amanda M; Shpaner, Mark; Brady, Kathleen A

    2015-02-01

    Travel distance to medical care has been assessed using a variety of geographic methods. Network analyses are less common, but may generate more accurate estimates of travel costs. We compared straight-line distances and driving distance, as well as average drive time and travel time on a public transit network for 1789 persons diagnosed with HIV between 2010 and 2012 to identify differences overall, and by distinct geographic areas of Philadelphia. Paired t-tests were used to assess differences across methods, and analysis of variance was used to assess between-group differences. Driving distances were significantly longer than straight-line distances (ptravel costs, and may improve models to predict medical care outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) genetic diversity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 diversity has an impact on vaccine efficacy and drug resistance. It is important to know the circulating genetic variants and associated drug-resistance mutations in the context of scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to ...

  2. Job Satisfaction and Pay Satisfaction Levels of University Faculty by Discipline Type and by Geographic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, David E.; Honoree, Andre L.

    2004-01-01

    This study surveyed approximately 500 faculty across different disciplines from over 100 four- year colleges and universities in the U.S. The primary purpose of the study was to provide some empirical data on the general job satisfaction and pay satisfaction levels of faculty by type of academic discipline and by geographic region. The possible…

  3. Type and severity of intimate partner violence and its relationship with PTSD in HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansrod, Fatima; Spies, Georgina; Seedat, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    HIV has an impact on the presence and severity of both intimate partner violence (IPV) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in infected women. However, the relationship of type and severity of IPV with PTSD in this population has not been adequately explored. We focus on the association between the type and severity of IPV and HIV status and PTSD in a sample of South African women. One hundred and sixty-nine women (114 HIV-positive and 55 HIV-negative controls), matched for geographical area, education, and socio-economic status, were recruited from HIV clinics. Clinical and demographic data were collected, including data on childhood trauma, other traumatic life events, IPV, posttraumatic stress symptoms, problematic alcohol use, and depressive symptoms. HIV-positive women had significantly more depressive symptoms, alcohol abuse, and childhood trauma exposure as well as significantly higher rates of PTSD (25.4%) when compared with uninfected women (10.9%). No significant group differences in the rate, pattern, and severity of physical, sexual, psychological, injury, and negotiation IPV were found. In logistic regression analysis, the rate and severity category of IPV did not significantly predict PTSD in HIV-positive women when childhood trauma and life events were controlled for. Our results indicate the need for screening for alcohol abuse, PTSD and depressive symptoms at HIV wellness, and ARV clinics. The high rates of PTSD in HIV-positive women indicate the need for specialized programs to manage PTSD and minimize negative sequelae in this population. These results also highlight the need for improved screening and prevention of childhood trauma and IPV both in infected and uninfected women.

  4. Epidemiological networks and drug resistance of HIV type 1 in Krasnoyarsk region, Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumyantseva, Olga A.; Olkhovskiy, Igor A.; Malysheva, Marina A.; Ruzaeva, Ludmila A.; Vasiliev, Alexander V.; Kazennova, Elena V.; Bobkova, Marina R.; Lukashov, Vladimir V.

    2009-01-01

    To study the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Krasnoyarsk region, Russia, where HIV-1 has spread rapidly since 2000, we obtained pol sequences from individuals living in this region (n = 67) as well as in the geographically closely related Altay region (n = 13). In both regions, subtype A viruses

  5. Neighborhood Condition and Geographic Locale in Assessing HIV/STI Risk Among African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jelani C; Valois, Robert F; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Vanable, Peter; Carey, Michael P; DiClemente, Ralph J; Romer, Daniel; Brown, Larry K; Farber, Naomi B; Salazar, Laura F

    2015-06-01

    Although region and neighborhood condition's effect on HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk has been studied separately, there is little research examining their interplay. African American adolescents (n = 1,602) from four matched cities in the Northeastern and Southeastern US completed Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interviews and submitted biospecimen samples to detect Sexually Transmitted Infections (chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomonas). Logistic and negative binomial regressions determined HIV/STI risk differences by region, neighborhood stress, and stress-region dyads. Northeastern participants demonstrated lower HIV/STI risk while participants from higher stress neighborhoods exhibited greater risk. Relationships between neighborhood condition and ever having anal sex (p use (p partners (p partners than participants in comparable Southeastern neighborhoods (p risk.

  6. MALDI-TOF typing highlights geographical and fluconazole resistance clusters in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhieb, C; Normand, A C; Al-Yasiri, M; Chaker, E; El Euch, D; Vranckx, K; Hendrickx, M; Sadfi, N; Piarroux, R; Ranque, S

    2015-06-01

    Utilizing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectra for Candida glabrata typing would be a cost-effective and easy-to-use alternative to classical DNA-based typing methods. This study aimed to use MALDI-TOF for the typing of C. glabrata clinical isolates from various geographical origins and test its capacity to differentiate between fluconazole-sensitive and -resistant strains.Both microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) and MALDI-TOF mass spectra of 58 C. glabrata isolates originating from Marseilles (France) and Tunis (Tunisia) as well as collection strains from diverse geographic origins were analyzed. The same analysis was conducted on a subset of C. glabrata isolates that were either susceptible (MIC ≤ 8 mg/l) or resistant (MIC ≥ 64 mg/l) to fluconazole.According to the seminal results, both MALDI-TOF and MLP classifications could highlight C. glabrata population structures associated with either geographical dispersal barriers (p typing to investigate C. glabrata infection outbreaks and predict the antifungal susceptibility profile of clinical laboratory isolates. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. HIV prevalence is strongly associated with geographical variations in male circumcision and foreskin cutting in Papua New Guinea: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, David J; McBride, W John H; Kelly, Gerard C; Muller, Reinhold; Tommbe, Rachael; Kaldor, John M; Vallely, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    To examine the correlation between HIV prevalence and male circumcision and other foreskin cutting practices across the four regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG). An ecological substudy using unique data from an interdisciplinary research programme to evaluate the acceptability, sociocultural context and public health impact of male circumcision for HIV prevention in PNG. Published data describing (a) self-reported circumcision status by region from the 'Acceptability and Feasibility of Male Circumcision for HIV prevention in PNG' study and (b) HIV prevalence by region from PNG National Department of Health were used to correlate male circumcision and other foreskin cutting practices and HIV prevalence. Maps were constructed to visually represent variations across the four regions of PNG. Regions of PNG with the highest HIV prevalence had the lowest prevalence of male circumcision and other forms of foreskin cutting and vice versa. Male circumcision and dorsal longitudinal cuts were strongly associated with HIV prevalence and able to explain 99% of the observed geographical variability in HIV prevalence in PNG (pPNG appears to be closely correlated with the regional distribution of male circumcision and dorsal longitudinal foreskin cuts. Further research is warranted to investigate causality of this correlation as well as the potential of dorsal longitudinal cuts to confer protection against HIV acquisition in heterosexual men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Frequency of human immunodeficiency virus type-2 in hiv infected patients in Maputo City, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Nilesh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The HIV/AIDS pandemic is primarily caused by HIV-1. Another virus type, HIV-2, is found mainly in West African countries. We hypothesized that population migration and mobility in Africa may have facilitated the introduction and spreading of HIV-2 in Mozambique. The presence of HIV-2 has important implications for diagnosis and choice of treatment of HIV infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV-2 infection and its genotype in Maputo, Mozambique. HIV-infected individuals (N = 1,200 were consecutively enrolled and screened for IgG antibodies against HIV-1 gp41 and HIV-2 gp36 using peptide-based enzyme immunoassays (pepEIA. Specimens showing reactivity on the HIV-2 pepEIA were further tested using the INNO-LIA immunoblot assay and HIV-2 PCR targeting RT and PR genes. Subtype analysis of HIV-2 was based on the protease gene. After screening with HIV-2 pepEIA 1,168 were non-reactive and 32 were reactive to HIV-2 gp36 peptide. Of this total, 30 specimens were simultaneously reactive to gp41 and gp36 pepEIA while two samples reacted solely to gp36 peptide. Only three specimens containing antibodies against gp36 and gp105 on the INNO-LIA immunoblot assay were found to be positive by PCR to HIV-2 subtype A. The proportion of HIV-2 in Maputo City was 0.25% (90%CI 0.01-0.49. The HIV epidemic in Southern Mozambique is driven by HIV-1, with HIV-2 also circulating at a marginal rate. Surveillance program need to improve HIV-2 diagnosis and consider periodical survey aiming to monitor HIV-2 prevalence in the country.

  9. Characteristics of Black Men Who Have Sex With Men in Baltimore, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C.: Geographic Diversity in Socio-Demographics and HIV Transmission Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Danielle; Brady, Kathleen; Kuo, Irene; Opoku, Jenevieve; Flynn, Colin; Patrick, Rudy; Park, Ju Nyeong; Adams, Joella; Carroll, Makeda; Simmons, Ron; Smith, Carlton R; Davis, Wendy W

    2017-07-01

    Baltimore, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC are geographically proximate cities with high HIV prevalence, including among black men who have sex with men (BMSM). Using data collected among BMSM in CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance project, we compared socio-demographic characteristics, HIV risk behaviors, and service utilization to explore similarities and differences that could inform local and regional HIV intervention approaches. BMSM were recruited through venue time location sampling, June-December, 2011. Participants completed identical socio-behavioral surveys and voluntary HIV testing. Analyses were conducted among the full sample and those aged 18-24. Participants included 159 (DC), 364 (Baltimore), and 331 (Philadelphia) eligible BMSM. HIV prevalence was 23.1% (DC), 48.0% (Baltimore), 14.6% (Philadelphia) with 30.6%, 69.0%, 33.3% unrecognized HIV infection, respectively. Among BMSM 18-24, HIV prevalence was 11.1% (DC), 38.9% (Baltimore), 9.6% (Philadelphia) with unrecognized HIV infection 0.0%, 73.8%, 60.0% respectively. Compared with the other 2 cities, Baltimore participants were less likely to identify as gay/homosexual; more likely to report unemployment, incarceration, homelessness, sex exchange; and least likely to use the internet for partners. DC participants were more likely to have a college degree and employment. Philadelphia participants were more likely to report gay/homosexual identity, receptive condomless anal sex, having only main partners, and bars/clubs as partner meeting places. Sexually transmitted disease testing was universally low. Analyses showed especially high HIV prevalence among BMSM in Baltimore including among young BMSM. Socio-demographic characteristics and HIV infection correlates differed across cities but unrecognized HIV infection and unknown partner status were universally high.

  10. Effect of HIV Infection on Human Papillomavirus Types Causing Invasive Cervical Cancer in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vuyst, Hugo; Tenet, Vanessa; Plummer, Martyn; Tully, Stephen; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: HIV infection is known to worsen the outcome of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and may do so differentially by HPV type. Design: Twenty-one studies were included in a meta-analysis of invasive cervical cancers (ICC) among women infected with HIV in Africa. Method: Type-specific HPV DNA prevalence was compared with data from a similar meta-analysis of HIV-negative ICC using prevalence ratios (PR). Results: HPV detection was similar in 770 HIV-positive (91.2%) and 3846 HIV-negative (89.6%) ICC, but HIV-positive ICC harbored significantly more multiple HPV infections (PR = 1.75, 95% confidence intervals: 1.18 to 2.58), which were significantly more prevalent in ICC tested from cells than from biopsies. HPV16 was the most frequently detected type in HIV-positive ICC (42.5%), followed by HPV18 (22.2%), HPV45 (14.4%), and HPV35 (7.1%). Nevertheless, HIV-positive ICC were significantly less frequently infected with HPV16 than HIV-negative ICC (PR = 0.88, 95% confidence intervals: 0.79 to 0.99). Other high-risk types were significantly more prevalent in HIV-positive ICC, but only for HPV18 was there a significantly higher prevalence of both single and multiple infections in HIV-positive ICC. Increases for other high-risk types were primarily accounted for by multiple infections. The proportion of HPV-positive ICC estimated attributable to HPV16/18 (71.8% in HIV positive, 73.4% in HIV negative) or HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58 (88.8%, 89.5%) was not affected by HIV. Conclusions: HIV alters the relative carcinogenicity of HPV types, but prophylactic HPV16/18 vaccines may nevertheless prevent a similar proportion of ICC, irrespective of HIV infection. PMID:27331659

  11. Bacterial microbiota compositions of naturally fermented milk are shaped by both geographic origin and sample type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Z; Hou, Q; Kwok, L; Yu, Z; Zheng, Y; Sun, Z; Menghe, B; Zhang, H

    2016-10-01

    Naturally fermented dairy products contain a rich microbial biodiversity. This study aimed to provide an overview on the bacterial microbiota biodiversity of 85 samples, previously collected across a wide region of China, Mongolia, and Russia. Data from these 85 samples, including 55 yogurts, 18 naturally fermented yak milks, 6 koumisses, and 6 cheeses, were retrieved and collectively analyzed. The most prevalent phyla shared across samples were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, which together accounted for 99% of bacterial sequences. The predominant genera were Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Acetobacter, Acinetobacter, Leuconostoc, and Macrococcus, which together corresponded to 96.63% of bacterial sequences. Further multivariate statistical analyses revealed significant differences in the microbiota structure across sample geographic origin and type. First, on the principal coordinate score plot, samples representing the 3 main sample collection regions (Russia, Xinjiang, and Tibet) were mostly located respectively in the upper left, lower right, and lower left quadrants, although slight overlapping occurred. In contrast, samples from the minor sampling areas (Inner Mongolia, Mongolia, Gansu, and Sichuan) were predominantly distributed in the lower left quadrant. These results suggest a possible association between sample geographical origin and microbiota composition. Second, bacterial microbiota structure was stratified by sample type. In particular, the microbiota of cheese was largely distinct from the other sample types due to its high abundances of Lactococcus and Streptococcus. The fermented yak milk microbiota was most like that of the yogurts. Koumiss samples had the lowest microbial diversity and richness. In conclusion, both geographic origin and sample type shape the microbial diversity of naturally fermented milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  12. Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, K.L.; Fisher, J.; Arundel, S.T.; Cannella, J.; Swift, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. Location: Western North America. Methods: We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. Results: The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes

  13. Alcohol Types and HIV Disease Progression Among HIV-Infected Drinkers Not Yet on Antiretroviral Therapy in Russia and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, Stephen B; Fatch, Robin; Patts, Gregory; Winter, Michael; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine; Emenyonu, Nneka; Muyindike, Winnie; Kekibiina, Allen; Blokhina, Elena; Gnatienko, Natalia; Kruptisky, Evgeny; Cheng, Debbie M; Samet, Jeffrey H; Hahn, Judith A

    2017-11-01

    In HIV-infected drinkers, alcohol types more likely to cause inflammation could plausibly increase the risk of HIV disease progression. We therefore assessed the association between alcohol type and plasma HIV RNA level (HIV viral load) among HIV-infected drinkers not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Russia and Uganda. We analyzed the data of participants from cohorts in Russia and Uganda and assessed their HIV viral load at enrollment by the alcohol type predominantly consumed. We defined predominant alcohol type as the alcohol type contributing >50% of total alcohol consumption in the 1 month (Russia) or 3 months (Uganda) prior to enrollment. Using multiple linear regression, we compared log 10 HIV viral load by predominant alcohol type, controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic status, total number of standard drinks, frequency of drinking ≥6 drinks/occasion, and in Russia, history of injection drug use. Most participants (99.2% of 261 in Russia and 98.9% of 352 in Uganda) predominantly drank one alcohol type. In Russia, we did not find evidence for differences in viral load levels between drinkers of fortified wine (n = 5) or hard liquor (n = 49), compared to drinkers of beer/low-ethanol-content cocktails (n = 163); however, wine/high-ethanol-content cocktail drinkers (n = 42) had higher mean log 10 viral load than beer/low-ethanol-content cocktail drinkers (β = 0.38, 95% CI 0.07-0.69; p = 0.02). In Uganda, we did not find evidence for differences in viral load levels between drinkers of locally-brewed beer (n = 41), commercially-distilled spirits (n = 38), or locally-distilled spirits (n = 43), compared to drinkers of commercially-made beer (n = 218); however, wine drinkers (n = 8) had lower mean log 10 HIV viral load (β = -0.65, 95% CI -1.36 to 0.07, p = 0.08), although this did not reach statistical significance. Among HIV-infected drinkers not yet on ART in Russia and Uganda, we observed an association between the

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) genetic diversity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROGMANAGER

    2013-04-24

    Apr 24, 2013 ... objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of HIV-1 and the prevalence of antiretroviral (ARV) ... individuals in resource limited settings. Key words: ... management of HIV infection even as antiretroviral (ARV).

  15. Blocking type I interferon signaling enhances T cell recovery and reduces HIV-1 reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Ma, Jianping; Li, Jingyun; Li, Dan; Li, Guangming; Li, Feng; Zhang, Qing; Yu, Haisheng; Yasui, Fumihiko; Ye, Chaobaihui; Tsao, Li-Chung; Hu, Zhiyuan; Su, Lishan; Zhang, Liguo

    2017-01-03

    Despite the efficient suppression of HIV-1 replication that can be achieved with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), low levels of type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling persist in some individuals. This sustained signaling may impede immune recovery and foster viral persistence. Here we report studies using a monoclonal antibody to block IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) signaling in humanized mice (hu-mice) that were persistently infected with HIV-1. We discovered that effective cART restored the number of human immune cells in HIV-1-infected hu-mice but did not rescue their immune hyperactivation and dysfunction. IFNAR blockade fully reversed HIV-1-induced immune hyperactivation and rescued anti-HIV-1 immune responses in T cells from HIV-1-infected hu-mice. Finally, we found that IFNAR blockade in the presence of cART reduced the size of HIV-1 reservoirs in lymphoid tissues and delayed HIV-1 rebound after cART cessation in the HIV-1-infected hu-mice. We conclude that low levels of IFN-I signaling contribute to HIV-1-associated immune dysfunction and foster HIV-1 persistence in cART-treated hosts. Our results suggest that blocking IFNAR may provide a potential strategy to enhance immune recovery and reduce HIV-1 reservoirs in individuals with sustained elevations in IFN-I signaling during suppressive cART.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF ALTERNATIVE TOURISM TYPES AND SIGHTS VIA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS: THE EXAPLE OF SAFRANBOLU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aydın

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, alternative tourism types and sights belonging to Safranbolu were identified through Geographic Information System (GIS tools. In this manner, most favorable tourism activities, which are specific to field, and evaluation factors of these activities were determined. “Suitability classification values” of these factors were charted by receiving opinions from experts. Natural and cultural properties of study area were determined in the light of evaluation factors and a database was set via GIS. This database was examined according to evaluation factors of the activities and the most suitable and conditional suitable areas were determined. In this study, it is aimed to carry out the suitable place analysis for alternative tourism types of Safranbolu, which is a tourism town, such as riding, mountain biking, camping, trekking. 486 km2 area for riding, 319 m2 for trekking, 209 km2 for mountain biking and 148 km² for camping were figured out as suitable. These results reveal that tourism activities should be more professionally organized in order to apply alternative tourism types such as riding, mountain biking, camping, trekking. In addition, organizations such as festivals and fairs should be arranged in order to introduce products special to Safranbolu.

  17. Investigation of Alternative Tourism Types and Sights via Geographic Information Systems: the Exaple of Safranbolu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, F.; Çepni, O.; Turgut, T.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, alternative tourism types and sights belonging to Safranbolu were identified through Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. In this manner, most favorable tourism activities, which are specific to field, and evaluation factors of these activities were determined. "Suitability classification values" of these factors were charted by receiving opinions from experts. Natural and cultural properties of study area were determined in the light of evaluation factors and a database was set via GIS. This database was examined according to evaluation factors of the activities and the most suitable and conditional suitable areas were determined. In this study, it is aimed to carry out the suitable place analysis for alternative tourism types of Safranbolu, which is a tourism town, such as riding, mountain biking, camping, trekking. 486 km2 area for riding, 319 m2 for trekking, 209 km2 for mountain biking and 148 km2 for camping were figured out as suitable. These results reveal that tourism activities should be more professionally organized in order to apply alternative tourism types such as riding, mountain biking, camping, trekking. In addition, organizations such as festivals and fairs should be arranged in order to introduce products special to Safranbolu.

  18. Comparing alternative approaches to measuring the geographical accessibility of urban health services: Distance types and aggregation-error issues

    OpenAIRE

    Riva Mylène; Abdelmajid Mohamed; Apparicio Philippe; Shearmur Richard

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the past two decades, geographical accessibility of urban resources for population living in residential areas has received an increased focus in urban health studies. Operationalising and computing geographical accessibility measures depend on a set of four parameters, namely definition of residential areas, a method of aggregation, a measure of accessibility, and a type of distance. Yet, the choice of these parameters may potentially generate different results leadi...

  19. Effect of HIV Infection on Human Papillomavirus Types Causing Invasive Cervical Cancer in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Clifford, Gary M.; de Vuyst, Hugo; Tenet, Vanessa; Plummer, Martyn; Tully, Stephen; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: HIV infection is known to worsen the outcome of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and may do so differentially by HPV type. Design: Twenty-one studies were included in a meta-analysis of invasive cervical cancers (ICC) among women infected with HIV in Africa. Method: Type-specific HPV DNA prevalence was compared with data from a similar meta-analysis of HIV-negative ICC using prevalence ratios (PR). Results: HPV detection was similar in 770 HIV-positive (91.2%) and 384...

  20. Sources and types of information on self-care symptom management strategies for HIV and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis R. Marie Modeste

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV worldwide, with more women being infected than men. Women living with HIV have been documented as experiencing various symptoms related to HIV and use various strategies to manage these symptoms. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the sources and types of information regarding self-care symptom management strategies received by women living with HIV. Method: The study was conducted at an HIV clinic in an urban area of KwaZulu-Natal. Individual in-depth interviews were completed with 11 women who were living with HIV,exploring the sources of information received on how they manage the HIV- (and/or AIDS- related symptoms they experienced as well as the types of information received. The collecteddata were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The participants identified various sources, which mainly included groups of people who provided them with information on how to manage their HIV-related symptoms, namely healthcare providers, their personal networks and the community. The different sources offered different types of information, including the use of medication, complementary treatments and self-comforting activities. Conclusion: The study highlights that participants used multiple sources to get information about how to manage the experienced symptoms related to HIV, namely, healthcare providers, family and friends as well as themselves. It is to be noted that each source provided a preferred type of information.

  1. Introduction of HIV type 1 into an isolated population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tina V; Leitner, Thomas; Lohse, Nicolai

    2007-01-01

    Introduction of HIV-1 into a population may not always give rise to a subsequent epidemic. Greenland is an isolated and sparsely populated island in The Danish Kingdom. We aimed to estimate the number of introductions of HIV-1 into Greenland, the number of subsequent epidemics, and the countries...... from which the virus was introduced. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on three regions of HIV-1 (gag, pol, and env) in samples from 70 Greenlandic patients. Furthermore, we included gene sequences from contemporary Danish HIV-1-infected patients and sequences from the Los Alamos HIV Sequence...... Database. All Greenlandic sequences were subtype B except one sequence found to be a recombinant (probably CRF13). Sequence clusters in the phylogenetic trees indicated that there had been at least nine introductions of HIV-1 into Greenland. One cluster, supported by bootstrap values of 81, 76, and 96...

  2. Minor drug-resistant HIV type-1 variants in breast milk and plasma of HIV type-1-infected Ugandan women after nevirapine single-dose prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilger, Daniel; Hauser, Andrea; Kuecherer, Claudia; Mugenyi, Kizito; Kabasinguzi, Rose; Somogyi, Sybille; Harms, Gundel; Kunz, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Nevirapine single-dose (NVP-SD) reduces mother-to-child transmission of HIV type-1 (HIV-1), but frequently induces resistance mutations in the HIV-1 genome. Little is known about drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in the breast milk of women who have taken NVP-SD. Blood and breast milk samples of 39 HIV-1-infected Ugandan women were taken 6-12 weeks after NVP-SD intake. Samples were analysed by population sequencing and allele-specific real-time PCR (AS-PCR) with detection limits for NVP-resistant HIV-1 variants (K103N and Y181C) of D n = 5, G n = 2 and C n = 1). A total of 7 (37%) and 10 (53%) women carried NVP-resistant virus in breast milk and plasma, respectively. Overall, 71% (5/7) women with NVP-resistant HIV-1 in breast milk displayed >1 drug-resistant variant. Resistance in breast milk was higher at week 6 (6/13 samples [46%]) compared with week 12 (1/6 samples [17%]). In total, 10 drug-resistant populations harbouring the K103N and/or Y181C mutation were detected in the 19 breast milk samples; 7 (70%) were caused by resistant minorities (< 5% of the total HIV-1 population). In the four women with drug-resistant virus in both plasma and breast milk, the mutation patterns differed between the two compartments. Minor populations of drug-resistant HIV-1 were frequently found in breast milk of Ugandan women after exposure to NVP-SD. Further studies need to explore the role of minor drug-resistant variants in the postnatal transmission of (resistant) HIV-1.

  3. Clustering patterns of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proteins reveal imprints of immune evasion on HIV-1 global variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yusim, K.; Kesmir, Can; Gaschen, B.

    2002-01-01

    The human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been intensely studied, and hundreds of CTL epitopes have been experimentally defined, published, and compiled in the HIV Molecular Immunology Database. Maps of CTL epitopes on HIV-1 protein sequenc...

  4. Quality control assessment of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) viral load quantification assays: results from an international collaboration on HIV-2 infection in 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damond, Florence; Benard, Antoine; Ruelle, Jean; Alabi, Abraham; Kupfer, Bernd; Gomes, Perpetua; Rodes, Berta; Albert, Jan; Böni, Jürg; Garson, Jeremy; Ferns, Bridget; Matheron, Sophie; Chene, Geneviève; Brun-Vezinet, Françoise; Goubau, Patrick; Campa, Pauline; Descamps, Diane; Simon, François; Taieb, Audrey; Autran, Brigitte; Cotten, Matt; Jaye, Assan; Peterson, Kevin; Rowland-Jones, Sarah; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Schwarze-Zander, Carolynne; de Wolf, Frank; van Sighem, Ard; Reiss, Peter; van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Schutten, Martin; Camacho, Ricardo; Mansinho, Kamal; Antunes, Francisco; Luis, Franca; Valadas, Emilia; Toro, Carlos; Soriano, Vicente; Gyllensten, Katarina; Sonnerborg, Anders; Yilmaz, Aylin; Gisslén, Magnus; Calmy, Alexandra; Rickenbach, Martin; Pillay, Deenan; Tosswill, Jennifer; Anderson, Jane; Chadwick, David

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) RNA quantification assays used in nine laboratories of the ACHI(E)V(2E) (A Collaboration on HIV-2 Infection) study group were evaluated. In a blinded experimental design, laboratories quantified three series of aliquots of an HIV-2 subtype A strain, each

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis Strain Types Have Diversified Regionally and Globally with Evidence for Recombination across Geographic Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Smelov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The Ct Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST scheme is effective in differentiating strain types (ST, deciphering transmission patterns and treatment failure, and identifying recombinant strains. Here, we analyzed 323 reference and clinical samples, including 58 samples from Russia, an area that has not previously been represented in Ct typing schemes, to expand our knowledge of the global diversification of Ct STs. The 323 samples resolved into 84 unique STs, a 3.23 higher typing resolution compared to the gold standard single locus ompA genotyping. Our MLST scheme showed a high discriminatory index, D, of 0.98 (95% CI 0.97–0.99 confirming the validity of this method for typing. Phylogenetic analyses revealed distinct branches for the phenotypic diseases of lymphogranuloma venereum, urethritis and cervicitis, and a sub-branch for ocular trachoma. Consistent with these findings, single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified that significantly correlated with each phenotype. While the overall number of unique STs per region was comparable across geographies, the number of STs was greater for Russia with a significantly higher ST/sample ratio of 0.45 (95% CI: 0.35–0.53 compared to Europe or the Americas (p < 0.009, which may reflect a higher level of sexual mixing with the introduction of STs from other regions and/or reassortment of alleles. Four STs were found to be significantly associated with a particular geographic region. ST23 [p = 0.032 (95% CI: 1–23], ST34 [p = 0.019 (95% CI: 1.1–25]; and ST19 [p = 0.001 (95% CI: 1.7–34.7] were significantly associated with Netherlands compared to Russia or the Americas, while ST 30 [p = 0.031 (95% CI: 1.1–17.8] was significantly associated with the Americas. ST19 was significantly associated with Netherlands and Russia compared with the Americans [p = 0.001 (95% CI: 1.7–34.7 and p = 0.006 (95

  6. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Enhances HIV-1 Susceptibility by Affecting Langerhans Cell Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marein A. W. P.; de Witte, Lot; Taylor, Maureen E.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2010-01-01

    Genital herpes is the most prevalent viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide and is mainly caused by HSV type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-2 infection enhances HIV-1 susceptibility, even in the absence of clinical symptoms. In this study, we investigated the effect of HSV-2 on HIV-1 transmission by mucosal

  7. Replication of type 2 diabetes candidate genes variations in three geographically unrelated Indian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shafat; Chopra, Rupali; Manvati, Siddharth; Singh, Yoginder Pal; Kaul, Nabodita; Behura, Anita; Mahajan, Ankit; Sehajpal, Prabodh; Gupta, Subash; Dhar, Manoj K; Chainy, Gagan B N; Bhanwer, Amarjit S; Sharma, Swarkar; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a syndrome of multiple metabolic disorders and is genetically heterogeneous. India comprises one of the largest global populations with highest number of reported type 2 diabetes cases. However, limited information about T2D associated loci is available for Indian populations. It is, therefore, pertinent to evaluate the previously associated candidates as well as identify novel genetic variations in Indian populations to understand the extent of genetic heterogeneity. We chose to do a cost effective high-throughput mass-array genotyping and studied the candidate gene variations associated with T2D in literature. In this case-control candidate genes association study, 91 SNPs from 55 candidate genes have been analyzed in three geographically independent population groups from India. We report the genetic variants in five candidate genes: TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1, IDE and FTO, are significantly associated (after Bonferroni correction, ppopulation. Interestingly, SNP rs7903146 of the TCF7L2 gene passed the genome wide significance threshold (combined P value = 2.05E-08) in the studied populations. We also observed the association of rs7903146 with blood glucose (fasting and postprandial) levels, supporting the role of TCF7L2 gene in blood glucose homeostasis. Further, we noted that the moderate risk provided by the independently associated loci in combined population with Odds Ratio (OR)<1.38 increased to OR = 2.44, (95%CI = 1.67-3.59) when the risk providing genotypes of TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1 and FTO genes were combined, suggesting the importance of gene-gene interactions evaluation in complex disorders like T2D.

  8. Replication of type 2 diabetes candidate genes variations in three geographically unrelated Indian population groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafat Ali

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a syndrome of multiple metabolic disorders and is genetically heterogeneous. India comprises one of the largest global populations with highest number of reported type 2 diabetes cases. However, limited information about T2D associated loci is available for Indian populations. It is, therefore, pertinent to evaluate the previously associated candidates as well as identify novel genetic variations in Indian populations to understand the extent of genetic heterogeneity. We chose to do a cost effective high-throughput mass-array genotyping and studied the candidate gene variations associated with T2D in literature. In this case-control candidate genes association study, 91 SNPs from 55 candidate genes have been analyzed in three geographically independent population groups from India. We report the genetic variants in five candidate genes: TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1, IDE and FTO, are significantly associated (after Bonferroni correction, p<5.5E-04 with T2D susceptibility in combined population. Interestingly, SNP rs7903146 of the TCF7L2 gene passed the genome wide significance threshold (combined P value = 2.05E-08 in the studied populations. We also observed the association of rs7903146 with blood glucose (fasting and postprandial levels, supporting the role of TCF7L2 gene in blood glucose homeostasis. Further, we noted that the moderate risk provided by the independently associated loci in combined population with Odds Ratio (OR<1.38 increased to OR = 2.44, (95%CI = 1.67-3.59 when the risk providing genotypes of TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1 and FTO genes were combined, suggesting the importance of gene-gene interactions evaluation in complex disorders like T2D.

  9. Decline in HIV prevalence among young women in Zambia: national-level estimates of trends mask geographical and socio-demographic differences.

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    Nkomba Kayeyi

    Full Text Available A decline in HIV incidence has been reported in Zambia and a number of other sub-Saharan countries. The trend of HIV prevalence among young people is a good marker of HIV incidence. In this study, different data sources are used to examine geographical and sub-population group differentials in HIV prevalence trends among men and women aged 15-24 years in Zambia.We analysed ANC data for women aged 15-24 years from 22 sentinel sites consistently covered in the period 1994-2008, and HIV data for young men and women aged 15-24 years from the ZDHS 2001/2 and 2007. In addition, we systematically reviewed peer-reviewed articles that have reported findings on HIV prevalence and incidence among young people.Overall trends of the ANC surveillance data indicated a substantial HIV prevalence decline among young women in both urban and rural areas. However, provincial declines differed substantially, i.e. between 10% and 68% among urban women, and from stability to 86% among rural women. Prevalence declines were steeper among those with the highest educational attainments than among the least educated. The ZDHS data indicated a significant reduction in prevalence between the two survey rounds among young women only. Provincial-level ZDHS changes were difficult to assess because the sample sizes were small. ANC-based trend patterns were consistent with those observed in PMTCT-based data (2002-2006, whereas population-based surveys in a selected urban community (1995-2003 suggested that the ANC-based data underestimated the prevalence declines in the general populations of both young both men and women.The overall HIV prevalence declined substantially among young women in Zambia and this is interpreted as indicating a decline in HIV incidence. It is noteworthy that overall national trends masked substantial differences by place and by educational attainment, demonstrating critical limitations in the current focus on overall country-level trends in

  10. Necroptosis takes place in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes.

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    Ting Pan

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection is characterized by progressive depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes and dysfunction of the immune system. The numbers of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the human body are maintained constantly by homeostatic mechanisms that failed during HIV-1 infection, resulting in progressive loss of CD4+ T cells mainly via apoptosis. Recently, a non-apoptotic form of necrotic programmed cell death, named necroptosis, has been investigated in many biological and pathological processes. We then determine whether HIV-1-infected cells also undergo necroptosis. In this report, we demonstrate that HIV-1 not only induces apoptosis, but also mediates necroptosis in the infected primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD4+ T-cell lines. Necroptosis-dependent cytopathic effects are significantly increased in HIV-1-infected Jurkat cells that is lack of Fas-associated protein-containing death domain (FADD, indicating that necroptosis occurs as an alternative cell death mechanism in the absence of apoptosis. Unlike apoptosis, necroptosis mainly occurs in HIV-infected cells and spares bystander damage. Treatment with necrostatin-1(Nec-1, a RIP1 inhibitor that specifically blocks the necroptosis pathway, potently restrains HIV-1-induced cytopathic effect and interestingly, inhibits the formation of HIV-induced syncytia in CD4+ T-cell lines. This suggests that syncytia formation is mediated, at least partially, by necroptosis-related processes. Furthermore, we also found that the HIV-1 infection-augmented tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α plays a key role in inducing necroptosis and HIV-1 Envelope and Tat proteins function as its co-factors. Taken together,necroptosis can function as an alternative cell death pathway in lieu of apoptosis during HIV-1 infection, thereby also contributing to HIV-1-induced cytopathic effects. Our results reveal that in addition to apoptosis, necroptosis also plays an important role in HIV-1-induced pathogenesis.

  11. Louisiana Coastal Marsh Vegetative Type (poly), Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [marsh_veg_type_poly_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains vector line information. The original data set was collected through visual field observation by Greg Linscombe of LDWF and Robert H. Chabreck...

  12. Louisiana Coastal Marsh Vegetative Type, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [marsh_veg_type_pts_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains vector point information. The orignal data set was collected through visual field observation by Greg Linscombe of LDWF and Robert H. Chabreck...

  13. Geographical distribution of complement receptor type 1 variants and their associated disease risk.

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    Thaisa Lucas Sandri

    Full Text Available Pathogens exert selective pressure which may lead to substantial changes in host immune responses. The human complement receptor type 1 (CR1 is an innate immune recognition glycoprotein that regulates the activation of the complement pathway and removes opsonized immune complexes. CR1 genetic variants in exon 29 have been associated with expression levels, C1q or C3b binding and increased susceptibility to several infectious diseases. Five distinct CR1 nucleotide substitutions determine the Knops blood group phenotypes, namely Kna/b, McCa/b, Sl1/Sl2, Sl4/Sl5 and KCAM+/-.CR1 variants were genotyped by direct sequencing in a cohort of 441 healthy individuals from Brazil, Vietnam, India, Republic of Congo and Ghana.The distribution of the CR1 alleles, genotypes and haplotypes differed significantly among geographical settings (p≤0.001. CR1 variants rs17047660A/G (McCa/b and rs17047661A/G (Sl1/Sl2 were exclusively observed to be polymorphic in African populations compared to the groups from Asia and South-America, strongly suggesting that these two SNPs may be subjected to selection. This is further substantiated by a high linkage disequilibrium between the two variants in the Congolese and Ghanaian populations. A total of nine CR1 haplotypes were observed. The CR1*AGAATA haplotype was found more frequently among the Brazilian and Vietnamese study groups; the CR1*AGAATG haplotype was frequent in the Indian and Vietnamese populations, while the CR1*AGAGTG haplotype was frequent among Congolese and Ghanaian individuals.The African populations included in this study might have a selective advantage conferred to immune genes involved in pathogen recognition and signaling, possibly contributing to disease susceptibility or resistance.

  14. Geographical variability of the incidence of Type 1 diabetes in subjects younger than 30 years in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellana, Rosa; Ascaso, Carlos; Carrasco, Josep L; Castell, Conxa; Tresserras, Ricard

    2009-04-04

    We decided to assess the geographical variability of the incidence of Type 1 diabetes in Catalonia (Spain) in subjects younger than 30 years at onset during the period 1989-1998. The effect of sex, age at onset, periods of years, and population density was also analyzed. Data were obtained from the prospective Catalan Registry of Diabetes Mellitus. Generalized linear mixed models were used to determine the effects of the risk factors and to find out the geographical distribution. The best model was selected by the AKAIKE information criterion. The crude incidence of type 1 diabetes in subjects younger than 30 years was 11.8/100,000/year (95% CI 11.4-12.3). The incidence was similar between males and females in the 0-14 age group. However, there was a male preponderance in young adults. The incidence did not vary annually and was not associated with population density. The incidence did not present a spatial pattern around Catalonia. There was an unstructured geographical variability. Some regions of Catalonia displayed values of type I diabetes higher or lower than the expected incidence. Counties with extreme values of incidence were specific for each demographic group and in no case did these counties make up clusters, suggesting that there are explanatory factors with patterns of geographic distribution. The incidence of diabetes in young male adults in some counties was similar to that of European countries with a high incidence.

  15. Types and delivery of emotional support to promote linkage and engagement in HIV care

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    Cook CL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Christa L Cook,1 Shantrel Canidate,2 Nicole Ennis,3 Robert L Cook4 1Department of Family, Community, and Health System Science, College of Nursing, 2Social and Behavioral Science, College of Public Health and Health Profession, 3Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, College of Public Health and Health Professions, 4Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health and Health Professions and College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Purpose: Despite recommendations for early entry into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV care, many people diagnosed with HIV delay seeking care. Multiple types of social support (ie, cognitive, emotional, and tangible are often needed for someone to transition into HIV care, but a lack of emotional support at diagnosis may be the reason why some people fail to stay engaged in care. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify how people living with HIV conceptualized emotional support needs and delivery at diagnosis. Method: We conducted a secondary analysis of qualitative data from 27 people living with HIV, many of whom delayed entry into HIV care. Results: Participants described their experiences seeking care after an HIV diagnosis and identified components of emotional support that aided entry into care – identification, connection, and navigational presence. Many participants stated that these types of support were ideally delivered by peers with HIV. Conclusion: In clinical practice, providers often use an HIV diagnosis as an opportunity to educate patients about HIV prevention and access to services. However, this type of social support may not facilitate engagement in care if emotional support needs are not met. Keywords: linkage to care, engagement in care, social support, qualitative

  16. Constitutively Active MAVS Inhibits HIV-1 Replication via Type I Interferon Secretion and Induction of HIV-1 Restriction Factors.

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    Sachin Gupta

    Full Text Available Type I interferon is known to inhibit HIV-1 replication through the induction of interferon stimulated genes (ISG, including a number of HIV-1 restriction factors. To better understand interferon-mediated HIV-1 restriction, we constructed a constitutively active form of the RIG-I adapter protein MAVS. Constitutive MAVS was generated by fusion of full length MAVS to a truncated form of the Epstein Barr virus protein LMP1 (ΔLMP1. Supernatant from ΔLMP1-MAVS-transfected 293T cells contained high levels of type I interferons and inhibited HIV replication in both TZM-bl and primary human CD4+ T cells. Supernatant from ΔLMP1-MAVS-transfected 293T cells also inhibited replication of VSV-G pseudotyped single cycle SIV in TZM-bl cells, suggesting restriction was post-entry and common to both HIV and SIV. Gene array analysis of ΔLMP1-MAVS-transfected 293T cells and trans-activated CD4+ T cells showed significant upregulation of ISG, including previously characterized HIV restriction factors Viperin, Tetherin, MxB, and ISG56. Interferon blockade studies implicated interferon-beta in this response. In addition to direct viral inhibition, ΔLMP1-MAVS markedly enhanced secretion of IFN-β and IL-12p70 by dendritic cells and the activation and maturation of dendritic cells. Based on this immunostimulatory activity, an adenoviral vector (Ad5 expressing ΔLMP1-MAVS was tested as a molecular adjuvant in an HIV vaccine mouse model. Ad5-Gag antigen combined with Ad5-ΔLMP1-MAVS enhanced control of vaccinia-gag replication in a mouse challenge model, with 4/5 animals showing undetectable virus following challenge. Overall, ΔLMP1-MAVS is a promising reagent to inhibit HIV-1 replication in infected tissues and enhance vaccine-mediated immune responses, while avoiding toxicity associated with systemic type I interferon administration.

  17. Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in humanized HIV-transgenic mice triggers HIV shedding and is associated with greater neurological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Briana; Fakioglu, Esra; Stefanidou, Martha; Wang, Yanhua; Dutta, Monica; Goldstein, Harris; Herold, Betsy C

    2014-02-15

    Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate synergy between herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Higher HIV-1 loads are observed in coinfected individuals, and conversely, HIV-1 is associated with more-severe herpetic disease. A small animal model of coinfection would facilitate identification of the biological mechanisms underlying this synergy and provide the opportunity to evaluate interventions. Mice transgenic for HIV-1 provirus and human cyclin T1 under the control of a CD4 promoter (JR-CSF/hu-cycT1) were intravaginally infected with HSV-2 and evaluated for disease progression, HIV shedding, and mucosal immune responses. HSV-2 infection resulted in higher vaginal HIV loads and genital tissue expression of HIV RNA, compared with HSV-uninfected JR-CSF/hu-cycT1 mice. There was an increase in genital tract inflammatory cells, cytokines, chemokines, and interferons in response to HSV-2, although the kinetics of the response were delayed in HIV-transgenic, compared with control mice. Moreover, the JR-CSF/hu-cycT1 mice exhibited earlier and more-severe neurological disease. The latter was associated with downregulation of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor expression in neuronal tissue, a molecule with antiinflammatory, antiviral, and neuroprotective properties. JR-CSF/hu-cycT1 mice provide a valuable model to study HIV/HSV-2 coinfection and identify potential mechanisms by which HSV-2 facilitates HIV-1 transmission and HIV modulates HSV-2-mediated disease.

  18. HIV-infected persons with type 2 diabetes show evidence of endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Skovsgaard, Malene; Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Kolte, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in both HIV infection and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population has been described. Little is known about the combined effect of HIV infection and T2D on inflammation and endothelial function, both of which may...... contribute to elevated risk of CVD. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 50 HIV-infected persons on combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART), with HIV RNA 2D (HIV + T2D+), n = 25 without T2D (HIV + T2D-)) and 50 uninfected persons (n = 22 with T2D (HIV-T2D+) and n = 28...... without T2D (HIV-T2D-)). Groups were matched on age and sex. High sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was used to determine inflammation (cut-off 3 mg/L). The marker of endothelial dysfunction asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Trimethylamine...

  19. Worldwide molecular epidemiology of HIV

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    Henry I Z Requejo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is the worldwide disseminated causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. HIV is a member of the Lentivirus genus of Retroviridae family and is grouped in two types named HIV-1 and HIV-2. These viruses have a notable ability to mutate and adapt to the new conditions of human environment. A large incidence of errors at the transcriptional level results in changes on the genetic bases during the reproductive cycle. The elevated genomic variability of HIV has carried important implications for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention as well as epidemiologic investigations. The present review describes important definitions and geographical distribution of subtypes, circulating recombinant forms and other genomic variations of HIV. The present study aimed at leading students of Biomedical Sciences and public health laboratory staff guidance to general and specific knowledge about the genomic variability of the HIV.

  20. Detection of a human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle antigenically related to HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, R. F.; Fermin, C. D.; Hart, D. J.; Alexander, S. S.; Donehower, L. A.; Luo-Zhang, H.

    1990-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes. The loss of salivary and lacrimal gland function is accompanied by lymphocytic infiltration. Because similar symptoms and glandular pathology are observed in certain persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a search was initiated for a possible retroviral etiology in this syndrome. A human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle that is antigenically related to HIV was detected in lymphoblastoid cells exposed to homogenates of salivary tissue from patients with Sjogren's syndrome. Comparison of this retroviral particle to HIV indicates that they are distinguishable by several ultrastructural, physical, and enzymatic criteria.

  1. Comparing alternative approaches to measuring the geographical accessibility of urban health services: Distance types and aggregation-error issues

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    Riva Mylène

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past two decades, geographical accessibility of urban resources for population living in residential areas has received an increased focus in urban health studies. Operationalising and computing geographical accessibility measures depend on a set of four parameters, namely definition of residential areas, a method of aggregation, a measure of accessibility, and a type of distance. Yet, the choice of these parameters may potentially generate different results leading to significant measurement errors. The aim of this paper is to compare discrepancies in results for geographical accessibility of selected health care services for residential areas (i.e. census tracts computed using different distance types and aggregation methods. Results First, the comparison of distance types demonstrates that Cartesian distances (Euclidean and Manhattan distances are strongly correlated with more accurate network distances (shortest network and shortest network time distances across the metropolitan area (Pearson correlation greater than 0.95. However, important local variations in correlation between Cartesian and network distances were observed notably in suburban areas where Cartesian distances were less precise. Second, the choice of the aggregation method is also important: in comparison to the most accurate aggregation method (population-weighted mean of the accessibility measure for census blocks within census tracts, accessibility measures computed from census tract centroids, though not inaccurate, yield important measurement errors for 5% to 10% of census tracts. Conclusion Although errors associated to the choice of distance types and aggregation method are only important for about 10% of census tracts located mainly in suburban areas, we should not avoid using the best estimation method possible for evaluating geographical accessibility. This is especially so if these measures are to be included as a dimension of the

  2. Influence of Geographical Origin and Flour Type on Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Traditional Belgian Sourdoughs▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2007-01-01

    A culture-based approach was used to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Belgian traditional sourdoughs and to assess the influence of flour type, bakery environment, geographical origin, and technological characteristics on the taxonomic composition of these LAB communities. For this purpose, a total of 714 LAB from 21 sourdoughs sampled at 11 artisan bakeries throughout Belgium were subjected to a polyphasic identification approach. The microbial composition of the tr...

  3. Potential geographic "hotspots" for drug-injection related transmission of HIV and HCV and for initiation into injecting drug use in New York City, 2011-2015, with implications for the current opioid epidemic in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, D C; Cooper, H L F; Arasteh, K; Feelemyer, J; McKnight, C; Ross, Z

    2018-01-01

    We identified potential geographic "hotspots" for drug-injecting transmission of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in New York City. The HIV epidemic among PWID is currently in an "end of the epidemic" stage, while HCV is in a continuing, high prevalence (> 50%) stage. We recruited 910 PWID entering Mount Sinai Beth Israel substance use treatment programs from 2011-2015. Structured interviews and HIV/ HCV testing were conducted. Residential ZIP codes were used as geographic units of analysis. Potential "hotspots" for HIV and HCV transmission were defined as 1) having relatively large numbers of PWID 2) having 2 or more HIV (or HCV) seropositive PWID reporting transmission risk-passing on used syringes to others, and 3) having 2 or more HIV (or HCV) seronegative PWID reporting acquisition risk-injecting with previously used needles/syringes. Hotspots for injecting drug use initiation were defined as ZIP codes with 5 or more persons who began injecting within the previous 6 years. Among PWID, 96% injected heroin, 81% male, 34% White, 15% African-American, 47% Latinx, mean age 40 (SD = 10), 7% HIV seropositive, 62% HCV seropositive. Participants resided in 234 ZIP codes. No ZIP codes were identified as potential hotspots due to small numbers of HIV seropositive PWID reporting transmission risk. Four ZIP codes were identified as potential hotspots for HCV transmission. 12 ZIP codes identified as hotspots for injecting drug use initiation. For HIV, the lack of potential hotspots is further validation of widespread effectiveness of efforts to reduce injecting-related HIV transmission. Injecting-related HIV transmission is likely to be a rare, random event. HCV prevention efforts should include focus on potential hotspots for transmission and on hotspots for initiation into injecting drug use. We consider application of methods for the current opioid epidemic in the US.

  4. Circumcision status and incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, genital ulcer disease, and HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Supriya D.; Moses, Stephen; Parker, Corette B.; Agot, Kawango; Maclean, Ian; Bailey, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We assessed the protective effect of medical male circumcision (MMC) against HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and genital ulcer disease (GUD) incidence. Design Two thousand, seven hundred and eighty-seven men aged 18–24 years living in Kisumu, Kenya were randomly assigned to circumcision (n=1391) or delayed circumcision (n =1393) and assessed by HIV and HSV-2 testing and medical examinations during follow-ups at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Methods Cox regression estimated the risk ratio of each outcome (incident HIV, GUD, HSV-2) for circumcision status and multivariable models estimated HIV risk associated with HSV-2, GUD, and circumcision status as time-varying covariates. Results HIV incidence was 1.42 per 100 person-years. Circumcision was 62% protective against HIV [risk ratio =0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22–0.67] and did not change when controlling for HSV-2 and GUD (risk ratio =0.39; 95% CI 0.23–0.69). GUD incidence was halved among circumcised men (risk ratio =0.52; 95% CI 0.37–0.73). HSV-2 incidence did not differ by circumcision status (risk ratio =0.94; 95% CI 0.70–1.25). In the multivariable model, HIV seroconversions were tripled (risk ratio =3.44; 95% CI 1.52–7.80) among men with incident HSV-2 and seven times greater (risk ratio =6.98; 95% CI 3.50–13.9) for men with GUD. Conclusion Contrary to findings from the South African and Ugandan trials, the protective effect of MMC against HIV was independent of GUD and HSV-2, and MMC had no effect on HSV-2 incidence. Determining the causes of GUD is necessary to reduce associated HIV risk and to understand how circumcision confers protection against GUD and HIV PMID:22382150

  5. Geographic Distribution and Temporal Trends of HIV-1 Subtypes through Heterosexual Transmission in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Peipei; Li, Jianjun; Fu, Gengfeng; Zhou, Ying; Huan, Xiping; Yang, Haitao

    2017-01-01

    Background: Heterosexual transmission (HST) has become the current predominant transmission pathways of the HIV-1 epidemic in China. The aim of this study was to explore the geographic and dynamic change of HIV-1 subtypes through HST in China from published studies. Methods: Several electronic databases were searched to identify the studies, and the overall prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes was estimated by a meta-analysis method. Subgroup analysis was conducted by study region and time period. Publication bias was evaluated using Egger’s test. The χ2 test was used to evaluate the proportion differences among subgroups. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the stability of the overall prevalence estimates. Results: 42 studies were included in our final analysis. The overall prevalence of CRF01_AE was 46.34% (95% CI: 40.56–52.17%), CRF07_BC was 19.16% (95% CI: 15.02–23.66%), B/B’ was 13.25% (95% CI: 9.68–17.25%), CRF08_BC was 10.61% (95% CI: 7.08–14.70%), and C was 4.29% (95% CI: 1.85–7.48%). In subgroup analysis, the prevalence of CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC increased, while the prevalence of B/B’ decreased over time, whereby the prevalence of CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC have exceeded that of B/B’ since 2010. A significant higher prevalence of CRF01_AE was found in the South provinces, CRF07_BC in East provinces, CRF08_BC and C in Southwest provinces, and B/B’ in North provinces. Conclusions: The HIV-1 prevalent strains have evolved into complicated and diverse subtypes, and the proportion of HIV-1 subtypes through HST has changed constantly in different regions and periods in China. This highlights the urgent need to vigorously strengthen the prevention and control of the HIV-1 epidemic. PMID:28737729

  6. Metabolic dysregulation and interventions in type 2 diabetes mellitus and HIV-lipodystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, J.P.H. van

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on two aspects of metabolic dysregulation, type 2 diabetes mellitus and HIV-lipodystrophy, and the effects of insulin-sensitizing agents. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have received increasing attenttion for the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. Currently,

  7. HPV types, HIV and invasive cervical carcinoma risk in Kampala, Uganda: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleter Bernhard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the association of human papillomavirus (HPV with cervical cancer is well established, the influence of HIV on the risk of this disease in sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. To assess the risk of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC associated with HIV and HPV types, a hospital-based case-control study was performed between September 2004 and December 2006 in Kampala, Uganda. Incident cases of histologically-confirmed ICC (N=316 and control women (N=314, who were visitors or care-takers of ICC cases in the hospital, were recruited. Blood samples were obtained for HIV serology and CD4 count, as well as cervical samples for HPV testing. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using the SPF10/DEIA/LiPA25 technique which detects all mucosal HPV types by DEIA and identifies 25 HPV genotypes by LiPA version 1. Samples that tested positive but could not be genotyped were designated HPVX. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated by logistic regression, adjusting for possible confounding factors. Results For both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and adenocarcinoma of the cervix, statistically significantly increased ORs were found among women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16-related types and high-risk HPV types, in particular HPV16, 18 and 45. For other HPV types the ORs for both SCC and adenocarcinoma were not statistically significantly elevated. HIV infection and CD4 count were not associated with SCC or adenocarcinoma risk in our study population. Among women infected with high-risk HPV types, no association between HIV and SCC emerged. However, an inverse association with adenocarcinoma was observed, while decrease in CD4 count was not associated with ICC risk. Conclusions The ORs for SCC and adenocarcinoma were increased in women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16- and 18-related types, and high-risk HPV types

  8. ABO Blood Type and Stroke Risk: The REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakai, Neil A.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Alexander, Kristine; McClure, Leslie A.; Kissela, Brett M.; Howard, George; Cushman, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background ABO blood type is an inherited trait associated with coagulation factor levels and vascular outcomes. Objectives To assess the association of blood type with stroke and whether blood type contributes to racial disparities in stroke in the United States. Patients and Methods The REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study recruited 30,239 participants between 2003-07. Using a case-cohort design, blood type was genotyped in 646 participants with stroke and a 1,104 participant cohort random sample. Cox models adjusting for Framingham stroke risk factors assessed the association of blood type with stroke. Results Over 5.8 years of follow-up, blood types A or B versus type O were not associated with stroke. Blood type AB versus O was associated with an increased risk of stroke (adjusted HR 1.83; 95% CI 1.01, 3.30). The association of blood type AB versus O was greater in those without diabetes (adjusted HR 3.33; 95% CI 1.61, 6.88) than those with diabetes (adjusted HR 0.49; 95% CI 0.17, 1.44) (p-interaction = 0.02). Factor VIII levels accounted for 60% (95% CI 11%, 98%) of the association of AB blood type and stroke risk. Conclusion Blood type AB is associated with an increased risk of stroke that is not attenuated by conventional stroke risk factors and factor VIII levels were associated with 60% of the association. While blood type AB is rare in the U.S. population, it is a significant stroke risk factor and may play an important role in stroke risk in these individuals. PMID:24444093

  9. HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 epidemiological synergy: misguided observational evidence? A modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Ryosuke; Nagelkerke, Nico; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2017-12-04

    To investigate whether observational studies of HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections have the capacity to assess the HIV/HSV-2 epidemiological synergy. An individual-based Monte Carlo model was used to simulate HIV/HSV-2 epidemics in two scenarios: no HIV/HSV-2 biological interaction and HSV-2 seropositivity enhancing HIV acquisition. Cross-sectional observational studies were simulated by sampling individuals from the population to assess resulting crude and adjusted ORs of the HIV/HSV-2 association. Meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the pooled mean ORs. Impact of under-reporting of sexual behaviour and miscapture of high-risk individuals was assessed through sensitivity analyses. Assuming no HIV/HSV-2 biological interaction, the crude HIV/HSV-2 OR ranged between 1.38 and 9.93, with a pooled mean of 6.45 (95% CI 5.81 to 7.17). Adjustment for the number of sexual partners over last year, over lifetime and for both partner numbers simultaneously reduced the mean OR to 5.45 (95% CI 4.90 to 6.06), 3.70 (95% CI 3.32 to 4.12) and 3.54 (95% CI 3.17 to 3.94), respectively. Assuming HIV/HSV-2 biological interaction, the crude OR ranged between 3.44 and 9.95, with a pooled mean of 8.05 (95% CI 7.14 to 9.07). The adjustments reduced the mean OR to 7.00 (95% CI 6.21 to 7.90), 3.76 (95% CI 3.32 to 4.25) and 3.68 (95% CI 3.25 to 4.17), respectively. Under-reporting of partners reduced the confounder-adjustment effects. Miscapture of high-risk individuals considerably lowered the estimated ORs. It is difficult to control for sexual-behaviour confounding in observational studies. The observed HIV/HSV-2 association appears more consistent with two infections sharing the same mode of transmission, rather than with HSV-2 enhancing HIV acquisition. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Virulence Studies of Different Sequence Types and Geographical Origins of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 in a Mouse Model of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Auger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multilocus sequence typing previously identified three predominant sequence types (STs of Streptococcus suis serotype 2: ST1 strains predominate in Eurasia while North American (NA strains are generally ST25 and ST28. However, ST25/ST28 and ST1 strains have also been isolated in Asia and NA, respectively. Using a well-standardized mouse model of infection, the virulence of strains belonging to different STs and different geographical origins was evaluated. Results demonstrated that although a certain tendency may be observed, S. suis serotype 2 virulence is difficult to predict based on ST and geographical origin alone; strains belonging to the same ST presented important differences of virulence and did not always correlate with origin. The only exception appears to be NA ST28 strains, which were generally less virulent in both systemic and central nervous system (CNS infection models. Persistent and high levels of bacteremia accompanied by elevated CNS inflammation are required to cause meningitis. Although widely used, in vitro tests such as phagocytosis and killing assays require further standardization in order to be used as predictive tests for evaluating virulence of strains. The use of strains other than archetypal strains has increased our knowledge and understanding of the S. suis serotype 2 population dynamics.

  11. Geographical variation in the progression of type 2 diabetes in Peru: The CRONICAS Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Gilman, Robert H; Miele, Catherine H; Checkley, William; Wells, Jonathan C; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-11-01

    The study aims were to estimate the incidence and risk factors for T2D in four settings with different degree of urbanization and altitude in Peru. Prospective cohort study conducted in urban, semi-urban, and rural areas in Peru. An age- and sex-stratified random sample of participants was taken from the most updated census. T2D was defined as fasting blood glucose ⩾7.0mmol/L or taking anti-diabetes medication. Exposures were divided into two groups: geographical variables (urbanization and altitude), and modifiable risk factors. Incidence, relative risks (RR), 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), and population attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated. Data from 3135 participants, 48.8% males, mean age 55.6years, was analyzed. Overall baseline prevalence of T2D was 7.1% (95%CI 6.2-8.0%). At follow-up, including 6207 person-years of follow-up, a total of 121 new T2D cases were accrued, equating to an incidence of 1.95 (95%CI 1.63-2.33) per 100 person-years. There was no urban to rural gradient in the T2D incidence; however, compared to sea level sites, participants living in high altitude had a higher incidence of diabetes (RR=1.58; 95%CI 1.01-2.48). Obesity had the highest attributable risk for developing T2D, although results varied by setting, ranging from 14% to 80% depending on urbanization and altitude. Our results suggest that the incidence of T2D was greater in high altitude sites. New cases of diabetes were largely attributed to obesity, but with substantial variation in the contribution of obesity depending on the environment. These findings can inform appropriate context-specific strategies to reduce the incidence of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunological predictors of survival in HIV type 2-infected rural villagers in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffar, Shabbar; Van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the association between beta2-microglobulin, neopterin, serum levels of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), CD4 count, and plasma viremia with survival in 133 HIV-2-infected villagers and 160 controls living in rural Guinea-Bissau. Subjects were recruite...

  13. Immunogenicity and effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in HIV infected and uninfected African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhi, Shabir A; Kuwanda, Locadiah; Saarinen, Leena; Cutland, Clare; Mothupi, Rosalia; Käyhty, Helena; Klugman, Keith P

    2005-12-01

    The quantitative (anti-Hib capsular polysaccharide antibody concentrations; anti-HibPS) and qualitative (bactericidal activity and avidity) aspects in immune responses to Haemophilus influenzae type b polyribosyl ribitol phospshate-CRM(197) conjugate vaccine (HibCV; HibTiter) were evaluated in 66 HIV infected children not receiving anti-retroviral therapy and 127 HIV uninfected children. Surveillance was conducted for invasive Hib disease in a cohort of 39,865 (approximately 6.4% of whom were HIV infected) children from March 1998 to June 2004. HIV infected children had lower anti-HibPS geometric mean antibody concentrations 1 month post-immunisation than HIV uninfected children (Por=1.0 microg/ml (RR 0.54; 95% CI 0.43-0.69). A lower proportion of HIV infected children than HIV uninfected children (RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.66-0.93) had measurable anti-Hib serum bactericidal activity (SBA) and the HibPS antibody concentration required for 50% killing of Hib bacteria was greater among HIV infected than HIV uninfected children (P=0.001). The estimated risk of HibCV failure was 35.1-fold greater (95% CI 14.6-84.6) amongst HIV infected than HIV uninfected children.

  14. Immunological predictors of survival in HIV type 2-infected rural villagers in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffar, Shabbar; Van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the association between beta2-microglobulin, neopterin, serum levels of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), CD4 count, and plasma viremia with survival in 133 HIV-2-infected villagers and 160 controls living in rural Guinea-Bissau. Subjects were recruited......%, and plasma viral load were associated independently with survival in multivariate analyses. Neopterin and suPAR did not reach statistical significance. These findings suggest that immune activation is central to the pathogenesis of HIV. They also have important implications for resource-poor settings where...

  15. Raltegravir with optimized background therapy for resistant HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steigbigel, Roy T; Cooper, David A; Kumar, Princy N

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Raltegravir (MK-0518) is an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase active against HIV-1 susceptible or resistant to older antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: We conducted two identical trials in different geographic regions to evaluate the safety and efficacy of...

  16. Secondary typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with matching IS6110 fingerprints from different geographic regions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z H; Bates, J H; Eisenach, K D; Cave, M D

    2001-05-01

    Fifty-nine isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis obtained from different states in the United States and representing 25 interstate clusters were investigated. These clusters were identified by computer-assisted analysis of DNA fingerprints submitted during 1996 and 1997 by different laboratories participating in the CDC National Genotyping and Surveillance Network. Isolates were fingerprinted with the IS6110 right-hand probe (IS6110-3'), the IS6110 left-hand probe (IS6110-5'), and the probe pTBN12, containing the polymorphic GC-rich sequence (PGRS). Spoligotyping based on the polymorphism in the 36-bp direct-repeat locus was also performed. As a control, 43 M. tuberculosis isolates in 17 clusters obtained from patients in Arkansas during the study period were analyzed. Of the 25 interstate clusters, 19 were confirmed as correctly clustered when all the isolates were analyzed on the same gel using the IS6110-3' probe. Of the 19 true IS6110-3' clusters, 10 (53%) were subdivided by one or more secondary typing methods. Clustering of the control group was virtually identical by all methods. Of the three different secondary typing methods, spoligotyping was the least discriminating. IS6110-5' fingerprinting was as discriminating as PGRS fingerprinting. The data indicate that the IS6110-5' probe not only is a useful secondary typing method but also probably would prove to be a more useful primary typing method for a genotyping network which involves isolates from different geographic regions.

  17. Amphetamine-type stimulants and HIV infection among men who have sex with men: implications on HIV research and prevention from a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nga Thi Thu Vu; Lisa Maher; Iryna Zablotska

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: HIV infections and the use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been increasing internationally, but the role of ATS use as a co-factor for HIV infection remains unclear. We aimed to summarize the association between ATS use and HIV infection among MSM. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, GLOBAL HEALTH and PsycINFO for relevant English, peer-reviewed articles of quantitative studies published between 1980 and 2...

  18. National HIV prevalence estimates for sub-Saharan Africa: controlling selection bias with Heckman-type selection models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Daniel R; Salomon, Joshua A; Canning, David; Hammitt, James K; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Bärnighausen, Till

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Population-based HIV testing surveys have become central to deriving estimates of national HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. However, limited participation in these surveys can lead to selection bias. We control for selection bias in national HIV prevalence estimates using a novel approach, which unlike conventional imputation can account for selection on unobserved factors. Methods For 12 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted from 2001 to 2009 (N=138 300), we predict HIV status among those missing a valid HIV test with Heckman-type selection models, which allow for correlation between infection status and participation in survey HIV testing. We compare these estimates with conventional ones and introduce a simulation procedure that incorporates regression model parameter uncertainty into confidence intervals. Results Selection model point estimates of national HIV prevalence were greater than unadjusted estimates for 10 of 12 surveys for men and 11 of 12 surveys for women, and were also greater than the majority of estimates obtained from conventional imputation, with significantly higher HIV prevalence estimates for men in Cote d'Ivoire 2005, Mali 2006 and Zambia 2007. Accounting for selective non-participation yielded 95% confidence intervals around HIV prevalence estimates that are wider than those obtained with conventional imputation by an average factor of 4.5. Conclusions Our analysis indicates that national HIV prevalence estimates for many countries in sub-Saharan African are more uncertain than previously thought, and may be underestimated in several cases, underscoring the need for increasing participation in HIV surveys. Heckman-type selection models should be included in the set of tools used for routine estimation of HIV prevalence. PMID:23172342

  19. Global Dispersal Pattern of HIV Type 1 Subtype CRF01_AE

    OpenAIRE

    Poljak, Mario; Angelis, Konstantinos; Albert, Jan; Mamais, Ioannis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Hatzakis, Angelos; Hamouda, Osamah; Stuck, Daniel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Wensing, Annemarie; Alexiev, Ivailo

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype CRF01_AE originated in Africa and then passed to Thailand, where it established a major epidemic. Despite the global presence of CRF01_AE, little is known about its subsequent dispersal pattern. Methods. We assembled a global data set of 2736 CRF01_AE sequences by pooling sequences from public databases and patient-cohort studies. We estimated viral dispersal patterns, using statistical phylogeographic analysis run over bootstrap...

  20. Influence of geographical origin and flour type on diversity of lactic acid bacteria in traditional Belgian sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2007-10-01

    A culture-based approach was used to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Belgian traditional sourdoughs and to assess the influence of flour type, bakery environment, geographical origin, and technological characteristics on the taxonomic composition of these LAB communities. For this purpose, a total of 714 LAB from 21 sourdoughs sampled at 11 artisan bakeries throughout Belgium were subjected to a polyphasic identification approach. The microbial composition of the traditional sourdoughs was characterized by bacteriological culture in combination with genotypic identification methods, including repetitive element sequence-based PCR fingerprinting and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) gene sequence analysis. LAB from Belgian sourdoughs belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Enterococcus, with the heterofermentative species Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis as the most frequently isolated taxa. Statistical analysis of the identification data indicated that the microbial composition of the sourdoughs is mainly affected by the bakery environment rather than the flour type (wheat, rye, spelt, or a mixture of these) used. In conclusion, the polyphasic approach, based on rapid genotypic screening and high-resolution, sequence-dependent identification, proved to be a powerful tool for studying the LAB diversity in traditional fermented foods such as sourdough.

  1. Influence of Geographical Origin and Flour Type on Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Traditional Belgian Sourdoughs▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2007-01-01

    A culture-based approach was used to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Belgian traditional sourdoughs and to assess the influence of flour type, bakery environment, geographical origin, and technological characteristics on the taxonomic composition of these LAB communities. For this purpose, a total of 714 LAB from 21 sourdoughs sampled at 11 artisan bakeries throughout Belgium were subjected to a polyphasic identification approach. The microbial composition of the traditional sourdoughs was characterized by bacteriological culture in combination with genotypic identification methods, including repetitive element sequence-based PCR fingerprinting and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) gene sequence analysis. LAB from Belgian sourdoughs belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Enterococcus, with the heterofermentative species Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis as the most frequently isolated taxa. Statistical analysis of the identification data indicated that the microbial composition of the sourdoughs is mainly affected by the bakery environment rather than the flour type (wheat, rye, spelt, or a mixture of these) used. In conclusion, the polyphasic approach, based on rapid genotypic screening and high-resolution, sequence-dependent identification, proved to be a powerful tool for studying the LAB diversity in traditional fermented foods such as sourdough. PMID:17675431

  2. Infection and depletion of CD4+ group-1 innate lymphoid cells by HIV-1 via type-I interferon pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are severely depleted during chronic HIV-1 infection by unclear mechanisms. We report here that human ILC1s comprising of CD4+ and CD4- subpopulations were present in various human lymphoid organs but with different transcription programs and functions. Importantly, CD4+ ILC1s expressed HIV-1 co-receptors and were productively infected by HIV-1 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, chronic HIV-1 infection activated and depleted both CD4+ and CD4- ILC1s, and impaired their cytokine production activity. Highly active antiretroviral (HAART therapy in HIV-1 patients efficiently rescued the ILC1 numbers and reduced their activation, but failed to restore their functionality. We also found that blocking type-I interferon (IFN-I signaling during HIV-1 infection in vivo in humanized mice prevented HIV-1 induced depletion or apoptosis of ILC1 cells. Therefore, we have identified the CD4+ ILC1 cells as a new target population for HIV-1 infection, and revealed that IFN-I contributes to the depletion of ILC1s during HIV-1 infection.

  3. Transmitted drug resistance and type of infection in newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Wendy; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Morales, Sonia; Monterroso, Edgar; Paredes, Mayte; Dobbs, Trudy; Parekh, Bharat S; Albert, Jan; Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana de

    2010-12-01

    Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) reduces the efficacy of antiretroviral treatment and is a public health concern. To gain insight in the epidemiology of TDR in Honduras by evaluating the amount of TDR in a representative sample of newly diagnosed individuals and by determining whether these are recent or established infections. Two hundred treatment-naïve, newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals representing different population groups (general population, Garifunas ethnic group, female sex workers and men who have sex with men) and different geographic regions were enrolled during April 2004-April 2007. The HIV-1 pol gene was sequenced to identify drug-resistant mutations and TDR was scored as recommended by the WHO. Specimens were classified as recent or established infections using the BED assay. Among 200 samples analyzed from Honduran patients the prevalence of TDR was 7% (95% CI: 3.9-11.5%), 5% for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), 3% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and 0.5% for protease inhibitors (PIs). Testing of these samples with the BED assay revealed that 12% of the specimens were associated with recent infections. TDR was significantly more common in specimens with recent infection (21%) than established infection (5%) (p=0.016). The prevalence of TDR in Honduras was moderate (7%). The percentage of specimens who were recently infected was low (12%), suggesting that late HIV diagnosis is common. The TDR prevalence was higher in recent than in established infections, which may indicate that TDR is increasing over time. The higher prevalence of NNRTI and NRTI mutations as compared to PI mutations is probably due to a broader and longer use of these drugs in Honduras. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence, incidence and determinants of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among HIV-seronegative women at high-risk of HIV infection: a prospective study in Beira, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meque, Ivete; Dubé, Karine; Feldblum, Paul J.; Clements, Archie C. A.; Zango, Arlinda; Cumbe, Fidelina; Chen, Pai Lien; Ferro, Josefo J.; van de Wijgert, Janneke H.

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence, incidence and determinants of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) infection, and associations between HSV-2 and incident HIV infection, among women at higher risk for HIV infection in Beira, Mozambique. Between 2009 and 2012, 411 women aged 18-35 years at higher risk of HIV

  5. Short Communication: Prevalence of HIV Type 1 Transmitted Drug Resistance in Slovenia: 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunar, Maja M.; Židovec Lepej, Snježana; Abecasis, Ana B.; Tomažič, Janez; Vidmar, Ludvik; Karner, Primož; Vovko, Tomaž D.; Pečavar, Blaž; Maver, Polona J.; Seme, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Slovenia is a small European country with a total of 547 HIV-infected individuals cumulatively reported by the end of 2011. However, the estimated incidence rate of HIV infections increased from 7.0 per million in 2003 to 26.8 per million in 2011. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in the past 6 years (2005–2010) and analyzed the time trend of the proportion of men having sex with men (MSM) and HIV-1 subtype B among newly diagnosed individuals in a 15-year period (1996–2010) in Slovenia. Among 150 patients included in the study, representing 63% of HIV-1 newly diagnosed patients in 2005–2010, TDR was found in seven patients (4.7%). The prevalence of TDR to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors was 2% (3/150), 2% (3/150), and 0.7% (1/150), respectively. The majority of patients were infected with subtype B (134/150, 89%), while subtype A was detected in 6.0% (9/150), subtype D in 1.3% (2/150), and subtype G and CRF02_AG in 0.7% (one patient each). Three of 150 sequences could not be typed. Infection with subtype B was found to be significantly associated with male gender, Slovenia being reported as the country of the patient's nationality and origin of the virus, CDC class A, mode of transmission with homosexual/bisexual contact, sex with an anonymous person, and a higher CD4+ count. Among patients carrying the subtype B virus, an MSM transmission route was reported in 87% of patients. Although the prevalence of TDR in Slovenia is still below the European average, active surveillance should be continued, especially among MSM, the most vulnerable population for HIV-1 infection in this part of Europe. PMID:22860694

  6. Short communication: prevalence of HIV type 1 transmitted drug resistance in Slovenia: 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunar, Maja M; Židovec Lepej, Snježana; Abecasis, Ana B; Tomažič, Janez; Vidmar, Ludvik; Karner, Primož; Vovko, Tomaž D; Pečavar, Blaž; Maver, Polona J; Seme, Katja; Poljak, Mario

    2013-02-01

    Slovenia is a small European country with a total of 547 HIV-infected individuals cumulatively reported by the end of 2011. However, the estimated incidence rate of HIV infections increased from 7.0 per million in 2003 to 26.8 per million in 2011. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in the past 6 years (2005-2010) and analyzed the time trend of the proportion of men having sex with men (MSM) and HIV-1 subtype B among newly diagnosed individuals in a 15-year period (1996-2010) in Slovenia. Among 150 patients included in the study, representing 63% of HIV-1 newly diagnosed patients in 2005-2010, TDR was found in seven patients (4.7%). The prevalence of TDR to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors was 2% (3/150), 2% (3/150), and 0.7% (1/150), respectively. The majority of patients were infected with subtype B (134/150, 89%), while subtype A was detected in 6.0% (9/150), subtype D in 1.3% (2/150), and subtype G and CRF02_AG in 0.7% (one patient each). Three of 150 sequences could not be typed. Infection with subtype B was found to be significantly associated with male gender, Slovenia being reported as the country of the patient's nationality and origin of the virus, CDC class A, mode of transmission with homosexual/bisexual contact, sex with an anonymous person, and a higher CD4(+) count. Among patients carrying the subtype B virus, an MSM transmission route was reported in 87% of patients. Although the prevalence of TDR in Slovenia is still below the European average, active surveillance should be continued, especially among MSM, the most vulnerable population for HIV-1 infection in this part of Europe.

  7. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type distribution in 3603 HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in the general population of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dartell, Myassa Arkam; Rasch, Vibeke; Kahesa, Crispin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Tanzania (PROTECT) study is to assess the prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and to determine the type distribution among women in the general population according to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, in preparation for a po......The aim of the Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Tanzania (PROTECT) study is to assess the prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and to determine the type distribution among women in the general population according to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, in preparation...

  8. Vegetation geographical patterns as a key to the past, with emphasis on the dry vegetation types of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. A. Werger

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is characterized by a highly diversified vegetational cover with extremes as contrasting as desert, tropical forest, alpine grassland, or mediterranean type scrub, and many other types in between. This vegetational pattern is strongly correlated to the climatological pattern. It is therefore likely that past changes in climate can still be partly traced in the vegetational pattern, particularly in geographical anomalies, and that study of these patterns provides complementary evidence to palynological research. The following anomalies in the vegetational pattern are briefly discussed: 1. island-wise occurrence of Afro-montane vegetation on mesic, sheltered sites in the southern Sudano- Zambezian Region, in particular in the Highveld grassland/False Karoo transition area; 2. similar westward occurrence of Sudano-Zambezian scrub patches in the Karoo-Namib Region near the Orange/Vaal confluence; 3. scattered occurrence of Sudano-Zambezian woody species in a matrix of Karoo-Namib vegetation in the marginal Karoo-Namib Region; 4. island-wise occurrence of frost-tolerant, dry, karroid dwarf shrub vegetation of predominantly C,-plants on isolated peaks in the winter rainfall area of Namaqualand; 5. peculiar patchy distribution of some succulents in wide areas of climatically rather homogeneous, succulent dwarf shrub vegetation of predominantly CAM-plants in the escarpment area of Namaqualand. a pattern reminiscent of that in many Cape fynbos species. Interpretation of these patterns logically leads to the conclusion that these result from a previously wetter, a previously cooler, or a previously wetter and cooler climate, respectively, over the parts of southern Africa under discussion. This conclusion is compared with published palynological views.

  9. A multi-level modeling approach examining PTSD symptom reduction during prolonged exposure therapy: moderating effects of number of trauma types experienced, having an HIV-related index trauma, and years since HIV diagnosis among HIV-positive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junglen, Angela G; Smith, Brian C; Coleman, Jennifer A; Pacella, Maria L; Boarts, Jessica M; Jones, Tracy; Feeny, Norah C; Ciesla, Jeffrey A; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2017-11-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) have extensive interpersonal trauma histories and higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than the general population. Prolonged exposure (PE) therapy is efficacious in reducing PTSD across a variety of trauma samples; however, research has not examined factors that influence how PTSD symptoms change during PE for PLWH. Using multi-level modeling, we examined the potential moderating effect of number of previous trauma types experienced, whether the index trauma was HIV-related or not, and years since HIV diagnosis on PTSD symptom reduction during a 10-session PE protocol in a sample of 51 PLWH. In general, PTSD symptoms decreased linearly throughout the PE sessions. Experiencing more previous types of traumatic events was associated with a slower rate of PTSD symptom change. In addition, LOCF analyses found that participants with a non-HIV-related versus HIV-related index trauma had a slower rate of change for PTSD symptoms over the course of PE. However, analyses of raw data decreased this finding to marginal. Years since HIV diagnosis did not impact PTSD symptom change. These results provide a better understanding of how to tailor PE to individual clients and aid clinicians in approximating the rate of symptom alleviation. Specifically, these findings underscore the importance of accounting for trauma history and index trauma type when implementing a treatment plan for PTSD in PLWH.

  10. HPV type infection in different anogenital sites among HIV-positive Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donadi Eduardo Antonio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV types, and risk factors for HPV positivity across cervix, vagina and anus, we conducted a study among 138 women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Goal Compare the prevalence of different HPV types and the risk factors for HPV positivity in three sites. Results The most frequently detected HPV types in all sites were, in decreasing order, HPV16, 53, 18, 61 and 81. Agreement between the cervix and vagina was good (kappa 0.60 – 0.80 for HPV16 and 53 and excellent (Kappa > 0.80 for HPV18 and 61. HPV positivity was inversely associated with age for all combinations including the anal site. Conclusion In HIV positive women, HPV18 is the most spread HPV type found in combinations of anal and genital sites. The relationship of anal to genital infection has implications for the development of anal malignancies. Thus, the efficacy of the current HPV vaccine may be considered not only for the cervix, but also for prevention of HPV18 anal infection among immunossuppressed individuals.

  11. Frequency of HIV type 2 infections among blood donor population from India: A 10-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannangai R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In India, HIV-2 epidemic is alongside with HIV-1. Blood banks are introducing nucleic acid testing (NAT for screening. The limitation of NAT systems is the inability to detect HIV-2. Materials and Method : An analysis of HIV screening of a blood bank at a tertiary care center from 1998 to 2007 was carried out. Results : A total of 175026 donors were screened by serological assays and 789 were reactive for HIV antibody. Only 478 (61% were confirmed positive by Western blot/immunoblot. There were 465 (97.2% donations positive for HIV-1, 6 (1.3% for HIV-2 (monotypic infection and 7 (1.5% for HIV-1 and HIV-2 (dual infection. Conclusion : We show the presence of HIV-2 infection among the blood donors and the need for incorporating HIV-2 detection also in the NAT systems.

  12. Types and predictors of partner reactions to HIV status disclosure among HIV-infected adult Nigerians in a tertiary hospital in the Niger Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogoina, Dimie; Ikuabe, Peter; Ebuenyi, Ikenna; Harry, Tubonye; Inatimi, Otonyo; Chukwueke, Ogechi

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the types and determinants of partner reactions to HIV-status disclosure among adults attending an antiretroviral therapy-(ART) clinic in the Bayelsa State, Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken between January and March 2013 among

  13. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  14. Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Shedding Among Adults With and Without HIV Infection in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Warren; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Kambugu, Fred; Orem, Jackson; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Despite the high prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in sub-Saharan Africa, the natural history of infection among Africans is not well characterized. We evaluated the frequency of genital HSV shedding in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men and women in Uganda. Ninety-three HSV-2-seropositive Ugandan adults collected anogenital swab specimens for HSV DNA quantification by polymerase chain reaction 3 times daily for 6 weeks. HSV-2 was detected from 2484 of 11 283 swab specimens collected (22%), with a median quantity of 4.3 log10 HSV copies/mL (range, 2.2-8.9 log10 HSV copies/mL). Genital lesions were reported on 749 of 3875 days (19%), and subclinical HSV shedding was detected from 1480 of 9113 swab specimens (16%) collected on days without lesions. Men had higher rates of total HSV shedding (relative risk [RR], 2.0 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.3-2.9]; P genital lesions (RR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.2-3.4]; P = .005), compared with women. No differences in shedding rates or lesion frequency were observed based on HIV serostatus. HSV-2 shedding frequency and quantity are high among HSV-2-seropositive adults in sub-Saharan Africa, including persons with and those without HIV infection. Shedding rates were particularly high among men, which may contribute to the high prevalence of HSV-2 and early acquisition among African women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess outcome disparities in patients with type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Estella M; Balsbaugh, Thomas; Nuovo, Jim; Tandon, Sanjeev

    2010-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) tools can help expand our understanding of disparities in health outcomes within a community. The purpose of this project was (1) to demonstrate the methods to link a disease management registry with a GIS mapping and analysis program, (2) to address the challenges that occur when performing this link, and (3) to analyze the outcome disparities resulting from this assessment tool in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We used registry data derived from the University of California Davis Health System's electronic medical record system to identify patients with diabetes mellitus from a network of 13 primary care clinics in the greater Sacramento area. This information was converted to a database file for use in the GIS software. Geocoding was performed and after excluding those who had unknown home addresses we matched 8528 unique patient records with their respective home addresses. Socioeconomic and demographic data were obtained from the Geolytics, Inc. (East Brunswick, NJ), a provider of US Census Bureau data, with 2008 estimates and projections. Patient, socioeconomic, and demographic data were then joined to a single database. We conducted regression analysis assessing A1c level based on each patient's demographic and laboratory characteristics and their neighborhood characteristics (socioeconomic status [SES] quintile). Similar analysis was done for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. After excluding ineligible patients, the data from 7288 patients were analyzed. The most notable findings were as follows: There was, there was found an association between neighborhood SES and A1c. SES was not associated with low-density lipoprotein control. GIS methodology can assist primary care physicians and provide guidance for disease management programs. It can also help health systems in their mission to improve the health of a community. Our analysis found that neighborhood SES was a barrier to optimal glucose

  16. HIV type 1 chemokine receptor usage in mother-to-child transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatori, F; Scarlatti, G

    2001-07-01

    To investigate the role of the HIV-1 phenotype in mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission, we evaluated coreceptor usage and replication kinetics in chemokine receptor-expressing U87MG.CD4 cells of primary isolates from 32 HIV-1-infected mothers of Italian origin, none under preventive antiretroviral therapy, and from their infected infants. Five of 15 mothers of infected children and 2 of 17 mothers of uninfected children harbored viruses able to use CXCR4 as coreceptor. However, all isolates used CCR5, alone or in association with CXCR4. The replicative capacity in coreceptor-expressing cells of the viral isolates did not differ between the two groups of mothers. All mothers with an R5 virus transmitted a virus with the same coreceptor usage, whereas those four with a multitropic virus transmitted such a virus in one case. Although the presence of a mixed viral population was documented in the mothers, we did not observe transmission solely of X4 viruses. Interestingly, the only child infected with a multitropic virus carried a defective CCR5 allele. Analysis of the env V3 region of the provirus from this child revealed infection with multiple viral variants with a predominance of R5-type over X4-type sequences. These findings show that CCR5 usage of a viral isolate is not a discriminating risk factor for vertical transmission. Furthermore, X4 viruses can be transmitted to the newborn, although less frequently. In particular, we document the transmission of multiple viral variants with different coreceptor usage in a Delta32 CCR5 heterozygous child, and demonstrate that the heterozygous genotype per se does not contribute to the restriction of R5-type virus spread.

  17. The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium brain gene array: two types of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B Gelman

    Full Text Available The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC performed a brain gene expression array to elucidate pathophysiologies of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders.Twenty-four human subjects in four groups were examined A Uninfected controls; B HIV-1 infected subjects with no substantial neurocognitive impairment (NCI; C Infected with substantial NCI without HIV encephalitis (HIVE; D Infected with substantial NCI and HIVE. RNA from neocortex, white matter, and neostriatum was processed with the Affymetrix® array platform.With HIVE the HIV-1 RNA load in brain tissue was three log(10 units higher than other groups and over 1,900 gene probes were regulated. Interferon response genes (IFRGs, antigen presentation, complement components and CD163 antigen were strongly upregulated. In frontal neocortex downregulated neuronal pathways strongly dominated in HIVE, including GABA receptors, glutamate signaling, synaptic potentiation, axon guidance, clathrin-mediated endocytosis and 14-3-3 protein. Expression was completely different in neuropsychologically impaired subjects without HIVE. They had low brain HIV-1 loads, weak brain immune responses, lacked neuronally expressed changes in neocortex and exhibited upregulation of endothelial cell type transcripts. HIV-1-infected subjects with normal neuropsychological test results had upregulation of neuronal transcripts involved in synaptic transmission of neostriatal circuits.Two patterns of brain gene expression suggest that more than one pathophysiological process occurs in HIV-1-associated neurocognitive impairment. Expression in HIVE suggests that lowering brain HIV-1 replication might improve NCI, whereas NCI without HIVE may not respond in kind; array results suggest that modulation of transvascular signaling is a potentially promising approach. Striking brain regional differences highlighted the likely importance of circuit level disturbances in HIV/AIDS. In

  18. Health Insurance Type and Control of Hypertension Among US Women Living With and Without HIV Infection in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludema, Christina; Cole, Stephen R; Eron, Joseph J; Holmes, G Mark; Anastos, Kathryn; Cocohoba, Jennifer; Cohen, Marge H; Cooper, Hannah L F; Golub, Elizabeth T; Kassaye, Seble; Konkle-Parker, Deborah; Metsch, Lisa; Milam, Joel; Wilson, Tracey E; Adimora, Adaora A

    2017-06-01

    Health care access is an important determinant of health. We assessed the effect of health insurance status and type on blood pressure control among US women living with (WLWH) and without HIV. We used longitudinal cohort data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). WIHS participants were included at their first study visit since 2001 with incident uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) (i.e., BP ≥140/90 and at which BP at the prior visit was controlled (i.e., insured via Medicaid, were African-American, and had a yearly income ≤$12,000. Among participants living with HIV, comparing the uninsured to those with Medicaid yielded an 18-month BP control risk difference of 0.16 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.23). This translates into a number-needed-to-treat (or insure) of 6; to reduce the caseload of WLWH with uncontrolled BP by one case, five individuals without insurance would need to be insured via Medicaid. Blood pressure control was similar among WLWH with private insurance and Medicaid. There were no differences observed by health insurance status on 18-month risk of BP control among the HIV-uninfected participants. These results underscore the importance of health insurance for hypertension control-especially for people living with HIV. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Molecular tracing of sexual HIV type 1 transmission in the southwest border of China

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, L. L.; Vidal, Nicole; Fang, H.; Deng, W.; Chen, S.; Guo, W. Z.; Qin, C.; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric; Andrieu, J. M.; Lu, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Since the first outbreak of HIV-1 was reported in heroin users in China in 1989, HIV-1 has spread steadily among injection drug users, leading to an exponential growth of nationwide outbreaks from 1998 to 2004. However, the impact of sexual transmission on outbreaks of HIV in China's general population is still unclear. Through a governmental HIV/AIDS surveillance program, an HIV serological study was conducted in volunteers between 1996 and 2005 in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture of ...

  20. Prevalence and Type Distribution of Human Papillomavirus Among 1813 Men in Tanzania and the Relationship to HIV Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Iftner, Thomas; Mwaiselage, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with penile cancer in men, cervical cancer in women, and anal cancer and certain types of head and neck cancers in both sexes. Few studies have assessed the prevalence and type distribution of HPV among men in sub-Saharan Africa......, where the rates of HIV and penile and cervical cancer are high....

  1. Impact of HIV Type 1 DNA Levels on Spontaneous Disease Progression: A Meta-Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsiara, Chrissa G; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K; Bagos, Pantelis G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have reported the prognostic strength of HIV-1 DNA with variable results however. The aims of the current study were to estimate more accurately the ability of HIV-1 DNA to predict progression of HIV-1 disease toward acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or death...... of primary studies indicated that HIV-1 DNA was a significantly better predictor than HIV-1 RNA of either AIDS alone (ratio of RRs=1.47, 95% CI: 1.05-2.07) or of combined (AIDS or death) progression outcomes (ratio of RRs=1.51, 95% CI: 1.11-2.05). HIV-1 DNA is a strong predictor of HIV-1 disease progression...

  2. Investigating signs of recent evolution in the pool of proviral HIV type 1 DNA during years of successful HAART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mens, Helene; Pedersen, Anders G; Jørgensen, Louise B

    2007-01-01

    In order to shed light on the nature of the persistent reservoir of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we investigated signs of recent evolution in the pool of proviral DNA in patients on successful HAART. Pro-viral DNA, corresponding to the C2-V3-C3 region of the HIV-1 env gene...... there were temporal trends indicating ongoing replication and evolution. In summary, it was not possible to detect definitive signs of ongoing evolution in either the bulk-sequenced or the clonal data with the methods employed here, but our results could be consistent with localized expression of archival...

  3. Changes in the topology of gene expression networks by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integration in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Girón, María Juliana; García-Vallejo, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    One key step of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is the integration of its viral cDNA. This process is mediated through complex networks of host-virus interactions that alter several normal cell functions of the host. To study the complexity of disturbances in cell gene expression networks by HIV-1 integration, we constructed a network of human macrophage genes located close to chromatin regions rich in proviruses. To perform the network analysis, we selected 28 genes previously identified as the target of cDNA integration and their transcriptional profiles were obtained from GEO Profiles (NCBI). A total of 2770 interactions among the 28 genes located around the HIV-1 proviruses in human macrophages formed a highly dense main network connected to five sub-networks. The overall network was significantly enriched by genes associated with signal transduction, cellular communication and regulatory processes. To simulate the effects of HIV-1 integration in infected macrophages, five genes with the most number of interaction in the normal network were turned off by putting in zero the correspondent expression values. The HIV-1 infected network showed changes in its topology and alteration in the macrophage functions reflected in a re-programming of biosynthetic and general metabolic process. Understanding the complex virus-host interactions that occur during HIV-1 integration, may provided valuable genomic information to develop new antiviral treatments focusing on the management of some specific gene expression networks associated with viral integration. This is the first gene network which describes the human macrophages genes interactions related with HIV-1 integration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Broad, Intense Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Ex Vivo CD8+ Responses in HIV Type 1-Infected Patients: Comparison with Anti-Epstein-Barr Virus Responses and Changes during Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalod, Marc; Dupuis, Marion; Deschemin, Jean-Christophe; Sicard, Didier; Salmon, Dominique; Delfraissy, Jean-Francois; Venet, Alain; Sinet, Martine; Guillet, Jean-Gerard

    1999-01-01

    The ex vivo antiviral CD8+ repertoires of 34 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive patients with various CD4+ T-cell counts and virus loads were analyzed by gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot assay, using peptides derived from HIV type 1 and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Most patients recognized many HIV peptides, with markedly high frequencies, in association with all the HLA class I molecules tested. We found no correlation between the intensity of anti-HIV CD8+ responses and the CD4+ counts or virus load. In contrast, the polyclonality of anti-HIV CD8+ responses was positively correlated with the CD4+ counts. The anti-EBV responses were significantly less intense than the anti-HIV responses and were positively correlated with the CD4+ counts. Longitudinal follow-up of several patients revealed the remarkable stability of the anti-HIV and anti-EBV CD8+ responses in two patients with stable CD4+ counts, while both antiviral responses decreased in two patients with obvious progression toward disease. Last, highly active antiretroviral therapy induced marked decreases in the number of anti-HIV CD8+ T cells, while the anti-EBV responses increased. These findings emphasize the magnitude of the ex vivo HIV-specific CD8+ responses at all stages of HIV infection and suggest that the CD8+ hyperlymphocytosis commonly observed in HIV infection is driven mainly by virus replication, through intense, continuous activation of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells until ultimate progression toward disease. Nevertheless, highly polyclonal anti-HIV CD8+ responses may be associated with a better clinical status. Our data also suggest that a decrease of anti-EBV CD8+ responses may occur with depletion of CD4+ T cells, but this could be restored by highly active antiretroviral treatment. PMID:10438796

  5. Incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus with HIV infection in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prioreschi, A; Munthali, R J; Soepnel, L; Goldstein, J A; Micklesfield, L K; Aronoff, D M; Norris, S A

    2017-03-29

    This systematic review aims to investigate the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with HIV infection in African populations. Only studies reporting data from Africa were included. A systematic search was conducted using four databases for articles referring to HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy, and T2DM in Africa. Articles were excluded if they reported data on children, animals or type 1 diabetes exclusively. Incidence of T2DM and prevalence of T2DM. Risk ratios were generated for pooled data using random effects models. Bias was assessed using an adapted Cochrane Collaboration bias assessment tool. Of 1056 references that were screened, only 20 were selected for inclusion. Seven reported the incidence of T2DM in patients with HIV infection, eight reported the prevalence of T2DM in HIV-infected versus uninfected individuals and five reported prevalence of T2DM in HIV-treated versus untreated patients. Incidence rates ranged from 4 to 59 per 1000 person years. Meta-analysis showed no significant differences between T2DM prevalence in HIV-infected individuals versus uninfected individuals (risk ratio (RR) =1.61, 95% CI 0.62 to 4.21, p=0.33), or between HIV-treated patients versus untreated patients (RR=1.38, 95% CI 0.66 to 2.87, p=0.39), and heterogeneity was high in both meta-analyses (I 2 =87% and 52%, respectively). Meta-analysis showed no association between T2DM prevalence and HIV infection or antiretroviral therapy; however, these results are limited by the high heterogeneity of the included studies and moderate-to-high risk of bias, as well as, the small number of studies included. There is a need for well-designed prospective longitudinal studies with larger population sizes to better assess incidence and prevalence of T2DM in African patients with HIV. Furthermore, screening for T2DM using gold standard methods in this population is necessary. PROSPERO42016038689. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  6. Types and predictors of partner reactions to HIV status disclosure among HIV-infected adult Nigerians in a tertiary hospital in the Niger Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogoina, Dimie; Ikuabe, Peter; Ebuenyi, Ikenna; Harry, Tubonye; Inatimi, Otonyo; Chukwueke, Ogechi

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to describe the types and determinants of partner reactions to HIV-status disclosure among adults attending an antiretroviral therapy-(ART) clinic in the Bayelsa State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was undertaken between January and March 2013 among consecutive adult patients who had disclosed their HIV-status to their current sexual partner. Sociodemograhic data and types of initial and subsequent partner reactions to disclosure were obtained using interviewer-administered standardized-questionnaire. Independent determinants of reactions to disclosure were ascertained by unconditional logistic regression. Out of 123 study participants, 57.7% were females, 92% were receiving ART and 86.1% were currently married. Majority of the participants reported predominant positive or supportive initial (72.4%) and subsequent (89.5%) partner reactions to disclosure, with significant increase in positive reactions over time. Positive initial partner reactions were independently associated with prior post-test counselling-(Odds ratio [OR]-6.5, 95% Confidence interval [CI]-1.3-31.6-p=0.02), age>35 years-(OR-5.8, 95% CI-1.6-20.9-p=0.008) and being healthy at time of disclosure-(OR-7.8, 95% CI-1.7-35.4-p=0.008). Subsequent positive partner reactions were significantly associated with receiving antiretroviral therapy and having only one lifetime sexual partner. Our results indicate that partner reactions to HIV-status disclosure are predominantly supportive. Disclosure counselling and early initiation of ART may be effective in improving HIV-status disclosure in Nigeria.

  7. Molecular Phylogenetics of Transmitted Drug Resistance in Newly Diagnosed HIV Type 1 Individuals in Denmark, a Nation-Wide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audelin, Anne Margrethe; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Highly active antiretroviral treatment is compromised by viral resistance mutations. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is therefore monitored closely, but follow-up studies of these patients are limited. Virus from 1405 individuals diagnosed with HIV-1 in Denmark between 2001 and 2009...... without resistance mutations. We observed no difference in progression of the infection between individuals infected with TDR and individuals infected with wild-type HIV-1. The prevalence of TDR is low in Denmark and transmission of dual-drug-resistant HIV-1 is infrequent. The TDR isolates were shown...... resulting in a prevalence of 6.1%, with no changes over time. The main resistance mutations were nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation 215 revertants, as well as nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutation 103N/S and protease inhibitor (PI) mutations 90M and 85V...

  8. Molecular phylogenetics of transmitted drug resistance in newly diagnosed HIV Type 1 individuals in Denmark: a nation-wide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audelin, Anne Margrethe; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Highly active antiretroviral treatment is compromised by viral resistance mutations. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is therefore monitored closely, but follow-up studies of these patients are limited. Virus from 1405 individuals diagnosed with HIV-1 in Denmark between 2001 and 2009...... without resistance mutations. We observed no difference in progression of the infection between individuals infected with TDR and individuals infected with wild-type HIV-1. The prevalence of TDR is low in Denmark and transmission of dual-drug-resistant HIV-1 is infrequent. The TDR isolates were shown...... resulting in a prevalence of 6.1%, with no changes over time. The main resistance mutations were nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation 215 revertants, as well as nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutation 103N/S and protease inhibitor (PI) mutations 90M and 85V...

  9. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence, trends, and geographical distribution of HIV among Chinese female sex workers (2000–2011: implications for preventing sexually transmitted HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: The HIV epidemic has shown a gradual declining or stabilizing trend among Chinese FSWs. Intervention efforts should be diverted to high-risk subgroups of FSWs, such as drug-using and low-tier FSWs.

  10. Geographic and temporal trends in the molecular epidemiology and genetic mechanisms of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance: an individual-patient- and sequence-level meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhee, Soo-Yon; Blanco, Jose Luis; Jordan, Michael R.; Taylor, Jonathan; Lemey, Philippe; Varghese, Vici; Hamers, Raph L.; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Aghokeng, Avelin F.; Albert, Jan; Avi, Radko; Avila-Rios, Santiago; Bessong, Pascal O.; Brooks, James I.; Boucher, Charles A. B.; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Busch, Michael P.; Bussmann, Hermann; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Chin, Bum Sik; D'Aquin, Toni T.; de Gascun, Cillian F.; Derache, Anne; Descamps, Diane; Deshpande, Alaka K.; Djoko, Cyrille F.; Eshleman, Susan H.; Fleury, Herve; Frange, Pierre; Fujisaki, Seiichiro; Harrigan, P. Richard; Hattori, Junko; Holguin, Africa; Hunt, Gillian M.; Ichimura, Hiroshi; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Katzenstein, David; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Kim, Jerome H.; Kim, Sung Soon; Li, Yanpeng; Lutsar, Irja; Morris, Lynn; Ndembi, Nicaise; Ng, Kee Peng; Paranjape, Ramesh S.; Peeters, Martine; Poljak, Mario; Price, Matt A.; Ragonnet-Cronin, Manon L.; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Rolland, Morgane; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Smith, Davey M.; Soares, Marcelo A.; Soriano, Vincent V.; Ssemwanga, Deogratius; Stanojevic, Maja; Stefani, Mariane A.; Sugiura, Wataru; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Tanuri, Amilcar; tee, Kok Keng; Truong, Hong-Ha M.; van de Vijver, David A. M. C.; Vidal, Nicole; Yang, Chunfu; Yang, Rongge; Yebra, Gonzalo; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Shafer, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Regional and subtype-specific mutational patterns of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) are essential for informing first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy guidelines and designing diagnostic assays for use in regions where standard genotypic resistance testing is not affordable. We sought to

  11. Geographic and Temporal Trends in the Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Mechanisms of Transmitted HIV-1 Drug Resistance: An Individual-Patient- and Sequence-Level Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.Y. Rhee (Soo Yoon); J.L. Blanco (Jose Luis); M.R. Jordan (Michael); J. Taylor (Jonathan); P. Lemey (Philippe); V. Varghese (Vici); R.L. Hamers (Raph); S. Bertagnolio (Silvia); M. De Wit (Meike); A.F. Aghokeng (Avelin); J. Albert (Jan); R. Avi (Radko); S. Avila-Rios (Santiago); P.O. Bessong (Pascal O.); J.I. Brooks (James I.); C.A.B. Boucher (Charles); Z.L. Brumme (Zabrina L.); M.P. Busch (Michael P.); H. Bussmann (Hermann); M.L. Chaix (Marie Laure); B.S. Chin (Bum Sik); T.T. D’Aquin (Toni T.); C. de Gascun (Cillian); A. Derache (Anne); D. Descamps (Diane); A.K. Deshpande (Alaka K.); C.F. Djoko (Cyrille F.); S.H. Eshleman (Susan H.); H. Fleury (Hervé); P. Frange (Pierre); S. Fujisaki (Seiichiro); P. Harrigan (Pr); J. Hattori (Junko); A. Holguin (Africa); G.M. Hunt (Gillian M.); H. Ichimura (Hiroshi); P. Kaleebu (Pontiano); D. Katzenstein (David); S. Kiertiburanakul (Sasisopin); J.H. Kim (Jerome H.); S.S. Kim (Sung Soon); Y. Li (Yanpeng); I. Lutsar (Irja); L. Morris (L.); N. Ndembi (Nicaise); K.P. NG (Kee Peng); R.S. Paranjape (Ramesh S.); M.C. Peeters (Marian); M. Poljak (Mario); M.A. Price (Matt A.); M.L. Ragonnet-Cronin (Manon L.); G. Reyes-Terán (Gustavo); M. Rolland (Morgane); S. Sirivichayakul (Sunee); D.M. Smith (Davey M.); M.A. Soares (Marcelo A.); V. Soriano (Virtudes); D. Ssemwanga (Deogratius); M. Stanojevic (Maja); M.A. Stefani (Mariane A.); W. Sugiura (Wataru); S. Sungkanuparph (Somnuek); A. Tanuri (Amilcar); K.K. Tee (Kok Keng); H.-H.M. Truong (Hong-Ha M.); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David); N. Vidal (Nicole); C. Yang (Chunfu); R. Yang (Rongge); G. Yebra (Gonzalo); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John); A.M. Vandamme (Anne Mieke); R.W. Shafer (Robert)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractRegional and subtype-specific mutational patterns of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) are essential for informing first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy guidelines and designing diagnostic assays for use in regions where standard genotypic resistance testing is not affordable. We

  12. Amphetamine-type stimulants and HIV infection among men who have sex with men: implications on HIV research and prevention from a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu Vu, Nga Thi; Maher, Lisa; Zablotska, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV infections and the use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been increasing internationally, but the role of ATS use as a co-factor for HIV infection remains unclear. We aimed to summarize the association between ATS use and HIV infection among MSM. Methods We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, GLOBAL HEALTH and PsycINFO for relevant English, peer-reviewed articles of quantitative studies published between 1980 and 25 April 2013. Pooled estimates of the association – prevalence rate ratios (PRR, cross-sectional studies), odds ratio (OR, case-control studies) and hazard ratio (HR, longitudinal studies), with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) – were calculated using random-effects models stratified by study design and ATS group (meth/amphetamines vs. ecstasy). We assessed the existence of publication bias in funnel plots and checked for sources of heterogeneity using meta-regression and subgroup analysis. Results We identified 6710 article titles, screened 1716 abstracts and reviewed 267 full text articles. A total of 35 publications were eligible for data abstraction and meta-analysis, resulting in 56 records of ATS use. Most studies (31/35) were conducted in high-income countries. Published studies used different research designs, samples and measures of ATS use. The pooled association between meth/amphetamine use and HIV infection was statistically significant in all three designs (PRR=1.86; 95% CI: 1.57–2.17; OR=2.73; 95% CI: 2.16–3.46 and HR=3.43; 95% CI: 2.98–3.95, respectively, for cross-sectional, case-control and longitudinal studies). Ecstasy use was not associated with HIV infection in cross-sectional studies (PRR=1.15; 95% CI: 0.88–1.49; OR=3.04; 95% CI: 1.29–7.18 and HR=2.48; 95% CI: 1.42–4.35, respectively, for cross-sectional, case-control and longitudinal studies). Results in cross-sectional studies were highly heterogeneous due to issues with ATS measurement and

  13. Introduction of an single nucleodite polymorphism-based "Major Y-chromosome haplogroup typing kit" suitable for predicting the geographical origin of male lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brión, María; Sanchez, Juan J; Balogh, Kinga

    2005-01-01

    . From more than 200 SNPs compiled in the phylogenetic tree published by the Y-Chromosome Consortium, and looking at the population studies previously published, a package of 29 SNPs has been selected for the identification of major population haplogroups. A "Major Y-chromosome haplogroup typing kit" has......The European Consortium "High-throughput analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms for the forensic identification of persons--SNPforID", has performed a selection of candidate Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for making inferences on the geographic origin of an unknown sample...

  14. Prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma exposure among adolescent men and women in Soweto, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalysha Closson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth trauma exposure is associated with syndemic HIV risk. We measured lifetime prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma experience by gender among adolescents living in the HIV hyper-endemic setting of Soweto, South Africa. Methods Using data from the Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Survey (BBAHS, prevalence of “ever” experiencing a traumatic event among adolescents (aged 14–19 was assessed using a modified Traumatic Event Screening Inventory-Child (TESI-C scale (19 items, study alpha = 0.63. We assessed self-reported number of potentially traumatic events (PTEs experienced overall and by gender. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent correlates of ‘high PTE score’ (≥7 PTEs. Results Overall, 767/830 (92% participants were included (58% adolescent women. Nearly all (99.7% reported experiencing at least one PTE. Median PTE was 7 [Q1,Q3: 5-9], with no gender differences (p = 0.19. Adolescent men reported more violent PTEs (e.g., “seen an act of violence in the community” whereas women reported more non-violent HIV/AIDS-related PTEs (e.g., “family member or someone close died of HIV/AIDS”. High PTE score was independently associated with high food insecurity among adolescent men and women (aOR = 2.63, 95%CI = 1.36-5.09; aOR = 2.57, 95%CI = 1.55-4.26, respectively. For men, high PTE score was also associated with older age (aOR = 1.40/year, 95%CI = 1.21-1.63; and recently moving to Soweto (aOR = 2.78, 95%CI = 1.14-6.76. Among women, high PTE score was associated with depression using the CES-D scale (aOR = 2.00, 95%CI = 1.31-3.03, and inconsistent condom use vs. no sexual experience (aOR = 2.69, 95%CI = 1.66-4.37. Conclusion Nearly all adolescents in this study experienced trauma, with gendered differences in PTE types and correlates, but not prevalence. Exposure to PTEs were distributed along social and gendered axes. Among adolescent women, associations with

  15. Prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma exposure among adolescent men and women in Soweto, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Kalysha; Dietrich, Janan Janine; Nkala, Busi; Musuku, Addy; Cui, Zishan; Chia, Jason; Gray, Glenda; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Hogg, Robert S; Miller, Cari L; Kaida, Angela

    2016-11-25

    Youth trauma exposure is associated with syndemic HIV risk. We measured lifetime prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma experience by gender among adolescents living in the HIV hyper-endemic setting of Soweto, South Africa. Using data from the Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Survey (BBAHS), prevalence of "ever" experiencing a traumatic event among adolescents (aged 14-19) was assessed using a modified Traumatic Event Screening Inventory-Child (TESI-C) scale (19 items, study alpha = 0.63). We assessed self-reported number of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) experienced overall and by gender. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent correlates of 'high PTE score' (≥7 PTEs). Overall, 767/830 (92%) participants were included (58% adolescent women). Nearly all (99.7%) reported experiencing at least one PTE. Median PTE was 7 [Q1,Q3: 5-9], with no gender differences (p = 0.19). Adolescent men reported more violent PTEs (e.g., "seen an act of violence in the community") whereas women reported more non-violent HIV/AIDS-related PTEs (e.g., "family member or someone close died of HIV/AIDS"). High PTE score was independently associated with high food insecurity among adolescent men and women (aOR = 2.63, 95%CI = 1.36-5.09; aOR = 2.57, 95%CI = 1.55-4.26, respectively). For men, high PTE score was also associated with older age (aOR = 1.40/year, 95%CI = 1.21-1.63); and recently moving to Soweto (aOR = 2.78, 95%CI = 1.14-6.76). Among women, high PTE score was associated with depression using the CES-D scale (aOR = 2.00, 95%CI = 1.31-3.03,) and inconsistent condom use vs. no sexual experience (aOR = 2.69, 95%CI = 1.66-4.37). Nearly all adolescents in this study experienced trauma, with gendered differences in PTE types and correlates, but not prevalence. Exposure to PTEs were distributed along social and gendered axes. Among adolescent women, associations with depression and inconsistent condom use suggest pathways for HIV risk. HIV

  16. Longing for belonging: Adolescents' experiences of living with HIV in different types of families in Swaziland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shabalala, F.S.

    2017-01-01

    This study illuminates adolescents’ everyday life experiences of living with HIV in different family contexts in the Manzini region in Swaziland, and the tactics they used to navigate the social and health system environments in their management of the HIV illness and disease. A significant

  17. Vibrational Markovian modelling of footprints after the interaction of antibiotics with the packaging region of HIV type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Humberto González; de Armas, Ronal Ramos; Molina, Reinaldo

    2003-11-01

    The design of novel anti-HIV compounds has now become a crucial area for scientists working in numerous interrelated fields of science such as molecular biology, medicinal chemistry, mathematical biology, molecular modelling and bioinformatics. In this context, the development of simple but physically meaningful mathematical models to represent the interaction between anti-HIV drugs and their biological targets is of major interest. One such area currently under investigation involves the targets in the HIV-RNA-packaging region. In the work described here, we applied Markov chain theory in an attempt to describe the interaction between the antibiotic paromomycin and the packaging region of the RNA in Type-1 HIV. In this model, a nucleic acid squeezed graph is used. The vertices of the graph represent the nucleotides while the edges are the phosphodiester bonds. A stochastic (Markovian) matrix was subsequently defined on this graph, an operation that codifies the probabilities of interaction between specific nucleotides of HIV-RNA and the antibiotic. The strength of these local interactions can be calculated through an inelastic vibrational model. The successive power of this matrix codifies the probabilities with which the vibrations after drug-RNA interactions vanish along the polynucleotide main chain. The sums of self-return probabilities in the k-vicinity of each nucleotide represent physically meaningful descriptors. A linear discriminant function was developed and gave rise to excellent discrimination in 80.8% of interacting and footprinted nucleotides. The Jackknife method was employed to assess the stability and predictability of the model. On the other hand, a linear regression model predicted the local binding affinity constants between a specific nucleotide and the antibiotic (R(2)=0.91, Q(2)=0.86). These kinds of models could play an important role either in the discovery of new anti-HIV compounds or the study of their mode of action.

  18. Compartmentalized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 originates from long-lived cells in some subjects with HIV-1-associated dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Gretja; Spudich, Serena; Harrington, Patrick; Price, Richard W; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2009-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) invades the central nervous system (CNS) shortly after systemic infection and can result in the subsequent development of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) in a subset of infected individuals. Genetically compartmentalized virus in the CNS is associated with HAD, suggesting autonomous viral replication as a factor in the disease process. We examined the source of compartmentalized HIV-1 in the CNS of subjects with HIV-1-associated neurological disease and in asymptomatic subjects who were initiating antiretroviral therapy. The heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA), targeting the variable regions of env, was used to determine which HIV-1 genetic variants in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were compartmentalized and which variants were shared with the blood plasma. We then measured the viral decay kinetics of individual variants after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Compartmentalized HIV-1 variants in the CSF of asymptomatic subjects decayed rapidly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, with a mean half-life of 1.57 days. Rapid viral decay was also measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in four HAD subjects (t(1/2) mean = 2.27 days). However, slow viral decay was measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants from an additional four subjects with neurological disease (t(1/2) range = 9.85 days to no initial decay). The slow decay detected for CSF-compartmentalized variants was not associated with poor CNS drug penetration, drug resistant virus in the CSF, or the presence of X4 virus genotypes. We found that the slow decay measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in subjects with neurological disease was correlated with low peripheral CD4 cell count and reduced CSF pleocytosis. We propose a model in which infiltrating macrophages replace CD4(+) T cells as the primary source of productive viral replication in the CNS to maintain high viral loads in the CSF in a substantial subset of subjects with HAD.

  19. Compartmentalized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 originates from long-lived cells in some subjects with HIV-1-associated dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretja Schnell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 invades the central nervous system (CNS shortly after systemic infection and can result in the subsequent development of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD in a subset of infected individuals. Genetically compartmentalized virus in the CNS is associated with HAD, suggesting autonomous viral replication as a factor in the disease process. We examined the source of compartmentalized HIV-1 in the CNS of subjects with HIV-1-associated neurological disease and in asymptomatic subjects who were initiating antiretroviral therapy. The heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA, targeting the variable regions of env, was used to determine which HIV-1 genetic variants in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF were compartmentalized and which variants were shared with the blood plasma. We then measured the viral decay kinetics of individual variants after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Compartmentalized HIV-1 variants in the CSF of asymptomatic subjects decayed rapidly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, with a mean half-life of 1.57 days. Rapid viral decay was also measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in four HAD subjects (t(1/2 mean = 2.27 days. However, slow viral decay was measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants from an additional four subjects with neurological disease (t(1/2 range = 9.85 days to no initial decay. The slow decay detected for CSF-compartmentalized variants was not associated with poor CNS drug penetration, drug resistant virus in the CSF, or the presence of X4 virus genotypes. We found that the slow decay measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in subjects with neurological disease was correlated with low peripheral CD4 cell count and reduced CSF pleocytosis. We propose a model in which infiltrating macrophages replace CD4(+ T cells as the primary source of productive viral replication in the CNS to maintain high viral loads in the CSF in a substantial subset of subjects with HAD.

  20. No difference in in vitro susceptibility to HIV type 1 between high-risk HIV-negative Ethiopian commercial sex workers and low-risk control subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messele, T.; Rinke de Wit, T. F.; Brouwer, M.; Aklilu, M.; Birru, T.; Fontanet, A. L.; Schuitemaker, H.; Hamann, D.

    2001-01-01

    Host factors such as increased beta-chemokine production, HIV-1 coreceptor expression level, and HIV-1 coreceptor polymorphism have been thought to influence susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. To determine the protective role of these factors in Ethiopians who remained HIV-1 uninfected, despite

  1. HIV risks vary according to type of sex work in a cross-sectional survey from Nagaland, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Anna B Z; Armstrong, Gregory; Medhi, Gajendra K; Sono, Collins Z; Mahanta, Jagadish; Kermode, Michelle

    2014-11-12

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a significant problem among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nagaland, India. Place of solicitation and sex vary considerably in this context. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between categories of sex work and HIV risks. In 2009 a survey was undertaken among 417 FSWs in Dimapur, Nagaland using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and blood and urine samples. Using this data, we constructed a typology of sex work by combining usual place of solicitation and place of sex, and examined variations in demographics, sex work patterns, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV prevalence across typology categories. Binary logistic regression analyses were done to examine the association between category of sex work and HIV, STIs, and condom use. By combining place of solicitation with place of sex, seven distinct categories of sex work emerged. The largest category were women who usually solicited in a public place and had sex in a rented room or lodge (31.7%, n = 132). One-tenth of participants were HIV positive (10.3%) and 35.4% had at least one STI (reactive syphilis serology, gonorrhoea or chlamydia). FSWs who both solicited and entertained in a rented room or lodge (OR = 13.3; 95% CI 2.2, 81.5) and those who solicited by phone and had sex in a rented room or lodge (OR = 6.3; 95% CI 1.0, 38.0) were more likely to be HIV positive compared to home-based FSWs. Women who both solicited and entertained in public (OR = 6.7; 95% CI 1.6, 28.0) and who solicited in public and entertained in a rented room or lodge (OR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.1, 6.0) were more likely to test positive for an STI compared to home-based FSWs. The results indicate that different categories of sex work are associated with different HIV and STI risk profiles. Local contextual understanding of the different types of sex work and the associated levels of risk assist NGOs to target their interventions more

  2. Regulated production and anti-HIV type 1 activities of cytidine deaminases APOBEC3B, 3F, and 3G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kristine M; Marin, Mariana; Kozak, Susan L; Kabat, David

    2005-07-01

    APOBEC3G and 3F (A3G and A3F) cytidine deaminases incorporate into retroviral cores where they lethally hypermutate nascent DNA reverse transcripts. As substantiated here, the viral infectivity factor (Vif) encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) binds A3G and A3F and induces their degradation, thereby precluding their incorporation into viral progeny. Previous evidence suggested that A3G is expressed in H9 and other nonpermissive cells that contain this antiviral defense but not in several permissive cells, and that overexpression of A3G or A3F makes permissive cells nonpermissive. Using a broader panel of cell lines, we confirmed a correlation between A3G and cellular abilities to inactivate HIV-1(Deltavif). However, there was a quantitative discrepancy because several cells with weak antiviral activities had similar amounts of wild-type A3G mRNA and protein compared to H9 cells. Antiviral activity of H9 cells was also attenuated in some conditions. These quantitative discrepancies could not be explained by the presence of A3F or other A3G paralogs in some of the cell lines. Thus, A3A, A3B, and A3C had weak but significant anti-HIV-1 activities and did not dominantly interfere with A3G or A3F antiviral functions. Control of A3G synthesis by the protein kinase C/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway was also similar in permissive and nonpermissive cells. A3G in highly permissive cells is degraded by Vif, suggesting that it is not in a sequestered site, and is specifically incorporated in low amounts into HIV-1(Deltavif). Although A3G and/or A3F inactivate HIV-1(Deltavif) and are neutralized by Vif, the antiviral properties of cell lines are also influenced by other cellular and viral factors.

  3. Determining of the morpholithology types in the Kamchia River basin (Eastern Bulgaria by means of geographic information system (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolova Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the morpholithology types in the Kamchia River basin (Eastern Bulgaria - the catchment area of the largest Bulgarian river which flows into the Black Sea. These types are determined on the base of information about the relief and lithological substrate. The rocks in the investigated area are divided into groups accord­ing to their physical-mechanical and chemical composition, and the relief types are determined in regards to the morphographic features of the catchment area. The research is done on the base of geological and topographic maps in scale 1:200 000 and also terrain observations are taken into account. As a result of the research a map of morpholithological types (1:200 000 is made. The map shows a considerable variety of the morpholithological types in the Kamchia River basin. This variety determines the appearance of the territory and also influences on the landscape differentiation. The analyses and composition of the morpholithology map are done in GIS envi­ronment. For that purpose a GIS database of lithology and relief (topography of the Kamchia River basin is built as spatial 'overlay' analysis is done.

  4. Long-term results after cardiac surgery in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestres, Carlos A; Chuquiure, Javier E; Claramonte, Xavier; Muñoz, Josefa; Benito, Natividad; Castro, Miguel A; Pomar, José L; Miró, José M

    2003-06-01

    Assessment of long-term results of immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-infected patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Retrospective analysis of profile and outcomes of 31 HIV-1-infected patients (35 operations, 1985-2002). Twenty-seven males and four females (mean age 34.67) in three groups: acute infective endocarditis (AIE) 21 (67.74%), coronary (CAD) 5 (16.13%) and non-infective valvular disease (NIVD) 5 (16.13%). HIV factors: drug addiction (23-74.19%), homosexuality (5-16.12%), heterosexuality (3-9.67%), hemodialysis (1-3.22%). HIV stage: A (17), B (2), C (2) in AIE; A (2), B (3) in CAD and A (3), C (2) in NIVD. Mean preoperative CD4 count was 278 cells/microL (12infected patients requiring cardiac surgery, a decrease in AIE, however NIVD and CAD increasingly seen. Cardiac surgery did not blunt CD4 response induced by antiretrovirals. The late cause of death were not AIDS-related events.

  5. The effect of cholecalciferol and calcitriol on biochemical bone markers in HIV type 1-infected males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ulrich Christian; Kolte, Lilian; Hitz, Mette

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1-infected patients have an increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the bone metabolism in HIV-1-infected patients exposed to calcitriol and cholecalciferol. We also investigated the relationship between T cells and bone markers. We...... conducted a placebo-controlled randomized study running for 16 weeks including 61 HIV-1-infected males, of whom 51 completed the protocol. Nineteen participants were randomized to daily treatment with (A) 0.5-1.0 μg calcitriol and 1,200 IU (30 μg) cholecalciferol, 17 participants to (B) 1,200 IU...

  6. Interleukin-27 is a potent inhibitor of cis HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived dendritic cells via a type I interferon-independent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    Full Text Available IL-27, a member of the IL-12 family of cytokines, plays an important and diverse role in the function of the immune system. Whilst generally recognized as an anti-inflammatory cytokine, in addition IL-27 has been found to have broad anti-viral effects. Recently, IL-27 has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 infection in CD4+ T cells and macrophages. The main objective of this study was to see whether IL-27 has a similar inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication in dendritic cells (DCs. Monocytes were differentiated into immature DCs (iDCs and mature DCs (mDCs with standard techniques using a combination of GM-CSF, IL-4 and LPS. Following differentiation, iDCs were infected with HIV-1 and co-cultured in the presence or absence of IL-27. IL-27 treated DCs were shown to be highly potent inhibitors of cis HIV-1, particularly of CCR5 tropic strains. Of note, other IL-12 family members (IL-12, IL-23 and IL-35 had no effect on HIV-1 replication. Microarray studies of IL-27 treated DCs showed no up-regulation of Type I (IFN gene expression. Neutralization of the Type-I IFN receptor had no impact on the HIV inhibition. Lastly, IL-27 mediated inhibition was shown to act post-viral entry and prior to completion of reverse transcription. These results show for the first time that IL-27 is a potent inhibitor of cis HIV-1 infection in DCs by a Type I IFN independent mechanism. IL-27 has previously been reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells and macrophages, thus taken together, this cytokine is a potent anti-HIV agent against all major cell types targeted by the HIV-1 virus and may have a therapeutic role in the future.

  7. Prevalence of hepatitis B and delta according to HIV-type: a multi-country cross-sectional survey in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffie, Patrick A; Tchounga, Boris K; Bado, Guillaume; Kabran, Mathieu; Minta, Daouda K; Wandeler, Gilles; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S; Dabis, François; Eholie, Serge P; Ekouevi, Didier K

    2017-07-04

    In West Africa where HIV-1 and HIV-2 co-circulate, the co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) is not well described. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of HBV and HBV/HDV co-infection according to HIV types and risk factors for HBV infection among West African HIV-infected patients. A cross-sectional survey was conducted within the IeDEA West Africa cohort from March to December 2012 in Côte d'Ivoire (three sites), Burkina Faso and Mali (one site each). All HIV-infected adult patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) or not who attended one of the participating HIV clinics during the study period and agreed to participate were included. Blood samples were collected and re-tested for HIV type discrimination, HBV and HDV serology as well as HBV viral load. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for HBV infection. A total of 791 patients were included: 192 HIV-1, 447 HIV-2 and 152 HIV-1&2 dually reactive. At time of sampling, 555 (70.2%) were on ART and median CD4+ cell count was 472/mm 3 (inter-quartile range [IQR]: IQR: 294-644). Sixty-seven (8.5%, 95% CI 6.6-10.6) patients were HBsAg positive without any difference according to HIV type (7.9% in HIV-1, 7.2% in HIV-1&2 dually reactive and 9.4% in HIV-2; p = 0.61). In multivariate logistic analysis, age ≤ 30 years old (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.00, 95% CI 1.96-12.76), age between 31 and 49 years old (aOR 1.78, 95% CI 1.00-2.21) and male gender (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.25-3.69) were associated with HBsAg positivity. HBV DNA testing was performed in 36 patients with blood sample available (25 on ART) and 8 (22.2%) had detectable HBV DNA. Among the HBsAg-positive individuals, 14.9% (95% CI 7.4-25.7) were also positive for anti-HDV antibody without any difference according to HIV type (28.6% in HIV-1, 14.3% in HIV-2 and 0.0% in HIV-1&2 dually reactive; p = 0.15). HBV and HBV/HDV co-infection are common in West Africa, irrespective of HIV type. Therefore

  8. Escape from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors

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    Carol D. Weiss

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV enters cells through a series of molecular interactions between the HIV envelope protein and cellular receptors, thus providing many opportunities to block infection. Entry inhibitors are currently being used in the clinic, and many more are under development. Unfortunately, as is the case for other classes of antiretroviral drugs that target later steps in the viral life cycle, HIV can become resistant to entry inhibitors. In contrast to inhibitors that block viral enzymes in intracellular compartments, entry inhibitors interfere with the function of the highly variable envelope glycoprotein as it continuously adapts to changing immune pressure and available target cells in the extracellular environment. Consequently, pathways and mechanisms of resistance for entry inhibitors are varied and often involve mutations across the envelope gene. This review provides a broad overview of entry inhibitor resistance mechanisms that inform our understanding of HIV entry and the design of new inhibitors and vaccines.

  9. Nucleic acids encoding modified human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M consensus envelope glycoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Barton F [Durham, NC; Gao, Feng [Durham, NC; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos, NM; Hahn, Beatrice H [Birmingham, AL; Shaw, George M [Birmingham, AL; Kothe, Denise [Birmingham, AL; Li, Ying Ying [Hoover, AL; Decker, Julie [Alabaster, AL; Liao, Hua-Xin [Chapel Hill, NC

    2011-12-06

    The present invention relates, in general, to an immunogen and, in particular, to an immunogen for inducing antibodies that neutralizes a wide spectrum of HIV primary isolates and/or to an immunogen that induces a T cell immune response. The invention also relates to a method of inducing anti-HIV antibodies, and/or to a method of inducing a T cell immune response, using such an immunogen. The invention further relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding the present immunogens.

  10. MicroRNA profile changes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 seropositive individuals

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    Smith Stephen M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs play diverse roles in regulating cellular and developmental functions. We have profiled the miRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 36 HIV-1 seropositive individuals and 12 normal controls. The HIV-1-positive individuals were categorized operationally into four classes based on their CD4+ T-cell counts and their viral loads. We report that specific miRNA signatures can be observed for each of the four classes.

  11. Carcinogenicity of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in HIV-Positive Women: A Meta-Analysis From HPV Infection to Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Clifford, Gary M.; Tully, Stephen; Franceschi, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Data on the relative carcinogenic potential of human papillomavirus (HPV) types among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (WHIV) are needed to inform prevention programs for this population. Methods. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of high-risk HPV-type distribution in 19883 HIV-positive women was performed. The women, from 86 studies worldwide, included 11739 with normal cytological findings; 1784 with atypical squamous cells of undete...

  12. Geographic Ontologies, Gazetteers and Multilingualism

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    Robert Laurini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different languages imply different visions of space, so that terminologies are different in geographic ontologies. In addition to their geometric shapes, geographic features have names, sometimes different in diverse languages. In addition, the role of gazetteers, as dictionaries of place names (toponyms, is to maintain relations between place names and location. The scope of geographic information retrieval is to search for geographic information not against a database, but against the whole Internet: but the Internet stores information in different languages, and it is of paramount importance not to remain stuck to a unique language. In this paper, our first step is to clarify the links between geographic objects as computer representations of geographic features, ontologies and gazetteers designed in various languages. Then, we propose some inference rules for matching not only types, but also relations in geographic ontologies with the assistance of gazetteers.

  13. Two types of nanoparticle-based bio-barcode amplification assays to detect HIV-1 p24 antigen

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    Dong Huahuang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 p24 antigen is a major viral component of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 which can be used to identify persons in the early stage of infection and transmission of HIV-1 from infected mothers to infants. The detection of p24 is usually accomplished by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with low detection sensitivity. Here we report the use of two bio-barcode amplification (BCA assays combined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR and gel electrophoresis to quantify HIV-1 p24 antigen. Method A pair of anti-p24 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs were used in BCA assays to capture HIV-1 p24 antigen in a sandwich format and allowed for the quantitative measurement of captured p24 using PCR and gel electrophoresis. The first 1 G12 mAb was coated on microplate wells or magnetic microparticles (MMPs to capture free p24 antigens. Captured p24 in turn captured 1D4 mAb coated gold nanoparticle probes (GNPs containing double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides. One strand of the oligonucleotides was covalently immobilized whereas the unbound complimentary bio-barcode DNA strand could be released upon heating. The released bio-barcode DNA was amplified by PCR, electrophoresed in agarose gel and quantified. Results The in-house ELISA assay was found to quantify p24 antigen with a limit of detection (LOD of 1,000 pg/ml and a linear range between 3,000 and 100,000 pg/ml. In contrast, the BCA-based microplate method yielded an LOD of 1 pg/ml and a linear detection range from 1 to 10,000 pg/ml. The BCA-based MMP method yielded an LOD of 0.1 pg/ml and a linear detection range from 0.1 to 1,000 pg/ml. Conclusions When combined with PCR and simple gel electrophoresis, BCA-based microplate and MMPs assays can be used to quantify HIV-1 p24 antigen. These methods are 3–4 orders of magnitude more sensitive than our in-house ELISA-based assay and may provide a useful approach to detect p24 in patients newly infected

  14. Inhibitory effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Koushi; Honda, Mitsuo; Ikigai, Hajime; Hara, Yukihiko; Shimamura, Tadakatsu

    2002-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), the major tea catechin, is known as a potent anti-bacterial agent. In addition, anti-tumor promoting, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and antiviral activities have been reported. In the present study, we investigated possible anti-human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) activity of EGCg and its mechanisms of action in the viral life cycle. EGCg impinges on each step of the HIV life cycle. Thus, destruction of the viral particles, viral attachment to cells, post-adsorption entry into cells, reverse transcription (RT), viral production from chronically-infected cells, and the level of expression of viral mRNA, were analyzed using T-lymphoid (H9) and monocytoid (THP-1) cell systems, and antiviral protease activity was measured using a cell-free assay. Inhibitory effects of EGCg on specific binding of the virions to the cellular surfaces and changes in the steady state viral regulation (mRNA expression) due to EGCg were not observed. However, EGCg had a destructive effect on the viral particles, and post-adsorption entry and RT in acutely infected monocytoid cells were significantly inhibited at concentrations of EGCg greater than 1 microM, and protease kinetics were suppressed at a concentration higher than 10 microM in the cell-free study. Viral production by THP-1 cells chronically-infected with HIV-1 was also inhibited in a dose-dependent manner and the inhibitory effect was enhanced by liposome modification of EGCg. As expected, increased viral mRNA production was observed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated chronically HIV-1-infected cells. This production was significantly inhibited by EGCg treatment of THP-1 cells. In contrast, production of HIV-1 viral mRNA in unstimulated or LPS-stimulated T-lymphoid cells (H9) was not inhibited by EGCg. Anti-HIV viral activity of EGCg may thus result from an interaction with several steps in the HIV-1 life cycle.

  15. The porcine circovirus type 1 capsid gene promoter improves antigen expression and immunogenicity in a HIV-1 plasmid vaccine

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    Burger Marieta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the promising avenues for development of vaccines against Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and other human pathogens is the use of plasmid-based DNA vaccines. However, relatively large doses of plasmid must be injected for a relatively weak response. We investigated whether genome elements from Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV-1, an apathogenic small ssDNA-containing virus, had useful expression-enhancing properties that could allow dose-sparing in a plasmid vaccine. Results The linearised PCV-1 genome inserted 5' of the CMV promoter in the well-characterised HIV-1 plasmid vaccine pTHgrttnC increased expression of the polyantigen up to 2-fold, and elicited 3-fold higher CTL responses in mice at 10-fold lower doses than unmodified pTHgrttnC. The PCV-1 capsid gene promoter (Pcap alone was equally effective. Enhancing activity was traced to a putative composite host transcription factor binding site and a "Conserved Late Element" transcription-enhancing sequence previously unidentified in circoviruses. Conclusions We identified a novel PCV-1 genome-derived enhancer sequence that significantly increased antigen expression from plasmids in in vitro assays, and improved immunogenicity in mice of the HIV-1 subtype C vaccine plasmid, pTHgrttnC. This should allow significant dose sparing of, or increased responses to, this and other plasmid-based vaccines. We also report investigations of the potential of other circovirus-derived sequences to be similarly used.

  16. Geographical Tatoos

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    Valéria Cazetta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with maps tattooed on bodies. My interest in studying the corporeality is inserted in a broader project entitled Geographies and (in Bodies. There is several published research on tattoos, but none in particular about tattooed maps. However some of these works interested me because they present important discussions in contemporary about body modification that helped me locate the body modifications most within the culture than on the nature. At this time, I looked at pictures of geographical tattoos available in several sites of the internet.

  17. An example of genetically distinct HIV type 1 variants in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma during suppressive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Viktor; Gisslen, Magnus; Hagberg, Lars; Peterson, Julia; Shao, Wei; Spudich, Serena; Price, Richard W; Palmer, Sarah

    2014-05-15

    We sequenced the genome of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) recovered from 70 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens and 29 plasma samples and corresponding samples obtained before treatment initiation from 17 subjects receiving suppressive therapy. More CSF sequences than plasma sequences were hypermutants. We determined CSF sequences and plasma sequences in specimens obtained from 2 subjects after treatment initiation. In one subject, we found genetically distinct CSF and plasma sequences, indicating that they came from HIV-1 from 2 different compartments, one potentially the central nervous system, during suppressive therapy. In addition, there was little evidence of viral evolution in the CSF during therapy, suggesting that continuous virus replication is not the major cause of viral persistence in the central nervous system.

  18. Behavioral intention to take up different types of HIV testing among men who have sex with men who were never-testers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zixin; Lau, Joseph T F; She, Rui; Ip, Mary; Jiang, Hui; Ho, Shara P Y; Yang, XueYing

    2018-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is an important global prevention strategy but underutilized by local men who have sex with men (MSM). This study investigated the prevalence of behavioral intention to take up HIV testing (specific or any type), in the next six months among MSM who had not been tested for HIV in the last three years (never-testers) in Hong Kong. The data was based on 141 never-testers of 430 MSM who completed the anonymous baseline telephone survey of an ongoing randomized controlled trial from January 2015 to August 2015. Only 17.7% of them showed strong intention to take up any type of HIV testing in the next six months. Adjusted analysis showed that perceived benefit of HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.66), perceived psychological barriers of HIV testing (AOR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.73, 1.00), and perceived self-efficacy in taking up HIV testing (AOR: 1.28, 95%CI: 1.07, 1.52) were significantly associated with behavioral intention to take up any HIV testing. Perceived cue to action from non-governmental organization staff was positively associated with a marginal p-value of 0.077 (AOR: 2.37, 95%CI: 0.97, 5.77). It is warranted to strengthen perceived benefit, remove psychological barriers, and increase perceived self-efficacy related to HIV testing. Innovative and effective health promotions are greatly needed to increase HIV testing coverage among never-testers.

  19. SME-type carbapenem-hydrolyzing class A beta-lactamases from geographically diverse Serratia marcescens strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queenan, A M; Torres-Viera, C; Gold, H S; Carmeli, Y; Eliopoulos, G M; Moellering, R C; Quinn, J P; Hindler, J; Medeiros, A A; Bush, K

    2000-11-01

    Three sets of carbapenem-resistant Serratia marcescens isolates have been identified in the United States: 1 isolate in Minnesota in 1985 (before approval of carbapenems for clinical use), 5 isolates in Los Angeles (University of California at Los Angeles [UCLA]) in 1992, and 19 isolates in Boston from 1994 to 1999. All isolates tested produced two beta-lactamases, an AmpC-type enzyme with pI values of 8.6 to 9.0 and one with a pI value of approximately 9.5. The enzyme with the higher pI in each strain hydrolyzed carbapenems and was not inhibited by EDTA, similar to the chromosomal class A SME-1 beta-lactamase isolated from the 1982 London strain S. marcescens S6. The genes encoding the carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes were cloned in Escherichia coli and sequenced. The enzyme from the Minnesota isolate had an amino acid sequence identical to that of SME-1. The isolates from Boston and UCLA produced SME-2, an enzyme with a single amino acid change relative to SME-1, a substitution from valine to glutamine at position 207. Purified SME enzymes from the U. S. isolates had beta-lactam hydrolysis profiles similar to that of the London SME-1 enzyme. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the isolates showed some similarity but differed by at least three genetic events. In conclusion, a family of rare class A carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamases first described in London has now been identified in S. marcescens isolates across the United States.

  20. SME-Type Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Class A β-Lactamases from Geographically Diverse Serratia marcescens Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queenan, Anne Marie; Torres-Viera, Carlos; Gold, Howard S.; Carmeli, Yehuda; Eliopoulos, George M.; Moellering, Robert C.; Quinn, John P.; Hindler, Janet; Medeiros, Antone A.; Bush, Karen

    2000-01-01

    Three sets of carbapenem-resistant Serratia marcescens isolates have been identified in the United States: 1 isolate in Minnesota in 1985 (before approval of carbapenems for clinical use), 5 isolates in Los Angeles (University of California at Los Angeles [UCLA]) in 1992, and 19 isolates in Boston from 1994 to 1999. All isolates tested produced two β-lactamases, an AmpC-type enzyme with pI values of 8.6 to 9.0 and one with a pI value of approximately 9.5. The enzyme with the higher pI in each strain hydrolyzed carbapenems and was not inhibited by EDTA, similar to the chromosomal class A SME-1 β-lactamase isolated from the 1982 London strain S. marcescens S6. The genes encoding the carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes were cloned in Escherichia coli and sequenced. The enzyme from the Minnesota isolate had an amino acid sequence identical to that of SME-1. The isolates from Boston and UCLA produced SME-2, an enzyme with a single amino acid change relative to SME-1, a substitution from valine to glutamine at position 207. Purified SME enzymes from the U.S. isolates had β-lactam hydrolysis profiles similar to that of the London SME-1 enzyme. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the isolates showed some similarity but differed by at least three genetic events. In conclusion, a family of rare class A carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-lactamases first described in London has now been identified in S. marcescens isolates across the United States. PMID:11036019

  1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test responses to PPD and other antigens among BCG-vaccinated HIV-1-infected and healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Natalia Moriya Xavierda; Albuquerque, Maly de; Lins, Janaína Bacelar Acioli; Alvares-Junior, João Teixeira; Stefani, Mariane Martins de Araújo

    2011-10-01

    Among HIV-1-infected patients, CD4+ T cell counts are well-established markers of cell-mediated immunity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin tests can be used to evaluate in vivo cell-mediated immunity to common antigens. DTH responses to tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD), sporotrichin, trichophytin, candidin and streptokinase/streptodornase antigens were assessed. Thirty-six HIV-1-infected children/adolescents and 56 age- and sex-matched HIV-1/HIV-2-seronegative participants were tested. All participants had a BCG scar. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate significant differences between groups (pPPD positivity prevailed among healthy participants (40/56, 71.4%). PPD reactivity in the HIV-1-positive group was 8.3% (pPPD induration was 2.5mm (range: 2-5mm) in the HIV-1 group and 6.0 mm among healthy participants (range: 3-15 mm). There was no correlation between PPD positivity and age. No correlation between CD4+ T cell counts and DTH reactivity was observed among HIV-1-infected patients. DTH skin test responses, including PPD reactivity, were significantly lower among HIV-1-infected participants compared to healthy controls, which likely reflects advanced disease and T cell depletion.

  2. HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type-2 genital shedding among co-infected women using self-collected swabs in Chiang Rai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forhan, S E; Dunne, E F; Sternberg, M R; Whitehead, S J; Leelawiwat, W; Thepamnuay, S; Chen, C; Evans-Strickfaden, Tt; McNicholl, J M; Markowitz, L E

    2012-08-01

    We analysed 528 genital self-collected swabs (SCS) from 67 HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) co-infected women collected during the placebo month of a randomized crossover clinical trial of suppressive acyclovir in Chiang Rai, Thailand. In this first longitudinal study of HIV-1 and HSV-2 co-infected women using genital SCS specimens, we found frequent mucosal HIV-1 shedding. Overall, 372 (70%) swabs had detectable HIV-1 RNA with median HIV-1 viral load of 2.61 log(10) copies/swab. We found no statistically significant association between detectable HIV-1 RNA and HSV-2 DNA in the same SCS specimen (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.40; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.78-2.60, P = 0.25). Only baseline HIV-1 plasma viral load was independently associated with genital HIV-1 RNA shedding (aOR, 7.6; 95% CI, 3.3-17.2, P genital sampling, and inclusion of genital sites other than the cervix.

  3. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV types Western blot (WB band profiles as potential surrogate markers of HIV disease progression and predictors of vertical transmission in a cohort of infected but antiretroviral therapy naïve pregnant women in Harare, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirenje Mike Z

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expensive CD4 count and viral load tests have failed the intended objective of enabling access to HIV therapy in poor resource settings. It is imperative to develop simple, affordable and non-subjective disease monitoring tools to complement clinical staging efforts of inexperienced health personnel currently manning most healthcare centres because of brain drain. Besides accurately predicting HIV infection, sequential appearance of specific bands of WB test offers a window of opportunity to develop a less subjective tool for monitoring disease progression. Methods HIV type characterization was done in a cohort of infected pregnant women at 36 gestational weeks using WB test. Student-t test was used to determine maternal differences in mean full blood counts and viral load of mothers with and those without HIV gag antigen bands. Pearson Chi-square test was used to assess differences in lack of bands appearance with vertical transmission and lymphadenopathy. Results Among the 64 HIV infected pregnant women, 98.4% had pure HIV-1 infection and one woman (1.7% had dual HIV-1/HIV-2 infections. Absence of HIV pol antigen bands was associated with acute infection, p = 0.002. All women with chronic HIV-1 infection had antibody reactivity to both the HIV-1 envelope and polymerase antigens. However, antibody reactivity to gag antigens varied among the women, being 100%, 90%, 70% and 63% for p24, p17, p39 and p55, respectively. Lack of antibody reactivity to gag p39 antigen was associated with disease progression as confirmed by the presence of lymphadenopathy, anemia, higher viral load, p = 0.010, 0.025 and 0.016, respectively. Although not statistically significant, women with p39 band missing were 1.4 times more likely to transmit HIV-1 to their infants. Conclusion Absence of antibody reactivity to pol and gag p39 antigens was associated with acute infection and disease progression, respectively. Apart from its use in HIV disease

  4. Geographic and temporal trends in the molecular epidemiology and genetic mechanisms of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance: an individual-patient- and sequence-level meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo-Yon; Blanco, Jose Luis; Jordan, Michael R; Taylor, Jonathan; Lemey, Philippe; Varghese, Vici; Hamers, Raph L; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Aghokeng, Avelin F; Albert, Jan; Avi, Radko; Avila-Rios, Santiago; Bessong, Pascal O; Brooks, James I; Boucher, Charles A B; Brumme, Zabrina L; Busch, Michael P; Bussmann, Hermann; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Chin, Bum Sik; D'Aquin, Toni T; De Gascun, Cillian F; Derache, Anne; Descamps, Diane; Deshpande, Alaka K; Djoko, Cyrille F; Eshleman, Susan H; Fleury, Herve; Frange, Pierre; Fujisaki, Seiichiro; Harrigan, P Richard; Hattori, Junko; Holguin, Africa; Hunt, Gillian M; Ichimura, Hiroshi; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Katzenstein, David; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Kim, Jerome H; Kim, Sung Soon; Li, Yanpeng; Lutsar, Irja; Morris, Lynn; Ndembi, Nicaise; Ng, Kee Peng; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Peeters, Martine; Poljak, Mario; Price, Matt A; Ragonnet-Cronin, Manon L; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Rolland, Morgane; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Smith, Davey M; Soares, Marcelo A; Soriano, Vincent V; Ssemwanga, Deogratius; Stanojevic, Maja; Stefani, Mariane A; Sugiura, Wataru; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Tanuri, Amilcar; Tee, Kok Keng; Truong, Hong-Ha M; van de Vijver, David A M C; Vidal, Nicole; Yang, Chunfu; Yang, Rongge; Yebra, Gonzalo; Ioannidis, John P A; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Shafer, Robert W

    2015-04-01

    Regional and subtype-specific mutational patterns of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) are essential for informing first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy guidelines and designing diagnostic assays for use in regions where standard genotypic resistance testing is not affordable. We sought to understand the molecular epidemiology of TDR and to identify the HIV-1 drug-resistance mutations responsible for TDR in different regions and virus subtypes. We reviewed all GenBank submissions of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase sequences with or without protease and identified 287 studies published between March 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013, with more than 25 recently or chronically infected ARV-naïve individuals. These studies comprised 50,870 individuals from 111 countries. Each set of study sequences was analyzed for phylogenetic clustering and the presence of 93 surveillance drug-resistance mutations (SDRMs). The median overall TDR prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), south/southeast Asia (SSEA), upper-income Asian countries, Latin America/Caribbean, Europe, and North America was 2.8%, 2.9%, 5.6%, 7.6%, 9.4%, and 11.5%, respectively. In SSA, there was a yearly 1.09-fold (95% CI: 1.05-1.14) increase in odds of TDR since national ARV scale-up attributable to an increase in non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance. The odds of NNRTI-associated TDR also increased in Latin America/Caribbean (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06-1.25), North America (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12-1.26), Europe (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13), and upper-income Asian countries (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.12-1.55). In SSEA, there was no significant change in the odds of TDR since national ARV scale-up (OR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.92-1.02). An analysis limited to sequences with mixtures at less than 0.5% of their nucleotide positions—a proxy for recent infection—yielded trends comparable to those obtained using the complete dataset. Four NNRTI SDRMs—K101E, K103N, Y181C, and G190A

  5. Analysis of Select Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Proteins for Restriction of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1): HSV-1 gM Protein Potently Restricts HIV-1 by Preventing Intracellular Transport and Processing of Env gp160.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polpitiya Arachchige, Sachith; Henke, Wyatt; Pramanik, Ankita; Kalamvoki, Maria; Stephens, Edward B

    2018-01-15

    Virus-encoded proteins that impair or shut down specific host cell functions during replication can be used as probes to identify potential proteins/pathways used in the replication of viruses from other families. We screened nine proteins from herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) for the ability to enhance or restrict human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. We show that several HSV-1 proteins (glycoprotein M [gM], US3, and UL24) potently restricted the replication of HIV-1. Unlike UL24 and US3, which reduced viral protein synthesis, we observed that gM restriction of HIV-1 occurred through interference with the processing and transport of gp160, resulting in a significantly reduced level of mature gp120/gp41 released from cells. Finally, we show that an HSV-1 gM mutant lacking the majority of the C-terminal domain (HA-gM[Δ345-473]) restricted neither gp160 processing nor the release of infectious virus. These studies identify proteins from heterologous viruses that can restrict viruses through novel pathways. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 infection of humans results in AIDS, characterized by the loss of CD4 + T cells and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Both HIV-1 and HSV-1 can infect astrocytes and microglia of the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, the identification of HSV-1 proteins that directly restrict HIV-1 or interfere with pathways required for HIV-1 replication could lead to novel antiretroviral strategies. The results of this study show that select viral proteins from HSV-1 can potently restrict HIV-1. Further, our results indicate that the gM protein of HSV-1 restricts HIV-1 through a novel pathway by interfering with the processing of gp160 and its incorporation into virus maturing from the cell. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Association of a 3' untranslated region polymorphism in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 with HIV viral load and CD4+ levels in HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniholm, Mark H; Liang, Hua; Anastos, Kathryn; Gustafson, Deborah; Kassaye, Seble; Nowicki, Marek; Sha, Beverly E; Pawlowski, Emilia J; Gange, Stephen J; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Pushkarsky, Tatiana; Bukrinsky, Michael I; Prasad, Vinayaka R

    2017-11-28

    To assess variation in genes that regulate cholesterol metabolism in relation to the natural history of HIV infection. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. We examined 2050 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 genes known to regulate cholesterol metabolism in relation to HIV viral load and CD4 T-cell levels in a multiracial cohort of 1066 antiretroviral therapy-naive women. Six SNPs were associated with both HIV viral load and CD4 T-cell levels at a false discovery rate of 0.01. Bioinformatics tools did not predict functional activity for five SNPs, located in introns of nuclear receptor corepressor 2, retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRA), and tetratricopeptide repeat domain 39B. Rs17111557 located in the 3' untranslated region of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) putatively affects binding of hsa-miR-548t-5p and hsa-miR-4796-3p, which could regulate PCSK9 expression levels. Interrogation of rs17111557 revealed stronger associations in the subset of women with HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection (n = 408, 38% of women). Rs17111557 was also associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in HIV/HCV coinfected (β: -10.4; 95% confidence interval: -17.9, -2.9; P = 0.007), but not in HIV monoinfected (β:1.2; 95% confidence interval: -6.3, 8.6; P = 0.76) women in adjusted analysis. PCSK9 polymorphism may affect HIV pathogenesis, particularly in HIV/HCV coinfected women. A likely mechanism for this effect is PCSK9-mediated regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Replication in independent cohorts is needed to clarify the generalizability of the observed associations.

  7. An assessment of geographical distribution of different plant functional types over North America simulated using the CLASS-CTEM modelling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Rudra K.; Arora, Vivek K.; Melton, Joe R.; Sushama, Laxmi

    2017-10-01

    The performance of the competition module of the CLASS-CTEM (Canadian Land Surface Scheme and Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model) modelling framework is assessed at 1° spatial resolution over North America by comparing the simulated geographical distribution of its plant functional types (PFTs) with two observation-based estimates. The model successfully reproduces the broad geographical distribution of trees, grasses and bare ground although limitations remain. In particular, compared to the two observation-based estimates, the simulated fractional vegetation coverage is lower in the arid southwest North American region and higher in the Arctic region. The lower-than-observed simulated vegetation coverage in the southwest region is attributed to lack of representation of shrubs in the model and plausible errors in the observation-based data sets. The observation-based data indicate vegetation fractional coverage of more than 60 % in this arid region, despite only 200-300 mm of precipitation that the region receives annually, and observation-based leaf area index (LAI) values in the region are lower than one. The higher-than-observed vegetation fractional coverage in the Arctic is likely due to the lack of representation of moss and lichen PFTs and also likely because of inadequate representation of permafrost in the model as a result of which the C3 grass PFT performs overly well in the region. The model generally reproduces the broad spatial distribution and the total area covered by the two primary tree PFTs (needleleaf evergreen trees, NDL-EVG; and broadleaf cold deciduous trees, BDL-DCD-CLD) reasonably well. The simulated fractional coverage of tree PFTs increases after the 1960s in response to the CO2 fertilization effect and climate warming. Differences between observed and simulated PFT coverages highlight model limitations and suggest that the inclusion of shrubs, and moss and lichen PFTs, and an adequate representation of permafrost will help improve

  8. An assessment of geographical distribution of different plant functional types over North America simulated using the CLASS–CTEM modelling framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Shrestha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the competition module of the CLASS–CTEM (Canadian Land Surface Scheme and Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model modelling framework is assessed at 1° spatial resolution over North America by comparing the simulated geographical distribution of its plant functional types (PFTs with two observation-based estimates. The model successfully reproduces the broad geographical distribution of trees, grasses and bare ground although limitations remain. In particular, compared to the two observation-based estimates, the simulated fractional vegetation coverage is lower in the arid southwest North American region and higher in the Arctic region. The lower-than-observed simulated vegetation coverage in the southwest region is attributed to lack of representation of shrubs in the model and plausible errors in the observation-based data sets. The observation-based data indicate vegetation fractional coverage of more than 60 % in this arid region, despite only 200–300 mm of precipitation that the region receives annually, and observation-based leaf area index (LAI values in the region are lower than one. The higher-than-observed vegetation fractional coverage in the Arctic is likely due to the lack of representation of moss and lichen PFTs and also likely because of inadequate representation of permafrost in the model as a result of which the C3 grass PFT performs overly well in the region. The model generally reproduces the broad spatial distribution and the total area covered by the two primary tree PFTs (needleleaf evergreen trees, NDL-EVG; and broadleaf cold deciduous trees, BDL-DCD-CLD reasonably well. The simulated fractional coverage of tree PFTs increases after the 1960s in response to the CO2 fertilization effect and climate warming. Differences between observed and simulated PFT coverages highlight model limitations and suggest that the inclusion of shrubs, and moss and lichen PFTs, and an adequate representation of

  9. Molecular Docking Studies of Marine Diterpenes as Inhibitors of Wild-Type and Mutants HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase

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    Alessandra M. T. de Souza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIDS is a pandemic responsible for more than 35 million deaths. The emergence of resistant mutations due to drug use is the biggest cause of treatment failure. Marine organisms are sources of different molecules, some of which offer promising HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT inhibitory activity, such as the diterpenes dolabelladienotriol (THD, IC50 = 16.5 µM, (6R-6-hydroxydichotoma-3,14-diene-1,17-dial (HDD, IC50 = 10 µM and (6R-6-acetoxydichotoma-3,14-diene-1,17-dial (ADD, IC50 = 35 µM, isolated from a brown algae of the genus Dictyota, showing low toxicity. In this work, we evaluated the structure-activity relationship (SAR of THD, HDD and ADD as anti HIV-1 RT, using a molecular modeling approach. The analyses of stereoelectronic parameters revealed a direct relationship between activity and HOMO (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital-LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital gap (ELUMO–EHOMO, where antiviral profile increases with larger HOMO-LUMO gap values. We also performed molecular docking studies of THD into HIV-1 RT wild-type and 12 different mutants, which showed a seahorse conformation, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds with important residues of the binding pocket. Based on in vitro experiments and docking studies, we demonstrated that mutations have little influence in positioning and interactions of THD. Following a rational drug design, we suggest a modification of THD to improve its biological activity.

  10. Geographical distribution of soil transmitted helminths and the effects of community type in South Asia and South East Asia - A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A Silver

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTD worldwide. Since the publication of the WHO road map to combat NTD in 2012, there has been a renewed commitment to control STH. In this study, we analysed the geographical distribution and effect of community type on prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris and Ascaris in south Asia and south east Asia.We conducted a systematic review of open-access literature published in PubMed Central and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection. A total of 4182 articles were available and after applying selection criteria, 174 studies from the region were retained for analysis.Ascaris was the commonest STH identified with an overall prevalence of 18% (95% CI, 14-23% followed by Trichuris (14%, 9-19% and hookworm (12%, 9-15%. Hookworm prevalence was highest in Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia. We found a geographical overlap in countries with high prevalence rates for Trichuris and Ascaris (Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar, Vietnam and Bangladesh. When the effect of community type was examined, prevalence rates of hookworm was comparable in rural (19%, 14-24% and tribal communities (14%, 10-19%. Tribal communities, however, showed higher prevalence of Trichuris (38%, 18-63% and Ascaris (32%, 23-43% than rural communities (13%, 9-20% and 14%, 9-20% respectively. Considerable between and within country heterogeneity in the distribution of STH (I2 >90% was also noted. When available data from school aged children (SAC were analysed, prevalence of Ascaris (25% 16-31% and Trichuris (22%, 14-34% were higher than among the general population while that of hookworm (10%, 7-16% was comparable.Our analysis showed significant variation in prevalence rates between and within countries in the region. Highlighting the importance of community type in prevalence and species mix, we showed that tribal and rural communities had higher hookworm infections than urban communities and for

  11. Geographical distribution of soil transmitted helminths and the effects of community type in South Asia and South East Asia - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Zachary A; Kaliappan, Saravanakumar P; Samuel, Prasanna; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Kang, Gagandeep; Sarkar, Rajiv; Ajjampur, Sitara S R

    2018-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTD) worldwide. Since the publication of the WHO road map to combat NTD in 2012, there has been a renewed commitment to control STH. In this study, we analysed the geographical distribution and effect of community type on prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris and Ascaris in south Asia and south east Asia. We conducted a systematic review of open-access literature published in PubMed Central and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection. A total of 4182 articles were available and after applying selection criteria, 174 studies from the region were retained for analysis. Ascaris was the commonest STH identified with an overall prevalence of 18% (95% CI, 14-23%) followed by Trichuris (14%, 9-19%) and hookworm (12%, 9-15%). Hookworm prevalence was highest in Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia. We found a geographical overlap in countries with high prevalence rates for Trichuris and Ascaris (Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar, Vietnam and Bangladesh). When the effect of community type was examined, prevalence rates of hookworm was comparable in rural (19%, 14-24%) and tribal communities (14%, 10-19%). Tribal communities, however, showed higher prevalence of Trichuris (38%, 18-63%) and Ascaris (32%, 23-43%) than rural communities (13%, 9-20% and 14%, 9-20% respectively). Considerable between and within country heterogeneity in the distribution of STH (I2 >90%) was also noted. When available data from school aged children (SAC) were analysed, prevalence of Ascaris (25% 16-31%) and Trichuris (22%, 14-34%) were higher than among the general population while that of hookworm (10%, 7-16%) was comparable. Our analysis showed significant variation in prevalence rates between and within countries in the region. Highlighting the importance of community type in prevalence and species mix, we showed that tribal and rural communities had higher hookworm infections than urban communities and for

  12. Biological characterization of HIV type 1 envelope V3 regions from mothers and infants associated with perinatal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matala, E; Hahn, T; Yedavalli, V R; Ahmad, N

    2001-12-10

    Our previous study has shown that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope V3 region minor genotypes of infected mothers were transmitted to their infants and predominated initially as a homogeneous virus population in the infants (Ahmad N, Baroudy BM, Baker RC, et al.: J Virol 1995;69:1001-1012). Here we have characterized the biological properties, including cellular tropism, replication efficiency, cytopathic effects, and coreceptor utilization, of these V3 region isolates from mothers and infants. Nineteen V3 region sequences from three mother-infant pairs, including the minor variants of mothers and the major variants of infants as characterized in our previous study, were reciprocally inserted into an HIV-1 infectious molecular clone, pNL4-3, and chimeric viruses were generated by DNA transfections into HeLa cells. Equal amounts of chimeric viruses were then used to infect T lymphocyte cell lines (A3.01 and MT-2), primary blood lymphocytes (PBLs), primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), and coreceptor cell lines. We found that the V3 region chimeras failed to replicate in T lymphocyte cell lines but replicated in MDMs and PBLs, albeit at reduced levels compared with R5 laboratory HIV-1 strains. In addition, the V3 region chimeras were able to infect the HOS-CD4(+)CCR5(+) cell line, suggesting CCR5 coreceptor utilization. Moreover, the V3 region chimeras were unable to induce syncytia in MT-2 cells, indicative of non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) phenotypes. In conclusion, the HIV-1 minor genotypes of infected mothers with macrophage-tropic and NSI or R5 phenotypes are transmitted to their infants and are initially maintained with the same properties.

  13. Vitamin D deficiency among HIV type 1-infected individuals in the Netherlands: effects of antiretroviral therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bout-van den Beukel, C.J.P. van den; Fievez, L.; Michels, M.; Sweep, F.C.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Bosch, M.E.; Burger, D.M.; Bravenboer, B.; Koopmans †, P.P.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin D regulates bone metabolism but has also immunoregulatory properties. In HIV-infected patients bone disorders are increasingly observed. Furthermore, low 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels have been associated with low CD4(+) counts, immunological hyperactivity, and AIDS progression rates. Few studies

  14. The power of siblings and caregivers: under-explored types of social support among children affected by HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharer, Melissa; Cluver, Lucie; Shields, Joseph J; Ahearn, Frederick

    2016-03-01

    Children affected by HIV and AIDS have significantly higher rates of mental health problems than unaffected children. There is a need for research to examine how social support functions as a source of resiliency for children in high HIV-prevalence settings such as South Africa. The purpose of this research was to explore how family social support relates to depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress (PTS). Using the ecological model as a frame, data were drawn from a 2011 cross-sectional study of 1380 children classified as either orphaned by AIDS and/or living with an AIDS sick family member. The children were from high-poverty, high HIV-prevalent rural and urban communities in South Africa. Social support was analyzed in depth by examining the source (e.g. caregiver, sibling) and the type (e.g. emotional, instrumental, quality). These variables were entered into multiple regression analyses to estimate the most parsimonious regression models to show the relationships between social support and depression, anxiety, and PTS symptoms among the children. Siblings emerged as the most consistent source of social support on mental health. Overall caregiver and sibling support explained 13% variance in depression, 12% in anxiety, and 11% in PTS. Emotional support was the most frequent type of social support associated with mental health in all regression models, with higher levels of quality and instrumental support having the strongest relation to positive mental health outcomes. Although instrumental and quality support from siblings were related to positive mental health, unexpectedly, the higher the level of emotional support received from a sibling resulted in the child reporting more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTS. The opposite was true for emotional support provided via caregivers, higher levels of this support was related to lower levels of all mental health symptoms. Sex was significant in all regressions, indicating the presence of moderation.

  15. Immunogenicity and safety of two doses of catch-up immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in Indian children living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Bikas K; Bhattacharya, Sangeeta Das; Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Saha, Malay K; Bhattacharyya, Subhasish; Niyogi, Swapan Kumar; Moss, William J; Panda, Samiran; Das, Ranjan Saurav; Mallick, Mausom; Mandal, Sutapa

    2016-04-27

    Children living with HIV are at increased risk of disease from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Data are limited on the immunogenicity of a two-dose, catch-up schedule for Hib conjugate vaccine (HibCV) among HIV-infected children accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) late. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluate baseline immunity to Hib and the immunogenicity and safety of two doses of HibCV among HIV-infected Indian children; and (2) document the threshold antibody level required to prevent Hib colonization among HIV-infected children following immunization. We conducted a prospective cohort study among HIV-infected children 2-15 years of age and HIV-uninfected children 2-5 years of age. HIV-infected children received two doses of HibCV and uninfected children received one. Serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibodies were measured at baseline and two months after immunization in the HIV-infected children. Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were collected at baseline and follow-up. 125 HIV-infected and 44 uninfected children participated. 40% of HIV-infected children were receiving ART and 26% had a viral load >100,000 copies/mL. The geometric mean concentration of serum anti-Hib PRP antibody increased from 0.25 μg/mL at baseline to 2.65 μg/mL after two doses of HibCV, representing a 10.6-fold increase (pchildren mounted an immune response. Moderate or severe immune suppression, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis, and lower baseline antibody levels were associated with lower post-vaccine serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibodies. A serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibody level ≥ 3.3 μg/mL was protective against Hib NP colonization. There were no differences in adverse events between HIV-infected and uninfected children. Including a catch-up immunization schedule for older HIV infected children in countries introducing Hib vaccines is important. Older HIV-infected children with delayed access to ART and without suppressed viral loads mounted an adequate immune response

  16. HIV-1 Promotes the Degradation of Components of the Type 1 IFN JAK/STAT Pathway and Blocks Anti-viral ISG Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargan, Siobhan; Ahmed, Suaad; Mahony, Rebecca; Bannan, Ciaran; Napoletano, Silvia; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Borrow, Persephone; Bergin, Colm; Stevenson, Nigel J

    2018-04-01

    Anti-retroviral therapy successfully suppresses HIV-1 infection, but fails to provide a cure. During infection Type 1 IFNs normally play an essential role in viral clearance, but in vivo IFN-α only has a modest impact on HIV-1 infection, suggesting its possible targeting by HIV. Here, we report that the HIV protein, Vif, inhibits effective IFN-α signalling via degradation of essential JAK/STAT pathway components. We found that STAT1 and STAT3 are specifically reduced in HEK293T cells expressing Vif and that full length, infectious HIV-1 IIIB strain promotes their degradation in a Vif-dependent manner. HIV-1 IIIB infection of myeloid ThP-1 cells also reduced the IFN-α-mediated induction of the anti-viral gene, ISG15, but not MxA, revealing a functional consequence of this HIV-1-mediated immune evasion strategy. Interestingly, while total STAT levels were not reduced upon in vitro IIIB infection of primary human PBMCs, IFN-α-mediated phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 and ISG induction were starkly reduced, with removal of Vif (IIIBΔVif), partially restoring pSTATs, ISG15 and MxB induction. Similarly, pSTAT1 and pSTAT3 expression and IFN-α-induced ISG15 were reduced in PBMCs from HIV-infected patients, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, IFN-α pre-treatment of a CEM T lymphoblast cells significantly inhibited HIV infection/replication (measured by cellular p24), only in the absence of Vif (IIIBΔVif), but was unable to suppress full length IIIB infection. When analysing the mechanism by which Vif might target the JAK/STAT pathway, we found Vif interacts with both STAT1 and STAT3, (but not STAT2), and its expression promotes ubiquitination and MG132-sensitive, proteosomal degradation of both proteins. Vif's Elongin-Cullin-SOCS-box binding motif enables the formation of an active E3 ligase complex, which we found to be required for Vif's degradation of STAT1 and STAT3. In fact, the E3 ligase scaffold proteins, Cul5 and Rbx2, were also found to be

  17. Molecular epidemiological analysis of paired pol/env sequences from Portuguese HIV type 1 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecasis, Ana B; Martins, Andreia; Costa, Inês; Carvalho, Ana P; Diogo, Isabel; Gomes, Perpétua; Camacho, Ricardo J

    2011-07-01

    The advent of new therapeutic approaches targeting env and the search for efficient anti-HIV-1 vaccines make it necessary to identify the number of recombinant forms using genomic regions that were previously not frequently sequenced. In this study, we have subtyped paired pol and env sequences from HIV-1 strains infecting 152 patients being clinically followed in Portugal. The percentage of strains in which we found discordant subtypes in pol and env was 25.7%. When the subtype in pol and env was concordant (65.1%), the most prevalent subtypes were subtype B (40.8%), followed by subtype C (17.8%) and subtype G (5.3%). The most prevalent recombinant form was CRF14_BGpol/Genv (7.2%).

  18. Sequence Quality Analysis Tool for HIV Type 1 Protease and Reverse Transcriptase

    OpenAIRE

    DeLong, Allison K.; Wu, Mingham; Bennett, Diane; Parkin, Neil; Wu, Zhijin; Hogan, Joseph W.; Kantor, Rami

    2012-01-01

    Access to antiretroviral therapy is increasing globally and drug resistance evolution is anticipated. Currently, protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequence generation is increasing, including the use of in-house sequencing assays, and quality assessment prior to sequence analysis is essential. We created a computational HIV PR/RT Sequence Quality Analysis Tool (SQUAT) that runs in the R statistical environment. Sequence quality thresholds are calculated from a large dataset (46,802...

  19. Discrimination of different geographic varieties of Gymnema sylvestre, an anti-sweet plant used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ha Thanh Tung; Hoang, Minh Chau; Ha, Thi Kim Quy; Dang, Lan Huong; Tran, Van On; Nguyen, Thi Bich Thu; Lee, Chul Ho; Oh, Won Keun

    2018-06-01

    Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br. ex Sm. (Asclepiadaceae) is a well-known Ayurvedic anti-sweet plant for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although it was previously proposed that G. sylvestre exhibits chemical variation based on geography, most research on G. sylvestre has used material originating from India. Morphological and anatomical descriptions, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 DNA sequencing, and acid hydrolysis analyses showed that G. sylvestre samples from Vietnam are distinguishable from those of Indian origin and thus suggest a dissimilarity among G. sylvestre samples with different geographic distributions. An LC-MS-guided strategy targeting 3β-glucuronide oleane-triterpenes in the Vietnamese G. sylvestre variety led to the isolation of four known compounds and nine previously undescribed compounds, named gymnemosides ND1-ND9. None of the isolated compounds were reported in the Indian sample, further supporting the geo-diversity of G. sylvestre. Three compounds, gymnemosides ND7-9, exerted significant stimulatory effects on the uptake of 2-NBDG in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells and thus have potential as lead molecules for anti-diabetes agents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impacts of HIV infection and long-term use of antiretroviral therapy on the prevalence of oral human papilloma virus type 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amornthatree, Korntip; Sriplung, Hutcha; Mitarnun, Winyou; Nittayananta, Wipawee

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (i) the prevalence and the copy numbers of oral human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) in HIV-infected patients compared with non-HIV controls, and (ii) the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and its duration on the virus. A cross-sectional study was carried out in HIV-infected patients with and without ART and in non-HIV controls. Saliva samples were collected, and the DNA extracted from those samples was used as a template to detect HPV-16 E6 and E7 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Student's t-test and ANOVA test were performed to determine the prevalence rates among groups. Forty-nine HIV-infected patients: 37 on ART (age range, 23-54 years; mean, 37 years), 12 not on ART (age range, 20-40 years; mean, 31 years), and 20 non-HIV controls (age range, 19-53 years; mean, 31 years) were enrolled. The prevalence of oral HPV-16 infection and the copy numbers of the virus were significantly higher in HIV-infected patients than in non-HIV controls when using E6 assay (geometric mean = 10696 vs. 563 copies/10(5) cells, P prevalence of oral HPV-16 infection and the copy numbers of the virus (P = 0.567). We conclude that the prevalence of oral HPV-16 infection and the copy numbers of the virus are increased by HIV infection. Neither the use of ART nor its duration significantly affected the virus. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. "You just can't trust everybody": the impact of sexual risk, partner type and perceived partner trustworthiness on HIV-status disclosure decisions among HIV-positive black gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Jason D P; Eversman, Michael; Voisin, Dexter R

    2017-08-01

    HIV remains an intractable public health concern in the USA, with infection rates notably concentrated among Black gay and bisexual men. Status disclosure by HIV-positive individuals can be an important aspect of risk reduction but doing so poses dilemmas concerning privacy, stigma and self-protection, especially among populations subjected to multiple types of stigmatisation. Understanding the factors related to the disclosure process can help to inform prevention efforts. Using exploratory in-depth interviews, this qualitative study examines the disclosure process among a sample of twenty HIV-positive Black gay and bisexual men (mean age = 40) recruited through a non-profit health centre in a mid-western city in the USA. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach with HIV-disclosure as an a priori sensitising concept. Fears of stigma and secondary disclosure within social networks were critical barriers to talking about HIV with sexual partners and disclosure decisions involved a complex process centred on three primary themes: degree of sexual risk, partner type and perceived partner trustworthiness. The unique combinations of these contextual factors resulted in increased or decreased likelihood of disclosure. A conceptual model explicating a potential process by which these contextual factors influence disclosure decisions is presented.

  2. Construction and characterization of HIV type 1 CRF07_BC infectious molecular clone from men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan-Ling; Bai, Wen-Wei; Qu, Fan-Wei; Ma, Hua; Jiang, Run-Sheng; Shen, Bao-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biological characterization of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) CRF07_BC infection among men who have sex with men (MSM). From November 2011 to November 2013, a total of 66 blood samples were collected from MSM with acute HIV-1 infection with CRF07_BC subgroup strains. Deletion in the gag p6 region was detected by sequence alignment and comparative analysis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HNXX1301-1307 samples were separated by density gradient centrifugation. Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was used to amplify the viral DNA. The near full-length HIV-1 DNA products were ligated to the long terminal repeat (LTR) vector plasmid (07BCLTR) to construct a full-length HIV clone. The molecular clone was transfected into HEK-293T cells, TZM-b1 cells and patients' PBMCs. The pregenome of an infectious molecular clone of HIV-1 (pNL4-3) was amplified, and a subclone with CRF07_BC was developed to construct the full-length chimeric molecular clone pNL4-3/07BCLTR. Detection of p24 antigen and luciferase activity was used to measure the in vitro infectivity of pNL4-3/07BCLTR. Among the 66 MSM patients infected with CRF07_BC strains, deletion mutations of the Gag P6 proteins were found in 7 of 18CRF07_BC strains; deletion mutations of 2-13 amino acids in different regions were discovered in 6 strains; and the remaining 42 strains did not show deletions. Seven strains with amino acids deficiency in the P6 protein accounted for 27% of all strains and 75% of all deletion genotype strains. A total of 186 full-length molecular clones of CRF07_BC were constructed. There were 5, 9, 10 and 11 clones of HNXX1302, HNXX1304, HNXX1305 and HNXX1306 that resulted in p24-positive supernatant when transfected into HEK-293T cells. Full-length clones of HNXX1302, HNXX1304, HNXX1305 and HNXX1306 showed slight infection in the transfected TZM-b1 cells, as judged by the fluorescence values of TZM-b1 cells 48h post-transfection. However, we were unable to

  3. Rescue of HIV-1 release by targeting widely divergent NEDD4-type ubiquitin ligases and isolated catalytic HECT domains to Gag.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R Weiss

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses engage the ESCRT pathway through late assembly (L domains in Gag to promote virus release. HIV-1 uses a PTAP motif as its primary L domain, which interacts with the ESCRT-I component Tsg101. In contrast, certain other retroviruses primarily use PPxY-type L domains, which constitute ligands for NEDD4-type ubiquitin ligases. Surprisingly, although HIV-1 Gag lacks PPxY motifs, the release of HIV-1 L domain mutants is potently enhanced by ectopic NEDD4-2s, a native isoform with a naturally truncated C2 domain that appears to account for the residual titer of L domain-defective HIV-1. The reason for the unique potency of the NEDD4-2s isoform has remained unclear. We now show that the naturally truncated C2 domain of NEDD4-2s functions as an autonomous Gag-targeting module that can be functionally replaced by the unrelated Gag-binding protein cyclophilin A (CypA. The residual C2 domain of NEDD4-2s was sufficient to transfer the ability to stimulate HIV-1 budding to other NEDD4 family members, including the yeast homologue Rsp5, and even to isolated catalytic HECT domains. The isolated catalytic domain of NEDD4-2s also efficiently promoted HIV-1 budding when targeted to Gag via CypA. We conclude that the regions typically required for substrate recognition by HECT ubiquitin ligases are all dispensable to stimulate HIV-1 release, implying that the relevant target for ubiquitination is Gag itself or can be recognized by divergent isolated HECT domains. However, the mere ability to ubiquitinate Gag was not sufficient to stimulate HIV-1 budding. Rather, our results indicate that the synthesis of K63-linked ubiquitin chains is critical for ubiquitin ligase-mediated virus release.

  4. Low Prevalence of Transmitted HIV Type 1 Drug Resistance Among Antiretroviral-Naive Adults in a Rural HIV Clinic in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, Amin S.; Mwaringa, Shalton M.; Obonyo, Clare A.; Nabwera, Helen M.; Sanders, Eduard J.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Cane, Patricia A.; Berkley, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Low levels of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) have previously been reported from many parts of sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). However, recent data, mostly from urban settings, suggest an increase in the prevalence of HIV-1 TDR. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of TDR mutations among

  5. Rise in seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 among highly sexual active homosexual men and an increasing association between herpes simplex virus type 2 and HIV over time (1984-2003)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Colette; Pfrommer, Christiaan; Mindel, Adrian; Taylor, Janette; Spaargaren, Joke; Berkhout, Ben; Coutinho, Roel; Dukers, Nicole H. T. M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are both highly prevalent. The rate of genital HSV-1 transmission is reportedly increasing over time. HSV-2 is considered to be an important risk factor for HIV transmission. We therefore studied changes in the HSV-1 and HSV-2

  6. Short communication: identification of a novel HIV type 1 subtype H/J recombinant in Canada with discordant HIV viral load (RNA) values in three different commercial assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John E; Beckthold, Brenda; Chen, Zhaoxia; Mihowich, Jennifer; Malloch, Laurie; Gill, Michael John

    2007-11-01

    The presence of HIV-1 non-B subtypes is increasing worldwide. This poses challenges to commercial diagnostic and viral load (RNA) monitoring tests that are predominantly based on HIV-1 subtype B strains. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the gag, pol, and env gene regions, we describe the first HIV-1 H/J recombinant in Canada that presented divergent viral load values. DNA sequence analysis of the gag gene region further revealed that genetic diversity between this H/J recombinant and the primers and probes used in the bio-Merieux Nuclisens HIV-1 QT (Nuclisens) and Roche Amplicor Monitor HIV-1, v1.5 (Monitor) viral RNA assays can erroneously lead to undetectable viral load values. This observation appears to be more problematic in the Nuclisens assay. In light of increasing genetic diversity in HIV worldwide we recommend that DNA sequencing of HIV, especially in the gag gene region targeted by primers and probes used in molecular diagnostic and viral load tests, be incorporated into clinical monitoring practices.

  7. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nuclear import via Vpr-Importin α interactions as a novel HIV-1 therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsunori; Yamamoto, Norio; Nonaka, Mizuho; Hashimoto, Yoshie; Matsuda, Go; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Matsuyama, Megumi; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Miura, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Kato, Shingo; Aida, Yoko

    2009-01-01

    The development of multidrug-resistant viruses compromises the efficacy of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy and limits treatment options. Therefore, new targets that can be used to develop novel antiviral agents need to be identified. One such target is the interaction between Vpr, one of the accessory gene products of HIV-1 and Importin α, which is crucial, not only for the nuclear import of Vpr, but also for HIV-1 replication in macrophages. We have identified a potential parent compound, hematoxylin, which suppresses Vpr-Importin α interaction, thereby inhibiting HIV-1 replication in a Vpr-dependent manner. Analysis by real-time PCR demonstrated that hematoxylin specifically inhibited nuclear import step of pre-integration complex. Thus, hematoxylin is a new anti-HIV-1 inhibitor that targets the nuclear import of HIV-1 via the Vpr-Importin α interaction, suggesting that a specific inhibitor of the interaction between viral protein and the cellular factor may provide a new strategy for HIV-1 therapy.

  8. Sequence quality analysis tool for HIV type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delong, Allison K; Wu, Mingham; Bennett, Diane; Parkin, Neil; Wu, Zhijin; Hogan, Joseph W; Kantor, Rami

    2012-08-01

    Access to antiretroviral therapy is increasing globally and drug resistance evolution is anticipated. Currently, protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequence generation is increasing, including the use of in-house sequencing assays, and quality assessment prior to sequence analysis is essential. We created a computational HIV PR/RT Sequence Quality Analysis Tool (SQUAT) that runs in the R statistical environment. Sequence quality thresholds are calculated from a large dataset (46,802 PR and 44,432 RT sequences) from the published literature ( http://hivdb.Stanford.edu ). Nucleic acid sequences are read into SQUAT, identified, aligned, and translated. Nucleic acid sequences are flagged if with >five 1-2-base insertions; >one 3-base insertion; >one deletion; >six PR or >18 RT ambiguous bases; >three consecutive PR or >four RT nucleic acid mutations; >zero stop codons; >three PR or >six RT ambiguous amino acids; >three consecutive PR or >four RT amino acid mutations; >zero unique amino acids; or 15% genetic distance from another submitted sequence. Thresholds are user modifiable. SQUAT output includes a summary report with detailed comments for troubleshooting of flagged sequences, histograms of pairwise genetic distances, neighbor joining phylogenetic trees, and aligned nucleic and amino acid sequences. SQUAT is a stand-alone, free, web-independent tool to ensure use of high-quality HIV PR/RT sequences in interpretation and reporting of drug resistance, while increasing awareness and expertise and facilitating troubleshooting of potentially problematic sequences.

  9. Enhanced Molecular Typing of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum Strains From 4 Italian Hospitals Shows Geographical Differences in Strain Type Heterogeneity, Widespread Resistance to Macrolides, and Lack of Mutations Associated With Doxycycline Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Ciccarese, Giulia; Puga-Salazar, Christian; Dal Conte, Ivano; Colli, Laura; Cusini, Marco; Ramoni, Stefano; Delmonte, Sergio; DʼAntuono, Antonietta; Gaspari, Valeria; Drago, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    Although syphilis rates have been relatively high in Italy for more than 15 years, no data on the molecular types of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum circulating in this country are yet available. Likewise, no data on how widespread is resistance to macrolide or tetracycline antibiotics in these strains exist. Such data would, however, promote comprehensive studies on the molecular epidemiology of syphilis infections in Italy and inform future interventions aiming at syphilis control in this and other European countries. Swabs from oral, genital, cutaneous, or anal lesions were obtained from 60 syphilis patients attending dermatology clinics in Milan, Turin, Genoa, and Bologna. Molecular typing of T. pallidum DNA was performed to provide a snapshot of the genetic diversity of strains circulating in Northern Italy. Samples were also screened for mutations conferring resistance to macrolides and tetracyclines. T. pallidum DNA was detected in 88.3% (53/60) of the specimens analyzed. Complete and partial T. pallidum typing data were obtained for 77.3% (41/53) and 15.0% (8/53) of samples, respectively, whereas 4 samples could not be typed despite T. pallidum DNA being detected. The highest strain type heterogeneity was seen in samples from Bologna and Milan, followed by Genoa. Minimal diversity was detected in samples from Turin, despite the highest number of typeable samples collected there. Resistance to macrolides was detected in 94.3% (50/53) of the strains, but no known mutations associated with tetracycline resistance were found. Genetic diversity among T. pallidum strains circulating in Northern Italy varies significantly among geographical areas regardless of physical distance. Resistance to macrolides is widespread.

  10. Phylodynamic and Phylogeographic Patterns of the HIV Type 1 Subtype F1 Parenteral Epidemic in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hué, Stéphane; Buckton, Andrew J.; Myers, Richard E.; Duiculescu, Dan; Ene, Luminita; Oprea, Cristiana; Tardei, Gratiela; Rugina, Sorin; Mardarescu, Mariana; Floch, Corinne; Notheis, Gundula; Zöhrer, Bettina; Cane, Patricia A.; Pillay, Deenan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the late 1980s an HIV-1 epidemic emerged in Romania that was dominated by subtype F1. The main route of infection is believed to be parenteral transmission in children. We sequenced partial pol coding regions of 70 subtype F1 samples from children and adolescents from the PENTA-EPPICC network of which 67 were from Romania. Phylogenetic reconstruction using the sequences and other publically available global subtype F sequences showed that 79% of Romanian F1 sequences formed a statistically robust monophyletic cluster. The monophyletic cluster was epidemiologically linked to parenteral transmission in children. Coalescent-based analysis dated the origins of the parenteral epidemic to 1983 [1981–1987; 95% HPD]. The analysis also shows that the epidemic's effective population size has remained fairly constant since the early 1990s suggesting limited onward spread of the virus within the population. Furthermore, phylogeographic analysis suggests that the root location of the parenteral epidemic was Bucharest. PMID:22251065

  11. Global dispersal pattern of HIV type 1 subtype CRF01-AE : A genetic trace of human mobility related to heterosexual sexual activities centralized in southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelis, Konstantinos; Albert, Jan; Mamais, Ioannis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Hatzakis, Angelos; Hamouda, Osamah; Struck, Daniel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Wensing, Annemarie M J; Alexiev, Ivailo; Åsjö, Birgitta; Balotta, Claudia; Camacho, Ricardo J.; Coughlan, Suzie; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Grossman, Zehava; Horban, Andrzej; Kostrikis, Leondios G.; Lepej, Snjezana; Liitsola, Kirsi; Linka, Marek; Nielsen, Claus; Otelea, Dan; Paredes, Roger; Poljak, Mario; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Schmit, Jean Claude; Sönnerborg, Anders; Staneková, Danica; Stanojevic, Maja; Boucher, Charles A B; Kaplan, Lauren; Vandamme, Anne Mieke; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype CRF01-AE originated in Africa and then passed to Thailand, where it established a major epidemic. Despite the global presence of CRF01-AE, little is known about its subsequent dispersal pattern. Methods. We assembled a global data set

  12. Predictors of CD4(+) T-Cell Counts of HIV Type 1–Infected Persons After Virologic Failure of All 3 Original Antiretroviral Drug Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costagliola, Dominique; Ledergerber, Bruno; Torti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Low CD4(+) T-cell counts are the main factor leading to clinical progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. We aimed to investigate factors affecting CD4(+) T-cell counts after triple-class virological failure....

  13. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Key populations are groups who are at increased risk of HIV irrespective of epidemic type or local context. They include: men who have sex with men, ... HIV testing and counselling; HIV treatment and care; risk-reduction ... management of STIs, tuberculosis and viral hepatitis. Elimination of ...

  14. Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus type-2 (HSV-2) among pregnant women who participated in a national HIV surveillance activity in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domercant, Jean Wysler; Jean Louis, Frantz; Hulland, Erin; Griswold, Mark; Andre-Alboth, Jocelyne; Ye, Tun; Marston, Barbara J

    2017-08-18

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), one the most common causes of genital ulcers, appears to increase both the risk of HIV acquisition and HIV transmission. HSV-2/HIV co-infection among pregnant women may increase the risk of perinatal transmission of HIV. This study describes rates of HSV-2 among pregnant women in Haiti and HSV-2 test performance in this population. Unlinked residual serum specimens from the 2012 National HIV and Syphilis Sentinel Surveillance Survey among pregnant women in Haiti were tested using two commercial kits (Focus HerpeSelect, Kalon) for HSV-2 antibodies. We evaluated rates of HSV-2 seropositivity and HSV-2/HIV co-infection, associations between HSV-2 and demographic characteristics using multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling, and HSV-2 test performance in this population. Serum samples from 1000 pregnant women (all 164 HIV positive and 836 random HIV negative) were selected. The overall weighted prevalence of HSV-2 was 31.4% (95% CI: 27.7-35.4) and the prevalence of HIV-positivity among HSV-2 positive pregnant women was five times higher than the prevalence among HSV-2 negative women (4.8% [95% CI: 3.9-6.0] vs. 0.9% [95% CI: 0.6-1.3], respectively). Factors significantly associated with HSV-2 positivity were HIV-positivity (PR: 2.27 [95% CI: 1.94-2.65]) and older age (PRs: 1.41 [95% CI: 1.05-1.91] for 20-24 years, 1.71 [95% CI:1.13-2.60] for 30-34 years, and 1.55 [95% CI: 1.10-2.19] for 35 years or greater]), while rural residence was negatively associated with HSV-2 positivity (PR 0.83 [95% CI: 0.69-1.00]), after controlling for other covariables. For this study a conservative Focus index cutoff of 3.5 was used, but among samples with a Focus index value ≥2.5, 98.4% had positive Kalon tests. The prevalence of HSV-2 is relatively high among pregnant women in Haiti. Public health interventions to increase access to HSV-2 screening in antenatal services are warranted.

  15. Evaluating HIV Prevention Programs: Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Antibodies as Biomarker for Sexual Risk Behavior in Young Adults in Resource-Poor Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Behling

    Full Text Available Measuring effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions is challenged by bias when using self-reported knowledge, attitude or behavior change. HIV incidence is an objective marker to measure effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions, however, because new infection rates are relatively low, prevention studies require large sample sizes. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 is similarly transmitted and more prevalent and could thus serve as a proxy marker for sexual risk behavior and therefore HIV infection.HSV-2 antibodies were assessed in a sub-study of 70,000 students participating in an education intervention in Western Province, Kenya. Feasibility of testing for HSV-2 antibodies was assessed comparing two methods using Fisher's exact test. Three hundred and ninety four students (aged 18 to 22 years were randomly chosen from the cohort and tested for HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Out of these, 139 students were tested for HSV-2 with ELISA and surveyed for sexual risk behavior and 89 students were additionally tested for HSV-2 with a point-of-contact (POC test.Prevalence rates were 0.5%, 1.8%, 0.3% and 2.3% for HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, respectively. Prevalence of HSV-2 antibodies was 3.4 % as measured by POC test (n=89 and 14.4 % by ELISA (n=139. Specificity of the POC test compared with ELISA was 100%, and the sensitivity only 23.1%. Associations between self-reported sexual behavior and HSV-2 serostatus could not be shown.Associations between self-reported sexual risk behavior and HSV-2 serostatus could not be shown, probably due to social bias in interviews since its transmission is clearly linked. HSV-2 antibody testing is feasible in resource-poor settings and shows higher prevalence rates than other sexually transmitted diseases thus representing a potential biomarker for evaluation of HIV prevention interventions.

  16. HIV providers' likelihood to prescribe pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention differs by patient type: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Leah M; Balderson, Benjamin H

    2016-09-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), the antiretroviral treatment regimen for HIV-negative people at high risk of acquiring HIV, has demonstrated efficacy across clinical trials in several patient populations. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have released detailed guidelines to aid providers in prescribing PrEP for their high-risk patients, including men who have sex with men (MSM), high-risk heterosexuals, and injection drug users (IDUs). Given that much attention in PrEP has focused on MSM patients, the present study used an online survey to assess factors involved in HIV care providers' (n = 363) decisions about prescribing PrEP, along with their willingness to prescribe PrEP to patients from various risk populations (e.g., MSM, heterosexuals, IDUs). The efficacy of PrEP was an important factor in providers' decisions about prescribing PrEP, as were considerations about patients' adherence to the regimen, regular follow-up for care, and medication costs. This survey's findings also suggest that providers' willingness to prescribe PrEP varies by patient group, with providers most willing to initiate the regimen with MSM who have an HIV-positive partner, and least willing to prescribe to high-risk heterosexuals or IDUs. In the context of the current CDC recommendations for PrEP that include MSM, heterosexuals, and IDUs, examining providers' rationales for and barriers against supporting this HIV prevention strategy across patient groups merits further attention.

  17. Immunological responses during a virologically failing antiretroviral regimen are associated with in vivo synonymous mutation rates of HIV type-1 env

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mens, Helene; Jørgensen, Louise Bruun; Kronborg, Gitte

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the underlying causes of differences in immunological response to antiretroviral therapy during multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV type-1 (HIV-1) infection. This study aimed to identify virological factors associated with immunological response during therapy failure...... for analysis. In a longitudinal mixed-effects model, plasma HIV-1 RNA only tended to predict immunological response (P=0.06), whereas minor protease inhibitor (PI) and nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NRTI) mutations at baseline correlated significantly with CD4+ T-cell count slopes (r= -0.56, P=0.04 and r......= -0.64, P=0.008, respectively). Interestingly, synonymous mutations of env correlated inversely with CD4+ T-cell count slopes (r=-0.60; P=0.01) and individuals with codons under positive selection had significantly better CD4+ T-cell responses than individuals without (0.42 versus -5.34; P=0...

  18. UV-induced transcription from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat and UV-induced secretion of an extracellular factor that induces HIV-1 transcription in nonirradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, B.; Kraemer, M.R.; Rahmsdorf, H.J.; Ponta, H.; Herrlich, P.

    1989-01-01

    UV irradiation, but not visible sunlight, induces the transcription of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Chimeric constructs carrying all or parts of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat linked to an indicator gene were transfected into HeLa cells or murine and human T-cell lines, and their response to irradiation was tested. The cis-acting element conferring UV responsiveness is identical to the sequence binding transcription factor NF kappa B. UV irradiation enhances NF kappa B binding activity as assayed by gel retardation experiments. Interestingly, the requirement for UV irradiation can be replaced by cocultivation of transfected cells with UV-irradiated nontransfected (HIV-1-negative) cells. A UV-induced extracellular protein factor is detected in the culture medium conditioned by UV-treated cells. The factor is produced upon UV irradiation by several murine and human cell lines, including HeLa, Molt-4, and Jurkat, and acts on several cells. These data suggest that the UV response of keratinocytes in human skin can be magnified and spread to deeper layers that are more shielded, including the Langerhans cells, and that this indirect UV response may contribute to the activation of HIV-1 in humans

  19. Activities of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor nelfinavir mesylate in combination with reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors against acute HIV-1 infection in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Patick, A K; Boritzki, T J; Bloom, L A

    1997-01-01

    Nelfinavir mesylate (formerly AG1343) is a potent and selective, nonpeptidic inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease that was discovered by protein structure-based design methodologies. We evaluated the antiviral and cytotoxic effects of two-drug combinations of nelfinavir with the clinically approved antiretroviral therapeutics zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC), dideoxycytidine (ddC; zalcitabine), stavudine (d4T), didanosine (ddI), indinavir, saquinavir, and ritona...

  20. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ( ... people with HIV and AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

  1. Normal telomere lengths in naive and memory CD4+ T cells in HIV type 1 infection: a mathematical interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, K. C.; Noest, A. J.; Otto, S. A.; Miedema, F.; de Boer, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    To study CD4+ T cell productivity during HIV-1 infection, CD4+ T cell telomere lengths were measured. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T cells counts >300 cells/mm3 showed normal average telomeric restriction fragment (TRF) length and normal

  2. Normal telomere lengths in naive and memory CD4 T cells in HIV type 1 infection : a mathematical interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, K.C.; Noest, A.J.; Otto, S.A.; Miedema, F.; Boer, R.J. de

    1999-01-01

    To study CD4+ T cell productivity during HIV-1 infection, CD4+ T cell telomere lengths were measured. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T cells counts >300 cells/mm3 showed normal average telomeric restriction fragment (TRF) length and normal

  3. Differences in HIV Type 1 RNA Plasma Load Profile of Closely Related Cocirculating Ethiopian Subtype C Strains: C and C '

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayele, Workenesh; Mekonnen, Yared; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Mengistu, Yohannes; Tsegaye, Aster; Bakker, Margreet; Berkhout, Ben; Dorigo-Zetsma, Wendelien; Wolday, Dawit; Goudsmit, Jaap; Coutinho, Roel; de Baar, Michel; Paxton, William A.; Pollakis, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    Two HIV-1 subtype C subclusters have been identified in Ethiopia (C and C') with little knowledge regarding their biological or clinical differences. We longitudinally monitored HIV-1 viral loads and CD4(+) T cell counts for 130 subtype C-infected individuals from Ethiopia over 5 years. The genetic

  4. Compartmentalized Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Originates from Long-Lived Cells in Some Subjects with HIV-1–Associated Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Gretja; Spudich, Serena; Harrington, Patrick; Price, Richard W.; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) invades the central nervous system (CNS) shortly after systemic infection and can result in the subsequent development of HIV-1–associated dementia (HAD) in a subset of infected individuals. Genetically compartmentalized virus in the CNS is associated with HAD, suggesting autonomous viral replication as a factor in the disease process. We examined the source of compartmentalized HIV-1 in the CNS of subjects with HIV-1–associated neurological disease and in asymptomatic subjects who were initiating antiretroviral therapy. The heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA), targeting the variable regions of env, was used to determine which HIV-1 genetic variants in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were compartmentalized and which variants were shared with the blood plasma. We then measured the viral decay kinetics of individual variants after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Compartmentalized HIV-1 variants in the CSF of asymptomatic subjects decayed rapidly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, with a mean half-life of 1.57 days. Rapid viral decay was also measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in four HAD subjects (t1/2 mean = 2.27 days). However, slow viral decay was measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants from an additional four subjects with neurological disease (t1/2 range = 9.85 days to no initial decay). The slow decay detected for CSF-compartmentalized variants was not associated with poor CNS drug penetration, drug resistant virus in the CSF, or the presence of X4 virus genotypes. We found that the slow decay measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in subjects with neurological disease was correlated with low peripheral CD4 cell count and reduced CSF pleocytosis. We propose a model in which infiltrating macrophages replace CD4+ T cells as the primary source of productive viral replication in the CNS to maintain high viral loads in the CSF in a substantial subset of subjects with HAD

  5. Molecular epidemiological analysis of env and pol sequences in newly diagnosed HIV type 1-infected, untreated patients in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezei, Mária; Ay, Eva; Koroknai, Anita; Tóth, Renáta; Balázs, Andrea; Bakos, Agnes; Gyori, Zoltán; Bánáti, Ferenc; Marschalkó, Márta; Kárpáti, Sarolta; Minárovits, János

    2011-11-01

    The aim of our study was to monitor the diversity of HIV-1 strains circulating in Hungary and investigate the prevalence of resistance-associated mutations to reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) inhibitors in newly diagnosed, drug-naive patients. A total of 30 HIV-1-infected patients without prior antiretroviral treatment diagnosed during the period 2008-2010 were included into this study. Viral subtypes and the presence of RT, PR resistance-associated mutations were established by sequencing. Classification of HIV-1 strains showed that 29 (96.6%) patients were infected with subtype B viruses and one patient (3.3%) with subtype A virus. The prevalence of HIV-1 strains with transmitted drug resistance mutations in newly diagnosed individuals was 16.6% (5/30). This study showed that HIV-1 subtype B is still highly predominant in Hungary and documented a relatively high transmission rate of drug resistance in our country.

  6. [Correspondence analysis on the types of social support and the role of the supporters towards people living with HIV/AIDS in rural areas, Henan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Zeng, Ting-ting; Lv, Jun; Cao, Wei-hua

    2010-04-01

    To explore the relationship between types of social support and roles of supporters, on people living with HIV/AIDS, in rural areas of Henan province. A rural area from Henan province where the main route of HIV transmission was through blood collection was selected as the research site. Survivors registered in that area were randomly selected as subjects. Questionnaire on social support related to social network analysis paradigm was designed and face-to-face interview was used to collect information. Correspondence analysis method was adopted to analyze the relationship between types of social support and roles of social supporters. 204 questionnaires were sorted out with 2227 pairs of bind between types of social support and roles of social supporters analyzed. According to scatter plot of row and column points, our data showed that support from the spouses was mainly associated with caring for daily life and companionship for medical treatment on the patients. The research subjects stated that they would primarily discuss over the major issues or chat with their parents and children as they were the ones that they could trust the most. However, they would turn to their brothers, sisters or other relatives to borrow money or asking for other kinds of help. Non-relatives were the resources on social interaction, like going-out together or borrowing life necessities. Supporters with different social roles on HIV/AIDS issues, appeared to be corresponded to specific types of social support in rural areas of Henan province.

  7. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  8. Virological and immunological response to antiretroviral regimens containing maraviroc in HIV type 1-infected patients in clinical practice: role of different tropism testing results and of concomitant treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Barbara; Bianco, Claudia; Bellazzi, Lara Ines; Bruzzone, Bianca; Colao, Grazia; Corsi, Paola; Monno, Laura; Pagano, Gabriella; Paolucci, Stefania; Punzi, Grazia; Setti, Maurizio; Zazzi, Maurizio; De Luca, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the immunovirological response to antiretroviral regimens containing maraviroc in HIV-infected viremic patients with viral tropism predicted by different assays. We selected antiretroviral treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients initiating regimens containing maraviroc after different phenotypic or genotypic viral tropism assays, with at least one HIV-1 RNA determination during follow-up. Survival analysis was employed to assess the virological response as time to HIV-1 RNA immunological response as time to a CD4 cell count increase of ≥ 100/μl from baseline. Predictors of these outcomes were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression models. In 191 treatments with maraviroc, virological response was achieved in 65.4% and the response was modestly influenced by the baseline viral load and concomitant drug activity but not influenced by the type of tropism assay employed. Immunological response was achieved in 58.1%; independent predictors were baseline HIV-1 RNA (per log10 higher: HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.60) and concomitant therapy with enfuvirtide (HR 2.05, 0.96-4.39) but not tropism assay results. Of 17 patients with baseline R5-tropic virus and available tropism results while viremic during follow-up on maraviroc, seven (41%) showed a tropism switch to non-R5 virus. A significant proportion of experienced patients treated with regimens containing maraviroc achieved virological response. The tropism test type used was not associated with immunovirological response and concomitant treatment with enfuvirtide increased the chance of immunological response. More than half of virological failures with maraviroc were not accompanied by tropism switch.

  9. Identification of a current hot spot of HIV type 1 transmission in Mongolia by molecular epidemiological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaalkham, Jagdagsuren; Unenchimeg, Puntsag; Baigalmaa, Chultem; Erdenetuya, Gombo; Nyamkhuu, Dulmaa; Shiino, Teiichiro; Tsuchiya, Kiyoto; Hayashida, Tsunefusa; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Oka, Shinichi

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the current molecular epidemiological status of HIV-1 in Mongolia, a country with very low incidence of HIV-1 though with rapid expansion in recent years. HIV-1 pol (1065 nt) and env (447 nt) genes were sequenced to construct phylogenetic trees. The evolutionary rates, molecular clock phylogenies, and other evolutionary parameters were estimated from heterochronous genomic sequences of HIV-1 subtype B by the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method. We obtained 41 sera from 56 reported HIV-1-positive cases as of May 2009. The main route of infection was men who have sex with men (MSM). Dominant subtypes were subtype B in 32 cases (78%) followed by subtype CRF02_AG (9.8%). The phylogenetic analysis of the pol gene identified two clusters in subtype B sequences. Cluster 1 consisted of 21 cases including MSM and other routes of infection, and cluster 2 consisted of eight MSM cases. The tree analyses demonstrated very short branch lengths in cluster 1, suggesting a surprisingly active expansion of HIV-1 transmission during a short period with the same ancestor virus. Evolutionary analysis indicated that the outbreak started around the early 2000s. This study identified a current hot spot of HIV-1 transmission and potential seed of the epidemic in Mongolia. Comprehensive preventive measures targeting this group are urgently needed.

  10. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections; Strain and Type Variations; Diagnosis and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-26

    Scarlatti et al. 1992 (41) 1 1 Arendrup et al. 1992 (42) SIVsm/monkey 7 0 Zhang et al. manuscript (43) B) Sequential samples: serum collected >6 months...983-990. 1991. 12. Scarlatti , G, Lombardi, V, Plebani, A, Principi, N, Chiara, V, Ferraris, G, Bucceri, A, Feny6, E M, Wigzell, H, Rossi, P, and...envelope glycoprotein gp125 of human immunodeficiency virus type2. Manuscript. M2. Scarlatti , G, Albert, J, Rossi, P, Hodara, V, Biraghi, P, Muggiasca

  11. Geographic Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  12. Vegetation Changes in the Permafrost Regions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 1982-2012: Different Responses Related to Geographical Locations and Vegetation Types in High-Altitude Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Wang

    Full Text Available The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP contains the largest permafrost area in a high-altitude region in the world, and the unique hydrothermal environments of the active layers in this region have an important impact on vegetation growth. Geographical locations present different climatic conditions, and in combination with the permafrost environments, these conditions comprehensively affect the local vegetation activity. Therefore, the responses of vegetation to climate change in the permafrost region of the QTP may be varied differently by geographical location and vegetation condition. In this study, using the latest Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI product based on turning points (TPs, which were calculated using a piecewise linear model, 9 areas within the permafrost region of the QTP were selected to investigate the effect of geographical location and vegetation type on vegetation growth from 1982 to 2012. The following 4 vegetation types were observed in the 9 selected study areas: alpine swamp meadow, alpine meadow, alpine steppe and alpine desert. The research results show that, in these study areas, TPs mainly appeared in 2000 and 2001, and almost 55.1% and 35.0% of the TPs were located in 2000 and 2001. The global standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI and 7 meteorological variables were selected to analyze their correlations with NDVI. We found that the main correlative variables to vegetation productivity in study areas from 1982 to 2012 were precipitation, surface downward long-wave radiation and temperature. Furthermore, NDVI changes exhibited by different vegetation types within the same study area followed similar trends. The results show that regional effects rather than vegetation type had a larger impact on changes in vegetation growth in the permafrost regions of the QTP, indicating that climatic factors had a larger impact in the permafrost

  13. Social Media and HIV: A Systematic Review of Uses of Social Media in HIV Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Tamara; Grewe, Mary Elisabeth; Conserve, Donaldson F; Gliwa, Catherine; Roman Isler, Malika

    2015-11-02

    Social media, including mobile technologies and social networking sites, are being used increasingly as part of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and treatment efforts. As an important avenue for communication about HIV, social media use may continue to increase and become more widespread. The objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive systematic review of the current published literature on the design, users, benefits, and limitations of using social media to communicate about HIV prevention and treatment. This review paper used a systematic approach to survey all literature published before February 2014 using 7 electronic databases and a manual search. The inclusion criteria were (1) primary focus on communication/interaction about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), (2) discusses the use of social media to facilitate communication, (3) communication on the social media platform is between individuals or a group of individuals rather than the use of preset, automated responses from a platform, (4) published before February 19, 2014, and (5) all study designs. The search identified 35 original research studies. Thirty studies had low or unclear risk of at least one of the bias items in the methodological quality assessment. Among the 8 social media platform types described, short message service text messaging was most commonly used. Platforms served multiple purposes including disseminating health information, conducting health promotion, sharing experiences, providing social support, and promoting medication adherence. Social media users were diverse in geographic location and race/ethnicity; studies commonly reported users aged 18-40 years and users with lower income. Although most studies did not specify whether use was anonymous, studies reported the importance of anonymity in social media use to communicate about HIV largely due to the stigma associated with HIV. The ability to share and receive information about HIV was

  14. Social Media and HIV: A Systematic Review of Uses of Social Media in HIV Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Mary Elisabeth; Conserve, Donaldson F; Gliwa, Catherine; Roman Isler, Malika

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media, including mobile technologies and social networking sites, are being used increasingly as part of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and treatment efforts. As an important avenue for communication about HIV, social media use may continue to increase and become more widespread. Objective The objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive systematic review of the current published literature on the design, users, benefits, and limitations of using social media to communicate about HIV prevention and treatment. Methods This review paper used a systematic approach to survey all literature published before February 2014 using 7 electronic databases and a manual search. The inclusion criteria were (1) primary focus on communication/interaction about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), (2) discusses the use of social media to facilitate communication, (3) communication on the social media platform is between individuals or a group of individuals rather than the use of preset, automated responses from a platform, (4) published before February 19, 2014, and (5) all study designs. Results The search identified 35 original research studies. Thirty studies had low or unclear risk of at least one of the bias items in the methodological quality assessment. Among the 8 social media platform types described, short message service text messaging was most commonly used. Platforms served multiple purposes including disseminating health information, conducting health promotion, sharing experiences, providing social support, and promoting medication adherence. Social media users were diverse in geographic location and race/ethnicity; studies commonly reported users aged 18-40 years and users with lower income. Although most studies did not specify whether use was anonymous, studies reported the importance of anonymity in social media use to communicate about HIV largely due to the stigma associated with HIV. The ability to share and

  15. The effects of HIV disease and older age on laboratory-based, naturalistic, and self-perceived symptoms of prospective memory: does retrieval cue type and delay interval matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, G; Loft, S; Sheppard, D P; Woods, S P

    2016-11-01

    There is a rising prevalence of older HIV+ adults who are at risk of deficits in higher order neurocognitive functions and associated problems in everyday functioning. The current study applied multiprocess theory to examine the effects of HIV and aging on measures of laboratory-based, naturalistic, and self-perceived symptoms of prospective memory (PM). Participants included 125 Younger (48 with HIV, age = 32 ± 4.6 years) and 189 Older (112 with HIV, age = 56 ± 4.9 years) adults. Controlling for global neurocognitive functioning, mood, and other demographics, older age and HIV had independent effects on long-delay time-based PM in the laboratory, whereas on a naturalistic PM task older HIV- adults performed better than older HIV+ adults and younger persons. In line with the naturalistic findings, older age, but not HIV, was associated with a relative sparing of self-perceived PM failures in daily life across longer delay self-cued intervals. Findings suggest that, even in relatively younger aging cohorts, the effects of HIV and older age on PM can vary across PM delay intervals by the strategic demands of the retrieval cue type, are expressed differently in the laboratory and in daily life, and are independent of other higher order neurocognitive functions (e.g., retrospective memory).

  16. Therapeutic Vaccination Using Cationic Liposome-Adjuvanted HIV Type 1 Peptides Representing HLA-Supertype-Restricted Subdominant T Cell Epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Román, Victor Raúl Gómez; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Jensen, Sanne Skov

    2013-01-01

    We have designed a therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine concept based on peptides together with the adjuvant CAF01. Peptides represented 15 HLA-supertype-restricted subdominant and conserved CD8 T cell epitopes and three CD4 T-helper cell epitopes. In this phase I clinical trial, safety and immunogenicity...... were assessed in untreated HIV-1-infected individuals in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Twenty-three HIV-1-infected individuals were randomized to receive placebo (n=5) or vaccine (n=18). Safety was appraised by clinical follow-up combined with monitoring of biochemistry, hematology, CD4 T cell counts......, and HIV-1 viral loads. T cell immunogenicity was monitored longitudinally by interferon (IFN)-γ ELISpot. New vaccine-specific T cell responses were induced in 6/14 vaccinees for whom ELISpot data were valid. CD4 T cell counts and viral loads were stable. The study shows that therapeutic immunization...

  17. Prevalence, incidence and determinants of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among HIV-seronegative women at high-risk of HIV infection: a prospective study in Beira, Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Meque

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence, incidence and determinants of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2 infection, and associations between HSV-2 and incident HIV infection, among women at higher risk for HIV infection in Beira, Mozambique.Between 2009 and 2012, 411 women aged 18-35 years at higher risk of HIV acquisition (defined as having had two or more sexual partners in the month prior to study enrollment were enrolled and followed monthly for one year. At each study visit, they were counseled, interviewed, and tested for HSV-2 and HIV antibodies.The HSV-2 prevalence at baseline was 60.6% (95% CI: 55.7% -65.4%. Increasing age (aOR = 2.94, 95% CI: 1.74-4.97, P<0.001 and aOR = 3.39, 95% CI: 1.58-7.29, P = 0.002 for age groups of 21-24 and 25-35 years old respectively, lower educational level (aOR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.09-3.02, P = 0.022, working full time (aOR = 8.56, 95% CI: 1.01-72.53, P = 0.049 and having practiced oral sex (aOR = 3.02, 95% CI: 1.16-7.89, P = 0.024 were strongly associated with prevalent HSV-2 infection. Thirty one participants seroconverted for HSV-2 (20.5%; 95% CI: 14.4% -27.9% and 22 for HIV during the study period. The frequency of vaginal sex with a casual partner using a condom in the last 7 days was independently associated with incident HSV-2 infection (aOR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.05-3.47, P = 0.034. Positive HSV-2 serology at baseline was not significantly associated with risk of subsequent HIV seroconversion.Young women engaging in risky sexual behaviors in Beira had high prevalence and incidence of HSV-2 infection. Improved primary HSV-2 control strategies are urgently needed in Beira.

  18. The power of siblings and caregivers: under-explored types of social support among children affected by HIV and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Sharer, Melissa; Cluver, Lucie; Shields, Joseph J.; Ahearn, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Children affected by HIV and AIDS have significantly higher rates of mental health problems than unaffected children. There is a need for research to examine how social support functions as a source of resiliency for children in high HIV-prevalence settings such as South Africa. The purpose of this research was to explore how family social support relates to depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress (PTS). Using the ecological model as a frame, data were drawn from a 2011 cross-...

  19. Safety and efficacy of dolutegravir in treatment-experienced subjects with raltegravir-resistant HIV type 1 infection: 24-week results of the VIKING Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eron, Joseph J; Clotet, Bonaventura; Durant, Jacques; Katlama, Christine; Kumar, Princy; Lazzarin, Adriano; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Richmond, Gary; Soriano, Vincent; Ait-Khaled, Mounir; Fujiwara, Tamio; Huang, Jenny; Min, Sherene; Vavro, Cindy; Yeo, Jane

    2013-03-01

    Dolutegravir (DTG; S/GSK1349572), a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase inhibitor, has limited cross-resistance to raltegravir (RAL) and elvitegravir in vitro. This phase IIb study assessed the activity of DTG in HIV-1-infected subjects with genotypic evidence of RAL resistance. Subjects received DTG 50 mg once daily (cohort I) or 50 mg twice daily (cohort II) while continuing a failing regimen (without RAL) through day 10, after which the background regimen was optimized, when feasible, for cohort I, and at least 1 fully active drug was mandated for cohort II. The primary efficacy end point was the proportion of subjects on day 11 in whom the plasma HIV-1 RNA load decreased by ≥0.7 log(10) copies/mL from baseline or was <400 copies/mL. A rapid antiviral response was observed. More subjects achieved the primary end point in cohort II (23 of 24 [96%]), compared with cohort I (21 of 27 [78%]) at day 11. At week 24, 41% and 75% of subjects had an HIV-1 RNA load of <50 copies/mL in cohorts I and II, respectively. Further integrase genotypic evolution was uncommon. Dolutegravir had a good, similar safety profile with each dosing regimen. Dolutegravir 50 mg twice daily with an optimized background provided greater and more durable benefit than the once-daily regimen. These data are the first clinical demonstration of the activity of any integrase inhibitor in subjects with HIV-1 resistant to RAL.

  20. A qualitative study on the experiences and perspectives of public sector patients in Cape Town in managing the workload of demands of HIV and type 2 diabetes multimorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matima, Rangarirai; Murphy, Katherine; Levitt, Naomi S; BeLue, Rhonda; Oni, Tolu

    2018-01-01

    Current South African health policy for chronic disease management proposes integration of chronic services for better outcomes for chronic conditions; that is based on the Integrated Chronic Disease Model (ICDM). However, scant data exist on how patients with chronic multimorbidities currently experience the (re)-organisation of health services and what their perceived needs are in order to enhance the management of their conditions. A qualitative study was conducted in a community health centre treating both HIV and diabetes patients in Cape Town. The study was grounded in the Shippee's Cumulative Complexity Model (CCM) and explored "patient workload" and "patient capacity" to manage chronic conditions. Individual interviews were conducted with 10 adult patient-participants with HIV and type two diabetes (T2D) multimorbidity and 6 healthcare workers who provided health services to these patient-participants. Patient-participants in this study experienced clinic-related workload such as: two separate clinics for HIV and T2D and perceived and experienced power mismatch between patients and healthcare workers. Self-care related workloads were largely around nutritional requirements, pill burden, and stigma. Burden of these demands varied in difficulty among patient-participants due to capacity factors such as: positive attitudes, optimal health literacy, social support and availability of economic resources. Strategies mentioned by participants for improved continuity of care and self-management of multi-morbidities included integration of chronic services, consolidated guidelines for healthcare workers, educational materials for patients, improved information systems and income for patients. Using the CCM to explore multimorbidity captured most of the themes around "patient workload" and "patient capacity", and was thus a suitable framework to explore multimorbidity in this high HIV/T2D burden setting. Integration of chronic services and addressing social

  1. Citrullinemia type I, classical variant. Identification of ASS-p~G390R (c.1168G>A) mutation in families of a limited geographic area of Argentina: a possible population cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laróvere, Laura E; Angaroni, Celia J; Antonozzi, Sandra L; Bezard, Miriam B; Shimohama, Mariko; de Kremer, Raquel Dodelson

    2009-07-01

    Citrullinemia type I (CTLN1) is an urea cycle defect caused by mutations in the argininosuccinate synthetase gene. We report the first identification in Argentina of patients with CTLN1 in a limited geographic area. Molecular analysis in patient/relatives included PCR, sequencing and restriction enzyme assay. The studied families showed the same mutation: ASS~p.G390R, associated with the early-onset/severe phenotype. We postulate a possible population cluster. A program to know the carrier frequency in that population is in progress.

  2. Estimation of the Binding Free Energy of AC1NX476 to HIV-1 Protease Wild Type and Mutations Using Free Energy Perturbation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Son Tung; Mai, Binh Khanh; Hiep, Dinh Minh; Li, Mai Suan

    2015-10-01

    The binding mechanism of AC1NX476 to HIV-1 protease wild type and mutations was studied by the docking and molecular dynamics simulations. The binding free energy was calculated using the double-annihilation binding free energy method. It is shown that the binding affinity of AC1NX476 to wild type is higher than not only ritonavir but also darunavir, making AC1NX476 become attractive candidate for HIV treatment. Our theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data as the correlation coefficient between calculated and experimentally measured binding free energies R = 0.993. Residues Asp25-A, Asp29-A, Asp30-A, Ile47-A, Gly48-A, and Val50-A from chain A, and Asp25-B from chain B play a crucial role in the ligand binding. The mutations were found to reduce the receptor-ligand interaction by widening the binding cavity, and the binding propensity is mainly driven by the van der Waals interaction. Our finding may be useful for designing potential drugs to combat with HIV. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Seamless modification of wild-type induced pluripotent stem cells to the natural CCR5Δ32 mutation confers resistance to HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lin; Wang, Jiaming; Beyer, Ashley I; Teque, Fernando; Cradick, Thomas J; Qi, Zhongxia; Chang, Judy C; Bao, Gang; Muench, Marcus O; Yu, Jingwei; Levy, Jay A; Kan, Yuet Wai

    2014-07-01

    Individuals homozygous for the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 gene with 32-bp deletions (CCR5Δ32) are resistant to HIV-1 infection. In this study, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) homozygous for the naturally occurring CCR5Δ32 mutation through genome editing of wild-type iPSCs using a combination of transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) or RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 together with the piggyBac technology. Remarkably, TALENs or CRISPR-Cas9-mediated double-strand DNA breaks resulted in up to 100% targeting of the colonies on one allele of which biallelic targeting occurred at an average of 14% with TALENs and 33% with CRISPR. Excision of the piggyBac using transposase seamlessly reproduced exactly the naturally occurring CCR5Δ32 mutation without detectable exogenous sequences. We differentiated these modified iPSCs into monocytes/macrophages and demonstrated their resistance to HIV-1 challenge. We propose that this strategy may provide an approach toward a functional cure of HIV-1 infection.

  4. Quantitative analysis of differentially expressed saliva proteins in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Nawei; Zhang, Zhenyu; Feng, Shan; Wang, Qingtao; Malamud, Daniel; Deng, Haiteng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A high-throughput method for profiling and quantification of the differentially expressed proteins in saliva samples was developed. ► Identified that DMBT1, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9 and alpha defensin were up-regulated in saliva from HIV-1 seropositive patients. ► Established analytical strategies are translatable to the clinical setting. -- Abstract: In the present study, we have established a new methodology to analyze saliva proteins from HIV-1-seropositive patients before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and seronegative controls. A total of 593 and 601 proteins were identified in the pooled saliva samples from 5 HIV-1 subjects and 5 controls, respectively. Forty-one proteins were found to be differentially expressed. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed salivary proteins showed an increase of antimicrobial proteins and decrease of protease inhibitors upon HIV-1 infection. To validate some of these differentially expressed proteins, a high-throughput quantitation method was established to determine concentrations of 10 salivary proteins in 40 individual saliva samples from 20 seropositive patients before HAART and 20 seronegative subjects. This method was based on limited protein separation within the zone of the stacking gel of the 1D SDS PAGE and using isotope-coded synthetic peptides as internal standards. The results demonstrated that a combination of protein profiling and targeted quantitation is an efficient method to identify and validate differentially expressed salivary proteins. Expression levels of members of the calcium-binding S100 protein family and deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 protein (DMBT1) were up-regulated while that of Mucin 5B was down-regulated in HIV-1 seropositive saliva samples, which may provide new perspectives for monitoring HIV-infection and understanding the mechanism of HIV-1 infectivity

  5. Quantitative analysis of differentially expressed saliva proteins in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Nawei; Zhang, Zhenyu [Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Feng, Shan [MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Wang, Qingtao [Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Malamud, Daniel [NYU College of Dentistry, 345 East 24th Street, New York, NY 10010 (United States); Deng, Haiteng, E-mail: dht@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2013-04-24

    Highlights: ► A high-throughput method for profiling and quantification of the differentially expressed proteins in saliva samples was developed. ► Identified that DMBT1, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9 and alpha defensin were up-regulated in saliva from HIV-1 seropositive patients. ► Established analytical strategies are translatable to the clinical setting. -- Abstract: In the present study, we have established a new methodology to analyze saliva proteins from HIV-1-seropositive patients before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and seronegative controls. A total of 593 and 601 proteins were identified in the pooled saliva samples from 5 HIV-1 subjects and 5 controls, respectively. Forty-one proteins were found to be differentially expressed. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed salivary proteins showed an increase of antimicrobial proteins and decrease of protease inhibitors upon HIV-1 infection. To validate some of these differentially expressed proteins, a high-throughput quantitation method was established to determine concentrations of 10 salivary proteins in 40 individual saliva samples from 20 seropositive patients before HAART and 20 seronegative subjects. This method was based on limited protein separation within the zone of the stacking gel of the 1D SDS PAGE and using isotope-coded synthetic peptides as internal standards. The results demonstrated that a combination of protein profiling and targeted quantitation is an efficient method to identify and validate differentially expressed salivary proteins. Expression levels of members of the calcium-binding S100 protein family and deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 protein (DMBT1) were up-regulated while that of Mucin 5B was down-regulated in HIV-1 seropositive saliva samples, which may provide new perspectives for monitoring HIV-infection and understanding the mechanism of HIV-1 infectivity.

  6. Genetic and geographic structure of an insect resistant and a susceptible type of Barbarea vulgaris in western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Thure Pavlo; Toneatto, Fiorello; Nielsen, Jens Kvist

    2012-01-01

    allopatric isolation. The cruciferous plant Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcuata occurs in Denmark in two types: one (G) is resistant to most genotypes of the flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum, the other (P) is susceptible. The two types additionally differ in hairiness and glucosinolates, they are genetically...

  7. The Utility of a Syndemic Framework in Understanding Chronic Disease Management Among HIV-Infected and Type 2 Diabetic Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byg, Blaire; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Funk, Danielle; James, Bonface; Potter, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    Syndemic theory posits that epidemics of multiple physical and psychosocial problems co-occur among disadvantaged groups due to adverse social conditions. Although sexual minority populations are often stigmatized and vulnerable to multiple health problems, the syndemic perspective has been underutilized in understanding chronic disease. To assess the potential utility of this perspective in understanding the management of co-occurring HIV and Type 2 diabetes, we used linear regression to examine glycemic control (A1c) among men who have sex with men (MSM) with both HIV and Type 2 diabetes (n = 88). Bivariable linear regression explored potential syndemic correlates of inadequate glycemic control. Compared to those with adequate glycemic control (A1c ≤ 7.5 %), more men with inadequate glycemic control (A1c > 7.5 %) had hypertension (70 vs. 46 %, p = 0.034), high triglycerides (93 vs. 61 %, p = 0.002), depression (67 vs. 39 %, p = 0.018), current substance abuse (15 vs. 2 %, p = 0.014), and detectable levels of HIV (i.e., viral load ≥75 copies per ml blood; 30 vs. 10 %, p = 0.019). In multivariable regression controlling for age, the factors that were independently associated with higher A1c were high triglycerides, substance use, and detectable HIV viral load, suggesting that chronic disease management among MSM is complex and challenging for patients and providers. Findings also suggest that syndemic theory can be a clarifying lens for understanding chronic disease management among sexual minority stigmatized populations. Interventions targeting single conditions may be inadequate when multiple conditions co-occur; thus, research using a syndemic framework may be helpful in identifying intervention strategies that target multiple co-occurring conditions.

  8. The effect of cholecalciferol and calcitriol on biochemical bone markers in HIV type 1-infected males: results of a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Ulrich Christian; Kolte, Lilian; Hitz, Mette; Schierbeck, Louise Lind; Nielsen, Susanne Dam; Benfield, Thomas; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2013-04-01

    HIV-1-infected patients have an increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the bone metabolism in HIV-1-infected patients exposed to calcitriol and cholecalciferol. We also investigated the relationship between T cells and bone markers. We conducted a placebo-controlled randomized study running for 16 weeks including 61 HIV-1-infected males, of whom 51 completed the protocol. Nineteen participants were randomized to daily treatment with (A) 0.5-1.0 μg calcitriol and 1,200 IU (30 μg) cholecalciferol, 17 participants to (B) 1,200 IU cholecalciferol, and 15 participants to (C) placebo. At baseline and after 16 weeks, we determined collagen type 1 trimeric cross-linked peptide (CTx), procollagen type 1 N-terminal peptide (P1NP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), ionized calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D]. We determined naive CD4(+) and CD8(+), activated CD4(+) and CD8(+), and regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low) T lymphocytes. Baseline levels of P1NP and CTx correlated (coefficient 0.5, p<0.001) with each other but not with PTH, 25OHD, or 1,25(OH)2D. In patients receiving calcitriol and cholecalciferol, the mean levels of P1NP (p<0.001) and CTx (p= 0.002) declined significantly compared to our placebo group. Based on changes in P1NP and CTx, we estimated that net bone formation occurred more frequently in group A compared to groups B and C. PTH correlated inversely with naive CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells. Otherwise, no relationships between bone markers and T lymphocytes were demonstrated. Supplementation with calcitriol and cholecalciferol induced biochemical indications of bone formation in HIV-1 patients.

  9. Trends of drug-resistance-associated mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene of HIV type 1 isolates from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Mohd; Malik, Abida; Rizvi, Meher; Rai, Arvind

    2014-04-01

    A major cause of failure of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the presence of drug-resistance-associated mutations in the polymerase gene of HIV-1. The paucity of data regarding potential drug resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) prompted us to carry out this study. This information will shed light on the extent of drug resistance already present in HIV strains and will give future directions in patient treatment and in drug design. Drug resistance genotyping of a partial reverse transcriptase gene was done in 103 HIV-1-infected patients, including the ART-naive and ART-experienced population. The drug resistance pattern was analyzed using the Stanford HIV-DR database, the IAS-USA mutation list and the REGA algorithm-v8.0. Subtyping was done using the REGA HIV-1 subtyping tool-v2.01. The majority of our sequences (96 %) were found to be subtype C, and four (3.8 %) were subtype A1. Significant prevalence of DR mutations (28 %) was observed in the RT gene. Major amino acid substitutions were seen at positions 41, 90, 98, 103, 106, 108, 138, 181, 184, 190, 215, and 219, which confer high/intermediate levels of resistance to most RTIs, independently or together. Our results show that there is an urgent need to tailor ART drug regimens to the individual to achieve optimum therapeutic outcome in North India.

  10. Exosomes from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)-Infected Cells License Quiescent CD4+ T Lymphocytes To Replicate HIV-1 through a Nef- and ADAM17-Dependent Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Arenaccio, Claudia; Chiozzini, Chiara; Columba-Cabezas, Sandra; Manfredi, Francesco; Affabris, Elisabetta; Baur, Andreas; Federico, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Resting CD4+ T lymphocytes resist human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Here, we provide evidence that exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells render resting human primary CD4+ T lymphocytes permissive to HIV-1 replication. These results were obtained with transwell cocultures of HIV-1-infected cells with quiescent CD4+ T lymphocytes in the presence of inhibitors of exosome release and were confirmed using exosomes purified from supernatants of HIV-1-infected primary CD4+ T lymphocytes. We...

  11. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  12. Geographic information system planning and monitoring best ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor urbanization policies, inefficient planning and monitoring technologies are evident. The consequences include some of the worst types of environmental hazards. Best urbanization practices require integrated planning approaches that result in environmental conservation. Geographic Information systems (GIS) provide ...

  13. Safety and immunogenicity of adenovirus-vectored near-consensus HIV type 1 clade B gag vaccines in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harro, Clayton D; Robertson, Michael N; Lally, Michelle A; O'Neill, Lori D; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Goepfert, Paul A; Mulligan, Mark J; Priddy, Frances H; Dubey, Sheri A; Kierstead, Lisa S; Sun, Xiao; Casimiro, Danilo R; DiNubile, Mark J; Shiver, John W; Leavitt, Randi Y; Mehrotra, Devan V

    2009-01-01

    Vaccines inducing pathogen-specific cell-mediated immunity are being developed using attenuated adenoviral (Ad) vectors. We report the results of two independent Phase I trials of similar replication-deficient Ad5 vaccines containing a near-consensus HIV-1 clade B gag transgene. Healthy HIV-uninfected adults were enrolled in two separate, multicenter, dose-escalating, blinded, placebo-controlled studies to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a three-dose homologous regimen of Ad5 and MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag vaccines given on day 1, week 4, and week 26. Adverse events were collected for 29 days following each intradeltoid injection. The primary immunogenicity endpoint was the proportion of subjects with a positive unfractionated Gag-specific IFN-gamma ELISPOT response measured 4 weeks after the last dose (week 30). Analyses were performed after combining data for each dose group from both protocols, stratifying by baseline Ad5 titers. Overall, 252 subjects were randomized to receive either vaccine or placebo, including 229 subjects (91%) who completed the study through week 30. Tolerability and immunogenicity did not appear to differ between the Ad5 and MRKAd5 vaccines. The frequency of injection-site reactions was dose dependent. Systemic adverse events were also dose dependent and more frequent in subjects with baseline Ad5 titers or =200, especially after the first dose. The percent of ELISPOT responders and the ELISPOT geometric means overall were significantly higher for all four vaccine doses studied compared to placebo, and were generally higher in vaccine recipients with baseline Ad5 titers or = 200. Ad5 titers increased after vaccination in a dose-dependent fashion. Both Ad5-vectored HIV-1 vaccines were generally well tolerated and induced cell-mediated immune responses against HIV Gag-peptides in the majority of healthy adults with baseline Ad5 titers vaccine-induced immunity to the Ad5 vector may dampen the CMI response to HIV Gag.

  14. Proof of activity with AMD11070, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXCR4-tropic HIV type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Graeme; DeJesus, Edwin; Boffito, Marta; Wong, Rebecca S; Gibney, Colleen; Badel, Karin; MacFarland, Ron; Calandra, Gary; Bridger, Gary; Becker, Stephen

    2009-03-15

    The X4 Antagonist Concept Trial investigates the safety and antiviral activity of AMD11070, a potent inhibitor of X4-tropic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro in HIV-infected patients harboring X4-tropic virus. Patients enrolled in the study had an X4 virus population 2000 relative luminescence units (rlu; by the Monogram Trofile Assay) and an HIV-1 RNA level 5000 copies/mL. Patients received AMD11070 monotherapy for 10 days. Coreceptor tropism, plasma HIV-1 RNA level, and CD4 cell count were measured at study entry, on day 5, and on day 10. Daily predose and serial samples on the last day of treatment were obtained for determination of plasma AMD11070 concentration. Ten patients were given AMD11070 monotherapy (200 mg to 8 patients and 100 mg to 2 patients) twice daily for 10 days. The median baseline CD4 cell count was 160 cells/mm(3), and the median HIV-1 RNA level was 91,447 copies/mL. Four of 9 evaluable patients achieved a reduction in X4 virus population of >or= rlu. The median change in X4 virus population at the end of treatment was -0.22 log(10) rlu (range, -1.90 to 0.23 log(10) rlu). Three of 4 patients who responded to therapy showed a tropism shift from dual- or mixed-tropic viruses to exclusively R5 virus by day 10. There were no drug-related serious adverse events, adverse events of greater than grade 2, or laboratory abnormalities. These results demonstrate the activity of AMD11070, the first oral CXCR4 antagonist, against X4-tropic HIV-1. The drug was well tolerated, with no serious safety concerns. AMD11070 is on clinical hold because of histologic changes to the liver observed in long-term animal studies; additional preclinical safety assessments are pending.

  15. Prevalence, types, and geographical distribution of Listeria monocytogenes from a survey of retail Queso Fresco and associated cheese processing plants and dairy farms in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Enriquez, R I; Garcia-Galaz, A; Acedo-Felix, E; Gonzalez-Rios, I H; Call, J E; Luchansky, J B; Diaz-Cinco, M E

    2007-11-01

    In the first part of this study, samples were collected from farms, cheese processing plants (CPPs), and retail markets located in various geographical areas of Sonora, Mexico, over a 12-month period during the summer of 2004 and winter of 2005. Four (all Queso Fresco [QF] from retail markets) of 349 total samples tested positive for Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). Of these four positive samples, three were collected in the northern region and one in the southern region of Sonora. Additionally, two were collected during the winter months, and two were collected during the summer months. For the second part of the study, a total of 39 samples from a farm, a CPP, and retail markets were collected and processed according to a combination of the Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-143-SSA1-1995.10 method (NOM) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Bacteriological Analytical Manual method, and 27 samples from these same locations were collected and processed according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service method (USDA-FSIS). The NOM-FDA method recovered the pathogen from 6 (15%) of 39 samples (one cheese and five product contact surfaces), while the USDA-FSIS method recovered the pathogen from 5 (18.5%) of 27 samples (all product contact surfaces). In addition, the 40 isolates recovered from the 15 total samples that tested positive for Lm grouped into five distinct pulsotypes that were ca. 60% related, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The results of this study confirmed a 3.4% prevalence of Lm in QF collected from retail markets located in Sonora and no appreciable difference in the effectiveness of either the NOM-FDA or USDA-FSIS method to recover the pathogen from cheese or environmental samples.

  16. Serological and molecular typing of HIV type 1 infection in the Tiriyo tribe, a native Indian community of the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Luiz F A; Vallinoto, Antonio C R; Souza, Maria I M; Azevedo, Vania N; Ishak, Marluisa O G; Ishak, Ricardo

    2006-12-01

    The seroprevalence and the occurrence of an HIV-1 subtype was assessed in blood samples of the Tiriyo tribe. Antibody was found in 0.6% and the molecular analysis of the pro region detected the emergence of a subtype B for the first time in a native Indian tribe of the Amazon region of Brazil.

  17. Induction of antibodies against epitopes inaccessible on the HIV type 1 envelope oligomer by immunization with recombinant monomeric glycoprotein 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Bolmstedt, A; Novotny, J

    1998-01-01

    An N-glycan (N306) at the base of the V3 loop of HIV-BRU gp120 is shielding a linear neutralization epitope at the tip of the V3 loop on oligomeric Env. In contrast, this epitope is readily antigenic on monomeric gp120. Immunization with recombinant monomeric HIV-BRU gp120 may thus be expected...... immunogenic structures inaccessible on the envelope oligomer. The limited ability of recombinant gp120 vaccines to induce neutralizing antibodies against primary isolates may thus not exclusively reflect genetic variation....

  18. Drug Abuse, HIV, and HCV in Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Liang, Di; Lan, Yu-Ching; Vicknasingam, Balasingam Kasinather; Chakrabarti, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Drug abuse and co-occurring infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Asian countries are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious consequences of these risks/problems, as they have some of the highest rates of these diseases. This review describes drug abuse, HIV, and hepatitis C (HCV) in Asian countries. The most commonly used illicit drugs include opioids, amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), cannabis, and ketamine. Among people who inject drugs, HIV rates range from 6.3 % in China to 19 % in Malaysia, and HCV ranges from 41 % in India and Taiwan to 74 % in Vietnam. In the face of the HIV epidemics, drug policies in these countries are slowly changing from the traditional punitive approach (e.g., incarcerating drug users or requiring registration as a drug user) to embrace public health approaches, including, for example, community-based treatment options as well as harm reduction approaches to reduce needle sharing and thus HIV transmission. HIV and HCV molecular epidemiology indicates limited geographic diffusion. While the HIV prevalence is declining in all five countries, use of new drugs (e.g., ATS, ketamine) continues to increase, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors associated with drug use-increasing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV, particularly among men who have sex with men. Screening, early intervention, and continued scaling up of therapeutic options (drug treatment and recovery support, ART, long-term HIV and HCV care for drug users) are critical for effective control or continued reduction of drug abuse and co-infections.

  19. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) as a coronary atherosclerosis risk factor in HIV-infected men: multicenter AIDS cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechter, Rulin C; Budoff, Matthew; Hodis, Howard N; Rinaldo, Charles R; Jenkins, Frank J; Jacobson, Lisa P; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Taiwo, Babafemi; Post, Wendy S; Margolick, Joseph B; Detels, Roger

    2012-08-01

    We assessed associations of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in 291 HIV-infected men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by non-contrast coronary CT imaging. Markers for herpesviruses infection were measured in frozen specimens collected 10-12 years prior to case identification. Multivariable logistic regression models and ordinal logistic regression models were performed. HSV-2 seropositivity was associated with coronary atherosclerosis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=4.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.58-10.85) after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, cardiovascular risk factors, and HIV infection related factors. Infection with a greater number of herpesviruses was associated with elevated CAC levels (AOR=1.58, 95% CI=1.06-2.36). Our findings suggest HSV-2 may be a risk factor for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in HIV-infected men. Infection with multiple herpesviruses may contribute to the increased burden of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of the wild type and E92Q/N155H mutant of Elvitegravir-resistance HIV-1 integrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Cheng, Xiaolin; Wei, Dongqing; Xu, Qin

    2015-03-01

    Although Elvitegravir (EVG) is a newly developed antiretrovirals drug to treat the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), drug resistance has already been found in clinic, such as E92Q/N155H and Q148H/G140S. Several structural investigations have already been reported to reveal the molecular mechanism of the drug resistance. As full length crystal structure for HIV-1 integrase is still unsolved, we herein use the crystal structure of the full length prototype foamy virus (PFV) in complex with virus DNA and inhibitor Elvitegravir as a template to construct the wild type and E92Q/N155H mutant system of HIV-1 integrase. Molecular dynamic simulations was used to revel the binding mode and the drug resistance of the EVG ligand in E92Q/N155H. Several important interactions were discovered between the mutated residues and the residues in the active site of the E92Q/N155H double mutant pattern, and cross correlation and clustering methods were used for detailed analysis. The results from the MD simulation studies will be used to guide the experimental efforts of developing novel inhibitors against drug-resistant HIV integrase mutants.

  1. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of the wild type and E92Q/N155H mutant of Elvitegravir-resistance HIV-1 integrase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qi [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). State Key Lab. of Microbial Metabolism and College of Life Science and Biotechnology; Cheng, Xiaolin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Molecular Biophysics; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology; Wei, Dongqing [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). State Key Lab. of Microbial Metabolism and College of Life Science and Biotechnology; Xu, Qin [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). State Key Lab. of Microbial Metabolism and College of Life Science and Biotechnology

    2014-11-06

    Although Elvitegravir (EVG) is a newly developed antiretrovirals drug to treat the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), drug resistance has already been found in clinic, such as E92Q/N155H and Q148H/G140S. Several structural investigations have already been reported to reveal the molecular mechanism of the drug resistance. As full length crystal structure for HIV-1 integrase is still unsolved, we use in this paper the crystal structure of the full length prototype foamy virus (PFV) in complex with virus DNA and inhibitor Elvitegravir as a template to construct the wild type and E92Q/N155H mutant system of HIV-1 integrase. Molecular dynamic simulations was used to revel the binding mode and the drug resistance of the EVG ligand in E92Q/N155H. Several important interactions were discovered between the mutated residues and the residues in the active site of the E92Q/N155H double mutant pattern, and cross correlation and clustering methods were used for detailed analysis. The results from the MD simulation studies will be used to guide the experimental efforts of developing novel inhibitors against drug-resistant HIV integrase mutants.

  2. Geographical and Geodemographic Connections between Different Types of Small Area as the Origins and Destinations of Migrants to Mid-Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walford, Nigel

    2007-01-01

    Exchanges of population between supposedly "urban" and "rural" spaces have occurred throughout history as people migrate between areas with relatively, densely and sparsely settled populations. However, comparatively little is known about whether the same small areas persistently contribute to the flow and what types of…

  3. HIV type-1 genotypic resistance profiles in vertically infected patients from Argentina reveal an association between K103N+L100I and L74V mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulicino, Paula C; Rocco, Carlos A; Mecikovsky, Debora; Bologna, Rosa; Mangano, Andrea; Sen, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    Patterns and pathways of HIV type-1 (HIV-1) antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance-associated mutations in clinical isolates are conditioned by ARV history and factors such as viral subtype and fitness. Our aim was to analyse the frequency and association of ARV drug resistance mutations in a group of long-term vertically infected patients from Argentina. Plasma samples from 71 patients (38 children and 33 adolescents) were collected for genotypic HIV-1 ARV resistance testing during the period between February 2006 and October 2008. Statistically significant pairwise associations between ARV resistance mutations in pol, as well as associations between mutations and drug exposure, were identified using Fisher's exact tests with Bonferroni and false discovery rate corrections. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for subtype assignment. In protease (PR), resistance-associated mutations M46I/L, I54M/L/V/A/S and V82A/F/T/S/M/I were associated with each other and with minor mutations at codons 10, 24 and 71. Mutations V82A/F/T/S/M/I were primarily selected by the administration of ritonavir (RTV) in an historical ARV regimen. In reverse transcriptase, thymidine analogue mutation (TAM)1 profile was more common than TAM2. The non-nucleoside K103N+L100I mutations were observed at high frequency (15.5%) and were significantly associated with the nucleoside mutation L74V in BF recombinants. Associations of mutations at PR sites reflect the frequent use of RTV at an early time in this group of patients and convergent resistance mechanisms driven by the high exposure to protease inhibitors, as well as local HIV-1 diversity. The results provide clinical evidence of a molecular interaction between K103N+L100I and L74V mutations at the reverse transcriptase gene in vivo, limiting the future use of second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as etravirine.

  4. Conceptual Model of Dynamic Geographic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Rosales Miguel Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In geographic environments, there are many and different types of geographic entities such as automobiles, trees, persons, buildings, storms, hurricanes, etc. These entities can be classified into two groups: geographic objects and geographic phenomena. By its nature, a geographic environment is dynamic, thus, it’s static modeling is not sufficient. Considering the dynamics of geographic environment, a new type of geographic entity called event is introduced. The primary target is a modeling of geographic environment as an event sequence, because in this case the semantic relations are much richer than in the case of static modeling. In this work, the conceptualization of this model is proposed. It is based on the idea to process each entity apart instead of processing the environment as a whole. After that, the so called history of each entity and its spatial relations to other entities are defined to describe the whole environment. The main goal is to model systems at a conceptual level that make use of spatial and temporal information, so that later it can serve as the semantic engine for such systems.

  5. Seventeen-year-old mother-to-child HIV type 1 transmission identified by phylogeny and signature patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, T.L.; Petersen, A.B.; Jorgensen, L.B.

    2008-01-01

    A case, in which the clinical suspicion of perinatal HIV transmission of a newly diagnosed 17-year-old woman was supported by the phylogenetic analyses of pol sequences obtained for routine resistance testing and further substantiated by analyses of gag and env, is described Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...

  6. Characterization of near full-length genomes of HIV type 1 strains in Denmark: Basis for a universal therapeutic vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Betina S.; Vinner, Lasse; Tang, Sheila Tuyet

    2007-01-01

    We report here the near full-length sequence characterization of 17 Danish clinical HIV-1 strains isolated from HLA-A02 patients not in need of ART, with relatively low viral loads and normal CD4 cell counts. Sequencing was performed directly on DNA extracted from short-term cocultures of PBMCs...... of a universal immunotherapeutic vaccine construct based on these epitopes....

  7. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 p24 antigen in U.S. blood donors--an assessment of the efficacy of testing in donor screening. The HIV-Antigen Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, H J; Epstein, J S; Swenson, S G; VanRaden, M J; Ward, J W; Kaslow, R A; Menitove, J E; Klein, H G; Sandler, S G; Sayers, M H

    1990-11-08

    We performed a multicenter study in 1989 to determine whether screening whole-blood donors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) p24 antigen would improve transfusion safety by identifying carriers of the virus who are seronegative for HIV-1 antibody. More than 500,000 donations were tested at 13 U.S. blood centers with test kits from two manufacturers. Units found repeatedly reactive were retested in a central laboratory; if the results were positive, they were confirmed by a neutralization assay. A subgroup of units was also tested for HIV-1 by the polymerase chain reaction. Selected donors confirmed or not confirmed as having p24 antigen were contacted for follow-up interviews to identify risk factors and undergo retesting for HIV-1 markers. Positive tests for p24 antigen were confirmed by neutralization in five donors (0.001 percent of all donations tested), all of whom were also positive for HIV-1 antibody and HIV-1 by polymerase chain reaction. Three of the antigen-positive donors had other markers of infectious disease that would have resulted in the exclusion of their blood; two had risk factors for HIV-1 that should have led to self-exclusion. Of 220 blood units with repeatedly reactive p24 antigen whose presence could not be confirmed by neutralization (0.04 percent of the donations studied), none were positive for HIV-1 antibody, HIV-1 by polymerase chain reaction (120 units tested), or virus culture (76 units tested)--attesting to the specificity of confirmatory neutralization. The finding that no donation studied was positive for p24 antigen and negative for HIV-1 antibody suggests that screening donors for p24 antigen with tests of the current level of sensitivity would not add substantially to the safety of the U.S. blood supply.

  8. Antigen-driven C–C Chemokine-mediated HIV-1 Suppression by CD4+ T Cells from Exposed Uninfected Individuals Expressing the Wild-type CCR-5 Allele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furci, Lucinda; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Burastero, Samuele; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Colognesi, Claudia; Quillent, Caroline; Longhi, Renato; Loverro, Patrizia; Borgonovo, Barbara; Gaffi, Davide; Carrow, Emily; Malnati, Mauro; Lusso, Paolo; Siccardi, Antonio G.; Lazzarin, Adriano; Beretta, Alberto

    1997-01-01

    Despite repeated exposure to HIV-1, certain individuals remain persistently uninfected. Such exposed uninfected (EU) people show evidence of HIV-1–specific T cell immunity and, in rare cases, selective resistance to infection by macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1. The latter has been associated with a 32–base pair deletion in the C–C chemokine receptor gene CCR-5, the major coreceptor of macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1. We have undertaken an analysis of the HIV-specific T cell responses in 12 EU individuals who were either homozygous for the wild-type CCR-5 allele or heterozygous for the deletion allele (CCR-5Δ32). We have found evidence of an oligoclonal T cell response mediated by helper T cells specific for a conserved region of the HIV-1 envelope. These cells produce very high levels of C–C chemokines when stimulated by the specific antigen and suppress selectively the replication of macrophage-tropic, but not T cell–tropic, strains of HIV-1. These chemokine-producing helper cells may be part of a protective immune response that could be potentially exploited for vaccine development. PMID:9236198

  9. HIV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... All Collapse All Should I get tested for HIV? CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of ...

  10. Carcinogenicity of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in HIV-Positive Women: A Meta-Analysis From HPV Infection to Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Stephen; Franceschi, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Data on the relative carcinogenic potential of human papillomavirus (HPV) types among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (WHIV) are needed to inform prevention programs for this population. Methods. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of high-risk HPV-type distribution in 19883 HIV-positive women was performed. The women, from 86 studies worldwide, included 11739 with normal cytological findings; 1784 with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS); 2173 with low-grade and 1282 with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) diagnosed cytologically; 1198 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1), 456 with CIN2, and 455 with CIN3 diagnosed histologically; and 796 with invasive cervical cancers (ICCs). A large proportion of WHIV, and almost all with ICCs, were from Africa. Results. In Africa, HPV 16 accounted for 13% of HPV-positive WHIV with normal cytological findings, but this proportion increased through ASCUS, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, CIN1, and CIN2 (18%–25%), up to 41%–47% for CIN3 and ICCs. Only HPV 16, HPV 18, and HPV 45 accounted for a greater proportion of HPV infections in ICCs compared with normal cytological findings (ICC:normal ratios, 3.68, 2.47, and 2.55, respectively). Other high-risk types accounted for important proportions of low- and/or high-grade lesions, but their contribution dropped in ICCs, with ICC:normal ratios in Africa ranging from 0.79 for HPV 33 down to 0.38 for HPV 56. Findings for HPV 16 and HPV 18 in Europe/North America, Asia, and Latin America were compatible with those from Africa. Conclusions. HPV 16 and HPV 18 in particular, but also HPV 45, at least in Africa, warrant special attention in WHIV. Broad consistency of findings with those in HIV-uninfected population would suggest that the risk stratification offered by partial HPV genotyping tests also have relevance for HIV-positive women. PMID:28199532

  11. Drug susceptibility to etravirine and darunavir among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-derived pseudoviruses in treatment-experienced patients with HIV/AIDS in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh-Kyung; Kim, Sung Soon; Rhee, Jee Eun; Kee, Mee-Kyung; Park, Mina; Oh, Hye-Ri; Choi, Ju-Yeon

    2015-04-09

    In South Korea, about 20 types of antiretroviral drugs are used in the treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Since 2010, raltegravir, etravirine, and darunavir have been spotlighted as new drugs for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-experienced adults with resistant HIV-1 in South Korea. In this study, we investigated potential susceptibility of pseudoviruses derived from treatment-experienced Korean patients to etravirine vs efavirenz and to darunavir vs amprenavir and indinavir using a modified single-round assay. Pseudoviruses derived from nine treatment-experienced patients infected with HIV-1 were investigated by comparison with the wild-type strain pNL4-3. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were calculated and drug susceptibility was compared. The intensity of genotypic drug resistance was classified based on the 'SIR' interpretation of the Stanford data base. Drug susceptibility was generally higher for etravirine and darunavir compared with efavirenz, amprenavir, and indinavir in pseudoviruses derived from treatment-experienced patients. Pseudoviruses derived from patients KRB4025 and KRB8014, who exhibited long-term use of protease inhibitors, showed an outside of tested drug concentration, especially for amprenavir and indinavir. However, they exhibited a lower fold-change in resistance to darunavir. Etravirine and darunavir have been used in HAART since 2010 in South Korea. Therefore, these antiretroviral drugs together with other newly introduced antiretroviral drugs are interesting for the optimal treatment of patients with treatment failure. This study may help to find a more effective HAART in the case of HIV-1 infected patients that have difficulty being treated.

  12. Discussion on age and paleo geographical environment of ore bearing strata for sandstone-type uranium deposits in Bayanwula area, Erlian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xiujun; Nie Fengjun; Chen Yiping; Wang Wei

    2008-01-01

    The sandstone-type uranium ore-bearing strata of Erlian basin is a suit of coarse crumb rocks that are mainly of river and marsh sedimentary faces, age of ore-bearing strata in this area is in dispute. By studying the palynology of ore-bearing strata in Bayanwula area, particularly the distribution of the spore and the pollen in the stratum and the comparison of domestic and the international palynology as- semblage, its age of the strata was identified belong to aptian-albian stages of the Later Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) under substropic warm humid climate with the tendency to semihumid and semi-dryhot. The paleo geography was of the low-fiat and undulating topography, a few middling and high mountains distributing around the basin. (authors)

  13. Genomic analysis of HIV type 1 strains derived from a mother and child pair of long-term nonprogressors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reiniš, Milan; Weiser, B.; Kuiken, C.; Dong, T.; Lang, D.; Nachman, S.; Zhang, Y.; Rowland-Jones, S.; Burger, H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2007), s. 309-315 ISSN 0889-2229 Grant - others:U.S. National Institue of Allergy and Infectious Disease (US) RO1-AI-42555; Fogarty International Center, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute(US) D43 TW000233 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HIV-1 * genomic analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.022, year: 2007

  14. Biological and genetic evolution of HIV type 1 in two siblings with different patterns of disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Chiara; Leitner, Thomas; Laurén, Anna; Karlsson, Ingrid; Pastore, Angela; Cavarelli, Mariangela; Antonsson, Liselotte; Plebani, Anna; Fenyö, Eva Maria; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the immunological and virological factors that may lead to different patterns of disease progression characteristic of HIV-1-infected children, two HIV-1-infected siblings, a slow and a fast progressor, were followed prospectively before the onset of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Viral coreceptor usage, including the use of CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptors, macrophage tropism, and sensitivity to the CC-chemokine RANTES, has been studied. An autologous and heterologous neutralizing antibody response has been documented using peripheral blood mononuclear cells- and GHOST(3) cell line-based assays. Viral evolution was investigated by env C2-V3 region sequence analysis. Although both siblings were infected with HIV-1 of the R5 phenotype, their viruses showed important biological differences. In the fast progressor there was a higher RANTES sensitivity of the early virus, an increased trend to change the mode of CCR5 receptor use, and a larger genetic evolution. Both children developed an autologous neutralizing antibody response starting from the second year with evidence of the continuous emergence of resistant variants. A marked viral genetic and phenotypic evolution was documented in the fast progressor sibling, which is accompanied by a high viral RANTES sensitivity and persistent neutralizing antibodies.

  15. Changes in drug resistance patterns following the introduction of HIV type 1 non-B subtypes in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mendoza, Carmen; Garrido, Carolina; Poveda, Eva; Corral, Angélica; Zahonero, Natalia; Treviño, Ana; Anta, Lourdes; Soriano, Vincent

    2009-10-01

    Natural genetic variability at the pol gene may account for differences in drug susceptibility and selection of resistance patterns across HIV-1 clades. Spread of non-B subtypes along with changes in antiretroviral drug use may have modified drug resistance patterns in recent years. All HIV-1 clinical samples sent to a reference laboratory located in Madrid for drug resistance testing since January 2000 were analyzed. The pol gene was sequenced and HIV-1 subtypes were assigned using the Stanford algorithm and phylogenetic analyses for non-B subtypes. Drug resistance mutations were recorded using the IAS-USA mutation list (April 2008). A total of 3034 specimens from 730 antiretroviral-naive individuals (92 with non-B subtypes) and 1569 antiretroviral-experienced patients (97 with non-B subtypes) were examined. The prevalence of HIV-1 non-B subtypes in the study period increased from 4.4% (2000-2003) to 10.1% (2004-2007) (p 41.8%) and G (17.5%). Thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) were more prevalent in B than non-B subtypes, in both drug-naive (6.2% vs. 1%; p < 0.01) and treatment-experienced patients (49% vs. 30%, p < 0.01). K103N was most frequent in B than non-B subtypes (34% vs. 21%; p < 0.01); conversely, 106A/M was more prevalent in non-B than B clades (11% vs. 5%). Codon 179 mutations associated with etravirine resistance were more frequent in non-B than B subtypes. Finally, secondary protease resistance mutations were more common in non-B than B clades, with a potentially significant impact at least on tipranavir. The prevalence of HIV-1 non-B subtypes has increased since the year 2000 in a large drug resistance database in Spain, determining changes in drug resistance patterns that may influence the susceptibility to new antiretroviral drugs and have an impact on genotypic drug resistance interpretation algorithms.

  16. Re-emergence of dengue virus type 3 in Canton, China, 2009-2010, associated with multiple introductions through different geographical routes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Liang

    Full Text Available Endemic dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3 infections have not been reported in Canton, China, since 1980. In March 2009, DENV-3 was isolated for the second time, occurring about 30 years after the previous circulation. In August, 3 other cases emerged. One much larger outbreak occurred again in 2010. To address the origin and particularly to determine whether the outbreaks were caused by the same viral genotype, we investigated the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of the introduction, spread and genetic microevolution of DENV-3 involved.Three imported cases (index-1,2,3 separately traveled back from Vietnam, India and Tanzania, resulted in 1, 3 and 60 secondary autochthonous cases, respectively. In autochthonous cases, 64.6% positive in IgM anti-DENV and 18.6% in IgG from a total of 48 submitted serum samples, accompanied by 7 DENV-3 isolates. With 99.8%, 99.7%, and 100% envelope gene nucleotidic identity, 09/GZ/1081 from index-1 and endemic strain (09/GZ/1483 belonged to genotype V; 09/GZ/10616 from index-2 and endemic strains (09/GZ/11144 and 09/GZ/11194 belonged to genotype III Clade-A; and 10/GZ/4898 from index-3 and all four 2010 endemic DENV-3 strains belonged to genotype III Clade-B, respectively.Both epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses showed that the 2010 outbreak of dengue was not a reemergence of the 2009 strain. Introductions of different genotypes following more than one route were important contributory factors for the 2009-2010 dengue epidemics/outbreaks in Canton. These findings underscore the importance of early detection and case management of imported case in preventing large-scale dengue epidemics among indigenous peoples of Canton.

  17. Evidence of a genetic basis for the different geographic occurrences of liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 in hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Paolo; Czaja, Albert J; Muratori, Luigi; Granito, Alessandro; Guidi, Marcello; Ferri, Silvia; Volta, Umberto; Mantovani, Wilma; Pappas, Georgios; Cassani, Fabio; Lenzi, Marco; Bianchi, Francesco B

    2007-01-01

    Antibodies to liver/kidney microsome type 1 occur in Italian patients with hepatitis C, but rarely develop in North American patients. Our goals were to compare the frequencies of the HLA markers associated with autoimmune expression in Italian and North American patients with chronic hepatitis C and to determine genetic bases for regional differences in antibody production. HLA B8, DR3, DR4, DR7, DR11, DR13, DQ2, and the B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype were determined by microlymphocytotoxicity and polymerase chain reaction in 105 Italian patients (50 with microsomal antibodies), 100 North American patients (none with microsomal antibodies), and Italian and North American healthy control subjects. Italian patients with microsomal antibodies differed from North American patients without these antibodies by having a higher frequency of HLA DR7 (54% vs. 27%, P=0.002). HLA DR7 occurred more frequently in seropositive Italian patients than in seronegative counterparts (54% vs. 11% P < 0.0001), Italian healthy control subjects (54% vs. 29%, P=0.0009), and North American healthy control subjects (54% vs. 19%, P < 0.0001). The frequency of HLA DR7 was similar in North American patients and controls (27% vs. 19%, P=0.2), but it was lower than in Italian controls (19% vs. 29%, P=0.059). Seropositive Italian patients had a lower frequency of HLA DR11 than seronegative Italian patients and Italian controls (18% vs. 34%, P=0.07, and 18% vs. 35%, P=0.02, respectively). In contrast to seropositive Italian patients, North American patients had HLA DR4 (30% vs. 12%, P=0.02), HLA DR13 (29% vs. 10%, P=0.01), and the B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype (23% vs. 6%, P=0.01) more often. Similarly, HLA DR4 and the B8-DR3-DQ2 phenotype were more frequent in North American patients than in Italian controls (30% vs. 16%, P=0.005, and 23% vs. 7%, P=0.00002, respectively). HLA DR7 is associated with the development of microsomal antibodies in Italian patients with chronic hepatitis C. The lower frequency of HLA DR7

  18. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella isolates and with reference to terrestrial mammal Brucella isolates, we applied in this study the Multiple Loci VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA approach. A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16 that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used. Results 294 marine mammal Brucella strains collected in European waters from 173 animals and a human isolate from New Zealand presumably from marine origin were investigated by MLVA-16. Marine mammal Brucella isolates were shown to be different from the recognized terrestrial mammal Brucella species and biovars and corresponded to 3 major related groups, one specific of the B. ceti strains, one of the B. pinnipedialis strains and the last composed of the human isolate. In the B. ceti group, 3 subclusters were identified, distinguishing a cluster of dolphin, minke whale and porpoise isolates and two clusters mostly composed of dolphin isolates. These results were in accordance with published analyses using other phenotypic or molecular approaches, or different panels of VNTR loci. The B. pinnipedialis group could be similarly subdivided in 3 subclusters, one composed exclusively of isolates from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata and the two others comprising other seal species isolates. Conclusion The clustering analysis of a large collection of marine mammal Brucella isolates from European waters significantly strengthens the current view of the population structure of these two

  19. Introducing Catastrophe-QSAR. Application on Modeling Molecular Mechanisms of Pyridinone Derivative-Type HIV Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Lazea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The classical method of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR is enriched using non-linear models, as Thom’s polynomials allow either uni- or bi-variate structural parameters. In this context, catastrophe QSAR algorithms are applied to the anti-HIV-1 activity of pyridinone derivatives. This requires calculation of the so-called relative statistical power and of its minimum principle in various QSAR models. A new index, known as a statistical relative power, is constructed as an Euclidian measure for the combined ratio of the Pearson correlation to algebraic correlation, with normalized t-Student and the Fisher tests. First and second order inter-model paths are considered for mono-variate catastrophes, whereas for bi-variate catastrophes the direct minimum path is provided, allowing the QSAR models to be tested for predictive purposes. At this stage, the max-to-min hierarchies of the tested models allow the interaction mechanism to be identified using structural parameter succession and the typical catastrophes involved. Minimized differences between these catastrophe models in the common structurally influential domains that span both the trial and tested compounds identify the “optimal molecular structural domains” and the molecules with the best output with respect to the modeled activity, which in this case is human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 inhibition. The best molecules are characterized by hydrophobic interactions with the HIV-1 p66 subunit protein, and they concur with those identified in other 3D-QSAR analyses. Moreover, the importance of aromatic ring stacking interactions for increasing the binding affinity of the inhibitor-reverse transcriptase ligand-substrate complex is highlighted.

  20. Activities of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor nelfinavir mesylate in combination with reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors against acute HIV-1 infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patick, A K; Boritzki, T J; Bloom, L A

    1997-10-01

    Nelfinavir mesylate (formerly AG1343) is a potent and selective, nonpeptidic inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease that was discovered by protein structure-based design methodologies. We evaluated the antiviral and cytotoxic effects of two-drug combinations of nelfinavir with the clinically approved antiretroviral therapeutics zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC), dideoxycytidine (ddC; zalcitabine), stavudine (d4T), didanosine (ddI), indinavir, saquinavir, and ritonavir and a three-drug combination of nelfinavir with ZDV and 3TC against an acute HIV-1 strain RF infection of CEM-SS cells in vitro. Quantitative assessment of drug interaction was evaluated by a universal response surface approach (W. R. Greco, G. Bravo, and J. C. Parsons, Pharm. Rev. 47:331-385, 1995) and by the method of M. N. Prichard and C. Shipman (Antiviral Res. 14:181-206, 1990). Both analytical methods yielded similar results and showed that the two-drug combinations of nelfinavir with the reverse transcriptase inhibitors ZDV, 3TC, ddI, d4T, and ddC and the three-drug combination with ZDV and 3TC resulted in additive to statistically significant synergistic interactions. In a similar manner, the combination of nelfinavir with the three protease inhibitors resulted in additive (ritonavir and saquinavir) to slightly antagonistic (indinavir) interactions. In all combinations, minimal cellular cytotoxicity was observed with any drug alone and in combination. These results suggest that administration of combinations of the appropriate doses of nelfinavir with other currently approved antiretroviral therapeutic agents in vivo may result in enhanced antiviral activity with no associated increase in cellular cytotoxicity.

  1. Genetic and phylogenetic evolution of HIV-1 in a low subtype heterogeneity epidemic: the Italian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tornesello Maria

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 is classified into genetic groups, subtypes and sub-subtypes which show a specific geographic distribution pattern. The HIV-1 epidemic in Italy, as in most of the Western Countries, has traditionally affected the Intra-venous drug user (IDU and Homosexual (Homo risk groups and has been sustained by the genetic B subtype. In the last years, however, the HIV-1 transmission rate among heterosexuals has dramatically increased, becoming the prevalent transmission route. In fact, while the traditional risk groups have high levels of knowledge and avoid high-risk practices, the heterosexuals do not sufficiently perceive the risk of HIV-1 infection. This misperception, linked to the growing number of immigrants from non-Western Countries, where non-B clades and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs are prevalent, is progressively introducing HIV-1 variants of non-B subtype in the Italian epidemic. This is in agreement with reports from other Western European Countries. In this context, the Italian HIV-1 epidemic is still characterized by low subtype heterogeneity and represents a paradigmatic example of the European situation. The continuous molecular evolution of the B subtype HIV-1 isolates, characteristic of a long-lasting epidemic, together with the introduction of new subtypes as well as recombinant forms may have significant implications for diagnostic, treatment, and vaccine development. The study and monitoring of the genetic evolution of the HIV-1 represent, therefore, an essential strategy for controlling the local as well as global HIV-1 epidemic and for developing efficient preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  2. ABR: TYPES, VOLUMES, GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION AND DISPOSAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation provides information on the residual produced by arsenic removal drinking water treatment processes. Although the presentation discussed mainly the residuals from the adsorptive media processes, it also provided information on other processes such as iron removal...

  3. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital shedding in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péré, Héléne; Rascanu, Aida; LeGoff, Jérome; Matta, Mathieu; Bois, Frédéric; Lortholary, Olivier; Leroy, Valériane; Launay, Odile; Bélec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of genital shedding of HSV-2 DNA was assessed in HIV-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA and HSV DNA loads were measured during 12-18 months using frozen plasma, PBMC and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 HIV-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cART and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. Nineteen (86%) women were HSV-2-seropositive. Among HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women, HIV-1 RNA loads showed a rapid fall from baseline after one month of cART, in parallel in paired plasma and cervicovaginal secretions. In contrast, HIV-1 DNA loads did not show significant variations from baseline up to 18 months of treatment in both systemic and genital compartments. HSV DNA was detected at least once in 12 (63%) of 19 women during follow up: HSV-2 shedding in the genital compartment was observed in 11% of cervicovaginal samples at baseline and in 16% after initiating or switching cART. Cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA loads were strongly associated with plasma HIV-1 RNA loads over time, but not with cervicovaginal HSV DNA loads. Reactivation of genital HSV-2 replication frequently occurred despite effective cART in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women. Genital HSV-2 replication under cART does not influence cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA or DNA shedding. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Habitual condom use across partner type and sexual position among younger gay and bisexual men: findings from New Zealand HIV behavioural surveillance 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowsky, N J; Dewey, C E; Dickson, N P; Saxton, P J W; Hughes, A J; Milhausen, R R; Summerlee, A J S

    2015-09-01

    Our objectives were to investigate demographic and behavioural factors associated with condom use and to examine how habitual condom use was across partner types and sexual positions among younger men who have sex with men (YMSM), aged 16-29, surveyed in New Zealand. We analysed the 2006-2011 national HIV behavioural surveillance data from YMSM who reported anal intercourse in four scenarios of partner type and sexual position: casual insertive, casual receptive, regular insertive and regular receptive. For each, respondents' condom use was classified as frequent (always/almost always) or otherwise, with associated factors identified with multivariate mixed-effect logistic regression. Habitual condom use across scenarios was examined using a latent variable technique that estimated the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Frequent condom use was reported for 63.6% of 5153 scenarios reported from 2412 YMSM. Frequent use increased from boyfriend to fuckbuddy to casual partners. Infrequent use was associated with online recruitment, Pacific ethnicity, less education, HIV positivity, sex with women, having ≥20 sexual partners versus 1 and reporting insertive and receptive sexual positions. Frequent condom use was associated with having two to five sexual partners versus one and shorter regular partnerships. The ICC=0.865 indicated highly habitual patterns of use; habitual infrequent condom use was most prevalent with regular partners (53.3%) and habitual frequent condom use was most prevalent with casual partners (70.2%) and for either sexual position (50.5% and 49.1%). Habitual condom use among YMSM highlights the value of early, engaging and sustained condom promotion. Public health should provide better and more compelling condom education, training and promotion for YMSM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Recombination of HIV type 1C (C'/C") in Ethiopia: possible link of EthHIV-1C' to subtype C sequences from the high-prevalence epidemics in India and Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollakis, Georgios; Abebe, Almaz; Kliphuis, Aletta; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Fisseha, Bitew; Tegbaru, Belete; Tesfaye, Girma; Negassa, Hailu; Mengistu, Yohannes; Fontanet, Arnaud L.; Cornelissen, Marion; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2003-01-01

    The magnitude and complexity of the HIV-1 genetic diversity are major challenges for vaccine development. Investigation of the genotypes circulating in areas of high incidence, as well as their interactions, will be a milestone in the development of an efficacious vaccine. Because HIV-1 subtype C

  6. Performance of 3 Rapid Tests for Discrimination Between HIV-1 and HIV-2 in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Bjarnason Obinah, Magnús Pétur; Jespersen, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    As HIV-2 is intrinsically resistant to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, it is mandatory to discriminate between HIV types before initiating antiretroviral treatment. Guinea-Bissau has the world's highest prevalence of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected individuals. We evaluated ...... (agreement 90.9%) and SD Bioline HIV-1/2 3.0 (agreement 84.5%). Our results underscore the need for evaluation of tests in relevant populations before implementation....

  7. Women and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women and HIV: Get the Facts on HIV Testing, Prevention, and Treatment Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... How can you lower your chance of HIV? HIV Quick Facts What is HIV? HIV is the ...

  8. The development of HEPT-type HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and its implications for DABO family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenmin; Zhan, Peng; Wu, Jingde; Li, Zhenyu; Liu, Xinyong

    2012-01-01

    1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thymine (HEPT) was discovered as the first HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) in 1989. The research on HEPT derivatives (HEPTs) has been lasted for more than 20 years and HEPT family is probably the most investigated NNRTI. Extensive molecular modifications on HEPT have led to many highly potent compounds with broad-resistance spectrum and optimal pharmacokinetic profiles. Moreover, X-crystallographic studies of HEPTs/RT complexes revealed the binding mode of HEPTs and the action mechanism of NNRTI, which has greatly facilitated the design of novel NNRTIs. Recently, the development of HEPTs was accelerated by the application of the "follow-on"-based chemical evolution strategies, such as designed multiple ligands (DMLs) and molecular hybridization (MH). Herein, this article will provide an insight into the development of HEPTs, including structural modifications, crystal structure of RT complexed with HEPTs and its structure-activity relationship (SAR). Additionally, this review also covers the emerging HEPT related dual inhibitors and HEPT-pyridinone hybrids, as well as the contributions of HEPTs to the development of dihydro-alkoxy-benzyl-oxopyrimidine (DABO) family, thus highlighting the importance of HEPTs on the development of NNRTIs.

  9. CBF tomograms with [/sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO in patients with dementia (Alzheimer type and HIV) and Parkinson's disease--initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, D.C.; Ell, P.J.; Burns, A.; Philpot, M.; Levy, R.

    1988-01-01

    We present preliminary data on the utility of functional brain imaging with [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the study of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), HIV-related dementia syndrome, and the on-off syndrome of Parkinson's disease. In comparison with a group of age-matched controls, the DAT patients revealed distinctive bilateral temporal and posterior parietal deficits, which correlate with detailed psychometric evaluation. Patients with amnesia as the main symptom (group A) showed bilateral mesial temporal lobe perfusion deficits (p less than 0.02). More severely affected patients (group B) with significant apraxia, aphasia, or agnosia exhibited patterns compatible with bilateral reduced perfusion in the posterior parietal cortex, as well as reduced perfusion to both temporal lobes, different from the patients of the control group (p less than 0.05). SPECT studies of HIV patients with no evidence of intracraneal space occupying pathology showed marked perfusion deficits. Patients with Parkinson's disease and the on-off syndrome studied during an on phase (under levodopa therapy) and on another occasion after withdrawal of levodopa (off) demonstrated a significant change in the uptake of [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO in the caudate nucleus (lower on off) and thalamus (higher on off). These findings justify the present interest in the functional evaluation of the brain of patients with dementia. [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)/SPECT appear useful and highlight individual disorders of flow in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions

  10. Computational Studies of a Mechanism for Binding and Drug Resistance in the Wild Type and Four Mutations of HIV-1 Protease with a GRL-0519 Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Hu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance of mutations in HIV-1 protease (PR is the most severe challenge to the long-term efficacy of HIV-1 PR inhibitor in highly active antiretroviral therapy. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of drug resistance associated with mutations (D30N, I50V, I54M, and V82A and inhibitor (GRL-0519 complexes, we have performed five molecular dynamics (MD simulations and calculated the binding free energies using the molecular mechanics Poisson–Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA method. The ranking of calculated binding free energies is in accordance with the experimental data. The free energy spectra of each residue and inhibitor interaction for all complexes show a similar binding model. Analysis based on the MD trajectories and contribution of each residues show that groups R2 and R3 mainly contribute van der Waals energies, while groups R1 and R4 contribute electrostatic interaction by hydrogen bonds. The drug resistance of D30N can be attributed to the decline in binding affinity of residues 28 and 29. The size of Val50 is smaller than Ile50 causes the residue to move, especially in chain A. The stable hydrophobic core, including the side chain of Ile54 in the wild type (WT complex, became unstable in I54M because the side chain of Met54 is flexible with two alternative conformations. The binding affinity of Ala82 in V82A decreases relative to Val82 in WT. The present study could provide important guidance for the design of a potent new drug resisting the mutation inhibitors.

  11. CBF tomograms with (/sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO in patients with dementia (Alzheimer type and HIV) and Parkinson's disease--initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, D.C.; Ell, P.J.; Burns, A.; Philpot, M.; Levy, R.

    1988-12-01

    We present preliminary data on the utility of functional brain imaging with (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the study of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), HIV-related dementia syndrome, and the on-off syndrome of Parkinson's disease. In comparison with a group of age-matched controls, the DAT patients revealed distinctive bilateral temporal and posterior parietal deficits, which correlate with detailed psychometric evaluation. Patients with amnesia as the main symptom (group A) showed bilateral mesial temporal lobe perfusion deficits (p less than 0.02). More severely affected patients (group B) with significant apraxia, aphasia, or agnosia exhibited patterns compatible with bilateral reduced perfusion in the posterior parietal cortex, as well as reduced perfusion to both temporal lobes, different from the patients of the control group (p less than 0.05). SPECT studies of HIV patients with no evidence of intracraneal space occupying pathology showed marked perfusion deficits. Patients with Parkinson's disease and the on-off syndrome studied during an on phase (under levodopa therapy) and on another occasion after withdrawal of levodopa (off) demonstrated a significant change in the uptake of (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO in the caudate nucleus (lower on off) and thalamus (higher on off). These findings justify the present interest in the functional evaluation of the brain of patients with dementia. (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)/SPECT appear useful and highlight individual disorders of flow in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions.

  12. Short Communication Phylogenetic Characterization of HIV Type 1 CRF01_AE V3 Envelope Sequences in Pregnant Women in Northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridha, Rozina; Ha, Tran Thi Thanh; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Hung, Pham Viet; Anh, Nguyen Mai; Bao, Nguyen Huy; Khang, Dinh Duy; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Cam, Phung Dac; Chiodi, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Characterization of HIV-1 strains is important for surveillance of the HIV-1 epidemic. In Vietnam HIV-1-infected pregnant women often fail to receive the care they are entitled to. Here, we analyzed phylogenetically HIV-1 env sequences from 37 HIV-1-infected pregnant women from Ha Noi (n=22) and Hai Phong (n=15), where they delivered in 2005–2007. All carried CRF01_AE in the gp120 V3 region. In 21 women CRF01_AE was also found in the reverse transcriptase gene. We compared their env gp120 V3 sequences phylogenetically in a maximum likelihood tree to those of 198 other CRF01_AE sequences in Vietnam and 229 from neighboring countries, predominantly Thailand, from the HIV-1 database. Altogether 464 sequences were analyzed. All but one of the maternal sequences colocalized with sequences from northern Vietnam. The maternal sequences had evolved the least when compared to sequences collected in Ha Noi in 2002, as shown by analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous changes, than to other Vietnamese sequences collected earlier and/or elsewhere. Since the HIV-1 epidemic in women in Vietnam may still be underestimated, characterization of HIV-1 in pregnant women is important to observe how HIV-1 has evolved and follow its molecular epidemiology. PMID:21936713

  13. Geography and Geographical Information Science: Interdisciplinary Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Geography and Geographical Information Science (GIS) can contribute to Interdisciplinary Research (IDR), it is relevant to articulate the differences between the different types of such research. "Multidisciplinary" researchers work in a "parallel play" mode, completing work in their disciplinary work streams…

  14. HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases among female prostitutes in Kinshasa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzila, N; Laga, M; Thiam, M A; Mayimona, K; Edidi, B; Van Dyck, E; Behets, F; Hassig, S; Nelson, A; Mokwa, K

    1991-06-01

    In 1988, 1233 prostitutes from different geographic areas of Kinshasa participated in a cross-sectional survey on HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Despite relatively good knowledge about AIDS and STDs, the reported preventive behaviour was poor. Only 12% of the women reported regular use of condoms, while greater than 50% of the women reported regular use of antibiotics and 38% reported doing nothing specific to prevent STDs. Thirty-five per cent of the women were HIV-positive compared with 27% in a similar survey in Kinshasa in 1986. The prevalence of other STDs was very high, ranging from 5% for genital ulcer disease (GUD) to 23% for gonococcal infection. HIV-positive women were older than HIV-negative women (26.9 versus 25.4 years; P less than 0.001), had a significantly lower level of reported condom use (9 versus 14%, P = 0.009), and reported more frequent use of antibiotics to prevent STDs (55 versus 42%, P = less than 0.001). The prevalence of syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydial infection and trichomoniasis was not higher in HIV-positive women compared with HIV-negative women. However, HIV-positive women had a higher prevalence of GUD (9 versus 3%, P less than 0.001), antibodies against Haemophilus ducreyi (82 versus 57%, P less than 0.001), antibodies against herpes simplex virus type 2 (96 versus 76%, P less than 0.001), condylomata accuminata (5 versus 1%, P = 0.003) and cytologic evidence of human papilloma virus on Papaniclaou cervical smear (11 versus 5%, P = 0.006). This study confirms the high incidence of HIV and other STDs among prostitutes in Africa.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. The Clinical Spectrum of Neurological Manifestations in HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is primarily neurotrophic and lymphotrophic. Diverse neurologic sequealae have been documented with variations based on disease severity, but geographic variation may determine the distribution of these neurological complications. Objective: This study was ...

  16. development and implementation of an hiv/aids trials management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-06-19

    Jun 19, 2008 ... USA's National Library of Medicine, and the metaReg- ister of ... The building of a functioning HIV/AIDS trials management system can provide policymakers, re- .... web browser to view geographical data and access the.

  17. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  18. An attenuated herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) encoding the HIV-1 Tat protein protects mice from a deadly mucosal HSV1 challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicurella, Mariaconcetta; Nicoli, Francesco; Gallerani, Eleonora; Volpi, Ilaria; Berto, Elena; Finessi, Valentina; Destro, Federica; Manservigi, Roberto; Cafaro, Aurelio; Ensoli, Barbara; Caputo, Antonella; Gavioli, Riccardo; Marconi, Peggy C

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2) are common infectious agents in both industrialized and developing countries. They cause recurrent asymptomatic and/or symptomatic infections, and life-threatening diseases and death in newborns and immunocompromised patients. Current treatment for HSV relies on antiviral medications, which can halt the symptomatic diseases but cannot prevent the shedding that occurs in asymptomatic patients or, consequently, the spread of the viruses. Therefore, prevention rather than treatment of HSV infections has long been an area of intense research, but thus far effective anti-HSV vaccines still remain elusive. One of the key hurdles to overcome in anti-HSV vaccine development is the identification and effective use of strategies that promote the emergence of Th1-type immune responses against a wide range of epitopes involved in the control of viral replication. Since the HIV1 Tat protein has several immunomodulatory activities and increases CTL recognition of dominant and subdominant epitopes of heterologous antigens, we generated and assayed a recombinant attenuated replication-competent HSV1 vector containing the tat gene (HSV1-Tat). In this proof-of-concept study we show that immunization with this vector conferred protection in 100% of mice challenged intravaginally with a lethal dose of wild-type HSV1. We demonstrate that the presence of Tat within the recombinant virus increased and broadened Th1-like and CTL responses against HSV-derived T-cell epitopes and elicited in most immunized mice detectable IgG responses. In sharp contrast, a similarly attenuated HSV1 recombinant vector without Tat (HSV1-LacZ), induced low and different T cell responses, no measurable antibody responses and did not protect mice against the wild-type HSV1 challenge. These findings strongly suggest that recombinant HSV1 vectors expressing Tat merit further investigation for their potential to prevent and/or contain HSV1 infection and

  19. An attenuated herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1 encoding the HIV-1 Tat protein protects mice from a deadly mucosal HSV1 challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariaconcetta Sicurella

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2 are common infectious agents in both industrialized and developing countries. They cause recurrent asymptomatic and/or symptomatic infections, and life-threatening diseases and death in newborns and immunocompromised patients. Current treatment for HSV relies on antiviral medications, which can halt the symptomatic diseases but cannot prevent the shedding that occurs in asymptomatic patients or, consequently, the spread of the viruses. Therefore, prevention rather than treatment of HSV infections has long been an area of intense research, but thus far effective anti-HSV vaccines still remain elusive. One of the key hurdles to overcome in anti-HSV vaccine development is the identification and effective use of strategies that promote the emergence of Th1-type immune responses against a wide range of epitopes involved in the control of viral replication. Since the HIV1 Tat protein has several immunomodulatory activities and increases CTL recognition of dominant and subdominant epitopes of heterologous antigens, we generated and assayed a recombinant attenuated replication-competent HSV1 vector containing the tat gene (HSV1-Tat. In this proof-of-concept study we show that immunization with this vector conferred protection in 100% of mice challenged intravaginally with a lethal dose of wild-type HSV1. We demonstrate that the presence of Tat within the recombinant virus increased and broadened Th1-like and CTL responses against HSV-derived T-cell epitopes and elicited in most immunized mice detectable IgG responses. In sharp contrast, a similarly attenuated HSV1 recombinant vector without Tat (HSV1-LacZ, induced low and different T cell responses, no measurable antibody responses and did not protect mice against the wild-type HSV1 challenge. These findings strongly suggest that recombinant HSV1 vectors expressing Tat merit further investigation for their potential to prevent and/or contain HSV1

  20. Current hemoglobin levels are more predictive of disease progression than hemoglobin measured at baseline in patients receiving antiretroviral treatment for HIV type 1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Mocroft, Amanda; Blaxhult, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The role of hemoglobin levels as an independent prognostic marker of progression to AIDS and/or death in HIV-infected patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was investigated. A total of 2,579 patients from the EuroSIDA cohort with hemoglobin, CD4 cell count, and HIV RNA viral...

  1. Evaluation of an HIV/AIDS peer education programme in a South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To evaluate a South African workplace HIV I AIDS peer-education programme running since 1997. Methods. In 2001 a cross-sectional study was done of 900 retail-section employees in three geographical areas. The study measured HIV I AIDS knowledge, attitudes towards people living with HIV I AIDS, belief ...

  2. Risk for HIV Infection among Adolescents in the Border City of Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Blumberg, Elaine J.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Sipan, Carol L.; Zellner, Jennifer A.; Hughes, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested high rates of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections in theU.S.-Mexico border region. However, no information is available on the risk for HIV infection among Mexican adolescents living in this geographic area. This study examines the prevalence of HIV risk practices and psychosocial correlates…

  3. Analytical Performances of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA-Based Amplix® Real-Time PCR Platform for HIV-1 RNA Quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Diamant Mossoro-Kpinde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We evaluated the performances of Amplix real-time PCR platform developed by Biosynex (Strasbourg, France, combining automated station extraction (Amplix station 16 Dx and real-time PCR (Amplix NG, for quantifying plasma HIV-1 RNA by lyophilized HIV-1 RNA-based Amplix reagents targeting gag and LTR, using samples from HIV-1-infected adults from Central African Republic. Results. Amplix real-time PCR assay showed low limit of detection (28 copies/mL, across wide dynamic range (1.4–10 log copies/mL, 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity, high reproducibility, and accuracy with mean bias < 5%. The assay showed excellent correlations and concordance of 95.3% with the reference HIV-1 RNA load assay (Roche, with mean absolute bias of +0.097 log copies/mL by Bland-Altman analysis. The assay was able to detect and quantify the most prevalent HIV-1 subtype strains and the majority of non-B subtypes, CRFs of HIV-1 group M, and HIV-1 groups N and O circulating in Central Africa. The Amplix assay showed 100% sensitivity and 99.6% specificity to diagnose virological failure in clinical samples from antiretroviral drug-experienced patients. Conclusions. The HIV-1 RNA-based Amplix real-time PCR platform constitutes sensitive and reliable system for clinical monitoring of HIV-1 RNA load in HIV-1-infected children and adults, particularly adapted to intermediate laboratory facilities in sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. Incidence of Co-Infections of HIV, Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 and Syphilis in a Large Cohort of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Zixin; Qi, Xiao; Ruan, Yuhua; Zhou, Yunhua; Li, Chunrong; Luo, Fengji; Lau, Joseph T. F.

    2016-01-01

    Background The HIV-epidemic among MSM in China has worsened. In this key population, prevalence of HSV-2 and syphilis infection and co-infection with HIV is high. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted (n = 962) in Beijing, China, with three overlapping cohorts (n = 857, 757 and 760) consisting of MSM that were free from pairs of infections of concern (i.e. HIV-HSV-2, HIV-syphilis, HSV-2-syphilis) at baseline to estimate incidence of HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, and those of co-infection. Results The incidence of HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis in the overall cohort was 3.90 (95% CI = 2.37, 5.43), 7.87 (95% CI = 5.74, 10.00) and 6.06 (95% CI = 4.18, 7.94) cases per 100 person-years (PYs), respectively. The incidence of HIV-HSV-2, HIV-Syphilis and HSV-2-Syphilis co-infections was 0.30 (95% CI = 0.29, 0.88), 1.02 (95% CI = 0.13, 2.17) and 1.41 (95% CI: 0.04, 2.78) cases per 100 PYs, respectively, in the three sub-cohorts constructed for this study. Conclusions The incidence of HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis was very high and those of their co-infections were relatively high. Such co-infections have negative impacts on the HIV/STI epidemics. Prevention practices need to take such co-infections into account. PMID:26820145

  5. Evaluation of four rapid tests for diagnosis and differentiation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in Guinea-Conakry, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillet, Pascale; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Zachariah, Rony; Duclos, Nanfack; Moctar, Diallo; Beelaert, Greet; Fransen, Katrien

    2010-09-01

    With both HIV-1 and HV-2 prevalent in Guinea-Conakry, accurate diagnosis and differentiation is crucial for treatment purposes. Thus, four rapid HIV tests were evaluated for their HIV-1 and HIV-2 diagnostic and discriminative capacity for use in Guinea-Conakry. These included SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc.), Genie II HIV1/HIV2 (Bio-Rad), First Response HIV Card Test 1-2.0 (PMC Medical) and Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 (Core Diagnostics). Results were compared with gold standard tests (INNO-LIA HIV-I/II Score) and NEW LAV BLOT II (Bio-Rad). Four hundred and forty three sequential stored HIV-positive serum samples, of known HIV-type, were evaluated. Genie II HIV1/HIV2, Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 and SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 had 100% sensitivity (95% CI, 98.9-100%) while for First Response HIV Card Test 1-2.0 this was 99.5% (95% CI, 98.2%-99.9%). In terms of discriminatory capacity, Genie II HIV1/HIV2 identified 382/ 384(99.5%) HIV-1 samples, 49/ 52(95%) HIV-2 and 7/7(100%) HIV-positive untypable samples. Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 identified 99% HIV-1, 67% HIV-2 and all HIV-positive untypable samples. First Response HIV Card Test 1-2.0 identified 94% HIV-1, 64% HIV-2 and 57% HIV-positive untypable samples. SD-Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 was the worst overall performer identifying 65% HIV-1, 69% HIV-2 and all HIV-positive untypable samples. The use of SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (the current standard in Guinea-Conakry) as a discriminatory HIV test is poor and may be best replaced by Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2. Copyright 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Using geographic information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winsor, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    A true Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer mapping system with spatial analysis ability and cartographic accuracy that will offer many different projections. GIS has evolved to become an everyday tool for a wide range of users including oil companies, worldwide. Other systems are designed to allow oil and gas companies to keep their upstream data in the same format. Among these are the Public Petroleum Data Model developed by Gulf Canada, Digitech and Applied Terravision Systems of Calgary, the system developed and marketed by the Petrotechnical Open Software Corporation in the United States, and the Mercury projects by IBM. These have been developed in an effort to define an industry standard. The advantages and disadvantages of open and closed systems were discussed. Factors to consider when choosing a GIS system such as overall performance, area of use and query complexity, were reviewed. 3 figs

  7. Selective decrease in circulating V alpha 24+V beta 11+ NKT cells during HIV type 1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vliet, Hans J. J.; von Blomberg, B. Mary E.; Hazenberg, Mette D.; Nishi, Nobusuke; Otto, Sigrid A.; van Benthem, Birgit H.; Prins, Maria; Claessen, Frans A.; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J. M.; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Miedema, Frank; Scheper, Rik J.; Pinedo, Herbert M.

    2002-01-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells express an invariant TCR and have been demonstrated to play an important regulatory role in a variety of immune responses. Invariant NKT cells down-regulate autoimmune responses by production of type 2 cytokines and can initiate antitumor and antimicrobial immune responses

  8. Geographic analysis of road accident severity index in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyanda, Ayodeji E

    2018-05-28

    Before 2030, deaths from road traffic accidents (RTAs) will surpass cerebrovascular disease, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. Yet, there is little knowledge on the geographic distribution of RTA severity in Nigeria. Accident Severity Index is the proportion of deaths that result from a road accident. This study analysed the geographic pattern of RTA severity based on the data retrieved from Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC). The study predicted a two-year data from a historic road accident data using exponential smoothing technique. To determine spatial autocorrelation, global and local indicators of spatial association were implemented in a geographic information system. Results show significant clusters of high RTA severity among states in the northeast and the northwest of Nigeria. Hence, the findings are discussed from two perspectives: Road traffic law compliance and poor emergency response. Conclusion, the severity of RTA is high in the northern states of Nigeria, hence, RTA remains a public health concern.

  9. application of geographic information system (gis) in industrial land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPHILIHS

    Land capability index mapping using Geographic Information System (GIS) principles was used for this study. The study was undertaken using Arc View ... Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is one of the best approaches for this type of ..... western segments and to a small extent the east. Some of the available lands are ...

  10. Association between Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Type of Infectious Respiratory Disease and All-Cause In-Hospital Mortality in Patients with HIV/AIDS: A Case Series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Báez-Saldaña

    Full Text Available Respiratory manifestations of HIV disease differ globally due to differences in current availability of effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART programs and epidemiology of infectious diseases.To describe the association between HAART and discharge diagnosis and all-cause in-hospital mortality among hospitalized patients with infectious respiratory disease and HIV/AIDS.We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients hospitalized at a specialty hospital for respiratory diseases in Mexico City between January 1st, 2010 and December 31st, 2011. We included patients whose discharge diagnosis included HIV or AIDS and at least one infectious respiratory diagnosis. The information source was the clinical chart. We analyzed the association between HAART for 180 days or more and type of respiratory disease using polytomous logistic regression and all-cause hospital mortality by multiple logistic regressions.We studied 308 patients, of whom 206 (66.9% had been diagnosed with HIV infection before admission to the hospital. The CD4+ lymphocyte median count was 68 cells/mm3 [interquartile range (IQR: 30-150]. Seventy-five (24.4% cases had received HAART for more than 180 days. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP (n = 142, tuberculosis (n = 63, and bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (n = 60 were the most frequent discharge diagnoses. Receiving HAART for more than 180 days was associated with a lower probability of PJP [Adjusted odd ratio (aOR: 0.245, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 0.08-0.8, p = 0.02], adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical covariates. HAART was independently associated with reduced odds (aOR 0.214, 95% CI 0.06-0.75 of all-cause in-hospital mortality, adjusting for HIV diagnosis previous to hospitalization, age, access to social security, low socioeconomic level, CD4 cell count, viral load, and discharge diagnoses.HAART for 180 days or more was associated with 79% decrease in all-cause in-hospital mortality and lower

  11. Evidence that Vpu modulates HIV-1 Gag-envelope interaction towards envelope incorporation and infectivity in a cell type dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Gautam

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 Vpu is required for efficient virus particle release from the plasma membrane and intracellular CD4 degradation in infected cells. In the present study, we found that the loss of virus infectivity as a result of envelope (Env incorporation defect caused by a Gag matrix (MA mutation (L30E was significantly alleviated by introducing a start codon mutation in vpu. Inactivation of Vpu partially restored the Env incorporation defect imposed by L30E substitution in MA. This effect was found to be comparable in cell types such as 293T, HeLa, NP2 and GHOST as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM. However, in HeLa cells BST-2 knockdown was found to further alleviate the effect of Vpu inactivation on infectivity of L30E mutant. Our data demonstrated that the impaired infectivity of virus particles due to Env incorporation defect caused by MA mutation was modulated by start codon mutation in Vpu.

  12. Global Dispersal Pattern of HIV Type 1 Subtype CRF01_AE: A Genetic Trace of Human Mobility Related to Heterosexual Sexual Activities Centralized in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Konstantinos; Albert, Jan; Mamais, Ioannis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Hatzakis, Angelos; Hamouda, Osamah; Struck, Daniel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Wensing, Annemarie M J; Alexiev, Ivailo; Åsjö, Birgitta; Balotta, Claudia; Camacho, Ricardo J; Coughlan, Suzie; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Grossman, Zehava; Horban, Andrzej; Kostrikis, Leondios G; Lepej, Snjezana; Liitsola, Kirsi; Linka, Marek; Nielsen, Claus; Otelea, Dan; Paredes, Roger; Poljak, Mario; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Sönnerborg, Anders; Staneková, Danica; Stanojevic, Maja; Boucher, Charles A B; Kaplan, Lauren; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

    2015-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype CRF01_AE originated in Africa and then passed to Thailand, where it established a major epidemic. Despite the global presence of CRF01_AE, little is known about its subsequent dispersal pattern. We assembled a global data set of 2736 CRF01_AE sequences by pooling sequences from public databases and patient-cohort studies. We estimated viral dispersal patterns, using statistical phylogeographic analysis run over bootstrap trees estimated by the maximum likelihood method. We show that Thailand has been the source of viral dispersal to most areas worldwide, including 17 of 20 sampled countries in Europe. Japan, Singapore, Vietnam, and other Asian countries have played a secondary role in the viral dissemination. In contrast, China and Taiwan have mainly imported strains from neighboring Asian countries, North America, and Africa without any significant viral exportation. The central role of Thailand in the global spread of CRF01_AE can be probably explained by the popularity of Thailand as a vacation destination characterized by sex tourism and by Thai emigration to the Western world. Our study highlights the unique case of CRF01_AE, the only globally distributed non-B clade whose global dispersal did not originate in Africa. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in 5 sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and the effect of HIV/STD risk-reduction counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Douglas, John M; Foster, Mark; Schmid, D Scott; Newman, Daniel R; Baron, Anna E; Bolan, Gail; Iatesta, Michael; Malotte, C Kevin; Zenilman, Jonathan; Fishbein, Martin; Peterman, Thomas A; Kamb, Mary L

    2004-09-15

    The seroincidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection was determined among 1766 patients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and enrolled in a randomized, controlled trial of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/STD risk-reduction counseling (RRC). Arm 1 received enhanced RRC (4 sessions); arm 2, brief RRC (2 sessions); and arm 3, the control arm, brief informational messages. The overall incidence rate was 11.7 cases/100 person-years (py). Independent predictors of incidence of HSV-2 infection included female sex; black race; residence in Newark, New Jersey; new HSV-2 infections were diagnosed clinically. Incidence rates were 12.9 cases/100 py in the control arm, 11.8 cases/100 py in arm 2, and 10.3 cases/100 py in arm 1 (hazard ratio, 0.8 [95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.1], vs. controls). The possible benefit of RRC in preventing acquisition of HSV-2 infection offers encouragement that interventions more specifically tailored to genital herpes may be useful and should be an important focus of future studies.

  14. comparative analysis of micronutrients status of hiv infected and hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Antiretroviral drugs are used to reduce the viral load, disease symptoms and ... amount of blue color produced read colorimetrically at 440nm using light ..... studies of HIV type 1 related cognitive changes. Arch. Neutral, 49 ...

  15. Do the risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus vary by location? A spatial analysis of health insurance claims in Northeastern Germany using kernel density estimation and geographically weighted regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kauhl

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of general practitioners (GPs in Germany still relies mainly on the ratio of inhabitants to GPs at relatively large scales and barely accounts for an increased prevalence of chronic diseases among the elderly and socially underprivileged populations. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM is one of the major cost-intensive diseases with high rates of potentially preventable complications. Provision of healthcare and access to preventive measures is necessary to reduce the burden of T2DM. However, current studies on the spatial variation of T2DM in Germany are mostly based on survey data, which do not only underestimate the true prevalence of T2DM, but are also only available on large spatial scales. The aim of this study is therefore to analyse the spatial distribution of T2DM at fine geographic scales and to assess location-specific risk factors based on data of the AOK health insurance. Methods To display the spatial heterogeneity of T2DM, a bivariate, adaptive kernel density estimation (KDE was applied. The spatial scan statistic (SaTScan was used to detect areas of high risk. Global and local spatial regression models were then constructed to analyze socio-demographic risk factors of T2DM. Results T2DM is especially concentrated in rural areas surrounding Berlin. The risk factors for T2DM consist of proportions of 65–79 year olds, 80 + year olds, unemployment rate among the 55–65 year olds, proportion of employees covered by mandatory social security insurance, mean income tax, and proportion of non-married couples. However, the strength of the association between T2DM and the examined socio-demographic variables displayed strong regional variations. Conclusion The prevalence of T2DM varies at the very local level. Analyzing point data on T2DM of northeastern Germany’s largest health insurance provider thus allows very detailed, location-specific knowledge about increased medical needs. Risk factors

  16. Effects of biscuit-type feeding supplementation on the neurocognitive outcomes of HIV-affected school-age children: a randomized, double-blind, controlled intervention trial in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kek Khee Loo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine if meat or soy protein dietary supplementation will enhance the neurocognitive performance of HIV-affected children at-risk of malnutrition and food insecurity. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, controlled intervention trial evaluated the effect of nutritional supplementation on the neurocognitive outcomes of 49 HIV-affected school-age children in western Kenya. The intervention consisted in providing the mother, target child, and siblings with one of three isocaloric biscuit-type supplements – soy, wheat, or beef – on 5 days per week for 18 months. Neurocognitive outcomes of the target children were assessed by a battery of eight measures and followed up longitudinally for up to 24 months. Results: Mixed effects modeling demonstrated significant differences in the rates of increase over time among all three groups (F test degrees of freedom of 2, P<0.05 for Raven’s progressive matrices performance, but not for verbal meaning, arithmetic, digit span backward, forward, and total, embedded figure test, and Beery visual–motor integration scores. Conclusion: HIV-affected school-age children provided with soy protein supplementation showed greater improvement in nonverbal cognitive (fluid intelligence performance compared with peers who received isocaloric beef or wheat biscuits. Soy nutrients may have an enhancing effect on neurocognitive skills in HIV-affected school-age children.

  17. Full-length characterization of A1/D intersubtype recombinant genomes from a therapy-induced HIV type 1 controller during acute infection and his noncontrolling partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, A.; Vinner, L.; Therrien, D.

    2008-01-01

    To increase the understanding of mechanisms of HIV control we have genetically and immunologically characterized a full-length HIV-1 isolated from an acute infection in a rare case of undetectable viremia. The subject, a 43-year-old Danish white male (DK1), was diagnosed with acute HIV-1 infection...... and phylogenic trees were constructed and diversity and evolutionary distances were calculated. Intracellular IFN-gamma in CD8(+)CD3(+) T-lymphocyte reactions was investigated by intracellular flow cytometry (IC-FACS). Virus isolates from both patients were A1D intersubtype recombinants showing 98% sequence...

  18. Socio-demographic and epidemiological characteristics associated with human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1 infection in HIV-1-explosed but uninfected individuals, and in HIV-1-infected patients from a southern brasilian population Características sociodemográficas e epidemiológicas associadas com a infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana tipo 1 (HIV-1 em indivíduos expostos ao HIV-1 mas não infectados e em pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1, provenientes da população da região Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Maria Vissoci Reiche

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to control human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection and progression of the disease is regulated by host and viral factors. This cross-sectional study describes the socio-demographic and epidemiological characteristics associated with HIV-1 infection in 1,061 subjects attended in Londrina and region, south of Brazil: 136 healthy individuals (Group 1, 147 HIV-1-exposed but uninfected individuals (Group 2, 161 HIV-1-infected asymptomatic patients (Group 3, and 617 patients with AIDS (Group 4. Data were obtained by a standardized questionnaire and serological tests. The age of the individuals ranged from 15.1 to 79.5 years, 54.0% and 56.1% of the Groups 3 and 4 patients, respectively, were men. The major features of groups 2, 3, and 4 were a predominance of education level up to secondary school (55.8%, 60.2% and 62.4%, respectively, sexual route of exposure (88.4%, 87.0% and 82.0%, respectively, heterosexual behavior (91.8%, 75.2% and 83.7%, respectively, and previous sexually transmitted diseases (20.4%, 32.5%, and 38.1%, respectively. The patients with AIDS showed the highest rates of seropositivity for syphilis (25.6%, of anti-HCV (22.3%, and anti-HTLV I/II obtained by two serological screening tests (6.2% and 6.8%, respectively. The results documenting the predominant characteristics for HIV-1 infection among residents of Londrina and region, could be useful for the improvement of current HIV-1 prevention, monitoring and therapeutic programs targeted at this population.Este estudo transversal descreve as principais características sociodemográficas e epidemiológicas associadas com a infecção pelo HIV-1 em 1.061 indivíduos atendidos em Londrina e região, Sul do Brasil: 136 indivíduos saudáveis (Grupo 1, 147 indivíduos expostos ao HIV-1 mas não infectados (Grupo 2, 161 pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1 assintomáticos (Grupo 3 e 617 pacientes com aids (Grupo 4. Os dados foram obtidos pela aplicação de um

  19. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, but not including roads and highways. The database also contains geographic names in Antarctica. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other feature attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature class, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories of features the geometric boundaries. The database assigns a unique feature identifier, a random number, that is a key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling GNIS data with other data sets. The GNIS is our Nation's official repository of domestic geographic feature names information.

  20. Examining differences in types and location of recruitment venues for young males and females from urban neighborhoods: findings from a multi-site HIV prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutuape, Kate S; Ziff, Mauri; Auerswald, Colette; Castillo, Marné; McFadden, Antionette; Ellen, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Finding and accessing members of youth subpopulations, such as young men who have sex with men (YMSM) of color or young females of color, for behavioral or disease surveillance or study recruitment, pose particular challenges. Venue-based sampling strategies--which hinge on where individuals congregate or "hang out" rather than where they live--appear to be effective alternatives. Methods used to identify venues focus on engaging members of social networks to learn where targeted populations congregate. However, it is not always clear if and how these methods differ according to gender, whether the youth accessed at a venue are actually from neighborhoods in which the venues are found, and whether the location of venues relative to neighborhoods of residence is different for young men and young women. This study illustrates the gender differences in venue type and venue location where eligible youth study participants from high-risk neighborhoods could be accessed for HIV research across 15 research sites (sites). The findings indicate that the study's method led to identifying venues where one quarter or more of the youth were eligible study participants and from the high-risk neighborhoods. Sites targeting young women of color had a higher proportion of eligible study participants who were also from the high-risk neighborhoods than sites targeting YMSM. Clubs were most commonly identified by sites targeting YMSM as recruitment venues, whereas neighborhood-based service or commercial centers were more common venues for young women of color. This study reveals how venue-based recruitment strategies can be tailored and resources maximized by understanding the key differences in the types of venues preferred by males and females and by recognizing that female-preferred venues are more likely to be closer to home.

  1. Modification of a loop sequence between α-helices 6 and 7 of virus capsid (CA protein in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 derivative that has simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239 vif and CA α-helices 4 and 5 loop improves replication in cynomolgus monkey cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adachi Akio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 productively infects only humans and chimpanzees but not cynomolgus or rhesus monkeys while simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from macaque (SIVmac readily establishes infection in those monkeys. Several HIV-1 and SIVmac chimeric viruses have been constructed in order to develop an animal model for HIV-1 infection. Construction of an HIV-1 derivative which contains sequences of a SIVmac239 loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5 of capsid protein (CA and the entire SIVmac239 vif gene was previously reported. Although this chimeric virus could grow in cynomolgus monkey cells, it did so much more slowly than did SIVmac. It was also reported that intrinsic TRIM5α restricts the post-entry step of HIV-1 replication in rhesus and cynomolgus monkey cells, and we previously demonstrated that a single amino acid in a loop between α-helices 6 and 7 (L6/7 of HIV type 2 (HIV-2 CA determines the susceptibility of HIV-2 to cynomolgus monkey TRIM5α. Results In the study presented here, we replaced L6/7 of HIV-1 CA in addition to L4/5 and vif with the corresponding segments of SIVmac. The resultant HIV-1 derivatives showed enhanced replication capability in established T cell lines as well as in CD8+ cell-depleted primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cynomolgus monkey. Compared with the wild type HIV-1 particles, the viral particles produced from a chimeric HIV-1 genome with those two SIVmac loops were less able to saturate the intrinsic restriction in rhesus monkey cells. Conclusion We have succeeded in making the replication of simian-tropic HIV-1 in cynomolgus monkey cells more efficient by introducing into HIV-1 the L6/7 CA loop from SIVmac. It would be of interest to determine whether HIV-1 derivatives with SIVmac CA L4/5 and L6/7 can establish infection of cynomolgus monkeys in vivo.

  2. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  3. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  4. Geographic assistance of decontamination strategy elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydchuk, V.; Arapis, G.

    1996-01-01

    Those who elaborates the strategy of decontamination of vast territories is to take into consideration the heterogeneity of such elements of landscape as relief, lithology, humidity and types of soils and, vegetation, both on local and regional level. Geographic assistance includes evaluation of efficacy of decontamination technologies in different natural conditions, identification of areas of their effective application and definition of ecological damage, estimation of balances of the radionuclides in the landscapes to create background of the decontamination strategy

  5. A conceptual model exploring the relationship between HIV stigma and implementing HIV clinical trials in rural communities of North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sohini; Strauss, Ronald P; Miles, Margaret S; Roman-Isler, Malika; Banks, Bahby; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2010-01-01

    HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects minority groups in the United States, especially in the rural southeastern states. Poverty and lack of access to HIV care, including clinical trials, are prevalent in these areas and contribute to HIV stigma. This is the first study to develop a conceptual model exploring the relationship between HIV stigma and the implementation of HIV clinical trials in rural contexts to help improve participation in those trials. We conducted focus groups with HIV service providers and community leaders, and individual interviews with people living with HIV/AIDS in six counties in rural North Carolina. Themes related to stigma were elicited. We classified the themes into theoretical constructs and developed a conceptual model. HIV stigma themes were classified under the existing theoretical constructs of perceived, experienced, vicarious, and felt normative stigma. Two additional constructs emerged: causes of HIV stigma (e.g., low HIV knowledge and denial in the community) and consequences of HIV stigma (e.g., confidentiality concerns in clinical trials). The conceptual model illustrates that the causes of HIV stigma can give rise to perceived, experienced, and vicarious HIV stigma, and these types of stigma could lead to the consequences of HIV stigma that include felt normative stigma. Understanding HIV stigma in rural counties of North Carolina may not be generalizeable to other rural US southeastern states. The conceptual model emphasizes that HIV stigma--in its many forms--is a critical barrier to HIV clinical trial implementation in rural North Carolina.

  6. Determinants of Dentists' Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazoglou, Tryfon J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A model for explaining the geographic distribution of dentists' practice locations is presented and applied to particular market areas in Connecticut. Results show geographic distribution is significantly related to a few key variables, including demography, disposable income, and housing prices. Implications for helping students make practice…

  7. Geographic information systems: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calistri, Paolo; Conte, Annamaria; Freier, Jerome E; Ward, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    The recent exponential growth of the science and technology of geographic information systems (GIS) has made a tremendous contribution to epidemiological analysis and has led to the development of new powerful tools for the surveillance of animal diseases. GIS, spatial analysis and remote sensing provide valuable methods to collect and manage information for epidemiological surveys. Spatial patterns and trends of disease can be correlated with climatic and environmental information, thus contributing to a better understanding of the links between disease processes and explanatory spatial variables. Until recently, these tools were underexploited in the field of veterinary public health, due to the prohibitive cost of hardware and the complexity of GIS software that required a high level of expertise. The revolutionary developments in computer performance of the last decade have not only reduced the costs of equipment but have made available easy-to-use Web-based software which in turn have meant that GIS are more widely accessible by veterinary services at all levels. At the same time, the increased awareness of the possibilities offered by these tools has created new opportunities for decision-makers to enhance their planning, analysis and monitoring capabilities. These technologies offer a new way of sharing and accessing spatial and non-spatial data across groups and institutions. The series of papers included in this compilation aim to: - define the state of the art in the use of GIS in veterinary activities - identify priority needs in the development of new GIS tools at the international level for the surveillance of animal diseases and zoonoses - define practical proposals for their implementation. The topics addressed are presented in the following order in this book: - importance of GIS for the monitoring of animal diseases and zoonoses - GIS application in surveillance activities - spatial analysis in veterinary epidemiology - data collection and remote

  8. LEXICOSTRATIGRAPHY: TRACING GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    Ogirisi: a new journal of African studies vol 9 2012. 117 ... d. aguma/ekpe: a type of mask dance by a secret all-male ... secret society, such victims were sold to European slave buyers. ... words but due to the influence of Igbo, younger Koring.

  9. Stigma reduction in adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV: findings from the Project ACCEPT intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Gary W; Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil G

    2014-10-01

    This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma-personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV-as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of coping skills, and providing contact with other youth living with HIV in order to improve social support. Fifty youth (28 male, 22 female; mean age=19.24 years) newly diagnosed with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics participated in a one-group pretest-posttest design study whereby they received the intervention over a 12-week period, and completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results from the combined sample (males and females) revealed overall reductions in stigma in three dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and negative self-image, although only the combined-sample effects for negative self-image were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Gender-specific analyses revealed that the intervention reduced stigma for males across all four dimensions of stigma, with all effects being maintained to some degree at the 3-month follow-up. Only personalized stigma demonstrated a decrease for females, although this effect was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up; while the other three types of stigma increased at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of gender specific outcomes and the need for a different type of intervention to reduce stigma for young women.

  10. Is an HIV vaccine possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A. Wilson

    Full Text Available The road to the discovery of a vaccine for HIV has been arduous and will continue to be difficult over the ensuing twenty years. Most vaccines are developed by inducing neutralizing antibodies against the target pathogen or by using attenuated strains of the particular pathogen to engender a variety of protective immune responses. Unfortunately, simple methods of generating anti-HIV antibodies have already failed in a phase III clinical trial. While attenuated SIV variants work well against homologous challenges in non-human primates, the potential for reversion to a more pathogenic virus and recombination with challenge viruses will preclude the use of attenuated HIV in the field. It has been exceedingly frustrating to vaccinate for HIV-specific neutralizing antibodies given the enormous diversity of the Envelope (Env glycoprotein and its well-developed glycan shield. However, there are several antibodies that will neutralize many different strains of HIV and inducing these types of antibodies in vaccinees remains the goal of a vigorous effort to develop a vaccine for HIV based on neutralizing antibodies. Given the difficulty in generating broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies, the HIV vaccine field has turned its attention to inducing T cell responses against the virus using a variety of vectors. Unfortunately, the results from Merck's phase IIb STEP trial proved to be disappointing. Vaccinees received Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 expressing Gag, Pol, and Nef of HIV. This vaccine regimen failed to either prevent infection or reduce the level of HIV replication after challenge. These results mirrored those in non-human primate testing of Ad5 using rigorous SIV challenge models. This review will focus on recent developments in HIV vaccine development. We will deal largely with attempts to develop a T cell-based vaccine using the non-human primate SIV challenge model.

  11. The incidence rate of HIV type-1 drug resistance in patients on antiretroviral therapy: a nationwide population-based Danish cohort study 1999-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audelin, A.M.; Lohse, N.; Obel, N.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Newer antiretroviral treatment regimens for HIV carry a lower risk of inducing drug resistance mutations. We estimated changes in incidence rates (IRs) of new mutations in HIV-infected individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: Population-based data...... were obtained from the Danish HIV Cohort Study and the Danish HIV Sequence Database. We included treatment-naive patients initiating HAART after December 1997 and computed time to first drug resistance mutation, identified as new mutations detected within 1 year after a 60-day period of treatment.......077). The IR of PI resistance decreased from 7.5 (1.4-21.8) in 1999 to 2.9 (0.7-11.4) in 2002-2003 (P=0.148). The IRs were low for specific resistance mutations, except for M184V (IR 5.6 [4.0-7.9]) and K103N (IR 8.2 [5.6-12.0]). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of acquired drug resistance has decreased among HIV...

  12. Utility of the heteroduplex assay (HDA) as a simple and cost-effective tool for the identification of HIV type 1 dual infections in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Rebecca L R; Urbanski, Mateusz M; Burda, Sherri; Nanfack, Aubin; Kinge, Thompson; Nyambi, Phillipe N

    2008-01-01

    The predominance of unique recombinant forms (URFs) of HIV-1 in Cameroon suggests that dual infection, the concomitant or sequential infection with genetically distinct HIV-1 strains, occurs frequently in this region; yet, identifying dual infection among large HIV cohorts in local, resource-limited settings is uncommon, since this generally relies on labor-intensive and costly sequencing methods. Consequently, there is a need to develop an effective, cost-efficient method appropriate to the developing world to identify these infections. In the present study, the heteroduplex assay (HDA) was used to verify dual or single infection status, as shown by traditional sequence analysis, for 15 longitudinally sampled study subjects from Cameroon. Heteroduplex formation, indicative of a dual infection, was identified for all five study subjects shown by sequence analysis to be dually infected. Conversely, heteroduplex formation was not detectable for all 10 HDA reactions of the singly infected study subjects. These results suggest that the HDA is a simple yet powerful and inexpensive tool for the detection of both intersubtype and intrasubtype dual infections, and that the HDA harbors significant potential for reliable, high-throughput screening for dual infection. As these infections and the recombinants they generate facilitate leaps in HIV-1 evolution, and may present major challenges for treatment and vaccine design, this assay will be critical for monitoring the continuing pandemic in regions of the world where HIV-1 viral diversity is broad.

  13. Short communication: high prevalence of drug resistance in HIV type 1-infected children born in Honduras and Belize 2001 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Leda; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Murillo, Wendy; Naver, Lars; Largaespada, Natalia; Albert, Jan; Karlsson, Annika C

    2011-10-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has had a great impact on the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1. However, development of drug resistance, which could be subsequently transmitted to the child, is a major concern. In Honduras and Belize the prevalence of drug resistance among HIV-1-infected children remains unknown. A total of 95 dried blood spot samples was obtained from HIV-1-infected, untreated children in Honduras and Belize born during 2001 to 2004, when preventive antiretroviral therapy was often suboptimal and consisted of monotherapy with nevirapine or zidovudine. Partial HIV-1 pol gene sequences were successfully obtained from 66 children (Honduras n=55; Belize n=11). Mutations associated with drug resistance were detected in 13% of the Honduran and 27% of the Belizean children. Most of the mutations detected in Honduras (43%) and all mutations detected in Belize were associated with resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, which was expected from the wide use of nevirapine to prevent MTCT during the study period. In addition, although several mothers reported that they had not received antiretroviral therapy, mutations associated with resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors were found in Honduras. This suggests prior and unreported use of these drugs, or that these women had been infected with resistant virus. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, the presence of drug resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1-infected Honduran and Belizean children.

  14. Virtually full-length subtype F and F/D recombinant HIV-1 from Africa and South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laukkanen, T.; Carr, J. K.; Janssens, W.; Liitsola, K.; Gotte, D.; McCutchan, F. E.; Op de Coul, E.; Cornelissen, M.; Heyndrickx, L.; van der Groen, G.; Salminen, M. O.

    2000-01-01

    For reliable classification of HIV-1 strains appropriate reference sequences are needed. The HIV-1 genetic subtype F has a wide geographic spread, causing significant epidemics in South America, Africa, and some regions of Europe. Previously only two full-length sequences of each of the HIV-1

  15. T CD4+ cells count among patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1: high prevalence of tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM Contagens de células T CD4+ na co-infecção HIV-1 e HTLV-1: alta prevalência da paraparesia espástica tropical/mielopatia associada ao HTLV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Casseb

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HIV positive patients co-infected with HTLV-1 may have an increase in their T CD4+ cell counts, thus rendering this parameter useless as an AIDS-defining event. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects induced by the co-infection of HIV-1 and HTLV-1 upon CD4+ cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Since 1997, our group has been following a cohort of HTLV-1-infected patients, in order to study the interaction of HTLV-1 with HIV and/or with hepatitis C virus (HCV, as well as HTLV-1-only infected asymptomatic carriers and those with tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM. One hundred and fifty HTLV-1-infected subjects have been referred to our clinic at the Institute of Infectious Diseases "Emílio Ribas", São Paulo. Twenty-seven of them were also infected with HIV-1 and HTLV-1-infection using two ELISAs and confirmed and typed by Western Blot (WB or polymerase chain reaction (PCR. All subjects were evaluated by two neurologists, blinded to the patient's HTLV status, and the TSP/HAM diagnostic was based on the World Health Organization (WHO classification. AIDS-defining events were in accordance with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC classification of 1988. The first T CD4+ cells count available before starting anti-retroviral therapy are shown compared to the HIV-1-infected subjects at the moment of AIDS defining event. RESULTS: A total of 27 HIV-1/HTLV-1 co-infected subjects were identified in this cohort; 15 already had AIDS and 12 remained free of AIDS. The median of T CD4+ cell counts was 189 (98-688 cells/mm³ and 89 (53-196 cells/mm³ for co-infected subjects who had an AIDS-defining event, and HIV-only infected individuals, respectively (p = 0.036. Eight of 27 co-infected subjects (30% were diagnosed as having a TSP/HAM simile diagnosis, and three of them had opportunistic infections but high T CD4+ cell counts at the time of their AIDS- defining event. DISCUSSION: Our results indicate that higher T CD4+ cells

  16. Intimate partner violence and HIV infection among women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Marshall, Caitlin M; Rees, Hilary C; Nunez, Annabelle; Ezeanolue, Echezona E; Ehiri, John E

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To assess evidence of an association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV infection among women. Methods Medline/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, EBSCO, Ovid, Cochrane HIV/AIDS Group's Specialized Register and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to 20 May 2013 to identify studies that examined the association between IPV and HIV infection in women. We included studies on women aged ≥15 years, in any form of sexually intimate relationship with a male partner. Results Twenty-eight studies [(19 cross-sectional, 5 cohorts and 4 case-control studies) involving 331,468 individuals in 16 countries – the US (eight studies), South Africa (four studies), East Africa (10 studies), India (three studies), Brazil (one study) and multiple low-income countries (two studies)] were included. Results were pooled using RevMan 5.0. To moderate effect estimates, we analyzed all data using the random effects model, irrespective of heterogeneity level. Pooled results of cohort studies indicated that physical IPV [pooled RR (95% CI): 1.22 (1.01, 1.46)] and any type of IPV [pooled RR (95% CI): 1.28 (1.00, 1.64)] were significantly associated with HIV infection among women. Results of cross-sectional studies demonstrated significant associations of physical IPV with HIV infection among women [pooled OR (95% CI): 1.44 (1.10, 1.87)]. Similarly, results of cross-sectional studies indicated that combination of physical and sexual IPV [pooled OR (95% CI): 2.00 (1.24, 3.22) and any type of IPV [pooled OR (95% CI): 1.41 (1.16, 1.73)] were significantly associated with HIV infection among women. Conclusions Available evidence suggests a moderate statistically significant association between IPV and HIV infection among women. To further elucidate the strength of the association between IPV and HIV infection among women, there is a need for high-quality follow-up studies conducted in different geographical regions of the world, and among

  17. Geographically isolated wetlands: Rethinking a misnomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Cohen, Matthew J.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie G.; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Walls, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the category “geographically isolated wetlands” (GIWs; i.e., wetlands completely surrounded by uplands at the local scale) as used in the wetland sciences. As currently used, the GIW category (1) hampers scientific efforts by obscuring important hydrological and ecological differences among multiple wetland functional types, (2) aggregates wetlands in a manner not reflective of regulatory and management information needs, (3) implies wetlands so described are in some way “isolated,” an often incorrect implication, (4) is inconsistent with more broadly used and accepted concepts of “geographic isolation,” and (5) has injected unnecessary confusion into scientific investigations and discussions. Instead, we suggest other wetland classification systems offer more informative alternatives. For example, hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classes based on well-established scientific definitions account for wetland functional diversity thereby facilitating explorations into questions of connectivity without an a priori designation of “isolation.” Additionally, an HGM-type approach could be used in combination with terms reflective of current regulatory or policymaking needs. For those rare cases in which the condition of being surrounded by uplands is the relevant distinguishing characteristic, use of terminology that does not unnecessarily imply isolation (e.g., “upland embedded wetlands”) would help alleviate much confusion caused by the “geographically isolated wetlands” misnomer.

  18. The epidemiology of HIV infection in Morocco: systematic review and data synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumjian, S P; Mumtaz, G R; Hilmi, N; Zidouh, A; El Rhilani, H; Alami, K; Bennani, A; Gouws, E; Ghys, P D; Abu-Raddad, L J

    2013-01-01

    Summary Morocco has made significant strides in building its HIV research capacity. Based on a wealth of empirical data, the objective of this study was to conduct a comprehensive and systematic literature review and analytical synthesis of HIV epidemiological evidence in this country. Data were retrieved using three major sources of literature and data. HIV transmission dynamics were found to be focused in high-risk populations, with female sex workers (FSWs) and clients contributing the largest share of new HIV infections. There is a pattern of emerging epidemics among some high-risk populations, and some epidemics, particularly among FSWs, appear to be established and stable. The scale of the local HIV epidemics and populations affected show highly heterogeneous geographical distribution. To optimize the national HIV response, surveillance and prevention efforts need to be expanded among high-risk populations and in geographic settings where low intensity and possibly concentrated HIV epidemics are emerging or are already endemic. PMID:23970764

  19. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  20. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  1. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  2. SOLID WASTE: PRESENCE AND THREATIN GEOGRAPHICAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clesley Maria Tavares do Nascimento

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the trajectory of the solid waste in different historical periods, configuring them as a constructive element of geographical space. The intention to bring the theme from the timeline perspective, is marked out in the conviction of the inseparability of the categories of space and time and its importance in understanding a geographical phenomenon. The methodological support of this research relied on the documentary type of research involving literature, consultation of secondary sources such as books, academic journals, dissertations and theses on the subject. The results presented and discussed in this paper indicated that the production of waste is adjacent to historical time, reflects societies and techniques that generated them, and is a permanent part of the dialectical process of spatial formation.

  3. HIV testing in nonhealthcare facilities among adolescent MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Mariette R; Stein, Renee; Williams, Weston O; Wang, Guoshen; Xu, Songli; Uhl, Gary; Cheng, Qi; Rasberry, Catherine N

    2017-07-01

    To describe the extent to which Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-funded HIV testing in nonhealthcare facilities reaches adolescent MSM, identifies new HIV infections, and links those newly diagnosed to medical care. We describe HIV testing, newly diagnosed positivity, and linkage to medical care for adolescent MSM who received a CDC-funded HIV test in a nonhealthcare facility in 2015. We assess outcomes by race/ethnicity, HIV-related risk behaviors, and US geographical region. Of the 703 890 CDC-funded HIV testing events conducted in nonhealthcare facilities in 2015, 6848 (0.9%) were provided to adolescent MSM aged 13-19 years. Among those tested, 1.8% were newly diagnosed with HIV, compared with 0.7% among total tests provided in nonhealthcare facilities regardless of age and sex. The odds of testing positive among black adolescent MSM were nearly four times that of white adolescent MSM in multivariable analysis (odds ratio = 3.97, P adolescent MSM newly diagnosed with HIV, 67% were linked to HIV medical care. Linkage was lower among black (59%) and Hispanic/Latino adolescent MSM (71%) compared with white adolescent MSM (88%). CDC-funded nonhealthcare facilities can reach and provide HIV tests to adolescent MSM and identify new HIV infections; however, given the low rate of HIV testing overall and high engagement in HIV-related risk behaviors, there are opportunities to increase access to HIV testing and linkage to care for HIV-positive adolescent MSM. Efforts are needed to identify and address the barriers that prevent black and Hispanic/Latino adolescent MSM from being linked to HIV medical care in a timely manner.

  4. HIV infection among tuberculosis patients in Vietnam: prevalence and impact on tuberculosis notification rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, D H; Sy, D N; Linh, N D; Hoan, T M; Dien, H T; Thuy, T B; Hoa, N P; Tung, L B; Cobelens, F

    2010-08-01

    Vietnam has an emerging human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic (estimated population prevalence 0.5%), but valid data on HIV prevalence among tuberculosis (TB) patients are limited. Recent increases in TB notification rates among young adults may be related to HIV. To assess the prevalence of HIV infection among smear-positive TB patients in six provinces with relatively high HIV population prevalence in Vietnam. All patients who registered for treatment of smear-positive TB during the fourth quarter of 2005 were offered HIV testing. Of the 1217 TB patients included in the study, 100 (8.2%) tested HIV-positive. HIV prevalence varied between 2% and 17% in the provinces, and was strongly associated with age Vietnam, HIV infection is concentrated in drug users, as well as in specific geographic areas where it has considerable impact on TB notification rates among men aged 15-34 years.

  5. HIV/AIDS Coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS Coinfection HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  6. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  7. HIV and Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Immunizations Last Reviewed: February 6, 2018 Key ...

  8. HIV Medication Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Medication Adherence Last Reviewed: January 17, 2018 Key ...

  9. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español HIV and AIDS KidsHealth / For Kids / HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  10. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Treatment: The Basics Last Reviewed: March 22, 2018 ...

  11. HIV and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG HIV and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs HIV ... HIV and Pregnancy FAQ113, July 2017 PDF Format HIV and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is human immunodeficiency virus ( ...

  12. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...

  13. Prevalence and Incidence of Anal and Cervical High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types covered by Current HPV Vaccines among HIV-Infected Women in the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV/AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (The SUN Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojic, Erna Milunka; Conley, Lois; Bush, Tim; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Unger, Elizabeth R; Henry, Keith; Hammer, John; Escota, Gerome; Darragh, Teresa M; Palefsky, Joel M; Brooks, John T; Patel, Pragna

    2018-02-14

    Nonavalent (9v) human papilloma virus vaccine targets high-risk (HR)-HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58, and low-risk 6, 11. We examined prevalence, incidence, and clearance of anal and cervical HR-HPV in HIV-infected women. From 2004-2006, the SUN Study enrolled 167 women from four US cities. Anal and cervical specimens were collected annually for cytology and identification of 37 HPV types; 14 HR include: 9v 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58; non-9v 35, 39, 51, 56, 59, 66, 68. Baseline characteristics of 126 women included: median age 38 years; 57% non-Hispanic black; 67% HIV RNA HPV prevalence at anus and cervix was 90% and 83%; for 9v HR-HPV types, 67% and 51%; non-9v HR-HPV, 54% and 29%, respectively. 9v and non-9v HR-HPV incidence rates/100 person-years were similar (10.4 vs 9.5: 8.5 vs 8.3, respectively); 9v clearance rates were 42% and 61%; non-9v 46% and 59%, in anus and cervix, respectively. Anal HR-HPV prevalence was higher than cervical with lower clearance; incidence was similar. Although prevalence of non-9v HR-HPV was substantial, 9v HR-HPV types were generally more prevalent. These findings support use of nonavalent vaccine in HIV-infected women. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The geography of HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Campbell, Eugene K; Rakgoasi, Serai Dan; Madi-Segwagwe, Banyana C; Fako, Thabo T

    2012-01-01

    Botswana has the second-highest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rate in the world, with one in three adults infected. However, there is significant geographic variation at the district level and HIV prevalence is heterogeneous with the highest prevalence recorded in Selebi-Phikwe and North East. There is a lack of age-and location-adjusted prevalence maps that could be used for targeting HIV educational programs and efficient allocation of resources to higher risk groups. We used a nationally representative household survey to investigate and explain district level inequalities in HIV rates. A Bayesian geoadditive mixed model based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques was applied to map the geographic distribution of HIV prevalence in the 26 districts, accounting simultaneously for individual, household, and area factors using the 2008 Botswana HIV Impact Survey. Overall, HIV prevalence was 17.6%, which was higher among females (20.4%) than males (14.3%). HIV prevalence was higher in cities and towns (20.3%) than in urban villages and rural areas (16.6% and 16.9%, respectively). We also observed an inverse U-shape association between age and prevalence of HIV, which had a different pattern in males and females. HIV prevalence was lowest among those aged 24 years or less and HIV affected over a third of those aged 25-35 years, before reaching a peak among the 36-49-year age group, after which the rate of HIV infection decreased by more than half among those aged 50 years and over. In a multivariate analysis, there was a statistically significant higher likelihood of HIV among females compared with males, and in clerical workers compared with professionals. The district-specific net spatial effects of HIV indicated a significantly higher HIV rate of 66% (posterior odds ratio of 1.66) in the northeast districts (Selebi-Phikwe, Sowa, and Francistown) and a reduced rate of 27% (posterior odds ratio of 0.73) in Kgalagadi North and Kweneng West districts

  15. HIV/AIDS - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part 5 - English MP3 Children and HIV - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part 5 - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) MP3 Children and HIV - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part ...

  16. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Basic Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir HIV and ... HIV. Interested in learning more about CDC's HIV statistics? Terms, Definitions, and Calculations Used in CDC HIV ...

  17. One lesion, one virus: individual components of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive men contain a single HPV type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richel, Olivier; Quint, Koen D.; Lindeman, Jan; van Noesel, Carel J. M.; de Koning, Maurits N. C.; van den Munckhof, Henk A. M.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Prins, Jan M.; Quint, Wim G. V.

    2014-01-01

    High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is present in many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men. The major etiologic factor is infection with an oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype. We investigated whether individual components of high-grade AIN are

  18. Drug resistance mutations in HIV type 1 isolates from naive patients eligible for first line antiretroviral therapy in JJ Hospital, Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Alake; Karki, Surendra; Recordon-Pinson, Patricia; Fleury, Herve J

    2011-12-01

    More than 50 HIV-1-infected patients, naive of antiretroviral therapy (ART) but eligible for first line ART in JJ Hospital, Mumbai, India were investigated for surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs); all but one virus belonged to subtype C; we could observe SDRMs to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors in 9.6% of the patients.

  19. Quantitative trait loci for CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio are associated with risk of type 1 diabetes and HIV-1 immune control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, Manuel A. R.; Mangino, Massimo; Brumme, Chanson J.; Zhao, Zhen Zhen; Medland, Sarah E.; Wright, Margaret J.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Gordon, Scott; Campbell, Megan; McEvoy, Brian P.; Henders, Anjali; Evans, David M.; Lanchbury, Jerry S.; Pereyra, Florencia; Walker, Bruce D.; Haas, David W.; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Tim D.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Frazer, Ian H.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Agan, Brian; Agarwal, Shanu; Allen, Brady; Altidor, Sherly; Altschuler, Eric; Ambardar, Sujata; Anastos, Kathryn; Anderson, Ben; Andrady, Ushan; Angell, Teresa; Appelbaum, Jonathan; Arnold, Kathy; Arroyo, Julio; Arthur, Ernie; Barbaro, Daniel; Barrett, Tom; Barrie, William; Barthel, Vincent; Bartlett, Mary E.; Barton, Simon; Basden, Pat; Basgoz, Nesli; Bellos, Nicholas; Berger, Judith; Bernard, Annette; Bernard, Nicole; Blair, Donald; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal expansion or depletion of particular lymphocyte subsets is associated with clinical manifestations such as HIV progression to AIDS and autoimmune disease. We sought to identify genetic predictors of lymphocyte levels and reasoned that these may play a role in immune-related diseases. We

  20. L-Chicoric acid inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integration in vivo and is a noncompetitive but reversible inhibitor of HIV-1 integrase in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinke, Ryan A.; Lee, Deborah J.; McDougall, Brenda R.; King, Peter J.; Victoria, Joseph; Mao Yingqun; Lei Xiangyang; Reinecke, Manfred G.; Robinson, W. Edward

    2004-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrase (IN) must covalently join the viral cDNA into a host chromosome for productive HIV infection. L-Chicoric acid (L-CA) enters cells poorly but is a potent inhibitor of IN in vitro. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), L-CA inhibits integration at concentrations from 500 nM to 10 μM but also inhibits entry at concentrations above 1 μM. Using recombinant HIV IN, steady-state kinetic analyses with L-CA were consistent with a noncompetitive or irreversible mechanism of inhibition. IN, in the presence or absence of L-CA, was successively washed. Inhibition of IN diminished, demonstrating that L-CA was reversibly bound to the protein. These data demonstrate that L-CA is a noncompetitive but reversible inhibitor of IN in vitro and of HIV integration in vivo. Thus, L-CA likely interacts with amino acids other than those which bind substrate

  1. Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 infection in Iran: genomic evidence of CRF35_AD predominance and CRF01_AE infection among individuals associated with injection drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbakhsh, Fatemeh; Ibe, Shiro; Hattori, Junko; Monavari, Seyed Hamid Reza; Matsuda, Masakazu; Maejima, Masami; Iwatani, Yasumasa; Memarnejadian, Arash; Keyvani, Hossein; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Sugiura, Wataru

    2013-01-01

    To understand the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in Iran, we conducted the first study to analyze the genome sequence of Iranian HIV-1 isolates. For this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 10 HIV-1-infected individuals associated with injection drug use from Tehran, Shiraz, and Kermanshah. Near full-length genome sequences obtained from their plasma samples were used for phylogenetic tree and similarity plotting analyses. Among 10 isolates, nine were clearly identified as CRF35_AD and the remaining one as CRF01_AE. Interestingly, five of our Iranian CRF35_AD isolates made two clusters with 10 Afghan CRF35_AD isolates in a phylogenetic tree, indicating epidemiological connections among injection drug users in Iran and Afghanistan. In contrast, our CRF01_AE isolate had no genetic relationship with any other CRF01_AE isolates worldwide, even from Afghanistan. This study provides the first genomic evidence of HIV-1 CRF35_AD predominance and CRF01_AE infection among individuals associated with injection drug use in Iran.

  2. Co-infection of human herpesvirus type 2 (HHV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lyana Rodrigues Pinto; Fernandes, Luis Eduardo Barros Costa; Villela, Daniel A M; Morgado, Mariza Gonçalves; Pilotto, José Henrique; de Paula, Vanessa Salete

    2018-03-01

    Pregnant women who are infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are particularly vulnerable to severe and recurrent infections with Human Herpesvirus 2 (HHV-2). Neonatal transmission of HHV-2 has been associated with malformations and neurological sequelae in infants, which makes it very important to perform antenatal monitoring for genital herpes. In the study, 134 pregnant women infected with HIV were tested for HHV-2 IgM and IgG using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and had HHV-2 DNA analyzed by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). Fisher's exact test was applied to analyze the epidemiological dates (p pregnant women infected with HIV had HHV-2 IgG and 3.75% of them showed HHV-2 viremia. HHV-2 IgM was found in 6% of the pregnant women and 25% of them had HHV-2 viremia. The risk factors associated with HHV-2 seropositive were age under 20 and a CD4/CD8 ratio > 1. Our study found high HHV-2/HIV coinfection prevalence and HHV-2 viremia among patients with recurrent and primary genital infection, reinforcing the need of prevention and control of HHV-2 infection in order to avoid this virus transmission.

  3. Acquisition of wild-type HIV-1 infection in a patient on pre-exposure prophylaxis with high intracellular concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate: a case report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoornenborg, Elske; Prins, Maria; Achterbergh, Roel C A; Woittiez, Lycke R; Cornelissen, Marion; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Anderson, Peter L; Reiss, Peter; de Vries, Henry J C; Prins, Jan M; de Bree, Godelieve J

    2017-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is highly effective against acquisition of HIV infection, and only two cases of infection with a multidrug-resistant virus have been reported under adequate long-term adherence, as evidenced by tenofovir diphosphate

  4. Clinical outcomes and immune benefits of anti-epileptic drug therapy in HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krentz Hartmut B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs are frequently prescribed to persons with HIV/AIDS receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART although the extent of AED use and their interactions with cART are uncertain. Herein, AED usage, associated toxicities and immune consequences were investigated. Methods HIV replication was analysed in proliferating human T cells during AED exposure. Patients receiving AEDs in a geographically-based HIV care program were assessed using clinical and laboratory variables in addition to assessing AED indication, type, and cumulative exposures. Results Valproate suppressed proliferation in vitro of both HIV-infected and uninfected T cells (p 0.05 but AED exposures did not affect HIV production in vitro. Among 1345 HIV/AIDS persons in active care between 2001 and 2007, 169 individuals were exposed to AEDs for the following indications: peripheral neuropathy/neuropathic pain (60%, seizure/epilepsy (24%, mood disorder (13% and movement disorder (2%. The most frequently prescribed AEDs were calcium channel blockers (gabapentin/pregabalin, followed by sodium channel blockers (phenytoin, carbamazepine, lamotrigine and valproate. In a nested cohort of 55 AED-treated patients receiving cART and aviremic, chronic exposure to sodium and calcium channel blocking AEDs was associated with increased CD4+ T cell levels (p 0.05 with no change in CD8+ T cell levels over 12 months from the beginning of AED therapy. Conclusions AEDs were prescribed for multiple indications without major adverse effects in this population but immune status in patients receiving sodium or calcium channel blocking drugs was improved.

  5. The Influence of Technology on Geographic Cognition and Tourism Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tussyadiah, Iis; Zach, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Tourists today have access to retrieve voluminous geographic information about destinations while travelling as various context-aware geographic technologies have become increasingly ubiquitous. These technologies are suggested to aid tourists in the process of destination consumption to gain...... meaningful tourism experiences. This study found that people using different types of technologies for everyday routine perceive that these technologies help them with spatial inference to acquire geographic information; making sense of direction and orientation, and interacting with and within places....... Further, within the travel context, geographic technology was found to influence the dimensions of sensory, affective and social experience, as well as the cognitive and bodily experience. The type of technology used for travel was also found to be a significant predictor of the sensory, affective...

  6. Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Living With HIV Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  7. HIV Risk and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Risk and Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  8. New subtypes and genetic recombination in HIV type 1-infecting patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy in Peru (2008-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabar, Carlos Augusto; Acuña, Maribel; Gazzo, Cecilia; Salinas, Gabriela; Cárdenas, Fanny; Valverde, Ada; Romero, Soledad

    2012-12-01

    HIV-1 subtype B is the most frequent strain in Peru. However, there is no available data about the genetic diversity of HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) here. A group of 267 patients in the Peruvian National Treatment Program with virologic failure were tested for genotypic evidence of HIV drug resistance at the Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) of Peru between March 2008 and December 2010. Viral RNA was extracted from plasma and the segments of the protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) genes were amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), purified, and fully sequenced. Consensus sequences were submitted to the HIVdb Genotypic Resistance Interpretation Algorithm Database from Stanford University, and then aligned using Clustal X v.2.0 to generate a phylogenetic tree using the maximum likelihood method. Intrasubtype and intersubtype recombination analyses were performed using the SCUEAL program (Subtype Classification by Evolutionary ALgo-rithms). A total of 245 samples (91%) were successfully genotyped. The analysis obtained from the HIVdb program showed 81.5% resistance cases (n=198). The phylogenetic analysis revealed that subtype B was predominant in the population (98.8%), except for new cases of A, C, and H subtypes (n=4). Of these cases, only subtype C was imported. Likewise, recombination analysis revealed nine intersubtype and 20 intrasubtype recombinant cases. This is the first report of the presence of HIV-1 subtypes C and H in Peru. The introduction of new subtypes and circulating recombinants forms can make it difficult to distinguish resistance profiles in patients and consequently affect future treatment strategies against HIV in this country.

  9. Building capacity for HIV/AIDS prevention among Asian Pacific Islander organizations: the experience of a culturally appropriate capacity-building program in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Lois M; Candelario, Jury; Young, Tim; Mediano, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This article has two goals: (1) to outline a conceptual model for culturally appropriate HIV prevention capacity building; (2) to present the experiences from a 3-year program provided by Asian Pacific AIDS Intervention Team to Asian Pacific Islander (API) organizations in southern California. The participating organizations were of two types: lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) social organizations and social service agencies not targeting LGBTQ. These organizations were selected for participation because of their commitment to HIV/AIDS issues in API communities. An organizational survey and staff observations were used to explore changes in capacity. The organizations were mostly small, targeted diverse populations, served a large geographic area (southern California as a region), and were knowledgeable about HIV. Organizations became more viable (more capacity in human resources, financial, external relations, and strategic management), but also more unstable (large growth in paid staff and board members), and showed more capacity in HIV knowledge environments (especially less stigma and more sensitivity to diverse populations). The results suggest that capacity can expand over a short period of time, but as capacity increases, organizational viability/stability and HIV knowledge environments change, meaning that different types of technical assistance would be needed for sustainability.

  10. Ecoregions for Louisiana from EPA source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [ecoregions_EPA_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. By recognizing the spatial differences...

  11. GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION MEDIATIZATION AND MEDIASECURITY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Arpentieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the interaction of legal and moral development of media technologies in the context of geographical education. The article summarizes the experience of the theoretical analysis of mediatization in geographic education, the legal and moral aspects of the disorders and ways of their prevention and correction in the process of educational interaction between teacher and student, between student and teacher, mediated mediatechnologies. It is noted that geographical education in the modern world is education, which is closely associated with the use of media technologies. In other types of education the role of media technologies in improving the quality of education is less obvious, in the field of teaching and learning geography, it speaks very clearly. Therefore, the problems associated with its mediatization, are very important and their solution is particularly compelling. These issues are primarily associated with actively flowing social, economic, political and ideological crisis in many communities and countries of the Earth. Many of them as in the “mirror” are reflected in the sphere of high technologies, including media technologies. The article provides guidance and direction to the correction of violations at the individual and social levels.

  12. U Plant Geographic Zone Cleanup Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, L.D.; Leary, K.D.; Lackey, M.B.; Robertson, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as 'cleanup items') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) [1] was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  13. Prevalence and associated factors of late HIV diagnosis in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information regarding age, sex, WHO stage, type of opportunistic condition, HIV testing service and on diagnosis CD4 counts were all collected. On diagnosis CD4 counts <200cells/µl was coded as Late HIV diagnosis. The proportion of with Late HIV diagnosis was calculated and logistic regression modal was used to ...

  14. What's to be done? Report on a bosberaad to discuss the HIV epidemic in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Williams, BG

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Demographic forecasting models of the South African population, incorporating geographical distribution and age prevalence data on HIV infection, have been used to predict future mortality due to AIDS. In year 2010, approximately 500 000 AIDS...

  15. Factors Associated with Recent HIV Testing among Heterosexuals at High-Risk for HIV Infection in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya eGwadz

    2016-04-01

    gender-specific facilitators of HIV testing. Findings suggest a number of avenues for increasing HIV testing rates including increasing the number and types of settings offering high-quality HIV testing; promoting STI as well as HIV testing; better integrating STI and HIV testing systems; implementing peer-driven social/behavioral intervention approaches to harness the positive influence of social networks and reduce unfavorable shared peer norms; and specialized approaches for women who use drugs.

  16. Determination of mean recency period for estimation of HIV type 1 Incidence with the BED-capture EIA in persons infected with diverse subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Bharat S; Hanson, Debra L; Hargrove, John; Branson, Bernard; Green, Timothy; Dobbs, Trudy; Constantine, Niel; Overbaugh, Julie; McDougal, J Steven

    2011-03-01

    The IgG capture BED enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) was developed to detect recent HIV-1 infection for the estimation of HIV-1 incidence from cross-sectional specimens. The mean time interval between seroconversion and reaching a specified assay cutoff value [referred to here as the mean recency period (ω)], an important parameter for incidence estimation, is determined for some HIV-1 subtypes, but testing in more cohorts and new statistical methods suggest the need for a revised estimation of ω in different subtypes. A total of 2927 longitudinal specimens from 756 persons with incident HIV infections who had been enrolled in 17 cohort studies was tested by the BED-CEIA. The ω was determined using two statistical approaches: (1) linear mixed effects regression (ω(1)) and (2) a nonparametric survival method (ω(2)). Recency periods varied among individuals and by population. At an OD-n cutoff of 0.8, ω(1) was 176 days (95% CL 164-188 days) whereas ω(2) was 162 days (95% CL 152-172 days) when using a comparable subset of specimens (13 cohorts). When method 2 was applied to all available data (17 cohorts), ω(2) ranged from 127 days (Thai AE) to 236 days (subtypes AG, AD) with an overall ω(2) of 197 days (95% CL 173-220). About 70% of individuals reached a threshold OD-n of 0.8 by 197 days (mean ω) and 95% of people reached 0.8 OD-n by 480 days. The determination of ω with more data and new methodology suggests that ω of the BED-CEIA varies between different subtypes and/or populations. These estimates for ω may affect incidence estimates in various studies.

  17. Multiple sclerosis: a geographical hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle, I P

    1997-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis remains a rare neurological disease of unknown aetiology, with a unique distribution, both geographically and historically. Rare in equatorial regions, it becomes increasingly common in higher latitudes; historically, it was first clinically recognized in the early nineteenth century. A hypothesis, based on geographical reasoning, is here proposed: that the disease is the result of a specific vitamin deficiency. Different individuals suffer the deficiency in separate and often unique ways. Evidence to support the hypothesis exists in cultural considerations, in the global distribution of the disease, and in its historical prevalence.

  18. Stigma Reduction in Adolescents and Young Adults Newly Diagnosed with HIV: Findings from the Project ACCEPT Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma—personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV—as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of coping skills, and providing contact with other youth living with HIV in order to improve social support. Fifty youth (28 male, 22 female; mean age=19.24 years) newly diagnosed with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics participated in a one-group pretest-posttest design study whereby they received the intervention over a 12-week period, and completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results from the combined sample (males and females) revealed overall reductions in stigma in three dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and negative self-image, although only the combined-sample effects for negative self-image were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Gender-specific analyses revealed that the intervention reduced stigma for males across all four dimensions of stigma, with all effects being maintained to some degree at the 3-month follow-up. Only personalized stigma demonstrated a decrease for females, although this effect was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up; while the other three types of stigma increased at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of gender specific outcomes and the need for a different type of intervention to reduce stigma for young women. PMID:25216106

  19. Low prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection in population attending a major hospital in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, R K; Chattopadhya, D; Kumari, S

    1996-03-01

    During 4 year period between April 1990 and March 1994, 4120 specimens from the patients attending out patient departments of Medical, Surgical and Antenatal units of a major city hospital were tested for HIV infection as a part of an on-going sentinel surveillance programme. In addition, 1440 specimens from the patients attending STD clinic of the same hospital and 862 females seeking termination of pregnancy from a near by hospital were included for comparison. It was found that only 3 individuals with high risk behaviours out of 2002 females attending antenatal clinic showed evidence of HIV infection (rate 1.49 per 1000). The corresponding rate for the group of patients attending STD clinic and seeking termination of pregnancy were 3 out of 1440 (rate 2.15 per 1000) and 1 out of 862 (rate 1.16 per 1000) respectively. It was noted that prevalence of HIV infection in the hospital attending population with unspecified risk factor (medical, surgical and antenatal clinics) was not a matter of serious concern. The importance of finding out risk factors in females attending antenatal clinic is evident from the study.

  20. [Studies on antigencity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) external glycoprotein as well as its expression in Pichia pastoris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Hui; Yu, Xiang-Hui; Jiang, Chun-Lai; Wu, Yong-Ge; Shen, Jia-Cong; Kong, Wei

    2007-05-01

    Based on the computer simulation, we analyzed hydrophobicity, potential epitope of recombined subtypes HIV-1 Env protein (851 amino acids) from Guangxi in China. Compared with conservative peptides of other subtypes in env protein, three sequences (469-511aa, 538-674aa, 700-734aa) were selected to recombine into a chimeric gene that codes three conservative epitope peptides with stronger antigencity, and was constructed in the yeast expression plasmid pPICZB. Chimeric proteins were expressed in Pichia pastoris under the induction of methanol, and were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Westernblot. The results showed that fusion proteins of three-segment antigen were expressed in Pichia pastoris and that specific protein band at the site of 40kD was target protein, which is interacted with HIV-1 serum. The target proteins were purified by metal Ni-sepharose 4B, and were demonstrated to possess good antigenic specificity from the data of ELISA. This chimeric antigen may be used as research and developed into HIV diagnostic reagents.

  1. Exploring the role, needs and challenges of relatives of mothers with HIV or HIV and psychosis: A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spies, Ruan; Derks, Olivia K.; Sterkenburg, Paula S.; Schuengel, Carlo; van Rensburg, Esme

    2016-01-01

    This study explored types and nature of supports by relatives of mothers living with HIV and psychosis in comparison to mothers with HIV only. Interview data on their experiences of their roles, needs and challenges were collected from 33 relatives on mothers with HIV and psychosis (n=12,

  2. Stroke in a Patient With HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buse Rahime Hasırcı

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stroke which is a common complication in Human immumodeficiency virus type 1 positive patients is seen between 1% and 5% in clinical series. Vasculopathy and atherogenesis in HIV are the main pathologic mechanisms of stroke. We report a 63 year old man with sudden onset of a right hemiplegia and who was diagnosed as HIV-related stroke.

  3. Changes at the National Geographic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwille, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    For more than 125 years, National Geographic has explored the planet, unlocking its secrets and sharing them with the world. For almost thirty of those years, National Geographic has been committed to K-12 educators and geographic education through its Network of Alliances. As National Geographic begins a new chapter, they remain committed to the…

  4. No. 185-HIV Screening in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan-Lindsay, Lisa; Yudin, Mark H

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to provide recommendations to obstetric health care providers and to minimize practice variations for HIV screening, while taking provincial and territorial recommendations into account. The risk of transmission of HIV from mother to fetus is significant if the mother is not treated. The primary outcome of screening for and treating HIV in pregnancy is a marked decrease in the rate of vertical transmission of HIV from mother to fetus. Secondary outcomes include confirmation of HIV infection in the woman, which allows optimization of her health and long-term management. The Cochrane Library and Medline were searched for English-language articles published related to HIV screening and pregnancy. Additional articles were identified through the references of these articles. All study types were reviewed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The global transmission network of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, Joel O; Leigh Brown, Andrew J; Hepler, N Lance; Mehta, Sanjay R; Richman, Douglas D; Smith, Davey M; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L

    2014-01-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is pandemic, but its contemporary global transmission network has not been characterized. A better understanding of the properties and dynamics of this network is essential for surveillance, prevention, and eventual eradication of HIV. Here, we apply a simple and computationally efficient network-based approach to all publicly available HIV polymerase sequences in the global database, revealing a contemporary picture of the spread of HIV-1 within and between countries. This approach automatically recovered well-characterized transmission clusters and extended other clusters thought to be contained within a single country across international borders. In addition, previously undescribed transmission clusters were discovered. Together, these clusters represent all known modes of HIV transmission. The extent of international linkage revealed by our comprehensive approach demonstrates the need to consider the global diversity of HIV, even when describing local epidemics. Finally, the speed of this method allows for near-real-time surveillance of the pandemic's progression.

  6. Geographical differences in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartra, Joan; García-Moral, Alba; Enrique, Ernesto

    2016-06-01

    Food allergy represents a health problem worldwide and leads to life-threatening reactions and even impairs quality of life. Epidemiological data during the past decades is very heterogeneous because of the use of different diagnostic procedures, and most studies have only been performed in specific geographical areas. The aim of this article is to review the available data on the geographical distribution of food allergies at the food source and molecular level and to link food allergy patterns to the aeroallergen influence in each area. Systematic reviews, meta-analysis, studies performed within the EuroPrevall Project and EAACI position papers regarding food allergy were analysed. The prevalence of food allergy sensitization differs between geographical areas, probably as a consequence of differences among populations, their habits and the influence of the cross-reactivity of aeroallergens and other sources of allergens. Geographical differences in food allergy are clearly evident at the allergenic molecular level, which seems to be directly influenced by the aeroallergens of each region and associated with specific clinical patterns.

  7. Educational Geographers and Applied Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, John W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the development of applied geography programs and restructuring of curricula with an emphasis on new technique and methodology courses, though retaining the liberal arts role. Educational geographers can help the programs to succeed through curriculum analysis, auditing, advising students, and liaison with other geography sources. (CK)

  8. Detection of HIV-RNA-positive monocytes in peripheral blood of HIV-positive patients by simultaneous flow cytometric analysis of intracellular HIV RNA and cellular immunophenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, B K; Mosiman, V L; Cantarero, L; Furtado, M; Bhattacharya, M; Goolsby, C

    1998-04-01

    Determinations of plasma HIV viral RNA copy numbers help to define the kinetics of HIV-1 infection in vivo and to monitor antiretroviral therapy. However, questions remain regarding the identity of various infected cell types contributing to this free virus pool and to the in vivo lifecycle of HIV during disease progression. Characterization of a novel fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay employing a pool of labeled oligonucleotide probes directed against HIV RNA was done followed by coupling of the FISH assay with simultaneous surface immunophenotyping to address these questions. In vitro characterizations of this assay using tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulated and unstimulated ACH-2 cells demonstrated the ability to detect < 5% HIV RNA positive cells with a sensitivity of < 30 RNA copies per cell. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 39 HIV-seropositive patients on no, single, combination, or triple drug therapy and 8 HIV-seronegative patients were examined. The majority of HIV-positive patients (24/39) harbored monocytes positive for HIV RNA and a significantly higher fraction of patients with high plasma viral load carried positive monocytes (13/16) than did patients in the low plasma viral load group (11/23). These results demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel FISH assay for identifying and monitoring HIV-infected cell populations in the peripheral blood of HIV-positive patients. In addition, monocytes are a major source of cellular HIV virus in the peripheral blood of HIV patients, even with progression of disease.

  9. Unappreciated epidemiology: the churn effect in a regional HIV care programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, M J; Krentz, H B

    2009-08-01

    High levels of geographic mobility in and out of HIV care centres (i.e. the churn effect) can disrupt the continuity of patient care, misalign prevention services, impact local prevalence data perturbing optimal allocation of resources, and contribute to logical challenges in repeated transfer of health records. We report on the clinical, demographic, and administrative impact of high population turnover within HIV populations.

  10. Malaria, HIV and sickle cell disease in Ghana : Towards tailor-made interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owusu, E.D.A.

    2018-01-01

    Ghana has made many strides in the fight against malaria. This research looked at the contribution of malaria transmission heterogeneity to malaria, and the effect of geographical overlap between malaria, HIV and sickle cell disease. Our systematic review of the interactions between HIV and SCD

  11. Pastoralists susceptibility to HIV infection: a study based on Shindle District, Somali, Region, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebremariam, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the hard-hit countries by HIV/AIDS, the epidemic has eroded the development gains made in past decades. The spread of HIV is heterogeneous in Sub-Saharan African courtiers, with different peaks which vary geographically and in terms of their distribution among social or economic groups. Thus,

  12. Get Tested for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS: What is HIV/AIDS? Women and HIV/AIDS Next section ... Tested? Why do I need to get tested for HIV? The only way to know if you have HIV is to get tested. Many people with HIV don’t have any symptoms. In the United States, about 1 in 7 ...

  13. A gp41-based heteroduplex mobility assay provides rapid and accurate assessment of intrasubtype epidemiological linkage in HIV type 1 heterosexual transmission Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigart, Olivier; Boeras, Debrah I; Karita, Etienne; Hawkins, Paulina A; Vwalika, Cheswa; Makombe, Nathan; Mulenga, Joseph; Derdeyn, Cynthia A; Allen, Susan; Hunter, Eric

    2012-12-01

    A critical step in HIV-1 transmission studies is the rapid and accurate identification of epidemiologically linked transmission pairs. To date, this has been accomplished by comparison of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified nucleotide sequences from potential transmission pairs, which can be cost-prohibitive for use in resource-limited settings. Here we describe a rapid, cost-effective approach to determine transmission linkage based on the heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA), and validate this approach by comparison to nucleotide sequencing. A total of 102 HIV-1-infected Zambian and Rwandan couples, with known linkage, were analyzed by gp41-HMA. A 400-base pair fragment within the envelope gp41 region of the HIV proviral genome was PCR amplified and HMA was applied to both partners' amplicons separately (autologous) and as a mixture (heterologous). If the diversity between gp41 sequences was low (<5%), a homoduplex was observed upon gel electrophoresis and the transmission was characterized as having occurred between partners (linked). If a new heteroduplex formed, within the heterologous migration, the transmission was determined to be unlinked. Initial blind validation of gp-41 HMA demonstrated 90% concordance between HMA and sequencing with 100% concordance in the case of linked transmissions. Following validation, 25 newly infected partners in Kigali and 12 in Lusaka were evaluated prospectively using both HMA and nucleotide sequences. Concordant results were obtained in all but one case (97.3%). The gp41-HMA technique is a reliable and feasible tool to detect linked transmissions in the field. All identified unlinked results should be confirmed by sequence analyses.

  14. CD4-dependent characteristics of coreceptor use and HIV type 1 V3 sequence in a large population of therapy-naive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Andrew J; Marchant, David; Brumme, Chanson J; Brumme, Zabrina L; Dong, Winnie; Sing, Tobias; Hogg, Robert S; Montaner, Julio S G; Gill, Vikram; Cheung, Peter K; Harrigan, P Richard

    2008-02-01

    We investigated the associations between coreceptor use, V3 loop sequence, and CD4 count in a cross-sectional analysis of a large cohort of chronically HIV-infected, treatment-naive patients. HIV coreceptor usage was determined in the last pretherapy plasma sample for 977 individuals initiating HAART in British Columbia, Canada using the Monogram Trofile Tropism assay. Relative light unit (RLU) readouts from the Trofile assay, as well as HIV V3 loop sequence data, were examined as a function of baseline CD4 cell count for 953 (97%) samples with both phenotype and genotype data available. Median CCR5 RLUs were high for both R5 and X4-capable samples, while CXCR4 RLUs were orders of magnitude lower for X4 samples (p < 0.001). CCR5 RLUs in R5 samples (N = 799) increased with decreasing CD4 count (p < 0.001), but did not vary with plasma viral load (pVL) (p = 0.74). In X4 samples (N = 178), CCR5 RLUs decreased with decreasing CD4 count (p = 0.046) and decreasing pVL (p = 0.097), while CXCR4 RLUs increased with decreasing pVL (p = 0.0008) but did not vary with CD4 (p = 0.96). RLUs varied with the presence of substitutions at V3 loop positions 11, 25, and 6-8. The prevalence and impact of substitutions at codons 25 and 6-8 were CD4 dependent as was the presence of amino acid mixtures in the V3; substitutions at position 11 were CD4 independent. Assay RLU measures predictably vary with both immunological and virological parameters. The ability to predict X4 virus using genotypic determinants at positions 25 and 6-8 of the V3 loop is CD4 dependent, while position 11 appears to be CD4 independent.

  15. Control of HIV infection by IFN-α: implications for latency and a cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Nollaig M; Napoletano, Silvia; Bannan, Ciaran; Ahmed, Suaad; Bergin, Colm; McKnight, Áine; Stevenson, Nigel J

    2018-03-01

    Viral infections, including HIV, trigger the production of type I interferons (IFNs), which in turn, activate a signalling cascade that ultimately culminates with the expression of anti-viral proteins. Mounting evidence suggests that type I IFNs, in particular IFN-α, play a pivotal role in limiting acute HIV infection. Highly active anti-retroviral treatment reduces viral load and increases life expectancy in HIV positive patients; however, it fails to fully eliminate latent HIV reservoirs. To revisit HIV as a curable disease, this article reviews a body of literature that highlights type I IFNs as mediators in the control of HIV infection, with particular focus on the anti-HIV restriction factors induced and/or activated by IFN-α. In addition, we discuss the relevance of type I IFN treatment in the context of HIV latency reversal, novel therapeutic intervention strategies and the potential for full HIV clearance.

  16. 2-(Alkyl/aryl)amino-6-benzylpyrimidin-4(3H)-ones as inhibitors of wild-type and mutant HIV-1: enantioselectivity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotili, Dante; Samuele, Alberta; Tarantino, Domenico; Ragno, Rino; Musmuca, Ira; Ballante, Flavio; Botta, Giorgia; Morera, Ludovica; Pierini, Marco; Cirilli, Roberto; Nawrozkij, Maxim B; Gonzalez, Emmanuel; Clotet, Bonaventura; Artico, Marino; Esté, José A; Maga, Giovanni; Mai, Antonello

    2012-04-12

    The single enantiomers of two pyrimidine-based HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 1 (MC1501) and 2 (MC2082), were tested in both cellular and enzyme assays. In general, the R forms were more potent than their S counterparts and racemates and (R)-2 was more efficient than (R)-1 and the reference compounds, with some exceptions. Interestingly, (R)-2 displayed a faster binding to K103N RT with respect to WT RT, while (R)-1 showed the opposite behavior. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of HIV in the United States, please visit: https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/hiv-aids- ... HIV, STD, and TB Prevention. About HIV/AIDS. ( https://www.cdc.gov/actagainstaids/basics/whatishiv.html ). Atlanta, ...

  18. First-in-Human Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Replication-Competent Sendai Virus–Vectored HIV Type 1 Gag Vaccine: Induction of Potent T-Cell or Antibody Responses in Prime-Boost Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyombayire, Julien; Anzala, Omu; Gazzard, Brian; Karita, Etienne; Bergin, Philip; Hayes, Peter; Kopycinski, Jakub; Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria; Jackson, Akil; Bizimana, Jean; Farah, Bashir; Sayeed, Eddy; Parks, Christopher L.; Inoue, Makoto; Hironaka, Takashi; Hara, Hiroto; Shu, Tsugumine; Matano, Tetsuro; Dally, Len; Barin, Burc; Park, Harriet; Gilmour, Jill; Lombardo, Angela; Excler, Jean-Louis; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna S.; Cox, Josephine H.

    2017-01-01

    Background. We report the first-in-human safety and immunogenicity assessment of a prototype intranasally administered, replication-competent Sendai virus (SeV)–vectored, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine. Methods. Sixty-five HIV-1–uninfected adults in Kenya, Rwanda, and the United Kingdom were assigned to receive 1 of 4 prime-boost regimens (administered at 0 and 4 months, respectively; ratio of vaccine to placebo recipients, 12:4): priming with a lower-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with an adenovirus 35–vectored vaccine encoding HIV-1 Gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and Nef (Ad35-GRIN) given intramuscularly (SLA); priming with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly (SHA); priming with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly, followed by boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (ASH); and priming and boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (SHSH). Results. All vaccine regimens were well tolerated. Gag-specific IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot–determined response rates and geometric mean responses were higher (96% and 248 spot-forming units, respectively) in groups primed with SeV-Gag and boosted with Ad35-GRIN (SLA and SHA) than those after a single dose of Ad35-GRIN (56% and 54 spot-forming units, respectively) or SeV-Gag (55% and 59 spot-forming units, respectively); responses persisted for ≥8 months after completion of the prime-boost regimen. Functional CD8+ T-cell responses with greater breadth, magnitude, and frequency in a viral inhibition assay were also seen in the SLA and SHA groups after Ad35-GRIN boost, compared with those who received either vaccine alone. SeV-Gag did not boost T-cell counts in the ASH group. In contrast, the highest Gag-specific antibody titers were seen in the ASH group. Mucosal antibody responses were sporadic. Conclusions. SeV-Gag primed functional, durable HIV-specific T

  19. First-in-Human Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Replication-Competent Sendai Virus-Vectored HIV Type 1 Gag Vaccine: Induction of Potent T-Cell or Antibody Responses in Prime-Boost Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyombayire, Julien; Anzala, Omu; Gazzard, Brian; Karita, Etienne; Bergin, Philip; Hayes, Peter; Kopycinski, Jakub; Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria; Jackson, Akil; Bizimana, Jean; Farah, Bashir; Sayeed, Eddy; Parks, Christopher L; Inoue, Makoto; Hironaka, Takashi; Hara, Hiroto; Shu, Tsugumine; Matano, Tetsuro; Dally, Len; Barin, Burc; Park, Harriet; Gilmour, Jill; Lombardo, Angela; Excler, Jean-Louis; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna S; Cox, Josephine H

    2017-01-01

     We report the first-in-human safety and immunogenicity assessment of a prototype intranasally administered, replication-competent Sendai virus (SeV)-vectored, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine.  Sixty-five HIV-1-uninfected adults in Kenya, Rwanda, and the United Kingdom were assigned to receive 1 of 4 prime-boost regimens (administered at 0 and 4 months, respectively; ratio of vaccine to placebo recipients, 12:4): priming with a lower-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with an adenovirus 35-vectored vaccine encoding HIV-1 Gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and Nef (Ad35-GRIN) given intramuscularly (S L A); priming with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly (S H A); priming with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly, followed by boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (AS H ); and priming and boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (S H S H ).  All vaccine regimens were well tolerated. Gag-specific IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot-determined response rates and geometric mean responses were higher (96% and 248 spot-forming units, respectively) in groups primed with SeV-Gag and boosted with Ad35-GRIN (S L A and S H A) than those after a single dose of Ad35-GRIN (56% and 54 spot-forming units, respectively) or SeV-Gag (55% and 59 spot-forming units, respectively); responses persisted for ≥8 months after completion of the prime-boost regimen. Functional CD8 + T-cell responses with greater breadth, magnitude, and frequency in a viral inhibition assay were also seen in the S L A and S H A groups after Ad35-GRIN boost, compared with those who received either vaccine alone. SeV-Gag did not boost T-cell counts in the AS H group. In contrast, the highest Gag-specific antibody titers were seen in the AS H group. Mucosal antibody responses were sporadic.  SeV-Gag primed functional, durable HIV-specific T-cell responses and boosted antibody

  20. Lectins with Anti-HIV Activity: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouafae Akkouh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins including flowering plant lectins, algal lectins, cyanobacterial lectins, actinomycete lectin, worm lectins, and the nonpeptidic lectin mimics pradimicins and benanomicins, exhibit anti-HIV activity. The anti-HIV plant lectins include Artocarpus heterophyllus (jacalin lectin, concanavalin A, Galanthus nivalis (snowdrop agglutinin-related lectins, Musa acuminata (banana lectin, Myrianthus holstii lectin, Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin, and Urtica diocia agglutinin. The anti-HIV algal lectins comprise Boodlea coacta lectin, Griffithsin, Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin. The anti-HIV cyanobacterial lectins are cyanovirin-N, scytovirin, Microcystis viridis lectin, and microvirin. Actinohivin is an anti-HIV actinomycete lectin. The anti-HIV worm lectins include Chaetopterus variopedatus polychaete marine worm lectin, Serpula vermicularis sea worm lectin, and C-type lectin Mermaid from nematode (Laxus oneistus. The anti-HIV nonpeptidic lectin mimics comprise pradimicins and benanomicins. Their anti-HIV mechanisms are discussed.

  1. IL FENOMENO VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Lupia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution addresses the phenomenon of Voluntereed Geographic Informationexplaining these new and burgeoning sources of information offers multidisciplinary scientists an unprecedented opportunity to conduct research on a variety of topics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In particular the contribution refers to two COST Actions which have been recently activated on the subject which areparticularly relevant for the growing of the European scientific community.

  2. [Choice of initial regimen for antiretroviral-naïve HIV patients: Analysis of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouveix, E; Mortier, E; Beauchet, A; Dupont, C; Gerbe, J; Daneluzzi, V; Brazille, P; Berthe, H; Zucman, D; Genet, P; Simonpoli, A-M; de Truchis, P

    2016-12-01

    Several therapeutic combination antiretroviral therapy regimen are available for initial treatment in naïve HIV infected patients. The choice of a particular regimen remains often subjective. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with the choice of molecules in initial ARV prescriptions. From 01/01 to 30/10/2014, every initial cART prescription was analyzed regarding patients and physicians characteristics. Then, prescriptions were evaluated by an independent committee of ART prescribers. One hundred and thirty two consecutive initial prescriptions by 34 physicians of 11 medical centers were included: 71 M, migrants: 57 %, MSM: 21 %, CD4100 000 cp/mL (33 %). cART regimen were: NRTI/PI (43 %), NRTI/NNRTI (29.5 %), NRTI/integrase inhibitor (23 %). 75 % of initial cART regimen were consistent with expert guidelines recommendations. The choice of initial cART was not influenced by the type of HIV contamination risk group, patient's geographic origin, CD4 levels. In contrast, working or not (P=0.007), pregnancy wish (P=0.07), pregnancy (P=0.001), HIV RNA levels (P=0.02) and HIV primary infection (P=0.049) influenced the initial choice. Neither physician's age, nor physician's experience influenced this choice. The prescription's non accordance to 2013 French guidelines was mainly related to integrase inhibitor utilisation (P= 0.0001). Overall, cART initial choice is mostly consistent with guidelines. Primary HIV infection, procreation features and high viral load are the main factors influencing this choice. New regimen with better tolerability is prescribed even if it is not yet included in the guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Genomes and HBV Drug Resistant Variants by Deep Sequencing Analysis of HBV Genomes in Immune Cell Subsets of HBV Mono-Infected and/or Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) and HBV Co-Infected Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Z.; Nishikawa, S.; Gao, S.; Eksteen, J. B.; Czub, M.; Gill, M. J.; Osiowy, C.; van der Meer, F.; van Marle, G.; Coffin, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can infect cells of the lymphatic system. It is unknown whether HIV-1 co-infection impacts infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets by the HBV. Aims To compare the detection of HBV genomes and HBV sequences in unsorted PBMCs and subsets (i.e., CD4+ T, CD8+ T, CD14+ monocytes, CD19+ B, CD56+ NK cells) in HBV mono-infected vs. HBV/HIV-1 co-infected individuals. Methods Total PBMC and subsets isolated from 14 HBV mono-infected (4/14 before and after anti-HBV therapy) and 6 HBV/HIV-1 co-infected individuals (5/6 consistently on dual active anti-HBV/HIV therapy) were tested for HBV genomes, including replication indicative HBV covalently closed circular (ccc)-DNA, by nested PCR/nucleic hybridization and/or quantitative PCR. In CD4+, and/or CD56+ subsets from two HBV monoinfected cases, the HBV polymerase/overlapping surface region was analyzed by next generation sequencing. Results All analyzed whole PBMC from HBV monoinfected and HBV/HIV coinfected individuals were HBV genome positive. Similarly, HBV DNA was detected in all target PBMC subsets regardless of antiviral therapy, but was absent from the CD4+ T cell subset from all HBV/HIV-1 positive cases (PHBV monoinfected cases on tenofovir therapy, mutations at residues associated with drug resistance and/or immune escape (i.e., G145R) were detected in a minor percentage of the population. Summary HBV genomes and drug resistant variants were detectable in PBMC subsets from HBV mono-infected individuals. The HBV replicates in PBMC subsets of HBV/HIV-1 patients except the CD4+ T cell subpopulation. PMID:26390290

  4. Opportunistic infection of HIV/AIDS patients in West Papua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witaningrum, A. M.; Khairunisa, S. Q.; Yunifiar, M. Q.; Bramanthi, R.; Rachman, B. E.; Nasronudin

    2018-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) had a major impact on health problemin Indonesia. HIV type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic is currently infected with HIV viruses developing rapidly in Indonesia.Papua provinces have the highest prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Indonesia; however, data on opportunistic infection of HIV-1 are limited. The study using medical records as a research sample was conducted among HIV patients from January 2013 - December 2014 in Sele be Solu hospital among 49 patients. Opportunistic infections commonly occur in HIV-infected patients. The aim of the study was to know theprevalence of opportunistic infection among HIV positive patients in West Papua. Forty-nine HIV-1 patients were collected in Sele be Solu Hospital, West Papua.Opportunistic infection was identified such as tuberculosis, tuberculosis Pulmo, tuberculosis and candidiasis, candidiasis and diarrhea. The clinical sign appeared in HIV infected patients such as itchy, cough and loss weight. The prevalence of opportunistic infection indicated the necessity of monitoring the opportunistic infection of HIV/AIDS patients in Indonesia.

  5. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of HIV/AIDS during which there are no symptoms of HIV infection. During this phase, the immune system in someone with HIV slowly weakens, but the person has no symptoms. How long this phase lasts depends on how ...

  6. HIV and Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What do I need to know about pulmonary hypertension in connection with HIV? Although pulmonary hypertension and ... Should an HIV patient be tested for pulmonary hypertension? HIV patients know that medical supervision is critical ...

  7. HIV-1 Latency in Monocytes/Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 targets CD4+ T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by the depletion of T lymphocytes and by the presence of a population of cells in which latency has been established called the HIV-1 reservoir. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has significantly improved the life of HIV-1 infected patients. However, complete eradication of HIV-1 from infected individuals is not possible without targeting latent sources of infection. HIV-1 establishes latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells and findings indicate that latency can also be established in the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocyte/macrophage lineage includes among others, monocytes, macrophages and brain resident macrophages. These cells are relatively more resistant to apoptosis induced by HIV-1, thus are important stable hideouts of the virus. Much effort has been made in the direction of eliminating HIV-1 resting CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. However, it is impossible to achieve a cure for HIV-1 without considering these neglected latent reservoirs, the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this review we will describe our current understanding of the mechanism of latency in monocyte/macrophage lineage and how such cells can be specifically eliminated from the infected host.

  8. Can trained lay providers perform HIV testing services? A review of national HIV testing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, David E; Johnson, Cheryl; Sands, Anita; Wong, Vincent; Figueroa, Carmen; Baggaley, Rachel

    2017-01-04

    Only an estimated 54% of people living with HIV are aware of their status. Despite progress scaling up HIV testing services (HTS), a testing gap remains. Delivery of HTS by lay providers may help close this testing gap, while also increasing uptake and acceptability of HIV testing among key populations and other priority groups. 50 National HIV testing policies were collated from WHO country intelligence databases, contacts and testing program websites. Data regarding lay provider use for HTS was extracted and collated. Our search had no geographical or language restrictions. This data was then compared with reported data from the Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting (GARPR) from July 2015. Forty-two percent of countries permit lay providers to perform HIV testing and 56% permit lay providers to administer pre-and post-test counseling. Comparative analysis with GARPR found that less than half (46%) of reported data from countries were consistent with their corresponding national HIV testing policy. Given the low uptake of lay provider use globally and their proven use in increasing HIV testing, countries should consider revising policies to support lay provider testing using rapid diagnostic tests.

  9. Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for example, lack of a functioning spleen, need vac- influenzae type b) cination with Hib. Talk to ... of developing severe complications because of your HIV infection. Meningococcal ACWY (Men- ACWY, MCV4) Yes! MenACWY vaccine ...

  10. HIV-1 transmission patterns in antiretroviral therapy-naive, HIV-infected North Americans based on phylogenetic analysis by population level and ultra-deep DNA sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa L Ross

    Full Text Available Factors that contribute to the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, especially drug-resistant HIV-1 variants remain a significant public health concern. In-depth phylogenetic analyses of viral sequences obtained in the screening phase from antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected patients seeking enrollment in EPZ108859, a large open-label study in the USA, Canada and Puerto Rico (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00440947 were examined for insights into the roles of drug resistance and epidemiological factors that could impact disease dissemination. Viral transmission clusters (VTCs were initially predicted from a phylogenetic analysis of population level HIV-1 pol sequences obtained from 690 antiretroviral-naïve subjects in 2007. Subsequently, the predicted VTCs were tested for robustness by ultra deep sequencing (UDS using pyrosequencing technology and further phylogenetic analyses. The demographic characteristics of clustered and non-clustered subjects were then compared. From 690 subjects, 69 were assigned to 1 of 30 VTCs, each containing 2 to 5 subjects. Race composition of VTCs were significantly more likely to be white (72% vs. 60%; p = 0.04. VTCs had fewer reverse transcriptase and major PI resistance mutations (9% vs. 24%; p = 0.002 than non-clustered sequences. Both men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM (68% vs. 48%; p = 0.001 and Canadians (29% vs. 14%; p = 0.03 were significantly more frequent in VTCs than non-clustered sequences. Of the 515 subjects who initiated antiretroviral therapy, 33 experienced confirmed virologic failure through 144 weeks while only 3/33 were from VTCs. Fewer VTCs subjects (as compared to those with non-clustering virus had HIV-1 with resistance-associated mutations or experienced virologic failure during the course of the study. Our analysis shows specific geographical and drug resistance trends that correlate well with transmission clusters defined by HIV sequences of similarity

  11. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms Among HIV-Positive Concordant and Discordant Heterosexual Couples in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Ji, Guoping; Xiao, Yongkang

    2017-03-01

    HIV seropositive individuals and their heterosexual partners/spouses, either seropositive or seronegative, are facing several mental health challenges. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in depressive symptoms among HIV-positive concordant and HIV-discordant couples. We identified heterosexual couples from participants of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Anhui province, China. A total of 265 couples, comprising 129 HIV+ male/HIV- female couples, 98 HIV- male/HIV+ female couples, and 38 HIV-positive concordant couples, were included in the analyses. We collected data using the computer-assisted personal interview method. We used a linear mixed-effects regression model to assess whether gender differences in depressive symptoms varied across couple types. HIV-positive women reported a significantly higher level of depressive symptoms than their partners/spouses. HIV-positive women with HIV-positive partners had higher depressive symptoms than those with HIV-negative partners, whereas HIV-positive men reported similar levels of depressive symptoms regardless of their partners' serostatus. Among the concordant couples, those with the highest annual family income showed the greatest gender differences in depressive symptoms. We suggest that family interventions should be gender- and couple-type specific and that mental health counseling is warranted not only for HIV-positive women but also for HIV-negative women in an HIV-affected relationship.

  12. Women Living with HIV in Rural Areas. Implementing a Response using the HIV and AIDS Risk Assessment and Reduction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bandali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The global fight against HIV is progressing; however, women living in rural areas particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA continue to face the devastating consequences of HIV and AIDS. Lack of knowledge and geographical barriers to HIV services are compounded by gender norms often limiting the negotiation of safe sexual practices among women living in rural areas. This paper discusses findings from a qualitative study conducted in rural areas of Mozambique examining factors that influenced women to engage in HIV risk-reduction practices. The findings from this study led to the emergence of an HIV and AIDS risk assessment and reduction (HARAR model, which is described in detail. The model helps in understanding gender-related factors influencing men and women to engage in risk-reduction practices, which can be used as a framework in other settings to design more nuanced and contextual policies and programs.

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 reservoirs: mechanisms of latency and therapeutic strategies = Reservorios del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1 (VIH-1: mecanismos de latencia y estrategias terapéuticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcia Anaya, Eliuth David

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 can establish a latent infection in different kind of cells, which constitute the cellular reservoirs for the virus and allow its maintenance in the body indefinitely, even in patients with antiretroviral treatment. The main reservoirs of the HIV-1 are resting CD4+ T cells, although cells like monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, and other cells like hematopoietic stem cells and mast cells may be reservoirs of the virus. There are different mechanisms that contribute to the establishment and maintenance of latency in those cells, and include transcriptional interference, low availability of transcription factors, chromatin condensation, some microRNA that block viral translation, and so on. The knowledge of these mechanisms is crucial for the development of new drugs that may eliminate the virus from the body and lead to a cure.

  14. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  15. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Historical Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  16. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Admin Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  17. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  18. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Cultural Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  19. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Landform Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  20. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  1. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Community Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  2. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Transportation Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  3. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Antarctica Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  4. CD4+ T cells with an activated and exhausted phenotype distinguish immunodeficiency during aviremic HIV-2 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggert, Marcus; Frederiksen, Juliet Wairimu; Lund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    cells are linked to such outcome. DESIGN: HIV-seronegative (n=25), HIV-1 (n?=?33), HIV-2 (n?=?39, of whom 26 were aviremic), and HIV-1/2 dually (HIV-D) (n?=?13) infected subjects were enrolled from an occupational cohort in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS:: CD4+ T cell differentiation, activation, exhaustion......, senescence, and transcription factors were assessed by polychromatic flow cytometry. Multidimensional clustering bioinformatic tools were used to identify CD4+ T cell subpopulations linked to infection type and disease stage. RESULTS: HIV-2-infected individuals had early- and late-differentiated CD4+ T cell...... clusters with lower activation (CD38+HLA-DR+) and exhaustion (PD-1) than HIV-1 and HIV-D-infected subjects. We also noted that aviremic HIV-2-infected individuals possessed fewer CD4+ T cells with pathological signs compared to other HIV-infected groups. Still, compared to HIV-seronegatives, aviremic HIV-2...

  5. Geographical information system for radon gas from soil measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, P.; Amici, M.; Altieri, A.; Massari, P.; Miccadei, E.; Onofri, A.; Orlando, C.; Paolelli, C.; Paron, P.; Perticaroli, P.; Piacentini, T.; Silvestri, C.; Minach, L.; Verdi, L.; Bertolo, A.; Trotti, F.

    2000-03-01

    The working program foresees the realization of an geographical information system for the check in field of the geological parameters and determination of uranium and radium contents in various type of rocks. It is here also pointed out a measuring method for radon concentration in soil [it

  6. On Optimal Geographical Caching in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serbetci, Berksan; Goseling, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    In this work we investigate optimal geographical caching in heterogeneous cellular networks where different types of base stations (BSs) have different cache capacities. Users request files from a content library according to a known probability distribution. The performance metric is the total hit

  7. Short communication prevalence of susceptibility to etravirine by genotype and phenotype in samples received for routine HIV type 1 resistance testing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchio, Gaston; Vingerhoets, Johan; Tambuyzer, Lotke; Coakley, Eoin; Haddad, Mojgan; Witek, James

    2011-12-01

    Abstract The prevalence of susceptibility to etravirine was investigated among clinical samples submitted for routine clinical testing in the United States using two separate weighted genotypic scoring systems. The presence of etravirine mutations and susceptibility to etravirine by phenotype of clinical samples from HIV-1-infected patients, submitted to Monogram Biosciences for routine resistance testing between June 2008 and June 2009, were analyzed. Susceptibility by genotype was determined using the Monogram and Tibotec etravirine-weighted genotypic scoring systems, with scores of ≤3 and ≤2, respectively, indicating full susceptibility. Susceptibility by phenotype was determined using the PhenoSense HIV assay, with lower and higher clinical cut-offs of 2.9 and 10, respectively. The frequency of individual etravirine mutations and the impact of the K103N mutation on susceptibility to etravirine by genotype were also determined. Among the 5482 samples with ≥1 defined nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutations associated with resistance, 67% were classed as susceptible to etravirine by genotype by both scoring systems. Susceptibility to etravirine by phenotype was higher (76%). The proportion of first-generation NNRTI-resistant samples with (n=3598) and without (n=1884) K103N with susceptibility to etravirine by genotype was 77% and 49%, respectively. Among samples susceptible to first-generation NNRTIs (n=9458), >99% of samples were susceptible to etravirine by phenotype (FC <2.9); the remaining samples had FC ≥2.9-10. In summary, among samples submitted for routine clinical testing in the United States, a high proportion of samples with first-generation NNRTI resistance was susceptible to etravirine by genotype and phenotype. A higher proportion of NNRTI-resistant samples with K103N than without was susceptible to etravirine.

  8. Exploring the potentials of volunteered geographic Information as a source for spatial data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariffin, Izyana; Solemon, Badariah; Anwar, Rina Md; Din, Marina Md; Azmi, Nor Nashrah

    2014-01-01

    The advancement of technologies nowadays enables participation by nonprofessionals, known as volunteers to participate in producing, sharing and consuming geographic information. Such information, termed as volunteered geographic Information (VGI) has created a new approach of gathering geographic information. This paper discusses the traditional way of acquiring geographic information and potentials of VGI as an information source in GIS applications. We also review four commonly cited applications which rely on volunteers for their geographic information based on five criteria; the geometry type available in the applications, availability of user profile, average number of attributes used in the applications, data type of the information (raster or vector) and the domain the application belongs to. This review serves as a preliminarv study in designing a GIS application used for asset management which aims at exploiting volunteers to produce geographic information related to assets

  9. HIV-1 and the macrophage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, Sebastiaan M.; Cobos-Jimenez, Viviana; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; van 't Wout, Angelique B.

    2011-01-01

    Macrophages and CD4(+) T cells are natural target cells for HIV-1, and both cell types contribute to the establishment of the viral reservoir that is responsible for continuous residual virus replication during antiretroviral therapy and viral load rebound upon treatment interruption. Scientific

  10. Molecular HIV screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlet, Thomas; Memmi, Meriam; Saoudin, Henia; Pozzetto, Bruno

    2013-09-01

    Nuclear acid testing is more and more used for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. This paper focuses on the use of molecular tools for HIV screening. The term 'screening' will be used under the meaning of first-line HIV molecular techniques performed on a routine basis, which excludes HIV molecular tests designed to confirm or infirm a newly discovered HIV-seropositive patient or other molecular tests performed for the follow-up of HIV-infected patients. The following items are developed successively: i) presentation of the variety of molecular tools used for molecular HIV screening, ii) use of HIV molecular tools for the screening of blood products, iii) use of HIV molecular tools for the screening of organs and tissue from human origin, iv) use of HIV molecular tools in medically assisted procreation and v) use of HIV molecular tools in neonates from HIV-infected mothers.

  11. 5 CFR 536.303 - Geographic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... after geographic conversion is the employee's existing payable rate of basic pay in effect immediately before the action. (b) Geographic conversion when a retained rate employee's official worksite is changed... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic conversion. 536.303 Section...

  12. HIV Prevalence and Risk Behaviors in Male to Female (MTF) Transgender Persons in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Espinoza, Kristian Jesús; Menchaca-Diaz, Rufino; Patterson, Thomas L; Urada, Lianne A; Smith, Davey; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Pitpitan, Eileen V

    2017-12-01

    Compared to HIV research on men who have sex with men, less is known about the risks and vulnerabilities for HIV among Male to Female (MTF) transgender persons, particularly in different geographic regions like Mexico. In Tijuana, Mexico, a border city experiencing a dynamic HIV epidemic, no precedent data exists on the MTF transgender population. Our aims were to estimate HIV prevalence and examine the behaviors and characteristics of the population. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 100 MTF transgender persons recruited through time location sampling in 2012. Participants underwent interviewer-administered (paper and pen) surveys and rapid tests for HIV. Descriptive univariate analyses were conducted on various factors, including sociodemographics, substance use, accessing social services (requested vs. received), stigma, and sex behaviors. A total of 22% tested positive for HIV, a prevalence higher than other key populations at risk for HIV in Tijuana.

  13. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Lu

    Full Text Available New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF01_AE (53.4%, CRF07_BC (23.4%, subtype B (15.9%, and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%. Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx, unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM. All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%, CRF01_AE/B (23.3%, B/C (16.7%, CRF01_AE/C (13.3%, CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3% and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%, plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China.

  14. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinli; Kang, Xianjiang; Liu, Yongjian; Cui, Ze; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Cuiying; Li, Yan; Chen, Suliang; Li, Jingyun; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhao, Hongru

    2017-01-01

    New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE (53.4%), CRF07_BC (23.4%), subtype B (15.9%), and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%). Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx), unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM). All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%), CRF01_AE/B (23.3%), B/C (16.7%), CRF01_AE/C (13.3%), CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3%) and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%), plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China.

  15. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-04-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal.

  16. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  17. Geographic profiling and animal foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Comber, Steven C; Nicholls, Barry; Rossmo, D Kim; Racey, Paul A

    2006-05-21

    Geographic profiling was originally developed as a statistical tool for use in criminal cases, particularly those involving serial killers and rapists. It is designed to help police forces prioritize lists of suspects by using the location of crime scenes to identify the areas in which the criminal is most likely to live. Two important concepts are the buffer zone (criminals are less likely to commit crimes in the immediate vicinity of their home) and distance decay (criminals commit fewer crimes as the distance from their home increases). In this study, we show how the techniques of geographic profiling may be applied to animal data, using as an example foraging patterns in two sympatric colonies of pipistrelle bats, Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus, in the northeast of Scotland. We show that if model variables are fitted to known roost locations, these variables may be used as numerical descriptors of foraging patterns. We go on to show that these variables can be used to differentiate patterns of foraging in these two species.

  18. ROMANIA: GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOPOLITICAL POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Beniamin Benea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to bring to the reader’s attention the importance of understanding the role education plays in creating a good geopolitical position for a state which has a good geographical position, and which is well endowed in natural resources. The case of Romania is the main focus of the paper. There is presented a peculiar strange situation of a country (Romania which is very well located from geographical point of view but which is incapable to exploit its natural endowments and special location. One reason for this situation is the fact that most people living in present Romania belong to a category named in this paper ‘individuals’. Individuals are not aware of their country’s geography and history, let alone its possible future development possibilities. They do not know the role their country could play, and living in an atomized society, they choose emigration as the easiest way to escape harsh social and economic environment. Contrary to this attitude is that of a citizen, a man conscious about his country’s potential, and which is dedicated to work hardly together with his fellows in order to promote national interests in a peaceful manner. Even there was found remnants of an ancient city close to present day Romanian territory – proves of well endowed environment – moral and psychological factors have contributed after 1990 in an crucial manner to push Romania from its civilization path back to the archaic spirit, from active urban spirit to rural mentality. In such a situation it is not uncommon for a nation to lose its means for projecting power, which could promote the value and the importance of a geographical position – transportation; rural mentality has nothing to do with modern transportation as they are technical tools with geopolitical essence for controlling space. It is a well known fact that transportation and geopolitics are closely interrelated. Furthermore, social dissolution in post communist

  19. Some Laboratory Features of HIV Infected Nigerian Children Co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background And Aims: Few studies on HIV coinfection with hepatitis B and C have been conducted in children especially in low resource settings. These coinfections have been shown to be associated with lower CD4 counts and high alanine transaminase in adults. In children conflicting results from different geographic ...

  20. HIV Structural Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  1. HIV Viral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  2. National HIV Testing Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses National HIV Testing Day, an annual observance which raises awareness of the importance of knowing one's HIV status and encourages at-risk individuals to get an HIV test.

  3. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.

  4. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Habitats Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_habitats_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for coastal habitats in Louisiana. Vector polygons represent various habitats, including marsh types, other...

  5. Human endogenous retrovirus K Gag coassembles with HIV-1 Gag and reduces the release efficiency and infectivity of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monde, Kazuaki; Contreras-Galindo, Rafael; Kaplan, Mark H; Markovitz, David M; Ono, Akira

    2012-10-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which are remnants of ancestral retroviruses integrated into the human genome, are defective in viral replication. Because activation of HERV-K and coexpression of this virus with HIV-1 have been observed during HIV-1 infection, it is conceivable that HERV-K could affect HIV-1 replication, either by competition or by cooperation, in cells expressing both viruses. In this study, we found that the release efficiency of HIV-1 Gag was 3-fold reduced upon overexpression of HERV-K(CON) Gag. In addition, we observed that in cells expressing Gag proteins of both viruses, HERV-K(CON) Gag colocalized with HIV-1 Gag at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, HERV-K(CON) Gag was found to coassemble with HIV-1 Gag, as demonstrated by (i) processing of HERV-K(CON) Gag by HIV-1 protease in virions, (ii) coimmunoprecipitation of virion-associated HERV-K(CON) Gag with HIV-1 Gag, and (iii) rescue of a late-domain-defective HERV-K(CON) Gag by wild-type (WT) HIV-1 Gag. Myristylation-deficient HERV-K(CON) Gag localized to nuclei, suggesting cryptic nuclear trafficking of HERV-K Gag. Notably, unlike WT HERV-K(CON) Gag, HIV-1 Gag failed to rescue myristylation-deficient HERV-K(CON) Gag to the plasma membrane. Efficient colocalization and coassembly of HIV-1 Gag and HERV-K Gag also required nucleocapsid (NC). These results provide evidence that HIV-1 Gag heteromultimerizes with HERV-K Gag at the plasma membrane, presumably through NC-RNA interaction. Intriguingly, HERV-K Gag overexpression reduced not only HIV-1 release efficiency but also HIV-1 infectivity in a myristylation- and NC-dependent manner. Altogether, these results indicate that Gag proteins of endogenous retroviruses can coassemble with HIV-1 Gag and modulate the late phase of HIV-1 replication.

  6. Research on a Method of Geographical Information Service Load Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heyuan; Li, Yongxing; Xue, Zhiyong; Feng, Tao

    2018-05-01

    With the development of geographical information service technologies, how to achieve the intelligent scheduling and high concurrent access of geographical information service resources based on load balancing is a focal point of current study. This paper presents an algorithm of dynamic load balancing. In the algorithm, types of geographical information service are matched with the corresponding server group, then the RED algorithm is combined with the method of double threshold effectively to judge the load state of serve node, finally the service is scheduled based on weighted probabilistic in a certain period. At the last, an experiment system is built based on cluster server, which proves the effectiveness of the method presented in this paper.

  7. Geographic thougth in Latin America: A retrospective and general balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Sergio Urquijo Torres

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report results of a thorough contemporary historiographic revision of published geographic research and geography research departments and centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG Geography. First we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we explain the nature of LA social processes that, in the 90s, triggered geographic change and subsequent theoretical reflection on this change in LAG and in other related social sciences. To this end, we describe how the major traditions in geographic research have influenced LAG thinking. To conclude, we suggest the major achievements that we think characterize the current situation of LAG.

  8. Diagnosis, antiretroviral therapy, and emergence of resistance to antiretroviral agents in HIV-2 infection: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Hightower

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and type 2 (HIV-2 are the causative agents of AIDS. HIV-2 is prevalent at moderate to high rates in West African countries, such as Senegal, Guinea, Gambia, and Cape Verde. Diagnosis of HIV-2 is made with a positive HIV-1/HIV-2 ELISA or simple/rapid assay, followed by one or two confirmatory tests specific for HIV-2. Following CD4+ T cell counts, HIV-2 viral burden and clinical signs and symptoms of immunodeficiency are beneficial in monitoring HIV-2 disease progression. Although non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are ineffective in treating HIV-2, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors can be effective in dual and triple antiretroviral regimens. Their use can decrease HIV-2 viral load, increase CD4+ T cell counts and improve AIDS-related symptoms. HIV-2 resistance to various nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors, including zidovudine, lamivudine, ritonavir and indinavir, has been identified in some HIV-2 infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. The knowledge of HIV-2 peculiarities, when compared to HIV-1, is crucial to helping diagnose and guide the clinician in the choice of the initial antiretroviral regimen and for monitoring therapy success.

  9. Cyclophilin B enhances HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBoer, Jason; Madson, Christian J. [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, Omaha, NE (United States); Belshan, Michael, E-mail: michaelbelshan@creighton.edu [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, Omaha, NE (United States); The Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a member of the immunophilin family and intracellular chaperone. It predominantly localizes to the ER, but also contains a nuclear localization signal and is secreted from cells. CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication. Herein, we show that over-expression of CypB enhances HIV infection by increasing nuclear import of viral DNA. This enhancement was unaffected by cyclosporine treatment and requires the N-terminus of the protein. The N-terminus contains an ER leader sequence, putative nuclear localization signal, and is required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminus resulted in mislocalization from the ER and suppression of HIV infection. Passive transfer experiments showed that secreted CypB did not impact HIV infection. Combined, these experiments show that intracellular CypB modulates a pathway of HIV nuclear import. - Highlights: • CypB has been identified in several proteomic studies of HIV-1 infection. • CypB expression is upregulated in activated and infected T-cells. • Over-expression of CypB enhances HIV nuclear import and infection. • The N-terminus of CypB is necessary for these effects.

  10. Cyclophilin B enhances HIV-1 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBoer, Jason; Madson, Christian J.; Belshan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a member of the immunophilin family and intracellular chaperone. It predominantly localizes to the ER, but also contains a nuclear localization signal and is secreted from cells. CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication. Herein, we show that over-expression of CypB enhances HIV infection by increasing nuclear import of viral DNA. This enhancement was unaffected by cyclosporine treatment and requires the N-terminus of the protein. The N-terminus contains an ER leader sequence, putative nuclear localization signal, and is required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminus resulted in mislocalization from the ER and suppression of HIV infection. Passive transfer experiments showed that secreted CypB did not impact HIV infection. Combined, these experiments show that intracellular CypB modulates a pathway of HIV nuclear import. - Highlights: • CypB has been identified in several proteomic studies of HIV-1 infection. • CypB expression is upregulated in activated and infected T-cells. • Over-expression of CypB enhances HIV nuclear import and infection. • The N-terminus of CypB is necessary for these effects.

  11. The cytosolic exonuclease TREX1 inhibits the innate immune response to HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Nan; Regalado-Magdos, Ashton D.; Stiggelbout, Bart; Lee-Kirsch, Min Ae; Lieberman, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Viral infection triggers innate immune sensors to produce type I interferons (IFN). However, HIV infection of T cells and macrophages does not trip these alarms. How HIV avoids activating nucleic acid sensors is unknown. The cytosolic exonuclease TREX1 suppressed IFN triggered by HIV. In Trex1−/− mouse cells and human CD4+ T cells and macrophages in which TREX1 was inhibited by RNA interference, cytosolic HIV DNA accumulated, and HIV infection induced type I IFN that inhibited HIV replication and spreading. TREX1 bound to cytosolic HIV DNA and digested excess HIV DNA that would otherwise activate IFN expression via a TBK1, STING and IRF3 dependent pathway. HIV-stimulated IFN production in cells deficient in TREX1 did not involve known nucleic acid sensors. PMID:20871604

  12. HIV/AIDS and Croatian migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Brouillard, Pamela; Nikolić, Nebojga; Greiner, Nina

    2006-12-01

    Due to their geographical mobility and long periods of separation from intimate partners, migrant workers are at increased risk for a variety of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS. This study sought to investigate patterns in HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviour in migrant workers in Croatia. In 2003, 566 male migrant workers were recruited during regular required medical examinations and surveyed at seven locations throughout the country. Each participant was asked to complete a self-administered KABP (sexual knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices) questionnaire. The average age of respondents was 38.2 years and the majority worked as seafarers (77.3%) and construction workers (20.5%). Only 18.5% of respondents were able to correctly answer all 13 questions assessing knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Seafarers reported higher levels of knowledge than did construction workers. The average respondent reported having had two sexual partners in the last 12 months, with slightly over half of the respondents (55.3%) reporting condom use at their last intercourse with a casual partner. One fifth of the respondents (20.3%) who reported having had intercourse with a sex worker during the last year reported not using condoms at last intercourse. The number of sexual partners was correlated with age, marital status, faith in God, and personal HIV risk assessment. Attitudes toward condom use, co-workers' HIV/AIDS concerns and the duration of migrant status (within the last two years) were shown to be significant correlates of condom use at last intercourse with a casual partner. The effect of HIV/AIDS related knowledge on analyzed behaviors did not reach statistical significance. Inadequate patterns of migrant workers' condom use, gaps in knowledge about HIV transmission and modes of protection, as well as widespread ignorance regarding available anonymous HIV testing found by this study suggest a critical need for expert intervention to

  13. Results of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Assay for Specimens Yielding “Target Not Detected” Results by the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Test▿

    OpenAIRE

    Babady, N. Esther; Germer, Jeffrey J.; Yao, Joseph D. C.

    2009-01-01

    No significantly discordant results were observed between the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay and the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test (CTM) among 1,190 unique clinical plasma specimens obtained from laboratories located in 40 states representing all nine U.S. geographic regions and previously yielding “target not detected” results by CTM.

  14. Results of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay for specimens yielding "target not detected" results by the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babady, N Esther; Germer, Jeffrey J; Yao, Joseph D C

    2010-03-01

    No significantly discordant results were observed between the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay and the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test (CTM) among 1,190 unique clinical plasma specimens obtained from laboratories located in 40 states representing all nine U.S. geographic regions and previously yielding "target not detected" results by CTM.

  15. Seroepidemiology of high-risk HPV in HIV-negative and HIV-infected MSM: the H2M study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Sofie H.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Schepp, Rutger M.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Bogaards, Johannes A.; de Melker, Hester E.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM), in particular HIV-infected MSM, are at increased risk for diseases related to human papilloma virus (HPV). Our goal was to assess the effect of HIV status on the presence of type-specific antibodies against seven high-risk HPV types in HPV-unvaccinated MSM. Moreover,

  16. Processing sites in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 Gag-Pro-Pol precursor are cleaved by the viral protease at different rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindquist Jeffrey N

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have examined the kinetics of processing of the HIV-1 Gag-Pro-Pol precursor in an in vitro assay with mature protease added in trans. The processing sites were cleaved at different rates to produce distinct intermediates. The initial cleavage occurred at the p2/NC site. Intermediate cleavages occurred at similar rates at the MA/CA and RT/IN sites, and to a lesser extent at sites upstream of RT. Late cleavages occurred at the sites flanking the protease (PR domain, suggesting sequestering of these sites. We observed paired intermediates indicative of half- cleavage of RT/RH site, suggesting that the RT domain in Gag-Pro-Pol was in a dimeric form under these assay conditions. These results clarify our understanding of the processing kinetics of the Gag-Pro-Pol precursor and suggest regulated cleavage. Our results further suggest that early dimerization of the PR and RT domains may serve as a regulatory element to influence the kinetics of processing within the Pol domain.

  17. Processing sites in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag-Pro-Pol precursor are cleaved by the viral protease at different rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Steve C; Lindquist, Jeffrey N; Kaplan, Andrew H; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2005-11-01

    We have examined the kinetics of processing of the HIV-1 Gag-Pro-Pol precursor in an in vitro assay with mature protease added in trans. The processing sites were cleaved at different rates to produce distinct intermediates. The initial cleavage occurred at the p2/NC site. Intermediate cleavages occurred at similar rates at the MA/CA and RT/IN sites, and to a lesser extent at sites upstream of RT. Late cleavages occurred at the sites flanking the protease (PR) domain, suggesting sequestering of these sites. We observed paired intermediates indicative of half- cleavage of RT/RH site, suggesting that the RT domain in Gag-Pro-Pol was in a dimeric form under these assay conditions. These results clarify our understanding of the processing kinetics of the Gag-Pro-Pol precursor and suggest regulated cleavage. Our results further suggest that early dimerization of the PR and RT domains may serve as a regulatory element to influence the kinetics of processing within the Pol domain.

  18. Towards discovering dual functional inhibitors against both wild type and K103N mutant HIV-1 reverse transcriptases: molecular docking and QSAR studies on 4,1-benzoxazepinone analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenshan; Zheng, Mingyue; Du, Li; Shen, Jianhua; Luo, Xiaomin; Zhu, Weiliang; Jiang, Hualiang

    2006-05-01

    To find useful information for discovering dual functional inhibitors against both wild type (WT) and K103N mutant reverse transcriptases (RTs) of HIV-1, molecular docking and 3D-QSAR approaches were applied to a set of twenty-five 4,1-benzoxazepinone analogues of efavirenz (SUSTIVA®), some of them are active against the two RTs. 3D-QSAR models were constructed, based on their binding conformations determined by molecular docking, with r 2 cv values ranging from 0.656 to 0.834 for CoMFA and CoMSIA, respectively. The models were then validated to be highly predictive and extrapolative by inhibitors in two test sets with different molecular skeletons. Furthermore, CoMFA models were found to be well matched with the binding sites of both WT and K103N RTs. Finally, a reasonable pharmacophore model of 4,1-benzoxazepinones were established. The application of the model not only successfully differentiated the experimentally determined inhibitors from non-inhibitors, but also discovered two potent inhibitors from the compound database SPECS. On the basis of both the 3D-QSAR and pharmacophore models, new clues for discovering and designing potent dual functional drug leads against HIV-1 were proposed: (i) adopting positively charged aliphatic group at the cis-substituent of C3; (ii) reducing the electronic density at the position of O4; (iii) positioning a small branched aliphatic group at position of C5; (iv) using the negatively charged bulky substituents at position of C7.

  19. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela RI Meyrelles

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample, re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples, and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples. An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30% or re-infection (20%. A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79. Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting.

  20. National HIV Testing Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-09

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses National HIV Testing Day, an annual observance which raises awareness of the importance of knowing one's HIV status and encourages at-risk individuals to get an HIV test.  Created: 6/9/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/9/2011.

  1. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-26

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.  Created: 11/26/2012 by Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 11/26/2012.

  2. The involvement of plasmacytoid cells in HIV infection and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Alessandra; Giannessi, Flavia; Percario, Zulema A; Affabris, Elisabetta

    2018-04-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a unique dendritic cell subset that are specialized in type I interferon (IFN) production. pDCs are key players in the antiviral immune response and serve as bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. Although pDCs do not represent the main reservoir of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), they are a crucial subset in HIV infection as they influence viral transmission, target cell infection and antigen presentation. pDCs act as inflammatory and immunosuppressive cells, thus contributing to HIV disease progression. This review provides a state of art analysis of the interactions between HIV and pDCs and their potential roles in HIV transmission, chronic immune activation and immunosuppression. A thorough understanding of the roles of pDCs in HIV infection will help to improve therapeutic strategies to fight HIV infection, and will further increase our knowledge on this important immune cell subset. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Care of HIV-exposed and HIV-infected neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, further reduction in MTCT may be possible if newborns at high risk of acquiring HIV ... infants of breastfeeding mothers with newly diagnosed HIV infection, dual NVP/ .... birth HIV DNA PCR testing for HIV-exposed low birth weight.

  4. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children and Adolescents HIV and Women HIV and Gay and Bisexual Men HIV and Older Adults HIV ... throughout the body. A hormone called insulin helps move the glucose into the cells. Once in the ...

  5. Do Customers Flee From HIV? A Survey of HIV Stigma and Its Potential Economic Consequences on Small Businesses in Tshwane (Pretoria), South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Wei; Szrek, Helena; Leite, Rui; Ramlagan, Shandir; Peltzer, Karl

    2017-01-01

    HIV stigma and discrimination affect care-seeking behavior and may also affect entrepreneurial activity. We interview 2382 individuals in Pretoria, South Africa, and show that respondents believe that businesses with known HIV+ workers may lose up to half of their customers, although the impact depends on the type of business. Survey respondents' fear of getting HIV from consuming everyday products sold by the business-despite a real infection risk of zero-was a major factor driving perceived decline in customers, especially among food businesses. Respondents' perceptions of the decline in overall life satisfaction when one gets sick from HIV and the respondent's dislike of people with HIV were also important predictors of potential customer exit. We suggest policy mechanisms that could improve the earnings potential of HIV+ workers: reducing public health scare tactics that exacerbate irrational fear of HIV infection risk and enriching public health education about HIV and ARVs to improve perceptions about people with HIV.

  6. Brucella Infection in HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.

  7. ANALYSIS OF HIV SUBTYPES AND CLINICAL STAGING OF HIV DISEASE/AIDS IN EAST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Ismail

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 known to cause Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS disease are divided into several subtypes (A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K and Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF. Different characteristics of subtype of the virus and its interaction with the host can affect the severity of the disease. This study was to analyze HIV-1 subtypes circulating in HIV/AIDS patients from the East Java region descriptively and to analyze its relationship with clinical stadiums of HIV/AIDS. Information from this research was expected to complement the data of mocular epidemiology of HIV in Indonesia. This study utilited blood plasma from patients who had been tested to be HIV positive who sected treatment to or were reffered to the Intermediate Care Unit of Infectious Disease (UPIPI Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya from various area representing the East Java regions. Plasma was separated from blood samples by centrifugation for use in the the molecular biology examination including RNA extraction, nested PCR using specific primer for HIV gp120 env gene region, DNA purifying, DNA sequencing, and homology and phylogenetic analysis. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the HIV gp120 env gene, it was found that the most dominant subtypes in East Java were in one group of Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF that is CRF01_AE, CRF33_01B and CRF34_01B which was also found in Southeast Asia. In the phylogenetic tree, most of HIV samples (30 samples are in the same branch with CRF01_AE, CRF33_01B and CRF34_01B, except for one sample (HIV40 which is in the same branch with subtype B. HIV subtypes are associated with clinical stadiums (disease severity since samples from different stages of HIV disease have the same subtype.

  8. Sociodemographic Differences in Access to Care Among Hispanic Patients Who Are HIV Infected in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Leo S.; Cunningham, William E.; Galvan, Frank H.; Andersen, Ronald M.; Nakazono, Terry T.; Shapiro, Martin F.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated associations between sociodemographic factors and access to care, use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, and patients’ ratings of care among Hispanic patients who are HIV infected; we used data from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study. Gender, insurance, mode of exposure, and geographic region were associated with access to medical care. Researchers and policymakers should consider sociodemographic factors among Hispanic patients who are HIV positive when designing and prioritizing interventions to improve access to care. PMID:15226129

  9. The molecular epidemiology of HIV in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, B G; Takebe, Y; Ou, C Y; Yamazaki, S

    1994-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was introduced readily into Asia and has quickly spread between Asian states through both parenteral and sexual modes of transmission. Only 1 year after Thailand's epidemic wave among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in 1988, the virus spread to the adjacent Myanmar and Malaysia, and another year later IDUs were infected in parts of India and China bordering Myanmar. Several methods can be used to quantify the genetic diversity, divergence, or variation within or between subtypes, genotypes, or isolates. Consensus sequences, representing the most common nucleotide in the genome, are often generated for comparison. 8 subtypes A through F, H, and O have been described for HIV-1 based on the genetic similarities and differences in the env gene or viral envelope. Subtype A and D have been found primarily in central and western Africa. Subtype B is predominant in Europe, the Western hemisphere, Japan, and Australia. Subtype C has been found mostly in southern Africa, the Central African Republic, and India. Subtype E was first identified in Thailand and recently in the Central African Republic. Subtype F has been found in Romania and is a rare variant in Brazil. Isolates from Gabon and the Russian Federation were designated subtype H. An "outlier" subtype O containing 2 human and 2 chimpanzee isolates has been identified in Cameroon and Gabon. Sequencing of the relatively conserved gag gene of geographically diverse HIV-1 isolates yielded a classification with 7 subtypes A-D and F-H. Other topics discussed include genome characterization, comparison with foreign isolates, segregation by mode of transmission, and biologic properties of HIV-1 variants in Thailand; regional diversity of HIV-1 subtypes and substantial spread of HIV-2 in India; as well as HIV transmission and infections in Japan, Australia, Cambodia, China, Taiwan, Philippines, Malaysia, Myanmar, and in states created out of the former Soviet Union.

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the ...

  11. Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic Published: Nov 29, 2017 Facebook Twitter ... 2001-FY 2018 Request The Global Response to HIV/AIDS International efforts to combat HIV began in ...

  12. HIV/AIDS in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV often ...

  13. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contracting or transmitting HIV/AIDS or other infectious diseases. Research Reports: HIV/AIDS : Explores the link between drug misuse and HIV/AIDS, populations most at risk, trends in HIV/AIDS, and ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... help us Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) ... hiv-aids-101/statistics/ . Reference Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National ...

  16. HIV/AIDS, HPV and Anal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-ching J.; Sparano, Joseph; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Anal cancer is an increasingly common non-AIDS-defining cancer among HIV-infected individuals. It is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted infectious agent. The 14 oncogenic types of HPV are causally associated with 5–10% of all cancers, notably anogenital cancers. HPV16 is the most common genotype detected in about 70% of anal cancers. The HPV types detected in anal cancer are included in the 9-valent vaccine. HPV vaccines have demonstrated efficacy in reducing anal precancerous lesions in HIV-infected individuals. The standard treatment for anal cancer has been fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin (or cisplatin) as chemotherapy agents plus radiation, which can also be effectively used for the HIV-infected patients. Continued studies will be needed to test new treatment strategies in HIV-infected patients with anal cancer to determine which treatment protocols provide the best therapeutic index. PMID:27889034

  17. Genotypic evaluation of etravirine sensitivity of clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates carrying resistance mutations to nevirapine and efavirenz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumar, A A; Jnaoui, K; Kabamba-Mukadi, B; Yombi, J C; Vandercam, B; Goubau, P; Ruelle, J

    2010-01-01

    Etravirine is a second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) with a pattern of resistance mutations quite distinct from the current NNRTIs. We collected all routine samples of HIV-1 patients followed in the AIDS reference laboratory of UCLouvain (in 2006 and 2007) carrying resistance-associated mutations to nevirapine (NVP) or efavirenz (EFV). The sensitivity to Etravirine was estimated using three different drug resistance algorithms: ANRS (July 2008), IAS (December 2008) and Stanford (November 2008). We also verified whether the mutations described as resistance mutations are not due to virus polymorphisms by the study of 58 genotypes of NNRTI-naive patients. Sixty one samples harboured resistance to NVP and EFV: 41/61 had at least one resistance mutation to Etravirine according to ANRS-IAS algorithms; 42/61 samples had at least one resistance mutation to Etravirine according to the Stanford algorithm. 48 and 53 cases were fully sensitive to Etravirine according to ANRS-IAS and Stanford algorithms, respectively. Three cases harboured more than three mutations and presented a pattern of high-degree resistance to Etravirine according to ANRS-IAS algorithm, while one case harboured more than three mutations and presented high degree resistance to Etravirine according to the Stanford algorithm. The V1061 and V179D mutations were more frequent in the ARV-naive group than in the NNRTI-experienced one. According to the currently available algorithms, Etravirine can still be used in the majority of patients with virus showing resistance to NVP and/or EFV, if a combination of other active drugs is included.

  18. Serodiagnostic profiles of HIV and HIV pathogenesis in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, J.; Lange, J. M.; Smit, L.; Bakker, M.; Klaver, B.; Danner, S. A.; Coutinho, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Different stages of HIV infection are marked by expression of HIV genes, production of HIV antibodies, formation of antigen/antibody complexes and clearance of such complexes. Transient HIV antigenemia appearing generally 6-8 weeks prior to HIV antibody (HIV-Ab) seroconversion and lasting 3-4 months

  19. Prostitution and HIV: what do we know and where might research be targeted in the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, N P

    1994-09-01

    A review of the literature indicates that the association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and prostitution varies by geographic region and can be altered substantially by well-planned public health interventions. In most African countries and in Asian countries such as Thailand, the rate of HIV infection among female prostitutes is substantially higher than the rate in the general population. Relatively few commercial sex workers in South and Central America are HIV-positive; however, their extremely high rates of infection with sexually transmitted diseases indicates the potential for future epidemic spread of HIV. In Europe and North America, HIV infection is most prevalent among drug-injecting or crack-using prostitutes. Neglected has been research on the high incidence of HIV among male transvestite and transsexual prostitutes. The lowest levels of condom use in commercial sex encounters have been recorded in regions in developing countries with the highest HIV prevalence. Also of concern are high condom breakage rates (20-50%) among female prostitutes who use petroleum-based lubricants and male prostitutes who practice anal sex. Valuable would be quantification of the additional HIV risk resulting from sex with a prostitute. Other recommended research areas include estimates of the number of male and female prostitutes working in certain geographic areas, mechanisms for monitoring condom use and substance abuse among prostitutes, the impact of HIV infection on movement into and out of prostitution, the dynamics of prostitute-client condom negotiation, and profiles of the clients of male prostitutes.

  20. Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms Predictive of Candida Esophagitis and Erosive Esophagitis in HIV and Non-HIV Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuta; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Shimbo, Takuro; Nishijima, Takeshi; Watanabe, Koji; Aoki, Tomonori; Sekine, Katsunori; Okubo, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Sakurai, Toshiyuki; Yokoi, Chizu; Mimori, Akio; Oka, Shinichi; Uemura, Naomi; Akiyama, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common in both HIV and non-HIV-infected patients, but the difference of GI symptom severity between 2 groups remains unknown. Candida esophagitis and erosive esophagitis, 2 major types of esophagitis, are seen in both HIV and non-HIV-infected patients, but differences in GI symptoms that are predictive of esophagitis between 2 groups remain unknown. We aimed to determine whether GI symptoms differ between HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected patients, and identify specific symptoms of candida esophagitis and erosive esophagitis between 2 groups. We prospectively enrolled 6011 patients (HIV, 430; non-HIV, 5581) who underwent endoscopy and completed questionnaires. Nine upper GI symptoms (epigastric pain, heartburn, acid regurgitation, hunger cramps, nausea, early satiety, belching, dysphagia, and odynophagia) were evaluated using a 7-point Likert scale. Associations between esophagitis and symptoms were analyzed by the multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, and proton pump inhibitors. Endoscopy revealed GI-organic diseases in 33.4% (2010/6.011) of patients. The prevalence of candida esophagitis and erosive esophagitis was 11.2% and 12.1% in HIV-infected patients, respectively, whereas it was 2.9% and 10.7 % in non-HIV-infected patients, respectively. After excluding GI-organic diseases, HIV-infected patients had significantly (P symptom scores for heartburn, hunger cramps, nausea, early satiety, belching, dysphagia, and odynophagia than non-HIV-infected patients. In HIV-infected patients, any symptom was not significantly associated with CD4 cell count. In multivariate analysis, none of the 9 GI symptoms were associated with candida esophagitis in HIV-infected patients, whereas dysphagia and odynophagia were independently (P HIV-infected patients. However, heartburn and acid regurgitation were independently (P symptom scores were reliable in both HIV (α, 0.86) and non-HIV-infected patients

  1. Doing battle with "the monster:" how high-risk heterosexuals experience and successfully manage HIV stigma as a barrier to HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwadz, Marya; Leonard, Noelle R; Honig, Sylvie; Freeman, Robert; Kutnick, Alexandra; Ritchie, Amanda S

    2018-04-20

    Annual HIV testing is recommended for populations at-risk for HIV in the United States, including heterosexuals geographically connected to urban high-risk areas (HRA) with elevated rates of HIV prevalence and poverty, who are primarily African American/Black or Hispanic. Yet this subpopulation of "individuals residing in HRA" (IR-HRA) evidence low rates of regular HIV testing. HIV stigma is a recognized primary barrier to testing, in part due to its interaction with other stigmatized social identities. Guided by social-cognitive and intersectionality theories, this qualitative descriptive study explored stigma as a barrier to HIV testing and identified ways IR-HRA manage stigma. In 2012-2014, we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 31 adult IR-HRA (74% male, 84% African American/Black) with unknown or negative HIV status, purposively sampled from a larger study for maximum variation on HIV testing experiences. Interviews were audio-recorded and professionally transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a systematic content analysis approach that was both theory-driven and inductive. Stigma was a primary barrier to HIV testing among IR-HRA. In the context of an under-resourced community, HIV stigma was experienced as emerging from, and being perpetuated by, health care organizations and educational institutions, as well as community members. Participants noted it was "better not to know" one's HIV status, to avoid experiencing HIV-related stigma, which could interact with other stigmatized social identities and threaten vital social relationships, life chances, and resources. Yet most had tested for HIV previously. Factors facilitating testing included health education to boost knowledge of effective treatments for HIV; understanding HIV does not necessitate ending social relationships; and tapping into altruism. In the context of economic and social inequality, HIV stigma operates on multiple, intersecting layers. IR-HRA struggle with an aversion to

  2. Living with HIV/AIDS - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part 5 - English MP3 Children and HIV - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part 5 - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) MP3 Children and HIV - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part ...

  3. HIV behavioral research online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, Mary Ann; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Tesoriero, James M; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Hirshfield, Sabina; Remien, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    Internet access has caused a global revolution in the way people of all ages and genders interact. Many have turned to the Internet to seek love, companionship, and sex, prompting researchers to move behavioral studies online. The sexual behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM) has been more closely studied than that of any other group online given the abundance of gay-oriented websites and concerns about increasing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Not only does the Internet provide a new medium for the conduct of behavioral research and for participant recruitment into an array of research studies, it has the as yet unrealized potential to reach huge numbers of MSM with innovative harm reduction and prevention messages tailored to individualized needs, interests, and risk behavior. Internet-based research on sexual behavior has many advantages in rapidity of recruitment of diverse samples which include individuals unreachable through conventional methods (i.e., non-gay identified and geographically and socially isolated MSM, etc.). Internet-based research also presents some new methodologic challenges in study design, participant recruitment, survey implementation, and interpretation of results. In addition, there are ethical issues unique to online research including difficulties in verifying informed consent, obstacles to surveying minors, and the ability to assure anonymity. This paper presents a review of Internet-based research on sexual behavior in MSM, a general discussion of the methodologic and ethical challenges of Internet-based research, and recommendations for future interdisciplinary research.

  4. No evidence of association between HIV-1 and malaria in populations with low HIV-1 prevalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F Cuadros

    Full Text Available The geographic overlap between HIV-1 and malaria has generated much interest in their potential interactions. A variety of studies have evidenced a complex HIV-malaria interaction within individuals and populations that may have dramatic effects, but the causes and implications of this co-infection at the population level are still unclear. In a previous publication, we showed that the prevalence of malaria caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum is associated with HIV infection in eastern sub-Saharan Africa. To complement our knowledge of the HIV-malaria co-infection, the objective of this work was to assess the relationship between malaria and HIV prevalence in the western region of sub-Saharan Africa.Population-based cross-sectional data were obtained from the HIV/AIDS Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Liberia and Cameroon, and the malaria atlas project. Using generalized linear mixed models, we assessed the relationship between HIV-1 and Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR adjusting for important socio-economic and biological cofactors. We found no evidence that individuals living in areas with stable malaria transmission (PfPR>0.46 have higher odds of being HIV-positive than individuals who live in areas with PfPR≤0.46 in western sub-Saharan Africa (estimated odds ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 0.86-1.50. In contrast, the results suggested that PfPR was associated with being infected with HIV in Cameroon (estimated odds ratio 1.56, 95% confidence interval 1.23-2.00.Contrary to our previous research on eastern sub-Saharan Africa, this study did not identify an association between PfPR and infection with HIV in western sub-Saharan Africa, which suggests that malaria might not play an important role in the spread of HIV in populations where the HIV prevalence is low. Our work highlights the importance of understanding the epidemiologic effect of co-infection and the relevant

  5. Impairments of Motor Function While Multitasking in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronemer, Sharif I; Mandel, Jordan A; Sacktor, Ned C; Marvel, Cherie L

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) became a treatable illness with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). As a result, patients with regular access to CART are expected to live decades with HIV. Long-term HIV infection presents unique challenges, including neurocognitive impairments defined by three major stages of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The current investigation aimed to study cognitive and motor impairments in HIV using a novel multitasking paradigm. Unlike current standard measures of cognitive and motor performance in HIV, multitasking increases real-world validity by mimicking the dual motor and cognitive demands that are part of daily professional and personal settings (e.g., driving, typing and writing). Moreover, multitask assessments can unmask compensatory mechanisms, normally used under single task conditions, to maintain performance. This investigation revealed that HIV+ participants were impaired on the motor component of the multitask, while cognitive performance was spared. A patient-specific positive interaction between motor performance and working memory recall was driven by poor HIV+ multitaskers. Surprisingly, HAND stage did not correspond with multitask performance and a variety of commonly used assessments indicated normal motor function among HIV+ participants with poor motor performance during the experimental task. These results support the use of multitasks to reveal otherwise hidden impairment in chronic HIV by expanding the sensitivity of clinical assessments used to determine HAND stage. Future studies should examine the capability of multitasks to predict performance in personal, professional and health-related behaviors and prognosis of patients living with chronic HIV.

  6. Impairments of Motor Function While Multitasking in HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie L. Marvel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV became a treatable illness with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART. As a result, patients with regular access to CART are expected to live decades with HIV. Long-term HIV infection presents unique challenges, including neurocognitive impairments defined by three major stages of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. The current investigation aimed to study cognitive and motor impairments in HIV using a novel multitasking paradigm. Unlike current standard measures of cognitive and motor performance in HIV, multitasking increases real-world validity by mimicking the dual motor and cognitive demands that are part of daily professional and personal settings (e.g., driving, typing and writing. Moreover, multitask assessments can unmask compensatory mechanisms, normally used under single task conditions, to maintain performance. This investigation revealed that HIV+ participants were impaired on the motor component of the multitask, while cognitive performance was spared. A patient-specific positive interaction between motor performance and working memory recall was driven by poor HIV+ multitaskers. Surprisingly, HAND stage did not correspond with multitask performance and a variety of commonly used assessments indicated normal motor function among HIV+ participants with poor motor performance during the experimental task. These results support the use of multitasks to reveal otherwise hidden impairment in chronic HIV by expanding the sensitivity of clinical assessments used to determine HAND stage. Future studies should examine the capability of multitasks to predict performance in personal, professional and health-related behaviors and prognosis of patients living with chronic HIV.

  7. Risk factors for late-stage HIV disease presentation at initial HIV diagnosis in Durban, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K Drain

    Full Text Available After observing persistently low CD4 counts at initial HIV diagnosis in South Africa, we sought to determine risk factors for late-stage HIV disease presentation among adults.We surveyed adults prior to HIV testing at four outpatient clinics in Durban from August 2010 to November 2011. All HIV-infected adults were offered CD4 testing, and late-stage HIV disease was defined as a CD4 count <100 cells/mm(3. We used multivariate regression models to determine the effects of sex, emotional health, social support, distance from clinic, employment, perceived barriers to receiving healthcare, and foregoing healthcare to use money for food, clothing, or housing ("competing needs to healthcare" on presentation with late-stage HIV disease.Among 3,669 adults screened, 830 were enrolled, newly-diagnosed with HIV and obtained a CD4 result. Among those, 279 (33.6% presented with late-stage HIV disease. In multivariate analyses, participants who lived ≥5 kilometers from the test site [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 2.8, 95% CI 1.7-4.7], reported competing needs to healthcare (AOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4, were male (AOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3, worked outside the home (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1, perceived health service delivery barriers (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1, and/or had poor emotional health (AOR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9 had higher odds of late-stage HIV disease presentation.Independent risk factors for late-stage HIV disease presentation were from diverse domains, including geographic, economic, demographic, social, and psychosocial. These findings can inform various interventions, such as mobile testing or financial assistance, to reduce the risk of presentation with late-stage HIV disease.

  8. Geographical Overlapping of Obesity, Heart Disease, and Type 2 Diabetes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast features Kayla Smurthwaite, an undergraduate student at Australian National University in Canberra, Australia, and one of the winners of PCD's 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Kayla answers questions about her winning research and what impact her study has on chronic disease prevention and public health.

  9. Geographical Overlapping of Obesity, Heart Disease, and Type 2 Diabetes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-09

    This podcast features Kayla Smurthwaite, an undergraduate student at Australian National University in Canberra, Australia, and one of the winners of PCD’s 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Kayla answers questions about her winning research and what impact her study has on chronic disease prevention and public health.  Created: 10/9/2017 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/9/2017.

  10. Types of Crude Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The petroleum industry often classifies these types by geographical source, but the classification scheme here is more useful in a spill cleanup scenario. It indicates general toxicity, physical state, and changes caused by time and weathering.

  11. Representations built from a true geographic database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars

    2005-01-01

    the whole world in 3d and with a spatial reference given by geographic coordinates. Built on top of this is a customised viewer, based on the Xith(Java) scenegraph. The viewer reads the objects directly from the database and solves the question about Level-Of-Detail on buildings, orientation in relation...... a representation based on geographic and geospatial principles. The system GRIFINOR, developed at 3DGI, Aalborg University, DK, is capable of creating this object-orientation and furthermore does this on top of a true Geographic database. A true Geographic database can be characterized as a database that can cover...

  12. The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System (OGIRS) is a highly interactive data entry, storage, manipulation, and display software system for use with geographically referenced data. Although originally developed for a project concerned with coal strip mine reclamation, OGIRS is capable of handling any geographically referenced data for a variety of natural resource management applications. A special effort has been made to integrate remotely sensed data into the information system. The timeliness and synoptic coverage of satellite data are particularly useful attributes for inclusion into the geographic information system.

  13. Expanding HIV testing efforts in concentrated epidemic settings: a population-based survey from rural Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Pharris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To improve HIV prevention and care programs, it is important to understand the uptake of HIV testing and to identify population segments in need of increased HIV testing. This is particularly crucial in countries with concentrated HIV epidemics, where HIV prevalence continues to rise in the general population. This study analyzes determinants of HIV testing in a rural Vietnamese population in order to identify potential access barriers and areas for promoting HIV testing services. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional survey of 1874 randomly sampled adults was linked to pregnancy, migration and economic cohort data from a demographic surveillance site (DSS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine which factors were associated with having tested for HIV. RESULTS: The age-adjusted prevalence of ever-testing for HIV was 7.6%; however 79% of those who reported feeling at-risk of contracting HIV had never tested. In multivariate analysis, younger age (aOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.14-3.01, higher economic status (aOR 3.4, 95% CI 2.21-5.22, and semi-urban residence (aOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.53-3.66 were associated with having been tested for HIV. HIV testing rates did not differ between women of reproductive age who had recently been pregnant and those who had not. CONCLUSIONS: We found low testing uptake (6% among pregnant women despite an existing prevention of mother-to-child HIV testing policy, and lower-than-expected testing among persons who felt that they were at-risk of HIV. Poverty and residence in a more geographically remote location were associated with less HIV testing. In addition to current HIV testing strategies focusing on high-risk groups, we recommend targeting HIV testing in concentrated HIV epidemic settings to focus on a scaled-up provision of antenatal testing. Additional recommendations include removing financial and geographic access barriers to client-initiated testing, and encouraging provider

  14. Expanding HIV testing efforts in concentrated epidemic settings: a population-based survey from rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharris, Anastasia; Nguyen, Thi Kim Chuc; Tishelman, Carol; Brugha, Ruairí; Nguyen, Phuong Hoa; Thorson, Anna

    2011-01-11

    To improve HIV prevention and care programs, it is important to understand the uptake of HIV testing and to identify population segments in need of increased HIV testing. This is particularly crucial in countries with concentrated HIV epidemics, where HIV prevalence continues to rise in the general population. This study analyzes determinants of HIV testing in a rural Vietnamese population in order to identify potential access barriers and areas for promoting HIV testing services. A population-based cross-sectional survey of 1874 randomly sampled adults was linked to pregnancy, migration and economic cohort data from a demographic surveillance site (DSS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine which factors were associated with having tested for HIV. The age-adjusted prevalence of ever-testing for HIV was 7.6%; however 79% of those who reported feeling at-risk of contracting HIV had never tested. In multivariate analysis, younger age (aOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.14-3.01), higher economic status (aOR 3.4, 95% CI 2.21-5.22), and semi-urban residence (aOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.53-3.66) were associated with having been tested for HIV. HIV testing rates did not differ between women of reproductive age who had recently been pregnant and those who had not. We found low testing uptake (6%) among pregnant women despite an existing prevention of mother-to-child HIV testing policy, and lower-than-expected testing among persons who felt that they were at-risk of HIV. Poverty and residence in a more geographically remote location were associated with less HIV testing. In addition to current HIV testing strategies focusing on high-risk groups, we recommend targeting HIV testing in concentrated HIV epidemic settings to focus on a scaled-up provision of antenatal testing. Additional recommendations include removing financial and geographic access barriers to client-initiated testing, and encouraging provider-initiated testing of those who believe that they are at-risk of

  15. Pregnancy, contraceptive use, and HIV acquisition in HPTN 039: relevance for HIV prevention trials among African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Stewart E; Dai, James Y; Wang, Jing; Sichalwe, Bupe N; Akpomiemie, Godspower; Cowan, Frances M; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Baeten, Jared M; Hughes, James P; Wald, Anna; Celum, Connie

    2010-04-01

    Biomedical HIV prevention trials enroll sexually active women at risk of HIV and often discontinue study product during pregnancy. We assessed risk factors for pregnancy and HIV acquisition, and the effect of pregnancy on time off study drug in HIV Prevention Trials Network 039. A total of 1358 HIV negative, herpes simplex virus type 2-seropositive women from South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were enrolled and followed for up to 18 months. A total of 228 pregnancies occurred; time off study drug due to pregnancy accounted for 4% of woman-years of follow-up among women. Being pregnant was not associated with increased HIV risk (hazard ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.23-1.80, P = 0.40). However, younger age was associated with increased risk for both pregnancy and HIV. There was no association between condom use as a sole contraceptive and reduced pregnancy incidence; hormonal contraception was not associated with increased HIV risk. Bacterial vaginosis at study entry was associated with increased HIV risk (hazard ratio 2.03, P = 0.02). Pregnancy resulted in only a small amount of woman-time off study drug. Young women are at high risk for HIV and are an appropriate population for HIV prevention trials but also have higher risk of pregnancy. Condom use was not associated with reduced incidence of pregnancy.

  16. CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wasileva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geography includes rich, diverse and comprehensive themes that give us an understanding of our changing environment and interconnected world. It includes the study of the physical environment and resources; cultures, economies and societies; people and places; and global development and civic participation. As a subject, geography is particularly valuable because it provides information for exploring contemporary issues from a different perspective. This geographical information affects us all at work and in our daily lives and helps us make informed decisions that shape our future. All these facts result in a wide discussion on many topical issues in contemporary geography didactics. Subjects of research are the new geography and economics curriculum as well as construction of modern learning process. The paper presents briefly some of the current trends and key issues of geodidactics. As central notions we consider and analyze the training/educational goals, geography curriculum, target groups and environment of geography training, training methods as well as the information sources used in geography education. We adhere that all the above-mentioned finds its reflection in planning, analysis and assessment of education and thus in its quality and effectiveness.

  17. Digital gaming for HIV prevention with young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enah, Comfort; Moneyham, Linda; Vance, David E; Childs, Gwendolyn

    2013-01-01

    The search for intervention strategies appropriate for young adolescents has recently led to the use of digital games. Digital gaming interventions are promising because they may be developmentally appropriate for adolescent populations. The gaming approach also capitalizes on an inherent interest to adolescents and circumvents traditional barriers to access to prevention interventions faced in some geographical areas. Notwithstanding, research on gaming in HIV prevention is quite limited. In this review article, we examine the need for contextually relevant HIV prevention interventions among young adolescents. From this, we provide a theoretical framework for exploring contextually relevant HIV risk factors and a foundation for gathering and using input from the target population to adapt an existing game or to create a developmentally appropriate and contextually relevant HIV prevention game. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Trends in HIV & syphilis prevalence and correlates of HIV infection: results from cross-sectional surveys among women attending ante-natal clinics in Northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumogola Yusufu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sentinel surveillance for HIV in ante-natal clinics (ANC remains the primary method for collecting timely trend data on HIV prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa. We describe prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection and trends over time in HIV prevalence among women attending ante-natal clinics (ANC in Magu district and Mwanza city, part of Mwanza region in Northern Tanzania. HIV prevalence from ANC surveys in 2000 and 2002 was 10.5% and 10.8% respectively. In previous rounds urban residence, residential mobility, the length of time sexually active before marriage, time since marriage and age of the partner were associated with HIV infection. Methods A third round of HIV sentinel surveillance was conducted at ante-natal clinics in Mwanza region, Tanzania during 2006. We interviewed women attending 27 ante-natal clinics. In 15 clinics we also anonymously tested women for syphilis and HIV infection and linked these results to the questionnaire data. Results HIV prevalence was 7.6% overall in 2006 and 7.4% at the 11 clinics used in previous rounds. Geographical variations in HIV prevalence, apparent in previous rounds, have largely disappeared but syphilis prevalence is still higher in rural clinics. HIV prevalence has declined in urban clinics and is stable in rural clinics. The correlates of HIV infection have changed over time. In this round older age, lower gravidity, remarriage, duration of marriage, sexual activity before marriage, long interval between last birth and pregnancy and child death were all associated with infection. Conclusions HIV prevalence trends concur with results from a community-based cohort in the region. Correlates of HIV infection have also changed and more proximate, individual level factors are now more important, in line with the changing epidemiology of infection in this population.

  19. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity...

  20. Evaluating the accuracy and effectiveness of criminal geographic profiling methods: The case of Dandora, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mburu, L; Helbich, M

    2015-01-01

    Criminal geographic profiling (CGP) prioritizes offender search, extensively reducing the resources expended in criminal investigations. The utility of CGP has, however, remained unclear when variations in environmental characteristics and offense type are introduced. This study evaluates several

  1. Safety and immunogenicity of a live recombinant canarypox virus expressing HIV type 1 gp120 MN MN tm/gag/protease LAI (ALVAC-HIV, vCP205) followed by a p24E-V3 MN synthetic peptide (CLTB-36) administered in healthy volunteers at low risk for HIV infection. AGIS Group and L'Agence Nationale de Recherches sur Le Sida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon-Céron, D; Excler, J L; Finkielsztejn, L; Autran, B; Gluckman, J C; Sicard, D; Matthews, T J; Meignier, B; Valentin, C; El Habib, R; Blondeau, C; Raux, M; Moog, C; Tartaglia, J; Chong, P; Klein, M; Milcamps, B; Heshmati, F; Plotkin, S

    1999-05-01

    A live recombinant canarypox vector expressing HIV-1 gpl20 MN tm/gag/protease LAI (ALVAC-HIV, vCP205) alone or boosted by a p24E-V3 MN synthetic peptide (CLTB-36) was tested in healthy volunteers at low risk for HIV infection for their safety and immunogenicity. Both antigens were well tolerated. ALVAC-HIV (vCP205) induced low levels of neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 MN in 33% of the volunteers. None of them had detectable neutralizing antibodies against a nonsyncytium-inducing HIV-1 clade B primary isolate (Bx08). After the fourth injection of vCP205, CTL activity was detected in 33% of the volunteers and was directed against Env, Gag, and Pol. This activity was mediated by both CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. On the other hand, the CLTB-36 peptide was poorly immunogenic and induced no neutralizing antibodies or CTLs. Although the ALVAC-HIV (vCP205) and CLTB-36 prime-boost regimen was not optimal, further studies with ALVAC-HIV (vCP205) are warranted because of its clear induction of a cellular immune response and utility as a priming agent for other subunit antigens such as envelope glycoproteins, pseudoparticles, or new peptides.

  2. Geographical National Condition and Complex System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jiayao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of studying the complex system of geographical national conditions lies in rationally expressing the complex relationships of the “resources-environment-ecology-economy-society” system. Aiming to the problems faced by the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions, including the disunity of research contents, the inconsistency of range, the uncertainty of goals, etc.the present paper conducted a range of discussions from the perspectives of concept, theory and method, and designed some solutions based on the complex system theory and coordination degree analysis methods.By analyzing the concepts of geographical national conditions, geographical national conditions survey and geographical national conditions statistical analysis, as well as investigating the relationships between theirs, the statistical contents and the analytical range of geographical national conditions are clarified and defined. This investigation also clarifies the goals of the statistical analysis by analyzing the basic characteristics of the geographical national conditions and the complex system, and the consistency between the analysis of the degree of coordination and statistical analyses. It outlines their goals, proposes a concept for the complex system of geographical national conditions, and it describes the concept. The complex system theory provides new theoretical guidance for the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions. The degree of coordination offers new approaches on how to undertake the analysis based on the measurement method and decision-making analysis scheme upon which the complex system of geographical national conditions is based. It analyzes the overall trend via the degree of coordination of the complex system on a macro level, and it determines the direction of remediation on a micro level based on the degree of coordination among various subsystems and of single systems. These results establish

  3. The emergence of HIV/AIDS in the Americas and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Rambaut, Andrew; Wlasiuk, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    HIV-1 group M subtype B was the first HIV discovered and is the predominant variant of AIDS virus in most countries outside of sub-Saharan Africa. However, the circumstances of its origin and emergence remain unresolved. Here we propose a geographic sequence and time line for the origin of subtype...... B and the emergence of pandemic HIV/AIDS out of Africa. Using HIV-1 gene sequences recovered from archival samples from some of the earliest known Haitian AIDS patients, we find that subtype B likely moved from Africa to Haiti in or around 1966 (1962-1970) and then spread there for some years before...... HIV/AIDS epidemic outside sub-Saharan Africa and the most genetically diverse subtype B epidemic, which might present challenges for HIV-1 vaccine design and testing. The emergence of the pandemic variant of subtype B was an important turning point in the history of AIDS, but its spread was likely...

  4. Use of non-antiretroviral drugs among individuals with and without HIV-infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line D; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S

    2017-01-01

    AIM: We investigated the use of non-antiretroviral drugs in the HIV-infected compared to the general population. METHODS: From the Danish HIV Cohort Study, we identified all HIV-infected individuals older than 18 years at HIV diagnosis who received care in Denmark through 1995-2013 and reported...... no injection drug abuse or hepatitis C infection. Population controls were identified from The Danish Civil Registration System and matched on age and gender (5:1). We analyzed the proportion of individuals who redeemed 0-1, 2-4, 5-9, or 10 or more non-antiretroviral drugs. Data were analyzed according...... to calendar time, age, time from initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and stratified by gender, geographical origin and route of HIV transmission. We further analyzed the use of the 25 most used non-antiretroviral drug classes. RESULTS: We identified 4,928 HIV-infected individuals (median...

  5. Alcohol Enhances HIV Infection of Cord Blood Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios S.; Wang, Xu; Dai, Min; Li, Jieliang; Wang, Yizhong; Zhou, Yu; Sakarcan, Selin; Peña, Juliet Crystal; Ho, Wenzhe

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption or alcohol abuse is common among pregnant HIV+ women and has been identified as a potential behavioral risk factor for the transmission of HIV. In this study, we examined the impact of alcohol on HIV infection of cord blood monocyte-derived macrophages (CBMDM). We demonstrated that alcohol treatment of CBMDM significantly enhanced HIV infection of CBMDM. Investigation of the mechanisms of alcohol action on HIV demonstrated that alcohol inhibited the expression of several HIV restriction factors, including anti-HIV microRNAs, APOBEC3G and APOBEC3H. Additionally, alcohol also suppressed the expression of IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), an intracellular sensor of viral infection. The suppression of these IFN regulatory factors was associated with reduced expression of type I IFN. These experimental findings suggest that maternal alcohol consumption may facilitate HIV infection, promoting vertical transmission of HIV. PMID:25053361

  6. The geographical mobility of recently graduated medical doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Ina; Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Petersen, Karin Dam

    specialize to become general practitioners (GPs). Access to medical services is included among the services important for ensuring the basics in a welfare society. The analysis is limited to general practitioners (GPs), although access to other types of medical professionals is also an important aspect......University graduates are not evenly distributed geographically, and attraction and retention of university graduates is high on the agenda in many regional development strategies. In this paper we study the geographical mobility of a particular type of university graduates: medical doctors who...... of local access to medical services. We have chosen GPs because they – except in cases of emergency – are the main entrance to medical services in Denmark. We study how different factors may influence where GPs choose to set up medical practice. We pay particular attention to the importance of local...

  7. Molecular analysis of critical sequences within the EBNA-2 type 1 gene from Epstein-Barr virus isolates from patients with infectious mononucleosis, tonsillar hyperplasia, and HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Homsi, A. S.; Berger, C.; van Baarle, D.; Kersten, M. J.; Klein, M. R.; McQuain, C.; van Oers, R.; Knecht, H.

    1998-01-01

    EBNA-2 is the first protein to be detected after infection of primary B lymphocytes by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and plays an essential role as transcriptional activator in EBV-induced lymphocyte transformation. We analysed by PCR and sequencing regions of the EBNA-2 type 1 gene from isolates from 13

  8. What drives the number of high-risk human papillomavirus types in the anal canal in HIV-positive men who have sex with men?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    del Amo, Julia; González, Cristina; Geskus, Ronald B.; Torres, Montse; del Romero, Jorge; Viciana, Pompeyo; Masiá, Mar; Blanco, Jose R.; Hernández-Novoa, Beatriz; Ortiz, Marta; Peña, Alejandro; García, Federico; Torres, Montserrat; Ocampo, Antonio; Da Silva, Alfredo Rodríguez; Miralles, Celia; Mauricio Iribarren, Gustavo; Madrid, Nadia; Dronda, Fernando; Benito, Amparo; Sanz, Itziar; Vera, Mar; Rodríguez, Carmen; Martín Alegre, Carmen; Carlos Carrió, Juan; Raposo, Montse; Trastoy, Mónica; Fontillón, Maria; Robledano, Catalina; Gutierrez, Félix; Padilla, Sergio; Andrada, Encarna; Cervero, Miguel; Ramón Blanco, José; Pérez, Laura; Portilla, Joaquín; Portilla, Irene; Angel Vonwichmann, Miguel; Antonio Iribarren, José; Camino, Xabier; Sendagorta, Elena; Herranz, Pedro; Rodríguez, Patricia; Luis Gómez, Juan; Rosado, Dacil; Alejos, Belén; Angeles Rodríguez, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the effect of sexual behavior, age, and immunodeficiency on the number of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) types in the anal canal among human immunodeficiency virus-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Anal samples were genotyped with the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test,

  9. Enterocytozoon bieneusi Identification Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism in HIV-Infected Humans from Kinshasa Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wumba, Roger; Jean, Menotti; Benjamin, Longo-Mbenza; Madone, Mandina; Fabien, Kintoki; Josué, Zanga; Jean, Sala; Eric, Kendjo; AC, Guillo-Olczyk; Marc, Thellier

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and the genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in stool specimens from HIV patients. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Kinshasa hospitals between 2009 and 2012. Detection of microsporidia including E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis was performed in 242 HIV-infected patients. Typing was based on DNA polymorphism of the ribosomal DNA ITS region of E. bieneusi. PCRRFLP generated with two restriction enzymes (Nla III and Fnu 4HI) in PCR-amplified ITS products for classifying strains into different lineages. The diagnosis performance of the indirect immune-fluorescence-monoclonal antibody (IFI-AcM) was defined in comparison with real-time PCR as the gold standard. Results. Out of 242 HIV-infected patients, using the real-time PCR, the prevalence of E. bieneusi was 7.9% (n = 19) among the 19 E. bieneusi, one was coinfected with E. intestinalis. In 19 E. bieneusi persons using PCR-RFLP method, 5 type I strains of E. bieneusi (26.3%) and 5 type IV strains of E. bieneusi (26.3%) were identified. The sensitivity of IFI-AcM was poor as estimated 42.1%. Conclusion. Despite different PCR methods, there is possible association between HIVinfection, geographic location (France, Cameroun, Democratic Republic of Congo), and the concurrence of type I and type IV strains. PMID:22811884

  10. Identification of geographical origin of sesame seeds by near infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y.K.; Cho, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    Geographical origin of the Korean, Chinese and Japanese sesame seeds were identified very high accuracy by NIR spectroscopy. The NIR instrument of filter type showed the same accuracy of the monochromator scanning type to identify the geographical origin of the sesame seeds. in case of adulteration between the Korean and Chinese sesame seeds, the ratio of addition could be determined about 10% error level. The reason of identification of geographical origin by NIR spectroscopy, it was supposed to the difference of oil cake substance

  11. 25 CFR 571.10 - Geographical location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Geographical location. 571.10 Section 571.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Subpoenas and Depositions § 571.10 Geographical location. The attendance of...

  12. The evolution of cooperation on geographical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixiao; Wang, Yi; Sheng, Jichuan

    2017-11-01

    We study evolutionary public goods game on geographical networks, i.e., complex networks which are located on a geographical plane. The geographical feature effects in two ways: In one way, the geographically-induced network structure influences the overall evolutionary dynamics, and, in the other way, the geographical length of an edge influences the cost when the two players at the two ends interact. For the latter effect, we design a new cost function of cooperators, which simply assumes that the longer the distance between two players, the higher cost the cooperator(s) of them have to pay. In this study, network substrates are generated by a previous spatial network model with a cost-benefit parameter controlling the network topology. Our simulations show that the greatest promotion of cooperation is achieved in the intermediate regime of the parameter, in which empirical estimates of various railway networks fall. Further, we investigate how the distribution of edges' geographical costs influences the evolutionary dynamics and consider three patterns of the distribution: an approximately-equal distribution, a diverse distribution, and a polarized distribution. For normal geographical networks which are generated using intermediate values of the cost-benefit parameter, a diverse distribution hinders the evolution of cooperation, whereas a polarized distribution lowers the threshold value of the amplification factor for cooperation in public goods game. These results are helpful for understanding the evolution of cooperation on real-world geographical networks.

  13. Hierarchical spatial organization of geographical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travencolo, Bruno A N; Costa, Luciano da F

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we propose a hierarchical extension of the polygonality index as the means to characterize geographical planar networks. By considering successive neighborhoods around each node, it is possible to obtain more complete information about the spatial order of the network at progressive spatial scales. The potential of the methodology is illustrated with respect to synthetic and real geographical networks

  14. Future Prospects for Geographical Education in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnic Planinc, Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with future prospects for geographical education in Slovenia, with special emphasis on the development and aims of the didactics of geography. The author discusses the past development of geographical curricula and of competencies of geography teachers, and the education of future teachers of the subject in Slovenia. Her ideas are…

  15. Socioeconomic Development Inequalities among Geographic Units ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic development inequality among geographic units is a phenomenon common in both the developed and developing countries. Regional inequality may result in dissension among geographic units of the same state due to the imbalance in socio-economic development. This study examines the inequality ...

  16. Acyclovir and Transmission of HIV-1 from Persons Infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celum, Connie; Wald, Anna; Lingappa, Jairam R.; Magaret, Amalia S.; Wang, Richard S.; Mugo, Nelly; Mujugira, Andrew; Baeten, Jared M.; Mullins, James I.; Hughes, James P.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Craig R.; Katabira, Elly; Ronald, Allan; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey; Stewart, Grace John; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Myron; Were, Edwin; Fife, Kenneth H.; de Bruyn, Guy; Gray, Glenda E.; McIntyre, James A.; Manongi, Rachel; Kapiga, Saidi; Coetzee, David; Allen, Susan; Inambao, Mubiana; Kayitenkore, Kayitesi; Karita, Etienne; Kanweka, William; Delany, Sinead; Rees, Helen; Vwalika, Bellington; Stevens, Wendy; Campbell, Mary S.; Thomas, Katherine K.; Coombs, Robert W.; Morrow, Rhoda; Whittington, William L.H.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Barnes, Linda; Ridzon, Renee; Corey, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels, suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1. METHODS We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of suppressive therapy for HSV-2 (acyclovir at a dose of 400 mg orally twice daily) in couples in which only one of the partners was seropositive for HIV-1 (CD4 count, ≥250 cells per cubic millimeter) and that partner was also infected with HSV-2 and was not taking antiretroviral therapy at the time of enrollment. The primary end point was transmission of HIV-1 to the partner who was not initially infected with HIV-1; linkage of transmissions was assessed by means of genetic sequencing of viruses. RESULTS A total of 3408 couples were enrolled at 14 sites in Africa. Of the partners who were infected with HIV-1, 68% were women, and the baseline median CD4 count was 462 cells per cubic millimeter. Of 132 HIV-1 seroconversions that occurred after randomization (an incidence of 2.7 per 100 person-years), 84 were linked within couples by viral sequencing: 41 in the acyclovir group and 43 in the placebo group (hazard ratio with acyclovir, 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 to 1.41; P = 0.69). Suppression with acyclovir reduced the mean plasma concentration of HIV-1 by 0.25 log10 copies per milliliter (95% CI, 0.22 to 0.29; P<0.001) and the occurrence of HSV-2–positive genital ulcers by 73% (risk ratio, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.36; P<0.001). A total of 92% of the partners infected with HIV-1 and 84% of the partners not infected with HIV-1 remained in the study for 24 months. The level of adherence to the dispensed study drug was 96%. No serious adverse events related to acyclovir

  17. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Q M; Nguyen, H L; Do, T N; Nguyen, V N; Nguyen, B H; Nguyen, T V A; Sintchenko, V; Marais, B J

    2016-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are leading causes of disease and death in Vietnam, but TB/HIV disease trends and the profile of co-infected patients are poorly described. We examined national TB and HIV notification data to provide a geographic overview and describe relevant disease trends within Vietnam. We also compared the demographic and clinical profiles of TB patients with and without HIV infection. During the past 10 years (2005-2014) cumulative HIV case numbers and deaths increased to 298,151 and 71,332 respectively, but access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) improved and new infections and deaths declined. From 2011-2014 routine HIV testing of TB patients increased from 58.9% to 72.5% and of all TB patients diagnosed with HIV in 2014, 2,803 (72.4%) received ART. The number of multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB cases enrolled for treatment increased almost 3-fold (578 to 1,532) from 2011-2014. The rate of HIV co-infection in MDR and non-MDR TB cases (51/1,532; 3.3% vs 3,774/100,555; 3.8%; OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.7-1.2) was similar in 2014. The care of TB/HIV co-infected patients have shown sustained improvement in Vietnam. Rising numbers of MDR-TB cases is a concern, but this is not "driven" by HIV co-infection. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. [HIV infection and associated factors in HIV-antibody positive clients of female sex workers recently reported in Shaanxi province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, T; Chang, W H; Zhang, M Y

    2017-03-10

    Objective: To investigate the current status of HIV infection and the related factors in HIV antibody positive clients of female sex workers (FSWs) recently reported in Shaanxi province. Methods: The HIV/AIDS cases newly diagnosed in males living in Shaanxi from January 1th of 2013 to June 30th of 2014 were selected and those infected through " commercial heterosexual behavior" were identified. The information about their demographic characteristics, previous unprotected heterosexual sex and the sample sources were collected, and serum or plasma samples were collected from them and tested with BED-CEIA. The proportion of recent HIV infections and associated factors were investigated. Results: The proportion of recent HIV infection and HIV-antibody detection rate in 212 HIV antibody positive male clients of FSWs were 25.5% and 6.6% respectively. The cases who had the educational level of junior middle school or high middle school were wore likely to have long term HIV infections than those with lower educational level (a OR =0.28, 95 % CI : 0.08-0.93). Compared with patients identified by hospitals or sexually transmitted diseases clinics, recent HIV infections were more likely to be found through preoperative test or blood transfusion test (a OR =3.14, 95 % CI : 1.06-9.30) and blood donation test (a OR =4.19, 95 % CI :1.01-17.42). Compared with the cases who had commercial sex only in Xi' an or other province or both in Xi' an and other province, the cases who had commercial sex in other cities in Shaanxi were more likely to be infected recently (a OR =0.19, 95 %CI : 0.07-0.57). Compared with the cases had temporary heterosexual sex partner, those who had no temporary sex partners were more likely to be infected recently (a OR =9.03, 95 % CI : 3.00-27.18) ( P HIV infections among HIV antibody positive clients of FSWs was high and the HIV-antibody detection rate among them was low. The educational level, sample source, geographic area and temporary heterosexual

  19. Langerhans Cells: the 'Yin and Yang' of HIV Restriction and Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Luzia; Su, Bin; Moog, Christiane

    2017-03-01

    Langerhans cells are specialized sentinels present in the epidermis expressing Langerin, a specific C-type lectin receptor involved in HIV capture and destruction. Recently, the specific mechanism leading to this HIV restriction was discovered. Nevertheless, Langerhans cells can be infected and the way HIV escapes this restriction needs to be unraveled. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Online resources for persons recently diagnosed with HIV/AIDS: an analysis of HIV-related webpages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith J; Harwood, Eileen M; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; McFarlane, Mary; Fisher, Holly; Dickenson, Tina; Kachur, Rachel; Rosser, B R Simon; O'Leary, Ann

    2010-07-01

    The Internet is a major source of HIV-related information and resources for persons recently diagnosed with HIV/AIDS (PRDHA). This study examined the types of HIV-related websites that appear as a result of HIV-related keyword searches and the extent to which website information targets PRDHA. The first page of HIV-related webpages from 18 keyword searches was coded. Among 137 webpages meeting inclusion criteria, 63% represented HIV-informational websites, 31% targeted HIV-positive individuals, and over half contained or provided access to HIV prevention, treatment, and transmission information. Thirty-three percent of webpages contained or provided access to PRDHA-targeted information, with a greater percentage of those webpages having mobile, non-English, and "Ask the Expert" features compared with non-PRDHA targeted webpages. Implications for PRDHA include the following: (1) they should explore HIV-related websites to gain insight into the credibility of the information contained on those sites; (2) PRDHA must be aware that HIV-related websites have the potential to elicit dated, emotionally distressing, or irrelevant information; and (3) to obtain information that relates to their demographic and situational profile, they may wish to use specific key terms (e.g., "HIV women") rather than attempting to navigate webpages that arise from general search terms (e.g., "HIV"). Recommendations for future development of online resources for PRDHA include providing HIV-relevant information in a stepwise fashion, providing demographically targeted HIV information, and greater utilization of mobile technology.

  1. Composing Models of Geographic Physical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Barbara; Frank, Andrew U.

    Processes are central for geographic information science; yet geographic information systems (GIS) lack capabilities to represent process related information. A prerequisite to including processes in GIS software is a general method to describe geographic processes independently of application disciplines. This paper presents such a method, namely a process description language. The vocabulary of the process description language is derived formally from mathematical models. Physical processes in geography can be described in two equivalent languages: partial differential equations or partial difference equations, where the latter can be shown graphically and used as a method for application specialists to enter their process models. The vocabulary of the process description language comprises components for describing the general behavior of prototypical geographic physical processes. These process components can be composed by basic models of geographic physical processes, which is shown by means of an example.

  2. Factors associated with mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 despite a maternal viral load EPF-ANRS CO1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, Roland; Le Chenadec, Jerome; Rouzioux, Christine; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Hamrene, Karima; Dollfus, Catherine; Faye, Albert; Delaugerre, Constance; Blanche, Stephane; Warszawski, Josiane

    2010-02-15

    The rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 is as low as 0.5% in non-breast-feeding mothers who delivered at term while receiving antiretroviral therapy with a plasma viral load <500 copies/mL. This situation accounted for 20% of the infected children born during the period 1997-2006 in the French Perinatal Cohort. We aimed to identify factors associated with such residual transmission risk. We performed a case-control study nested in the aforementioned subpopulation of the French Perinatal Cohort. Nineteen case patients (transmitters) and 60 control subjects (nontransmitters) were included. Case patients and control subjects did not differ by geographical origin, gestational age at HIV diagnosis, type of antiretroviral therapy received, or elective Cesarean delivery. Case patients were less often receiving treatment at the time that they conceived pregnancy than control subjects (16% vs 45%; P=.017). A lower proportion of case patients had a viral load <500 copies/mL, compared with control subjects, at 14 weeks (0% vs 38.1%; P=.02), 28 weeks (7.7% vs 62.1%; P=.005), and 32 weeks: (21.4% vs 71.1%; P=.004). The difference remained significant when we restricted analysis to the 10 of 16 intrapartum transmission cases. In a multivariate analysis at 30+/-4 weeks adjusted for viral load, CD4(+) T cell count, and time at antiretroviral therapy initiation, viral load was the only factor independently associated with MTCT of HIV (adjusted odds ratio, 23.2; 95% confidence interval, 3.5-553; P<.001). Early and sustained control of viral load is associated with a decreasing residual risk of MTCT of HIV-1. Guidelines should take into account not only CD4(+) T cell count and risk of preterm delivery, but also baseline HIV-1 load for deciding when to start antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy.

  3. HIV and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis C Last Reviewed: July 25, 2017 ...

  4. HIV/AIDS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Partner Spotlight Awareness Days Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  5. HIV and Tuberculosis (TB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) Last Reviewed: June 14, 2018 ...

  6. HIV and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis B Last Reviewed: July 24, 2017 ...

  7. Thrombocytopenia in HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-06-15

    infected community and can severely hamper thrombopoietin production, due to liver damage. HIV and platelets. Thrombocytopenia in HIV was first described in 1982. The prevalence is more or less 40%, depending on which ...

  8. HIV Resistance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 14, 2016 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 126 HIV Resistance Testing WHAT IS RESISTANCE? HOW DOES RESISTANCE ... ARVs. If you miss doses of your medications, HIV will multiply more easily. More mutations will occur. ...

  9. HIV: Treatment and Comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Rokx (Casper)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractClinicians worldwide strive to improve HIV care for their patients. Antiretroviral therapy prevents HIV related mortality and is lifelong. A clinical evaluation of these treatment strategies is necessary to identify strategies that may jeopardize treatment effectiveness and patient

  10. Testing for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability (Biologics) HIV Home Test Kits Testing for HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  11. Pregnancy and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 17, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 611 Pregnancy and HIV HOW DO BABIES GET AIDS? HOW CAN WE ... doses due to nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy, giving HIV a chance to develop resistance The risk of ...

  12. The Effect of Geographic Units of Analysis on Measuring Geographic Variation in Medical Services Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnus M. Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effect of geographic units of analysis on measuring geographic variation in medical services utilization. For this purpose, we compared geographic variations in the rates of eight major procedures in administrative units (districts and new areal units organized based on the actual health care use of the population in Korea. Methods: To compare geographic variation in geographic units of analysis, we calculated the age–sex standardized rates of eight major procedures (coronary artery bypass graft surgery, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, surgery after hip fracture, knee-replacement surgery, caesarean section, hysterectomy, computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging scan from the National Health Insurance database in Korea for the 2013 period. Using the coefficient of variation, the extremal quotient, and the systematic component of variation, we measured geographic variation for these eight procedures in districts and new areal units. Results: Compared with districts, new areal units showed a reduction in geographic variation. Extremal quotients and inter-decile ratios for the eight procedures were lower in new areal units. While the coefficient of variation was lower for most procedures in new areal units, the pattern of change of the systematic component of variation between districts and new areal units differed among procedures. Conclusions: Geographic variation in medical service utilization could vary according to the geographic unit of analysis. To determine how geographic characteristics such as population size and number of geographic units affect geographic variation, further studies are needed.

  13. Fungi identify the geographic origin of dust samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal S Grantham

    Full Text Available There is a long history of archaeologists and forensic scientists using pollen found in a dust sample to identify its geographic origin or history. Such palynological approaches have important limitations as they require time-consuming identification of pollen grains, a priori knowledge of plant species distributions, and a sufficient diversity of pollen types to permit spatial or temporal identification. We demonstrate an alternative approach based on DNA sequencing analyses of the fungal diversity found in dust samples. Using nearly 1,000 dust samples collected from across the continental U.S., our analyses identify up to 40,000 fungal taxa from these samples, many of which exhibit a high degree of geographic endemism. We develop a statistical learning algorithm via discriminant analysis that exploits this geographic endemicity in the fungal diversity to correctly identify samples to within a few hundred kilometers of their geographic origin with high probability. In addition, our statistical approach provides a measure of certainty for each prediction, in contrast with current palynology methods that are almost always based on expert opinion and devoid of statistical inference. Fungal taxa found in dust samples can therefore be used to identify the origin of that dust and, more importantly, we can quantify our degree of certainty that a sample originated in a particular place. This work opens up a new approach to forensic biology that could be used by scientists to identify the origin of dust or soil samples found on objects, clothing, or archaeological artifacts.

  14. Random-growth urban model with geographical fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kii, Masanobu; Akimoto, Keigo; Doi, Kenji

    2012-12-01

    This paper formulates a random-growth urban model with a notion of geographical fitness. Using techniques of complex-network theory, we study our system as a type of preferential-attachment model with fitness, and we analyze its macro behavior to clarify the properties of the city-size distributions it predicts. First, restricting the geographical fitness to take positive values and using a continuum approach, we show that the city-size distributions predicted by our model asymptotically approach Pareto distributions with coefficients greater than unity. Then, allowing the geographical fitness to take negative values, we perform local coefficient analysis to show that the predicted city-size distributions can deviate from Pareto distributions, as is often observed in actual city-size distributions. As a result, the model we propose can generate a generic class of city-size distributions, including but not limited to Pareto distributions. For applications to city-population projections, our simple model requires randomness only when new cities are created, not during their subsequent growth. This property leads to smooth trajectories of city population growth, in contrast to other models using Gibrat’s law. In addition, a discrete form of our dynamical equations can be used to estimate past city populations based on present-day data; this fact allows quantitative assessment of the performance of our model. Further study is needed to determine appropriate formulas for the geographical fitness.

  15. Serious Non-AIDS Conditions in HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens D; Borges, Alvaro H; Neaton, James D

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optimal control of HIV can be achieved by early diagnosis followed by the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Two large randomised trials (TEMPRANO and START) have recently been published documenting the clinical benefits to HIV-positive adults of early ART initiation....... Main findings are reviewed with a focus on serious non-AIDS (SNA) conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Data from the two trials demonstrated that initiating ART early in the course of HIV infection resulted in marked reductions in the risk of opportunistic diseases and invasive bacterial infections....... This indicates that HIV causes immune impairment in early infection that is remedied by controlling viral replication. Intriguingly, in START, a marked reduction in risk of cancers, both infection-related and unrelated types of cancers, was observed. Like the findings for opportunistic infections, this anti...

  16. HIV Genetic Diversity and Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, André F.; Soares, Marcelo A.

    2010-01-01

    Most of the current knowledge on antiretroviral (ARV) drug development and resistance is based on the study of subtype B of HIV-1, which only accounts for 10% of the worldwide HIV infections. Cumulative evidence has emerged that different HIV types, groups and subtypes harbor distinct biological properties, including the response and susceptibility to ARV. Recent laboratory and clinical data highlighting such disparities are summarized in this review. Variations in drug susceptibility, in the emergence and selection of specific drug resistance mutations, in viral replicative capacity and in the dynamics of resistance acquisition under ARV selective pressure are discussed. Clinical responses to ARV therapy and associated confounding factors are also analyzed in the context of infections by distinct HIV genetic variants. PMID:21994646

  17. The HIV Airway

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    dren living with HIV/AIDS. Annual national antenatal surveil- lance shows an HIV prevalence of 26.5% among pregnant women. Anaesthetists are confronted with an increasing number of HIV infected patients, presenting for both emergency and elective sur- gery. They range from having asymptomatic infection to end stage.

  18. HIV Antibody Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 65 in the case of the USPSTF) and pregnant women be screened for HIV at least once. The CDC and American College ... to make sure she is not infected with HIV before getting pregnant may opt to get tested (see Pregnancy: HIV .) ...

  19. The Puzzle of HIV Neutral and Selective Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    HIV is one of the fastest evolving organisms known. It evolves about 1 million times faster than its host, humans. Because HIV establishes chronic infections, with continuous evolution, its divergence within a single infected human surpasses the divergence of the entire humanoid history. Yet, it is still the same virus, infecting the same cell types and using the same replication machinery year after year. Hence, one would think that most mutations that HIV accumulates are neutral. But the picture is more complicated than that. HIV evolution is also a clear example of strong positive selection, that is, mutants have a survival advantage. How do these facts come together?

  20. Host and Viral Factors in HIV-Mediated Bystander Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Himanshu; Joshi, Anjali

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections lead to a progressive loss of CD4 T cells primarily via the process of apoptosis. With a limited number of infected cells and vastly disproportionate apoptosis in HIV infected patients, it is believed that apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells plays a significant role in this process. Disease progression in HIV infected individuals is highly variable suggesting that both host and viral factors may influence HIV mediated apoptosis. Amongst the viral factors, the role of Envelope (Env) glycoprotein in bystander apoptosis is well documented. Recent evidence on the variability in apoptosis induction by primary patient derived Envs underscores the role of Env glycoprotein in HIV disease. Amongst the host factors, the role of C-C Chemokine Receptor type 5 (CCR5), a coreceptor for HIV Env, is also becoming increasingly evident. Polymorphisms in the CCR5 gene and promoter affect CCR5 cell surface expression and correlate with both apoptosis and CD4 loss. Finally, chronic immune activation in HIV infections induces multiple defects in the immune system and has recently been shown to accelerate HIV Env mediated CD4 apoptosis. Consequently, those factors that affect CCR5 expression and/or immune activation in turn indirectly regulate HIV mediated apoptosis making this phenomenon both complex and multifactorial. This review explores the complex role of various host and viral factors in determining HIV mediated bystander apoptosis. PMID:28829402