WorldWideScience

Sample records for geographic distribution ownership

  1. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures Report (GDX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures Report (GDX) located on the Expenditures page in the Expenditure Tables category. This report details VA expenditures at...

  2. 34 CFR 642.33 - Geographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic distribution. 642.33 Section 642.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY... Grant? § 642.33 Geographic distribution. The Secretary, to the greatest extent possible, awards...

  3. 7 CFR 3565.213 - Geographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic distribution. 3565.213 Section 3565.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.213 Geographic distribution....

  4. Execution Management Solutions for Geographically Distributed Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Jansen, H.G.M.; Jansen, R.E.J.; Prins, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Managing the initialization, execution control and monitoring of HLA federates is not always straightforward, especially for a geographically distributed time managed federation. Issues include pre and post run-time data distribution and run-time data collection; starting, stopping and monitoring

  5. ADAPTEITION STRATEGY OF GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF DRAGONFLIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. A. Ketenchyev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some of the adaptive strategy of geographical distribution ofdragonflies. The basis of adaptive traits considered temperature. Together with the humidity is a major abiotic factor. Analysis of the phenomen will determine the strategy of distribution of dragonflies in the horizontal and vertical directions.

  6. The 1983 distribution of hospitals and hospital beds in the RSA by area, race, ownership and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarenstein, M F; Price, M R

    1990-05-05

    This study used published data to analyse the 1983 distribution of hospitals and hospital beds in South Africa by 'race', geographical area, type of hospital (academic, specialist, general or other) and the nature of ownership (e.g. state, for-profit). Hospitals and hospital beds were found to be inequitably distributed. Overall bed ratios were 150 whites per bed compared with 260 blacks/Asians/coloureds per bed. The distribution of beds by geographical area was 130 people per bed for urban whites, 260 for rural whites and 150, 460 and 300 for urban, rural non-'homeland', and 'homeland' blacks/Asians/coloureds respectively. These differentials are inefficient and unjust, and should be regularly documented to spur their decline. The continued collection of population group information from health service users is required to monitor changes in 'race' disparities. The analysis of distribution by ownership and type suggested that only the public sector is able to provide a hospital service with the appropriate balance of all levels of care for the entire population; but within this sector the dominant position of tertiary care needs to be re-examined. The study highlighted the absence of adequate information on health care resource allocation and utillisation. Appropriate studies in these areas are required and consideration should be given to unifying the planning and management of all hospital resources.

  7. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF TROUT FARMING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güven ŞAHİN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is a peninsula, surrounded by seas on three sides, with a total coastline of 8.333km. As a result of its heritage from ancient inland living culture, Turkey has a limited development in fishery production. However, there have been significant efforts in developing Trout Farming, compared to the other aquaculture products in Turkey. The recent developments in trout farming in Turkey have led to an increase in trout productions, providing alternatives for public nutrition. This study aims to assess the geographical distribution of trout farming and trout fish consumption in Turkey.

  8. Modeling a geographically distributed MEMS fabrication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, William L.; Huff, Michael A.

    2001-04-01

    Manufacturing is typically limited to fabrication of parts at a single location, with some sites assembling components from parts made elsewhere. The age of ubiquitous information transfer has made it conceivable to distribute manufacturing geographically, in order to provide access to unique manufacturing capabilities in a flexible manner. If the overhead of a distributed manufacturing network can be adequately reduced, it has the potential to make previously cost ineffective low volume and custom applications economically feasible. The MEMS-Exchange is an infrastructural service available to the domestic microelectromechanical systems community that provides an interface between MEMS designers and microfabrication facilities (academic, commercial, and government labs) which allows designers to develop and exercise custom process sequences in order to realize their devices.

  9. The geographical distribution of Q fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAPLAN, M M; BERTAGNA, P

    1955-01-01

    The results of a WHO-assisted survey of the distribution of Q fever in 32 countries and an analysis of reports published to date indicate that Q fever exists in 51 countries on five continents. Q-fever infection was most often reported in man and the domestic ruminants, such as cattle, sheep, and goats.The disease was found to exist in most countries where investigations were carried out. Notable exceptions were Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, and the Scandinavian countries. With the exception of Poland, where the results were inconclusive, all these countries import relatively few domestic ruminants-the most important animal reservoirs of human Q-fever infection. It seems, therefore, that the traffic of infected ruminants may be one of the most important, if not the most important, means for the geographical spread of Q fever. The importance, if any, of ticks associated with such traffic needs to be defined.

  10. Geographical factors affecting bed net ownership, a tool for the elimination of Anopheles-transmitted lymphatic filariasis in hard-to-reach communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Stanton

    Full Text Available Vector control, including the use of bed nets, is recommended as a possible strategy for eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF in post-conflict countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. This study examined the geographical factors that influence bed net ownership in DRC in order to identify hard-to-reach communities that need to be better targeted. In particular, urban/rural differences and the influence of population density, proximity to cities and health facilities, plus access to major transport networks were investigated. Demographic and Health Survey geo-referenced cluster level data were used to map bed net coverage (proportion of households with at least one of any type of bed net or at least one insecticide-treated net (ITN, and ITN density (ITNs per person for 260 clusters. Bivariate and multiple logistic or Poisson regression analyses were used to determine significant relationships. Overall, bed net (30% and ITN (9% coverage were very low with significant differences found between urban and rural clusters. In rural clusters, ITN coverage/density was positively correlated with population density (r = 0.25, 0.27 respectively, p<0.01, and negatively with the distance to the two largest cities, Kinshasa or Lubumbashi (r = -0.28, -0.30 respectively, p<0.0001. Further, ownership was significantly negatively correlated with distance to primary national roads and railways (all three measures, distance to main rivers (any bed net only and distance to the nearest health facility (ITNs only. Logistic and Poisson regression models fitted to the rural cluster data indicated that, after controlling for measured covariates, ownership levels in the Bas-Congo province close to Kinshasa were much larger than that of other provinces. This was most noticeable when considering ITN coverage (odds ratio: 5.3, 95% CI: 3.67-7.70. This analysis provides key insights into the barriers of bed net ownership, which will help inform both LF

  11. Function Analyses of Geographic Information System on Rural Distribution Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Junlong; FAN Yongcun; ZHANG Chunmei; GU Shumin

    2006-01-01

    With the actuality and characteristic and requirement of rural power enterprise distribution network management, this article introduced the function of geographic information system on the framework of distribution network, in order to develop rural distribution network.

  12. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures Report FY2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures Report (GDX) located on the Expenditures page in the Expenditure Tables category. This report details VA expenditures at...

  13. The geographical distribution of tremellaceous fungi in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Wojewoda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution of the Polish tremellaceous fungi is discussed in this paper. The list of localities and the maps of the distribution of 60 Polish species (45 of Tremellales, 13 of Auriculariales and 2 of Septobasidiales are given. The author distinguishes several geographical elements, and describes the vertical distribution of these fungi. This paper is a supplement to "Fungi (Mycota", vol. 8, Polish Flora (Wojewoda 1977.

  14. Surgeon ownership in medical device distribution: does it actually reduce healthcare costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, John C; Edwards, Charles; Eickmann, Thomas; Carlson, Angela; Blight, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Surgeon ownership in medical device distribution is a new model that proposes to reduce the costs associated with surgical implants. In surgeon-owned distributorships (SDs), the surgeon becomes the purchaser through ownership and management of a distributorship. The purpose of this study is to determine whether significant cost savings can result from SDs. Five existing SDs were retrospectively reviewed, and their implant pricing was compared with non-SDs. The hospital pricing for implants supplied by the SDs was compared with 2010 pricing from the best contract/capitated rate for like implants from non-SDs. The average first-year cost savings for the SDs was 36%, with US$2,456,521 total savings in 2010. For distributorships in business for over 2 years, the average annual price from the SDs actually decreased by 1.41%. This study demonstrates that SDs are capable of providing substantial healthcare savings through lower implant costs and reduced annual price escalations.

  15. Eco-geographic Distribution and Microcenters of Genetic Diversity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eco-geographic Distribution and Microcenters of Genetic Diversity in Faba Bean ... Ethiopia is considered an important center of secondary diversity for both ... the microcenter of genetic diversity for both crops may be located in the southern ...

  16. Comprehensive Monitoring for Heterogeneous Geographically Distributed Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnikova, N. [Fermilab; Karavakis, E. [CERN; Lammel, S. [Fermilab; Wildish, T. [Princeton U.

    2015-12-23

    Storage capacity at CMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 sites reached over 100 Petabytes in 2014, and will be substantially increased during Run 2 data taking. The allocation of storage for the individual users analysis data, which is not accounted as a centrally managed storage space, will be increased to up to 40%. For comprehensive tracking and monitoring of the storage utilization across all participating sites, CMS developed a space monitoring system, which provides a central view of the geographically dispersed heterogeneous storage systems. The first prototype was deployed at pilot sites in summer 2014, and has been substantially reworked since then. In this paper we discuss the functionality and our experience of system deployment and operation on the full CMS scale.

  17. Worldwide geographical distribution of ophthalmology publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Marc B; Flynn, Thomas H; Brady, Janice; O'Brien, Colm J

    2009-12-01

    International peer-reviewed publications form the basis of evidence-based medicine and are one of the main indicators of ophthalmology research activity. This paper examines the origins of such articles in relation to geographical location, population demographics and economic research profiles. Publications from five ophthalmology journals over 5 years were analysed using the Medline/Pubmed search engine. Country of origin was ascertained based on the address of the corresponding author. Worldwide ophthalmology research output was analysed in relation to population demographics and research expenditure. In total, 7,754 articles from 67 countries from 2002 to 2006 were analysed. The overall number of articles published increased by over 29% during this period. The United States (US) produced the greatest number of articles. Singapore produced the most publications per 10(6) population. There was a relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) greater than $20,000 and population-adjusted output. The US followed by the United Kingdom and Japan were the greatest gross contributors. Population-adjusted figures revealed that Singapore, Iceland and Australia were the most prolific nations. There was a relationship between GDP and the top-ranked population-adjusted countries. The top 10 most productive population-adjusted countries spend relatively more on research and development than the top 10 gross contributors.

  18. The Impact of Ownership Unbundling on Cost Efficiency: Empirical Evidence from the New Zealand Electricity Distribution Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Filippini, Massimo; Wetzel, Heike

    2013-01-01

    Several countries around the world have introduced reforms to the electric power sector. One important element of these reforms is the introduction of an unbundling process, i.e., the separation of the competitive activities of supply and production from the monopole activity of transmission and distribution of electricity. There are several forms of unbundling: functional, legal and ownership. New Zealand, for instance, adopted an ownership unbundling in 1998. As discussed in the literature,...

  19. Chemotaxonomy and geographical distribution of tropane alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, W J; Lin, G D

    2000-03-01

    This review illustrates the distribution of tropane alkaloids within the families Solanaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Proteaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rhizophoraceae, Convolvulaceae and Cruciferae. Whereas tropane alkaloids are characteristic of the genera Datura, Brugmansia (tree datura) and Duboisia of the Solanaceae, the distribution is more widespread with novel tropane derivatives in families not traditionally associated with these bases. The chemical nature of more recently discovered water-soluble calystegines and the di- and trimeric forms from the Convolvulaceae (e.g. schizanthines from Schizanthus spp.), truxillines from Bolivian coca leaves and moonines of Erythroxylum moonii are highlighted. Where possible and appropriate, links between the phytochemistry and taxonomy are discussed.

  20. Geographic Distribution of Federal Funds in 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Elliott J.

    During the 1980s, federal spending for procurement, particularly defense procurement, retirement and survivors' benefits, medical benefits, and agricultural assistance payments grew dramatically, while spending for grants and salaries and wages lagged. But, the overall distribution of funding between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas remained…

  1. Geographic Distribution of Federal Funds in 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Elliott J.

    During the 1980s, federal spending for procurement, particularly defense procurement, retirement and survivors' benefits, medical benefits, and agricultural assistance payments grew dramatically, while spending for grants and salaries and wages lagged. But, the overall distribution of funding between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas remained…

  2. Geographical Distribution of Crater Depths on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.

    2010-03-01

    Global maps of crater depths on Mars are constructed using a new dataset that lists depths of >75,000 craters. Distribution of crater depths is interpreted in terms of cryosphere extent, and the locations of deepest craters on Mars are identified.

  3. Geographical distribution of Musa gracilis Holttum in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfazlina, B.; Wickneswari, R.; Choong, C. Y.

    2016-11-01

    Musa gracilis (Musaceae) is placed under section Callimusa and was considered endemic to Peninsular Malaysia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current occurrence of Musa gracilis in Peninsular Malaysia. The coordinates of each population was recorded using the Global Positioning System (GPS) and mapped to show the geographical distribution of Musa gracilis. This study revealed that Musa gracilis exhibits specific pattern of distribution, which exists only in a lowland areas on the eastern and southern part of Peninsular Malaysia.

  4. Causality of the relationship between geographic distribution and species abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Rahbek, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    The positive relationship between a species' geographic distribution and its abundance is one of ecology's most well-documented patterns, yet the causes behind this relationship remain unclear. Although many hypotheses have been proposed to account for distribution-abundance relationships none ha......, in a framework that facilitates a comparison between them. We identify and discuss the central factors governing the individual mechanisms, and elucidate their effect on empirical patterns....

  5. Relationships between major ownerships, forest aboveground biomass distributions, and landscape dynamics in the New England region of USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Daolan; Heath, Linda S; Ducey, Mark J; Butler, Brett

    2010-02-01

    This study utilizes remote sensing derived forest aboveground biomass (AGB) estimates and ownership information obtained from the Protected Areas Database (PAD), combining landscape analyses and GIS techniques to demonstrate how different ownerships (public, regulated private, and other private) relate to the spatial distribution of AGB in New England states of the USA. "Regulated private" lands were dominated by lands in Maine covered by a Land Use Regulatory Commission. The AGB means between all pairs of the identified ownership categories were significantly different (P 200 Mg/ha were located outside the area designated in the PAD and concentrated in western MA, southern VT, southwestern NH, and northwestern CT. While relatively unfragmented and high-AGB forests (>200 Mg/ha) accounted for about 8% of total forested land, they were unevenly proportioned among the three major ownership groups across the region: 19.6% of the public land, 0.8% of the regulated private land, and 11.0% of the other private land. Mean disturbance rates (in absolute value) between 1992 and 2001 were 16, 66, and 19 percent, respectively, on public, regulated private, and other private land. This indicates that management practices from different ownerships have a strong impact on dynamic changes of landscape structures and AGB distributions. Our results may provide insight information for policy makers on issues regarding forest carbon management, conservation biology, and biodiversity studies at regional level.

  6. Geographic distribution of postgraduate dental trainees in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, SoIchiro; Mataki, Shiro; Akiyama, Hitoshi; Nitta, Hiroshi; Okada, Mahito; Sakayori, Takaharu; Sugito, Hiroki; Ishii, Takuo

    2009-05-01

    Postgraduate clinical training for dentists in Japan became mandatory in April 2006. Mandatory postgraduate clinical training for physicians has been criticized as having accelerated the imbalance in distribution of physicians. This suggests the danger that the same phenomenon might occur in distribution of dentists. It is also necessary to investigate the geographic distribution of dental trainees and practicing dentists in Japan. In this study, the number of dental trainees enrolled in each clinical training program and number that had actually received clinical training at each facility were compared by prefecture. The results suggest that disparities in the number of dental trainees among prefectures are being compensated for by movement across prefectural borders under the clinical training facilities-group system. Postgraduate dental trainees, however, showed a significantly greater imbalance in geographic distribution than practicing dentists. Continuation of the postgraduate clinical training for dentists under the existing system may accelerate this imbalance in distribution of dentists. To prevent this, practical measures should be taken in accordance with the coming review of the system, based on research regarding changes in geographic distribution of dental trainees.

  7. Modelling grid losses and the geographic distribution of electricity generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    In Denmark more than 40% of the electricity consumption is covered by geographically scattered electricity sources namely wind power and local CHP (cogeneration of heat and power) plants. This causes problems in regard to load balancing and possible grid overloads. The potential grid problems...... and methods for solving these are analysed in this article on the basis of energy systems analyses, geographic distribution of consumption and production and grid load-flow analyses. It is concluded that by introducing scattered load balancing using local CHP plants actively and using interruptible loads...

  8. [Equity and geographic distribution of financial resources in health systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Silvia Marta

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on equity in health and specifically the geographic distribution of financial resources. The author reviews the main contemporary theories of social justice and discusses the concept of equity in general and specifically in the health field. Based on the discussion of selected international experiences (United Kingdom, Spain, and Italy), the Resource Allocation Working Party (RAWP) formula used in the United Kingdom is identified as the most adequate distributive methodology, sizing the relative needs based on the population's demographic and epidemiological profiles. Finally, the results are presented from a simulation performed for the Brazilian case, showing that a more equitable geographic distribution of financial resources would require a redistribution favoring the States of the North and Northeast. The article concludes by highlighting that a comparison of actual fund outlays by the Ministry of Health in 1994 and the results of the simulation with the RAWP methodology for the Brazilian case show that the principles written into Brazilian legislation were absent from the geographic distribution of financial resources.

  9. Geodemography: Land cover, geographical information systems and population distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Goerlich Gisbert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the recent application of the Geographical Information Systems (GIS to the analysis of population distribution. We mention the efforts of the National Statistical Institutes in this direction boosted by the last census 2011.The stating point is a growing need to have available population figures for areas not related to administrative boundaries, either user defined zones or in grid format.This allows a convenient zonal system to combine demographic characteristics with environmental and pure geographic data, so the relation between the man and the environment can be analyzed in a unified way.Eventually, we offer a practical illustration of the interactions between GIS techniques and administrative population data in the study of spatial population distribution: We build a density grid for Spain by dasymetric methods from census tracts population data and Land Cover and Use Information System of Spain (SIOSE.The analysis is done within the spatial reference framework of the European Union.

  10. The Geographic Distribution of Human Capital: Measurement of Contributing Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates how the geographic distribution of human capital evolves over time. With U.S. data, I decompose generation-to-generation changes in local human capital into three factors: the previous generation’s human capital, intergenerational transmission of skills from parents to their children, and migration of the children. I find evidence of regression to the mean of local skills at the state level and divergence at the commuting zone level. Labor market size, climate, local c...

  11. Check list and geographical distribution of phlebotomine sandflies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Y J; Zhang, L M

    1993-02-01

    A total of 42 species of sandflies, included in five genera, have been recorded from 31 of 32 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions of China (excluding Heilongjiang Province). Five species, namely Phlebotomus alexandri, P. chinensis, P. longiductus, P. sichuanensis and P. smirnovi (syn. P. wui), are known to be vectors of human leishmaniasis. A list of these 42 phlebotomines is given, and their geographical distributions in China are described.

  12. Geographical Distribution of Phacellaria Benth.(Santalaceae)and its Hosts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Dognxue; Ding Yulong

    2006-01-01

    Based on the geographical distribution of the species of Phacellaria and its host plants in the world,we speculated on the possible time,sites,and migration of the origin of Phacellaria.The host plants of Phacellaria mainly belong to Loranthaceae.Plants of Phacellaria and their hosts are mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical areas.The plants of Phacellaria might have originated from a tropical area in the south of China before the Tertiary.Their ancestors were parasitic on the ancestors of some plants of Loranthaceae by chance during the Tertiary.It possibly took them millions of years to form a sturdy relationship with their hosts.

  13. Ownership and usage of mosquito nets after four years of large-scale free distribution in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetzel Manuel W

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papua New Guinea (PNG is a highly malaria endemic country in the South-West Pacific with a population of approximately 6.6 million (2009. In 2004, the country intensified its malaria control activities with support from the Global Fund. With the aim of achieving 80% ownership and usage, a country-wide campaign distributed two million free long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs. Methods In order to evaluate outcomes of the campaign against programme targets, a country-wide household survey based on stratified multi-stage random sampling was carried out in 17 of the 20 provinces after the campaign in 2008/09. In addition, a before-after assessment was carried out in six purposively selected sentinel sites. A structured questionnaire was administered to the heads of sampled households to elicit net ownership and usage information. Results After the campaign, 64.6% of households owned a LLIN, 80.1% any type of mosquito net. Overall usage by household members amounted to 32.5% for LLINs and 44.3% for nets in general. Amongst children under five years, 39.5% used a LLIN and 51.8% any type of net, whereas 41.3% of pregnant women used a LLIN and 56.1% any net. Accessibility of villages was the key determinant of net ownership, while usage was mainly determined by ownership. Most (99.5% of the household members who did not sleep under a net did not have access to a (unused net in their household. In the sentinel sites, LLIN ownership increased from 9.4% to 88.7%, ownership of any net from 52.7% to 94.1%. Usage of LLINs increased from 5.5% to 55.1%, usage of any net from 37.3% to 66.7%. Among children under five years, usage of LLINs and of nets in general increased from 8.2% to 67.0% and from 44.6% to 76.1%, respectively (all p ≤ 0.001. Conclusions While a single round of free distribution of LLINs significantly increased net ownership, an insufficient number of nets coupled with a heterogeneous distribution led to overall

  14. Geographic distribution of haplotype diversity at the bovine casein locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moazami-Goudarzi Katy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic diversity of the casein locus in cattle was studied on the basis of haplotype analysis. Consideration of recently described genetic variants of the casein genes which to date have not been the subject of diversity studies, allowed the identification of new haplotypes. Genotyping of 30 cattle breeds from four continents revealed a geographically associated distribution of haplotypes, mainly defined by frequencies of alleles at CSN1S1 and CSN3. The genetic diversity within taurine breeds in Europe was found to decrease significantly from the south to the north and from the east to the west. Such geographic patterns of cattle genetic variation at the casein locus may be a result of the domestication process of modern cattle as well as geographically differentiated natural or artificial selection. The comparison of African Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds allowed the identification of several Bos indicus specific haplotypes (CSN1S1*C-CSN2*A2-CSN3*AI/CSN3*H that are not found in pure taurine breeds. The occurrence of such haplotypes in southern European breeds also suggests that an introgression of indicine genes into taurine breeds could have contributed to the distribution of the genetic variation observed.

  15. Modelling grid losses and the geographic distribution of electricity generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    In Denmark more than 40% of the electricity consumption is covered by geographically scattered electricity sources namely wind power and local CHP (cogeneration of heat and power) plants. This causes problems in regard to load balancing and possible grid overloads. The potential grid problems...... and methods for solving these are analysed in this article on the basis of energy systems analyses, geographic distribution of consumption and production and grid load-flow analyses. It is concluded that by introducing scattered load balancing using local CHP plants actively and using interruptible loads...... such as heat pumps, requirements of the transmission grid are lowered thereby reducing or eliminating needs of grid reinforcement. It is important that load balance is kept at local level and not just at an aggregate level....

  16. Optimization of tomographic reconstruction workflows on geographically distributed resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Tekin; Gürsoy, Dogˇa; Kettimuthu, Rajkumar; De Carlo, Francesco; Foster, Ian T

    2016-07-01

    New technological advancements in synchrotron light sources enable data acquisitions at unprecedented levels. This emergent trend affects not only the size of the generated data but also the need for larger computational resources. Although beamline scientists and users have access to local computational resources, these are typically limited and can result in extended execution times. Applications that are based on iterative processing as in tomographic reconstruction methods require high-performance compute clusters for timely analysis of data. Here, time-sensitive analysis and processing of Advanced Photon Source data on geographically distributed resources are focused on. Two main challenges are considered: (i) modeling of the performance of tomographic reconstruction workflows and (ii) transparent execution of these workflows on distributed resources. For the former, three main stages are considered: (i) data transfer between storage and computational resources, (i) wait/queue time of reconstruction jobs at compute resources, and (iii) computation of reconstruction tasks. These performance models allow evaluation and estimation of the execution time of any given iterative tomographic reconstruction workflow that runs on geographically distributed resources. For the latter challenge, a workflow management system is built, which can automate the execution of workflows and minimize the user interaction with the underlying infrastructure. The system utilizes Globus to perform secure and efficient data transfer operations. The proposed models and the workflow management system are evaluated by using three high-performance computing and two storage resources, all of which are geographically distributed. Workflows were created with different computational requirements using two compute-intensive tomographic reconstruction algorithms. Experimental evaluation shows that the proposed models and system can be used for selecting the optimum resources, which in turn can

  17. Trend in geographic distribution of physicians in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyabe Shin-ichi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the late 1980s, the policy of the Japanese government regarding physician manpower has been to decrease the number of medical students. However, the shortage of doctors in Japan has become a social problem in recent years. The aim of this study was to compare the numbers of physicians in Japan between 1996 and 2006 and the trends in distribution of physicians. Methods The time trends in number and distribution of physicians between 1996 and 2006 were analyzed. Gini coefficient, Atkinson index and Theil index were used as measures for mal-distribution of physicians to population. The distribution of physicians was visualized on a map by using geographic information system (GIS software. Results The total number of physicians increased every year in the period from 1996 to 2006 but has remained below the international standard. All three measures of mal-distribution of physicians worsened after 2004, and the worsening was remarkable in the distribution of physicians working at hospitals. The number of physicians working at hospitals has significantly increased in urban areas but not in areas with low population densities. When medical interns were excluded from calculation, the measures of mal-distribution improved. Conclusion The problem of a doctor shortage in Japan is linked to both the shortage of absolute number of physicians and the mal-distribution of hospital physicians. The new postgraduate internship system might worsen this situation.

  18. Geographical distribution of Taenia asiatica and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Keeseon S; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-10-01

    Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Korean foundations for parasite control activities (1995-2009) in developing countries.

  19. The Potential Geographic Distribution of Radopholus similis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yun-sheng; XIE Bing-yan; WAN Fang-hao; XIAO Qi-ming; DAI Liang-ying

    2007-01-01

    The burrowing nematode(Radopholus similis)is one of the main quarantine pests in China,and the risk of invasion posed by this nematode is becoming more and more serious with regard to the international trade being intensified day by day.It is urgent to analyse the potential geographic distribution of R.similis in China.Genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction modeling system(GARP)and maximum entropy(MAXENT),the two niche models which have been widely used to predict the potential geographic distribution of alien species,were used to predict the distribution of R.similis in China.We also presented a model comparison of the results by both threshold-dependent and threshold-independent evaluations.It has been shown that the two niche models could be used to predict the potential distribution of R.similis reliably.The potential distribution of R.similis should be constricted within the south of China,such as Hainan,Guangdong,Guangxi,Fujian,Yunnan provinces,and Taiwan of China.The MAXENT gives a better prediction than that of GARP.R.similis can be introduced to China by flowers and nursery stock's international shipping.The predicted results indicate that R.similis can occur in south coastal area of China and Yunnan Province,which are the main flower and nursery stock's import-export areas in China.Consequently,a strong quarantine program is needed at the ports of such areas to prevent the pest from being introduced to China.

  20. Concentrated Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    , especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control.......This entry summarizes the main theoretical contributions and empirical findings in relation to concentrated ownership from a law and economics perspective. The various forms of concentrated ownership are described as well as analyzed from the perspective of the legal protection of investors...

  1. The geographical distribution and burden of trachoma in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Smith

    Full Text Available There remains a lack of epidemiological data on the geographical distribution of trachoma to support global mapping and scale up of interventions for the elimination of trachoma. The Global Atlas of Trachoma (GAT was launched in 2011 to address these needs and provide standardised, updated and accessible maps. This paper uses data included in the GAT to describe the geographical distribution and burden of trachoma in Africa.Data assembly used structured searches of published and unpublished literature to identify cross-sectional epidemiological data on the burden of trachoma since 1980. Survey data were abstracted into a standardised database and mapped using geographical information systems (GIS software. The characteristics of all surveys were summarized by country according to data source, time period, and survey methodology. Estimates of the current population at risk were calculated for each country and stratified by endemicity class.At the time of writing, 1342 records are included in the database representing surveys conducted between 1985 and 2012. These data were provided by direct contact with national control programmes and academic researchers (67%, peer-reviewed publications (17% and unpublished reports or theses (16%. Prevalence data on active trachoma are available in 29 of the 33 countries in Africa classified as endemic for trachoma, and 1095 (20.6% districts have representative data collected through population-based prevalence surveys. The highest prevalence of active trachoma and trichiasis remains in the Sahel area of West Africa and Savannah areas of East and Central Africa and an estimated 129.4 million people live in areas of Africa confirmed to be trachoma endemic.The Global Atlas of Trachoma provides the most contemporary and comprehensive summary of the burden of trachoma within Africa. The GAT highlights where future mapping is required and provides an important planning tool for scale-up and surveillance of trachoma

  2. Geographical distribution of medical graduates from a public university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscarina da Silva Ezequiel

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To evaluate the geographic distribution and career trajectory of medical graduates and the factors associated with their choice of practice location. Method: A cross-sectional study involving graduates from December 2001 to December 2010 was conducted. A self-administered questionnaire collected demographics and geographic information (place of birth, place of residence at the time of medical school admission, place of residency training and practice location, and reason for choosing the current location. Statistical analyses assessed trends in geographic distribution of graduates, and identified factors associated with location choice (through the population density of the location chosen for professional practice. Results: A total of 563 graduates completed the questionnaire. Of those, 4.3% (n=24 reported family medicine as their medical specialty, 19.9% (n=112 reported other primary care specialties (internal medicine, pediatrics, surgery and obstetrics-gynecology and the others chose subspecialties. Larger cities were more likely to be chosen for practice, particularly for newly-graduated doctors. Job invitations received during medical residency training increased the likelihood of choosing high-populated cities. In contrast, job invitations received during medical school increased the likelihood of choosing cities less populated. Amongst those in cities with lower population density, proximity to family members was an additional influencing factor; those who chose more densely populated cities did so because of better infrastructure and recreational options. Conclusion: Most of the physicians included in this study pursue subspecialties training and were practicing medicine in large cities. Knowing the multiple factors that influenced the choice of practice location can assist in planning future strategies to reduce physician workforce misdistribution.

  3. Ecological niche and geographic distribution of human monkeypox in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S Levine

    Full Text Available Monkeypox virus, a zoonotic member of the genus Orthopoxviridae, can cause a severe, smallpox-like illness in humans. Monkeypox virus is thought to be endemic to forested areas of western and Central Africa. Considerably more is known about human monkeypox disease occurrence than about natural sylvatic cycles of this virus in non-human animal hosts. We use human monkeypox case data from Africa for 1970-2003 in an ecological niche modeling framework to construct predictive models of the ecological requirements and geographic distribution of monkeypox virus across West and Central Africa. Tests of internal predictive ability using different subsets of input data show the model to be highly robust and suggest that the distinct phylogenetic lineages of monkeypox in West Africa and Central Africa occupy similar ecological niches. High mean annual precipitation and low elevations were shown to be highly correlated with human monkeypox disease occurrence. The synthetic picture of the potential geographic distribution of human monkeypox in Africa resulting from this study should support ongoing epidemiologic and ecological studies, as well as help to guide public health intervention strategies to areas at highest risk for human monkeypox.

  4. Geographic distribution of Psychosaura agmosticha (Rodrigues, 2000 (Squamata, Mabuyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo José Correia Magalhães Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During fauna rescue activities of the integration project of the São Francisco River and other ba sins of the northern part of Northeast Brazil, 39 individuals of Psychosaura agmosticha (Rodrigues, 2000 were collected in the states of Ceará, Paraíba and Pernambuco, located in Northeast Brazil. We compared our recordings with those found in the literature and observed that P. agmosticha can occur in four different phytophysiognomies: sandy dunes of the San Francisco River, shrubby caatinga, arboreal caatinga, and forest remnants and ecotone formations. In spite of the expansion of the known geographic distribution and new records of P. agmosticha, the species retains its character of relictual distribution, due to its occurrence being related to the presence of bromeliads. Furthermore, we suggest that this species is not totally endemic to the caatinga biome.

  5. Grinnellian and Eltonian niches and geographic distributions of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberón, Jorge

    2007-12-01

    In the recent past, availability of large data sets of species presences has increased by orders of magnitude. This, together with developments in geographical information systems and statistical methods, has enabled scientists to calculate, for thousands of species, the environmental conditions of their distributional areas. The profiles thus obtained are obviously related to niche concepts in the Grinnell tradition, and separated from those in Elton's tradition. I argue that it is useful to define Grinnellian and Eltonian niches on the basis of the types of variables used to calculate them, the natural spatial scale at which they can be measured, and the dispersal of the individuals over the environment. I use set theory notation and analogies derived from population ecology theory to obtain formal definitions of areas of distribution and several types of niches. This brings clarity to several practical and fundamental questions in macroecology and biogeography.

  6. Effect of Heterogeneity in Initial Geographic Distribution on Opinions’ Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Balankin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Spin dynamics on networks allows us to understand how a global consensus emerges out of individual opinions. Here, we are interested in the effect of heterogeneity in the initial geographic distribution of a competing opinion on the competitiveness of its own opinion. Accordingly, in this work, we studied the effect of spatial heterogeneity on the majority rule dynamics using a three-state spin model, in which one state is neutral. Monte Carlo simulations were performed on square lattices divided into square blocks (cells. Accordingly, one competing opinion was distributed uniformly among cells, whereas the spatial distribution of the rival opinion was varied from the uniform to heterogeneous, with the median-to-mean ratio in the range from 1 to 0. When the size of discussion group is odd, the uncommitted agents disappear completely after  3.30 ± 0.05 update cycles, and then the system evolves in a two-state regime with complementary spatial distributions of two competing opinions. Even so, the initial heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of one of the competing opinions causes a decrease of this opinion competitiveness. That is, the opinion with initially heterogeneous spatial distribution has less probability to win, than the opinion with the initially uniform spatial distribution, even when the initial concentrations of both opinions are equal. We found that although the time to consensus , the opinion’s recession rate is determined during the first 3.3 update cycles. On the other hand, we found that the initial heterogeneity of the opinion spatial distribution assists the formation of quasi-stable regions, in which this opinion is dominant. The results of Monte Carlo simulations are discussed with regard to the electoral competition of political parties.

  7. Modelling Ecuador's rainfall distribution according to geographical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, Vladimiro; Wyseure, Guido

    2017-04-01

    It is known that rainfall is affected by terrain characteristics and some studies had focussed on its distribution over complex terrain. Ecuador's temporal and spatial rainfall distribution is affected by its location on the ITCZ, the marine currents in the Pacific, the Amazon rainforest, and the Andes mountain range. Although all these factors are important, we think that the latter one may hold a key for modelling spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall. The study considered 30 years of monthly data from 319 rainfall stations having at least 10 years of data available. The relatively low density of stations and their location in accessible sites near to main roads or rivers, leave large and important areas ungauged, making it not appropriate to rely on traditional interpolation techniques to estimate regional rainfall for water balance. The aim of this research was to come up with a useful model for seasonal rainfall distribution in Ecuador based on geographical characteristics to allow its spatial generalization. The target for modelling was the seasonal rainfall, characterized by nine percentiles for each one of the 12 months of the year that results in 108 response variables, later on reduced to four principal components comprising 94% of the total variability. Predictor variables for the model were: geographic coordinates, elevation, main wind effects from the Amazon and Coast, Valley and Hill indexes, and average and maximum elevation above the selected rainfall station to the east and to the west, for each one of 18 directions (50-135°, by 5°) adding up to 79 predictors. A multiple linear regression model by the Elastic-net algorithm with cross-validation was applied for each one of the PC as response to select the most important ones from the 79 predictor variables. The Elastic-net algorithm deals well with collinearity problems, while allowing variable selection in a blended approach between the Ridge and Lasso regression. The model fitting

  8. Potential geographic distribution of two invasive cassava green mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Soroush; Hazzi, Nicolas A; Chen, Qing; Lu, Fuping; Herrera Campo, Beatriz Vanessa; Yaninek, John Stephen; Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés

    2015-02-01

    The cassava green mites Mononychellus tanajoa and M. mcgregori are highly invasive species that rank among the most serious pests of cassava globally. To guide the development of appropriate risk mitigation measures preventing their introduction and spread, this article estimates their potential geographic distribution using the maximum entropy approach to distribution modeling. We compiled 1,232 occurrence records for M. tanajoa and 99 for M. mcgregori, and relied on the WorldClim climate database as a source of environmental predictors. To mitigate the potential impact of uneven sampling efforts, we applied a distance correction filter resulting in 429 occurrence records for M. tanajoa and 55 for M. mcgregori. To test for environmental biases in our occurrence data, we developed models trained and tested with records from different continents, before developing the definitive models using the full record sets. The geographically-structured models revealed good cross-validation for M. tanajoa but not for M. mcgregori, likely reflecting a subtropical bias in M. mcgregori's invasive range in Asia. The definitive models exhibited very good performance and predicted different potential distribution patterns for the two species. Relative to M. tanajoa, M. mcgregori seems better adapted to survive in locations lacking a pronounced dry season, for example across equatorial climates. Our results should help decision-makers assess the site-specific risk of cassava green mite establishment, and develop proportional risk mitigation measures to prevent their introduction and spread. These results should be particularly timely to help address the recent detection of M. mcgregori in Southeast Asia.

  9. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY07 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  10. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY06 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  11. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY09 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  12. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  13. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY07 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  14. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY07 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  15. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY09 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  16. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  17. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY06 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  18. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY09 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  19. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY06 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  20. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY06 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  1. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  2. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY07 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  3. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY09 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  4. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Ownership 24 - Created for the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan project, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as...

  6. Geographical distribution of a specific mitochondrial haplotype of Zymoseptoria tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh BOUKEF

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Severity of disease caused by the fungus Zymoseptoria tritici throughout world cereal growing regions has elicited much debate on the potential evolutionary mechanism conferring high adaptability of the pathogen to diverse climate conditions and different wheat hosts (Triticum durum and T. aestivum. Specific mitochondrial DNA sequence was used to investigate geographic distribution of the type 4 haplotype (mtRFLP4 within 1363 isolates of Z. tritici originating from 21 countries. The mtRFLP4 haplotype was detected from both durum and bread wheat hosts with greater frequency on durum wheat. The distribution of mtRFLP4 was limited to populations sampled from the Mediterranean and the Red Sea region. Greater frequencies of mtRFLP4 were found in Tunisia (87% and Algeria (60%. The haplotype was absent within European, Australian, North and South American populations except Argentina. While alternative hypotheses such as climatic adaptation could not be ruled out, it is postulated that mtRFLP4 originated in North Africa (e.g. Tunisia or Algeria as an adaptation to durum wheat as the prevailing cereal crop. The specialized haplotype has subsequently spread as indicated by lower frequency of occurrence in the surrounding Mediterranean countries and on bread wheat hosts.

  7. Ethnicity and geographic distribution of pediatric chronic ataxia in Manitoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Michael S; Masood, Shaheen; Azad, Meghan; Chodirker, Bernard N

    2014-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are important determinants of disease distribution. Several disorders associated with ataxia are known to occur more commonly in certain ethnic groups; for example, the disequilibrium syndrome in the Hutterites. The aim of this study was to determine the ethnic and geographic distribution of pediatric patients with chronic ataxia in Manitoba, Canada. We identified 184 patients less than 17 years-of-age with chronic ataxia during 1991-2008 from multiple sources. Their diagnosis, ethnicity and place of residence were determined following a chart review. Most patients resided in Manitoba (N=177) and the majority in Winnipeg, the provincial capital. Thirty five Aboriginal, 29 Mennonite and 11 Hutterite patients resided in Manitoba. The latter two groups were significantly overrepresented in our cohort. Ataxia telangiectasia, mitochondrial disorders, and non-progressive ataxia of unknown etiology associated with pyramidal tracts signs and developmental delay were significantly more common in Mennonite patients. Four of five patients with neuronal migration disorders associated with chronic ataxia were Aboriginal. Few isolated disorders with chronic ataxia occurred in the 11 Hutterite patients including a Joubert syndrome related disorder. Three disorders associated with chronic ataxia were more prevalent than expected in Mennonites in Manitoba. Few rare disorders were more prevalent in the Hutterite and Aboriginal population. Further research is needed to determine the risk factors underlying these variations in prevalence within different ethnic groups. The unique risk factor profiles of each ethnic group need to be considered in health promotion endeavors. Ethnie et distribution géographique de l'ataxie chronique chez des patients d'âge pédiatrique au Manitoba.

  8. Geographical patterns in cyanobacteria distribution: climate influence at regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitois, Frédéric; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle; Thomas, Olivier

    2014-01-28

    Cyanobacteria are a component of public health hazards in freshwater environments because of their potential as toxin producers. Eutrophication has long been considered the main cause of cyanobacteria outbreak and proliferation, whereas many studies emphasized the effect of abiotic parameters (mainly temperature and light) on cell growth rate or toxin production. In view of the growing concerns of global change consequences on public health parameters, this study attempts to enlighten climate influence on cyanobacteria at regional scale in Brittany (NW France). The results show that homogeneous cyanobacteria groups are associated with climatic domains related to temperature, global radiation and pluviometry, whereas microcystins (MCs) occurrences are only correlated to local cyanobacteria species composition. As the regional climatic gradient amplitude is similar to the projected climate evolution on a 30-year timespan, a comparison between the present NW and SE situations was used to extrapolate the evolution of geographical cyanobacteria distribution in Brittany. Cyanobacteria composition should shift toward species associated with more frequent Microcystins occurrences along a NW/SE axis whereas lakes situated along a SW/NE axis should transition to species (mainly Nostocales) associated with lower MCs detection frequencies.

  9. Geographical Distribution and Status of Actias Moths in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai CHOLDUMRONGKUL

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Geographical distribution and status of Actias moths was assessed at 46 forest stations throughout Thailand from January 2004 to December 2006. At each station, an eighteen watt black light was operated against a white sheet from 6:00 pm to 6:00 am daily. All Actias moths were observed and collected twice during the trapping period at 10:00 pm and 6:00 am. Distribution, abundance, seasonality and status were analyzed. Three out of the four Actias species previously encountered in Thailand were collected: A. maenas Doubleday, A. selene Hübner and A. rhodopneuma Röber. A. maenas was the most widespread species in the country with an average of 0.001037 individuals/spot sample and was found all year round. The highest abundance was in Narathiwat province, the northernmost border of the Sundaic region. A. selene was found at higher latitudes ranging from 20 °N at Doi Chiang Dao, Chiang Mai to 13 °N at Prachub Kirikhan province with an average of 0.003303 individuals/spot sample and were found all year round, with the highest abundance in July. By applying IUCN Categories & Criteria A. maenas and A. selene were designated as Vulnerable (VU and Near Threatened (NT species respectively. A. rhodopneuma moths were found only at Doi Phuka National Park, Nan province with 0.000263 individuals/spot sample from February to April and are therefore designated as a Critically Endangered (CR species. A. sinensis was not found during this study and is therefore assigned the status of extinct (EX.

  10. Employee ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Mygind, Niels

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an overview over some theory and empirical evidence on employee ownership and other forms of employee financial participation and answers the following questions: What is employee ownership and what is the relation to other forms of financial participation? Why is employee ownership widespread in some developed market economies like US and in Italy, France and Spain, while it has a quite rare occurrence in the Scandinavian countries? What are the conditions favouring and what...

  11. Global geographic distribution of Trichinella species and genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feidas, Haralambos; Kouam, Marc K; Kantzoura, Vaia; Theodoropoulos, Georgios

    2014-08-01

    Maximum entropy ecological niche modeling was utilized to describe the global geographic distribution of Trichinella species and genotypes and to assess their invasive risk in new areas other than the ones currently known. Also, space-time scan statistic was utilized to identify global spatiotemporal clusters of infection. A database containing 3209 records for 12 species and genotypes identified at the International Trichinella Reference Center (ITRC) as well as climate, elevation, and land cover data extracted from various databases were used. Ecological niche modeling implemented in the Maxent program indicated new potential ranges for T. spiralis (T1), T. nativa (T2), T. britovi (T3), T. pseudospiralis (T4), T. murrelli (T5), T6, T. papuae (T10), and T. zimbabwensis (T11). The area under the curve values for the test data of the models ranged from 0.901 to 0.998, indicating that the models were very good to excellent. The most important bioclimatic factor in modeling the ranges for T. spiralis (T1), T. nativa (T2), T. britovi (T3), T6, and T. zimbabwensis (T11) was temperature, for T. pseudospiralis (T4) and T. papuae (T10) was precipitation, and for T. murrelli (T5) was land cover. T. spiralis (T1), T. britovi (T3), and T. pseudospiralis (T4) had the same primary land cover which was "Grass Crops". The primary land covers were "Conifer Boreal Forest" for T. nativa (T2), "Cool Fields and Woods" for T. murrelli (T5), "Upland Tundra" for T6, "Tropical Rainforest" for T. papuae (T10), and "Crops and Town" for T. zimbabwensis (T11). The scan statistic analyses revealed the presence of significant spatiotemporal clusters (p<0.05) for T. spiralis (T1), T. nativa (T2), T. britovi (T3), T. pseudospiralis (T4), T. murrelli (T5), T6, and T. nelsoni (T7). No significant clusters were found for T. papuae (T10) and T. zimbabwensis (T11).

  12. Geographic distribution and dispersal of normapolles genera in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudy, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Normapolles pollen have been found in North America in Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary rocks from the eastern Atlantic Seaboard, the Mississippi embayment region and from the states and provinces from western North America as far north as the District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Previous postulates relating to the Normapolles floral province (western Europe-eastern North America) were re-examined in the light of new finds of Normapolles genera in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway which separated the Normapolles province from the western North American Aquilapollenites province. A study of published occurrences of Normapolles genera and U.S. Geological Survey Denver Laboratory Normapolles records revealed that of the approximately 60 Normapolles genera recognized from western Europe, only 26 of these have been recognized from eastern North America. These data suggest that Normapolles-producing plants originated in western Europe and migrated to eastern North America prior to the opening of the north Atlantic seaway. Ten of these 26 genera also have been found in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway, suggesting that these genera were the only ones able to cross this barrier. At least six genera having Normapolles characteristics occur in eastern North America but have not yet been recorded from Europe. Two additional genera with Normapolles characteristics have been reported only from the Aquilapollenites province of western North America. Several discrepancies in the record need resolution, such as the latitudinal restriction of Thomsonipollis and Nudopollis to areas south 40??N latitude, the absence of records of Thomsonipollis east and north of central Georgia, and the absence of records of Kyandopollenites and Choanopollenites west of eastern Texas. These data show that the known boundaries of the Normapolles province are somewhat hazy and that firm conclusions regarding the geographic distribution and history of dispersal of

  13. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Kinds and Distribution of Soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Tagged Line cadastral model, Published in 2008, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Delaware County Office of Geographic Information.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2008. It is described...

  15. Insecticide - treated bednet ownership and utilization in Rivers State, Nigeria before a state-wide net distribution campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin-West, C I; Alex-Hart, B A

    2011-09-01

    Malaria presents a huge health and economic burden to families living in malaria endemic areas. The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) is one of the global strategies in decreasing the malaria burden on vulnerable populations. The use of ITNs reduces clinical malaria by over 50% and all cause mortality in children by 15-30% when the overall population coverage is >70%. This study was aimed at establishing the level of household insecticide -treated bednet ownership and utilization in Rivers State, Nigeria before a statewide scale -up distribution campaign. A descriptive, cross - sectional study was carried out in the Rivers State in November 2008 among household heads or their proxies to serve as a pre -intervention baseline for the scale -up distribution of insecticide treated bednets in the state. The households were selected by a multi -staged sampling technique: first stage being the selection of Local Government Areas (LGAs) from Senatorial districts, second stage the selection of communities from LGAs and final stage the selection of households. Data were collected using a questionnaire adapted from the WHO/FMoH and analyzed using the Epi -Info version 6.04d statistical software package. Hypothesis tests were conducted to compare summary statistics at 95% significance level. A total of 811 household heads or their proxies were interviewed. Their age ranged between 20 and 70 yr, with a mean of 47.96 ± 4.39 yr. The study showed that although 552 (68.1%) of the households owned bednets, only 245 (30.2%, 95% CI=27.1-33.5) of them owned long -lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Similarly, only 37.2% of those who owned ITNs slept under them the night preceding the survey. Household ITN ownership and utilization were low in the state. Incorporating behavour change communication package as part of the ITN distribution intervention is advocated to increase ITNs utilization in the state.

  16. Geographic distance affects dispersal of the patchy distributed greater long-tailed hamster (Tscherskia triton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Huiliang; Zhong, Min; Xu, Jinhui; Xu, Laixiang

    2014-01-01

    Dispersal is a fundamental process in ecology influencing the genetic structure and the viability of populations. Understanding how variable factors influence the dispersal of the population is becoming an important question in animal ecology. To date, geographic distance and geographic barriers are often considered as main factors impacting dispersal, but their effects are variable depending on different conditions. In general, geographic barriers affect more significantly than geographic distance on dispersal. In rapidly expanding populations, however, geographic barriers have less effect on dispersal than geographic distance. The effects of both geographic distance and geographic barriers in low-density populations with patchy distributions are poorly understood. By using a panel of 10 microsatellite loci we investigated the genetic structure of three patchy-distributed populations of the Greater long-tailed hamster (Tscherskia triton) from Raoyang, Guan and Shunyi counties of the North China Plain. The results showed that (i) high genetic diversity and differentiation exist in three geographic populations with patchy distributions; (ii) gene flow occurs among these three populations with physical barriers of Beijing city and Hutuo River, which potentially restricted the dispersal of the animal; (iii) the gene flow is negatively correlated with the geographic distance, while the genetic distance shows the positive correlation. Our results suggest that the effect of the physical barriers is conditional-dependent, including barrier capacity or individual potentially dispersal ability. Geographic distance also acts as an important factor affecting dispersal for the patchy distributed geographic populations. So, gene flow is effective, even at relatively long distances, in balancing the effect of geographic barrier in this study.

  17. The Geographical Distribution of Leadership in Globalized Clinical Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, Jarno; Frenken, Koen; de Zeeuw, Dick; Heerspink, Hiddo Lambers

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceutical trials are mainly initiated by sponsors and investigators in the United States, Western Europe and Japan. However, more and more patients are enrolled in Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America and Asia. The involvement of patients in new geographical settings raises que

  18. Geographic distribution of breast cancer incidence in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A geographic disparity for breast cancer (BC incidence by provinces is introduced in Iran. Present study aimed to clarify the geographic disparity of BC incidence after considering the age and gender. Methods: In this ecological study data about BC incidence extracted from reports of national registry of cancer (NCR, and Disease Control and Prevention in 2008. BC incidence mapping was conducted in geographic information system (GIS. Results: The results were consistent with previous reports but extend the previous knowledge with regarding the age and gender. Highest age specific rates (ASRs of BC occurred in the provinces located in Central and Northern of Iran. Tehran and Sistan & Balochestan had highest and lowest ASR for male BC and female BC respectively. Conclusion: given that BC occurs more in Central and Northern provinces that are mainly with high socioeconomic status (SES levels, so it is suggested that disparity in BC incidence can be reduced through planning special programs such as education, screening, and preventive policy in provinces with high priorities.

  19. Welfare loss to monopoly under public ownership: A study of the municipal natural gas distribution industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Government ownership is one of the policy approaches to the control of monopoly power in the utility industry. Welfare loss estimates will be biased downwards if potential cost increases under monopoly are not taken into consideration. The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the extent of deadweight welfare loss in publicly-owned utilities, using a methodolgy that incorporates failure to minimize costs onto the allocative loss measure. Municipal gas utilities are the subjects of the study which comprises an economic analysis of one of the lesser-examined segments of the utility industry. Three customer classes-residential, commercial, and industrial-are examined. The hypothesis of separability in outputs and inputs could not be rejected. All other restrictions on production were rejected at the .05 level. The hypothesis that municipal gas utilities achieve relative price efficiency in the use of inputs could not be rejected. The separable, minimum cost function was therefore used to obtain estimates of long run marginal cost for the welfare analysis. For the residential class the mean welfare loss equal to 4.4% of utility total residential revenue. Corresponding values for the commercial and industrial classes were 1.8 and 3.3%, respectively. The only statistically significant difference in means occurred between the residential and commercial classes. Analysis of ratios of price to marginal cost indicates that municipal gas utilities engage in third degree price discrimination, with nonresidential customers as the beneficaries. Deadweight welfare loss was found to exist in publicly-owned gas utilities. The adverse effects of monopoly seem to be the most severe for the residential class. However, there was also evidence of scope economies between the residential and nonresidential outputs.

  20. Climatic variation and the geographical distribution of sex-determining mechanisms in the housefly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldmeyer, B.; Kozielska-Reid, M.A.; Kuijper, A.L.W.; Weissing, F.J.; Beukeboom, L.W.; Pen, I.R.

    2008-01-01

    Questions: (1) Are the geographic clines of sex-determining factors in the housefly of the northern hemisphere mirrored by similar clines on the southern hemisphere? (2) What climatic factors can best explain the geographical distribution of sex-determining factors in the housefly? Data: Frequencies

  1. Assessing equity in the geographical distribution of community pharmacies in South Africa in preparation for a national health insurance scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kim; Sanders, David; Leng, Henry; Pollock, Allyson M

    2014-07-01

    To investigate equity in the geographical distribution of community pharmacies in South Africa and assess whether regulatory reforms have furthered such equity. Data on community pharmacies from the national department of health and the South African pharmacy council were used to analyse the change in community pharmacy ownership and density (number per 10,000 residents) between 1994 and 2012 in all nine provinces and 15 selected districts. In addition, the density of public clinics, alone and with community pharmacies, was calculated and compared with a national benchmark of one clinic per 10,000 residents. Interviews were conducted with nine national experts from the pharmacy sector. Community pharmacies increased in number by 13% between 1994 and 2012--less than the 25% population growth. In 2012, community pharmacy density was higher in urban provinces and was eight times higher in the least deprived districts than in the most deprived ones. Maldistribution persisted despite the growth of corporate community pharmacies. In 2012, only two provinces met the 1 per 10,000 benchmark, although all provinces achieved it when community pharmacies and clinics were combined. Experts expressed concerns that a lack of rural incentives, inappropriate licensing criteria and a shortage of pharmacy workers could undermine access to pharmaceutical services, especially in rural areas. To reduce inequity in the distribution of pharmaceutical services, new policies and legislation are needed to increase the staffing and presence of pharmacies.

  2. Model Checking Geographically Distributed Interlocking Systems Using UMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nielsen, Michel Bøje Randahl

    2017-01-01

    The current trend of distributing computations over a network is here, as a novelty, applied to a safety critical system, namely a railway interlocking system. We show how the challenge of guaranteeing safety of the distributed application has been attacked by formally specifying and model checking...... the relevant distributed protocols. By doing that we obey the safety guidelines of the railway signalling domain, that require formal methods to support the certification of such products. We also show how formal modelling can help designing alternative distributed solutions, while maintaining adherence...

  3. Sequence variability and geographic distribution of Lassa virus, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leski, Tomasz A; Stockelman, Michael G; Moses, Lina M; Park, Matthew; Stenger, David A; Ansumana, Rashid; Bausch, Daniel G; Lin, Baochuan

    2015-04-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic to parts of West Africa and causes highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) is the only known reservoir of LASV. Most human infections result from zoonotic transmission. The very diverse LASV genome has 4 major lineages associated with different geographic locations. We used reverse transcription PCR and resequencing microarrays to detect LASV in 41 of 214 samples from rodents captured at 8 locations in Sierra Leone. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of nucleoprotein (NP), glycoprotein precursor (GPC), and polymerase (L) genes showed 5 separate clades within lineage IV of LASV in this country. The sequence diversity was higher than previously observed; mean diversity was 7.01% for nucleoprotein gene at the nucleotide level. These results may have major implications for designing diagnostic tests and therapeutic agents for LASV infections in Sierra Leone.

  4. Modelling the geographic distribution of wind power and the impact on transmission needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2003-01-01

    Through energy systems modelling, transmission systems modelling and geographical modelling, the article examines the sensitivity of the response of the transmission system to the geographic distributions of wind power and in particular the sensitivity of the results to the accuracy...... of the distributed modelled. The results show that accuracy of the geographic modelling while important for the analysis of specific single transmission lines is not important for the analysis of the general response of the transmission system. The analyses thus corroborate previous analyses that demonstrated...

  5. Modelling the geographic distribution of wind power and the impact on transmission needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2003-01-01

    Through energy systems modelling, transmission systems modelling and geographical modelling, the article examines the sensitivity of the response of the transmission system to the geographic distributions of wind power and in particular the sensitivity of the results to the accuracy...... of the distributed modelled. The results show that accuracy of the geographic modelling while important for the analysis of specific single transmission lines is not important for the analysis of the general response of the transmission system. The analyses thus corroborate previous analyses that demonstrated...... that scattered laod balancing reduce transmission capacity requirements....

  6. The geographical distribution of leadership in globalized clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarno Hoekman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pharmaceutical trials are mainly initiated by sponsors and investigators in the United States, Western Europe and Japan. However, more and more patients are enrolled in Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America and Asia. The involvement of patients in new geographical settings raises questions about scientific and ethical integrity, especially when experience with those settings is lacking at the level of trial management. We therefore studied to what extent the geographical shift in patient enrolment is anticipated in the composition of trial management teams using the author nationalities on the primary outcome publication as an indicator of leadership. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cohort-study among 1,445 registered trials in www.clinicaltrials.gov that could be matched with a primary outcome publication using clinical trial registry numbers listed in publications. The name of the sponsor and the enrolment countries were extracted from all registrations. The author-addresses of all authors were extracted from the publications. We searched the author-address of all publications to determine whether enrolment countries and sponsors listed on registrations also appeared on a matched publication. Of all sponsors, 80.1% were listed with an author-address on the publication. Of all enrolment countries, 50.3% appeared with an author-address on the publication. The listing of enrolment countries was especially low for industry-funded trials (39.9% as compared to government (90.4% and not-for-profit funding (93.7%. We found that listing of enrolment countries in industry-funded trials was higher for traditional research locations such as the United States (98.2% and Japan (72.0% as compared to nontraditional research locations such as Poland (27.3% and Mexico (14.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Despite patient enrolment efforts, the involvement of researchers from nontraditional locations in trial management as measured by their contribution to

  7. Parallel Study on Potential and Existing Geographical Distribution of Haloxylon Dominated Desert Vegetation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Quanshui; WANG Chunling; TAN Deyuan; MA Chao; WANG Xiangfu; HAO Jianxi; HE Hongyan

    2006-01-01

    By applying ARC/INFO(NT version)of the GIS software package,we extracted the existing geographical distribution of Haloxylon dominated desert vegetation and produced a thematic map of geographical distribution of the existing Haloxylon dominated desert vegetation based on the newly published Vegetation Atlas of China;we defined the adaptive parameter range of geographical and climate of Haloxylon dominated desert vegetation to generate the potential geographical distribution map of Haloxylon dominated desert vegetation with the support of GREEN software.We then sliced and compared the existing and the potential distribution maps.The results show that the potential geographical distribution areas of Haloxylon ammodendron and Haloxylon persicum dominated desert vegetation accord with the existing distribution areas in the administration division,and the topographic types in both the distribution areas are similar.However,the borders of different directions of the potential H.ammodendron dominated desert vegetation distribution has surpassed 0.4°to 5.9°of the existing borders.The borders of different directions of the potential H. persicum dominated desert vegetation has surpassed 0.9°to 3.3°of the existing borders.In China,the existing geographical distributional area of H.ammodendron dominated desert vegetation accounts for 9.1% of the potential one in China and the proportion of the existing H.persicum dominated desert vegetation distribution area to the potential area is 34.1%.The result of comparison of the potential and the existing distribution area of Haloxylon dominated desert vegetation can provide important scientific basis for the recovery,reconstruction and introduction of Haloxylon dominated desert vegetation.

  8. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  9. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  10. The geographic distribution of tuberculosis and pyridoxine supply in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, M A; Yamada, J

    1995-12-01

    Acute poisoning with isoniazid causes generalized convulsions which should be treated with intravenous pyridoxine and a rapidly-acting anticonvulsant. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the distribution of tuberculosis (as a proxy for isoniazid use) and acute care hospital supplies of intravenous pyridoxine (the antidote for isoniazid overdose). The distribution of tuberculosis was based on Ontario public health regions. The study was descriptive using simple linear regression to assess the degree of correlation. Only 15.6% of Ontario acute care hospitals have enough intravenous pyridoxine to treat an average isoniazid overdose. The distribution of tuberculosis and the number of hospitals in the region correlated best with hospital supplies of pyridoxine, although these variables explained only 22% and 23.7%, respectively, of the variation in supply. It does not appear that the distribution of tuberculosis is a major determinant of the availability of the isoniazid antidote, pyridoxine. Acute care hospitals in Ontario should re-evaluate their need for pyridoxine in light of the incidence of tuberculosis in their regions. Each hospital should stock at least 5 Gm of intravenous pyridoxine; additional amounts may be appropriate if there is an increased incidence in the area.

  11. The Geographical Aspect of Flexibility in Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2015-01-01

    In the Smart Grid context, one of the most broadly investigated areas is the matter of flexibility. This term is still not defined in a unified way. As such, it is frequently encountered in both transmission and distribution system studies, nonetheless, with various perspectives. To some extent, ...

  12. Long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) ownership, use and cost of implementation after a mass distribution campaign in Kasaï Occidental Province, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuku, Henry Maggi; Ruckstuhl, Laura; Julo-Réminiac, Jean-Emmanuel; Umesumbu, Solange E; Bokota, Alain; Tshefu, Antoinette Kitoto; Lengeler, Christian

    2017-01-09

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) are a highly effective means for preventing malaria infection and reducing associated morbidity and mortality. Mass free distribution campaigns have been shown to rapidly increase LLIN ownership and use. Around 3.5 million LLINs were distributed free of charge in the Kasaï Occidental Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in September-October 2014, using two different approaches, a fixed delivery strategy and a door-to-door strategy including hang-up activities. Repeated community-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted 2 months before and six months after the mass distribution. Descriptive statistics were used to measure changes in key malaria household indicators. LLIN ownership and use were compared between delivery strategies. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with LLIN use before and after the mass distribution. A comparative financial cost analysis between the fixed delivery and door-to-door distribution strategies was carried out from the provider's perspective. Household ownership of at least one LLIN increased from 39.4% pre-campaign to 91.4% post-campaign and LLIN universal coverage, measured as the proportion of households with at least one LLIN for every two people increased from 4.1 to 41.1%. Population access to LLIN within the household increased from 22.2 to 80.7%, while overall LLIN use increased from 18.0 to 68.3%. Higher LLIN ownership was achieved with the fixed delivery strategy compared with the door-to-door (92.5% [95% CI 90.2-94.4%] versus 85.2% [95% CI 78.5-90.0%]), while distribution strategy did not have a significant impact on LLIN use (69.6% [95% CI 63.1-75.5%] versus 65.7% [95% CI 52.7-76.7%]). Malaria prevalence among children aged 6-59 months was 44.8% post-campaign. Living in a household with sufficient numbers of LLIN to cover all members was the strongest determinant of LLIN use. The total financial cost per

  13. Data on the distribution of physical activities in the Shenzhen greenway network with volunteered geographic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Gong, Yong Xi; Gao, Yuan; Lu, Dan

    2016-09-01

    This data presents the distribution of physical activities in the Shenzhen greenway network (GN) in January, April and July, 2014. The volunteered geographic on physical activity is overlaid with the greenways data, to describe the distribution of physical activities in the greenways. The data are summarized to show the distribution characteristics geographically from different aspects in Shenzhen, China. Data were used to explore the effect of the Shenzhen GN on supporting physical activities, "Where do networks really work? The effects of Shenzhen greenway network on supporting physical activities" (Liu et al., 2016) [2].

  14. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  15. Geographical Distribution of Blogs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Halavais

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Blogging has diffused rapidly over the last several years in the United States, but that diffusion has not occurred evenly. In examining the distribution of 191,294 weblogs sampled in November 2003, we find that while blogging enjoys popularity throughout the US, bloggers appear more frequently within particular cities. This project indexes American bloggers by three-digit zip codes corresponding to their location, and identifies the demographic factors that appear to encourage blogging. We find that cities with populations that are young, urban, and more tolerant of difference are likely to host more bloggers.

  16. Mapping the geographical distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwase, Enala T; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Nsakashalo-Senkwe, Mutale;

    2014-01-01

    volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA) with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1...... presence, and to predict potential suitable habitats over unsurveyed areas. Of note, areas associated with human modification of the landscape appeared to play an important role for the general presence of LF, whereas temperature (measured as averaged seasonal land surface temperature) seemed...

  17. Mapping the geographical distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwase, Enala T; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Nsakashalo-Senkwe, Mutale

    2014-01-01

    volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA) with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1...... to be an important determinant of medium-high prevalence levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: LF was found to be surprisingly widespread in Zambia, although in most places with low prevalence. The produced maps and the identified environmental correlates of LF infection will provide useful guidance for planning...

  18. Estimating ancestral geographical distributions: a Gondwanan origin for aphid parasitoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belshaw, R; Dowton, M; Quicke, D L; Austin, A D

    2000-01-01

    We tested the published hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin for the overwhelmingly northern hemisphere aphid parasitoids (Aphidiinae) as follows: (i) finding their sister group by a phylogenetic analysis of the entire Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenopterai using sequence data from approximately 500 bp fragments of both the nuclear 28S (D2 region) and mitochondrial 16S rDNA genes, (ii) using this sister-group relationship and the more informative 28S D2 gene to estimate the phylogeny of the Aphidiinae and (iii) estimating the ancestral distribution for the Aphidiinae using maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony methods. Both methods indicated a Gondwanan origin. PMID:10737407

  19. Length of activity season drives geographic variation in body size of a widely distributed lizard

    OpenAIRE

    Horváthová, Terézia; Cooney, Christopher R.; Fitze, Patrick S; Oksanen, Tuula; Jelic, Dusan; Ghira, Ioan; Uller, Tobias; Jandzik, David

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors that drive geographic variation in life history is an important challenge in evolutionary ecology. Here, we analyze what predicts geographic variation in life-history traits of the common lizard, Zootoca vivipara, which has the globally largest distribution range of all terrestrial reptile species. Variation in body size was predicted by differences in the length of activity season, while we found no effects of environmental temperature per se. Females experiencing r...

  20. [Predictions of potential geographical distribution of Alhagi sparsifolia under climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xia; Zheng, Jiang-Hua; Mu, Chen; Lin, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Specific information on geographic distribution of a species is important for its conservation. This study was conducted to determine the potential geographic distribution of Alhagi sparsifolia, which is a plant used in traditional Uighur medicine, and predict how climate change would affect its geographic range. The potential geographic distribution of A. sparsifolia under the current conditions in China was simulated with MaxEnt software based on species presence data at 42 locations and 19 climatic variables. The future distributions of A. sparsifolia were also projected in 2050 and 2070 under the climate change scenarios of RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 described in 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).The result showed that mean temperature of the coldest quarter, annual mean temperature, precipitation of the coldest quarter, annual precipitation, precipitation of the wettest month, mean temperature of the wettest quarter and the temperature annual range were the seven climatic factors influencing the geographic distribution of A. sparsifolia under current climate, the suitable habitats are mainly located in the Xinjiang, in the middle and north of Gansu, in the west of Neimeng, in the north of Nei Monggol. From 2050 to 2070, the model simulations indicated that the suitable habitats of A. sparsifolia would decrease under the climate change scenarios of RCP2.6 and scenarios of RCP8.5 on the whole. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Pattern of Ownership and Income Distribution:In View of “Middle-Income Trap”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Rui Na

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available China comes into the ranks of middle-income countries, “middle-income trap” problem become highly attention. Income inequality is the most important factor of fall into this trap. By analyzing the actual information and data, finds out that the main reason for this widening gap between income distributions is the vigorous developments of the private owned company, led to the big gap of the income between owner of the company and normal workers. Then by analyzing and validating the actual mathematical model, and turns out the same result. To solve the problem of “middle-income trap”, we must deal with the income inequality, need to strengthen the guidance and supervision while encourage the development of the private economy. Unswervingly adhere to the public sector of the economy’s dominant position, and continue to develop and perfect the public sector of the economy, along with the corresponding supporting measures.

  2. Geographic distribution of human Blastocystis subtypes in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Juan David; Sánchez, Angie; Hernández, Carolina; Flórez, Carolina; Bernal, María Consuelo; Giraldo, Julio Cesar; Reyes, Patricia; López, Myriam Consuelo; García, Lineth; Cooper, Philip J; Vicuña, Yosselin; Mongi, Florencia; Casero, Rodolfo D

    2016-07-01

    Blastocystis is a cosmopolitan enteric protist colonizing probably more than 1 billion people. This protozoan exhibits genetic diversity and is subdivided into subtypes (STs). The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Blastocystis STs in symptomatic and asymptomatic human samples from different countries of South America. A total of 346 fecal samples were genotyped by SSU rDNA showing ST1 (28.3%), ST2 (22.2%), ST3 (36.7%), ST4 (2%), ST5 (2.3%), ST6 (2%), ST7 (2.3%), ST8 (0.6%), ST12 (0.9%) and a novel ST (2.7%). These findings update the epidemiology of Blastocystis in South America and expand our knowledge of the phylogeographic differences exhibited by this stramenopile.

  3. Geographical Distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi Genotypes in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Hernán J.; Segovia, Maikell; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Morocoima, Antonio; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio; Martínez, Cinda; Martínez, Clara E.; Garcia, Carlos; Rodríguez, Marlenes; Espinosa, Raul; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Herrera, Leidi; Fitzpatrick, Sinead; Yeo, Matthew; Miles, Michael A.; Feliciangeli, M. Dora

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is an endemic zoonosis native to the Americas and is caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The parasite is also highly genetically diverse, with six discrete typing units (DTUs) reported TcI – TcVI. These DTUs broadly correlate with several epidemiogical, ecological and pathological features of Chagas disease. In this manuscript we report the most comprehensive evaluation to date of the genetic diversity of T. cruzi in Venezuela. The dataset includes 778 samples collected and genotyped over the last twelve years from multiple hosts and vectors, including nine wild and domestic mammalian host species, and seven species of triatomine bug, as well as from human sources. Most isolates (732) can be assigned to the TcI clade (94.1%); 24 to the TcIV group (3.1%) and 22 to TcIII (2.8%). Importantly, among the 95 isolates genotyped from human disease cases, 79% belonged to TcI - a DTU common in the Americas, however, 21% belonged to TcIV- a little known genotype previously thought to be rare in humans. Furthermore, were able to assign multiple oral Chagas diseases cases to TcI in the area around the capital, Caracas. We discuss our findings in the context of T. cruzi DTU distributions elsewhere in the Americas, and evaluate the impact they have on the future of Chagas disease control in Venezuela. PMID:22745843

  4. Geographic Distribution of Healthy Resources and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christopher; Laurent, Olivier; Chung, Judith H; Wu, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Objective To determine the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) and preeclampsia associated with various community resources. Methods An ecological study was performed in Los Angeles and Orange counties in California. Fast food restaurants, supermarkets, grocery stores, gyms, health clubs and green space were identified using Google © Maps Extractor and through the Southern California Association of Government. California Birth Certificate data was used to identify cases of GDM and preeclampsia. Unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios were calculated using negative binomial regression. Results There were 9692 cases of GDM and 6288 cases of preeclampsia corresponding to incidences of 2.5 and 1.4 % respectively. The adjusted risk of GDM was reduced in zip codes with greater concentration of grocery stores [relative risk (RR) 0.95, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.92-0.99] and supermarkets (RR 0.94, 95 % CI 0.90-0.98). There were no significant relationships between preeclampsia and the concentration of fast food restaurants, grocery store, supermarkets or the amount of green space. Conclusion The distribution of community resources has a significant association with the risk of developing GDM but not preeclampsia.

  5. Cyber Graph Queries for Geographically Distributed Data Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W. [Mail Stop, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Collins, Michael [Christopher Newport Univ., VA (United States); Kearns, Aaron [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Phillips, Cynthia A. [Mail Stop, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saia, Jared [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    We present new algorithms for a distributed model for graph computations motivated by limited information sharing we first discussed in [20]. Two or more independent entities have collected large social graphs. They wish to compute the result of running graph algorithms on the entire set of relationships. Because the information is sensitive or economically valuable, they do not wish to simply combine the information in a single location. We consider two models for computing the solution to graph algorithms in this setting: 1) limited-sharing: the two entities can share only a polylogarithmic size subgraph; 2) low-trust: the entities must not reveal any information beyond the query answer, assuming they are all honest but curious. We believe this model captures realistic constraints on cooperating autonomous data centers. We have algorithms in both setting for s - t connectivity in both models. We also give an algorithm in the low-communication model for finding a planted clique. This is an anomaly- detection problem, finding a subgraph that is larger and denser than expected. For both the low- communication algorithms, we exploit structural properties of social networks to prove perfor- mance bounds better than what is possible for general graphs. For s - t connectivity, we use known properties. For planted clique, we propose a new property: bounded number of triangles per node. This property is based upon evidence from the social science literature. We found that classic examples of social networks do not have the bounded-triangles property. This is because many social networks contain elements that are non-human, such as accounts for a business, or other automated accounts. We describe some initial attempts to distinguish human nodes from automated nodes in social networks based only on topological properties.

  6. Mycetoma in Iran: Causative Agents and Geographic Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiri-Jahromi, Shahindokht

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by true fungi (eumycetoma) or filamentous bacteria (actinomycetoma). It usually involves the subcutaneous tissue after a traumatic inoculation of the causative organism. We reviewed retrospectively 13 patients with mycetoma. Materials and Methods: This study reports the etiologic agents and distribution of mycetoma in 35 cases from 1994 to2009 in Iran. The diagnostic of mycetoma were confirmed by histopathology and direct preparation, culture techniques, and histopathology of granules and surgical biopsies, radiological examination of the affected site. Results: Mycetoma was identified in 35 patients of 168 suspected patients (20.8%). They occurred in 22 male and 13 females. Their ages ranged from 14 to 80 years. The duration of the disease ranged from two months to 38 years. Sixteen patients had eumycetoma, and 19 patients had actinomycetoma, one of them had mix infections by eumycetoma and actinomycetoma. The majority of the patients were from central and states in south and north of Iran. The feet were most affected site (65.7%) of the cases, followed by hands (25.7%), face (2.8%), and trunk (2.8%), and buttock (2.8%). Most patients (68.5%) were more than 40 year-old. The male to female ratio was 5:3. The disease was abundant among housewife in urban and farmer in rural area of Iran. The most common prevalent mycetoma agents in this study were Actinomyces sp. There was a history of risk factors in 28.6% of patients in this study. Conclusion: Mycetoma occasionally occurs particularly in the South, Central, and North of Iran, and seen most often in persons, who live in hot, humid climates. If there are risk factors for invasive fungal infections traumatic inoculation with any fungus may result in rapid local spread and systemic disease, often with fatal outcome. PMID:25284877

  7. Mycetoma in Iran: Causative agents and geographic distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahindokht Bassiri-Jahromi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by true fungi (eumycetoma or filamentous bacteria (actinomycetoma. It usually involves the subcutaneous tissue after a traumatic inoculation of the causative organism. We reviewed retrospectively 13 patients with mycetoma. Materials and Methods: This study reports the etiologic agents and distribution of mycetoma in 35 cases from 1994 to2009 in Iran. The diagnostic of mycetoma were confirmed by histopathology and direct preparation, culture techniques, and histopathology of granules and surgical biopsies, radiological examination of the affected site. Results: Mycetoma was identified in 35 patients of 168 suspected patients (20.8%. They occurred in 22 male and 13 females. Their ages ranged from 14 to 80 years. The duration of the disease ranged from two months to 38 years. Sixteen patients had eumycetoma, and 19 patients had actinomycetoma, one of them had mix infections by eumycetoma and actinomycetoma. The majority of the patients were from central and states in south and north of Iran. The feet were most affected site (65.7% of the cases, followed by hands (25.7%, face (2.8%, and trunk (2.8%, and buttock (2.8%. Most patients (68.5% were more than 40 year-old. The male to female ratio was 5:3. The disease was abundant among housewife in urban and farmer in rural area of Iran. The most common prevalent mycetoma agents in this study were Actinomyces sp. There was a history of risk factors in 28.6% of patients in this study. Conclusion: Mycetoma occasionally occurs particularly in the South, Central, and North of Iran, and seen most often in persons, who live in hot, humid climates. If there are risk factors for invasive fungal infections traumatic inoculation with any fungus may result in rapid local spread and systemic disease, often with fatal outcome.

  8. Mycetoma in iran: causative agents and geographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiri-Jahromi, Shahindokht

    2014-09-01

    Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by true fungi (eumycetoma) or filamentous bacteria (actinomycetoma). It usually involves the subcutaneous tissue after a traumatic inoculation of the causative organism. We reviewed retrospectively 13 patients with mycetoma. This study reports the etiologic agents and distribution of mycetoma in 35 cases from 1994 to2009 in Iran. The diagnostic of mycetoma were confirmed by histopathology and direct preparation, culture techniques, and histopathology of granules and surgical biopsies, radiological examination of the affected site. Mycetoma was identified in 35 patients of 168 suspected patients (20.8%). They occurred in 22 male and 13 females. Their ages ranged from 14 to 80 years. The duration of the disease ranged from two months to 38 years. Sixteen patients had eumycetoma, and 19 patients had actinomycetoma, one of them had mix infections by eumycetoma and actinomycetoma. The majority of the patients were from central and states in south and north of Iran. The feet were most affected site (65.7%) of the cases, followed by hands (25.7%), face (2.8%), and trunk (2.8%), and buttock (2.8%). Most patients (68.5%) were more than 40 year-old. The male to female ratio was 5:3. The disease was abundant among housewife in urban and farmer in rural area of Iran. The most common prevalent mycetoma agents in this study were Actinomyces sp. There was a history of risk factors in 28.6% of patients in this study. Mycetoma occasionally occurs particularly in the South, Central, and North of Iran, and seen most often in persons, who live in hot, humid climates. If there are risk factors for invasive fungal infections traumatic inoculation with any fungus may result in rapid local spread and systemic disease, often with fatal outcome.

  9. Geographic distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campiotto S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a country of continental dimension with a population of different ethnic backgrounds. Thus, a wide variation in the frequencies of hepatitis C virus (HCV genotypes is expected to occur. To address this point, 1,688 sequential samples from chronic HCV patients were analyzed. HCV-RNA was amplified by the RT-PCR from blood samples collected from 1995 to 2000 at different laboratories located in different cities from all Brazilian States. Samples were collected in tubes containing a gel separator, centrifuged in the site of collection and sent by express mail in a refrigerated container to Laboratório Bioquímico Jardim Paulista, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. HCV- RNA was extracted from serum and submitted to RT and nested PCR using standard procedures. Nested PCR products were submitted to cycle sequencing reactions without prior purification. Sequences were analyzed for genotype determination and the following frequencies were found: 64.9% (1,095 for genotype 1, 4.6% (78 for genotype 2, 30.2% (510 for genotype 3, 0.2% (3 for genotype 4, and 0.1% (2 for genotype 5. The frequencies of HCV genotypes were statistically different among Brazilian regions (P = 0.00017. In all regions, genotype 1 was the most frequent (51.7 to 74.1%, reaching the highest value in the North; genotype 2 was more prevalent in the Center-West region (11.4%, especially in Mato Grosso State (25.8%, while genotype 3 was more common in the South (43.2%. Genotypes 4 and 5 were rarely found and only in the Southeast, in São Paulo State. The present data indicate the need for careful epidemiological surveys throughout Brazil since knowing the frequency and distribution of the genotypes would provide key information for understanding the spread of HCV.

  10. Geographic Distribution of Mating Types in Magnaporthe grisea and the Relationship Between Fertile Isolates in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ying; Notteghem Jean Loup.; Milazzo Joёlle.; YUAN Xiao-ping; Adreit Henry; ZHAO Xin-hua; WANG Yan-li; Tharreau Didier.

    2002-01-01

    377 isolates of Magnaporthe grisea were collected from 17 provinces in China and their geographic distribution of mating types and their fertility was tested with four standard isolates, KA3 and TH12 (Mat1.1) and Guy11 and TH16 (Mat1.2) provided by CIRAD. 73 fertile isolates were tested with SCAR markers of 13 pairs of primers. Preliminary results showed that the geographic distribution of M. grisea existed among isolates collected from the same location as well as different locations and the genetic relationship between fertile isolates of the fungus in China. The existence of sexual reproduction of M. grisea was explored in the field as well.

  11. Effect of geographical distributions on the nutrient composition, phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of Morus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Rahman, Tajur Rahman

    2015-09-01

    Recent worldwide inclination for the consumption of natural compounds has extremely augmented the significance of persistent quality of plant materials. Consequently, there is an escalating scientific concern in the impact of geographical distributions of the plants on their chemical constituents, physical characteristics and biological activities. The current study was carried out to see the effect of geographical locations on the nutrient composition, mineral contents, phytochemical profile and free radical scavenging activity of Morus nigra fruit. The samples were collected from five different locations of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, which included districts of D. I. Khan, Karak, Peshawar, Swabi and Swat. The results revealed the considerable impact of geographical locations on the levels of proximate nutrient and selected minerals. Likewise, the concentrations of phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin and alkaloidal contents varied significantly (p<0.05) with respect to their geographical distributions. The physicochemical characteristic, extraction yields and DPPH scavenging activity of the samples also showed strong link with the sites of their cultivation. The data suggest that geographical distributions affect the levels of phytochemicals and conversely their biological activities. These variations must be taken into consideration while utilizing raw plant materials for industrial applications and traditional therapies.

  12. Interaction of landscape varibles on the potential geographical distribution of parrots in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plasencia–Vázquez, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The loss, degradation, and fragmentation of forested areas are endangering parrot populations. In this study, we determined the influence of fragmentation in relation to vegetation cover, land use, and spatial configuration of fragments on the potential geographical distribution patterns of parrots in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We used the potential geographical distribution for eight parrot species, considering the recently published maps obtained with the maximum entropy algorithm, and we incorporated the probability distribution for each species. We calculated 71 metrics/variables that evaluate forest fragmentation, spatial configuration of fragments, the ratio occupied by vegetation, and the land use in 100 plots of approximately 29 km², randomly distributed within the presence and absence areas predicted for each species. We also considered the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution probability of species. We used a partial least squares regression to explore patterns between the variables used and the potential distribution models. None of the environmental variables analyzed alone determined the presence/absence or the probability distribution of parrots in the Peninsula. We found that for the eight species, either due to the presence/absence or the probability distribution, the most important explanatory variables were the interaction among three variables, particularly the interactions among the total forest area, the total edge, and the tropical semi–evergreen medium– height forest. Habitat fragmentation influenced the potential geographical distribution of these species in terms of the characteristics of other environmental factors that are expressed together with the geographical division, such as the different vegetation cover ratio and land uses in deforested areas.

  13. Scaling up from epidemiology to biogeography: local infection patterns predict geographical distribution in fish parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulin, R.; Blanar, C.A.; Thieltges, D.W.; Marcogliese, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim We investigated how the spatial distribution of parasites, measured as either their geographical range size or their frequency of occurrence among localities, relates to either their average local abundance or the variance in their abundance among localities where they occur. Location We used da

  14. Geographic variation and environmental correlates of functional trait distributions in palms (Arecaceae) across the New World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göldel, B.; Kissling, W.D.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Functional traits play a key role in driving biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning. Here, we examine the geographical distributions of three key functional traits in New World palms (Arecaceae), an ecologically important plant group, and their relationships with current climate, soil and gla

  15. Geographic distribution of Staphylococcus aureus causing invasive infections in Europe : a molecular-epidemiological analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundmann, Hajo; Aanensen, David M; van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Spratt, Brian G; Harmsen, Dag; Friedrich, Alexander W; Tami, Adriana

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important human pathogens and methicillin-resistant variants (MRSAs) are a major cause of hospital and community-acquired infection. We aimed to map the geographic distribution of the dominant clones that cause invasive infections in Europe.

  16. Comparison of climatic threshold of geographical distribution between dominant plants and surface pollen in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEDDADI; Rachid; BEAUDOUIN; Celia

    2008-01-01

    The geographical distribution of dominant plant species in China was georeferenced and climatic variables were interpolated into all grids.Accordingly,the percentage distributions of principal pollen taxa based on 1860 surface pollen sites in China were selected and the related climate values were interpolated with the same method. The geographical and climatic comparison between the two data-sets indicated that the climate threshold of most pollen taxa from surface pollen is coherent with plant distributions. The climatic envelopes of dominant plant are mostly accordant with those of pollen taxa at certain levels. However, some distinct offsets of the climate ranges exist between the two datasets for most pollen taxa identified at family level, such as Ericaceae,Asteraceae, Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae. The present study provides for the first time rich information on temperature and precipitation in relation to pollen and plant distribution based on the datasets on a continental scale useful for global ecological modeling and Quaternary palaeoclimate reconstruction.

  17. History shaped the geographic distribution of genomic admixture on the island of Puerto Rico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Via

    Full Text Available Contemporary genetic variation among Latin Americans human groups reflects population migrations shaped by complex historical, social and economic factors. Consequently, admixture patterns may vary by geographic regions ranging from countries to neighborhoods. We examined the geographic variation of admixture across the island of Puerto Rico and the degree to which it could be explained by historic and social events. We analyzed a census-based sample of 642 Puerto Rican individuals that were genotyped for 93 ancestry informative markers (AIMs to estimate African, European and Native American ancestry. Socioeconomic status (SES data and geographic location were obtained for each individual. There was significant geographic variation of ancestry across the island. In particular, African ancestry demonstrated a decreasing East to West gradient that was partially explained by historical factors linked to the colonial sugar plantation system. SES also demonstrated a parallel decreasing cline from East to West. However, at a local level, SES and African ancestry were negatively correlated. European ancestry was strongly negatively correlated with African ancestry and therefore showed patterns complementary to African ancestry. By contrast, Native American ancestry showed little variation across the island and across individuals and appears to have played little social role historically. The observed geographic distributions of SES and genetic variation relate to historical social events and mating patterns, and have substantial implications for the design of studies in the recently admixed Puerto Rican population. More generally, our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating social and geographic data with genetics when studying contemporary admixed populations.

  18. A procedure to characterize geographic distributions of rare disorders in cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meter, Karla C Van; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2008-01-01

    Background Individual point data can be analyzed against an entire cohort instead of only sampled controls to accurately picture the geographic distribution of populations at risk for low prevalence diseases. Analyzed as individual points, many smaller clusters with high relative risks (RR) and l....... Results Our simulations demonstrated the relationship of true RR to observed RR and p values with various, randomly located, cluster shapes, areal unit sizes and scanning window shapes in a diverse population distribution. Clusters with RR...

  19. Deficiencies in the simulation of the geographic distribution of climate types by global climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianliang; Yan, Xiaodong

    2016-05-01

    The performances of General Circulation Models (GCMs) when checked with conventional methods (i.e. correlation, bias, root-mean-square error) can only be evaluated for each variable individually. The geographic distribution of climate type in GCM simulations, which reflects the spatial attributes of models and is related closely to the terrestrial biosphere, has not yet been evaluated. Thus, whether the geographic distribution of climate types was well simulated by GCMs was evaluated in this study for nine GCMs. The results showed that large areas of climate zones classified by the GCMs were allocated incorrectly when compared to the basic climate zones established by observed data. The percentages of wrong areas covered approximately 30-50 % of the total land area for most models. In addition, the temporal shift in the distribution of climate zones according to the GCMs was found to be inaccurate. Not only were the locations of shifts poorly simulated, but also the areas of shift in climate zones. Overall, the geographic distribution of climate types was not simulated well by the GCMs, nor was the temporal shift in the distribution of climate zones. Thus, a new method on how to evaluate the simulated distribution of climate types for GCMs was provided in this study.

  20. A simple consensus algorithm for distributed averaging in random geographical networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahdi Jalili

    2012-09-01

    Random geographical networks are realistic models for wireless sensor networks which are used in many applications. Achieving average consensus is very important in sensor networks and the faster the consensus is, the durable the sensors’ life, and thus, the better the performance of the network. In this paper we compared the performance of a number of linear consensus algorithms with application to distributed averaging in random geographical networks. Interestingly, the simplest algorithm – where only the degree of receiving nodes is needed for the averaging – had the best performance in terms of the consensus time. Furthermore, we proved that the network has guaranteed convergence with this simple algorithm.

  1. New records and geographical distribution of ctenid spiders (Araneae: Ctenidae) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzi, Nicolás A; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Brescovit, Antonio D; Polotow, Daniele; Simó, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new records, geographical distribution extensions and a checklist of the current ctenids species in Colombia based on the review of four arachnological collections and published literature. A total of 15 new records for Ctenidae in Colombia are reported; nine of these species are new records for the country and the distribution of the remaining six is expanded. The genus Centroctenus Mello-Leitão, 1929 (C. ocelliventer Strand, 1909) is recorded for first time in Colombia and Cupiennius coccineus (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1901) for South America. Due to the strategic geographic position of Colombia, which is a transition zone between Southern and Central American biotas, species inventories in different localities are important to fill distributional gaps. The number of known species of ctenids in Colombia is increased from 16 to 25 and these data will be useful for future studies in taxonomy, systematics and biogeography of this family.

  2. Software Quality Validation for Web Applications Developed Using Geographically Distributed Human Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai GHEORGHE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing web applications using Geographically Distributed Team Members has seen an increased popularity during the last years mainly because the rise of Open Source technologies, fast penetration of the Internet in emerging economies, the continuous quest for reduced costs as well for the fast adoption of online platforms and services which successfully address project planning, coordination and other development tasks. This paper identifies general software process stages for both collocated and distributed development and analyses the impact the use of planning, management and testing online services has on the duration, cost and quality of each stage. Given that Quality Assurance is one of the most important concerns in Geographically Distributed Software Development (GDSD, the focus is on Software Quality Validation.

  3. Geographic distribution model for Mabuya agmosticha (Squamata: Scincidae in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul F.D. Sales

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical lizard Mabuya agmosticha Rodrigues, 2000 is a habitat-specialist of thorny bromeliads in rocky outcrops of northeastern Brazil. Its distribution in the Caatinga Domain is most likely relictual. In recent years, new surveys conducted in northeastern Brazil have revealed new records of the species in the Caatinga and also in the Atlantic Forest Domain. In this study, we add four new records for M. agmosticha, extending its known geographic range in the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Paraíba. In addition, we investigated the potential geographical distribution of the species using ecological niche modeling (ENM, which combines the available occurrence records with environmental variables. Our model revealed a continuous range of areas with suitable climatic conditions for the species, from the state of Rio Grande do Norte to the northeast portion of the state of Bahia, plus some relictual distribution spots, mainly in the states of Bahia, Pernambuco, Ceará and western Rio Grande do Norte. Based on the model, we suggest that the distribution of M. agmosticha is continuous on a large geographic scale. On a smaller spatial scale, however, it is clear that its distribution is clumped, reflecting its specialist habits associated with rupicolous bromeliads.

  4. Epidemiology and geographical distribution of enteric protozoan infections in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Fletcher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Enteric protozoa are associated with diarrhoeal illnesses in humans; however there are no recent studies on their epidemiology and geographical distribution in Australia. This study describes the epidemiology of enteric protozoa in the state of New South Wales and incorporates spatial analysis to describe their distribution. Design and methods. Laboratory and clinical records from four public hospitals in Sydney for 910 patients, who tested positive for enteric protozoa over the period January 2007-December 2010, were identified, examined and analysed. We selected 580 cases which had residence post code data available, enabling us to examine the geographic distribution of patients, and reviewed the clinical data of 252 patients to examine possible links between protozoa, demographic and clinical features. Results. Frequently detected protozoa were Blastocystis spp. (57%, Giardia intestinalis (27% and Dientamoeba fragilis (12%. The age distribution showed that the prevalence of protozoa decreased with age up to 24 years but increasing with age from 25 years onwards. The geographic provenance of the patients indicates that the majority of cases of Blastocystis (53.1% are clustered in and around the Sydney City Business District, while pockets of giardiasis were identified in regional/rural areas. The distribution of cases suggests higher risk of protozoan infection may exist for some communities. Conclusions. These findings provide useful information for policy makers to design and tailor interventions to target high risk communities. Follow-up investigation into the risk factors for giardiasis in regional/rural area is needed.

  5. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) transmitting visceral leishmaniasis and their geographical distribution in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Li-Ren; Zhou, Zheng-Bin; Jin, Chang-Fa; Fu, Qing; Chai, Jun-Jie

    2016-02-23

    After the existence of phlebotomine sand flies was first reported in China in 1910, the distribution of different species and their role in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been extensively studied. Up until 2008, four species have been verified as vectors of VL, namely, Phlebotomus chinensis (Ph. sichuanensis), Ph. longiductus (Ph. chinensis longiductus), Ph. wui (Ph. major wui), and Ph. alexandri. The sand fly species vary greatly depending on the natural environments in the different geographic areas where they are endemic. Ph. chinensis is euryecious and adaptable to different ecologies, and is thus distributed widely in the plain, mountainous, and Loess Plateau regions north of the Yangtze River. Ph. longiductus is mainly distributed in ancient oasis areas south of Mt. Tianshan in the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region. Ph. wui is the predominant species in deserts with Populus diversifolia and Tamarix vegetation in Xinjiang and the western part of the Inner Mongolia autonomous region. Finally, Ph. alexandri is steroecious and found only in stony desert areas, such as at the foot of the mountains in Xinjiang and the western Hexi Corridor, in Gansu province. This review summarized the relationship between the geographic distribution pattern of the four sand fly species and their geographical landscape in order to foster research on disease distribution and sand fly control planning. Furthermore, some problems that remained to be solved about vectors of VL in China were discussed.

  6. Performance of forest bryophytes with different geographical distributions transplanted across a topographically heterogeneous landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, C Johan; Ehrlén, Johan; Hylander, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    Most species distribution models assume a close link between climatic conditions and species distributions. Yet, we know little about the link between species' geographical distributions and the sensitivity of performance to local environmental factors. We studied the performance of three bryophyte species transplanted at south- and north-facing slopes in a boreal forest landscape in Sweden. At the same sites, we measured both air and ground temperature. We hypothesized that the two southerly distributed species Eurhynchium angustirete and Herzogiella seligeri perform better on south-facing slopes and in warm conditions, and that the northerly distributed species Barbilophozia lycopodioides perform better on north-facing slopes and in relatively cool conditions. The northern, but not the two southern species, showed the predicted relationship with slope aspect. However, the performance of one of the two southern species was still enhanced by warm temperatures. An important reason for the inconsistent results can be that microclimatic gradients across landscapes are complex and influenced by many climate-forcing factors. Therefore, comparing only north- and south-facing slopes might not capture the complexity of microclimatic gradients. Population growth rates and potential distributions are the integrated results of all vital rates. Still, the study of selected vital rates constitutes an important first step to understand the relationship between population growth rates and geographical distributions and is essential to better predict how climate change influences species distributions.

  7. Galictis cuja (Mammalia: an update of current knowledge and geographic distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A. Poo-Muñoz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The lesser grison (Galictis cuja is one of the least-known mustelids in the Neotropics, despite its broad range across South America. This study aimed to explore current knowledge of the distribution of the species to identify gaps in knowledge and anticipate its full geographic distribution. Eighty-nine articles have mentioned G. cuja since 1969, but only 13 focused on the species. We generated a detailed model of the species' potential distribution that validated previous maps, but with improved detail, supporting previous southernmost records, and providing a means of identifying priority sites for conservation and management of the species.

  8. Geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium, 2008-2013: a principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strale, Mathieu; Krysinska, Karolina; Overmeiren, Gaëtan Van; Andriessen, Karl

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium over 2008--2013 on local (i.e., district or arrondissement) level. There were differences in the regional distribution of suicide and railway suicides in Belgium over the study period. Principal component analysis identified three groups of correlations among population variables and socio-economic indicators, such as population density, unemployment, and age group distribution, on two components that helped explaining the variance of railway suicide at a local (arrondissement) level. This information is of particular importance to prevent suicides in high-risk areas on the Belgian railway network.

  9. Coincidence between geographical distribution of Leptotrombidium scutellare and scrub typhus incidence in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yul Roh

    Full Text Available To clarify the geographical distribution of scrub typhus vectors in Korea, a survey of larval trombiculid mites was conducted from 2005 to 2007 by collecting wild small mammals twice a year (spring and autumn at 24 sites nationwide. A total of 67,325 mites representing 4 genera and 14 species were collected from 783 trapped rodents, corresponding to a chigger index (number of chigger mites per rodent of 86.0. The predominant mite species were Leptotrombidium pallidum (52.6%, Leptotrombiduim scutellare (27.1%, Leptotrombidium palpale (8.2%, Leptotrombidium orientale (5.6%, and Neotrombicula tamiyai (1.7%. However, the proportions of L. scutellare in southern areas, including endemic provinces such as Jeollabuk-Do (34.3%, Jeollanam-Do (49.0%, and Gyeongsangnam-Do (88%, were relatively higher than in central Korean regions where L. pallidum was predominant. In autumn, the ratio of L. scutellare increased to 42% while the ratio of L. pallidum decreased. The geographical distribution map of the L. scutellare chigger index was identical to the incidence pattern of scrub typhus, whereas those of overall mites and L. pallidum showed no relationship with case incidence patterns. Distribution mapping analysis shows an identical geographical distribution of L. scutellare and epidemic incidence of scrub typhus in South Korea. L. pallidum could be another vector at all other parts of the Korean peninsula, including the eastern and northern regions that have a low level of scrub typhus incidence.

  10. Design and implementation of distributed virtual geographic environment system based on MAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Kaiping; Yang, Xiaoxia

    2007-11-01

    The use of distributed virtual geographic environments (DVGE) is one of the most promising uses of virtual reality in geographic field. Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) is flexible and adaptive enough to resolve highly complex distributed computing problems. This paper aims to discuss how to apply MAS technology to improve the efficiency of collaborative work among multi-user. We firstly design the three-layer system architecture and multi agent system of the DVGE. Then dynamic cooperative group algorithm is also addressed. Finally, we built a collaborative virtual environment and implemented prototype system in silt dams system planning on a case study area, Jiu-Yuan-Gou watershed of Loess Plateau, China. Experiment results prove that the scheme addressed in this paper is efficient and feasible.

  11. Ecological Niche Modeling for the Prediction of the Geographic Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalghaf, Bilel; Chlif, Sadok; Mayala, Benjamin; Ghawar, Wissem; Bettaieb, Jihène; Harrabi, Myriam; Benie, Goze Bertin; Michael, Edwin; Salah, Afif Ben

    2016-04-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a very complex disease involving multiple factors that limit its emergence and spatial distribution. Prediction of cutaneous leishmaniasis epidemics in Tunisia remains difficult because most of the epidemiological tools used so far are descriptive in nature and mainly focus on a time dimension. The purpose of this work is to predict the potential geographic distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in Tunisia using Grinnellian ecological niche modeling. We attempted to assess the importance of environmental factors influencing the potential distribution of P. papatasi and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major. Vectors were trapped in central Tunisia during the transmission season using CDC light traps (John W. Hock Co., Gainesville, FL). A global positioning system was used to record the geographical coordinates of vector occurrence points and households tested positive for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major. Nine environmental layers were used as predictor variables to model the P. papatasi geographical distribution and five variables were used to model the L. major potential distribution. Ecological niche modeling was used to relate known species' occurrence points to values of environmental factors for these same points to predict the presence of the species in unsampled regions based on the value of the predictor variables. Rainfall and temperature contributed the most as predictors for sand flies and human case distributions. Ecological niche modeling anticipated the current distribution of P. papatasi with the highest suitability for species occurrence in the central and southeastern part of Tunisian. Furthermore, our study demonstrated that governorates of Gafsa, Sidi Bouzid, and Kairouan are at highest epidemic risk.

  12. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Silva de Almeida; Andrey José de Andrade; Alan Sciamarelli; Josué Raizer; Jaqueline Aparecida Menegatti; Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira Hermes; Maria do Socorro Laurentino de Carvalho; Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In a...

  13. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveda-Rodríguez, Adrián; Vargas, Félix Hernán; Kohn, Sebastián; Zapata-Ríos, Galo

    2016-01-01

    The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA) for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation. PMID:26986004

  14. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveda-Rodríguez, Adrián; Vargas, Félix Hernán; Kohn, Sebastián; Zapata-Ríos, Galo

    2016-01-01

    The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA) for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation.

  15. Potential distribution and geographic characteristics of wild populations of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae) Oaxaca, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Ruiz, Jesús; Herrera-Cabrera, B. Edgar; Delgado-Alvarado, Adriana; Salazar-Rojas, Víctor M.; Bustamante-Gonzalez, Ángel; Campos-Contreras, Jorge E.; Ramírez-Juarez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Wild specimens of Vanilla planifolia represent a vital part of this resource primary gene pool, and some plants have only been reported in Oaxaca, Mexico. For this reason, we studied its geographical distribution within the state, to locate and describe the ecological characteristics of the areas where they have been found, in order to identify potential areas of establishment. The method comprised four stages: 1) the creation of a database with herbarium records, 2) the construction of the p...

  16. Local knowledge, use pattern and geographical distribution of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Jacob O; Obembe, Olawole O

    2013-11-25

    All parts of Moringa oleifera are medicinally valuable with overlapping uses in treating myriads of ailments and diseases including body pains and weakness, fever, asthma, cough, blood pressure, arthritis, diabetes, epilepsy, wound, and skin infection. Moringa also has robust ability to challenge terminal diseases such as HIV/AIDs infections, chronic anemia, cancer, malaria and hemorrhage. The present study was to obtain ethnobotanical information on the use and local knowledge variation, geographical distribution, and to collect different landraces of Moringa oleifera from the different agro-ecological regions in Nigeria, for further studies. Ethnobotanical data were collected through face to face interviews, semi structured questionnaires and discussions with selected people who had knowledge about the plant. The fidelity level (FL %) and use value for different use categories of Moringa oleifera and its parts were estimated. The variation in ethnobotanical knowledge was evaluated by comparing the mean use value among ethnic, gender and age groups using sample T test. Garmi GPS was used to determine the locations (latitude and longitude) and height in different areas to assess the geographical spread of the species. Seven (7) categories of use (Food, medicine, fodder, fencing, firewood, gum and coagulant) were recorded for Moringa oleifera. Food and medicinal uses showed highest fidelity level while the leaves and the seeds were the plant parts most utilized for the same purposes. There were significant differences among the ethnic, gender and age groups regarding the ethno-botanical use value. The geographical distribution pattern shows that the Moringa oleifera is well distributed in all ecological zones of Nigeria, well adapted to the varied climatic conditions and gaining unprecedented awareness among the people. Though considered an introduced species, Moringa oleifera has found wide acceptance, recognition and usefulness among the various ethnicities in the

  17. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Naveda-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation.

  18. Geographic distribution and conservation status of Caiman latirostris (Crocodylia, Alligatoridae in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Borteiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Caiman latirostris are known to occur in Uruguay but their geographic distribution remains uncertain. This work presents anupdate of the species distribution and conservation status in Uruguay. Surveys conducted by the authors confirmed the presence of this species in the previously known distribution range of northwestern Uruguay, where it seems to be widespread and relatively abundant in contrast to earlier reports. We report new localities for C. latirostris, most relevant being those of the Cebollatí and Tacuarí Rivers, and the Pelotas, India Muerta and San Miguel stream basins, which significantly expand its distribution through important wetlands in the eastern part of the country. The overall distribution is coincident with different landscape types, where lagoons, artificial impoundments, livestock waterholes, rivers, streams, creeks and marshes are inhabited by caiman. Illegal non-commercial hunting was detected all over the country.

  19. Hospital distribution in a metropolitan city: assessment by a geographical information system grid modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Soo Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Grid models were used to assess urban hospital distribution in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. A geographical information system (GIS based analytical model was developed and applied to assess the situation in a metropolitan area with a population exceeding 10 million. Secondary data for this analysis were obtained from multiple sources: the Korean Statistical Information Service, the Korean Hospital Association and the Statistical Geographical Information System. A grid of cells measuring 1 × 1 km was superimposed on the city map and a set of variables related to population, economy, mobility and housing were identified and measured for each cell. Socio-demographic variables were included to reflect the characteristics of each area. Analytical models were then developed using GIS software with the number of hospitals as the dependent variable. Applying multiple linear regression and geographically weighted regression models, three factors (highway and major arterial road areas; number of subway entrances; and row house areas were statistically significant in explaining the variance of hospital distribution for each cell. The overall results show that GIS is a useful tool for analysing and understanding location strategies. This approach appears a useful source of information for decision-makers concerned with the distribution of hospitals and other health care centres in a city.

  20. Hospital distribution in a metropolitan city: assessment by a geographic information system grid modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Soo; Moon, Kyeong-Jun

    2014-05-01

    Grid models were used to assess urban hospital distribution in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. A geographical information system (GIS) based analytical model was developed and applied to assess the situation in a metropolitan area with a population exceeding 10 million. Secondary data for this analysis were obtained from multiple sources: the Korean Statistical Information Service, the Korean Hospital Association and the Statistical Geographical Information System. A grid of cells measuring 1 × 1 km was superimposed on the city map and a set of variables related to population, economy, mobility and housing were identified and measured for each cell. Socio-demographic variables were included to reflect the characteristics of each area. Analytical models were then developed using GIS software with the number of hospitals as the dependent variable. Applying multiple linear regression and geographically weighted regression models, three factors (highway and major arterial road areas; number of subway entrances; and row house areas) were statistically significant in explaining the variance of hospital distribution for each cell. The overall results show that GIS is a useful tool for analysing and understanding location strategies. This approach appears a useful source of information for decision-makers concerned with the distribution of hospitals and other health care centres in a city.

  1. Genetic Diversity: Geographical Distribution and Toxin Profiles of Microcystis Strains (Cyanobacteria) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Xing Wu; Nan-Qin Gan; Li-Rong Song

    2007-01-01

    Twenty strains of Microcystis Kütz were isolated from different freshwater bodies in China to analyze the diversity,geographical distribution and toxin profiles. Based on whole-cell polymerase chain reaction of cpcBA-IGS nucleotide sequence, the derived neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) trees indicate that these strains of Microcystis can be divided into four clusters. The strains from south, middle and north region of China formed distinct lineages, suggesting high diversity and a geographical distribution from south to north locations. Moreover,the results being indicating high variable genotypes of the strains of the Microcystis strains from the same lake show that there is high diversity of Microcystis within a water bloom population. Comparing the results of the present study with those reported for compared with 43 strains of Microcystis from other locations, also reveals Chinese strains have high similarity with those from regions in the North Hemispherical. This suggests that the Microcystis strains in the world might have a geographical distribution. Analysis of 30 strains using the primers MCF/TER and TOX2P/TOX2M showed that there was no correlation between the gene of cpcBA-IGS and the presence of mcy. Toxic strains were founded to be predominant in different water bodies throughout China.

  2. Geographic distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus collected from used tires in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Yukiko; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Kawada, Hitoshi; Son, Tran Hai; Hoa, Nguyen Thuy; Takagi, Masahiro

    2010-03-01

    The spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in environmental and geographical zones, e.g., urban-rural, coastal-mountainous, and north-south, was investigated throughout Vietnam. Immature stages were collected from used tires along roads. The effects of regions, seasons, and the degree of urbanization on the density and the frequency were statistically analyzed. Aedes aegypti predominated in the southern and central regions, while Ae. albopictus predominated in the northern region, which may be related to climatic conditions (temperature and rainfall). Larval collection from used tires may be suitable to assess rapidly the current distribution of dengue mosquitoes for estimating health risks and implementing vector control measures.

  3. Reconstructing ecological niches and geographic distributions of caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and red deer ( Cervus elaphus) during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William E.; d'Errico, Francesco; Peterson, A. Townsend; Kageyama, Masa; Colombeau, Guillaume

    2008-12-01

    A variety of approaches have been used to reconstruct glacial distributions of species, identify their environmental characteristics, and understand their influence on subsequent population expansions. Traditional methods, however, provide only rough estimates of past distributions, and are often unable to identify the ecological and geographic processes that shaped them. Recently, ecological niche modeling (ENM) methodologies have been applied to these questions in an effort to overcome such limitations. We apply ENM to the European faunal record of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to reconstruct ecological niches and potential ranges for caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and red deer ( Cervus elaphus), and evaluate whether their LGM distributions resulted from tracking the geographic footprint of their ecological niches (niche conservatism) or if ecological niche shifts between the LGM and present might be implicated. Results indicate that the LGM geographic ranges of both species represent distributions characterized by niche conservatism, expressed through geographic contraction of the geographic footprints of their respective ecological niches.

  4. Availability and distribution of, and geographic access to emergency obstetric care in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrysch, Sabine; Simushi, Virginia; Campbell, Oona M R

    2011-08-01

    To assess the availability and coverage of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services in Zambia. Reported provision of EmOC signal functions in the Zambian Health Facility Census and additional criteria on staffing, opening hours, and referral capacity were used to classify all Zambian health facilities as providing comprehensive EmOC, basic EmOC, or more limited care. Geographic accessibility of EmOC services was estimated by linking health facility data with data from the Zambian population census. Few Zambian health facilities provided all basic EmOC signal functions and had qualified health professionals available on a 24-hour basis. Of the 1131 Zambian delivery facilities, 135 (12%) were classified as providing EmOC. Zambia nearly met the UN EmOC density benchmarks nationally, but EmOC facilities and health professionals were unevenly distributed between provinces. Geographic access to EmOC services in rural areas was low; in most provinces, less than 25% of the population lived within 15 km of an EmOC facility. A national Health Facility Census with geographic information is a valuable tool for assessing service availability and coverage at national and subnational levels. Simultaneously assessing health worker density and geographic access adds crucial information. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A longitudinal ecological study of household firearm ownership and firearm-related deaths in the United States from 1999 through 2014: A specific focus on gender, race, and geographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Geier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Firearms have a longstanding tradition in the United States (US and are viewed by many with iconic stature with regards to safety and personal freedom. Unfortunately, from a public health point of view, firearm-related deaths (FRDs in the US have reached a crisis point with an estimated >31,000 deaths and 74,000 nonfatal injuries resulting from firearms each year. This longitudinal ecological study analyzed variations in FRDs following firearm assaults (FAs and law enforcement incidents involving a firearm (LEIF in comparison to variations in household firearm ownership (HFO among different geographic and demographic groups in the US from 1999 to 2014. The Underlying Cause of Death database was examined on the CDC Wonder online interface. Records coded with ICD-10 codes: FA (X93 – assault by handgun discharge, X94 – assault by rifle, shotgun, and larger firearm discharge, or X95 – assault by other and unspecified firearm discharge and LEIF (Y35.0 were examined, and the prevalence of HFO was determined using the well-established proxy of the percentage of suicides committed with a firearm. Gender, ethnicity, Census Division, and urbanization significantly impacted the death rates from FA and LEIF. Significant direct correlations between variations in HFO and death rates from FAs and LEIF were observed. Understanding the significant impacts of gender, race, Census Division, and urbanization status may help shape future public health policy to promote increased firearm safety.

  6. Factors Influence on Geographic Distribution of Physicians in Selected Countries: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ashkan Nasiripour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most important inequalities of providing health services is misdistribution of human resources, especially physicians. Many factors contribute to the distribution of physicians in different regions. The present study was aimed to explore the effective factors in distributing physicians in different countries. Methods: This study is a systematic review, in which the data were gathered through literature review, online searches in multiple databases and relevant organizations’ websites. Later, the collected data were classified using content analysis method, and consequently, they were illustrated in comparative matrix. Results: The factors that influence the dispersion of the physicians are divided into 4 main groups. Firstly, Geographic and Demographic factors of the region such as, population, age, gender and climate. Secondly, Health factors of the region and the country such as, the number of hospitals, health centers and health indicators. Thirdly, Economic, Social and Political factors of the region such as, economic growth, culture and believes. And finally, the factors related to physicians' characteristics and motivation such as, age, gender and the compensation system. Conclusion: There are different reasons why physicians spread in different countries’ geographical regions. Regarding the unequal distribution of physicians in Iran, identifying these influential reasons and also the factors affecting the distribution of physicians, and the impact of each one of these, can lead to a fair and equal distribution of resources of the health sector.

  7. Geographic Distribution of Environmental Relative Moldiness Index Molds in USA Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Vesper

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study was to quantify and describe the distribution of the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI. Materials and Methods. As part of the 2006 American Healthy Homes Survey, settled dust samples were analyzed by mold-specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR for the 36 ERMI molds. Each species' geographical distribution pattern was examined individually, followed by partitioning analysis in order to identify spatially meaningful patterns. For mapping, the 36 mold populations were divided into disjoint clusters on the basis of their standardized concentrations, and First Principal Component (FPC scores were computed. Results and Conclusions. The partitioning analyses failed to uncover a valid partitioning that yielded compact, well-separated partitions with systematic spatial distributions, either on global or local criteria. Disjoint variable clustering resulted in seven mold clusters. The 36 molds and ERMI values themselves were found to be heterogeneously distributed across the United States of America (USA.

  8. Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon B; Peterson, Andrew T; Gulinck, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern...... of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970-2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We...... predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests...

  9. Geographic distribution and epidemiology of lung cancer during 2011 in Zhejiang province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xia-Lu; Chen, Yan; Gong, Wei-Wei; Wu, Zhao-Fan; Zou, Bao-Bo; Zhao, Jin-Shun; Gu, Hua; Jiang, Jian-Min

    2014-01-01

    To explore etiology for providing scientific clues for the prevention of lung cancer. Data for lung cancer incidence and meteorological geographic factors from 25 counties in Zhejiang province of China during 2011 were studied. Stepwise multiple regression and correlation analysis were performed to analyze the geographic distribution and epidemiology of lung cancer. 8,291 new cases (5,998 in males and 2,293 females) of lung cancer during 2011 in Zhejiang province were reported in the 25 studied counties. Reported and standardized incidence rates for lung cancer were 58.0 and 47.0 per 100,000 population, respectively. The incidence of lung cancer increased with age. Geographic distribution analysis shows that the standardized incidence rates of lung cancer in northeastern Zhejiang province were higher than in the southwestern part, such as in Nanhu, Fuyang, Wuxing and Yuyao counties, where the rates were more than 50 per 100,000 population. In the southwestern Zhejiang province, for instance, in Yueqing, Xianju and Jiande counties, the standardized incidence rates of lung cancer were lower than 37 per 100,000 population. Spearman correlation tests showed that forest coverage rate, air quality index (AQI), and annual precipitation level are associated with the incidence of lung cancer. Lung cancer in Zhejiang province shows obvious regional differences. High incidence appears associated with low forest coverage rate, poor air quality and low annual precipitation. Therefore, increasing the forest coverage rate and controlling air pollution may play an important role in lung cancer prevention.

  10. Effective environmental factors on geographical distribution of traffic accidents on pedestrians, downtown Tehran city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ali; Soori, Hamid; Kavousi, Amir; Eshghabadi, Farshid; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Zeini, Salahdien

    2017-01-01

    In most countries, occurrence of traffic causalities is high in pedestrians. The aim of this study is to geographically analyze the traffic casualties in pedestrians in downtown Tehran city. The study population consisted of traffic injury accidents in pedestrians occurred during 2015 in Tehran city. Data were extracted from offices of traffic police and municipality. For analysis of environmental factors and site of accidents, ordinary least square regression models and geographically weighted regression were used. Fitness and performance of models were checked using the Akaike information criteria, Bayesian information criteria, deviance, and adjusted R(2). Totally, 514 accidents were included in this study. Of them, site of accidents was arterial streets in 370 (71.9%) cases, collector streets in 133 cases (25.2%), and highways in 11 cases (2.1%). Geographical units of traffic accidents in pedestrians had statistically significant relationship with a number of bus stations, number of crossroads, and recreational areas. Distribution of injury traffic accidents in pedestrians is different in downtown Tehran city. Neighborhoods close to markets are considered as most dangerous neighborhoods for injury traffic accidents. Different environmental factors are involved in determining the distribution of these accidents. The health of pedestrians in Tehran city can be improved by proper traffic management, control of environmental factors, and educational programs.

  11. [Species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhong, Jin-Xin

    2013-05-01

    Based on the related published papers, and by using Geographic Information System (ArcGIS 9.3), this paper analyzed the species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China. There were 83 threatened species living in the Province, belonging to 5 orders, 13 families, and 47 genera. Cypriniformes was absolutely dominant, with 64 species, followed by Siluriformes, with 16 species. Cyprinidae fishes had 51 species, accounting for 79.7% of Cypriniformes. The most species of Cyprinid fishes were of Barbinae (14 species), Cyprininae (10 species), and Cultrinae (10 species). The threatened fishes could be divided into two zoogeographical regions, i. e., Tibetan Plateau region and Oriental region, and their species composition and geographical distribution were resulted from the historical evolution adapted to the related environments. Whatever in rivers and in lakes, the Cyprinid fishes were both absolutely dominant, occupying 36.1% and 31.3% of the total, respectively. The Cyprinid fishes in rivers were mostly of endangered species, while those in lakes were mostly of vulnerable species. The factors affecting the threatened fishes in the Province were discussed from the two aspects of geodynamic evolution and present situation.

  12. Evolutionary consequences of changes in species' geographical distributions driven by Milankovitch climate oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynesius, M; Jansson, R

    2000-08-01

    We suggest Milankovitch climate oscillations as a common cause for geographical patterns in species diversity, species' range sizes, polyploidy, and the degree of specialization and dispersability of organisms. Periodical changes in the orbit of the Earth cause climatic changes termed Milankovitch oscillations, leading to large changes in the size and location of species' geographical distributions. We name these recurrent changes "orbitally forced species' range dynamics" (ORD). The magnitude of ORD varies in space and time. ORD decreases gradual speciation (attained by gradual changes over many generations), increases range sizes and the proportions of species formed by polyploidy and other "abrupt" mechanisms, selects against specialization, and favor dispersability. Large ORD produces species prone neither to extinction nor gradual speciation. ORD increases with latitude. This produces latitudinal patterns, among them the gradient in species diversity and species' range sizes (Rapoport's rule). Differential ORD and its evolutionary consequences call for new conservation strategies on the regional to global scale.

  13. Quantitative Study of the Geographical Distribution of the Authorship of High-Energy Physics Journals

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Jan; Mele, S

    2007-01-01

    The recent debate on Open Access publishing in High-Energy Physics has exposed the problem of assessing the scienti c production of every country where scholars are active in this discipline. This assessment is complicated by the highly-collaborative cross-border tradition of High-Energy Physics research. We present the results of a quantitative study of the geographical distribution of authors of High-Energy Physics articles, which takes into account cross-border co-authorship by attributing articles to countries on a pro-rata basis. Aggregated data on the share of scienti c results published by each country are presented together with a breakdown for the most popular journals in the eld, and a separation for articles by small groups or large collaborations. Collaborative patterns across large geographic areas are also investigated. Finally, the High-Energy Physics production of each country is compared with some economic indicators.

  14. Review of the geographic distribution of Micrurus decoratus (Jan, 1858 (Serpentes: Elapidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Castellari Gonzalez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Micrurus decoratus (Jan, 1858 is a poorly known species of coral snake, with a controversial history concerning its geographical range. The lack of consensus among researchers, since its original description, is largely due to the reporting of erroneous localities in publications. Herein we present the geographical range for the species based on the review of 184 records from 67 different municipalities in Brazil, including two new records for the state of Espírito Santo, extending its distribution to ca. 300 km northward from the previous northernmost locality. We also comment on doubtful records for the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Bahia, which contain no accurate data. We restrict the occurrence of Micrurus decoratus to the Atlantic Rainforest, with elevation range from 400 up to 1,600 m in the Brazilian states of Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo.

  15. Potential geographical distribution of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae)in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Geng; Zhi-Hong Li; Edwin G. Rajotte; Fang-Hao Wan; Xiao-Yu Lu; Zhi-Ling Wang

    2011-01-01

    Apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is a major pest causing considerable economic losses of fruits in North America. During the development of international trade, apple maggot fly has become a threat to Chinese agriculture. In this study, CLIMEX and ArcGIS were used to predict the potential geographical distribution of apple maggot fly in China. The parameters used in CLIMEX for apple maggot fly were derived from ecological data and the present geographical distribution of apple maggot fly in North America. Then the potential distribution map in China was presented based on the adjusted values of these parameters. The results showed that apple maggot fly has a wide potential distribution area in China; 47.5% of 748 meteorological stations presented high or medium suitability of pest establishment. These high suitable stations are mainly located in northeast, southwest and northwest of China, such as Liaoning, Shandong,Gansu and Shaanxi Provinces. These areas are also the central regions of apple, pear and peach production in China. Two hundred and twenty-five stations (30.1%) in western and southern China, such as Tibet, Qinghai, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan and Taiwan,were unsuitable for establishment of apple maggot fly populations. In order to prevent the introduction of apple maggot fly in China, the present plant quarantine measures should be enhanced, especially in the areas with high suitability for the presence of apple maggot fly.

  16. [Prevalence and geographic distribution of cancer in the health area of Guadalajara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Gordo, José M; Jiménez del Val, Dolores; Palacios Rojo, Juan José; Royo Sánchez, Carlos; Urbina Torija, Juan Román; Santiago González, Catalina; Bárcena Marugán, Aurora

    2004-01-01

    The total cancer prevalence falls within the range of 2%-3% of the population. Some data suggests differences in terms of whether the environment is urban or rural, other geographical factors and in the area surrounding nuclear power plants. This study is aimed at ascertaining said prevalences and the distribution thereof in the different geographical areas of the Guadalajara Healthcare District. Point prevalence study in 1999 based on a systematic review of cases at primary and secondary sources in the Guadalajara Health District, including invasive malignant tumors among individuals over age 14. The overall and specific distribution in terms of the place of residence, region and proximity to nuclear power plants is analyzed, raw and adjusted prevalences/100,000 inhabitants and CI 95% prevalence index. A total of 2,717 cases were detected (raw prevalence: 2034.6/10(5)), there being a 50%-50% ratio between the urban and rural environments. The adjusted prevalence (worldwide population) is 1295.2/10(5), being greater in the urban environment (1479.9/10(5)) than in the rural environment (1136.3/10(5)). With regard to the geographic regions, solely thyroid cancer is more prevalent among women in the most depressed, mountainous areas, although involving a low-level casuistic. The cancer prevalences found are similar to those published and, following an age-based adjustment, are greater in the urban than in the rural environment. The differences among regions are related to the demographic and geographical characteristics and to the environment being urban.

  17. Divorce comes at a price. An ex ante welfare analysis of ownership unbundling of the distribution and commercial companies in the Dutch energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nooij, Michiel; Baarsma, Barbara [SEO Economic Research, Roetersstraat 29, 1018 WB, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    Vertical unbundling in the electricity sector is a hot political topic in the European Union. The European Commission has decided that the ownership unbundling of transmission networks from other stages in the value chain is the most effective way to ensure fair network access and infrastructure investment. While this European unbundling debate has not ended yet and most countries still do not have an independent transmission system operator (TSO), the Dutch government has already taken one step further. In 2008, it decided that distribution companies should be completely separated from commercial activities that are part of the same holding (generation, trade and supply). This governmental decision has been fiercely debated. Although the goal is to improve competition as well as security of supply, these benefits are uncertain. Nevertheless, it is certain that ownership unbundling comes at a cost. In this paper we present an ex ante cost-benefit analysis of the Dutch unbundling act. We conclude that it is unlikely that this act is welfare enhancing: divorce comes at a price. (author)

  18. Divorce comes at a price: An ex ante welfare analysis of ownership unbundling of the distribution and commercial companies in the Dutch energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nooij, Michiel de, E-mail: m.denooij@seo.n [SEO Economic Research, Roetersstraat 29, 1018 WB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baarsma, Barbara [SEO Economic Research, Roetersstraat 29, 1018 WB, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    Vertical unbundling in the electricity sector is a hot political topic in the European Union. The European Commission has decided that the ownership unbundling of transmission networks from other stages in the value chain is the most effective way to ensure fair network access and infrastructure investment. While this European unbundling debate has not ended yet and most countries still do not have an independent transmission system operator (TSO), the Dutch government has already taken one step further. In 2008, it decided that distribution companies should be completely separated from commercial activities that are part of the same holding (generation, trade and supply). This governmental decision has been fiercely debated. Although the goal is to improve competition as well as security of supply, these benefits are uncertain. Nevertheless, it is certain that ownership unbundling comes at a cost. In this paper we present an ex ante cost-benefit analysis of the Dutch unbundling act. We conclude that it is unlikely that this act is welfare enhancing: divorce comes at a price.

  19. Ownership reform and the changing manufacturing landscape in Chinese cities: The case of Wuxi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Yang, Shan; Wang, Shuguang; Xiong, Liyang

    2017-01-01

    Since the economic transition, manufacturing in China has undergone profound changes not only in number of enterprises, but also in ownership structure and intra-urban spatial distribution. Investigating the changing manufacturing landscape from the perspective of ownership structure is critical to a deep understanding of the changing role of market and government in re-shaping manufacturing location behavior. Through a case study of Wuxi, a city experiencing comprehensive ownership reform, this paper presents a detailed analysis of the intra-urban spatial shift of manufacturing, identifies the location discrepancies, and examines the underlying forces responsible for the geographical differentiations. Through zone- and district-based analysis, a distinctive trend of decentralization and suburbanization, as well as an uneven distribution of manufacturing, is unveiled. The results of Location Quotient analysis show that the distribution of manufacturing by ownership exhibits distinctive spatial patterns, which is characterized by a historically-based, market-led, and institutionally-created spatial variation. By employing Hot Spot analysis, the role of development zones in attracting manufacturing enterprises of different ownerships is established. Overall, the location behavior of the diversified manufacturing has been increasingly based on the forces of market since the land marketization began. A proactive role played by local governments has also guided the enterprise location decision through spatial planning and regulatory policies.

  20. Geographic Distribution of Teaching Talent in California. Consultant's Report Prepared for the State Committee on Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James; And Others

    The central purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between distribution of teaching talent and geographic location of local school districts of California. School districts were assigned to one of four geographic categories (urban, suburban, rural, or small urban centers). Each category's teaching talent was assessed on six measures…

  1. Social Class and Income Inequality in the United States: Ownership, Authority, and Personal Income Distribution from 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T

    2016-03-01

    This study outlines a theory of social class based on workplace ownership and authority relations, and it investigates the link between social class and growth in personal income inequality since the 1980s. Inequality trends are governed by changes in between-class income differences, changes in the relative size of different classes, and changes in within-class income dispersion. Data from the General Social Survey are used to investigate each of these changes in turn and to evaluate their impact on growth in inequality at the population level. Results indicate that between-class income differences grew by about 60% since the 1980s and that the relative size of different classes remained fairly stable. A formal decomposition analysis indicates that changes in the relative size of different social classes had a small dampening effect and that growth in between-class income differences had a large inflationary effect on trends in personal income inequality.

  2. The European ALMA Regional Centre Network: A Geographically Distributed User Support Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Andreani, Paola; Barta, Miroslav; Bertoldi, Frank; Brand, Jan; Gueth, Frederique; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Maercker, Matthias; Massardi, Marcella; Muehle, Stefanie; Muxlow, Thomas; Richards, Anita; Schilke, Peter; Tilanus, Remo; Vlemmings, Wouter; Afonso, Jose; Messias, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been a paradigm shift from centralised to geographically distributed resources. Individual entities are no longer able to host or afford the necessary expertise in-house, and, as a consequence, society increasingly relies on widespread collaborations. Although such collaborations are now the norm for scientific projects, more technical structures providing support to a distributed scientific community without direct financial or other material benefits are scarce. The network of European ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) nodes is an example of such an internationally distributed user support network. It is an organised effort to provide the European ALMA user community with uniform expert support to enable optimal usage and scientific output of the ALMA facility. The network model for the European ARC nodes is described in terms of its organisation, communication strategies and user support.

  3. Relative inequalities in geographic distribution of health care resources in Kermanshah province, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, S; Karyani, A K; Fallah, R; Matin, B K

    2016-04-19

    This study aimed to evaluate inequalities in the geographical distribution of human and physical resources in the health sector of Kermanshah province, Islamic Republic of Iran. In a retrospective, cross-sectional study, data from the Statistical Centre of Iran were used to calculate inequality measures (Gini coefficient and index of dissimilarity) over the years 2005-11. The highest Gini coefficient for human resources was observed for pharmacists in 2005 (0.75) and the lowest for paramedics in 2010 and 2011 (0.10). The highest indices of dissimilarity were also for pharmacists in 2005 (29%) and paramedics in 2011 (3%). For physical resources, the highest and lowest Gini coefficients were for rehabilitation centres in 2010 (0.59) and health houses in 2011 (0.12) respectively. Generally, inequalities in the distribution of health care resources were lower at the end of the study period, although there was potential for more equitable distribution of pharmacists, specialists, health houses and beds.

  4. Optimal Cell Towers Distribution by using Spatial Mining and Geographic Information System

    CERN Document Server

    AL-Hamami, Alaa H

    2011-01-01

    The appearance of wireless communication is dramatically changing our life. Mobile telecommunications emerged as a technological marvel allowing for access to personal and other services, devices, computation and communication, in any place and at any time through effortless plug and play. Setting up wireless mobile networks often requires: Frequency Assignment, Communication Protocol selection, Routing schemes selection, and cells towers distributions. This research aims to optimize the cells towers distribution by using spatial mining with Geographic Information System (GIS) as a tool. The distribution optimization could be done by applying the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) on the image of the area which must be covered with two levels of hierarchy. The research will apply the spatial association rules technique on the second level to select the best square in the cell for placing the antenna. From that the proposal will try to minimize the number of installed towers, makes tower's location feasible, and pr...

  5. Geographic distribution of Staphylococcus aureus causing invasive infections in Europe: a molecular-epidemiological analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajo Grundmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important human pathogens and methicillin-resistant variants (MRSAs are a major cause of hospital and community-acquired infection. We aimed to map the geographic distribution of the dominant clones that cause invasive infections in Europe. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In each country, staphylococcal reference laboratories secured the participation of a sufficient number of hospital laboratories to achieve national geo-demographic representation. Participating laboratories collected successive methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and MRSA isolates from patients with invasive S. aureus infection using an agreed protocol. All isolates were sent to the respective national reference laboratories and characterised by quality-controlled sequence typing of the variable region of the staphylococcal spa gene (spa typing, and data were uploaded to a central database. Relevant genetic and phenotypic information was assembled for interactive interrogation by a purpose-built Web-based mapping application. Between September 2006 and February 2007, 357 laboratories serving 450 hospitals in 26 countries collected 2,890 MSSA and MRSA isolates from patients with invasive S. aureus infection. A wide geographical distribution of spa types was found with some prevalent in all European countries. MSSA were more diverse than MRSA. Genetic diversity of MRSA differed considerably between countries with dominant MRSA spa types forming distinctive geographical clusters. We provide evidence that a network approach consisting of decentralised typing and visualisation of aggregated data using an interactive mapping tool can provide important information on the dynamics of MRSA populations such as early signalling of emerging strains, cross border spread, and importation by travel. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to MSSA, MRSA spa types have a predominantly regional distribution in Europe. This finding is indicative of the selection and spread

  6. Geographic distribution of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis infection in stray dogs of eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Ciucă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in the eastern part of Romania to assess the prevalence and geographical distribution of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs. Plasma samples were collected from 458 stray dogs hosted in shelters in 8 counties and tested serologically for the presence of heartworm. In addition, 45 blood samples from dogs of a shelter in Galati city were examined by the modified Knott and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. The immmunological assay showed a heartworm infection prevalence of 8.9% in the dogs. Optical density results for positive samples ranged between 0.217 and 2.683. Geographical information systems (GIS were used to produce overlays of distribution maps of D. immitis prevalence and predictive maps based on temperature suitability. High prevalence of D. immitis was found in the central East up to the northern border of the country, i.e. Galati county (60%, followed by the counties of Vaslui (12.0% and Iasi (7.7%. Out of 45 samples examined using the Knott test, 23 were positive for circulating microfilariae (51.1%, while 19 dogs were positive for D. immitis and 4 for both D. immitis and D. repens with the multiplex PCR test. The high prevalence for D. immitis shown in dogs in the Southeast (Galati, 42.2% also by multiplex PCR gave strong support to the results achieved by the serological tests. The present study confirms the ability of GIS to predict the distribution and epidemiology of dirofilariosis in different geographical territories as has been already demonstrated by the empirical epidemiological data obtained at the continental, national and intraregional levels.

  7. The impact of pesticide suicide on the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shu-Sen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide self-poisoning is the most commonly used suicide method worldwide, but few studies have investigated the national epidemiology of pesticide suicide in countries where it is a major public health problem. This study aims to investigate geographic variations in pesticide suicide and their impact on the spatial distribution of suicide in Taiwan. Methods Smoothed standardized mortality ratios for pesticide suicide (2002-2009 were mapped across Taiwan's 358 districts (median population aged 15 or above = 27 000, and their associations with the size of agricultural workforce were investigated using Bayesian hierarchical models. Results In 2002-2009 pesticide poisoning was the third most common suicide method in Taiwan, accounting for 13.6% (4913/36 110 of all suicides. Rates were higher in agricultural East and Central Taiwan and lower in major cities. Almost half (47% of all pesticide suicides occurred in areas where only 13% of Taiwan's population lived. The geographic distribution of overall suicides was more similar to that of pesticide suicides than non-pesticide suicides. Rural-urban differences in suicide were mostly due to pesticide suicide. Areas where a higher proportion of people worked in agriculture showed higher pesticide suicide rates (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] per standard deviation increase in the proportion of agricultural workers = 1.58, 95% Credible Interval [CrI] 1.44-1.74 and overall suicide rates (ARR = 1.06, 95% CrI 1.03-1.10 but lower non-pesticide suicide rates (ARR = 0.91, 95% CrI 0.87-0.95. Conclusion Easy access to pesticides appears to influence the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan, highlighting the potential benefits of targeted prevention strategies such as restricting access to highly toxic pesticides.

  8. Potential geographical distributions of the fruit flies Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis cosyra, and Ceratitis rosa in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baini; Ma, Jun; Hu, Xuenan; Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Runjie

    2009-10-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to model the distributions of the fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), and Ceratitis rosa Karsch in China, but the geographic distributions of these species are of considerable concern in terms of biosecurity. In this study, two different modeling methods (genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction [GARP] and maximum entropy species distribution modeling [Maxent]) were used to predict the potential distributions of these three fly species in China, by using distribution records and a set of environmental predictor variables. The results showed that Maxent performed well, compared with modeling by GARP, at each test threshold. For all three species, the results predicted by Maxent agreed with the observed distributions in Africa and in other parts of the world. In China, C. capitata seems to have the highest number of favorable habitat areas, relative to C. cosyra and C. rosa, i.e., Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, Fujian, Sichuan and Chongqing, whereas C. cosyra has the smallest range of suitable areas, i.e., Yunnan, some parts of Hainan and Sichuan. The suitable areas for C. rosa are mainly restricted to Yunnan, Hainan, southern Guangdong, and a few areas of Sichuan. The indications are that on the whole, Southwest and South China are the areas with the highest risk for establishment from these three fly species. Jackknife tests reveal that environmental variables associated with temperature have the strongest influence on the potential distributions of all three species relative to other variables.

  9. Geographic distributions and ecology of ornamental Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) in Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumkratok, Sutthira; Boongtiang, Kriangsuk; Chutichudet, Prasit; Pramaul, Pairot

    2012-10-01

    The genus Curcuma is a very important economic plant. Members of this genus were used as food, medicine and ornament plants. The objectives of this study were to examine the geographic distributions and ecological conditions in the natural habitats of Curcuma in Northeastern Thailand. Species diversity was examined using the line transect method. Ecological conditions of the species were examined using a sampling plot of 20 x 20 m. A total of five species were found including Curcuma angustifolia Roxb., C. alismatifolia Gagnep., C. gracillima Gagnep., C. parviflora Wall. and C. rhabdota. These species were in an altitudinal range between 290 m and 831 m above sea level. Four species (C. angustifolia, C. alismatifolia, C. gracillima and C. rhabdota) were distributed in open gaps in dry dipterocarp forest. One species, C. parviflora was found in the contact zone between dry dipterocarp and bamboo (Gigantochloa sp.) forest. C. rhabdota was found only in a habitat with high humidity and shading along the Thailand-Lao PDR border. Significant ecological conditions of the natural habitats of these Curcuma species were identified. Altitude is the most important factor when determining the geographic distributions of these Curcuma species in Northeastern Thailand.

  10. [[Characterization of the potential geographical distribution area of parrot species in Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasencia Vázquez, Alexis Herminio; Escalona Segura, Griselda

    2014-12-01

    Psittacidae family is one of the most endangered groups in Mexico, since many of their habitats are disappearing. In this research, we characterized the land cover of the potential geographical distribu- tion area of eight extant parrot species within the Yucatan Peninsula. We used the Maximum Entropy algorithm (MaxEnt) and species historical records. To externally validate the models, we used presence and absence records from field observations (2010-2012). To characterize the distribution area, we used the vegetation and land use maps of INEGI Series IV (2007-2010). The models showed a good performance, according to the values of the area under the curve (AUC), which ranged between 0.88-0.95 with the training data and between 0.82-0.91 with test data. We located most of the species in sites where the models predicted their presence. In the Peninsula, over 76% of the parrots' potential geographical distribution area is forested, except for Amazona oratrix. The subhumid tropical forest is the best represented, and the livestock for land use. The most affected species within the Peninsula are: Amazona farinosa and A. oratrix. The Calakmul Biosphere Reserve is the most important area for parrots' protection in the Peninsula. Knowing the characteristics of distribution areas is an essential part in the establishment of parrots' conservation strategies.

  11. [Predicting the impact of global warming on the geographical distribution pattern of Quercus variabilis in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Zhang, Xing-wang; Fang, Yan-ming

    2014-12-01

    The geographical distribution of Quercus variabilis in China with its climate characteristics was analyzed based on DIVA-GIS which was also used to estimate the response of future potential distribution to global warming by Bioclim and Domain models. Analysis results showed the geographical distribution of Q. variabilis could be divided into 7 subregions: Henduan Mountains, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, North China, East China, Liaodong-Shandong Peninsula, Taiwan Island, and Qinling-Daba Mountains. These subregions are across 7 temperature zones, 2 moisture regions and 17 climatic subregions, including 8 climate types. The modern abundance center of Q. variabilis is Qinling, Daba and Funiu mountains. The condition of mean annual temperature 7.5-19.8 degrees C annual precipitation 471-1511 mm, is suitable for Q. variabilis. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC values), of Domain and Boiclim models were 0.910, 0.779; the former predicted that the potential regions of high suitability for Q. variabilis are Qinling, Daba, Funiu, Tongbai, and Dabie mountains, eastern and western Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, hills of southern Jiangsu and Anhui, part of the mountains in North China. Global warming might lead to the shrinking in suitable region and retreating from the south for Q. variabilis.

  12. Analysis Of Educational Services Distribution-Based Geographic Information System GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Lagrab

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzes the spatial distribution of kindergarten facilities in the study area based on the Geographic Information Systems GIS in order to test an efficiency of GIS technology to redistribute the existing kindergarten and choose the best location in the future and applying the standard criteria for selecting the suitable locations for kindergarten. To achieve this goal the data and information are collected via interviews and comprehensive statistics on the education facilities in Mukalla districts in YEMEN which contributed to building a geographic database for the study area. After that the Kindergarten spatial patterns are analyzed in terms of proximity to each other and used near some other land in the surrounding area such as streets highways factories etc. Also measures the concentration dispersion clustering and distribution direction for the kindergarten this study showed the effectiveness of the GIS for spatial data analysis. One of the most important finding that most of the Kindergarten was established in Mukalla city did not take into account the criteria that set by the authorities. Furthermore almost district suffers from a shortage in the number of kindergarten and pattern of distribution of those kindergartens dominated by spatial dispersed.

  13. Distribution, phenology and demography of sympatric sexual and asexual dandelions (Taraxacum officinale s.l.): geographic parthenogenesis on a small scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verduijn, M.H.; van Dijk, P.J.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    In many plant and animal species, sexual and asexual forms have different geographical distributions ('geographic parthenogenesis'). The common dandelion Taraxacum officinale s.l. provides a particularly clear example of differing distributions: diploid sexuals are restricted to southern and central

  14. Distribution, phenology and demography of sympatric sexual and asexual dandelions (Taraxacum officinale s.l.): geographic parthenogenesis on a small scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verduijn, M.H.; van Dijk, P.J.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    In many plant and animal species, sexual and asexual forms have different geographical distributions ('geographic parthenogenesis'). The common dandelion Taraxacum officinale s.l. provides a particularly clear example of differing distributions: diploid sexuals are restricted to southern and central

  15. Carboxylesterase gene amplifications associated with insecticide resistance in Aedes albopictus: Geographical distribution and evolutionary origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Grigoraki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is one of the most invasive human disease vectors. Its control has been largely based on insecticides, such as the larvicide temephos. Temephos resistance has been associated with the up-regulation, through gene amplification, of two carboxylesterase (CCE genes closely linked on the genome, capable of sequestering and metabolizing temephos oxon, the activated form of temephos.Here, we investigated the occurrence, geographical distribution and origin of the CCE amplicon in Ae. albopictus populations from several geographical regions worldwide. The haplotypic diversity at the CCEae3a locus revealed high polymorphism, while phylogenetic analysis showed an absence of correlation between haplotype similarity and geographic origin. Two types of esterase amplifications were found, in two locations only (Athens and Florida: one, previously described, results in the amplification of both CCEae3a and CCEae6a; the second is being described for the first time and results in the amplification of CCEae3a only. The two amplification events are independent, as confirmed by sequence analysis. All individuals from Athens and Florida carrying the CCEae3a-CCEae6a co-amplicon share a common haplotype, indicating a single amplification event, which spread between the two countries.The importance of passive transportation of disease vectors, including individuals carrying resistance mechanisms, is discussed in the light of efficient and sustainable vector control strategies.

  16. Geographical ecology of the palms (Arecaceae): determinants of diversity and distributions across spatial scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Kissling, W. Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background The palm family occurs in all tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Palms are of high ecological and economical importance, and display complex spatial patterns of species distributions and diversity. Scope This review summarizes empirical evidence for factors that determine.......g. climate on regional to finer scales, and hydrology and topography on landscape and broader scales. The importance of biotic interactions – apart from general vegetation structure effects – for the geographic ecology of palms is generally underexplored. Future studies should target scale...

  17. Vascular plants of the Nevada Test Site and Central-Southern Nevada: ecologic and geographic distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The physical environment of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding area is described with regard to physiography, geology, soils, and climate. A discussion of plant associations is given for the Mojave Desert, Transition Desert, and Great Basin Desert. The vegetation of disturbed sites is discussed with regard to introduced species as well as endangered and threatened species. Collections of vascular plants were made during 1959 to 1975. The plants, belonging to 1093 taxa and 98 families are listed together with information concerning ecologic and geographic distributions. Indexes to families, genera, and species are included. (HLW)

  18. Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Odontophrynus carvalhoi Savage and Cei, 1965: Distribution extension and geographic distribution map

    OpenAIRE

    Lisboa, Barnagleison Silva; da Silva, Ubiratan Gonçalves; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista

    2010-01-01

    We present the first record of Odontophrynus carvalhoi for the state of Alagoas, Brazil, and a distribution map for this species. This new record represents the nearest location to the Brazilian coast known for this species. © 2010 Check List and Authors.

  19. Maximum Entropy Niche-Based Modeling (Maxent) of Potential Geographical Distributions of Lobesia Botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in China

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Simulation, Optimization, Monitoring and Control Technology; International audience; Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is one of the most destructive pests of grape in the Palearctic region. The potential geographical distribution of this pest is important to agriculture security. In this study, Maxent and ArcGIS were used to project the potential geographical distribution of L. botrana in China under the current climate. The result indicated th...

  20. The role of poverty rate and racial distribution in the geographic clustering of breast cancer survival among older women: a geographic and multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, Mario; Jeffe, Donna B; Lian, Min; Gillanders, William E; Aft, Rebecca

    2009-03-01

    The authors examined disparities in survival among women aged 66 years or older in association with census-tract-level poverty rate, racial distribution, and individual-level factors, including patient-, treatment-, and tumor-related factors, utilization of medical care, and mammography use. They used linked data from the 1992-1999 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) programs, 1991-1999 Medicare claims, and the 1990 US Census. A geographic information system and advanced statistics identified areas of increased or reduced breast cancer survival and possible reasons for geographic variation in survival in 2 of the 5 SEER areas studied. In the Detroit, Michigan, area, one geographic cluster of shorter-than-expected breast cancer survival was identified (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.60). An additional area where survival was longer than expected approached statistical significance (HR = 0.4; P = 0.056). In the Atlanta, Georgia, area, one cluster of shorter- (HR = 1.81) and one cluster of longer-than-expected (HR = 0.72) breast cancer survival were identified. Stage at diagnosis and census-tract poverty (and patient's race in Atlanta) explained the geographic variation in breast cancer survival. No geographic clusters were identified in the 3 other SEER programs. Interventions to reduce late-stage breast cancer, focusing on areas of high poverty and targeting African Americans, may reduce disparities in breast cancer survival in the Detroit and Atlanta areas.

  1. The impact of climate on the geographical distribution of phytoplankton species in boreal lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallstan, Simon; Trigal, Cristina; Johansson, Karin S L; Johnson, Richard K

    2013-12-01

    Here, we use a novel space-by-time approach to study large-scale changes in phytoplankton species distribution in Swedish boreal lakes in response to climate variability. Using phytoplankton samples from 27 lakes, evenly distributed across Sweden, all relatively unimpacted by anthropogenic disturbance and sampled annually between 1996 and 2010, we found significant shifts in the geographical distribution of 18 species. We also found significant changes in the prevalence of 45 species (33 became more common and 12 less common) over the study period. Using species distribution models and phytoplankton samples from 60 lakes sampled at least twice between 1992 and 2010, we evaluated the importance of climate variability and other environmental variables on species distribution. We found that temperature (e.g., extreme events and the duration of the growing season) was the most important predictor for species detections. Many cyanobacteria, chlorophytes, and, to a lesser extent, diatoms and zygnematophytes, showed congruent and positive responses to temperature. In contrast, precipitation explained little variation and was important only for a few taxa (e.g., Staurodesmus spp., Trachelomonas volvocina). At the community level, our results suggest a change in community composition at temperatures over 20 °C and growing seasons longer than 40 days. We conclude that climate is an important driver of the distributional patterns of individual phytoplankton species and may drive changes in community composition in minimally disturbed boreal lakes.

  2. Association Between Geographic Access to Cancer Care, Insurance, and Receipt of Chemotherapy: Geographic Distribution of Oncologists and Travel Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun Chieh; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Kirkwood, M Kelsey; Olsen, Christine; Jemal, Ahmedin; Bajorin, Dean; Giordano, Sharon H; Goldstein, Michael; Guadagnolo, B Ashleigh; Kosty, Michael; Hopkins, Shane; Yu, James B; Arnone, Anna; Hanley, Amy; Stevens, Stephanie; Hershman, Dawn L

    2015-10-01

    Geographic access to care may be associated with receipt of chemotherapy but has not been fully examined. This study sought to evaluate the association between density of oncologists and travel distance and receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer within 90 days of colectomy. Patients in the National Cancer Data Base with stage III colon cancer, diagnosed between 2007 and 2010, and age 18 to 80 years were selected. Generalized estimating equation clustering by hospital service area was conducted to examine the association between geographic access and receipt of oncology services, controlling for patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Of 34,694 patients in the study cohort, 75.7% received adjuvant chemotherapy within 90 days of colectomy. Compared with travel distance less than 12.5 miles, patients who traveled 50 to 249 miles (odds ratio [OR], 0.87; P=.009) or ≥250 miles (OR, 0.36; P<.001) had decreased likelihood of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Density level of oncologists was not statistically associated with receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy (low v high density: OR, 0.98; P=.77). When stratifying analyses by insurance status, non-privately insured patients who resided in areas with low density of oncologists were less likely to receive adjuvant chemotherapy (OR, 0.85; P=.03). Increased travel burden was associated with a decreased likelihood of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, regardless of insurance status. Patients with nonprivate insurance who resided in low-density oncologist areas were less likely to receive adjuvant chemotherapy. If these findings are validated prospectively, interventions to decrease geographic barriers may improve the timeliness and quality of colon cancer treatment. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  3. Geographical Distribution and Cluster Detection of Childhood Leukemia in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlacuilo-Parra, Alberto; Garibaldi-Covarrubias, Roberto; Romo-Rubio, Hugo; Soto-Sumuano, Leonardo; Ruiz-Chávez, Carlos Fernando; Suárez-Arredondo, Mijail; Sánchez-Zubieta, Fernando; Gallegos-Castorena, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Acute leukemia is the most common cancer in childhood. Analyzing the spatial distribution of acute leukemia may generate the identification of risk factors. To study the incidence rate of acute leukemia, its geographic distribution, and cluster detection in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico. We included children under 15 years of age diagnosed with acute leukemia during the period 2010-2014 in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara. Each case was geo-referenced to street level to latitude and longitude coordinates using Quantum Geographic Information System (QGIS). Spatial clusters were found in the location of the acute leukemia cases applying the Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm with R statistical software. A total of 269 cases of leukemia were registered, 227 (84%) were acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 42 (16%) acute myeloblastic leukemia. The mean age was 6 ± 4 years. The mean incidence of acute leukemia was 6.44 cases/100,000 inhabitants: El Salto 10.12/100,000, Guadalajara 7.55/100,000, and Tlaquepaque 6.74/100,000. The DBSCAN found three clusters, all located within the municipality of Guadalajara. The incidence of acute leukemia in our population is higher than that in Canada and the USA. We found three spatial clusters of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the municipality of Guadalajara, suggesting the presence of local predisposing factors.

  4. Relation between Water Balance and Climatic Variables Associated with the Geographical Distribution of Anurans.

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    Braz Titon

    Full Text Available Amphibian species richness increases toward the equator, particularly in humid tropical forests. This relation between amphibian species richness and environmental water availability has been proposed to be a consequence of their high rates of evaporative water loss. In this way, traits that estimate water balance are expected to covary with climate and constrain a species' geographic distribution. Furthermore, we predicted that coexisting species of anurans would have traits that are adapted to local hydric conditions. We compared the traits that describe water balance in 17 species of anurans that occur in the mesic Atlantic Forest and xeric Cerrado (savannah habitats of Brazil. We predicted that species found in the warmer and dryer areas would show a lower sensitivity of locomotor performance to dehydration (SLPD, increased resistance to evaporative water loss (REWL and higher rates of water uptake (RWU than species restricted to the more mesic areas. We estimated the allometric relations between the hydric traits and body mass using phylogenetic generalized least squares. These regressions showed that REWL scaled negatively with body mass, whereas RWU scaled positively with body mass. Additionally, species inhabiting areas characterized by higher and more seasonally uniform temperatures, and lower and more seasonally concentrated precipitation, such as the Cerrado, had higher RWU and SLPD than species with geographical distributions more restricted to mesic environments, such as the Atlantic Forest. These results support the hypothesis that the interspecific variation of physiological traits shows an adaptation pattern to abiotic environmental traits.

  5. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae in Central-West Brazil

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    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani,Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpiswere the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies.

  6. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Paulo Silva de; Andrade, Andrey José de; Sciamarelli, Alan; Raizer, Josué; Menegatti, Jaqueline Aparecida; Hermes, Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira; Carvalho, Maria do Socorro Laurentino de; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-06-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies.

  7. Geographic Distribution of Leishmania Species in Ecuador Based on the Cytochrome B Gene Sequence Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio, Jenny; Velez, Lenin; Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-07-01

    A countrywide epidemiological study was performed to elucidate the current geographic distribution of causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ecuador by using FTA card-spotted samples and smear slides as DNA sources. Putative Leishmania in 165 samples collected from patients with CL in 16 provinces of Ecuador were examined at the species level based on the cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. Of these, 125 samples were successfully identified as Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) naiffi, L. (V.) lainsoni, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana. Two dominant species, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, were widely distributed in Pacific coast subtropical and Amazonian tropical areas, respectively. Recently reported L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni were identified in Amazonian areas, and L. (L.) mexicana was identified in an Andean highland area. Importantly, the present study demonstrated that cases of L. (V.) braziliensis infection are increasing in Pacific coast areas.

  8. A geographic distribution database of Mononychellus mites (Acari, Tetranychidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Parsa, Soroush

    2014-01-01

    The genus Mononychellus is represented by 28 herbivorous mites. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a primary food crop in the tropics. With the exception of Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), their geographic distribution is not widely known. This article therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence data of Mononychellus species associated with cassava. The dataset consists of 1,513 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT's Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC). Most of the records are from the genus' native range in South America and were documented between 1980 and 2000. Approximately 61% of the records belong to M. tanajoa, 25% to M. caribbeanae (McGregor), 10% to M. mcgregori (Flechtmann and Baker) and 2% to M. planki (McGregor). The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

  9. Geographic Distribution of Leishmania Species in Ecuador Based on the Cytochrome B Gene Sequence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio, Jenny; Velez, Lenin; Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    A countrywide epidemiological study was performed to elucidate the current geographic distribution of causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ecuador by using FTA card-spotted samples and smear slides as DNA sources. Putative Leishmania in 165 samples collected from patients with CL in 16 provinces of Ecuador were examined at the species level based on the cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. Of these, 125 samples were successfully identified as Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) naiffi, L. (V.) lainsoni, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana. Two dominant species, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, were widely distributed in Pacific coast subtropical and Amazonian tropical areas, respectively. Recently reported L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni were identified in Amazonian areas, and L. (L.) mexicana was identified in an Andean highland area. Importantly, the present study demonstrated that cases of L. (V.) braziliensis infection are increasing in Pacific coast areas. PMID:27410039

  10. Species diversity and geographic distribution of Gymnotus (Pisces: Gymnotiformes by nuclear (GGACn microsatellite analysis

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    Fernandes-Matioli F.M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of amplified DNA fragments flanked by (GGACn microsatellites, obtained by single primer amplification reaction (SPAR, from 198 Gymnotus specimens (Pisces: Gymnotiformes sampled from 8 southeastern Brazilian river basins were analyzed. The species studied were Gymnotus carapo, G. pantherinus, G. inaequilabiatus, and G. sylvius. The indirectly obtained patterns reflected the distribution of simple sequence repeats in the nuclear genome of the specimens. Species-specific patterns of DNA amplification were found and were useful for the analysis of the geographic distribution of Gymnotus species. Monomorphic patterns were found in G. carapo, G. pantherinus, and G. inaequilabiatus. Three polymorphic patterns were found in G. sylvius populations. The SPAR technique could be a useful molecular tool in conservation programs involving communities of neotropical freshwater fish.

  11. Age and Geographical Distribution in Families with BRCA1/BRCA2 Mutations in the Slovak Republic

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    Ciernikova Sona

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular diagnostics of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer is mainly based on detection of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in suspected families. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency, age and geographical distribution in 130 Slovak hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC families diagnosed within the years 2000-2004. Mutation screening was performed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP, heteroduplex analysis (HDA and sequencing of PCR products showing an abnormal migration pattern. Twenty of 130 (15.6% HBOC suspected families were found to carry mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. The glossary data from the National Cancer Registry of Slovakia (NCRS were compared with the results from HBOC suspected kindreds. Age distribution of breast cancer onset in our study group showed the highest proportion of onset in HBC families within the 5th decade of life, while NCRS reports at least a ten year later onset. These findings confirmed that cases of breast cancer under 50 years of age can be used as one of the principal criteria to assign a family as a hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer kindred. In contrast with unselected ovarian cancer cases, about 75% of all HOC index cases were diagnosed between 40 and 49 years of age. To study the geographical distribution of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer, Slovakia was divided into three parts. The distribution of HBOC suspected families approximately follows this division, with an increasing number in the western area of the country.

  12. Myotonic dystrophy in Quebec: geographical distribution and concept of genetic homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, C

    1989-02-01

    The geographical distribution relative to place of residence of patients with myotonic dystrophy (MD) and admitted to a Quebec hospital during a five year period (1980-1984) is presented and discussed. The sample consists of 72 males and 68 females of varying ages over 10 years. Analysis of the data shows a North Shore distribution of patients in a cline from Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean, through Québec City and to Montréal. However, a low prevalence is apparent on the South Shore, east of Québec City, for which an historical and genealogical explanation are discussed. This geographic distribution favours the hypothesis of genetic homogeneity for the MD gene in the Québec population. A stronger second argument comes from genealogical studies of 10 families sampled from the Chicoutimi Muscular Dystrophy Clinic. Genealogical paths traced to ancestors who founded Charlevoix for these 10 families go back to a cluster of 25 founders, one of whom must have been the carrier of the MD gene. The probative third argument for genetic homogeneity comes from the allelic distribution of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene in the Québec City, Saguenay and in families with MD. The ApoE locus is on chromosome 19 and closely linked to MD. In MD-affected individuals there is a linkage disequilibrium for the epsilon 4 allele while non-MD members of these families show allelic frequencies not differing significantly from the control population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. [Geographical distribution and habitat of Trochilidae (Aves) in the state of Guerrero, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Morales, Pablo; Almazán-Núñez, Carlos; Beltrán-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Ríos-Muñoz, César A; Coro Arizmendi, María del

    2016-03-01

    The distribution and abundance of species of Trochillidae family is usually influenced by the flowering and phenology of plants used as a feeding source, mainly in primary forest, so that changes in vegetation cover could impact their populations. We analyzed and characterized the geographical distribution and habitat for 22 species of resident hummingbirds in the state of Guerrero using the vegetation and the land use map of INEGI Series IV (2007-2010). Distribution models were generated with the Genetic Algorithm for Rule Set Production (GARP), using historical records of scientific collections and fieldwork (2001-2009), in combination with climatic and topographic variables. Of the 22 modeled species, six are endemic to Mexico, the same number of species found in a risk category. The highest concentration with regards to richness (14-20 species), endemism (5-6 species) and number of threatened species of hummingbirds (5-6 species) occurred in the biotic province of Sierra Madre del Sur. However, the potential distribution of most of the hummingbirds occurred in disturbed sites or agroecosystems, as a result of changes in land-use. For Campylopterus hemileucurus, Lamprolaima rhami and Heliomaster longisrostris, their potential distribution was highest in areas of primary vegetation. Areas of high hummingbirds presence do not coincide with the Important Bird Areas proposed for bird conservation in Guerrero, considering that, despite its diversity and its extreme popularity, from the conservation perspective hummingbirds have received relatively little attention.

  14. Geographic distance and ecosystem size determine the distribution of smallest protists in lacustrine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepère, Cécile; Domaizon, Isabelle; Taïb, Najwa; Mangot, Jean-François; Bronner, Gisèle; Boucher, Delphine; Debroas, Didier

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution of aquatic microbial diversity and the underlying mechanisms causing differences in community composition is a challenging and central goal for ecologists. Recent insights into protistan diversity and ecology are increasing the debate over their spatial distribution. In this study, we investigate the importance of spatial and environmental factors in shaping the small protists community structure in lakes. We analyzed small protists community composition (beta-diversity) and richness (alpha-diversity) at regional scale by different molecular methods targeting the gene coding for 18S rRNA gene (T-RFLP and 454 pyrosequencing). Our results show a distance-decay pattern for rare and dominant taxa and the spatial distribution of the latter followed the prediction of the island biogeography theory. Furthermore, geographic distances between lakes seem to be the main force shaping the protists community composition in the lakes studied here. Finally, the spatial distribution of protists was discussed at the global scale (11 worldwide distributed lakes) by comparing these results with those present in the public database. UniFrac analysis showed 18S rRNA gene OTUs compositions significantly different among most of lakes, and this difference does not seem to be related to the trophic status. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Many factors are involved in determining the latitudinal and altitudinal spread of the important tick vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Europe, as well as in changes in the distribution within its prior endemic zones. This paper builds on published literature and unpublished expert opinion from the VBORNET network with the aim of reviewing the evidence for these changes in Europe and discusses the many climatic, ecological, landscape and anthropogenic drivers. These can be divided into those directly related to climatic change, contributing to an expansion in the tick’s geographic range at extremes of altitude in central Europe, and at extremes of latitude in Scandinavia; those related to changes in the distribution of tick hosts, particularly roe deer and other cervids; other ecological changes such as habitat connectivity and changes in land management; and finally, anthropogenically induced changes. These factors are strongly interlinked and often not well quantified. Although a change in climate plays an important role in certain geographic regions, for much of Europe it is non-climatic factors that are becoming increasingly important. How we manage habitats on a landscape scale, and the changes in the distribution and abundance of tick hosts are important considerations during our assessment and management of the public health risks associated with ticks and tick-borne disease issues in 21st century Europe. Better understanding and mapping of the spread of I. ricinus (and changes in its abundance) is, however, essential to assess the risk of the spread of infections transmitted by this vector species. Enhanced tick surveillance with harmonized approaches for comparison of data enabling the follow-up of trends at EU level will improve the messages on risk related to tick-borne diseases to policy makers, other stake holders and to the general public. PMID:23281838

  16. Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medlock Jolyon M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors are involved in determining the latitudinal and altitudinal spread of the important tick vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae in Europe, as well as in changes in the distribution within its prior endemic zones. This paper builds on published literature and unpublished expert opinion from the VBORNET network with the aim of reviewing the evidence for these changes in Europe and discusses the many climatic, ecological, landscape and anthropogenic drivers. These can be divided into those directly related to climatic change, contributing to an expansion in the tick’s geographic range at extremes of altitude in central Europe, and at extremes of latitude in Scandinavia; those related to changes in the distribution of tick hosts, particularly roe deer and other cervids; other ecological changes such as habitat connectivity and changes in land management; and finally, anthropogenically induced changes. These factors are strongly interlinked and often not well quantified. Although a change in climate plays an important role in certain geographic regions, for much of Europe it is non-climatic factors that are becoming increasingly important. How we manage habitats on a landscape scale, and the changes in the distribution and abundance of tick hosts are important considerations during our assessment and management of the public health risks associated with ticks and tick-borne disease issues in 21st century Europe. Better understanding and mapping of the spread of I. ricinus (and changes in its abundance is, however, essential to assess the risk of the spread of infections transmitted by this vector species. Enhanced tick surveillance with harmonized approaches for comparison of data enabling the follow-up of trends at EU level will improve the messages on risk related to tick-borne diseases to policy makers, other stake holders and to the general public.

  17. The geographic distribution of private health insurance in Australia in 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, John; Tennant, Sarah; Duckett, Stephen

    2009-08-17

    Private health insurance has been a major focus of Commonwealth Government health policy for the last decade. Over this period, the Howard government introduced a number of policy changes which impacted on the take up of private health insurance. The most expensive of these was the introduction of the private health insurance rebate in 1997, which had an estimated cost of $3 billion per annum. This article uses information on the geographic distribution of the population with private health insurance cover to identify associations between rates of private health insurance cover and socioeconomic status. The geographic analysis is repeated with survey data on expenditure on private health insurance, to provide an estimate of the rebate flowing to different socioeconomic groups. The analysis highlights the strong association between high rates of private health insurance cover and high socioeconomic status and shows the substantial transfer of funds, under the private health insurance rebate, to those living in areas of highest socioeconomic status, compared with those in areas of lower socioeconomic status, and in particular those in the most disadvantaged areas. The article also provides estimates of private health insurance cover by federal electorate, emphasising the substantial gaps in cover between Liberal Party and Australian Labor Party seats. The article concludes by discussing implications of the uneven distribution of private health insurance cover across Australia for policy formation. In particular, the study shows that the prevalence of private health insurance is unevenly distributed across Australia, with marked differences in prevalence in rural and urban areas, and substantial differences by socioeconomic status. Policy formation needs to take this into account. Evaluating the potential impact of changes in private health insurance requires more nuanced consideration than has been implied in the rhetoric about private health insurance over the last

  18. The geographic distribution of trace elements in the environment: the REGARDS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembert, Nicole; He, Ka; Judd, Suzanne E; McClure, Leslie A

    2017-02-01

    Research on trace elements and the effects of their ingestion on human health is often seen in scientific literature. However, little research has been done on the distribution of trace elements in the environment and their impact on health. This paper examines what characteristics among participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study are associated with levels of environmental exposure to arsenic, magnesium, mercury, and selenium. Demographic information from REGARDS participants was combined with trace element concentration data from the US Geochemical Survey (USGS). Each trace element was characterized as either low (magnesium and selenium) or high (arsenic and mercury) exposure. Associations between demographic characteristics and trace element concentrations were analyzed with unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models. Individuals who reside in the Stroke Belt have lower odds of high exposure (4th quartile) to arsenic (OR 0.33, CI 0.31, 0.35) and increased exposure to mercury (OR 0.65, CI 0.62, 0.70) than those living outside of these areas, while the odds of low exposure to trace element concentrations were increased for magnesium (OR 5.48, CI 5.05, 5.95) and selenium (OR 2.37, CI 2.22, 2.54). We found an association between levels of trace elements in the environment and geographic region of residence, among other factors. Future studies are needed to further examine this association and determine whether or not these differences may be related to geographic variation in disease.

  19. The geographic distribution of the otolaryngology workforce in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lango, Miriam N; Handorf, Elizabeth; Arjmand, Ellis

    2017-01-01

    To describe the deployment of otolaryngologists and evaluate factors associated with the geographic distribution of otolaryngologists in the United States. Cross-sectional study. The otolaryngology physician supply was defined as the number of otolaryngologists per 100,000 in the hospital referral region (HRR). The otolaryngology physician supply was derived from the American Medical Association Masterfile or from the Medicare Enrollment and Provider Utilization Files. Multiple linear regression tested the association of population, physician, and hospital factors on the supply of Medicare-enrolled otolaryngologists/HRR. Two methods of measuring the otolaryngology workforce were moderately correlated across hospital referral regions (Pearson coefficient 0.513, P = .0001); regardless, the supply of otolaryngology providers varies greatly over different geographic regions. Otolaryngologists concentrate in regions with many other physicians, particularly specialist physicians. The otolaryngology supply also increases with regional population income and education levels. Using AMA-derived data, there was no association between the supply of otolaryngologists and staffed acute-care hospital beds and the presence of an otolaryngology residency-training program. In contrast, the supply of otolaryngology providers enrolled in Medicare independently increases for each HRR by 0.8 per 100,000 for each unit increase in supply of hospital beds (P otolaryngology residency-training program (P = .006), accounting for all other factors. Irrespective of methodology, the supply of otolaryngologists varies widely across geographic regions in the United States. For Medicare beneficiaries, regional hospital factors-including the presence of an otolaryngology residency program-may improve access to otolaryngology services. NA Laryngoscope, 127:95-101, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Applications of Geographical Information Systems in Understanding Spatial Distribution of Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Rob

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographical Information Systems (GIS are becoming useful tools in making strategic decisions when-ever data are found to have spatial distribution. Federal, state, and local governments are using GIS for assessment and planning in such areas as housing, healthcare, land use, natural resources, environmental monitoring and transportation. Companies are also using it to expand and consolidate existing businesses, perform market analysis, and to find optimum delivery routes. In this paper, we illustrate the usefulness of GIS in the analysis and presentation of spatially distributed asthma prevalence among school children (13-17 years in the New York City area. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first presentation of asthma survey results distributed over the zip codes of a large city. Preliminary results show good correlation between asthma and poverty. They also correlate well with the spatial distribution of asthma hospitalization data. Results reveal an overall asthma prevalence of ~ 16% as compared to the national average of ~12% for a similar age group (5-17 years. When comparing asthma rates among the predominant racial groups of the city - Blacks and Hispanics are found to have a higher prevalence than Whites or Asians. The inner-city population shows a significantly higher asthma prevalence than those in the suburbs. This study shows our understanding of asthma prevalence in a dimension that could not have been possible prior to the availability of GIS. The results will help us making further decisions in planning for asthma research.

  1. Potential geographic distribution of brown marmorated stink bug invasion (Halyomorpha halys.

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    Gengping Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, native to Asia, is becoming an invasive species with a rapidly expanding range in North America and Europe. In the US, it is a household pest and also caused unprecedented damage to agriculture crops. Exploring its climatic limits and estimating its potential geographic distribution can provide critical information for management strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPALS: We used direct climate comparisons to explore the climatic niche occupied by native and invasive populations of BMSB. Ecological niche modelings based on the native range were used to anticipate the potential distribution of BMSB worldwide. Conversely, niche models based on the introduced range were used to locate the original invasive propagates in Asia. Areas with high invasion potential were identified by two niche modeling algorithms (i.e., Maxent and GARP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Reduced dimensionality of environmental space improves native model transferability in the invade area. Projecting models from invasive population back to native distributional areas offers valuable information on the potential source regions of the invasive populations. Our models anticipated successfully the current disjunct distribution of BMSB in the US. The original propagates are hypothesized to have come from northern Japan or western Korea. High climate suitable areas at risk of invasion include latitudes between 30°-50° including northern Europe, northeastern North America, southern Australia and the North Island of New Zealand. Angola in Africa and Uruguay in South America also showed high climate suitability.

  2. Current Knowledge of Leishmania Vectors in Mexico: How Geographic Distributions of Species Relate to Transmission Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Camila; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne diseases with different clinical manifestations caused by parasites transmitted by sand fly vectors. In Mexico, the sand fly Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca is the only vector proven to transmit the parasite Leishmania mexicana to humans, which causes leishmaniasis. Other vector species with potential medical importance have been obtained, but their geographic distributions and relation to transmission areas have never been assessed. We modeled the ecological niches of nine sand fly species and projected niches to estimate potential distributions by using known occurrences, environmental coverages, and the algorithms GARP and Maxent. All vector species were distributed in areas with known recurrent transmission, except for Lu. diabolica, which appeared to be related only to areas of occasional transmission in northern Mexico. The distribution of Lu. o. olmeca does not overlap with all reported cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, suggesting that Lu. cruciata and Lu. shannoni are likely also involved as primary vectors in those areas. Our study provides useful information of potential risk areas of leishmaniasis transmission in Mexico. PMID:22049037

  3. Assessment of the Geographic Distribution of Ornithodoros turicata (Argasidae: Climate Variation and Host Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor G Donaldson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ornithodoros turicata is a veterinary and medically important argasid tick that is recognized as a vector of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia turicatae and African swine fever virus. Historic collections of O. turicata have been recorded from Latin America to the southern United States. However, the geographic distribution of this vector is poorly understood in relation to environmental variables, their hosts, and consequently the pathogens they transmit.Localities of O. turicata were generated by performing literature searches, evaluating records from the United States National Tick Collection and the Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network, and by conducting field studies. Maximum entropy species distribution modeling (Maxent was used to predict the current distribution of O. turicata. Vertebrate host diversity and GIS analyses of their distributions were used to ascertain the area of shared occupancy of both the hosts and vector.Our results predicted previously unrecognized regions of the United States with habitat that may maintain O. turicata and could guide future surveillance efforts for a tick capable of transmitting high-consequence pathogens to human and animal populations.

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Complete files of all parcels located in Haywood County. Includes private and government owned land., Published in 1982, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Haywood County Land Records/Geographic Information Systems.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 1982. It...

  5. Diversity, natural history, and geographic distribution of snakes in the Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Thaís B; Nogueira, Cristiano; Marques, Otavio A V

    2014-09-19

    The present study is a synthesis on snake diversity and distribution in the Caatinga region of northeastern Brazil, providing an updated species list and data on natural history and geographic distribution. Our study is based on the careful revision of 7,102 voucher specimens, housed in 17 herpetological collections, complemented by data on taxonomic literature. We recorded a total of 112 snake species in the Caatinga, belonging to nine families: Anomalepididae, Leptotyphlopidae, Typhlopidae, Aniliidae, Boidae, Viperidae, Elapidae, Colubridae, and Dipsadidae. Our list includes at least 13 never recorded species for this region, as well as distribution records for all species known from the Caatinga (including expansion and new records of distribution). The snake assemblage of the Caatinga is complex, sharing species with other continental open areas (38.4%), forested areas (27.7%), and both open and forested areas (32.1%). The richest areas were isolated plateaus, followed by contact areas, semi-arid caatinga, and sandy dunes of the São Franscisco River. We identified 22 Caatinga endemic species with the sandy dunes of São Franscico River showing the highest endemism level (12 species, with six endemic species restricted to the area) followed by semi-arid caatinga, and isolated plateaus (eight endemic species each, and six and three endemic species with restricted distribution to each area, respectively). Most species show relatively restricted ranges in parts of the Caatinga. The snake assemblage in Caatinga includes mainly terrestrial species (38.4%), followed by fossorial/cryptozoic (26.8%), arboreal/semi-arboreal (26.8%), and aquatic/semi-aquatic (7.1%) species. Vertebrates are the most important dietary item (80.4%), with 56.6% of species being generalist consumers of this kind of prey; 24.4% are frog-eaters, 7.8% prey on caecilians/amphisbaenians, 6.7% lizard-eaters, 3.3% mammal-eaters, and 1.1% are fish-eaters. Only 18.7% of the snakes eat invertebrate

  6. Genetic structure of wild bonobo populations: diversity of mitochondrial DNA and geographical distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshi Kawamoto

    Full Text Available Bonobos (Pan paniscus inhabit regions south of the Congo River including all areas between its southerly tributaries. To investigate the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationship among bonobo populations, we sequenced mitochondrial DNA from 376 fecal samples collected in seven study populations located within the eastern and western limits of the species' range. In 136 effective samples from different individuals (range: 7-37 per population, we distinguished 54 haplotypes in six clades (A1, A2, B1, B2, C, D, which included a newly identified clade (D. MtDNA haplotypes were regionally clustered; 83 percent of haplotypes were locality-specific. The distribution of haplotypes across populations and the genetic diversity within populations thus showed highly geographical patterns. Using population distance measures, seven populations were categorized in three clusters: the east, central, and west cohorts. Although further elucidation of historical changes in the geological setting is required, the geographical patterns of genetic diversity seem to be shaped by paleoenvironmental changes during the Pleistocene. The present day riverine barriers appeared to have a weak effect on gene flow among populations, except for the Lomami River, which separates the TL2 population from the others. The central cohort preserves a high genetic diversity, and two unique clades of haplotypes were found in the Wamba/Iyondji populations in the central cohort and in the TL2 population in the eastern cohort respectively. This knowledge may contribute to the planning of bonobo conservation.

  7. Epipactis helleborine shows strong mycorrhizal preference towards ectomycorrhizal fungi with contrasting geographic distributions in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura-Tsujita, Yuki; Yukawa, Tomohisa

    2008-09-01

    Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz, one of the most widespread orchid species, occurs in a broad range of habitats. This orchid is fully myco-heterotrophic in the germination stage and partially myco-heterotrophic in the adult stage, suggesting that a mycorrhizal partner is one of the key factors that determines whether E. helleborine successfully colonizes a specific environment. We focused on the coastal habitat of Japanese E. helleborine and surveyed the mycorrhizal fungi from geographically different coastal populations that grow in Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) forests of coastal sand dunes. Mycorrhizal fungi and plant haplotypes were then compared with those from inland populations. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of large subunit rRNA sequences of fungi from its roots revealed that E. helleborine is mainly associated with several ectomycorrhizal taxa of the Pezizales, such as Wilcoxina, Tuber, and Hydnotrya. All individuals from coastal dunes were exclusively associated with a pezizalean fungus, Wilcoxina, which is ectomycorrhizal with pine trees growing on coastal dunes. Wilcoxina was not detected in inland forests. Coastal populations were indistinguishable from inland populations based on plant trnL intron haplotypes. Our results indicate that mycorrhizal association with geographically restricted pezizalean ectomycorrhizal fungi is a key control upon this orchid species' distribution across widely different forest habitats.

  8. Geographic Distribution of Childbirth among Adolescents in Cameroon from 2003 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Tebeu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the frequency and the trend of adolescents (10–19 years in childbirth within a period of 3 years in referral maternity units in Cameroon. Method. Descriptive and retrospective study for a 3-year period (2003–2005 in referral maternity units headed by a qualified Obstetrician-Gynecologist. We analyzed the trend and geographic distribution of 8222 adolescent deliveries over 3 years. Epi Info 3.5 software was used for data analysis. Chi square test for trend was used to assess the contribution of adolescent deliveries over years. The trend was considered significant if P<.05. Results. During the period of the study, there was a total of 8387 deliveries. We excluded 165 women because of lack of information about age. We therefore included a total of 8222 adolescent deliveries. Overall, the contribution of adolescents to deliveries ranged from 6.87% to 26.51%, depending on the region with a national mean of 14.23%. Adolescents aged 16 or less contributed to 2.82% of deliveries while those aged from 17 to 19 contributed to 11.41%. The contribution of adolescents to deliveries decreased significantly over 3 years (P<.0001. Conclusion. The study underscores the importance of Public Health programs in strengthening maternity services for adolescents in Cameroon while taking into consideration geographic differences.

  9. Geographical distribution of gynecologists and midwives in Kermanshah province (2008-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kazemi Karyani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women's health and prenatal care have always been important issues for health authorities and policy makers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the geographical distribution of gynecologists and midwives and to determine their distribution trend in Kermanshah province in the period 2008-2013. Methods: Gini coefficient was used to analyze the distribution of human resources involving in women’s health and t-test was used to examine the assumption of equal distribution of the resources. Gini coefficient was calculated for gynecologists and midwives on the basis of number of live births per year and women population. Four regression models were fitted to determine the time trend of inequality. Results: Gini coefficients for gynecologists and on the basis of the number of women for the study period were 0.489, 0.587, 0.677, 0.545, 0.474 and 0.46, respectively. The minimum and maximum Gini coefficient based on the number of live births were 0.457 and 0.566, respectively. The Gini coefficient for midwives on the basis of the number of women decreased from 0.249 in 2008 to 0.215 in 2013. Moreover, the minimum and maximum Gini coefficients based on the number of live births were 0.268 and 0.397, respectively. Inequality declined during the study period, but was not statistically significant. Conclusion: the distribution of human resources associated with the women's health has improved in recent years, however, it is still far from ideal distribution of the resources. Therefore, the women are recommended to be provided with adequate healthcare services by performing the required planning.

  10. Geographically determined Interactions of Distributed Generation, Consumption and the Transmission Network in the Case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade, Denmark has dramatically increased the share of distributed power generation from wind power and decentralised co-generation of heat and power (DCHP). This trend will conti-nue, with the consequence that the power transmission network will face capacity problems in the future....... For this purpose a spatio-temporal model has been set up, including a geographical information system (GIS) and a time-series database of the national energy system. The GIS is based on the delimitation of areas of influence for each of the transfor-mer stations on the 150/132 kV level. The time series database...... contains hourly power balances for consumption and production. After describing the design of the spatio-temporal database, a simple balance model is described. The results will be used for ongoing projects, which include compre-hensive analyses of the transmission grid and the organisation of local...

  11. Influence of seasonal migration on geographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in humpback whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C S; Palumbi, S R; Lambertsen, R H; Weinrich, M T; Calambokidis, J; O'Brien, S J

    1990-03-15

    Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) migrate nearly 10,000 km each year between summer feeding grounds in temperate or near-polar waters and winter breeding grounds in shallow tropical waters. Observations of marked individuals suggest that major oceanic populations of humpback whales are divided into a number of distinct seasonal subpopulations which are not separated by obvious geographic barriers. To test whether these observed patterns of distribution and migration are reflected in the genetic structure of populations, we looked for variation in the mitochondrial DNA of 84 individual humpback whales on different feeding and wintering grounds of the North Pacific and western North Atlantic oceans. On the basis of restriction-fragment analysis, we now report a marked segregation of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes among subpopulations as well as between the two oceans. We interpret this segregation to be the consequence of maternally directed fidelity to migratory destinations.

  12. A reappraisal of the geographic distribution of Bokkermannohyla sazimai (Anura: Hylidae through morphological and bioacoustic approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ribeiro de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The type locality of Bokermannohyla sazimai is in the municipality of São Roque de Minas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In this paper, we reassess the geographic distribution of B. sazimai and provide additional information on variation of several other non-topotypic populations in comparisons of topotypic populations (São Roque de Minas and Vargem Bonita, on the basis of three lines of evidence (color-pattern, morphometry and vocalizations. Differences obtained among all populations with respect to color pattern, morphometry and advertisement calls were attributed to interpopulational variation, so that this variation was not enough to recognize any population as a distinctive lineage in comparison with the topotypic information available on B. sazimai.

  13. Geographical distribution and accumulation features of PBDEs in human breast milk from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Takahashi, Shin; Muawanah; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines (OCs) in human breast milk from Indonesia covering urban, suburban and rural areas. PBDEs were detected in all the samples of the present study with total concentrations ranging from 0.49 to 13 ng/g lipid wt. Geographical distribution showed that concentrations of PBDEs were relatively uniform (p>0.05) and the levels were in the same order as those in Japan and some European countries, but were one or two order lower than North America. When compared to OCs, the level of total PBDEs was lower. The congener pattern was in accordance with other studies on human matrices, in which BDE-47 was the most abundant congener. Variations of PBDE congeners in human breast milk were further discussed to elucidate the potential exposure source(s) and pathways.

  14. Leishmania in the Old World: 1. The geographical and hostal distribution of L. major zymodemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Blancq, S M; Schnur, L F; Peters, W

    1986-01-01

    135 stocks of Leishmania major from man, reservoir hosts and sandflies were characterized using thin-layer starch-gel electrophoresis of 13 enzymes: MDH, 6PGD, GD, SOD, ASAT, ALAT, PK, PGM, ES, NH, PEPD, MPI, GPI. Homogeneity in this species was demonstrated by identical electrophoretic mobilities in nine enzymes. Polymorphism in four enzymes: 6PGD, GPI, PEPD, ES, gave six zymodemes among the collection. Stocks from sandflies and several species of burrowing rodents were indistinguishable from those from man in the same areas. Stocks of Leishmania from North-West India were identified as L. major. In some foci the distribution of zymodemes has some correlation with the presence of particular rodent reservoir hosts. The enzymic homogeneity of L. major throughout its geographical and host range appears to be correlated with the close association between L. major and sandflies of the subgenus Phlebotomus. The status of L. major as a distinct species is supported.

  15. Estimating the geographical distribution of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in young Mexicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Murguía-Romero

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution of the metabolic syndrome (MetS prevalence in young Mexicans (aged 17-24 years was estimated stepwise starting from its prevalence based on the body mass index (BMI in a study of 3,176 undergraduate students of this age group from Mexico City. To estimate the number of people with MetS by state, we multiplied its prevalence derived from the BMI range found in the Mexico City sample by the BMI proportions (range and state obtained from the Mexico 2006 national survey on health and nutrition. Finally, to estimate the total number of young people with MetS in Mexico, its prevalence by state was multiplied by the share of young population in each state according to the National Population and Housing Census 2010. Based on these figures, we estimated the national prevalence of MetS at 15.8%, the average BMI at 24.1 (standard deviation = 4.2, and the prevalence of overweight people (BMI ≥25 of that age group at 39.0%. These results imply that 2,588,414 young Mexicans suffered from MetS in 2010. The Yucatan peninsula in the south and the Sonora state in the north showed the highest rates of MetS prevalence. The calculation of the MetS prevalence by BMI range in a sample of the population, and extrapolating it using the BMI proportions by range of the total population, was found to be a useful approach. We conclude that the BMI is a valuable public health tool to estimate MetS prevalence in the whole country, including its geographical distribution.

  16. Burkholderia, a Genus Rich in Plant-Associated Nitrogen Fixers with Wide Environmental and Geographic Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-De Los Santos, Paulina; Bustillos-Cristales, Rocío; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús

    2001-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia comprises 19 species, including Burkholderia vietnamiensis which is the only known N2-fixing species of this bacterial genus. The first isolates of B. vietnamiensis were recovered from the rhizosphere of rice plants grown in a phytotron, but its existence in natural environments and its geographic distribution were not reported. In the present study, most N2-fixing isolates recovered from the environment of field-grown maize and coffee plants cultivated in widely separated regions of Mexico were phenotypically identified as B. cepacia using the API 20NE system. Nevertheless, a number of these isolates recovered from inside of maize roots, as well as from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of maize and coffee plants, showed similar or identical features to those of B. vietnamiensis TVV75T. These features include nitrogenase activity with 10 different carbon sources, identical or very similar nifHDK hybridization patterns, very similar protein electrophoregrams, identical amplified 16S rDNA restriction (ARDRA) profiles, and levels of DNA-DNA reassociation higher than 70% with total DNA from strain TVV75T. Although the ability to fix N2 is not reported to be a common feature among the known species of the genus Burkholderia, the results obtained show that many diazotrophic Burkholderia isolates analyzed showed phenotypic and genotypic features different from those of the known N2-fixing species B. vietnamiensis as well as from those of B. kururiensis, a bacterium identified in the present study as a diazotrophic species. DNA-DNA reassociation assays confirmed the existence of N2-fixing Burkholderia species different from B. vietnamiensis. In addition, this study shows the wide geographic distribution and substantial capability of N2-fixing Burkholderia spp. for colonizing diverse host plants in distantly separated environments. PMID:11375196

  17. Temporal, geographic, and host distribution of avian paramyxovirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Qiu, Xueting; Bahl, Justin; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease is caused by virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus of serotype 1 (APMV-1) and has global economic importance. The disease reached panzootic proportions within two decades after first being identified in 1926 in the United Kingdom and Indonesia and still remains endemic in many countries across the world. Here we review information on the host, temporal, and geographic distribution of APMV-1 genetic diversity based on the evolutionary systematics of the complete coding region of the fusion gene. Strains of APMV-1 are phylogenetically separated into two classes (class I and class II) and further classified into genotypes based on genetic differences. Class I viruses are genetically less diverse, generally present in wild waterfowl, and are of low virulence. Class II viruses are genetically and phenotypically more diverse, frequently isolated from poultry with occasional spillovers into wild birds, and exhibit a wider range of virulence. Waterfowl, cormorants, and pigeons are natural reservoirs of all APMV-1 pathotypes, except viscerotropic velogenic viruses for which natural reservoirs have not been identified. Genotypes I and II within class II include isolates of high and low virulence, the latter often being used as vaccines. Viruses of genotypes III and IX that emerged decades ago are now isolated rarely, but may be found in domestic and wild birds in China. Containing only virulent viruses and responsible for the majority of recent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds, viruses from genotypes V, VI, and VII, are highly mobile and have been isolated on different continents. Conversely, virulent viruses of genotypes XI (Madagascar), XIII (mainly Southwest Asia), XVI (North America) and XIV, XVII and XVIII (Africa) appear to have a more limited geographic distribution and have been isolated predominantly from poultry.

  18. Temporal, geographic, and host distribution of avian paramyxovirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M; Ramey, Andrew M; Qiu, Xueting; Bahl, Justin; Afonso, Claudio L

    2016-04-01

    Newcastle disease is caused by virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus of serotype 1 (APMV-1) and has global economic importance. The disease reached panzootic proportions within two decades after first being identified in 1926 in the United Kingdom and Indonesia and still remains endemic in many countries across the world. Here we review information on the host, temporal, and geographic distribution of APMV-1 genetic diversity based on the evolutionary systematics of the complete coding region of the fusion gene. Strains of APMV-1 are phylogenetically separated into two classes (class I and class II) and further classified into genotypes based on genetic differences. Class I viruses are genetically less diverse, generally present in wild waterfowl, and are of low virulence. Class II viruses are genetically and phenotypically more diverse, frequently isolated from poultry with occasional spillovers into wild birds, and exhibit a wider range of virulence. Waterfowl, cormorants, and pigeons are natural reservoirs of all APMV-1 pathotypes, except viscerotropic velogenic viruses for which natural reservoirs have not been identified. Genotypes I and II within class II include isolates of high and low virulence, the latter often being used as vaccines. Viruses of genotypes III and IX that emerged decades ago are now isolated rarely, but may be found in domestic and wild birds in China. Containing only virulent viruses and responsible for the majority of recent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds, viruses from genotypes V, VI, and VII, are highly mobile and have been isolated on different continents. Conversely, virulent viruses of genotypes XI (Madagascar), XIII (mainly Southwest Asia), XVI (North America) and XIV, XVII and XVIII (Africa) appear to have a more limited geographic distribution and have been isolated predominantly from poultry.

  19. Geographical analysis of the distribution and spread of human rabies in china from 2005 to 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danhuai Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rabies is a significant public health problem in China in that it records the second highest case incidence globally. Surveillance data on canine rabies in China is lacking and human rabies notifications can be a useful indicator of areas where animal and human rabies control could be integrated. Previous spatial epidemiological studies lacked adequate spatial resolution to inform targeted rabies control decisions. We aimed to describe the spatiotemporal distribution of human rabies and model its geographical spread to provide an evidence base to inform future integrated rabies control strategies in China. METHODS: We geo-referenced a total of 17,760 human rabies cases of China from 2005 to 2011. In our spatial analyses we used Gaussian kernel density analysis, average nearest neighbor distance, Spatial Temporal Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise and developed a model of rabies spatiotemporal spread. FINDINGS: Human rabies cases increased from 2005 to 2007 and decreased during 2008 to 2011 companying change of the spatial distribution. The ANN distance among human rabies cases increased between 2005 and 2011, and the degree of clustering of human rabies cases decreased during that period. A total 480 clusters were detected by ST-DBSCAN, 89.4% clusters initiated before 2007. Most of clusters were mainly found in South of China. The number and duration of cluster decreased significantly after 2008. Areas with the highest density of human rabies cases varied spatially each year and in some areas remained with high outbreak density for several years. Though few places have recovered from human rabies, most of affected places are still suffering from the disease. CONCLUSION: Human rabies in mainland China is geographically clustered and its spatial extent changed during 2005 to 2011. The results provide a scientific basis for public health authorities in China to improve human rabies control and prevention program.

  20. Analysis of the Correlation between the Geographical Distribution of Populus euphratica Oliv. and the Climatic Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinke YANG; Zhenglong YAN

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This research was to study the correlation regional climatic characteristics and changing geographic distribution of Populus euphratica Oily. (Sali- caceae), as well as the adaption of Populus euphratica Oliv. to the climatic environ- ment. [Method] The climatic characteristics, water source, groundwater and soil type in the distribution regions of Populus euphratica Oliv. and the effect of long-term hu- man activities were comprehensively analyzed based an overview of Populus eu- phratica Oliv. and its distribution. [Result] Specific regional climatic characteristics and long term human activities are the principle determinants for the growth of Populus euphratica Oliv. The change of leaf shape is a distinct feature of Populus euphratica Oliv. in adapting to the climatic environment. Populus euphratica Oliv. withstands various environmental stresses by means of in vivo synthesis, transport and conver- sion of secondary phenolic metabolites. Effective protection and rehabilitation mea- sures, and ecological water transport have obvious effect on the restoration and re- construction of damaged ecological environment of Populus euphratica oasis. [Con- clusion] This study is of great significance for the restoration of ecological environ- ment in the arid inland regions, north-west China.

  1. Optimizing Geographic Allotment of Photovoltaic Capacity in a Distributed Generation Setting: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquhart, B.; Sengupta, M.; Keller, J.

    2012-09-01

    A multi-objective optimization was performed to allocate 2MW of PV among four candidate sites on the island of Lanai such that energy was maximized and variability in the form of ramp rates was minimized. This resulted in an optimal solution set which provides a range of geographic allotment alternatives for the fixed PV capacity. Within the optimal set, a tradeoff between energy produced and variability experienced was found, whereby a decrease in variability always necessitates a simultaneous decrease in energy. A design point within the optimal set was selected for study which decreased extreme ramp rates by over 50% while only decreasing annual energy generation by 3% over the maximum generation allocation. To quantify the allotment mix selected, a metric was developed, called the ramp ratio, which compares ramping magnitude when all capacity is allotted to a single location to the aggregate ramping magnitude in a distributed scenario. The ramp ratio quantifies simultaneously how much smoothing a distributed scenario would experience over single site allotment and how much a single site is being under-utilized for its ability to reduce aggregate variability. This paper creates a framework for use by cities and municipal utilities to reduce variability impacts while planning for high penetration of PV on the distribution grid.

  2. Geographic information system-coupling sediment delivery distributed modeling based on observed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S E; Kang, S H

    2014-01-01

    Spatially distributed sediment delivery (SEDD) models are of great interest in estimating the expected effect of changes on soil erosion and sediment yield. However, they can only be applied if the model can be calibrated using observed data. This paper presents a geographic information system (GIS)-based method to calculate the sediment discharge from basins to coastal areas. For this, an SEDD model, with a sediment rating curve method based on observed data, is proposed and validated. The model proposed here has been developed using the combined application of the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and a spatially distributed sediment delivery ratio, within Model Builder of ArcGIS's software. The model focuses on spatial variability and is useful for estimating the spatial patterns of soil loss and sediment discharge. The model consists of two modules, a soil erosion prediction component and a sediment delivery model. The integrated approach allows for relatively practical and cost-effective estimation of spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery, for gauged or ungauged basins. This paper provides the first attempt at estimating sediment delivery ratio based on observed data in the monsoon region of Korea.

  3. Geographic Distribution and Ecology of Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Angulo, Víctor Manuel; Osorio, Lisardo; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata Latreille is the second most important vector of Chagas' disease in Colombia and is found in urban and periurban areas. From January 2007 to June 2008, we performed field work in 8 departments, 18 municipalities, and 44 rural villages, covering most of its known distribution and all of its ecological zones in the country. The goal was to determine the geographical distribution, the ecology, and house infestation indices of T. dimidiata over its range and hence the Chagas' disease transmission risk. In Colombia, T. dimidiata occupies a wide variety of ecosystems, from transformed ecosystems in the Andean biome with shrub and xerofitic vegetation to very dense forests in the humid tropical forests in the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta. According to genetic and ecological criteria, at least two T. dimidiata forms of this species are present: populations from the northwest of the country (Caribbean plains) are restricted to palm tree habitats, and domestic involvement is limited to sporadic visits because of attraction by light; and populations of the east region (Andean mountains) presenting a complex distributional pattern including sylvatic, peridomestic, and domiciliated ecotopes, and occupying a great variety of life zones. The latter population is of epidemiological importance due to the demonstrated migration and genetical flow of individuals among the different habitats. Control, therefore, must take into account its diversity of habitats.

  4. Geographical distributions of Bembix (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae, Bembicinae in southern Africa, with notes on biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Gess

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Geographical distributions based on available records are presented for the 37 currently recognized species of Bembix Fabricius known to occur in southern Africa. These are albata Parker, albicapilla Arnold, albofasciata Smith, anomalipes Arnold, arnoldi Arnold, atrospinosa Turner, baumanni Handlirsch, bubalus Handlirsch, cameronis Handlirsch, capensis Lepeletier, capicola Handlirsch, carinata F. Smith, cultrifera Arnold, denticauda Arnold, diversipennis F. Smith, flavicincta R. Turner, fraudulenta Arnold, fuscipennis Lepeletier, gracilens J. Parker, harenarum Arnold, karroensis Gess, liturata R. Turner, loupata R. Parker, massaica Cameron, melanopa Handlirsch, moebii Handlirsch, monedula Handlirsch, namibensis Gess, ochracea Handlirsch, olivata Dahlbom, regnata Parker, scaura Arnold, sibilans Handlirsch, triangulifera Arnold, ulula Arnold, venusta Arnold, and zinni Gess. A single specimen of Bembix compedita R. Turner has been recorded from South Africa but as the species is known principally from Malawi this requires confirmation.Some diagnostic characters are given for the hitherto undescribed female of namibensis.A range of distribution patterns are noted – narrowly endemic to widespread through the Afrotropical Region and into Egypt. Four species, albata, arnoldi, harenarum and fraudulenta appear to have strictly southern African coastal distributions.A summary of the knowledge of flower associations, nesting and prey are given for those species for which data are available.

  5. Large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of Australian deep-water kelp forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel M Marzinelli

    Full Text Available Despite the significance of marine habitat-forming organisms, little is known about their large-scale distribution and abundance in deeper waters, where they are difficult to access. Such information is necessary to develop sound conservation and management strategies. Kelps are main habitat-formers in temperate reefs worldwide; however, these habitats are highly sensitive to environmental change. The kelp Ecklonia radiate is the major habitat-forming organism on subtidal reefs in temperate Australia. Here, we provide large-scale ecological data encompassing the latitudinal distribution along the continent of these kelp forests, which is a necessary first step towards quantitative inferences about the effects of climatic change and other stressors on these valuable habitats. We used the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV facility of Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS to survey 157,000 m2 of seabed, of which ca 13,000 m2 were used to quantify kelp covers at multiple spatial scales (10-100 m to 100-1,000 km and depths (15-60 m across several regions ca 2-6° latitude apart along the East and West coast of Australia. We investigated the large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of deep-water kelp (>15 m depth and their relationships with physical variables. Kelp cover generally increased with latitude despite great variability at smaller spatial scales. Maximum depth of kelp occurrence was 40-50 m. Kelp latitudinal distribution along the continent was most strongly related to water temperature and substratum availability. This extensive survey data, coupled with ongoing AUV missions, will allow for the detection of long-term shifts in the distribution and abundance of habitat-forming kelp and the organisms they support on a continental scale, and provide information necessary for successful implementation and management of conservation reserves.

  6. Modelling the geographical distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Malone, John B; Bavia, Mara E; Nieto, Prixia; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-05-25

    The prevalence of infection with the three common soil-transmitted helminths (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm) in Bolivia is among the highest in Latin America. However, the spatial distribution and burden of soil-transmitted helminthiasis are poorly documented. We analysed historical survey data using Bayesian geostatistical models to identify determinants of the distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections, predict the geographical distribution of infection risk, and assess treatment needs and costs in the frame of preventive chemotherapy. Rigorous geostatistical variable selection identified the most important predictors of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm transmission. Results show that precipitation during the wettest quarter above 400 mm favours the distribution of A. lumbricoides. Altitude has a negative effect on T. trichiura. Hookworm is sensitive to temperature during the coldest month. We estimate that 38.0%, 19.3%, and 11.4% of the Bolivian population is infected with A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm, respectively. Assuming independence of the three infections, 48.4% of the population is infected with any soil-transmitted helminth. Empirical-based estimates, according to treatment recommendations by the World Health Organization, suggest a total of 2.9 million annualised treatments for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Bolivia. We provide estimates of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia based on high-resolution spatial prediction and an innovative variable selection approach. However, the scarcity of the data suggests that a national survey is required for more accurate mapping that will govern spatial targeting of soil-transmitted helminthiasis control.

  7. Geographic Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea along the Kuril Islands in the Western Subarctic Pacific

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    Hongmei Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA in the ocean were affected by different physicochemical conditions, but their responses to physical barriers (such as a chain of islands were largely unknown. In our study, geographic distribution of the AOA from the surface photic zone to the deep bathypelagic waters in the western subarctic Pacific adjacent to the Kuril Islands was investigated using pyrosequencing based on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA gene. Genotypes of clusters A and B dominated in the upper euphotic zone and the deep waters, respectively. Quantitative PCR assays revealed that the occurrence and ammonia-oxidizing activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA reached their maxima at the depth of 200 m, where a higher diversity and abundance of actively transcribed AOA was observed at the station located in the marginal sea exposed to more terrestrial input. Similar community composition of AOA observed at the two stations adjacent to the Kuril Islands maybe due to water exchange across the Bussol Strait. They distinct from the station located in the western subarctic gyre, where sub-cluster WCAII had a specific distribution in the surface water, and this sub-cluster seemed having a confined distribution in the western Pacific. Habitat-specific groupings of different WCB sub-clusters were observed reflecting the isolated microevolution existed in cluster WCB. The effect of the Kuril Islands on the phylogenetic composition of AOA between the Sea of Okhotsk and the western subarctic Pacific is not obvious, possibly because our sampling stations are near to the Bussol Strait, the main gateway through which water is exchanged between the Sea of Okhotsk and the Pacific. The vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of AOA communities among stations along the Kuril Islands were essentially determined by the in situ prevailing physicochemical gradients along the two dimensions.

  8. A procedure to characterize geographic distributions of rare disorders in cohorts

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    Hertz-Picciotto Irva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual point data can be analyzed against an entire cohort instead of only sampled controls to accurately picture the geographic distribution of populations at risk for low prevalence diseases. Analyzed as individual points, many smaller clusters with high relative risks (RR and low empirical p values are indistinguishable from a random distribution. When points are aggregated into areal units, small clusters may result in a larger cluster with a low RR or be lost if divided into pieces included in units of larger populations that show no increased prevalence. Previous simulation studies showed lowered validity of spatial scan tests for true clusters with low RR. Using simulations, this study explored the effects of low cluster RR and areal unit size on local area clustering test (LACT results, proposing a procedure to improve accuracy of cohort spatial analysis for rare events. Results Our simulations demonstrated the relationship of true RR to observed RR and p values with various, randomly located, cluster shapes, areal unit sizes and scanning window shapes in a diverse population distribution. Clusters with RR We propose a cluster identification procedure that applies parallel multiple LACTs, one on point data and three on two distinct sets of areal units created with varying population parameters that minimize the range of population sizes among units. By accepting only clusters identified by all LACTs, having a minimum population size, a minimum relative risk and a maximum p value, this procedure improves the specificity achieved by any one of these tests alone on a cohort study of low prevalence data while retaining sensitivity for small clusters. The procedure is demonstrated on two study regions, each with a five-year cohort of births and cases of a rare developmental disorder. Conclusion For truly exploratory research on a rare disorder, false positive clusters can cause costly diverted research efforts. By

  9. Geographical Distribution of Methanogenic Archaea in Nine Representative Paddy Soils in China

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    Zu, Qianhui; Zhong, Linghao; Deng, Ye; Shi, Yu; Wang, Baozhan; Jia, Zhongjun; Lin, Xiangui; Feng, Youzhi

    2016-01-01

    Paddy field methanogenic archaea are responsible for methane (CH4) production and contribute significantly to climate change. The information regarding the spatial variations in the abundance, the diversity and the composition of such ecologically important microbes, however, is quite limited at large scale. In this investigation, we studied the abundance, alpha diversity and geographical distribution of methanogenic archaeal communities in nine representative paddy sites, along a large latitudinal gradient in China, using pyrosequencing and real-time quantitative PCR. It is found that all paddy soils harbor constant methanogenic archaeal constituents, which is dominated by family Methanocellaceae (37.3%), Methanobacteriaceae (22.1%), Methanosaetaceae (17.2%), and Methanosarcinaceae (9.8%). Methanogenic archaeal abundance is primarily influenced by soil C (R = 0.612, P = 0.001) and N (R = 0.673, P = 0.001) contents, as well as alpha diversity by soil pH (PD: R = -0.552, P = 0.006; Chao1: R = -0.615, P = 0.002). Further exploration revealed that both spatial distance (R = 0.3469, P = 0.001, partial mental test) and soil chemical variables mainly about soil C and N (R = 0.2847, P = 0.001) are the two major factors affecting methanogenic archaeal community composition distribution in paddy soils. This finding will allow us to develop a better picture of the biogeographic ranges of these ecologically important microbes and get deeper insights into their ecology. PMID:27679621

  10. Geographic distribution of severely injured patients: implications for trauma system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, David J; Pracht, Etienne E; Cha, John Y; Langland-Orban, Barbara

    2012-09-01

    Despite decades of trauma system development, many severely injured patients fail to reach a trauma center for definitive care. The purpose of this study was to define the regions served by Florida's designated trauma centers and define the geographic distribution of severely injured patients who do not access the state's trauma system. Severely injured patients discharged from Florida hospitals were identified using the 2009 Florida Agency for Health Care Administration database. The home zip codes of patients discharged from trauma and nontrauma center hospitals were used as a surrogate for injury location and plotted on a map. A radial distance containing 75% of trauma center discharges defined trauma center catchment area. Only 52% of severely injured patients were discharged from trauma centers. The catchment areas varied from 204 square miles to 12,682 square miles and together encompassed 92% state's area. Although 93% of patients lived within a trauma center catchment area, the proportion treated at a trauma center in each catchment area varied from 13% to 58%. Mapping of patient residences identified regions of limited access to the trauma system despite proximity to trauma centers. The distribution of severely injured patients who do not reach trauma centers presents an opportunity for trauma system improvement. Those in proximity to trauma centers may benefit from improved and secondary triage guidelines and interfacility transfer agreements, whereas those distant from trauma centers may suggest a need for additional trauma system resources. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  11. Mapping and Modelling the Geographical Distribution and Environmental Limits of Podoconiosis in Ethiopia.

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    Kebede Deribe

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is assumed to have the highest burden of podoconiosis globally, but the geographical distribution and environmental limits and correlates are yet to be fully investigated. In this paper we use data from a nationwide survey to address these issues.Our analyses are based on data arising from the integrated mapping of podoconiosis and lymphatic filariasis (LF conducted in 2013, supplemented by data from an earlier mapping of LF in western Ethiopia in 2008-2010. The integrated mapping used woreda (district health offices' reports of podoconiosis and LF to guide selection of survey sites. A suite of environmental and climatic data and boosted regression tree (BRT modelling was used to investigate environmental limits and predict the probability of podoconiosis occurrence.Data were available for 141,238 individuals from 1,442 communities in 775 districts from all nine regional states and two city administrations of Ethiopia. In 41.9% of surveyed districts no cases of podoconiosis were identified, with all districts in Affar, Dire Dawa, Somali and Gambella regional states lacking the disease. The disease was most common, with lymphoedema positivity rate exceeding 5%, in the central highlands of Ethiopia, in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples regional states. BRT modelling indicated that the probability of podoconiosis occurrence increased with increasing altitude, precipitation and silt fraction of soil and decreased with population density and clay content. Based on the BRT model, we estimate that in 2010, 34.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.2-51.7 million people (i.e. 43.8%; 95% CI: 25.3-64.8% of Ethiopia's national population lived in areas environmentally suitable for the occurrence of podoconiosis.Podoconiosis is more widespread in Ethiopia than previously estimated, but occurs in distinct geographical regions that are tied to identifiable environmental factors. The resultant maps can be used to guide

  12. Assessment of Basal Stem Rot Disease Distribution in Palm Oil Plantation Using Geographical Information System

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    Tengku Mohd Azahar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE The concurrent advances in global positioning systems (GPS and Geographical Information Systems (GIS techniques have provided powerful analysis tools for precision agriculture. This study will focus on how Geographical Information System (GIS can help to assess the distribution Basal Stem Rot Diseases (BSR on oil palm plantation. Basal Stem Rot (BSR is caused by Ganoderma Boninense, and it is the most serious disease for oil palm trees in Malaysia. The fungus infects oil palm trees, initially causing yield loss and finally killing the trees. Various factors were previously reported to influence incidence of BSR, such as previous crops, techniques for replanting, types of soils, density and the age of trees. At present, effective and sustainable management strategies to control BSR are hampered mainly by a lack of understanding of mechanisms of disease establishment, development and spread. The study aims to apply spatial analysis methods to investigate the behaviours of BSR. Data for analysis were obtained from oil palm plantation at Teluk Intan, Perak, Malaysia. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";}

  13. Identification of geographically distributed sub-populations of Leishmania (Leishmania major by microsatellite analysis

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    Schwenkenbecher Jan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania (Leishmania major, one of the agents causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in humans, is widely distributed in the Old World where different species of wild rodent and phlebotomine sand fly serve as animal reservoir hosts and vectors, respectively. Despite this, strains of L. (L. major isolated from many different sources over many years have proved to be relatively uniform. To investigate the population structure of the species highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were employed for greater discrimination among it's otherwise closely related strains, an approach applied successfully to other species of Leishmania. Results Multilocus Microsatellite Typing (MLMT based on 10 different microsatellite markers was applied to 106 strains of L. (L. major from different regions where it is endemic. On applying a Bayesian model-based approach, three main populations were identified, corresponding to three separate geographical regions: Central Asia (CA; the Middle East (ME; and Africa (AF. This was congruent with phylogenetic reconstructions based on genetic distances. Re-analysis separated each of the populations into two sub-populations. The two African sub-populations did not correlate well with strains' geographical origin. Strains falling into the sub-populations CA and ME did mostly group according to their place of isolation although some anomalies were seen, probably, owing to human migration. Conclusion The model- and distance-based analyses of the microsatellite data exposed three main populations of L. (L. major, Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa, each of which separated into two sub-populations. This probably correlates with the different species of rodent host.

  14. Genetic diversity and geographic distribution of genetically distinct rabies viruses in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mariko; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Orbina, Jun Ryan C; Tohma, Kentaro; de Guzman, Alice S; Kamigaki, Taro; Demetria, Catalino S; Manalo, Daria L; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth G; Noguchi, Akira; Inoue, Satoshi; Quiambao, Beatriz P

    2013-01-01

    Rabies continues to be a major public health problem in the Philippines, where 200-300 human cases were reported annually between 2001 and 2011. Understanding the phylogeography of rabies viruses is important for establishing a more effective and feasible control strategy. We performed a molecular analysis of rabies viruses in the Philippines using rabied animal brain samples. The samples were collected from 11 of 17 regions, which covered three island groups (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao). Partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequencing was performed on 57 samples and complete glycoprotein (G) gene sequencing was performed on 235 samples collected between 2004 and 2010. The Philippine strains of rabies viruses were included in a distinct phylogenetic cluster, previously named Asian 2b, which appeared to have diverged from the Chinese strain named Asian 2a. The Philippine strains were further divided into three major clades, which were found exclusively in different island groups: clades L, V, and M in Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao, respectively. Clade L was subdivided into nine subclades (L1-L9) and clade V was subdivided into two subclades (V1 and V2). With a few exceptions, most strains in each subclade were distributed in specific geographic areas. There were also four strains that were divided into two genogroups but were not classified into any of the three major clades, and all four strains were found in the island group of Luzon. We detected three major clades and two distinct genogroups of rabies viruses in the Philippines. Our data suggest that viruses of each clade and subclade evolved independently in each area without frequent introduction into other areas. An important implication of these data is that geographically targeted dog vaccination using the island group approach may effectively control rabies in the Philippines.

  15. Genetic diversity and geographic distribution of genetically distinct rabies viruses in the Philippines.

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    Mariko Saito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rabies continues to be a major public health problem in the Philippines, where 200-300 human cases were reported annually between 2001 and 2011. Understanding the phylogeography of rabies viruses is important for establishing a more effective and feasible control strategy. METHODS: We performed a molecular analysis of rabies viruses in the Philippines using rabied animal brain samples. The samples were collected from 11 of 17 regions, which covered three island groups (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Partial nucleoprotein (N gene sequencing was performed on 57 samples and complete glycoprotein (G gene sequencing was performed on 235 samples collected between 2004 and 2010. RESULTS: The Philippine strains of rabies viruses were included in a distinct phylogenetic cluster, previously named Asian 2b, which appeared to have diverged from the Chinese strain named Asian 2a. The Philippine strains were further divided into three major clades, which were found exclusively in different island groups: clades L, V, and M in Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao, respectively. Clade L was subdivided into nine subclades (L1-L9 and clade V was subdivided into two subclades (V1 and V2. With a few exceptions, most strains in each subclade were distributed in specific geographic areas. There were also four strains that were divided into two genogroups but were not classified into any of the three major clades, and all four strains were found in the island group of Luzon. CONCLUSION: We detected three major clades and two distinct genogroups of rabies viruses in the Philippines. Our data suggest that viruses of each clade and subclade evolved independently in each area without frequent introduction into other areas. An important implication of these data is that geographically targeted dog vaccination using the island group approach may effectively control rabies in the Philippines.

  16. The idiosyncrasies of place: geographic variation in the climate-distribution relationships of the American pika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffress, Mackenzie R; Rodhouse, Thomas J; Ray, Chris; Wolff, Susan; Epps, Clinton W

    2013-06-01

    lowered occurrence probabilities in some parks, suggesting an upper elevational limit for pikas in some environments. Our results demonstrate that the idiosyncrasies of place influence both the nature and strength of the climate-distribution relationship for the American pika. Fine-grained, but geographically extensive, studies replicated across multiple landscapes offer insights important to assessing the impacts of climate change that otherwise may be masked at macroecological scales. The hierarchical approach to modeling provides a coherent conceptual and technical framework for gaining these insights.

  17. Efficient workload management in geographically distributed data centers leveraging autoregressive models

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    Altomare, Albino; Cesario, Eugenio; Mastroianni, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The opportunity of using Cloud resources on a pay-as-you-go basis and the availability of powerful data centers and high bandwidth connections are speeding up the success and popularity of Cloud systems, which is making on-demand computing a common practice for enterprises and scientific communities. The reasons for this success include natural business distribution, the need for high availability and disaster tolerance, the sheer size of their computational infrastructure, and/or the desire to provide uniform access times to the infrastructure from widely distributed client sites. Nevertheless, the expansion of large data centers is resulting in a huge rise of electrical power consumed by hardware facilities and cooling systems. The geographical distribution of data centers is becoming an opportunity: the variability of electricity prices, environmental conditions and client requests, both from site to site and with time, makes it possible to intelligently and dynamically (re)distribute the computational workload and achieve as diverse business goals as: the reduction of costs, energy consumption and carbon emissions, the satisfaction of performance constraints, the adherence to Service Level Agreement established with users, etc. This paper proposes an approach that helps to achieve the business goals established by the data center administrators. The workload distribution is driven by a fitness function, evaluated for each data center, which weighs some key parameters related to business objectives, among which, the price of electricity, the carbon emission rate, the balance of load among the data centers etc. For example, the energy costs can be reduced by using a "follow the moon" approach, e.g. by migrating the workload to data centers where the price of electricity is lower at that time. Our approach uses data about historical usage of the data centers and data about environmental conditions to predict, with the help of regressive models, the values of the

  18. Geographical distribution patterns of Macromitrium and Orthotrichum in China and their relationship with climatic factors

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    Yahong Ma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A maximum entropy algorithm modelling program (MaxEnt 3.3.2 and a GIS software system (ArcGIS9.3 were used to study and model the distribution of 131 occurrences of Macromitrium and 66 occurrences of Orthotrichum in China in relation to 19 bioclimatic variables and percent tree cover. The information obtained can help predict the potential distribution range of these species in China, and also provide an understanding of factors influencing their current geographical distribution patterns so as to achieve better conservation of species diversity in the future. The species occurrence data were obtained from field work, relevant literature and herbarium specimens examined. Based on the integrated habitat suitability indices calculated, results show that Macromitrium have higher habitat suitability in the southeast and some southern provinces of China, i.e., in Zhejiang, Taiwan, Hainan, Fujian, Chongqing, and lower distribution probability in northwest, northeast and some northern provinces. Likewise, Orthotrichum has higher habitatsuitability in Yunnan, Beijing, Liaoning, Jilin, Guizhou, Shanxi, Sichuan and Hebei, and lower distributional probability in the southwest. The distribution probability of Macromitrium increases with increased annual precipitation, precipitation in the wettest month, and in both the coldest and wettest quarter of the year. The distribution probability of Orthotrichum increases rapidly with increasing annual precipitation upto 200 mm, and then decreases when annual precipitation exceeds 200 mm. The distribution probability of Orthotrichum reaches its highest peak when the mean temperature of the warmest quarter is between 15 and 20℃. The relationship between species number (Y of Macromitrium and annual rainfall (X1 is described by the equation Y = –0.0369+0.0003X1 (r = 0.5347, P<0.001, n = 131, and with the annual temperature (X2 by Y = 0.0831e0.001X2 (r = 0.5525, P<0.001, n = 131. The relationship between species

  19. Geographic distribution and genetic characterization of Lassa virus in sub-Saharan Mali.

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    David Safronetz

    Full Text Available Lassa fever is an acute viral illness characterized by multi-organ failure and hemorrhagic manifestations. Lassa fever is most frequently diagnosed in Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea, although sporadic cases have been recorded in other West African countries, including Mali. The etiological agent of Lassa fever is Lassa virus (LASV, an Arenavirus which is maintained in nature and frequently transmitted to humans by Mastomys natalensis. The purpose of this study was to better define the geographic distribution of LASV-infected rodents in sub-Saharan Mali.Small mammals were live-trapped at various locations across Mali for the purpose of identifying potential zoonotic pathogens. Serological and molecular assays were employed and determined LASV infected rodents were exclusively found in the southern Mali near the border of Côte d'Ivoire. Overall, 19.4% of Mastomys natalensis sampled in this region had evidence of LASV infection, with prevalence rates for individual villages ranging from 0 to 52%. Full-length genomic sequences were determined using high throughput sequencing methodologies for LASV isolates generated from tissue samples of rodents collected in four villages and confirmed the phylogenetic clustering of Malian LASV with strain AV.The risk of human infections with LASV is greatest in villages in southern Mali. Lassa fever should be considered in the differential diagnosis for febrile individuals and appropriate diagnostic techniques need to be established to determine the incidence of infection and disease in these regions.

  20. Geographic distribution of isolated indigenous societies in Amazonia and the efficacy of indigenous territories.

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    Dylan C Kesler

    Full Text Available The headwaters of the Amazon Basin harbor most of the world's last indigenous peoples who have limited contact with encroaching colonists. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of these isolated groups is essential to assist with the development of immediate protections for vulnerable indigenous settlements. We used remote sensing to document the locations of 28 isolated villages within the four Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, and Rondônia. The sites were confirmed during previous over-flights and by image evidence of thatched-roof houses; they are estimated to host over 1,700 individuals. Locational data were used to train maximum entropy models that identified landscape and anthropogenic features associated with the occurrence of isolated indigenous villages, including elevation, proximity to streams of five different orders, proximity to roads and settlements, proximity to recent deforestation, and vegetation cover type. Isolated villages were identified at mid elevations, within 20 km of the tops of watersheds and at greater distances from existing roads and trails. We further used model results, combined with boundaries of the existing indigenous territory system that is designed to protect indigenous lands, to assess the efficacy of the existing protected area network for isolated peoples. Results indicate that existing indigenous territories encompass all of the villages we identified, and 50% of the areas with high predicted probabilities of isolated village occurrence. Our results are intended to help inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to isolated peoples.

  1. Geographic distribution and morphometric differentiation of Triatoma nitida usinger 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae in Guatemala

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    Monroy Carlota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma nitida was found in 14 (0.4% out of 3,726 houses located in six departments across Guatemala, which were surveyed from 1994 to 1998 by the man-hour collection method. Compared to previous information, the distribution of T. nitida in Guatemala has increased from five to nine departments; the species is present in mild climates at altitudes from 960 to 1,500 m. Fourteen percent of the intradomestic T. nitida were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The species was often found in conjunction with other triatomines (T. dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus. The domestic and peridomestic presence of T. nitida in Guatemala was rare, but occasionally this species was colonizing human-made constructions. T. nitida appears to have a low importance as Chagas disease vector in Guatemala, as indicated by its scarce presence in the domestic habitats and defecation patterns. However, it clearly has potential to become a Chagas vector so we recommend an on-going study of the intradomestic presence of T. nitida following the control programs in Guatemala. Morphometric analysis of 47 T. nitida males from three localities showed quantitative differences between the populations, which indicates that geographic distance is an important factor in the structuring of T. nitida populations.

  2. Predicting geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species (Aves: Furnariidae in South America based on ecological niche modeling

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    Maria da Salete Gurgel Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phacellodomus Reichenbach, 1853, comprises nine species of Furnariids that occur in South America in open and generally dry areas. This study estimated the geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species in South America by ecological niche modeling. Applying maximum entropy method, models were produced for eight species based on six climatic variables and 949 occurrence records. Since highest climatic suitability for Phacellodomus species has been estimated in open and dry areas, the Amazon rainforest areas are not very suitable for these species. Annual precipitation and minimum temperature of the coldest month are the variables that most influence the models. Phacellodomus species occurred in 35 ecoregions of South America. Chaco and Uruguayan savannas were the ecoregions with the highest number of species. Despite the overall connection of Phacellodomus species with dry areas, species such as P. ruber, P. rufifrons, P. ferrugineigula and P. erythrophthalmus occurred in wet forests and wetland ecoregions.

  3. Potential geographic distribution of the novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9 virus.

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    Gengping Zhu

    Full Text Available In late March 2013, a new avian-origin influenza virus emerged in eastern China. This H7N9 subtype virus has since infected 240 people and killed 60, and has awakened global concern as a potential pandemic threat. Ecological niche modeling has seen increasing applications as a useful tool in mapping geographic potential and risk of disease transmission.We developed two datasets based on seasonal variation in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI from the MODIS sensor to characterize environmental dimensions of H7N9 virus. One-third of well-documented cases was used to test robustness of models calibrated based on the remaining two-thirds, and model significance was tested using partial ROC approaches. A final niche model was calibrated using all records available.Central-eastern China appears to represent an area of high risk for H7N9 spread, but suitable areas were distributed more spottily in the north and only along the coast in the south; highly suitable areas also were identified in western Taiwan. Areas identified as presenting high risk for H7N9 spread tend to present consistent NDVI values through the year, whereas unsuitable areas show greater seasonal variation.

  4. Geographic distribution of isolated indigenous societies in Amazonia and the efficacy of indigenous territories.

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    Kesler, Dylan C; Walker, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    The headwaters of the Amazon Basin harbor most of the world's last indigenous peoples who have limited contact with encroaching colonists. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of these isolated groups is essential to assist with the development of immediate protections for vulnerable indigenous settlements. We used remote sensing to document the locations of 28 isolated villages within the four Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, and Rondônia. The sites were confirmed during previous over-flights and by image evidence of thatched-roof houses; they are estimated to host over 1,700 individuals. Locational data were used to train maximum entropy models that identified landscape and anthropogenic features associated with the occurrence of isolated indigenous villages, including elevation, proximity to streams of five different orders, proximity to roads and settlements, proximity to recent deforestation, and vegetation cover type. Isolated villages were identified at mid elevations, within 20 km of the tops of watersheds and at greater distances from existing roads and trails. We further used model results, combined with boundaries of the existing indigenous territory system that is designed to protect indigenous lands, to assess the efficacy of the existing protected area network for isolated peoples. Results indicate that existing indigenous territories encompass all of the villages we identified, and 50% of the areas with high predicted probabilities of isolated village occurrence. Our results are intended to help inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to isolated peoples.

  5. [Geographic distribution and epidemiology of urinary schistosomiasis in Mali: implications for a control program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, M; Landouré, A; Diarra, A; Kanté, B; Sacko, M; Coulibaly, G; Sangho, A; Simaga, S Y

    2007-01-01

    A national survey was conducted in Mali between 1986 and 1990 to determine the geographical distribution of urinary schistosomiasis in order to define an ecologically based national schistosomiasis control programme. Fifty six thousand two hundreds and sixty five individuals randomly selected from 323 villages in the nine ecologically defined areas of the whole country were submitted to urine examination using Filtration Technique. In villages along the Niger and Senegal rivers, in the Dogon Plateau and Office du Niger areas, the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infection was the highest, respectively 41.8%, 53.1%, 59.4% et 62.9%. In these areas, more 70% of children aged 7 to 14 years were infected. In the Soudanian and North-Soudanian areas, the prevalence were below 10% and respectively only 5.3% and 11.5% of children aged 7 to 14 years were infected. It is concluded that Schistosoma haematobium infection is of public health importance in dam and irrigation areas and in areas along the Niger and Senegal rivers namely in Kayes, Koulikoro, Segou, Mopti regions and in Bamako district. These areas should be considered as priority areas for active control interventions. The interventions should include community-based mass chemotherapy with praziquantel after community diagnostic using urine examination in school aged children and a good monitoring system.

  6. Potential geographical distribution of the red palm mite in South America.

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    Amaro, George; de Morais, Elisangela Gomes Fidelis

    2013-07-01

    Among pests that have recently been introduced into the Americas, the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae), is the most invasive. This mite has spread rapidly to several Caribbean countries, United States of America, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil. The potential dispersion of R. indica to other regions of South America could seriously impact the cultivation of coconuts, bananas, exotic and native palms and tropical flowers such as the Heliconiaceae. To facilitate the development of efficacious R. indica management techniques such as the adoption of phytosanitary measures to prevent or delay the dispersion of this pest, the objective of this paper was to estimate the potential geographical distribution of R. indica in South America using a maximum entropy model. The R. indica occurrence data used in this model were obtained from extant literature, online databases and field sampling data. The model predicted potential suitable areas for R. indica in northern Colombia, central and northern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, east French Guiana and many parts of Brazil, including Roraima, the eastern Amazonas, northern Pará, Amapá and the coastal zones, from Pará to north of Rio de Janeiro. These results indicate the potential for significant R. indica related economic and social impacts in all of these countries, particularly in Brazil, because the suitable habitat regions overlap with agricultural areas for R. indica host plants such as coconuts and bananas.

  7. The Creation Of Web-Based Geographical Information System Of Drugstore Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Kosasi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties of finding the locations of the drugstores in a certain area often happen. They make the customers’ demands not satisfied. Low competitiveness of the drugstores is another impact. This research aims to create a web-based geographical information system (WebGis on the distribution of all drugstores located in the sub-districts of Pontianak using a web-based mapping approach. It is beneficial to use WebGis because the integrated information (i.e. spatial and non-spatial data can be provided. The information displays are also interactive and ease the customers to know the locations of the drugstores using certain view. Moreover, the system has a maptip feature that can be used to know the information of coordinate points showing the drugstore names, medical schedules, services, insurance, and addresses. The search column can be used to search the information of medicine and of physical appearance of drugstore buildings. Finally, the system maps all drugstores and gives accurate information. Therefore, the customers can analyze and find the drugstores with the nearest distance.

  8. Geographical distribution and accumulation features of PBDEs in human breast milk from Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), JL. MH. Thamrin 8, Jakarta (Indonesia); Kajiwara, Natsuko; Takahashi, Shin [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Muawanah [National Seafarming Development Centre (NSDC), JL. Yos Sudarso, Hanura Padang Cermin, Lampung (Indonesia); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2008-01-15

    The present study reports concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines (OCs) in human breast milk from Indonesia covering urban, suburban and rural areas. PBDEs were detected in all the samples of the present study with total concentrations ranging from 0.49 to 13 ng/g lipid wt. Geographical distribution showed that concentrations of PBDEs were relatively uniform (p > 0.05) and the levels were in the same order as those in Japan and some European countries, but were one or two order lower than North America. When compared to OCs, the level of total PBDEs was lower. The congener pattern was in accordance with other studies on human matrices, in which BDE-47 was the most abundant congener. Variations of PBDE congeners in human breast milk were further discussed to elucidate the potential exposure source(s) and pathways. - PBDEs are ubiquitous pollutants in general population of Indonesia which contains various congeners from di- to deca-bromodiphenyl ether in exposed donors.

  9. Potential geographic distribution and conservation of Audubon's Shearwater, Puffinus lherminieri in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecília P.A. Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Audubon's Shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri Lesson 1839 is a tropical seabird occurring mainly between southern Canada and the southeast coast of Brazil. Puffinus lherminieri is considered Critically Endangered on the Brazilian Red List because it only occurs in two known localities, both of which contain very small populations. However, many offshore islands along the Brazilian coast are poorly known and the discovery of new colonies would be of considerable significance for the conservation of this species. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential geographic distribution of Audubon's Shearwater in Brazil, based on ecological niche model (ENM using Maxent algorithm with layers obtained from AquaMaps environmental dataset. The ENM was based on 37 records for reproduction areas in North and South America. The model yielded a very broad potential distribution, covering most of the Atlantic coast ranging from Brazil to the US. When filtered for islands along the Brazilian coast, the model indicates higher levels of environmental suitability near the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Bahia. However, P. lherminieri prefers islands in environments with warm saline water. Thus, based on the influence of currents that act on the Brazilian coast we can infer undiscovered colonies are most likely to occur on islands on coast of Bahia, Espírito Santo and extreme north of the Rio de Janeiro. These should be intensively surveyed while the islands south of Cabo Frio should be discarded. The existence of new populations would have profound effects on the conservation status of this enigmatic and rarely seen seabird.

  10. Geographic distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in wild rats (Rattus rattus) and terrestrial snails in Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Slapcinsky, John D; Roff, Shannon; Mendieta Calle, Jorge; Diaz Goodwin, Zakia; Stern, Jere; Corlett, Rachel; Conway, Julia; McIntosh, Antoinette

    2017-01-01

    The parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in humans, and has been documented in other incidental hosts such as birds, horses, dogs and non-human primates. It is endemic in Hawaii, and there have been sporadic reports in the southern continental United States. This parasite uses rats as definitive hosts and snails as intermediate hosts. In this study, we collected potential definitive and intermediate hosts throughout Florida to ascertain the geographic distribution in the state: Rats, environmental rat fecal samples, and snails were collected from 18 counties throughout the state. Classical diagnostics and morphological identification, along with molecular techniques were used to identify nematode species and confirm the presence of A. cantonensis. Of the 171 Rattus rattus collected, 39 (22.8%) were positive for A. cantonensis, and 6 of the 37 (16.2%) environmental rat fecal samples collected in three of the surveyed counties were also positive for this parasite by real time PCR. We examined 1,437 gastropods, which represented 32 species; 27 (1.9%) were positive for A. cantonensis from multiple sites across Florida. Three non-native gastropod species, Bradybaena similaris, Zachrysia provisoria, and Paropeas achatinaceum, and three native gastropod species, Succinea floridana, Ventridens demissus, and Zonitoides arboreus, which are newly recorded intermediate hosts for the parasite, were positive for A. cantonensis. This study indicates that A. cantonensis is established in Florida through the finding of adult and larval stages in definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively, throughout the state. The ability for this historically subtropical nematode to thrive in a more temperate climate is alarming, however as the climate changes and average temperatures rise, gastropod distributions will probably expand, leading to the spread of this parasite in more temperate areas. Through greater awareness of host species

  11. Interactions among climate and soil properties influence current and future geographic distribution of an invasive grass in the Chihuahuan Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods: Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana) is an invasive exotic perennial grass throughout the Sonoran Desert. However, in the neighboring Chihuahuan Desert, this species is generally present in low abundance, although data on its geographic distribution are scarce. Our...

  12. Fish geographic distribution range shifts as recorded in the eastern Mediterranean during the last 5 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiadi, Konstantina; Karakitsios, Vasileios

    2013-04-01

    Marine fish species geographic distribution is known to reflect the individuals' response to changes in oceanic circulation, temperature, salinity, local geography, other species presence and/or abundance, food availability and other biotic and abiotic factors1. New and published records on the eastern Mediterranean fish, from the end of the Messinian salinity crisis to the present, are here examined, in correlation with palaeoenvironmental data, in order to draw conclusions regarding the abiotic parameters most affecting the fish distribution during the last 5 Ma in this area. This investigation shows that the environmental variables do not affect the fish fauna in a uniform way. Rather, three faunal components may be separated, each occupying a different depth range in the water column. Pelagic fish dwell for the most part on the uppermost 200 m, and their distribution seems to be affected mainly by climatic variability. Mesopelagic fish occupy mostly intermediate depths and their distribution is regulated by the prevailing water circulation patterns. Benthic and benthopelagic fish, which live close or in contact with the sea bottom, are mostly affected by the nature and depth of the substratum. Furthermore, examples from the Ionian2,3 and the Aegean Sea indicate that, during the last 5 Ma, large-scale range shifts, similar to those occurring today, frequently took place in this area. This observation significantly alters previously views on the stability of fish assemblages and the processes occurring today. Acknowledgments. This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Heracleitus II. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund. References 1 Wooton RJ. 1998. Ecology of teleost fishes,Fish and Fisheries Series,24.Kluwers.392p. 2

  13. Geographical cost-supply analysis forest biomass for distributed generation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a study which uses geographical information system (GIS) to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The article presents a study which uses geographical information system (GIS) to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  14. The potential effect of global warming on the geographic and seasonal distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi in southwest Asia.

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, E R; Hyams, K C

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi in Southwest Asia is thought to be highly dependent on temperature and relative humidity. A discriminant analysis model based on weather data and reported vector surveys was developed to predict the seasonal and geographic distribution of P. papatasi in this region. To simulate global warming, temperature values for 115 weather stations were increased by 1 degree C, 3 degrees C, and 5 degrees C, and the outcome variable coded as unknown in the model. P...

  15. Geographic Distribution of Maternal Group B Streptococcus Colonization and Infant Death During Birth Hospitalization: Eastern Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. F. Kram

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Maternal group B Streptococcus (GBS can be transmitted from a colonized mother to newborn during vaginal delivery and may or may not contribute to infant death. This study aimed to explore the geographic distribution and risk factors of maternal GBS colonization and infant death during birth hospitalization. Methods: We retrospectively studied mothers with live birth(s in a large eastern Wisconsin hospital system from 2007 through 2013. Associations between maternal and neonatal variables, GBS colonization and infant death were examined using chi-squared, Mann-Whitney U and t-tests. Multivariable logistic regression models also were developed. Results: Study population (N = 99,305 had a mean age of 28.1 years and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI of 26.7 kg/m2; 64.0% were white, 59.2% married, 39.3% nulliparous and 25.7% cesarean delivery. Mean gestational age was 39.0 weeks. Rate of maternal GBS colonization (22.3% overall was greater in blacks (34.1% vs. 20.1% in whites, P < 0.0001, unmarried women (25.5% vs. 20.0% married, P < 0.0001, women with sexually transmitted or other genital infections (P < 0.0001 and residents of ZIP code group 532XX (P < 0.0001, and was associated with increasing BMI (P < 0.0001. All predictors of colonization were significant on multivariable analysis. Rate of infant death was 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (n = 558 excluding lethal anomalies and stillbirths and was negatively associated with maternal GBS colonization (P < 0.0001. On multivariable analysis, 532XX ZIP code group, lower gestational age, preterm labor, hyaline membrane disease, normal spontaneous vaginal delivery, hydramnios, oligohydramnios and absence of maternal GBS were associated with infant death. Conclusions: Geographic characteristics were associated with infant death and maternal GBS colonization. Further research is needed to determine if increased surveillance or treatment of mothers colonized with GBS decreases the risk of infant

  16. Competition, Ownership and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical results support two concurrent views regarding the mediating role that ownership structure might play on the effect of competition on firm performance. According to one stream of literature, competition has a high, positive impact in companies that have an effective ownership structur...

  17. Essays on Employee Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faigen, Benjamin

    This thesis examines ownership of the firm by its employees, of varying stakes. It begins by identifying the existence of employee ownership in a Chinese context, presented in the form of a general analytical discussion which is informed by a review of the available evidence on the subject......, and barriers to, employee ownership in China at three levels of analysis: the societal, organisational and individual. Its intended contribution to the employee ownership literature is to organise the scattered evidence in order to provide a systematic and comprehensive coverage of the development...... of this phenomenon. Employee ownership is found to have played a role in Chinese economic transition as a transitory phase before non-state enterprises were afforded official recognition in a context of publicly-owned enterprise privatisation. Senior managers became the key beneficiaries in firm sales and most...

  18. Leishmania isoenzyme polymorphisms in Ecuador: Relationships with geographic distribution and clinical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimori Tatsuyuki

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determinants of the clinical presentation of the leishmaniases are poorly understood but Leishmania species and strain differences are important. To examine the relationship between clinical presentation, species and isoenzyme polymorphisms, 56 Leishmania isolates from distinct presentations of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL from Ecuador were analyzed. Methods Isolates were characterized by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis for polymorphisms of 11 isoenzymes. Patients were infected in four different ecologic regions: highland and lowland jungle of the Pacific coast, Amazonian lowlands and Andean highlands. Results Six Leishmania species constituting 21 zymodemes were identified: L. (Viannia panamensis (21 isolates, 7 zymodemes, L. (V. guyanensis (7 isolates, 4 zymodemes, L. (V. braziliensis (5 isolates, 3 zymodemes, L. (Leishmania mexicana (11 isolates, 4 zymodemes, L. (L. amazonensis (10 isolates, 2 zymodemes and L. (L. major (2 isolates, 1 zymodeme. L. panamensis was the species most frequently identified in the Pacific region and was associated with several clinical variants of cutaneous disease (CL; eight cases of leishmaniasis recidiva cutis (LRC found in the Pacific highlands were associated with 3 zymodemes of this species. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis found only in the Amazonian focus was associated with 3 zymodemes of L. braziliensis. The papular variant of CL, Uta, found in the Andean highlands was related predominantly with a single zymodeme of L. mexicana. Conclusion Our data show a high degree of phenotypic variation within species, and some evidence for associations between specific variants of ATL (i.e. Uta and LRC and specific Leishmania zymodemes. This study further defines the geographic distribution of Leishmania species and clinical variants of ATL in Ecuador.

  19. Bioaccumulation, temporal trend, and geographical distribution of synthetic musks in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Haruhiko; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Takemura, Akira; Yoshioka, Motoi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2007-04-01

    Bioaccumulation of synthetic musks in a marine food chain was investigated by analyzing marine organisms at various trophic levels, including lugworm, clam, crustacean, fish, marine mammal, and bird samples collected from tidal flat and shallow water areas of the Ariake Sea, Japan. Two of the polycyclic musks, HHCB and AHTN, were the dominant compounds found in most of the samples analyzed, whereas nitro musks were not detected in any of the organisms, suggesting greater usage of polycyclic musks relative to the nitro musks in Japan. The highest concentrations of HHCB were detected in clams (258-2730 ng/g lipid wt.), whereas HHCB concentrations in mallard and black-headed gull were low, and comparable with concentrations in fish and crab. These results are in contrast to the bioaccumulation pattern of polychlorinated biphenyls; for which a positive correlation between the concentration and the trophic status of organisms was found. Such a difference in the bioaccumulation is probably due to the metabolism and elimination of HHCB in higher trophic organisms. Temporal trends in concentrations of synthetic musks were examined by analyzing tissues of marine mammals from Japanese coastal waters collected during 1977-2005. HHCB concentrations in marine mammals have shown significant increase since the early 1990s, suggesting a continuous input of this compound into the marine environment. Comparison of the time trend for HHCB with those for PCBs and PBDEs suggested that the rates of increase in HHCB concentrations were higher than the other classes of pollutants. To examine the geographical distribution of HHCB, we have analyzed tissues of fish, marine mammals, and birds collected from several locations. Synthetic musks were not detected in a sperm whale (pelagic species) from Japanese coastal water and in eggs of south polar skua from Antarctica. While the number of samples analyzed is limited, these results imply a lack of long-range transportation potential of

  20. Application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Analysing Rainfall Distribution Patterns in Batu Pahat District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Kaamin, M.; Azizan, N. S.; Sahat, S.; Bukari, S. M.; Mokhtar, M.; Ngadiman, N.; Hamid, N. B.

    2016-07-01

    Rainfall forecasting reports are crucial to provide information and warnings to the population in a particular location. The Malaysian Meteorology Department (MMD) is a department that plays an important role in monitoring the situation and issued the statement of changes in weather and provides services such as weather advisories and gives warnings when the situation requires. Uncertain weather situations normally have created panic situation, especially in big cities because of flash floods due to poor drainage management. Usually, local authorities provided rainfall data in tables, and it is difficult to analyse to acquire the rainfall trend. Therefore, Geographic Information System (GIS) applications are commonly used to generate rainfall patterns in visual formation with a combination of characteristics of rainfall data and then can be used by stakeholders to facilitate the process of analysis and forecasting rainfall. The objective of this study is to determine the pattern of rainfall distribution using GIS applications in Batu Pahat district to assist interested parties to understand and easy to analyse the rainfall data in visual form or mapping form. Rainfall data for a period of 10 years (2004-2013) and monthly data (Dec 2006 - Feb 2007) are provided by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) for 12 stations in the district of Batu Pahat, and rainfall maps in each year was obtained using the interpolation Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method was used in this research. The rainfall map was then analyzed to identify the highest rainfall that was received during the period of study. For the conclusion, this study has proved that rainfall analysis using GIS application is efficient to be used in gaining information of rainfall patterns as the results show that the highest rainfall occurred in 2006 and 2007, and it were the years of major floods occurrence in Batu Pahat district.

  1. Extended geographic distribution of several Indo-Pacific coral reef diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, E; Irikawa, A; Casareto, B; Suzuki, Y

    2012-03-20

    Other than coral bleaching, few coral diseases or diseases of other reef organisms have been reported from Japan. This is the first report of lesions similar to Porites ulcerative white spots (PUWS), brown band disease (BrB), pigmentation response (PR), and crustose coralline white syndrome (CCWS) for this region. To assess the health status and disease prevalence, qualitative and quantitative surveys (3 belt transects of 100 m² each on each reef) were performed in March and September 2010 on 2 reefs of the Ginowan-Ooyama reef complex off Okinawa, and 2 protected reefs off Zamani Island, in the Kerama Islands 40 km west of Okinawa. Overall, mean (±SD) disease prevalence was higher in Ginowan-Ooyama (9.7 ± 7.9%) compared to Zamami (3.6 ± 4.6%). Porites lutea was most affected by PUWS at Ooyama (23.1 ± 10.4 vs. 4.5 ± 5.2%). White syndrome (WS) mostly affected Acropora cytherea (12. 5 ± 18.0%) in Zamami and Oxipora lacera (10.2 ± 10%) in Ooyama. Growth anomalies (GA) and BrB were only observed on A. cytherea (8.3 ± 6.2%) and A. nobilis (0.8%) at Zamami. Black band disease affected Pachyseris speciosa (6.0 ± 4.6%) in Ooyama only. Pigmentation responses (PR) were common in massive Porites in both localities (2.6 ± 1.9 and 5.6 ± 2.3% respectively). Crustose coralline white syndrome (CCWS) was observed in both localities. These results significantly expand the geographic distribution of PUWS, BrB, PR and CCWS in the Indo-Pacific, indicating that the northernmost coral reefs in the western Pacific are susceptible to a larger number of coral diseases than previously thought.

  2. Effect of geographical distributions on the nutrient composition, phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of Morus nigra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Rahman, Tajur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    .... The current study was carried out to see the effect of geographical locations on the nutrient composition, mineral contents, phytochemical profile and free radical scavenging activity of Morus nigra fruit...

  3. Species Diversity Distribution Patterns of Chinese Endemic Seed Plants Based on Geographical Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Ma, Keping; Huang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Based on a great number of literatures, we established the database about the Chinese endemic seed plants and analyzed the compositions, growth form, distribution and angiosperm original families of them within three big natural areas and seven natural regions. The results indicate that the above characters of Chinese endemic plants take on relative rule at the different geographical scales. Among the three big natural areas, Eastern Monsoon area has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas Northwest Dryness area is the lowest. For life forms, herbs dominate. In contrast, the proportion of herbs of Eastern Monsoon area is remarkable under other two areas. Correspondingly the proportions of trees and shrubs are substantially higher than other two. For angiosperm original families, the number is the highest in Eastern Monsoon area, and lowest in Northwest Dryness area. On the other hand, among the seven natural regions, the humid and subtropical zone in Central and Southern China has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas the humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China has the lowest. For life forms, the proportion of herbs tends to decrease from humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China to humid and tropical zone in Southern China. Comparably, trees, shrubs and vines or lianas increase with the same directions. This fully represents these characters of Chinese endemic plants vary with latitudinal gradients. Furthermore, as to the number of endemic plants belonging to angiosperm original families, the number is the most in humid and subtropical zone in Center and Southern China, and tropical zone in Southern China in the next place. In contrast, the endemic plant of these two regions relatively is richer than that of The Qinghai-Tibet alpine and cold region. All above results sufficiently reflect that the Chinese endemic plants mainly distribute in Eastern Monsoon area, especially humid and subtropical zone in Center

  4. Species Diversity Distribution Patterns of Chinese Endemic Seed Plants Based on Geographical Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Ma, Keping; Huang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Based on a great number of literatures, we established the database about the Chinese endemic seed plants and analyzed the compositions, growth form, distribution and angiosperm original families of them within three big natural areas and seven natural regions. The results indicate that the above characters of Chinese endemic plants take on relative rule at the different geographical scales. Among the three big natural areas, Eastern Monsoon area has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas Northwest Dryness area is the lowest. For life forms, herbs dominate. In contrast, the proportion of herbs of Eastern Monsoon area is remarkable under other two areas. Correspondingly the proportions of trees and shrubs are substantially higher than other two. For angiosperm original families, the number is the highest in Eastern Monsoon area, and lowest in Northwest Dryness area. On the other hand, among the seven natural regions, the humid and subtropical zone in Central and Southern China has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas the humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China has the lowest. For life forms, the proportion of herbs tends to decrease from humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China to humid and tropical zone in Southern China. Comparably, trees, shrubs and vines or lianas increase with the same directions. This fully represents these characters of Chinese endemic plants vary with latitudinal gradients. Furthermore, as to the number of endemic plants belonging to angiosperm original families, the number is the most in humid and subtropical zone in Center and Southern China, and tropical zone in Southern China in the next place. In contrast, the endemic plant of these two regions relatively is richer than that of The Qinghai-Tibet alpine and cold region. All above results sufficiently reflect that the Chinese endemic plants mainly distribute in Eastern Monsoon area, especially humid and subtropical zone in Center

  5. Essays on Employee Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faigen, Benjamin

    -method empirical research into the characteristics of individuals who have recently purchased shares in their employing firms in an Icelandic context, as well as their specific motives for doing so (or reasons for not doing so). Determinants of employee ownership, as well as direct insights into the considerations...... and age are found to influence ownership status. Furthermore, some support is found for financial motives outweighing non-financial motives behind share purchases in minority employee-owned firms relative to majority employee-owned firms. Internal barriers to ownership, together with a lack of funds...

  6. Geographical Distribution of Wild Relatives of Mesoamerican Gene Pool of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L. in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén H. Andueza-Noh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mesoamerican gene pool of wild Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L., Fabaceae is an important source of genes for genetic improvement of the species. Is widely distributed from northern Mexico to northern Argentina. Reports in Mexico indicate that this gene pool is distributed from Sinaloa to Chiapas on the Pacific Coast and southern Tamaulipas to the Yucatan Peninsula on the Coast of Gulf of Mexico, as well as, in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. However, despite the knowledge we have about the distribution of this gene pool, in Mexico there are still collecting gaps and unexplored regions. The objective of this study was to collect wild populations of Lima bean in Mexico to know its current distribution and establish management and conservation strategies. To do this, we collected within the natural distribution range of the Mesoamerican gene pool of Lima bean in Mexico, with the passport data was designed a geographical distribution map and assessed the conservation status of populations. Results indicated that wild populations of Lima bean have a wide geographical distribution localized mainly in tropical deciduous forest and semideciduous and elevations from zero to 2, 292 meters. In most wild population collected a low conservation status was observed, in consequence was proposed the development of strategies for in situ and ex situ conservation for wild populations with higher degree of erosion.

  7. Relationship between Emergency Restoration Time of Power Distribution Line after a Disaster and Geographical Characteristics of its Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagai, Shigeo; Terano, Takao

    The effect of an outage caused by a disaster is serious to the society, because the power distribution line is a common basic infrastructure for life support. And the time estimation of emergency restoration process of power distribution line after a disaster is an emerging problem for the safety and security of the society. But the time estimation is a difficult problem and the only practical method in use is a simple approximation method, which doesn't take account of geographical characteristics of the objective area. So, we developed a method which can take account of the influences caused by the geographical characteristics of the objective area on the estimation of the emergency restoration. In this article, we describe an experimental analysis by the method.

  8. Geographical distribution and intra-domiciliary capture of sylvatic triatomines in La Convención province, Cusco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres V, Dina Beatriz; Cabrera, Rufino

    2010-01-01

    The geographical distribution and intra-domiciliary capture of sylvatic triatomines in three districts of the province of La Convención, Cusco, Peru are presented. In the district of Vilcabamba, eight adults of Rhodnius pictipes and five adults of Panstrongylus geniculatus were found. In the district of Ocobamba, 19 adults, 14 nymphs, and eggs of P. rufotuberculatus were found. In the district of Echarate, six adults and 10 nymphs of Eratyrus mucronatus, an adult of R. pictipes and P. geniculatus, and a nymph of P. rufotuberculatus were also found. The geographical distribution of E. mucronatus has extended to Cusco. This is the first report in Peru of household colonization by this triatomine.

  9. Geographic and Ethnic Distribution of P knowlesi infection in Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daw Khin Saw Naing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plasmodium knowlesi, an originally zoonotic malaria parasite is now increasingly recognized as a potentially virulent type of human malaria, particularly in South East Asia. The initial diagnosis based on light microscopy would not differentiate P knowlesi from P malaria and the nested PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction assay is the only reliable diagnostic method to correctly differentiate the two species. Sabah State Public Health Laboratory has launched its PCR service in 2007 for all government hospitals of Sabah to get accurate verification of malaria species. Sabah state is famous for its significant tourist attraction sites, of which Mount Kinabalu and Tip of Borneo are the most unique and mostly visited. A large variety of ethnic groups reside in Sabah with Kadazan-Dusun forming the largest indigenous group followed by Bajau and Murut.Aim & Objectives: To determine the geographic and ethnic distribution of zoonotic malaria among Sabah population so as to recommend effective preventive and control measures at popular tourist sites of Sabah. Methods/Study Design: A record review of all nested PCR assays done during 2009 at Sabah State Public Health Laboratory was made. SPSS version 16 and Microsoft excel 2007 softwares were used in analysis.Results/Findings: 445 cases were referred in 2009 for PCR assay from various hospitals of Sabah. Age range was 1 to 89 years (33±18 years and about 12 % were symptomatic cases while the rest were confirmed malaria by microscopy. 343 cases (253 males and 90 females were positive for Plasmodium knowlesi single infection or mixed with other species. Mixed infection with vivax was common (65 males and 18 females. Only two cases each for mixed infection with falciparum and malarie were detected. P knowlesi infection was confirmed in all age groups (under five as well as over 80.Among the positive cases, about 32% were Rungus, 28% Dunsun and 15% Murut. 41.7% were from Kudat which is close to the Tip

  10. Divorce comes at a price: an ex ante welfare analysis of ownership unbundling of the distribution and commercial companies in the Dutch energy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooij, M.; Baarsma, B.

    2009-01-01

    Vertical unbundling in the electricity sector is a hot political topic in the European Union. The European Commission has decided that the ownership unbundling of transmission networks from other stages in the value chain is the most effective way to ensure fair network access and infrastructure inv

  11. Incidence and Geographic Distribution of Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jennifer R.; Gandhi, Neel R.; Mthiyane, Thuli; Mlisana, Koleka; Moodley, Julie; Jaglal, Prenika; Ramdin, Neeshan; Brust, James C. M.; Ismail, Nazir; Rustomjee, Roxana; Shah, N. Sarita

    2015-01-01

    South Africa is experiencing a widespread drug-resistant tuberculosis epidemic, although data are limited regarding the current situation. This study finds that the extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) incidence in KwaZulu-Natal increased to 3.5 cases/100,000 (776 cases) in 2011-2012. XDR-TB cases are widely distributed geographically, with the majority of districts experiencing a rise in incidence. PMID:26147963

  12. Geographic Distribution of CT, MRI and PET Devices in Japan: A Longitudinal Analysis Based on National Census Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Koike, Soichi; Kashima, Saori; Awai, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Japan has the most CT and MRI scanners per unit population in the world; however, the geographic distribution of these technologies is currently unknown. Moreover, nothing is known of the cause-effect relationship between the number of diagnostic imaging devices and their geographic distribution. Data on the number of CT, MRI and PET devices and that of their utilizations in all 1829 municipalities of Japan was generated, based on the Static Survey of Medical Institutions conducted by the government. The inter-municipality equity of the number of devices or utilizations was evaluated with Gini coefficient. Between 2005 and 2011, the number of CT, MRI and PET devices in Japan increased by 47% (8789 to 12945), 19% (5034 to 5990) and 70% (274 to 466), respectively. Gini coefficient of the number of devices was largest for PET and smallest for CT (p for PET-MRI difference geographic distribution of the diagnostic imaging technology in Japan appears to be affected by spatial competition derived from a market force.

  13. Geographic distribution, large-scale spatial structure and diversity of parasitoids of the seed-feeding beetle Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A; Haga, E B; Costa, V A; Rossi, M N

    2016-10-21

    Bruchine beetles are highly host-specific seed feeders during the larval stage. Although some specific parasitoid families have been recorded attacking bruchine beetles, most studies have been done at small spatial scales. Therefore, the current knowledge about the diversity and the geographic distribution of parasitoid species parasitizing bruchines is scarce, especially at a wide geographic area that extends over large distances through a latitudinal cline (i.e. large-scale spatial structure). The present study determined the species richness and evenness of parasitoids attacking the bruchine beetle Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus feeding on Leucaena leucocephala seeds, examined their geographic distribution, and characterized the large-scale spatial structure in parasitoid species composition. A total of 1420 parasitoids (all Hymenoptera) belonging to four families, five subfamilies and eight species were collected (genera: Horismenus, Paracrias, Urosigalphus, Stenocorse, Chryseida, Eupelmus). Most parasitoid species showed wide spatial distribution, high evenness in species abundance and the species richness estimators were close to stabilization (approximately eight species). Overall, greater similarity was observed in the species composition of plant populations near to each other than those farther apart, revealing a large-scale spatial structure in parasitoid species composition.

  14. Predicting the potential geographic distribution of cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis in India based on MAXENT ecological niche model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fand, Babasaheb B; Kumar, Mahesh; Kamble, Ankush L

    2014-09-01

    Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley has recently emerged as a serious insect pest of cotton in India. This study demonstrates the use of Maxent algorithm for modeling the potential geographic distribution of P. solenopsis in India with presence-only data. Predictions were made based on the analysis of the relationship between 111 occurrence records for P. solenopsis and the corresponding current and future climate data defined on the study area. The climate data from worldclim database for current (1950-2000) and future (SRES A2 emission scenario for 2050) conditions were used. DIVA-GIS, an open source software for conducting spatial analysis was used for mapping the predictions from Maxent. The algorithm provided reasonable estimates of the species range indicating better discrimination of suitable and unsuitable areas for its occurrence in India under both present and future climatic conditions. The fit for the model as measured by AUC was high, with value of 0.930 for the training data and 0.895 for the test data, indicating the high level of discriminatory power for the Maxent. A Jackknife test for variable importance indicated that mean temperature of coldest quarter with highest gain value was the most important environmental variable determining the potential geographic distribution of P. solenopsis. The approaches used for delineating the ecological niche and prediction of potential geographic distribution are described briefly. Possible applications and limitations of the present modeling approach in future research and as a decision making tool in integrated pest management are discussed.

  15. Geographical distribution of fluoride in the public water supply in the province of Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Alberto Durán

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the geographical distribution of fluoride content in the public water supply in the province of Tucumán, Argentina. A total of 1,210 samples were collected in 190 localities of the 17 departments of the province during the 2008-2012 period. The analytical determination was performed using the SPADNS method and QGis 2.16 was used for processing the information. The fluoride content requirements in the studied localities were determined according to the Argentine Food Code. The results showed that 94% of population studied consumed water with fluoride concentrations below the recommended limits, 5% were exposed to fluoride concentrations above the required maximum limit and 1% consumed water at optimal fluoride concentrations. The maps showed a heterogeneous geographical distribution of fluorides, in which areas with deficit, excess and recommended values of fluorides can be differentiated; in some departments an inverse relationship between the density of the hydrological network and fluoride concentration can be observed. In the capital of the province, the average value found was 0.32 mg/l, presenting a homogeneous geographical distribution. The information obtained is indispensable for the proper management of fluoride, so as to improve public health through policy.

  16. Global Climate Change Effects on Venezuela's Vulnerability to Chagas Disease is Linked to the Geographic Distribution of Five Triatomine Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Soledad; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the possible effects of global climate change on the potential geographic distribution in Venezuela of five species of triatomines (Eratyrus mucronatus (Stal, 1859), Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811), Rhodnius prolixus (Stål, 1859), Rhodnius robustus (Larrousse, 1927), and Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848)), vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. To obtain the future potential geographic distributions, expressed as climatic niche suitability, we modeled the presences of these species using two IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) future emission scenarios of global climate change (A1B and B1), the Global Climate model CSIRO Mark 3.0, and three periods of future projections (years 2020, 2060, and 2080). After estimating with the MaxEnt software the future climatic niche suitability for each species, scenario, and period of future projections, we estimated a series of indexes of Venezuela's vulnerability at the county, state, and country level, measured as the number of people exposed due to the changes in the geographical distribution of the five triatomine species analyzed. Despite that this is not a measure of the risk of Chagas disease transmission, we conclude that possible future effects of global climate change on the Venezuelan population vulnerability show a slightly decreasing trend, even taking into account future population growth; we can expect fewer locations in Venezuela where an average Venezuelan citizen would be exposed to triatomines in the next 50-70 yr.

  17. Distribution of Health-Related Physical Fitness in Texas Youth: A Demographic and Geographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Gregory J.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Ihmels, Michelle; Seeger, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study examined demographic and geographic variability in aggregated school-level data on the percentage of students achieving the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zones[TM] (HFZ). Three-way analyses of variance were used to examine differences in fitness achievement rates among schools that had distinct diversity and socioeconomic status…

  18. Global biodiversity and geographical distribution of diapausing aquatic invertebrates: the case of the cosmopolitan brine shrimp, Artemia (Branchiopoda, Anostraca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin; Pacios, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    and geographic information. Our results indicate there are three Artemia complexes, A. franciscana, A. tibetiana and A. salina, suggesting at least three undescribed, and one unidentified to date, highly isolated lineages, to be re-evaluated taxonomically. Additionally, at a global scale, our data set shows two......The genus Artemia comprises passively dispersed anostracan species with a distribution all around the world, except in Antarctica. We used both published and personal data to assess and update existing knowledge on the diversity and distribution of Artemia, in particular compiling also genetic...

  19. Redefining the Australian Anthrax Belt: Modeling the Ecological Niche and Predicting the Geographic Distribution of Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alassane S Barro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ecology and distribution of B. anthracis in Australia is not well understood, despite the continued occurrence of anthrax outbreaks in the eastern states of the country. Efforts to estimate the spatial extent of the risk of disease have been limited to a qualitative definition of an anthrax belt extending from southeast Queensland through the centre of New South Wales and into northern Victoria. This definition of the anthrax belt does not consider the role of environmental conditions in the distribution of B. anthracis. Here, we used the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction model system (GARP, historical anthrax outbreaks and environmental data to model the ecological niche of B. anthracis and predict its potential geographic distribution in Australia. Our models reveal the niche of B. anthracis in Australia is characterized by a narrow range of ecological conditions concentrated in two disjunct corridors. The most dominant corridor, used to redefine a new anthrax belt, parallels the Eastern Highlands and runs from north Victoria to central east Queensland through the centre of New South Wales. This study has redefined the anthrax belt in eastern Australia and provides insights about the ecological factors that limit the distribution of B. anthracis at the continental scale for Australia. The geographic distributions identified can help inform anthrax surveillance strategies by public and veterinary health agencies.

  20. Redefining the Australian Anthrax Belt: Modeling the Ecological Niche and Predicting the Geographic Distribution of Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barro, Alassane S; Fegan, Mark; Moloney, Barbara; Porter, Kelly; Muller, Janine; Warner, Simone; Blackburn, Jason K

    2016-06-01

    The ecology and distribution of B. anthracis in Australia is not well understood, despite the continued occurrence of anthrax outbreaks in the eastern states of the country. Efforts to estimate the spatial extent of the risk of disease have been limited to a qualitative definition of an anthrax belt extending from southeast Queensland through the centre of New South Wales and into northern Victoria. This definition of the anthrax belt does not consider the role of environmental conditions in the distribution of B. anthracis. Here, we used the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction model system (GARP), historical anthrax outbreaks and environmental data to model the ecological niche of B. anthracis and predict its potential geographic distribution in Australia. Our models reveal the niche of B. anthracis in Australia is characterized by a narrow range of ecological conditions concentrated in two disjunct corridors. The most dominant corridor, used to redefine a new anthrax belt, parallels the Eastern Highlands and runs from north Victoria to central east Queensland through the centre of New South Wales. This study has redefined the anthrax belt in eastern Australia and provides insights about the ecological factors that limit the distribution of B. anthracis at the continental scale for Australia. The geographic distributions identified can help inform anthrax surveillance strategies by public and veterinary health agencies.

  1. Geographic distribution of Vertisols and Vertic soils in Russia: diversity of soils and landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khitrov, Nikolay; Chizhikova, Nataliya; Rogovneva, Ludmila

    2013-04-01

    There is a little information about geographic distribution of Vertisols and Vertic soils in Russia. Large areas of these soils (known in Russia as slitozems) are described in the Northen Caucasus Region (Bistritzkaya, Tyuryukanov, 1971; Khitrov, 2003). Swelling clay alluvial soils with microrelief gilgai were studied within the Volga-Akhtuba floodplain (Kozlovskyi, Kornblum, 1972). These and some other regions with slitozems in Russia are between latitudes 45 N and 48 N. For the north from latitude 48 N these soils have not been noted until 2006. Recently a lot of new areas of Vertisols and Vertic soils were identified in the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia (Khitrov, 2012) and in the Middle and the Lower Volga Region between latitudes 48 N and 54 N on the basis of soil studies along routes and on key plots. The portion of these soils in the soil cover patterns varies from 0,5 to 15-30%. Some areas of Vertisols and/or Vertic soils are up to 40-200 ha and more. With that their portion in the soil cover of the entire landscape is much less than 1%. All the delineated areas of vertic soils are confined to the outcrops of swelling clay sediments of different origins (marine, lacustrine, glacial, colluvial and alluvial materials) and ages (Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene, Neogene, Quaternary). Mineral composition of clay fraction consists of smectites, irregular stratified illite-smectite, chlorite-smectite, hydromicas, chlorite and kaolinite in different proportions. Vertisols and Vertic soils may be found in different landscape positions that provides contrast water regime of soil including alternate periods of intense wetting and drying. The landscape positions are: (1) the step-like interfluvial surfaces and/or different concave slopes with swelling clay outcrops; (2) the deep closed depressions within vast flat watersheds; (3) the bottoms of wide hollows on interfluvial slopes; (4) different geomorphic positions in hydromorphic solonetzic complexes; (5) the

  2. The geographic distribution patterns of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users in a national methadone maintenance treatment program in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Biao; Liang, Song; Wang, Qi-Xing; Gong, Yu-Han; Nie, Shi-Jiao; Nan, Lei; Yang, Ai-Hui; Liao, Qiang; Song, Xiu-Xia; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2014-03-10

    HIV-, HCV- and HIV/HCV co-infections among drug users have become a rapidly emerging global public health problem. In order to constrain the dual epidemics of HIV/AIDS and drug use, China has adopted a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) since 2004. Studies of the geographic heterogeneity of HIV and HCV infections at a local scale are sparse, which has critical implications for future MMTP implementation and health policies covering both HIV and HCV prevention among drug users in China. This study aimed to characterize geographic patterns of HIV and HCV prevalence at the township level among drug users in a Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Southwest of China. Data on demographic and clinical characteristics of all clients in the 11 MMTP clinics of the Yi Autonomous Prefecture from March 2004 to December 2012 were collected. A GIS-based geographic analysis involving geographic autocorrelation analysis and geographic scan statistics were employed to identify the geographic distribution pattern of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users. A total of 6690 MMTP clients was analyzed. The prevalence of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections were 25.2%, 30.8%, and 10.9% respectively. There were significant global and local geographic autocorrelations for HIV-, HCV-, and co-infection. The Moran's I was 0.3015, 0.3449, and 0.3155, respectively (P geographic autocorrelation analysis and the geographic scan statistical analysis showed that HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections in the prefecture exhibited significant geographic clustering at the township level. The geographic distribution pattern of each infection group was different. HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections among drug users in the Yi Autonomous Prefecture all exhibited substantial geographic heterogeneity at the township level. The geographic distribution patterns of the three groups were different. These findings imply that it may be necessary to inform or invent site-specific intervention strategies to better devote currently

  3. Geographical distribution, a risk factor for the incidence of lupus nephritis in China

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Qingjun; Li, Yaning; Ye, Ling; DENG, ZHENZHEN; Li, Lu; Feng, Yongmin; LIU, WEIJING; Liu, Huafeng

    2014-01-01

    Background Geographical variation in lupus nephritis epidemiology may indicate important environmental factors contributions to the etiology of lupus nephritis. This paper first describes the epidemiology of biopsy-proven lupus nephritis in China by performing a systematic literature review and the possible social-environmental influential factors. Methods The keywords “lupus nephritis”, “renal biopsy” and “systemic lupus erythematous” were searched in the three largest Chinese electronic dat...

  4. A Taxonomic Checklist of the Mosquitoes of Montana With Notes On New Geographic Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolston, Marni G; Johnson, Gregory D; Hokit, D Grant

    2016-12-01

    An updated checklist of 50 species of mosquitoes found in Montana is presented and includes 2 new records (Aedes niphadopsis and Anopheles walkeri) that can be added to the 2005 state list by Darsie and Ward. The results of a statewide mosquito surveillance program, conducted annually from 2004 to 2015, facilitated the establishment of an abundance rating of the species in the state and expanded the known geographic range for Coquillettidia perturbans, Ae. nigromaculis, and Culiseta minnesotae.

  5. [Temporal variation and geographical distribution: congenital heart defects in the Comunitat Valenciana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero Carbonell, C; Zurriaga, O; Pérez Panadés, J; Barona Vilar, C; Martos Jiménez, C

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHD) in the Comunitat Valenciana (CV) in children less than one year old and identify whether there are temporal and geographic variations within this prevalence. The minimum basic data set from hospital discharge reports was used to select patients, who were born between 1999-2008, were less than one year old, and who lived in the CV with at least one hospital admission in which the primary diagnosis and/or any of the events were coded as CHD (codes 745-747 of the International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision Clinical Modification). The first hospital discharge report with CHD was selected, using the health card number to detect duplication. The prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and the prevalence ratio (PR) and smoothed PR was obtained for each municipality to identify geographic patterns. In the period 1999-2008 there were 6.377 patients younger than one year with some CHD, representing the 43.2% of cases of congenital anomalies. The prevalence was 134.3 per 10.000 live births (95% CI: 131.1-137.6). There was a significant increase in the prevalence, from 115.8 in the 1999-2003 period to 149.5 in the 2004-2008 period. A higher risk was identified in the north of the CV, and in some municipalities of the province of Alicante, in the south. The observed increase in CHD agrees with the findings in other countries and it can be explained, at least in part, by improved diagnostic techniques. The geographic pattern identified requires a more detailed analysis that could explain the geographic variations found. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Trophic state and geographic gradients influence planktonic cyanobacterial diversity and distribution in New Zealand lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Susanna A; Maier, Marcia Y; Puddick, Jonathan; Pochon, Xavier; Zaiko, Anastasija; Dietrich, Daniel R; Hamilton, David P

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are commonly associated with eutrophic lakes, where they often form blooms and produce toxins. However, they are a ubiquitous component of phytoplankton in lakes of widely varying trophic status. We hypothesised that cyanobacterial diversity would vary among lakes of differing trophic status, but that the relative importance of geographical and hydromorphological characteristics driving these patterns would differ across trophic groups. DNA from 143 New Zealand lakes that spanned a range of geographic, hydromorphological and trophic gradients was analysed using automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis and screened for genes involved in cyanotoxin production. Statistical analysis revealed significant delineation among cyanobacterial communities from different trophic classes. Multivariate regression indicated that geographical features (latitude, longitude and altitude) were significant in driving cyanobacterial community structure; however, partitioning of their effects varied among trophic categories. High-throughput sequencing was undertaken on selected samples to investigate their taxonomic composition. The most abundant and diverse (71 operational taxonomic units) taxon across all lake types was the picocyanobacteria genus Synechococcus Cyanotoxins (microcystins n = 23, anatoxins n = 1) were only detected in eutrophic lowland lakes. Collectively, these data infer that increasing eutrophication of lakes will have broad-scale impacts on planktonic cyanobacteria diversity and the prevalence of cyanotoxins. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The health effects of exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water: a review by global geographical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Wu, Haiyun; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water has been a vigorously studied and debated subject. However, the existing literature does not allow for a thorough examination of the potential regional discrepancies that may arise among arsenic-related health outcomes. The purpose of this article is to provide an updated review of the literature on arsenic exposure and commonly discussed health effects according to global geographical distribution. This geographically segmented approach helps uncover the discrepancies in the health effects of arsenic. For instance, women are more susceptible than men to a few types of cancer in Taiwan, but not in other countries. Although skin cancer and arsenic exposure correlations have been discovered in Chile, Argentina, the United States, and Taiwan, no evident association was found in mainland China. We then propose several globally applicable recommendations to prevent and treat the further spread of arsenic poisoning and suggestions of future study designs and decision-making.

  8. Determination of distribution pattern of the heavy metal concentrations in the potable network of Gachsaran by Geographical Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Paraham

    2013-12-01

    . Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, samples were taken from11 spots of the drinking water distribution network and tested for concentration of 10 metals by Inductivity Coupled Ions Plasma (ICP method in summer of 2010. The research data were compared with national and international water standards. Then the distribution map of heavy metals concentrations in the drinking water wells of the region was prepared by using the Geographical Information System (GIS software. Data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: In all samples, the average concentration of heavy metals were: Arsenic 0.54, Cadmium 0.05, Zinc 55.9, Lead 0.18, Copper .82, Chromium 1.6, Barium 36.5, Selenium0.5, Mercury 0.1 and Silver 0.05 micrograms per liter and was less than the water quality standard. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that concentrations of heavy metals in Gachsaran’s drinking water distribution network are not higher than national and international standards and therefore not harmful for people. Key words: Heavy metals, Distribution network, Gachsaran, geographical information system (GIS

  9. Differentiation in drought tolerance mirrors the geographic distributions of alpine plants on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and adjacent highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li-Hua; Yang, Jie; Guo, Wen; Tian, Bin; Chen, Guang-Jie; Yang, Yong-Ping; Duan, Yuan-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Climatic tolerance, especially drought tolerance, is one of the major factors shaping the geographic distributions of plant species. Thus, the general decline in rainfall from the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM) to the inner Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) might account for the significant differences in species distributions and richness between the two regions. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a water stress experiment using four Anisodus species (A. tanguticus, A. luridus, A. carniolicoides and A. acutangulus), which were treated with different levels of water stress in a glasshouse, and examined their differences in physiological responses. The results suggest that A. tanguticus, which inhabits the inner QTP, generally has higher fitness under severe water stress than the other species based on its high root:shoot ratio, long-term water use efficiency and photosynthetic rate, indicating that it possesses a genetically based drought tolerance mechanism. Our results suggest that plant species inhabiting the inner QTP may be more drought tolerant than those inhabiting the HHM regions. This provides a new example supporting the hypothesis that climatic tolerance plays a major role in shaping plant distributions on the QTP and its adjacent highlands and presents new insights into the patterns of geographic distribution and diversity of the plants inhabiting these areas. PMID:28195162

  10. A study about geographical distribution of root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus loosi, Loof 1960) in tea gardens at Guilan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajieghrari, B; Mohammadi, M; Kheiri, A; Maafi, Z T

    2005-01-01

    Root lesion nematode of tea (Pratylenchus loosi) is one of the most dangerous and distractive pests in all over areas in the world where tea grows. In Iran, this species was one of the quarantine pests that for first time it were separated from the Japan imported tea slips and reported by Maafi (1993). Nowadays it has been distributed in some tea growth areas of Guilan and Mazandaran provinces (North of Iran). In this study, geographical distribution of this pest is reported on some tea growth areas of Guilan province. In order to, 147 samples from root and soil around them were investigated. These samples were gathered from various gardens of Guilan province. They were transferred to nematology lab with suitable temperature and moisture conditions and were stored at 5-10 degrees C until extraction time. Centrifugal methods for nematode extraction from soil (Jenkins, 1964) and from root (Coolen & D'Herde, 1972) were used. The nematode was identified by Handoo & Golden (1989) and Frederick & Tarjan (1989) diagnostic keys. According to this study different infested areas and geographical distribution were detected in Guilan province. Results indicated that many important tea growth areas in Guilan were infested by this nematode. In addition, it seems that it has been distributed during short time.

  11. The spatial distribution of known predictors of autism spectrum disorders impacts geographic variability in prevalence in central North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Kate

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD remain largely unknown and widely debated; however, evidence increasingly points to the importance of environmental exposures. A growing number of studies use geographic variability in ASD prevalence or exposure patterns to investigate the association between environmental factors and ASD. However, differences in the geographic distribution of established risk and predictive factors for ASD, such as maternal education or age, can interfere with investigations of ASD etiology. We evaluated geographic variability in the prevalence of ASD in central North Carolina and the impact of spatial confounding by known risk and predictive factors. Methods Children meeting a standardized case definition for ASD at 8 years of age were identified through records-based surveillance for 8 counties biennially from 2002 to 2008 (n=532. Vital records were used to identify the underlying cohort (15% random sample of children born in the same years as children with an ASD, n=11,034, and to obtain birth addresses. We used generalized additive models (GAMs to estimate the prevalence of ASD across the region by smoothing latitude and longitude. GAMs, unlike methods used in previous spatial analyses of ASD, allow for extensive adjustment of individual-level risk factors (e.g. maternal age and education when evaluating spatial variability of disease prevalence. Results Unadjusted maps revealed geographic variation in surveillance-recognized ASD. Children born in certain regions of the study area were up to 1.27 times as likely to be recognized as having ASD compared to children born in the study area as a whole (prevalence ratio (PR range across the study area 0.57-1.27; global P=0.003. However, geographic gradients of ASD prevalence were attenuated after adjusting for spatial confounders (adjusted PR range 0.72-1.12 across the study area; global P=0.052. Conclusions In these data, spatial variation of ASD

  12. The latrine ownership ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeng, Peter Appiah; Keraita, Bernard; Oduro-Kwarteng, Sampson;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the latrine ownership ladder as a conceptual policy framework to enhance sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws from literature and a case study in a Ghanaian peri-urban community to highlight...... the challenges that undermine sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas and the prospects of various levels of facility sharing as conceived in the latrine ownership ladder approach. Findings – The authors argue that the infrastructural and other socio-economic challenges of low-income peri-urban areas...... to the promotion of household latrines. The paper identifies provision of special concessions for peri-urban areas in policy formulation, education and technical support to households, regulation and enforcement of sanitation by-laws among complimentary policy interventions to make the latrine ownership ladder...

  13. The impact of travel time on geographic distribution of dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Saori; Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Takahiko; Eboshida, Akira; Takeuchi, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    The geographic disparity of prevalence rates among dialysis patients is unclear. We evaluate the association between travel time to dialysis facilities and prevalence rates of dialysis patients living in 1,867 census areas of Hiroshima, Japan. Furthermore, we study the effects of geographic features (mainland or island) on the prevalence rates and assess if these effects modify the association between travel time and prevalence. The study subjects were all 7,374 people that were certified as the "renal disabled" by local governments in 2011. The travel time from each patient to the nearest available dialysis facility was calculated by incorporating both travel time and the capacity of all 98 facilities. The effect of travel time on the age- and sex-adjusted standard prevalence rate (SPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) at each census area was evaluated in two-level Poisson regression models with 1,867 census areas (level 1) nested within 35 towns or cities (level 2). The results were adjusted for area-based parameters of socioeconomic status, urbanity, and land type. Furthermore, the SPR of dialysis patients was calculated in each specific subgroup of population for travel time, land type, and combination of land type and travel time. In the regression analysis, SPR decreased by 5.2% (95% CI: -7.9--2.3) per 10-min increase in travel time even after adjusting for potential confounders. The effect of travel time on prevalence was different in the mainland and island groups. There was no travel time-dependent SPR disparity on the islands. The SPR among remote residents (>30 min from facilities) in the mainland was lower (0.77, 95% CI: 0.71-0.85) than that of closer residents (≤ 30 min; 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92-0.97). The prevalence of dialysis patients was lower among remote residents. Geographic difficulties for commuting seem to decrease the prevalence rate.

  14. Geographic variation in migration chronology and winter distribution of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Nieman, Daniel J.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Hines, James E.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated spatial and temporal differences in migratory behavior among different breeding groups of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) using band-recovery data and observations of neck collared geese during migration and winter. Birds from different breeding areas were initially delineated by geographic distance into 6 banding reference areas (BRAs): 1) interior Alaska, 2) North Slope of Alaska, 3) western Northwest Territories (NWT), 4) western Nunavut, 5) central Nunavut, and 6) eastern Nunavut. The banding groups also differed by breeding habitat, with geese from interior Alaska nesting in the boreal forest (taiga), and all other groups breeding in tundra habitats. Geese from interior Alaska migrated earlier during autumn, and were more likely to winter farther south (in Mexico) than geese from other breeding areas. Geese banded in central and eastern Nunavut (Queen Maud Gulf and Inglis River) wintered farther east (in Louisiana) than geese from other breeding areas. Small-scale (within-state) geographic segregation of wintering flocks was evidenced by the recent (post-1990) nearly exclusive use of a new wintering area in north central Texas by geese from interior Alaska. Segregation among BRAs was also apparent in Mexico, where taiga geese were found predominantly in the central Highlands (states of Zacatecas and Durango), whereas tundra geese mostly used states along the Gulf Coast (primarily Tamaulipas). Interior Alaska birds initiated spring migration earlier than geese from other areas, and were more likely than others to stop in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska, a region where cholera outbreaks periodically kill thousands of geese. Geese from interior Alaska were the first to arrive at spring staging areas in prairie Canada where BRAs exhibited spatial delineation (a longitudinal cline) in relation to breeding areas. Our results show significant geographic and temporal variation among taiga and tundra breeding cohorts during

  15. Geographical Distribution of Foreign Investment in China:Industrial Clusters and Their Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiangXiaojuan

    2003-01-01

    The incorporation of massive amounts of foreign direct investment(FDI)has been a major motive force behind the high-speed growth of the Chinese economy over the last decade.A high degree of geographical concentration in certain of this country is a salient feature of foreign inversted enterprises(FIEs0> FIEs in some industries are closely clustered in industrial zones ranging from several kilometers to more than 100km in diameter,Such industrial clusters are a remarkable phenomenon among FDI industries.High FDI concentration is having a striking impact on the competitiveness of the enterprises involved and the regions where they are located.

  16. Geographic Distribution of Radiologists and Utilization of Teleradiology in Japan: A Longitudinal Analysis Based on National Census Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Koike, Soichi; Kashima, Saori; Awai, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Japan has the most CT and MRI scanners per unit population in the world, and as these technologies spread, their geographic distribution is becoming equalized. In contrast, the number of radiologists per unit population in Japan is the lowest among OECD countries and their geographic distribution is unknown. Likewise, little is known about the use of teleradiology, which can compensate for the uneven distribution of radiologists. Based on the Survey of Physicians, Dentists and Pharmacists and the Static Survey of Medical Institutions by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, a dataset of radiologists and CT and MRI utilizations in each of Japan's 1811 municipalities was created. The inter-municipality equity of the number of radiologists was evaluated using Gini coefficient. Logistic regression analysis, based on Static Survey data, was performed to evaluate the association between hospital location and teleradiology use. Between 2006 and 2012 the number of radiologists increased by 21.7%, but the Gini coefficient remained unchanged. The number of radiologists per 1,000 CT (MRI) utilizations decreased by 17.9% (1.0%); the number was highest in metropolis and lowest in town/village and the disparity has widened from 1.9 to 2.2 (1.6 to 2.0) times. The number of hospitals and clinics using teleradiology has increased (by 69.6% and 18.1%, respectively). Hospitals located in towns/villages (odds ratio 1.61; 95% confidence interval 1.26-2.07) were more likely to use teleradiology than those in metropolises. Contrary to the CT and MRI distributions, radiologist distribution has not been evened out by the increase in their number; in other words, the distribution of radiologists was not affected by market-derived spatial competition force. As a consequence, the gap of the radiologist shortage between urban and rural areas is increasing. Teleradiology, which is one way to ameliorate this gap, should be encouraged.

  17. Geographic Distribution of Radiologists and Utilization of Teleradiology in Japan: A Longitudinal Analysis Based on National Census Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Japan has the most CT and MRI scanners per unit population in the world, and as these technologies spread, their geographic distribution is becoming equalized. In contrast, the number of radiologists per unit population in Japan is the lowest among OECD countries and their geographic distribution is unknown. Likewise, little is known about the use of teleradiology, which can compensate for the uneven distribution of radiologists.Based on the Survey of Physicians, Dentists and Pharmacists and the Static Survey of Medical Institutions by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, a dataset of radiologists and CT and MRI utilizations in each of Japan's 1811 municipalities was created. The inter-municipality equity of the number of radiologists was evaluated using Gini coefficient. Logistic regression analysis, based on Static Survey data, was performed to evaluate the association between hospital location and teleradiology use.Between 2006 and 2012 the number of radiologists increased by 21.7%, but the Gini coefficient remained unchanged. The number of radiologists per 1,000 CT (MRI utilizations decreased by 17.9% (1.0%; the number was highest in metropolis and lowest in town/village and the disparity has widened from 1.9 to 2.2 (1.6 to 2.0 times. The number of hospitals and clinics using teleradiology has increased (by 69.6% and 18.1%, respectively. Hospitals located in towns/villages (odds ratio 1.61; 95% confidence interval 1.26-2.07 were more likely to use teleradiology than those in metropolises.Contrary to the CT and MRI distributions, radiologist distribution has not been evened out by the increase in their number; in other words, the distribution of radiologists was not affected by market-derived spatial competition force. As a consequence, the gap of the radiologist shortage between urban and rural areas is increasing. Teleradiology, which is one way to ameliorate this gap, should be encouraged.

  18. Psychological Ownership and Ownership Markers in Collaborative Working Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian Ying

    2010-01-01

    Ownership is a fundamental human concern. It has been explored by various disciplines and within a variety of contexts. However, previous ownership researches focus primarily on physical objects such as toys, houses and stamps, while almost no research has been conducted about the psychological ownership toward digital entities. This dissertation…

  19. Factors influencing the geographical distribution of Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in the Sierra Madre Occidental, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Ma Guadalupe; Salinas-Moreno, Yolanda; Olivo-Martínez, Antonio; Zúñiga, Gerardo

    2011-06-01

    The bark beetle, Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas & Bright, is endemic to the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMOC) in México. This bark beetle is a major pest of the seedlings and young saplings of several pine species that are of prime importance to the nation's forest industry. Despite the significance of this bark beetle as a pest, its biology, ecology, and distribution are poorly known. Three predictive modeling approaches were used as a first approximation to identify bioclimatic variables related to the presence of D. rhizophagus in the SMOC and to obtain maps of its potential distribution within the SMOC, which is a morphotectonic province. Our results suggest that the bark beetle could have an almost continuous distribution throughout the major mountain ranges of the SMOC. This beetle has a relatively narrow ecological niche with respect to some temperature and precipitation variables and inhabits areas with climatic conditions that are unique from those usually prevalent in the SMOC. However, the bark beetle has a broad ecological niche with respect to the number of hosts that it attacks. At the macro-scale level, the D. rhizophagus distribution occurs within the wider distribution of its main hosts. The limit of the geographical distribution of this bark beetle coincides with the maximum temperature isotherms. Our results imply a preference for temperate habitats, which leads to the hypothesis that even minor changes in climate may have significant effects on its distribution and abundance.

  20. The potential effect of global warming on the geographic and seasonal distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi in Southwest Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, E.R.; Hyams, K.C. [Naval Medical Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi in Southwest Asia is thought to be highly dependent on temperature and relative humidity. A discriminant analysis model based on weather data and reported vector surveys was developed to predict the seasonal and geographic distribution of P. papatasi in this region. To simulate global warming, temperature values for 115 weather stations were increased by 1 {degrees}C, 3{degrees}C, and 5{degrees}C, and the outcome variable coded as unknown in the model. Probability of occurrence values were then predicted for each location with a weather station. Stations with positive probability of occurrence values for May, June, July, and August were considered locations where two or more life cycles of P. papatasi could occur and which could support endemic transmission of leishmaniasis and sandfly fever. Among 115 weather stations, 71 (62%) would be considered endemic with current temperature conditions; 14 (12%) additional station could become endemic with an increase of 1 {degrees}C; 17 (15%) more than a 3{degrees}C increase; and 12 (10%) more (all but one station) with a t{degrees}C increase. In addition to increased geographic distribution, seasonality of disease transmission could be extended throughout 12 months of the year in 7 (6%) locations with at least a 3{degrees}C rise in temperature and in 29 (25%) locations with a 5{degrees}C rise. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Temporal and geographical distributions of {sup 99}Tc in inshore waters around Ireland following increased discharges from Sellafield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.; Pollard, D.; Ryan, T.P. [Radiological Protection Inst. of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); Ryan, R.W.; Mitchell, P.I. [University Coll., Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Experimental Physics

    1997-12-31

    In anticipation of increased discharges of {sup 99}Tc from Sellafield to the north-eastern Irish Sea, a study of the concentrations of this radionuclide in inshore waters around Ireland was undertaken. Using Fucus vesiculosus as a bio-indicator, the geographical distribution of {sup 99}Tc around the Irish coastline was mapped and temporal variations at some key sites were studied. Comparison with earlier studies shows that, although the absolute concentrations have increased, the geographical distribution of {sup 99}Tc has remained unchanged since the mid-1980`s. The distribution closely follows that observed for {sup 137}Cs, with the highest concentrations being found along the north-east coast. The concentrations recorded at two sites were compared with monthly discharge figures from Sellafield and a transit time for {sup 99}Tc was estimated. This was found to be consistent with a similar estimate for radiocaesium. A semi-empirical model was fitted to the time-series data for the Balbriggan sampling site and a value of 17 months deduced for the mean bioavailability time. The concentration factor, Fucus:water, was also determined at the same site. Finally, the radiological significance of the increased rate of discharge of {sup 99}Tc was assessed from the perspective of an Irish seafood consumer. (author) 16 refs.

  2. Prediction of the potential geographic distribution of the ectomycorrhizal mushroom Tricholoma matsutake under multiple climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanlong; Li, Xin; Zhao, Zefang; Wei, Haiyan; Gao, Bei; Gu, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Effective conservation and utilization strategies for natural biological resources require a clear understanding of the geographic distribution of the target species. Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mushroom with high ecological and economic value. In this study, the potential geographic distribution of T. matsutake under current conditions in China was simulated using MaxEnt software based on species presence data and 24 environmental variables. The future distributions of T. matsutake in the 2050s and 2070s were also projected under the RCP 8.5, RCP 6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 2.6 climate change emission scenarios described in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The areas of marginally suitable, suitable and highly suitable habitats for T. matsutake in China were approximately 0.22 × 106 km2, 0.14 × 106 km2, and 0.11 × 106 km2, respectively. The model simulations indicated that the area of marginally suitable habitats would undergo a relatively small change under all four climate change scenarios; however, suitable habitats would significantly decrease, and highly suitable habitat would nearly disappear. Our results will be influential in the future ecological conservation and management of T. matsutake and can be used as a reference for studies on other ectomycorrhizal mushroom species.

  3. Profile and geographical distribution of reported cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Northwestern Saudi Arabia, from 2010 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Najoua Haouas; Omar Amer; Asma Ishankyty; Adnan Alazmi; Ibrahim Ishankyty

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the profile and geographical distribution of reported cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the province of Hail, Saudi Arabia from 2010 to 2013. Methods:Human data were collected from the dermatology service of both King Khaled and General Hail hospitals. Results: A total of 483 confirmed CL cases were investigated. Cutaneous leishmaniasis follows a seasonal distribution related to the activity of the phlebotomine sand fly fauna. Both saudi and non saudi patients were almost equally infected. The number of reported cases of CL in men was higher than that in females. The frequency of CL was asoociated with age and increased in teenager and adult group. By analyzing the geographical distribution, the majority of Hail districts were affected with this disease. However it is more prevalent in Hail city. Conclusions: The lack of data concerning the parasite, the sand fly fauna and the existing transmission cycles in Hail province make difficult to interpret the reported results and to follow up the spatio-temporal evolution of the disease.

  4. Geographical distribution of indoor radon and related geological characteristics in Bonghwa County, a provisional radon-prone area in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E R; Chang, B U; Kim, H J; Song, M H; Kim, Y J

    2015-12-01

    The detailed indoor radon survey was conducted during a year (from September 2012 to August 2013) quarterly in Bonghwa county, one of the provisional radon-prone areas in Korea. The surveyed area was selected on the basis of previously conducted nationwide radon survey results. In order to minimise statistical and environmental uncertainties, ∼3 % of the entire dwellings were carefully selected based on the statistical annual report of Bonghwa county. The measurement is carried out by using solid-state nuclear track detector. The range of indoor radon concentration in each dwelling was 4.36-858 Bq m(-3) and that of annual effective dose due to inhaled radon of the resident in each dwelling was 0.19-23.5 mSv y(-1). Each dwelling was determined for geology criterion using one-way Analysis of Variance for the purpose of comparing indoor radon distribution with geology. Geographical distribution of indoor radon is closely related to the geological characteristics of basement rocks. In addition, the comparison between geographical distribution of indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation was done.

  5. Hierarchical Distributed-Lag Models: Exploring Varying Geographic Scale and Magnitude in Associations Between the Built Environment and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jonggyu; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N

    2016-03-15

    It is well known that associations between features of the built environment and health depend on the geographic scale used to construct environmental attributes. In the built environment literature, it has long been argued that geographic scales may vary across study locations. However, this hypothesized variation has not been systematically examined due to a lack of available statistical methods. We propose a hierarchical distributed-lag model (HDLM) for estimating the underlying overall shape of food environment-health associations as a function of distance from locations of interest. This method enables indirect assessment of relevant geographic scales and captures area-level heterogeneity in the magnitudes of associations, along with relevant distances within areas. The proposed model was used to systematically examine area-level variation in the association between availability of convenience stores around schools and children's weights. For this case study, body mass index (weight kg)/height (m)2) z scores (BMIz) for 7th grade children collected via California's 2001-2009 FitnessGram testing program were linked to a commercial database that contained locations of food outlets statewide. Findings suggested that convenience store availability may influence BMIz only in some places and at varying distances from schools. Future research should examine localized environmental or policy differences that may explain the heterogeneity in convenience store-BMIz associations.

  6. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF BARTONELLA SPP. INFECTIONS IN MOOSE (ALCES ALCES) IN FINLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Vera, Cristina; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Spillmann, Thomas; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja

    2016-04-28

    Moose, Alces alces (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Finland are heavily infested with deer keds, Lipoptena cervi (Diptera: Hippoboschidae). The deer ked, which carries species of the genus Bartonella, has been proposed as a vector for the transmission of bartonellae to animals and humans. Previously, bartonella DNA was found in deer keds as well as in moose blood collected in Finland. We investigated the prevalence and molecular diversity of Bartonella spp. infection from blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. Given that the deer ked is not present in northernmost Finland, we also investigated whether there were geographic differences in the prevalence of bartonella infection in moose. The overall prevalence of bartonella infection was 72.9% (108/148). Geographically, the prevalence was highest in the south (90.6%) and lowest in the north (55.9%). At least two species of bartonellae were identified by multilocus sequence analysis. Based on logistic regression analysis, there was no significant association between bartonella infection and either age or sex; however, moose from outside the deer ked zone were significantly less likely to be infected (Pmoose hunted within the deer ked zone.

  7. Model for Determining Geographical Distribution of Heat Saving Potentials in Danish Building Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Petrovic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the global oil crisis in the 1970s, Denmark has followed a path towards energy independency by continuously improving its energy efficiency and energy conservation. Energy efficiency was mainly tackled by introducing a high number of combined heat and power plants in the system, while energy conservation was predominantly approached by implementing heat saving measures. Today, with the goal of 100% renewable energy within the power and heat sector by the year 2035, reductions in energy demand for space heating and the preparation of domestic hot water remain at the top of the agenda in Denmark. A highly detailed model for determining heat demand, possible heat savings and associated costs in the Danish building stock is presented. Both scheduled and energy-saving renovations until year 2030 have been analyzed. The highly detailed GIS-based heat atlas for Denmark is used as a container for storing data about physical properties for 2.5 million buildings in Denmark. Consequently, the results of the analysis can be represented on a single building level. Under the assumption that buildings with the most profitable heat savings are renovated first, the consequences of heat savings for the economy and energy system have been quantified and geographically referenced. The possibilities for further improvements of the model and the application to other geographical regions have been discussed.

  8. Geographic information system analysis on the distribution of patients visiting the periodontology department at a dental college hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Byungjoon; Joo, Hyun-Tae; Shin, Hyun-Seung; Lim, Mi-Hwa; Park, Jung-Chul

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze and visualize the distribution of patients visiting the periodontology department at a dental college hospital, using a geographic information system (GIS) to utilize these data in patient care and treatment planning, which may help to assess the risk and prevent periodontal diseases. Basic patient information data were obtained from Dankook University Dental Hospital, including the unit number, gender, date of birth, and address, down to the dong (neighborhood) administrative district unit, of 306,656 patients who visited the hospital between 2007 and 2014. The data of only 26,457 patients who visited the periodontology department were included in this analysis. The patient distribution was visualized using GIS. Statistical analyses including multiple regression, logistic regression, and geographically weighted regression were performed using SAS 9.3 and ArcGIS 10.1. Five factors, namely proximity, accessibility, age, gender, and socioeconomic status, were investigated as the explanatory variables of the patient distribution. The visualized patient data showed a nationwide scale of the patient distribution. The mean distance from each patient's regional center to the hospital was 30.94±29.62 km and was inversely proportional to the number of patients from the respective regions. The distance from a regional center to the adjacent toll gate had various effects depending on the local distance from the hospital. The average age of the patients was 52.41±12.97 years. Further, a majority of regions showed a male dominance. Personal income had inconsistent results between analyses. The distribution of patients is significantly affected by the proximity, accessibility, age, gender and socioeconomic status of patients, and the patients visiting the periodontology department travelled farther distances than those visiting the other departments. The underlying reason for this needs to be analyzed further.

  9. Bringing "indigenous" ownership back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related...

  10. Total Cost of Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Total Cost of Ownership (TCO), som giver et bud på, hvordan virksomheder kan opnå en bedre indsigt i, hvilke leverandører der forårsager hvilke omkostninger og dermed danne et forbedret beslutningsgrundlag for besparelser i leverandørleddet. I artiklen argumenteres først og fremmest for, hvorfor TCO er...

  11. Ownership as a Social Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Charles W.; Anderson, Craig D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors suggest that ownership may be one of the critical entry points into thinking about social constructions, a kind of laboratory for understanding status. They discuss the features of ownership that make it an interesting case to study developmentally. In particular, ownership is a consequential social fact that is alterable by an…

  12. From Social to Private Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Masten, Arjana Brezigar; Zajc, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the ownership structures of unlisted privatized firms in Slovenia. On the basis of official ownership records for all nonfinancial firms over a six-year period (1999-2004), we explore the factors responsible for the concentration of ownership and for the dissolution of the mult...

  13. Ownership as a Social Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Charles W.; Anderson, Craig D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors suggest that ownership may be one of the critical entry points into thinking about social constructions, a kind of laboratory for understanding status. They discuss the features of ownership that make it an interesting case to study developmentally. In particular, ownership is a consequential social fact that is alterable by an…

  14. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF ECOLOGICAL-GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SYSTEM BLOOD CIRCULATION'S ILLNESSES OF DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Erzhapova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Death rate from illnesses of cardiovascular system makes more than half of all death, being one of principal causes of a considera-ble gain of death rate in Russia. Causing pressure of all systems of a human body, extreme climatic, geophysical and anthropogen-ous factors have adverse an effect on health, adaptive reserves exhaust, promote acceleration of formation of various diseases, first of all, cardiovascular system. To ecologically unsuccessful regions Russian Federations for which high level of disease is characte-ristic, the Republic Dagestan concerns also. The purpose of the given work was complex ekologo-geographical research of compo-nents of the natural and anthropogenous environment of areas and cities of republic Dagestan for dependence revealing between quality of environment and dynamics of disease illnesses of system of blood circulation.

  15. Spatial distribution and risk factors of influenza in Jiangsu province, China, based on geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Cheng Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza poses a constant, heavy burden on society. Recent research has focused on ecological factors associated with influenza incidence and has also studied influenza with respect to its geographic spread at different scales. This research explores the temporal and spatial parameters of influenza and identifies factors influencing its transmission. A spatial autocorrelation analysis, a spatial-temporal cluster analysis and a spatial regression analysis of influenza rates, carried out in Jiangsu province from 2004 to 2011, found that influenza rates to be spatially dependent in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2008. South-western districts consistently revealed hotspots of high-incidence influenza. The regression analysis indicates that railways, rivers and lakes are important predictive environmental variables for influenza risk. A better understanding of the epidemic pattern and ecological factors associated with pandemic influenza should benefit public health officials with respect to prevention and controlling measures during future epidemics.

  16. Spatial distribution and risk factors of influenza in Jiangsu province, China, based on geographical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Cheng; Liu, Wen-Dong; Liang, Qi; Hu, Jian-Li; Norris, Jessie; Wu, Ying; Bao, Chang-Jun; Tang, Fen-Yang; Huang, Peng; Zhao, Yang; Yu, Rong-Bin; Zhou, Ming-Hao; Shen, Hong-Bing; Chen, Feng; Peng, Zhi-Hang

    2014-05-01

    Influenza poses a constant, heavy burden on society. Recent research has focused on ecological factors associated with influenza incidence and has also studied influenza with respect to its geographic spread at different scales. This research explores the temporal and spatial parameters of influenza and identifies factors influencing its transmission. A spatial autocorrelation analysis, a spatial-temporal cluster analysis and a spatial regression analysis of influenza rates, carried out in Jiangsu province from 2004 to 2011, found that influenza rates to be spatially dependent in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2008. South-western districts consistently revealed hotspots of high-incidence influenza. The regression analysis indicates that railways, rivers and lakes are important predictive environmental variables for influenza risk. A better understanding of the epidemic pattern and ecological factors associated with pandemic influenza should benefit public health officials with respect to prevention and controlling measures during future epidemics.

  17. Geographic distribution of live births with tetralogy of Fallot in North Carolina 2003 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jennifer S; Stebbins, Rebecca C; Strassle, Paula D; Meyer, Robert E

    2016-11-01

    Geographic variation in congenital heart disease is not well-described. This study uses geographic information systems (GIS) to describe the spatial epidemiology of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), in North Carolina (NC) and to compare travel time for cases to congenital heart centers in NC. Using the NC Birth Defects Monitoring Program database, live births with TOF born between 2003 and 2012 were identified. Birth certificates provided demographic variables. A denominator of live births/zip code was obtained from the NC live births database. ArcGIS® software was used to illustrate TOF prevalence by zip code, and SatScanTM was used to identify spatial clusters of TOF cases and to identify changes in cluster location over time. Driving time to each of five NC congenital heart centers was predicted based on road systems information. A total of 496 infants were born with TOF between 2003 and 2012. The prevalence was 4.2/10,000 live births. A large cluster (330 zip codes, 306 cases) was identified in northeastern NC. Average driving time for each case to closest congenital heart center was: University of North Carolina 37 min, Vident Medical Center 64 min, Duke University 58 min, Carolina's Medical Center 89 min, and Wake Forest Baptist Health 57 min. Overall, average predicted driving time to the nearest congenital heart center was 61 min. Approximately 50 infants/year were born with TOF in NC. One cluster was identified. Further study is necessary to explore potential explanations for the observed case cluster. As interest in regionalization of congenital heart surgery grows, GIS and spatial analysis can become increasingly useful tools for health care planning. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:881-887, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. What influences national and foreign physicians’ geographic distribution? An analysis of medical doctors’ residence location in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Giuliano

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The debate over physicians’ geographical distribution has attracted the attention of the economic and public health literature over the last forty years. Nonetheless, it is still to date unclear what influences physicians’ location, and whether foreign physicians contribute to fill the geographical gaps left by national doctors in any given country. The present research sets out to investigate the current distribution of national and international physicians in Portugal, with the objective to understand its determinants and provide an evidence base for policy-makers to identify policies to influence it. Methods A cross-sectional study of physicians currently registered in Portugal was conducted to describe the population and explore the association of physician residence patterns with relevant personal and municipality characteristics. Data from the Portuguese Medical Council on physicians’ residence and characteristics were analysed, as well as data from the National Institute of Statistics on municipalities’ population, living standards and health care network. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, negative binomial and logistic regression modelling were applied to determine: (a municipality characteristics predicting Portuguese and International physicians’ geographical distribution, and; (b doctors’ characteristics that could increase the odds of residing outside the country’s metropolitan areas. Results There were 39,473 physicians in Portugal in 2008, 51.1% of whom male, and 40.2% between 41 and 55 years of age. They were predominantly Portuguese (90.5%, with Spanish, Brazilian and African nationalities also represented. Population, Population’s Purchasing Power, Nurses per capita and Municipality Development Index (MDI were the municipality characteristics displaying the strongest association with national physicians’ location. For foreign physicians, the MDI was not statistically significant

  19. What influences national and foreign physicians' geographic distribution? An analysis of medical doctors' residence location in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giuliano; Ferrinho, Paulo; de Sousa, Bruno; Conceição, Cláudia

    2012-07-02

    The debate over physicians' geographical distribution has attracted the attention of the economic and public health literature over the last forty years. Nonetheless, it is still to date unclear what influences physicians' location, and whether foreign physicians contribute to fill the geographical gaps left by national doctors in any given country. The present research sets out to investigate the current distribution of national and international physicians in Portugal, with the objective to understand its determinants and provide an evidence base for policy-makers to identify policies to influence it. A cross-sectional study of physicians currently registered in Portugal was conducted to describe the population and explore the association of physician residence patterns with relevant personal and municipality characteristics. Data from the Portuguese Medical Council on physicians' residence and characteristics were analysed, as well as data from the National Institute of Statistics on municipalities' population, living standards and health care network. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, negative binomial and logistic regression modelling were applied to determine: (a) municipality characteristics predicting Portuguese and International physicians' geographical distribution, and; (b) doctors' characteristics that could increase the odds of residing outside the country's metropolitan areas. There were 39,473 physicians in Portugal in 2008, 51.1% of whom male, and 40.2% between 41 and 55 years of age. They were predominantly Portuguese (90.5%), with Spanish, Brazilian and African nationalities also represented. Population, Population's Purchasing Power, Nurses per capita and Municipality Development Index (MDI) were the municipality characteristics displaying the strongest association with national physicians' location. For foreign physicians, the MDI was not statistically significant, while municipalities' foreign population applying for residence

  20. Geographical distribution of cytotypes in the Chrysanthemum indicum complex as evidenced by ploidy level and genome-size variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Qian WAN; Richard J.ABBOTT; Guang-Yuan RAO

    2013-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of the geographical distribution ofcytotypes within and between species comprising a polyploid complex is critical to our understanding of the history and evolution of such complexes.In the present study we examined the geographical distributions ofcytotypes within six tentatively delimited species comprising the Chrysanthemum indicum complex in China.We determined the ploidy of 188 individuals sampled from 47 populations,based on DNA content using flow cytometry.In addition,chromosome counts were made on samples of each taxon.We confirmed that all samples of C.rhombifolium and C.lavandulifolium were diploid (2n =18),those of C.hypargyrum and C.potentilloides were tetraploid (2n--36),and those of C.vestitum were hexaploid (2n =54).In contrast,we confirmed that C.indicum contained both diploid and tetraploid cytotypes.We found that in addition to marked differences in genome size between ploidy levels,there was a variation in genome size between species of the same ploidy level.Although the diploid,tetraploid,and hexaploid taxa of the complex,as well as the diploid form of C.indicum,occurred only in central and northem China,the tetraploid form of C.indicum was widespread both north and south of the Yangtze River.We suggest that the tetraploid form of C.indicum may have expanded its range southward during recent Quatemary glacial periods when forests retreated in south China as conditions became drier.

  1. The Impact of Global Climate Change on the Geographic Distribution and Sustainable Harvest of Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabout, João Carlos; Magalhães, Mara Rúbia; de Amorim Gomes, Marcos Aurélio; da Cunha, Hélida Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    The global Climate change may affect biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems by changing the appropriate locations for the development and establishment of the species. The Hancornia speciosa, popularly called Mangaba, is a plant species that has potential commercial value and contributes to rural economic activities in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of global climate change on the potential geographic distribution, productivity, and value of production of H. speciosa in Brazil. We used MaxEnt to estimate the potential geographic distribution of the species in current and future (2050) climate scenarios. We obtained the productivity and value of production for 74 municipalities in Brazil. Moreover, to explain the variation the productivity and value of production, we constructed 15 models based on four variables: two ecological (ecological niche model and the presence of Unity of conservation) and two socio-economic (gross domestic product and human developed index). The models were selected using Akaike Information Criteria. Our results suggest that municipalities currently harvesting H. speciosa will have lower harvest rates in the future (mainly in northeastern Brazil). The best model to explain the productivity was ecological niche model; thus, municipalities with higher productivity are inserted in regions with higher environmental suitability (indicated by niche model). Thus, in the future, the municipalities harvesting H. speciosa will produce less because there will be less suitable habitat for H. speciosa, which in turn will affect the H. speciosa harvest and the local economy.

  2. The Impact of Global Climate Change on the Geographic Distribution and Sustainable Harvest of Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabout, João Carlos; Magalhães, Mara Rúbia; de Amorim Gomes, Marcos Aurélio; da Cunha, Hélida Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    The global Climate change may affect biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems by changing the appropriate locations for the development and establishment of the species. The Hancornia speciosa, popularly called Mangaba, is a plant species that has potential commercial value and contributes to rural economic activities in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of global climate change on the potential geographic distribution, productivity, and value of production of H. speciosa in Brazil. We used MaxEnt to estimate the potential geographic distribution of the species in current and future (2050) climate scenarios. We obtained the productivity and value of production for 74 municipalities in Brazil. Moreover, to explain the variation the productivity and value of production, we constructed 15 models based on four variables: two ecological (ecological niche model and the presence of Unity of conservation) and two socio-economic (gross domestic product and human developed index). The models were selected using Akaike Information Criteria. Our results suggest that municipalities currently harvesting H. speciosa will have lower harvest rates in the future (mainly in northeastern Brazil). The best model to explain the productivity was ecological niche model; thus, municipalities with higher productivity are inserted in regions with higher environmental suitability (indicated by niche model). Thus, in the future, the municipalities harvesting H. speciosa will produce less because there will be less suitable habitat for H. speciosa, which in turn will affect the H. speciosa harvest and the local economy.

  3. Spatial modeling of the geographic distribution of wildlife populations: A case study in the lower Mississippi River region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, W.; Jeske, C.

    2000-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS)-based spatial modeling approach was developed to study environmental and land use impacts on the geographic distribution of wintering northern pintails (Arias acuta) in the Lower Mississippi River region. Pintails were fitted with backpack radio transmitter packages at Catahoula Lake, LA, in October 1992-1994 and located weekly through the following March. Pintail survey data were converted into a digital database in ARC/INFO GIS format and integrated with environmental GIS data through a customized modeling interface. The study verified the relationship between pintail distributions and major environmental factors and developed a conceptual relation model. Visualization-based spatial simulations were used to display the movement patterns of specific population groups under spatial and temporal constraints. The spatial modeling helped understand the seasonal movement patterns of pintails in relation to their habitat usage in Arkansas and southwestern Louisiana for wintering and interchange situations among population groups wintering in Texas and southeastern Louisiana. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Coexistence and geographical distribution of Leguminosae in an area of Atlantic forest in the semi-arid region of Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacira R. LIMA; Vidal F. MANSANO; Francisca S. ARA(U)JO

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect plant species distribution and coexistence in areas with high plant species diversity is a challenge for ecologists.According to some authors,species occupy specific niches,but for others,species coexistence and geographical distribution patterns are random.Floristic composition of the family Leguminosae was studied on moist and dry slopes of the Baturité mountains in semi-arid northeastern Brazil and was compared with findings for other plant formations elsewhere in Brazil.Substantial floristic differences were found between the moist windward and dry leeward slopes of the Baturité mountains despite their close geographical proximity.The leeward slope was slightly more diverse than the windward slope.Similarity analyses showed that the windward face is floristically allied to the Amazon forest,whereas the leeward slope is similar to other dry-area formations of northeastern Brazil,such as thorny woodland (caatinga) and seasonal forests.The strong floristic differences that were observed between the windward and leeward slopes corroborate the theory of ecological niche conservatism,which holds that species occurrence is closely linked to environmental factors,such as temperature and precipitation.

  5. Mapping and modelling the geographical distribution of soil-transmitted helminthiases in Peninsular Malaysia: implications for control approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Ngui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections in Malaysia are still highly prevalent, especially in rural and remote communities. Complete estimations of the total disease burden in the country has not been performed, since available data are not easily accessible in the public domain. The current study utilised geographical information system (GIS to collate and map the distribution of STH infections from available empirical survey data in Peninsular Malaysia, highlighting areas where information is lacking. The assembled database, comprising surveys conducted between 1970 and 2012 in 99 different locations, represents one of the most comprehensive compilations of STH infections in the country. It was found that the geographical distribution of STH varies considerably with no clear pattern across the surveyed locations. Our attempt to generate predictive risk maps of STH infections on the basis of ecological limits such as climate and other environmental factors shows that the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides is low along the western coast and the southern part of the country, whilst the prevalence is high in the central plains and in the North. In the present study, we demonstrate that GIS can play an important role in providing data for the implementation of sustainable and effective STH control programmes to policy-makers and authorities in charge.

  6. Use of geographical information system data for emergency management points of distribution analysis with POD Locator 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Christopher A

    In 2010, the article Location and Analysis of Emergency Management Point of Distributions (PODs) for Hurricane Ike was published in the Journal of Emergency Management. Using a program titled point of distribution locator (POD Locator 1.0), the article reported a 46 percent improvement in positioning PODs over the locations selected by emergency managers during Hurricane Ike in 2008. While the program could produce more effective POD locations for a given situation, a major weakness of the program was the difficulty with which population and location data were manually entered into the program for subsequent analysis. This prevented organizations that could have otherwise benefited from the program from successfully utilizing it without additional training. This research effort focuses on the leveraging of readily available geographic information system (GIS) electronic data to address this problem. Analysis of the difference between the previous manual data entry method and the GIS assisted method was statistically significant.

  7. Surficial Sediment Distributions off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts (CC_SEDDIST.SHP, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set shows the distribution of surficial sediments offshore of northern and eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This interpretation is based on data collected...

  8. Geographical variation in the distribution of different calanid species in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, R.

    at a few stations in the northern Arabian Sea. N. robustior was found to inhabit the equatorial and southern region, and N. tonsus was distributed in the southern provinces especially in the South African waters. Calanoides carinatus the copepod which...

  9. Geographic variability in elevation and topographic constraints on the distribution of native and nonnative trout in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Dana R.; Dunham, Jason B.; Hockman-Wert, David

    2014-01-01

    Understanding local and geographic factors influencing species distributions is a prerequisite for conservation planning. Our objective in this study was to model local and geographic variability in elevations occupied by native and nonnative trout in the northwestern Great Basin, USA. To this end, we analyzed a large existing data set of trout presence (5,156 observations) to evaluate two fundamental factors influencing occupied elevations: climate-related gradients in geography and local constraints imposed by topography. We applied quantile regression to model upstream and downstream distribution elevation limits for each trout species commonly found in the region (two native and two nonnative species). With these models in hand, we simulated an upstream shift in elevation limits of trout distributions to evaluate potential consequences of habitat loss. Downstream elevation limits were inversely associated with latitude, reflecting regional gradients in temperature. Upstream limits were positively related to maximum stream elevation as expected. Downstream elevation limits were constrained topographically by valley bottom elevations in northern streams but not in southern streams, where limits began well above valley bottoms. Elevation limits were similar among species. Upstream shifts in elevation limits for trout would lead to more habitat loss in the north than in the south, a result attributable to differences in topography. Because downstream distributions of trout in the north extend into valley bottoms with reduced topographic relief, trout in more northerly latitudes are more likely to experience habitat loss associated with an upstream shift in lower elevation limits. By applying quantile regression to relatively simple information (species presence, elevation, geography, topography), we were able to identify elevation limits for trout in the Great Basin and explore the effects of potential shifts in these limits that could occur in response to changing

  10. Tackling intraspecific genetic structure in distribution models better reflects species geographical range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcer, Arnald; Méndez-Vigo, Belén; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Picó, F Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Genetic diversity provides insight into heterogeneous demographic and adaptive history across organisms' distribution ranges. For this reason, decomposing single species into genetic units may represent a powerful tool to better understand biogeographical patterns as well as improve predictions of the effects of GCC (global climate change) on biodiversity loss. Using 279 georeferenced Iberian accessions, we used classes of three intraspecific genetic units of the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana obtained from the genetic analyses of nuclear SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms), chloroplast SNPs, and the vernalization requirement for flowering. We used SDM (species distribution models), including climate, vegetation, and soil data, at the whole-species and genetic-unit levels. We compared model outputs for present environmental conditions and with a particularly severe GCC scenario. SDM accuracy was high for genetic units with smaller distribution ranges. Kernel density plots identified the environmental variables underpinning potential distribution ranges of genetic units. Combinations of environmental variables accounted for potential distribution ranges of genetic units, which shrank dramatically with GCC at almost all levels. Only two genetic clusters increased their potential distribution ranges with GCC. The application of SDM to intraspecific genetic units provides a detailed picture on the biogeographical patterns of distinct genetic groups based on different genetic criteria. Our approach also allowed us to pinpoint the genetic changes, in terms of genetic background and physiological requirements for flowering, that Iberian A. thaliana may experience with a GCC scenario applying SDM to intraspecific genetic units.

  11. Ring distributions leading to species formation: a global topographic analysis of geographic barriers associated with ring species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monahan William B

    2012-03-01

    relative importance of features that define barriers, (ii can be replicated using any kind of continuously distributed environmental variable, and (iii generates spatially explicit hypotheses of geographic species formation. The methods developed here - combined with study of the geographical ecology and genetics of taxa in their environments - should enable recognition of ring species phenomena throughout the world.

  12. Squares of different sizes: effect of geographical projection on model parameter estimates in species distribution modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budic, Lara; Didenko, Gregor; Dormann, Carsten F

    2016-01-01

    In species distribution analyses, environmental predictors and distribution data for large spatial extents are often available in long-lat format, such as degree raster grids. Long-lat projections suffer from unequal cell sizes, as a degree of longitude decreases in length from approximately 110 km at the equator to 0 km at the poles. Here we investigate whether long-lat and equal-area projections yield similar model parameter estimates, or result in a consistent bias. We analyzed the environmental effects on the distribution of 12 ungulate species with a northern distribution, as models for these species should display the strongest effect of projectional distortion. Additionally we choose four species with entirely continental distributions to investigate the effect of incomplete cell coverage at the coast. We expected that including model weights proportional to the actual cell area should compensate for the observed bias in model coefficients, and similarly that using land coverage of a cell should decrease bias in species with coastal distribution. As anticipated, model coefficients were different between long-lat and equal-area projections. Having progressively smaller and a higher number of cells with increasing latitude influenced the importance of parameters in models, increased the sample size for the northernmost parts of species ranges, and reduced the subcell variability of those areas. However, this bias could be largely removed by weighting long-lat cells by the area they cover, and marginally by correcting for land coverage. Overall we found little effect of using long-lat rather than equal-area projections in our analysis. The fitted relationship between environmental parameters and occurrence probability differed only very little between the two projection types. We still recommend using equal-area projections to avoid possible bias. More importantly, our results suggest that the cell area and the proportion of a cell covered by land should be

  13. Geographic location, network patterns and population distribution of rural settlements in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimakopoulos, Avraam; Mogios, Emmanuel; Xenikos, Dimitrios G.

    2016-10-01

    Our work addresses the problem of how social networks are embedded in space, by studying the spread of human population over complex geomorphological terrain. We focus on villages or small cities up to a few thousand inhabitants located in mountainous areas in Greece. This terrain presents a familiar tree-like structure of valleys and land plateaus. Cities are found more often at lower altitudes and exhibit preference on south orientation. Furthermore, the population generally avoids flat land plateaus and river beds, preferring locations slightly uphill, away from the plateau edge. Despite the location diversity regarding geomorphological parameters, we find certain quantitative norms when we examine location and population distributions relative to the (man-made) transportation network. In particular, settlements at radial distance ℓ away from road network junctions have the same mean altitude, practically independent of ℓ ranging from a few meters to 10 km. Similarly, the distribution of the settlement population at any given ℓ is the same for all ℓ. Finally, the cumulative distribution of the number of rural cities n(ℓ) is fitted to the Weibull distribution, suggesting that human decisions for creating settlements could be paralleled to mechanisms typically attributed to this particular statistical distribution.

  14. Distribution of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris from different geographical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinchev, Dragomir; Janda, Bogdan; Evstatieva, Liuba; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Aslani, Mohammad R; Kostova, Ivanka

    2008-01-01

    The steroidal saponins of Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) are considered to be the factor responsible for biological activity of products derived from this plant. The activity depends on the concentration and the composition of active saponins, which in turn is influenced by the geographical origin of plant material. Samples of T. terrestris collected in Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, Macedonia, Turkey, Georgia, Iran, Vietnam and India were analyzed by LC-ESI/MS/MS for the presence and the concentration of protodioscin (1), prototribestin (2), pseudoprotodioscin (3), dioscin (4), tribestin (5) and tribulosin (6). The flavonoid rutin (7) was also included in the comparison. The results revealed distinct differences in the content of these compounds depending on region of sample collection, plant part studied and stage of plant development. The samples from Bulgaria, Turkey, Greece, Serbia, Macedonia, Georgia and Iran exhibited similar chemical profile and only some quantitative difference in the content of 1-7 with protodioscin (1) and prototribestin (2) as main components. The Vietnamese and Indian samples exhibit totally different chemical profile. They lack 2 and 5, while tribulosin (6) is present in high amounts. Compounds different from 1 to 7 are dominating in these 3 samples. The presented results suggested the existence of one chemotype common to the East South European and West Asian regions. Most probably, the Vietnamese and Indian samples belong to other chemotypes which are still to be studied and characterized. No clear correlation between the burrs morphology and the chemical composition of the samples has been found.

  15. From Social to Private Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Masten, Arjana Brezigar; Zajc, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the ownership structures of unlisted privatized firms in Slovenia. On the basis of official ownership records for all nonfinancial firms over a six-year period (1999-2004), we explore the factors responsible for the concentration of ownership and for the dissolution of the mult......This paper studies the ownership structures of unlisted privatized firms in Slovenia. On the basis of official ownership records for all nonfinancial firms over a six-year period (1999-2004), we explore the factors responsible for the concentration of ownership and for the dissolution...... of the multiple blockholder structures that these firms were assigned at privatization. We observe significant path dependence: patterns of ownership and control are in part determined by the persistence of the initial privatization owners (state funds, privatization investment funds, employees, and managers...

  16. Potential distribution of the endangered endemic lizard Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 (Liolaemidae: are there other suitable areas for a geographically restricted species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR. Winck

    Full Text Available In this study we attempted to access further information on the geographical distribution of the endangered lizard Liolaemus lutzae, estimating its potential distribution through the maximum entropy algorithm. For this purpose, we related its points of occurrence with matrices of environmental variables. After examining the correlation between environmental matrices, we selected 10 for model construction. The main variables influencing the current geographic distribution of L. lutzae were the diurnal temperature range and altitude. The species endemism seemed to be a consequence of a reduction of the original distribution area. Alternatively, the resulting model may reflect the geographic distribution of an ancestral lineage, since the model selected areas of occurrence of the two other species of Liolaemus from Brazil (L. arambarensis and L. occipitalis, all living in sand dune habitats and having psamophilic habits. Due to the high loss rate of habitat occupied by the species, the conservation and recovery of the remaining areas affected by human actions is essential.

  17. Geographical distribution of present day Poaceae as evidence for the origin of African floras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D. Clayton

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The major tribes and sub-families of grasses occupy worldwide latitudinal belts, which can be related to an evolutionary sequence of climatic adaptations. However, genera tend to be confined to individual continents, suggesting that grasses do not easily cross the oceans, and that the worldwide distribution of the family may have been achieved when the continents were closer together. Species distributions are likewise strongly influenced by the effect of climatic adaptation and continental isolation, but they show a number of aberrations. These are probably a legacy of climatic disturbance during the Pleistocene.

  18. Geographical distribution of present day Poaceae as evidence for the origin of African floras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D. Clayton

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The major tribes and sub-families of grasses occupy worldwide latitudinal belts, which can be related to an evolutionary sequence of climatic adaptations. However, genera tend to be confined to individual continents, suggesting that grasses do not easily cross the oceans, and that the worldwide distribution of the family may have been achieved when the continents were closer together. Species distributions are likewise strongly influenced by the effect of climatic adaptation and continental isolation, but they show a number of aberrations. These are probably a legacy of climatic disturbance during the Pleistocene.

  19. Geographical distribution of radiotherapy resources in Japan: investigating the inequitable distribution of human resources by using the Gini coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, Takumi; Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Okuda, Yasuo; Ando, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    This is a pilot study that aims to elucidate regional disparities in the distribution of medical resources in Japan. For this purpose, we employed the Gini coefficient (GC) in order to analyze the distribution of radiotherapy resources, which are allocated to each prefecture in Japan depending on the size of its population or physical area. Our study used data obtained from the 2005 and 2007 national surveys on the structure of radiation oncology in Japan, conducted by the Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO). Our analysis showed that the regional disparities regarding the radiation oncologists and radiotherapy technologists were small, and concluded that such resources were almost equitably distributed. However, medical physicists are inequitably distributed. Thus, policymakers should create and implement measures to train and retain medical physicists in areas with limited radiotherapy resources. Further, almost 26% of the secondary medical service areas lacked radiotherapy institutions. We attribute this observation to the existence of tertiary medical service areas, and almost all of prefectures face a shortage of such resources. Therefore, patients' accessibility to these resources in such areas should be improved.

  20. Mapping the Global Potential Geographical Distribution of Black Locust (Robinia Pseudoacacia L. Using Herbarium Data and a Maximum Entropy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is a tree species of high economic and ecological value, but is also considered to be highly invasive. Understanding the global potential distribution and ecological characteristics of this species is a prerequisite for its practical exploitation as a resource. Here, a maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt was used to simulate the potential distribution of this species around the world, and the dominant climatic factors affecting its distribution were selected by using a jackknife test and the regularized gain change during each iteration of the training algorithm. The results show that the MaxEnt model performs better than random, with an average test AUC value of 0.9165 (±0.0088. The coldness index, annual mean temperature and warmth index were the most important climatic factors affecting the species distribution, explaining 65.79% of the variability in the geographical distribution. Species response curves showed unimodal relationships with the annual mean temperature and warmth index, whereas there was a linear relationship with the coldness index. The dominant climatic conditions in the core of the black locust distribution are a coldness index of −9.8 °C–0 °C, an annual mean temperature of 5.8 °C–14.5 °C, a warmth index of 66 °C–168 °C and an annual precipitation of 508–1867 mm. The potential distribution of black locust is located mainly in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland, Australia, New Zealand, China, Japan, South Korea, South Africa, Chile and Argentina. The predictive map of black locust, climatic thresholds and species response curves can provide globally applicable guidelines and valuable information for policymakers and planners involved in the introduction, planting and invasion control of this species around the world.

  1. On the taxonomy of Latonigena auricomis (Araneae, Gnaphosidae, with notes of geographical distribution and natural history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Jorge

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The male of Latonigena auricomis Simon, 1893 is described for the first time and the female is redescribed. New records are provided for Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Notes on the natural history and a potential distribution model of the species are presented in the Neotropical Region.

  2. Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medlock, Jolyon M.; Hansford, Kayleigh M.; Bormane, Antra;

    2013-01-01

    Many factors are involved in determining the latitudinal and altitudinal spread of the important tick vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Europe, as well as in changes in the distribution within its prior endemic zones. This paper builds on published literature and unpublished expert opini...

  3. MODELING THE POTENTIAL SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF BEEF CATTLE GRAZING USING A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data regarding grazing utilization in the western United States are typically compiled within administrative boundaries(e.g. allotment,pasture). For large areas, an assumption of uniform distribution is seldom valid. Previous studies show that vegetation type, degree of slope, an...

  4. MartiTracks: a geometrical approach for identifying geographical patterns of distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susy Echeverría-Londoño

    Full Text Available Panbiogeography represents an evolutionary approach to biogeography, using rational cost-efficient methods to reduce initial complexity to locality data, and depict general distribution patterns. However, few quantitative, and automated panbiogeographic methods exist. In this study, we propose a new algorithm, within a quantitative, geometrical framework, to perform panbiogeographical analyses as an alternative to more traditional methods. The algorithm first calculates a minimum spanning tree, an individual track for each species in a panbiogeographic context. Then the spatial congruence among segments of the minimum spanning trees is calculated using five congruence parameters, producing a general distribution pattern. In addition, the algorithm removes the ambiguity, and subjectivity often present in a manual panbiogeographic analysis. Results from two empirical examples using 61 species of the genus Bomarea (2340 records, and 1031 genera of both plants and animals (100118 records distributed across the Northern Andes, demonstrated that a geometrical approach to panbiogeography is a feasible quantitative method to determine general distribution patterns for taxa, reducing complexity, and the time needed for managing large data sets.

  5. Geographic characteristics of sable (Martes zibellina) distribution over time in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Yang, Li; Ai, Lin; Yang, Qiuyuan; Chen, Minhao; Li, Jingxi; Yang, Lei; Luan, Xiaofeng

    2017-06-01

    Understanding historical context can help clarify the ecological and biogeographic characteristics of species population changes. The sable (Martes zibellina) population has decreased dramatically in Northeast China since the l950s, and understanding the changes in its distribution over time is necessary to support conservation efforts. To achieve this goal, we integrated ecological niche modeling and historical records of sables to estimate the magnitude of change in their distribution over time. Our results revealed a 51.71% reduction in their distribution in 2000-2016 compared with the potential distribution in the 1950s. This reduction was related to climate change (Pearson's correlation: Bio1, -.962, p areas due to climate change: In the Greater Khingan Mountains, they moved northward and to lower elevations; in the Lesser Khingan Mountains, they moved northward; and in the Changbai Mountains, they move southward and to higher elevations. Active conservation strategies should be considered in locations where sable populations have migrated or may migrate to.

  6. Prevalence and geographic distribution of herniated intervertebral disc in Korean 19-year-old male from 2008 to 2009: a study based on Korean conscription -national and geographic prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc in Korean 19YO male-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Park, Hyeong-chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2013-09-01

    This study was to determine the prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) among Korean 19-year-old male in a large national sample and to compare the prevalence across geographic regions based on the data of conscription. We analyzed the conscription data of 615508 cases who were 19-year-old male, given an examination for conscription at nationwide Korean Military Manpower Administration from January 2008 to December 2009. Prevalence was determined by dividing the number of cases by the number of persons enrolled for 2 years. The analyses included of a cross-tabulations and nonparametric chi-square to compare the prevalence according to geographic region, disc severity, and conscription year. The prevalence of HIVD among 19-year-old male was 0.47%. Seoul had the highest prevalence of HIVD (total HIVD was 0.60%, and severe HIVD was 0.44%). The prevalence of HIVD was lower in Jeollabuk- do and Jeollanam-do (total HIVD was 0.25-0.27%, and severe HIVD was 0.16-0.17%). Annual prevalence of HIVD was slightly decreased in 2009, but geographic distribution annually was not different. In Korean 19-year-old male, the national prevalence of adolescent HIVD was 0.60%, but different geographic distribution was observed. It is quite possible that secondary contributing factor(s) interfere with the different geographic prevalence of HIVD.

  7. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.

    2002-02-07

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO{trademark} exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer- coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km

  8. Geographical distribution for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas in relation to selected climatic factors in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okada Masafumi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant neoplasm of the pancreas has become one of the leading causes of death from malignant neoplasm in Japan (the 5th in 2003. Although smoking is believed to be a risk factor, other risk factors remain unclear. Mortality from malignant neoplasm of the pancreas tends to be higher in northern Japan and in northern European countries. A recent study reported that standardized mortality ratios (SMRs for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas were negatively correlated to global solar radiation level. People residing in regions with lower solar radiation and lower temperatures may be at higher risk of development of malignant neoplasm of the pancreas. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between SMRs for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas and climatic factors, such as the amount of global solar radiation and the daily maximum temperature in Japan. Results The study used multiple linear regression models. Number of deaths and demographic data from 1998 to 2002 were used for the calculation of SMR. We employed mesh climatic data for Japan published in 2006 by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Regression coefficients for the amount of global solar radiation and the daily maximum temperature in males were -4.35 (p = 0.00034 and -2.81 (p Conclusion This study suggested that low solar radiation and low temperature might relate to the increasing risk of malignant neoplasm of the pancreas. Use of group data has a limitation in the case of evaluating environmental factors affecting health, since the impact of climatic factors on the human body varies according to individual lifestyles and occupations. Use of geographical mesh climatic data, however, proved useful as an index of risk or beneficial factors in a small study area. Further research using individual data is necessary to elucidate the relationship between climatic factors and the development of malignant neoplasm of the pancreas.

  9. Ecology and geographic distribution of Yersinia enterocolitica among livestock and wildlife in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junrong; Duan, Ran; Xia, Shengli; Hao, Qiong; Yang, Jinchuan; Xiao, Yuchun; Qiu, Haiyan; Shi, Guoxiang; Wang, Shukun; Gu, Wenpeng; Wang, Chunxiang; Wang, Mingliu; Tian, Kecheng; Luo, Longze; Yang, Meng; Tian, Huaiyu; Wang, Jiazheng; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2015-07-09

    The results in this study show the prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica varies in different animal species and regions of China. The highest prevalence is among pigs (12.91%), followed by dogs (9.80%), Ochotona curzoniae (plateau pica) (6.76%), chickens (4.50%), rodents (3.40%), cattle (2.78%) and sheep (0.89%). Pathogenic isolates comprised the majority of the Y. enterocolitica recovered from pigs (73.50%) and dogs (59.44%); whereas the nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica made up most of poultry and wildlife recovered strains. A correlation analysis comparing the prevalence and geographic factors showed the isolation rate of Y. enterocolitica in pigs and dogs was negatively correlated with elevation (r=-0.50, P<0.05) and annual average air temperature (r=-0.43, P<0.05), but there was positive correlation with annual precipitation (r=0.43, P<0.05); conversely, the isolation rate from wildlife is positively correlated with elevation (r=0.3, P<0.05) contrary to the result seen in livestock. Twelve novel biotype 2 pathogenic Y. enterocolitica carried ail and ystB virulence genes, and one biotype 1A nonpathogenic strain positive with ail, ystB and ystA genes were isolated from Microtus fuscus (Qinghai vole) on plague foci of the Qinghai-Xizang plateau. The PFGE pattern K6GN11C30021 was predominant in pigs (44.25%) and patients (41.18%); K6GN11C30068 was predominant in dogs (40.16%). Animal isolates from the same region shared the same pattern (K6GN11C30021 and K6GN11C30012), indicating they may be from the same clone and arose through cross infection. Moreover, the identical PFGE pattern among local animals and diarrhea patients suggested that the animals may be the source of infections in these areas.

  10. The geographic distribution and complex evolutionary history of the NX-2 trichothecene chemotype from Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Amy; Proctor, Robert H; Belzile, Francois; Chulze, Sofia N; Clear, Randall M; Cowger, Christina; Elmer, Wade; Lee, Theresa; Obanor, Friday; Waalwijk, Cees; Ward, Todd J

    2016-10-01

    Fusarium graminearum and 21 related species comprising the F. sambucinum species complex lineage 1 (FSAMSC-1) are the most important Fusarium Head Blight pathogens of cereal crops world-wide. FSAMSC-1 species typically produce type B trichothecenes. However, some F. graminearum strains were recently found to produce a novel type A trichothecene (NX-2) resulting from functional variation in the trichothecene biosynthetic enzyme Tri1. We used a PCR-RFLP assay targeting the TRI1 gene to identify the NX-2 allele among a global collection of 2515 F. graminearum. NX-2 isolates were only found in southern Canada and the northern U.S., where they were observed at low frequency (1.8%), but over a broader geographic range and set of cereal hosts than previously recognized. Phylogenetic analyses of TRI1 and adjacent genes produced gene trees that were incongruent with the history of species divergence within FSAMSC-1, indicating trans-species evolution of ancestral polymorphism. In addition, placement of NX-2 strains in the TRI1 gene tree was influenced by the accumulation of nonsynonymous substitutions associated with the evolution of the NX-2 chemotype, and a significant (PNX-2 branch (ω=1.16) in comparison to other branches (ω=0.17) in the TRI1 phylogeny. Parameter estimates were consistent with positive selection for specific amino-acid changes during the evolution of NX-2, but direct tests of positive selection were not significant. Phylogenetic analyses of fourfold degenerate sites and intron sequences in TRI1 indicated the NX-2 chemotype had a single evolutionary origin and evolved recently from a type B ancestor. Our results indicate the NX-2 chemotype may be indigenous, and possibly endemic, to southern Canada and the northern U.S. In addition, we demonstrate that the evolution of TRI1 within FSAMSC-1 has been complex, with evidence of trans-species evolution and chemotype-specific shifts in selective constraint. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Geographic distribution of habitat, development, and population growth rates of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Collado, José; Isabel López-Arroyo, J; Robles-García, Pedro L; Márquez-Santos, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an introduced pest in Mexico and a vector of huanglongbing, a lethal citrus disease. Estimations of the habitat distribution and population growth rates of D. citri are required to establish regional and areawide management strategies and can be used as a pest risk analysis tools. In this study, the habitat distribution of D. citri in Mexico was computed with MaxEnt, an inductive, machine-learning program that uses bioclimatic layers and point location data. Geographic distributions of development and population growth rates were determined by fitting a temperature-dependent, nonlinear model and projecting the rates over the target area, using the annual mean temperature as the predictor variable. The results showed that the most suitable regions for habitat of D. citri comprise the Gulf of Mexico states, Yucatán Peninsula, and areas scattered throughout the Pacific coastal states. Less suitable areas occurred in northern and central states. The most important predictor variables were related to temperature. Development and growth rates had a distribution wider than habitat, reaching some of the northern states of México. Habitat, development, and population growth rates were correlated to each other and with the citrus producing area. These relationships indicated that citrus producing states are within the most suitable regions for the occurrence, development, and population growth of D. citri, therefore increasing the risk of huanglongbing dispersion.

  12. Predicting geographic and ecological distributions of triatomine species in the southern Mexican state of Puebla using ecological niche modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Ruiz, C A; Zumaquero-Rios, J L; Rojas-Soto, O R

    2008-05-01

    We analyzed the geographic distribution using ecological niche modeling of three species of triatomines distributed in the Mexican state of Puebla. Punctual records were gathered for a period of 5 yr of fieldwork sampling. We used the genetic algorithm for rule-set production (GARP) to achieve the potential distribution of the ecological niche of triatomines. The models showed that Triatoma barberi and Meccus pallidipennis are sympatric and widely distributed in the central-southern part of the state, whereas T. dimidata is restricted to the northern mountains of the state with no overlapping among other species, M. bassolsae was not modeled because of the scarce number of locality records. We highlighted the warm and dry conditions in southern Puebla as important potential areas for triatomine presence. Finally, we correlated the species potential presence with the human population at risk of acquiring Chagas disease by vector-borne transmission; it is showed that M. pallidipennis presents the highest values of both ecological and poverty risk scenarios representing the main potential vector in the state.

  13. Issues in ATM Support of High-Performance, Geographically Distributed Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Russell W.; Dowd, Patrick W.; Srinidhi, Saragur M.; Blade, Eric D.G

    1995-01-01

    This report experimentally assesses the effect of the underlying network in a cluster-based computing environment. The assessment is quantified by application-level benchmarking, process-level communication, and network file input/output. Two testbeds were considered, one small cluster of Sun workstations and another large cluster composed of 32 high-end IBM RS/6000 platforms. The clusters had Ethernet, fiber distributed data interface (FDDI), Fibre Channel, and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network interface cards installed, providing the same processors and operating system for the entire suite of experiments. The primary goal of this report is to assess the suitability of an ATM-based, local-area network to support interprocess communication and remote file input/output systems for distributed computing.

  14. Distributed Learning for Geographically Dispersed Students: Lessons Learned From an Online Graduate Business Course.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Cleveland

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a program at a University that serves a large but sparsely populated state. It offers two MBA programs, a traditional full-time program and a part-time, off-campus program. Students in the off-campus program are typically early to mid-career professionals. To reach them the University’s School of Business Administration developed expertise in innovative, distributed learning. The objective of the distributed learning program was to integrate networked delivery to students across the region. Professional courses are conducted on interactive, compressed video delivered to nine sites scattered around the state. Graduate-level foundation courses, i.e., courses in the fundamentals of business administration, are delivered online to the same students. The Systems and Operations course described in this paper was the first of five foundation courses developed for delivery online.

  15. Predictions of potential geographical distribution and quality of Schisandra sphenanthera under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanlong; Lu, Chunyan; Gao, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Climate change will significantly affect plant distribution as well as the quality of medicinal plants. Although numerous studies have analyzed the effect of climate change on future habitats of plants through species distribution models (SDMs), few of them have incorporated the change of effective content of medicinal plants. Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils. is an endangered traditional Chinese medical plant which is mainly located in the Qinling Mountains. Combining fuzzy theory and a maximum entropy model, we obtained current spatial distribution of quality assessment for S. spenanthera. Moreover, the future quality and distribution of S. spenanthera were also projected for the periods 2020s, 2050s and 2080s under three different climate change scenarios (SRES-A1B, SRES-A2 and SRES-B1 emission scenarios) described in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). The results showed that the moderately suitable habitat of S. sphenanthera under all climate change scenarios remained relatively stable in the study area. The highly suitable habitat of S. sphenanthera would gradually decrease in the future and a higher decline rate of the highly suitable habitat area would occur under climate change scenarios SRES-A1B and SRES-A2. The result suggested that in the study area, there would be no more highly suitable habitat areas for S. sphenanthera when the annual mean temperature exceeds 20 °C or its annual precipitation exceeds 1,200 mm. Our results will be influential in the future ecological conservation and management of S. sphenanthera and can be taken as a reference for habitat suitability assessment research for other medicinal plants. PMID:27781160

  16. Predictions of potential geographical distribution and quality of Schisandra sphenanthera under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlong Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will significantly affect plant distribution as well as the quality of medicinal plants. Although numerous studies have analyzed the effect of climate change on future habitats of plants through species distribution models (SDMs, few of them have incorporated the change of effective content of medicinal plants. Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils. is an endangered traditional Chinese medical plant which is mainly located in the Qinling Mountains. Combining fuzzy theory and a maximum entropy model, we obtained current spatial distribution of quality assessment for S. spenanthera. Moreover, the future quality and distribution of S. spenanthera were also projected for the periods 2020s, 2050s and 2080s under three different climate change scenarios (SRES-A1B, SRES-A2 and SRES-B1 emission scenarios described in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The results showed that the moderately suitable habitat of S. sphenanthera under all climate change scenarios remained relatively stable in the study area. The highly suitable habitat of S. sphenanthera would gradually decrease in the future and a higher decline rate of the highly suitable habitat area would occur under climate change scenarios SRES-A1B and SRES-A2. The result suggested that in the study area, there would be no more highly suitable habitat areas for S. sphenanthera when the annual mean temperature exceeds 20 °C or its annual precipitation exceeds 1,200 mm. Our results will be influential in the future ecological conservation and management of S. sphenanthera and can be taken as a reference for habitat suitability assessment research for other medicinal plants.

  17. Timeline and geographical distribution of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae: Heliothinae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa-Gómez, Daniel R.; Alexandre Specht; Paula-Moraes, Silvana V.; Adilson Lopes-Lima; Silvia A.C. Yano; Adriana Micheli; Morais,Elisangela G.F.; Paulo Gallo; Pereira,Paulo R.V.S.; José R. Salvadori; Marcos Botton; Maurício M. Zenker; Azevedo-Filho,Wilson S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study presents registers of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) occurrence to assess its spatial and temporal distribution in Brazil. We used data from collections, especially from the Southern Region, systematic collections in Rio Grande do Sul, occasional collections of caterpillars and adults in different regions of Brazil, as well as literature registers. We conclude that the introduction of H. armigera in Brazil probably occurred before October 2008. We also register that in Augu...

  18. Geographic conditions for distribution of agriculture and potentials for tourism development on Mokra mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Marko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work considers important natural conditions of distribution of agricultural production, cattle breeding in particular, and also potentials for tourism development on Mokra mountain. Half-nomadic cattle breeding in mountain settlements was highly developed in recent past. It represented the main source of existence for local highlanders. Today it is neglected and in phase of dying out. The mountain disposes with excellent natural potentials for ecological and mountain tourism, but these potentials are unused.

  19. Improved Predictions of the Geographic Distribution of Invasive Plants Using Climatic Niche Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Albores, Jorge E; Bustamante, Ramiro O; Badano, Ernesto I

    2016-01-01

    Climatic niche models for invasive plants are usually constructed with occurrence records taken from literature and collections. Because these data neither discriminate among life-cycle stages of plants (adult or juvenile) nor the origin of individuals (naturally established or man-planted), the resulting models may mispredict the distribution ranges of these species. We propose that more accurate predictions could be obtained by modelling climatic niches with data of naturally established individuals, particularly with occurrence records of juvenile plants because this would restrict the predictions of models to those sites where climatic conditions allow the recruitment of the species. To test this proposal, we focused on the Peruvian peppertree (Schinus molle), a South American species that has largely invaded Mexico. Three climatic niche models were constructed for this species using high-resolution dataset gathered in the field. The first model included all occurrence records, irrespective of the life-cycle stage or origin of peppertrees (generalized niche model). The second model only included occurrence records of naturally established mature individuals (adult niche model), while the third model was constructed with occurrence records of naturally established juvenile plants (regeneration niche model). When models were compared, the generalized climatic niche model predicted the presence of peppertrees in sites located farther beyond the climatic thresholds that naturally established individuals can tolerate, suggesting that human activities influence the distribution of this invasive species. The adult and regeneration climatic niche models concurred in their predictions about the distribution of peppertrees, suggesting that naturally established adult trees only occur in sites where climatic conditions allow the recruitment of juvenile stages. These results support the proposal that climatic niches of invasive plants should be modelled with data of

  20. Improved Predictions of the Geographic Distribution of Invasive Plants Using Climatic Niche Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Ramírez-Albores

    Full Text Available Climatic niche models for invasive plants are usually constructed with occurrence records taken from literature and collections. Because these data neither discriminate among life-cycle stages of plants (adult or juvenile nor the origin of individuals (naturally established or man-planted, the resulting models may mispredict the distribution ranges of these species. We propose that more accurate predictions could be obtained by modelling climatic niches with data of naturally established individuals, particularly with occurrence records of juvenile plants because this would restrict the predictions of models to those sites where climatic conditions allow the recruitment of the species. To test this proposal, we focused on the Peruvian peppertree (Schinus molle, a South American species that has largely invaded Mexico. Three climatic niche models were constructed for this species using high-resolution dataset gathered in the field. The first model included all occurrence records, irrespective of the life-cycle stage or origin of peppertrees (generalized niche model. The second model only included occurrence records of naturally established mature individuals (adult niche model, while the third model was constructed with occurrence records of naturally established juvenile plants (regeneration niche model. When models were compared, the generalized climatic niche model predicted the presence of peppertrees in sites located farther beyond the climatic thresholds that naturally established individuals can tolerate, suggesting that human activities influence the distribution of this invasive species. The adult and regeneration climatic niche models concurred in their predictions about the distribution of peppertrees, suggesting that naturally established adult trees only occur in sites where climatic conditions allow the recruitment of juvenile stages. These results support the proposal that climatic niches of invasive plants should be modelled with

  1. Improved Predictions of the Geographic Distribution of Invasive Plants Using Climatic Niche Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Albores, Jorge E.; Bustamante, Ramiro O.

    2016-01-01

    Climatic niche models for invasive plants are usually constructed with occurrence records taken from literature and collections. Because these data neither discriminate among life-cycle stages of plants (adult or juvenile) nor the origin of individuals (naturally established or man-planted), the resulting models may mispredict the distribution ranges of these species. We propose that more accurate predictions could be obtained by modelling climatic niches with data of naturally established individuals, particularly with occurrence records of juvenile plants because this would restrict the predictions of models to those sites where climatic conditions allow the recruitment of the species. To test this proposal, we focused on the Peruvian peppertree (Schinus molle), a South American species that has largely invaded Mexico. Three climatic niche models were constructed for this species using high-resolution dataset gathered in the field. The first model included all occurrence records, irrespective of the life-cycle stage or origin of peppertrees (generalized niche model). The second model only included occurrence records of naturally established mature individuals (adult niche model), while the third model was constructed with occurrence records of naturally established juvenile plants (regeneration niche model). When models were compared, the generalized climatic niche model predicted the presence of peppertrees in sites located farther beyond the climatic thresholds that naturally established individuals can tolerate, suggesting that human activities influence the distribution of this invasive species. The adult and regeneration climatic niche models concurred in their predictions about the distribution of peppertrees, suggesting that naturally established adult trees only occur in sites where climatic conditions allow the recruitment of juvenile stages. These results support the proposal that climatic niches of invasive plants should be modelled with data of

  2. Seasonality and geographical occurrence of West Nile fever and distribution of Asian tiger mosquito

    OpenAIRE

    Trájer, Attila János; Bede-Fazekas, Ákos; Bobvos, János; Páldy, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The importance and risk of emerging mosquito borne diseases is going to increase in the European temperate areas due to climate change. The present and upcoming climates of Transdanubia seem to be suitable for the main vector of Chikungunya virus, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus Skuse (syn. Stegomyia albopicta). West Nile fever is recently endemic in Hungary. We used climate envelope modeling to predict the recent and future potential distribution/occurrence areas of the vector and...

  3. Geographic distribution indices of general practitioners, midwives, pediatricians, and gynecologists in the public sector of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarmand, Rasoul; Mozhdehifard, Mostafa; Kavosi, Zahra

    2017-06-01

    Health workforce distribution is so important in access posture, coverage and equity. Following millennium development goals (MDGs), special attention to health workforces in relation with maternal and child health is required. The aim of the current study was to determine distribution of maternal and child health related workforces in Iran during 2010-2012, using inequality measures. In this cross-sectional study, data about the number of physicians and midwives obtained from Ministry of Health reports and demographic statistics were obtained from the Statistical Center of Iran. Gini coefficient and Robin Hood index were calculated in terms of population ratio, need adjusted index for birth (NAIB) and need adjusted index for mortality (NAIM). For calculations, DAD software version 4.6 was used. Gini coefficient was reduced for general physicians (GPs) and pediatricians, and had increasing and decreasing trends for gynecologists. For achieving equality within provinces, the number of transferable health workforces was more than 1 person per 10 health workforces. Health workforce distribution had various trends in Iran. Special attention to deprived provinces is required. Most of the reduction in Gini coefficient is due to the increase in health workforce in developing provinces, and deprived provinces still have serious problems. The health system could achieve better equality by considering deprived provinces and using Gini coefficient and Robin Hood index together.

  4. 梧桐科植物的地理分布%GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF STERCULIACEAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐颂军; 徐祥浩

    2001-01-01

    梧桐科植物全世界有60属约1 546种,主要分布在热带和亚热带地区,只有少数种类可分布至温带地区。由于梧桐科是多型的科,科的范围较大,对有些属是否应隶属于该科,国内外学者的意见很不一致。本文基本上按照J.Hutchinson系统和参考有关文献对一些属的分类位置作了调整,把梧桐科分为12族。根据A. Takhtajan的世界植物区系区划的原则,将梧桐科植物在世界上的分布区,划分为6区8亚区23地区,并指出各属在中国各省区的地理分布。现在中国梧桐科植物连引种栽培的在内共有25属99种7变种,其中野生的有18属85种7变种,引种栽培的有8属14种。对梧桐科植物的起源和发展作了一些探讨。%Sterculiaceous plants in the world are estimated to be 1 546 species in 60 genera, which distribute mainly in the tropics and subtropics with a few in temperate regions. Sterculiaceae is a large and multiform family, and the attribution of some genera has still no identical views. Based on J. Hutchinson's system and some references, an adjustment of the position of some genera in the family has been made, and 12 tribes in the family are classified. The distribution of Sterculiaceae plants in the world is included in 6 kingdoms with 23 regions, based on Takhtajan's floristic regions. In this paper 99 species with 7 varieties in 25 genera of Sterculiaceae in China, including 85 wild species with 7 varieties in 18 genera and 14 cultivated species in 8 genera are considered. Main characters of the 12 tribes and the distribution of genera are described. The authers suggest that Sterculiaceae originated before Cretaceus period, i.e. before the separation of Gondwana, because fossil plants had been found in Africa, Europe, Asia and America. According to the modern distribution pattern of Sterculiaceae, many genera till now distribute in Madagascar and tropical Africa which are endemic, and the more

  5. Assessing the Groundwater Concentrations and Geographical Distribution of Arsenic in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Liu, F.

    2015-12-01

    understanding of the correlations, we can predict whether an area is suffering from arsenic laden groundwater without actual field testing. We use R and ArcGIS to conduct the statistical and geographical analysis in this project.

  6. Determinants of the geographic distribution of Puumala virus and Lyme borreliosis infections in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tersago Katrien

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector-borne and zoonotic diseases generally display clear spatial patterns due to different space-dependent factors. Land cover and land use influence disease transmission by controlling both the spatial distribution of vectors or hosts, and the probability of contact with susceptible human populations. The objective of this study was to combine environmental and socio-economic factors to explain the spatial distribution of two emerging human diseases in Belgium, Puumala virus (PUUV and Lyme borreliosis. Municipalities were taken as units of analysis. Results Negative binomial regressions including a correction for spatial endogeneity show that the spatial distribution of PUUV and Lyme borreliosis infections are associated with a combination of factors linked to the vector and host populations, to human behaviours, and to landscape attributes. Both diseases are associated with the presence of forests, which are the preferred habitat for vector or host populations. The PUUV infection risk is higher in remote forest areas, where the level of urbanisation is low, and among low-income populations. The Lyme borreliosis transmission risk is higher in mixed landscapes with forests and spatially dispersed houses, mostly in wealthy peri-urban areas. The spatial dependence resulting from a combination of endogenous and exogenous processes could be accounted for in the model on PUUV but not for Lyme borreliosis. Conclusion A large part of the spatial variation in disease risk can be explained by environmental and socio-economic factors. The two diseases not only are most prevalent in different regions but also affect different groups of people. Combining these two criteria may increase the efficiency of information campaigns through appropriate targeting.

  7. Aspects of benthic decapod diversity and distribution from rocky nearshore habitat at geographically widely dispersed sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Pohle

    Full Text Available Relationships of diversity, distribution and abundance of benthic decapods in intertidal and shallow subtidal waters to 10 m depth are explored based on data obtained using a standardized protocol of globally-distributed samples. Results indicate that decapod species richness overall is low within the nearshore, typically ranging from one to six taxa per site (mean = 4.5. Regionally the Gulf of Alaska decapod crustacean community structure was distinguishable by depth, multivariate analysis indicating increasing change with depth, where assemblages of the high and mid tide, low tide and 1 m, and 5 and 10 m strata formed three distinct groups. Univariate analysis showed species richness increasing from the high intertidal zone to 1 m subtidally, with distinct depth preferences among the 23 species. A similar depth trend but with peak richness at 5 m was observed when all global data were combined. Analysis of latitudinal trends, confined by data limitations, was equivocal on a global scale. While significant latitudinal differences existed in community structure among ecoregions, a semi-linear trend in changing community structure from the Arctic to lower latitudes did not hold when including tropical results. Among boreal regions the Canadian Atlantic was relatively species poor compared to the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Caribbean and Sea of Japan appeared to be species hot spots. While species poor, samples from the Canadian Atlantic were the most diverse at the higher infraordinal level. Linking 11 environmental variables available for all sites to the best fit family-based biotic pattern showed a significant relationship, with the single best explanatory variable being the level of organic pollution and the best combination overall being organic pollution and primary productivity. While data limitations restrict conclusions in a global context, results are seen as a first-cut contribution useful in generating discussion and more in

  8. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, José M P; Vázquez, Adolfo I; Landero, Ivonne; Oliva-Rivera, Héctor; Camacho, Víctor H M

    2011-01-06

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae.Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species.Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  9. Timeline and geographical distribution of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae: Heliothinae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Sosa-Gómez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study presents registers of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner occurrence to assess its spatial and temporal distribution in Brazil. We used data from collections, especially from the Southern Region, systematic collections in Rio Grande do Sul, occasional collections of caterpillars and adults in different regions of Brazil, as well as literature registers. We conclude that the introduction of H. armigera in Brazil probably occurred before October 2008. We also register that in August 2012 H. armigera was already present from the extreme southern part (Rio Grande do Sul to the extreme northern part (Amapá of Brazil.

  10. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva-Rivera Héctor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  11. Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medlock, Jolyon M.; Hansford, Kayleigh M.; Bormane, Antra;

    2013-01-01

    , and the changes in the distribution and abundance of tick hosts are important considerations during our assessment and management of the public health risks associated with ticks and tick-borne disease issues in 21st century Europe. Better understanding and mapping of the spread of I. ricinus (and changes in its...... abundance) is, however, essential to assess the risk of the spread of infections transmitted by this vector species. Enhanced tick surveillance with harmonized approaches for comparison of data enabling the follow-up of trends at EU level will improve the messages on risk related to tick-borne diseases...

  12. Sensitivity of photosynthesis to UV radiation in several Cosmarium strains (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) is related to their geographical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marija, Stamenković; Dieter, Hanelt

    2014-07-01

    Photoinhibitory effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on four Cosmarium strains were studied with respect to their geographical distribution pattern. This study dealt with two strains of a cosmopolitan taxon (C. punctulatum var. subpunctulatum) collected from high-mountain tropical and lowland polar regions, one typical tropical species (C. beatum) and one typical polar representative (C. crenatum var. boldtianum). Physiological characteristics of the strains during and after various UVR spectral combinations at two temperature gradients were determined by the measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence, oxygen evolution rates and using an inhibitor of chloroplast-encoded protein synthesis (streptomycin). All of the Cosmarium strains investigated exhibited consistent geographical distribution patterns in accordance with the UVR prevailing at their sampling sites, despite a long-term cultivation under constant laboratory conditions. It appeared that moderate ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR) treatment did not exert large damages to photosystem II in all of the Cosmarium strains, compared to ultraviolet-A radiation (UVAR) treatment at 21 °C. Interestingly, an ameliorating effect of UVBR at 21 °C was observed in C. beatum as concluded from higher rates of recovery of maximum quantum yield after moderate UVBR treatment, compared to that after UVAR application. This study also reveals that the mucilage of desmids has a limited role in the protection against UVR as demonstrated by the measurements of absorption in the UVR range, in contrast to previous assumptions. Increased UVBR (i.e. high UVBR : PAR ratio) severely decreases oxygen evolution in all of the Cosmarium strains, pointing to possible consequences for peat bogs which are native habitats of desmids, as they are particularly poor in oxygen.

  13. Geographical distribution of present-day Cape taxa and their phytogeographical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cape Flora, one of the six floral kingdoms recognized by phytogeographers, is remarkable for its species richness and high degree of endemism, but no overall statistics are as yet available. Several long-term projects have recently been started to enumerate all the species and to record their distribution patterns. The latter aspect has been completed for 1 936 species from the three most characteristic families, i.e. Restionaceae. Ericaceae and Proteaceae, the endemic families and some of the largest genera, i. e. Aspalathus and Muraltia. Computer analysis of the distribution patterns is being undertaken and the species concentrations and centres of endemism are being calculated. The concentration of species in the mountains of the south-western Cape is confirmed and the grid square 3418 BB is found to be the richest. For the groups dealt with, the degree of endemism was found to be as high as 98%. The phytogeographical centres so far outlined agree with those of Weimarck.

  14. Geographic distribution of the chytrid pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis among mountain amphibians along the Italian peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampiglia, Mauro; Canestrelli, Daniele; Chiocchio, Andrea; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2013-11-25

    The amphibian chytrid pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is considered a major cause of amphibian population declines, particularly in montane areas. Here, we investigated the presence and distribution of Bd among populations of 3 mid- to high-altitude species spanning the entire Italian peninsula (486 individuals from 39 sites overall): the stream frog Rana italica, the fire salamander Salamandra salamandra gigliolii, and the alpine newt Mesotriton alpestris apuanus. We found Bd in all of the analyzed species. Despite the widespread distribution of the pathogen, its overall prevalence (6, 9 and 19%, respectively) was lower than previously reported for the endangered Apennine yellow-bellied toad Bombina pachypus (62.5%). Moreover, several populations of the species studied here were not infected, even at sites where Bd has been detected in other host species. When coupled with the lack of evidence for Bd-related mortalities in these species in peninsular Italy, these results suggest that mechanisms of resistance and/or tolerance are protecting populations of these species from the pathogenic activity of Bd. Nevertheless, in light of the dynamic pattern of Bd-host interactions reported in other studies, of Bd-related mortalities in at least 1 study species (S. s. salamandra) in other areas, and the ongoing climate changes in montane environments, we suggest that the occurrence of Bd should be considered a potential threat to the long-term persistence of these species, and urge the implementation of monitoring and conservation plans.

  15. An updated overview of the geographic and bathymetric distribution of Savalia savaglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi. GIUSTI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of gold coral Savalia savaglia is modified on the basis of bibliographic information and recent occurrence data, collected using a ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle and SCUBA divers. The species is long-lived, rare and has been exploited in the past by divers for collection purposes. S. savaglia is listed in Annex II of the SPA/BD Protocol of the Barcelona Convention and has a wider distribution than previously thought, including both the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Our results highlighted that specimens mainly live at a depth range of 15-90 m, but may reach as deep as 900 m in the Mediterranean Sea. This species can form monospecific facies of hundreds of colonies, as observed in Montenegro (Adriatic Sea, between 10 and 20 m, and in the Canary Islands, at a depth range of 27-70 m. Recent data highlighted numerous cases of specimens that were endangered by lost fishing gear, which exposed this species to further threats. Considering its longevity and structural role, it is urgent to develop an effective protection measure for S. savaglia, thereby increasing research efforts and implementing protection areas for this species.

  16. Human migration, railways and the geographic distribution of leprosy in Rio Grande do Norte State--Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Mauricio Lisboa; Dupnik, Kathryn Margaret; Nobre, Paulo José Lisboa; Freitas De Souza, Márcia Célia; Dűppre, Nádia Cristina; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Jerŏnimo, Selma Maria Bezerra

    2015-12-01

    Leprosy is a public health problem in Brazil where 31,044 new cases were detected in 2013. Rio Grande do Norte is a small Brazilian state with a rate of leprosy lower than other areas in the same region, for unknown reasons. We present here a review based on the analysis of a database of registered leprosy cases in Rio Grande do Norte state, comparing leprosy's geographic distribution among municipalities with local socio-economic and public health indicators and with historical documents about human migration in this Brazilian region. The current distribution of leprosy in Rio Grande do Norte did not show correlation with socio-economic or public health indicators at the municipal level, but it appears related to economically emerging municipalities 100 years ago, with spread facilitated by railroads and train stations. Drought-related migratory movements which occurred from this state to leprosy endemic areas within the same period may be involved in the introduction of leprosy and with its present distribution within Rio Grande do Norte. Leprosy may disseminate slowly, over many decades in certain circumstances, such as in small cities with few cases. This is a very unusual situation currently and a unique opportunity for epidemiologic studies of leprosy as an emerging disease.

  17. Geographical distribution and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in questing Ixodes ricinus from Romania: a countrywide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Mihalca, Andrei D; Dumitrache, Mirabela O; Gherman, Călin M; Magdaş, Cristian; Mircean, Viorica; Oltean, Miruna; Domşa, Cristian; Matei, Ioana A; Mărcuţan, Daniel I; Sándor, Attila D; D'Amico, Gianluca; Paştiu, Anamaria; Györke, Adriana; Gavrea, Raluca; Marosi, Béla; Ionică, Angela; Burkhardt, Etelka; Toriay, Hortenzia; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-09-01

    The paper reports the prevalence and geographical distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and its genospecies in 12,221 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected at 183 locations from all the 41 counties of Romania. The unfed ticks were examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. by PCR targeting the intergenic spacer 5S-23S. Reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis were performed for identification of B. burgdorferi genospecies. The overall prevalence of infection was 1.4%, with an average local prevalence between 0.75% and 18.8%. B. burgdorferi s.l. was found in ticks of 55 of the 183 localities. The overall prevalence B. burgdorferi s.l. in ticks in the infected localities was 3.8%. The total infection prevalence was higher in female ticks than in other developmental stages. Three Borrelia genospecies were detected. The most widely distributed genospecies was B. afzelii, followed by B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.). The study is the first countrywide study and the first report of B. burgdorferi s.s. in Romania. The distribution maps show that higher prevalences were recorded in hilly areas, but Lyme borreliosis spirochetes were also present in forested lowlands, albeit with a lower prevalence.

  18. Geostatistics and Geographic Information Systems to Study the Spatial Distribution of Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Peach Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, F; Calvo, M V; Borges, A; Scatoni, I B

    2015-08-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), is the most serious pest in peach, and several insecticide applications are required to reduce crop damage to acceptable levels. Geostatistics and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are employed to measure the range of spatial correlation of G. molesta in order to define the optimum sampling distance for performing spatial analysis and to determine the current distribution of the pest in peach orchards of southern Uruguay. From 2007 to 2010, 135 pheromone traps per season were installed and georeferenced in peach orchards distributed over 50,000 ha. Male adult captures were recorded weekly from September to April. Structural analysis of the captures was performed, yielding 14 semivariograms for the accumulated captures analyzed by generation and growing season. Two sets of maps were constructed to describe the pest distribution. Nine significant models were obtained in the 14 evaluated periods. The range estimated for the correlation was from 908 to 6884 m. Three hot spots of high population level and some areas with comparatively low populations were constant over the 3-year period, while there is a greater variation in the size of the population in different generations and years in other areas.

  19. Geographical distribution of GmTfl1 alleles in Chinese soybean varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guifeng; Liu; Lin; Zhao; Benjamin; J.Averitt; Ying; Liu; Bo; Zhang; Ruzhen; Chang; Yansong; Ma; Xiaoyan; Luan; Rongxia; Guan; Lijuan; Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Stem growth habit is an important agronomic trait in soybean and is subject to artificial selection. This study aimed to provide a theory for genotypic selection of stem growth habit for breeding purposes by analyzing the alleles of Gm Tfl1 gene in Chinese soybean varieties and establishing a database of Gm Tfl1 variation. Using knowledge of insertion and deletion(Indel) in the non-coding region and four single-nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) in the coding sequences of the Gm Tfl1 gene, four CAPS and one Indel markers were developed and used to test 1120 Chinese soybean varieties. We found that the dominant Gm Tfl1 allele was prevalent in accessions from the Northern ecoregion, whereas the recessive allele, Gmtfl1, was more common in the Southern ecoregion, and the proportions of Gm Tfl1 and recessive alleles were respectively 40.1% and 59.9% in the Huang-Huai ecoregion. The proportion of Gm Tfl1 decreased and that of Gmtfl1 increased, gradually from north to south. Allele Gm Tfl1-a was present in higher proportions in the Huang-Huai spring, Huang-Huai summer, and Northern spring sub-ecoregions than that in the other sub-ecoregions. Gm Tfl1-b was common in the Northeast spring, Northern spring and Southern summer sub-ecoregions. Gmtfl1-ta was found mainly in the Huang-Huai spring,Huang-Huai summer and Southern spring sub-ecoregions. The Gmtfl1-ab allele was distributed in all six soybean sub-ecoregions. The Gmtfl1-bb allele was distributed mainly in the Huang-Huai spring and summer and Southern spring and summer sub-ecoregions,but the Gmtfl1-tb allele was detected only in the Huang-Huai summer sub-ecoregion. The distributions of Gm Tfl1 and Gmtfl1 have shown no large changes in nearly 60 years of breeding, but the frequency of the recessive genotype Gmtfl1 has shown a rising trend in the last 20 years. This study provides a theoretical foundation for breeding new soybean varieties for different ecoregions.

  20. [Geographic distribution of birds in the Sierra Madre Oriental of San Luis Potosi, Mexico: a regional analysis of conservation status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahagún Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Navarro, Jaime Castro; Reyes Hernández, Humberto

    2013-06-01

    The Sierra Madre Oriental region in the mexican state of San Luis Potosi is a relevant place for bird conservation at a country level. Therefore the main goal of this study was to analyze the geographic patterns of distribution and the conservation current state of the birds, to support the needs to expand the conservation areas in the future. Data was collected from various databases of zoological museums and collections, and field sampling methods conducted from January 2009 to May 2011. Potential distributions were modeled for 284 species using GARP software and then a map was developed to determine areas with favorable environmental characteristics for the distribution of species richness. Finally, the importance of conservation areas for the potential distribution of birds in the region was evaluated. A total of 359 species were recorded of which 71.4% are permanent residents, 19% are winter migrants and 4% are summer residents. From this total, 41 species were endemic, 47 were species at risk and 149 were neotropical migrants. The largest species richness correspond to oak forests, cloud forests, and tropical moist forests located at altitudes from 100m to 1 500m. Their potential distribution was concentrated towards the center and Southeast of the study area. Only 10% of areas with a high potential conservation was included in areas of priority for bird conservation (AICA) and just 3% of all potential areas were under some governmental category of protection. However, no conservation area has a management plan currently applied and monitored. The information generated is important for the development of management proposals for birds conservation in the region.

  1. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) as a Simple Tool to Aid Modelling of Particulate Waste Distribution at Marine Fish Cage Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, O. M.; Telfer, T. C.; Beveridge, M. C. M.; Ross, L. G.

    2002-04-01

    Deposition of particulate organic waste from marine fish farm cages on to sea-bed sediments can cause major changes to the benthic ecosystem. Validated spatial models are considered as the most cost-effective tools for predicting environmental impacts. An improved version of an existing predictive particulate waste distribution model for farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) is presented, which uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) combined with a spreadsheet. The model presented uses existing distribution algorithms but also incorporates functions to calculate feed loading for all the cages within a pontoon independently, spreads the input load over the whole cage area and simulates post-depositional distribution of the carbon. The model uses approximate estimates of feed and faecal waste derived from dietary considerations (mass balance model) and separate, unique settling velocities for waste feed and faecal particles. The model incorporates values of current speed and direction recorded over spring and neap tides. Output from the model is in the form of a contour plot of organic carbon (g C m -2), showing distribution of the particulate organic carbon material as deposited on the sea-bed. During this study using hydrographic data collected from near a fish farm, the model predicted a smooth gradient of sediment carbon concentrations which decreased with distance from the cages. Model performance was validated using measured levels of sediment carbon, and showed a significant correlation between predicted and actual sediment loading (R=0·7; P <0·01). The differences between predicted and measured quantities of carbon found at some sampling stations are likely to be due to processes not included in the model, such as small differences in bathymetry, differences in bottom type which may have increased or decreased the carbon distribution through saltation, or natural variation in the sediment composition.

  2. Integrating evolution into geographical ecology: a phylogenetic perspective on palm distributions and community composition across scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Kissling, W. Daniel;

    Species distributions, assemblage composition, and species richness depend on both current environment and the diversification of lineages in past environments. On broad scales, processes that constrain diversifying lineages to certain regions or environments are particularly important. Through...... species pool effects, those processes also affect local community composition and richness. In addition, evolution directly affects local communities directly via niche-based assembly. We studied these effects with palms (Arecaceae) as a model group, using a) a dataset including >340,000 palm individuals...... in 430 transects in the Western Amazon, b) a set of range maps for all American palms (550 spp.), and c) global country-level presence/ absence data of all (>2400) palm species. These data were analysed with novel phylogenetic community structure and turnover methods. Globally, the phylogenetic structure...

  3. Assessing the status and trend of bat populations across broad geographic regions with dynamic distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ormsbee, Patricia C.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Vierling, Lee A.; Szewczak, Joseph M.; Vierling, Kerri T.

    2012-01-01

    Bats face unprecedented threats from habitat loss, climate change, disease, and wind power development, and populations of many species are in decline. A better ability to quantify bat population status and trend is urgently needed in order to develop effective conservation strategies. We used a Bayesian autoregressive approach to develop dynamic distribution models for Myotis lucifugus, the little brown bat, across a large portion of northwestern USA, using a four-year detection history matrix obtained from a regional monitoring program. This widespread and abundant species has experienced precipitous local population declines in northeastern USA resulting from the novel disease white-nose syndrome, and is facing likely range-wide declines. Our models were temporally dynamic and accounted for imperfect detection. Drawing on species–energy theory, we included measures of net primary productivity (NPP) and forest cover in models, predicting that M. lucifugus occurrence probabilities would covary positively along those gradients.

  4. The concept, structure and characteristics of the distributed virtual coal-mine geographical environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing; LIU Yan-long; TIAN Mao-yi; LU Xiu-shan; SHI Feng-hua

    2007-01-01

    Distributed virtual coal-mine geography environment(CM-DVGE) researches the virtual reality simulation of coal-mine environment in cyberspace and the performance of coal production process. The goal is to deal with the practical safety problems of observation, analysis, design and training during the underground coal production process.This paper first probed into the evolution of CM-DVGE from a historical point of view, then respectively analyzed the characteristics of its physical progressive levels according to the cognitivd law and its logical structure of data on the basis of data flow, and concluded by putting forward the prospect of the application of CM-DVGE, thus enriched and developed the method of synthetic study of coal mine.

  5. Predicting habitat suitability and geographic distribution of anchovy (Engraulis ringens) due to climate change in the coastal areas off Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudio; Andrade, Isabel; Yáñez, Eleuterio; Hormazabal, Samuel; Barbieri, María Ángela; Aranis, Antonio; Böhm, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    results of this work show that the model has produced robust estimates of habitat suitability and geographic distribution off Chile and has been especially effective in capturing the spatial and temporal variability of CPUE. Using IDRISI geographical information system (GIS), these HSI models simulated monthly changes in the habitat suitability (i.e., relative abundance) and distribution of anchovy off Chile forced by changes in the regionalised SST and Chl-a as projected by the NCAR model under the A2 emission scenario. The simulations predicted a moderate negative change of 17% and 13% for the north and central-south areas, respectively, in the habitat suitability (i.e., potential relative abundance) of anchovy by 2055.

  6. Is employee ownership so senseless ?

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, Nicolas; Bernard, Grand; Lapied, André; Rousseau, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Since Enron and the ruin of thousands of its employees, employee ownership is harshly criticized. Investing savings in employer's stock would be equivalent to bet on only one asset. Moreover, employee ownership's debated efficiency would not justify employers to grant company stock to their employees. Still, employee ownership is put in place by thousands of companies and withhold by millions of employees throughout the world. This paper considers a moral hazard setting where a risk neutral e...

  7. Tick parasites of rodents in Romania: host preferences, community structure and geographical distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalca Andrei D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are among the most important vectors of zoonotic diseases in temperate regions of Europe, with widespread distribution and high densities, posing an important medical risk. Most ticks feed on a variety of progressively larger hosts, with a large number of small mammal species typically harbouring primarily the immature stages. However, there are certain Ixodidae that characteristically attack micromammals also during their adult stage. Rodents are widespread hosts of ticks, important vectors and competent reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Micromammal-tick associations have been poorly studied in Romania, and our manuscript shows the results of a large scale study on tick infestation epidemiology in rodents from Romania. Methods Rodents were caught using snap-traps in a variety of habitats in Romania, between May 2010 and November 2011. Ticks were individually collected from these rodents and identified to species and development stage. Frequency, mean intensity, prevalence and its 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the EpiInfo 2000 software. A p value of Results We examined 423 rodents (12 species collected from six counties in Romania for the presence of ticks. Each collected tick was identified to species level and the following epidemiological parameters were calculated: prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance. The total number of ticks collected from rodents was 483, with eight species identified: Ixodes ricinus, I. redikorzevi, I. apronophorus, I. trianguliceps, I. laguri, Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis sulcata. The overall prevalence of tick infestation was 29.55%, with a mean intensity of 3.86 and a mean abundance of 1.14. Only two polyspecific infestations were found: I. ricinus + I. redikorzevi and I. ricinus + D. marginatus. Conclusions Our study showed a relatively high diversity of ticks parasitizing rodents in Romania. The most common tick in rodents

  8. Geographical distribution of Angiostrongylus vasorum in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, G; Ferrand, M; De Waal, T; Zintl, A; McGrath, G; Byrne, W; O'Neill, E J

    2016-04-01

    The reported incidence of the metastrongylid nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum, that infects dogs and other canids, is increasing worldwide outside recognized endemic foci. This apparent expansion of the parasite's range is causing concern to veterinary clinicians as the disease caused in dogs can be life threatening and its treatment is not straightforward. The red fox is thought to be a reservoir host for dogs. To investigate the spatial distribution of infection in foxes in Ireland, the hearts and lungs of 542 foxes from all over Ireland were examined. The incidence of infection was found to be 39·9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 35·7-44·1] with positive samples occurring in each of the country's 26 counties. This report confirms that the parasite is endemic in Ireland and the overall prevalence is the second highest in Europe. This is the first survey of A. vasorum infection in Irish foxes and highlights the potential exposure of the Irish dog population to high risk of cross-infection. Additionally, Crenosoma vulpis was found in seven of the foxes, a parasite not previously reported in the Irish fox.

  9. Geographic distribution and genetic diversity of the Ehrlichia sp. from Panola Mountain in Amblyomma americanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Phillip C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A novel Ehrlichia, closely related to Ehrlichia ruminantium, was recently discovered from Panola Mountain State Park, GA, USA. We conducted a study to determine if this agent was recently introduced into the United States. Methods We developed a sensitive PCR assay based on the conserved gltA (citrate synthase gene and tested DNA samples extracted from 1964 field-collected and 1835 human-biting Amblyomma americanum from 23 eastern states of the USA. Results The novel agent was detected in 36 ticks collected from 10 states between 1998 and 2006. Infected ticks were collected both from vegetation (n = 14, 0.7% and from humans (n = 22, 1.2%. Fragments of the conserved gltA gene and the variable map1 gene were sequenced from positive samples. Two distinct clades, with 10.5% nucleic acid divergence over the 730 bp map1 sequence, were identified. Conclusion These data suggest that the Panola Mountain Ehrlichia was not recently introduced to the United States; this agent has an extensive distribution throughout the range of its tick vector, has been present in some locations for several years, and displays genetic variability. Furthermore, people in several states were exposed to this agent through the bite of infected ticks, underscoring the potential public health risk of this emerging ehrlichiosis.

  10. Geographic distribution and host plants of Raoiella indica and associated mite species in northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region.

  11. Concentration level and geographical distribution of nitrobenzene in Chinese surface waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jijun; LIU Linghua; LIU Xiaoru; ZHOU Huaidong; WANG Zijian; HUANG Shengbiao

    2008-01-01

    Nitrobenzene was reported to occur at relatively high concentrations in some Chinese surface water and to cause an environmental pollution event in 2005. In order to map the distribution of nitrobenzene in the Chinese surface water throughout China, surface water samples were collected from over 600 sites in the 7 major watersheds and three drainage areas. The samples were analyzed for concentration of nitrobenzene. Overall, nitrobenzene was more frequently detected at higher concentrations in the rivers of North China, including Songhuajiang River, Liaohe River, Haihe River, Yellow River, Huaihe River and Northwest drainage area rivers, compared with those in the rivers of South China, including Yangtze river, Pearl river, Southeast drainage area rivers and Southwest drainage rivers. The detection rate of nitrobenzene was the 83.2 % for all the samples, with a mean value of 18.1 ng/L and a range of < 0.3-8,450.0 ng/L. The highest mean concentration of nitrobenzene was observed in the Yellow River, followed by Huaihe River . The results of this investigation indicated that nitrobenzene should be of particular concern in China and its ecological and health risk should be assessed.

  12. Four peroxidase Loci in red-fruited tomato species: genetics and geographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, C M; Zobel, R W; Fobes, J F

    1974-03-01

    The banding patterns of certain anodal peroxidase variants of red-fruited tomato species are governed by alleles at four loci-two alleles per locus. Alleles at three loci code for modified enzyme migration patterns and are codominant in heterozygotes; those at the fourth locus code for presence or absence of a band. No evidence of linkage was detected in preliminary tests between four of the six possible combinations of loci. All variant alleles-i.e., those not represented in the standard genotype of Lycopersicon esculentum-exist in the wild L. pimpinellifolium from coastal Peru; all but Prx-3(n) are also known in L. esculentum from the sympatric region but are rare or absent elsewhere. Between the distributions of alleles of Prx-1 and those of Ge, the gamete-eliminator locus, a significant association exists, which probably does not owe to genetic linkage. The tendency of alleles of Prx loci, as well as those of cm, Ge, h, and Od, to be shared between wild and cultivated taxa in the sympatric region but seldom elsewhere, in addition to published correlated evidence, suggests that the wild alleles tend to substitute in cultivated forms as a result of introgression. In respect to the number of common alleles, cultivated tomatoes more closely resemble the wild L. esculentum var. cerasiforme than L. pimpinellifolium.

  13. Hybrid control and data acquisition system for geographically distributed sensors for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garufi, Fabio; Acernese, Fausto; Boiano, Alfonso; De Rosa, Rosario; Romano, Rocco; Barone, Fabrizio

    2007-10-01

    In this paper we describe the architecture and the performances of a hybrid modular acquisition and control system prototype for environmental monitoring and geophysics. The system, an improvement of a VME-UDP/IP based system we developed for interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, is based on a dual-channel 18-bit low noise ADC, a 16-bit DAC module at 1MHz, and a 20-bit slower ADC necessary for the acquisition of an external calibration signal. The module can be configured as stand-alone or mounted on a motherboard as mezzanine in parallel with other modules. Both the modules and the motherboard can send/receive the configuration and the acquired/correction data for control through a standard EPP parallel port to a standard PC, where the real-time computation is performed. Experimental tests have demonstrated that the distributed control systems implemented with this architecture exihibit a delay time of less than 25 μs on a single channel, that is a sustained sampling frequency of more than 40kHz. The system is now under extensive test in two different experiments: the remote control and data acquisition of a set of seismometers, velocimeters and accelerometers to simulate a geophysics networks of sensors and the remote control of the end mirrors of a suspended Michelson interferometer through electrostatic actuators for interferometric detectors of gravitational waves.

  14. Geographic Distribution of Natural Products Produced by the Red Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Fernanda L S; Duarte, Heitor M; Gestinari, Lísia M S; Cassano, Valéria; Kaiser, Carlos R; Soares, Angélica R

    2016-07-01

    In order to evaluate the chemical diversity of Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh, a widely distributed seaweed in Brazilian coast, a phytochemical study was carried out with algae collected from six different locations along the Southeast Brazilian coast. Purified compounds were identified by MS and NMR techniques. The chemical profiles of lipophilic extracts were obtained by GC/MS for each population. In total, 15 compounds were described. The sesquiterpene composition accounted for 49 - 63% of the GC/MS chromatogram area. The discrimination of three chemotypes was done by the use of HCA on GC/MS chromatograms. They were also analyzed by the PCA and, together with peak area analysis, it was possible to discriminate all populations by the main variation of elatol, obtusol, rogiolol, and triquinane. The results revealed the high diversity of sesquiterpene composition among populations of L. dendroidea. Curiously, the within and among population variation of elatol and obtusol suggested a biochemical interplay on the content of these compounds. More studies are necessary to understand the patterns of chemical diversity and compound variation within and among populations of L. dendroidea. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  15. Chagas disease in Mexico: an analysis of geographical distribution during the past 76 years - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cruz-Reyes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Literature from 1928 through 2004 was compiled from different document sources published in Mexico or elsewhere. From these 907 publications, we found 19 different topics of Chagas disease study in Mexico. The publications were arranged by decade and also by state. This information was used to construct maps describing the distribution of Chagas disease according to different criteria: the disease, vectors, reservoirs, and strains. One of the major problems confronting study of this zoonotic disease is the great biodiversity of the vector species; there are 30 different species, with at least 10 playing a major role in human infection. The high variability of climates and biogeographic regions further complicate study and understanding of the dynamics of this disease in each region of the country. We used a desktop Genetic Algorithm for Rule-Set Prediction procedure to provide ecological models of organism niches, offering improved flexibility for choosing predictive environmental and ecological data. This approach may help to identify regions at risk of disease, plan vector-control programs, and explore parasitic reservoir association. With this collected information, we have constructed a data base: CHAGMEX, available online in html format.

  16. The Western Amazonian Boundary for Avifauna Determined by Species Distribution Patterns and Geographical and Ecological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Nores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In northern South America, an extensive tropical lowland runs 5,000 km from the Atlantic coast to the foot of the Andes. The slope is gentle until about 500 m where the eastern Andes rise abruptly. The lowland supports Amazonia, which is the most extensive tract of tropical rainforest on the planet. Most of its boundaries are well defined, but the boundary between Amazonia and the forest of the eastern slopes of the Andes has not been clearly defined. To determine for avifauna whether Amazonia is restricted to the lowland of northern South America or whether it also extends up into the eastern slopes of the Andes, different types of data were used. The results indicate that Amazonia may be restricted to the lowland that extends from the Atlantic coast to the foot of the Andes, up to about 500 m. Consequently, the number of bird species strictly endemic to Amazonia would be 290. Comparison with the distribution of vegetation on the eastern slopes of the Andes also suggests that Amazonia as a biome may be restricted to the lowland that extends from the Atlantic coast to the foot of the Andes, up to about 500 m.

  17. Geographical distribution, accumulation kinetics and infants health risk of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, A.; Kunisue, T.; Iwata, H. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Tanabe, S. [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2004-09-15

    Worldwide production and use of organochlorine compounds (OCs) have led to their widespread occurrence in the environment and bioaccumulation in various organisms, including humans. In Indonesia, large usage and production of OCs in the past, particularly OCs pesticides for agricultural and vector-borne disease eradication programs may implicate contaminations of OCs in the environment. Previous studies dealing with mussels as bioindicator reported widespread occurrence of OCs in the coastal environment of this country, and found hot spots of contamination in the waters surroundings Java Island. Occurrence of OCs were also reported in various environmental compartments including fish, sediment and air. However, data on levels of OCs in humans are very scarce. Hence this study has highlighted the accumulation of OCs in human milk from Indonesia, particularly in Java Island where industrial and intensive agriculture are taking place. In this study, concentrations of classical OCs, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and the most recently identified microcontaminants, tris (4-chlorophenyl) methanol (TCPMOH) and tris (4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) were determined in human breast milk collected from several locations in Indonesia to elucidate their distribution in relation to their site activities, to assess their possible association with maternal characteristics and to evaluate the possible potential risk of OCs in breast-milk on infant's health.

  18. 白花油麻藤的地理分布及适生区预测%Research on geographic distribution and potential distribution of Mucuna birdwoodiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓝月; 叶向斌; 刘念; 赵华

    2012-01-01

    白花油麻藤是豆科黧豆属大型木质藤本植物.运用Diva-Gis软件,结合海拔高度图层和植被图层绘制了白花油麻藤的地理分布图,分析了白花油麻藤的分布规律和生境特性;以Maxent模型作为物种适生性预测模型,温度和降水作为预测的环境因子,预测了白花油麻藤在中国的适生区.结果表明:白花油麻藤在中国27.5°N以南中低海拔10~1 200 m有分布,如山坡、路旁、沟谷、溪边及林下灌丛;喜温暖湿润气候,广东为白花油麻藤分布最为密集的地区.白花油麻藤的分布与植被类型和海拔有着密切的关系,分布区的植被类型为亚热带常绿阔叶林和热带季雨林,随着植被分布密度的降低和海拔的升高白花油麻藤的分布范围和分布密度呈逐渐缩小的趋势.白花油麻藤在中国的潜在分布区为粤、桂、闽、港、澳、滇、琼、赣、川、黔、藏、湘、浙等省区及交界处,其种质资源的保存及其利用应考虑其潜在分布区.%Mucuna birdvuoodiana in the genus mucuna,is large woody vine. In this paper,the geographic distribution maps of M. birdvuoodiana were drawn,and its distribution regularities and habitat characteristics were also analyzed by virtue of Diva-Gis software on altitude layer and vegetation layer. The natural potential distribution regions of M. birdvuoodiana in China were estimated based on the Maxent model as prediction model, temperature and precipitation as environment variables. The results showed that Mucuna birdwoodiana was distributed from low to medium altitude of south China below 27. 5°N,such as mountain-slope,wayside,cleugh,stream and underbrush. M. birdwoodi-ana,preferring to warmth humid climate, was enriched in Guangdong Province. The geographical distribution of M. birdwoodiana was closely related to vegetation type and altitude. The vegetation types of distribution region were mainly subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest and tropical

  19. Shifting fungal endophyte communities colonize Bouteloua gracilis: effect of host tissue and geographical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, José; Khidir, Hana H; Eudy, Douglas M; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Natvig, Donald O; Sinsabaugh, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Communities of root-associated fungi (RAF) commonly have been studied under the auspices of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) or ectomycorrhizal fungi. However many studies now indicate that other groups of endophytic RAF, including dark septate endophytes (DSE) are more abundant in some plants and environments. The common forage grass, Bouteloua gracilis, was used as a model to examine whether RAF also colonize different organs within the same plant and to compare RAF communities from sites across North America, spanning the latitudinal range of B. gracilis (from Canada to Mexico). We compared the RAF communities of organs within individual plants at one site and within plant roots among six sites. With the possible exception of one group related to genus Paraphaeosphaeria there was little evidence that RAF colonized vertically beyond the crowns. Furthermore, although there was some variation in the constitution of rare members of the RAF communities, several taxonomically related groups dominated the RAF community at all sites. These dominant taxa included members in the Pleosporales (related to the DSE, Paraphaeosphaeria spp.), Agaricales (related to Moniliophthora spp., or Campanella spp.) and Hypocreales (related to Fusarium spp.). AMF were notable by their near absence. Similar phylotypes from the dominant groups clustered around adjacent sites so that similarity of the RAF communities was negatively correlated to site inter-distance and the RAF communities appeared to group by country. These results increase the possibility that at least some of these common and widely distributed core members of the RAF community form important, intimate and long lasting relationships with grasses.

  20. Geographical and genospecies distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA detected in humans in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kerry L; Leydet, Brian F; Threlkeld, Clifford

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated the cause of illness in human patients primarily in the southern USA with suspected Lyme disease based on erythema migrans-like skin lesions and/or symptoms consistent with early localized or late disseminated Lyme borreliosis. The study also included some patients from other states throughout the USA. Several PCR assays specific for either members of the genus Borrelia or only for Lyme group Borrelia spp. (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato), and DNA sequence analysis, were used to identify Borrelia spp. DNA in blood and skin biopsy samples from human patients. B. burgdorferi sensu lato DNA was found in both blood and skin biopsy samples from patients residing in the southern states and elsewhere in the USA, but no evidence of DNA from other Borrelia spp. was detected. Based on phylogenetic analysis of partial flagellin (flaB) gene sequences, strains that clustered separately with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia americana or Borrelia andersonii were associated with Lyme disease-like signs and symptoms in patients from the southern states, as well as from some other areas of the country. Strains most similar to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. americana were found most commonly and appeared to be widely distributed among patients residing throughout the USA. The study findings suggest that human cases of Lyme disease in the southern USA may be more common than previously recognized and may also be caused by more than one species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. This study provides further evidence that B. burgdorferi sensu stricto is not the only species associated with signs and/or symptoms consistent with Lyme borreliosis in the USA.

  1. Geographic distribution of the mid-continent population of sandhill cranes and related management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, Gary L.; Brandt, David A.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2011-01-01

    The Mid-continent Population (MCP) of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) is widely hunted in North America and is separated into the Gulf Coast Subpopulation and Western Subpopulation for management purposes. Effective harvest management of the MCP requires detailed knowledge of breeding distribution of subspecies and subpopulations, chronology of their use of fall staging areas and wintering grounds, and exposure to and harvest from hunting. To address these information needs, we tagged 153 sandhill cranes with Platform Transmitting Terminals (PTTs) during 22 February–12 April 1998–2003 in the Central and North Platte River valleys of south-central Nebraska. We monitored PTT-tagged sandhill cranes, hereafter tagged cranes, from their arrival to departure from breeding grounds, during their fall migration, and throughout winter using the Argos satellite tracking system. The tracking effort yielded 74,041 useable locations over 49,350 tag days; median duration of tracking of individual cranes was 352 days and 73 cranes were tracked >12 months. Genetic sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from blood samples taken from each of our random sample of tagged cranes indicated 64% were G. c. canadensis and 34% were Grus canadensis tabida. Tagged cranes during the breeding season settled in northern temperate, subarctic, and arctic North America (U.S. [23%, n = 35], Canada [57%, n = 87]) and arctic regions of northeast Asia (Russia [20%, n = 31]). Distribution of tagged cranes by breeding affiliation was as follows: Western Alaska–Siberia (WA–S, 42 ± 4% [SE]), northern Canada–Nunavut (NC–N, 21 ± 4%), west-central Canada–Alaska (WC–A, 23 ± 4%) and East-central Canada–Minnesota (EC–M, 14 ± 3%). All tagged cranes returned to the same breeding affiliation used during the previous year with a median distance of 1.60 km (range: 0.08–7.7 km, n = 53) separating sites used in year 1 and year 2. Fall staging occurred

  2. Predicting the geographic distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) and visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Silva de Almeida; Alan Sciamarelli; Paulo Mira Batista; Ademar Dimas Ferreira; Joao Nascimento; Josue Raizer.; Jose Dilermando Andrade Filho; Rodrigo Gurgel-Goncalves

    2013-01-01

    To understand the geographic distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil, both the climatic niches of Lutzomyia longipalpis and VL cases were analysed. Distributional data were obtained from 55 of the 79 counties of MS between 2003-2012. Ecological niche models (ENM) of Lu. longipalpis and VL cases were produced using the maximum entropy algorithm based on eight climatic variables. Lu. longipalpis showed a wide distribution in MS. The highest cl...

  3. Employee Ownership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: High Performance Ownership Systems and the Mediating Role of Psychological Ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poutsma, F.; Eert, C. van; Ligthart, P.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the effect of employee share ownership, mediated through psychological ownership, on organizational citizenship behavior. The analysis included the possible complementary role of High Performance Ownership systems. This paper investigated these relationships by analyzing empl

  4. Employee Ownership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: High Performance Ownership Systems and the Mediating Role of Psychological Ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poutsma, F.; Eert, C. van; Ligthart, P.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the effect of employee share ownership, mediated through psychological ownership, on organizational citizenship behavior. The analysis included the possible complementary role of High Performance Ownership systems. This paper investigated these relationships by analyzing

  5. The Geographic Distribution of Boulder Halo Craters at Mid-to-High Latitudes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, L. X.; Fassett, C. I.; Levy, J. S.; King, I. R.; Chaffey, P. M.; Wagoner, C. M.; Hanlon, A. E.; Watters, J. L.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Holt, J. W.; Dyar, M. D.

    2017-01-01

    -producing materials from beneath the upper surface. Thus, the distribution and size of craters that result in boulders halos may provide in-sight into the thickness of the ice-rich surface layer in different locations. Note that this thickness is necessarily that of the ice-rich layer at the time of impact, not at present. This study is an initial survey of boulder halo crater locations in the 50deg to 80degN and 50deg to 80degS latitude bands on Mars.

  6. Updating the geographical distribution and frequency of Aedes albopictus in Brazil with remarks regarding its range in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Gomes Carvalho/

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution of Aedes albopictus in Brazil was updated according to the data recorded across the country over the last eight years. Countrywide house indexes (HI for Ae. albopictus in urban and suburban areas were described for the first time using a sample of Brazilian municipalities. This mosquito is currently present in at least 59% of the Brazilian municipalities and in 24 of the 27 federal units (i.e., 26 states and the Federal District. In 34 Brazilian municipalities, the HI values for Ae. albopictus were higher than those recorded for Ae. aegypti, reaching figures as high as HI = 7.72 in the Southeast Region. Remarks regarding the current range of this mosquito species in the Americas are also presented. Nineteen American countries are currently infested and few mainland American countries have not confirmed the occurrence of Ae. albopictus. The large distribution and high frequency of Ae. albopictus in the Americas may become a critical factor in the spread of arboviruses like chikungunya in the new world.

  7. Climate change effects on the geographic distribution of specialist tree species of the Brazilian tropical dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, P M S; Silva, J O; Eisenlohr, P V; Schaefer, C E G R

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ecological niche models (ENMs) for three specialist trees (Anadenanthera colubrina, Aspidosperma pyrifolium and Myracrodruon urundeuva) in seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) in Brazil, considering present and future pessimist scenarios (2080) of climate change. These three species exhibit typical deciduousness and are widely distributed by SDTF in South America, being important in studies of the historical and evolutionary processes experienced by this ecosystem. The modeling of the potential geographic distribution of species was done by the method of maximum entropy (Maxent).We verified a general expansion of suitable areas for occurrence of the three species in future (c.a., 18%), although there was reduction of areas with high environmental suitability in Caatinga region. Precipitation of wettest quarter and temperature seasonality were the predictor variables that most contributed to our models. Climatic changes can provide more severe and longer dry season with increasing temperature and tree mortality in tropics. On this scenario, areas currently occupied by rainforest and savannas could become more suitable for occurrence of the SDTF specialist trees, whereas regions occupied by Caatinga could not support the future level of unsustainable (e.g., aridity). Long-term multidisciplinary studies are necessary to make reliable predictions of the plant's adaptation strategies and responses to climate changes in dry forest at community level. Based on the high deforestation rate, endemism and threat, public policies to minimize the effects of climate change on the biodiversity found within SDTFs must be undertaken rapidly.

  8. Contribution to the study of the geographical distribution of Pyrenean funerary stone circles (baratze, cromlech in the western Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel EDESO FITO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ‘Baratze’ or Pyrenean funerary stone circles, also known as Pyrenean cromlech, are funerary cremation monuments constructed between the Late Bronze Age and the beginning of the Roman period. These monuments consist of small circles, which consist of isolated standing stone blocks that enclose a central funerary deposit. The densest geographical distribution of Pyrenean funerary stone circles is located east of the Leizaran river and the lower basin of the Oria river up to approximately Andorra. Pyrenean cromlechs are located across mountain chains and occasionally share space with other funerary monuments constructed between the Middle Neolithic period and the Bronze Age –dolmens and cists–, whereas in other locations, cromlechs appear to be established in previously unoccupied mountain zones in an approximately continuous fashion by groups of farmers. The discovery of some Pyrenean circles in Ondarre and Beaskin (Sierra de Aralar, away from the nuclear zone and in a space continuously exploited since the Neolithic period, as indicated by the presence of other funerary monuments –dolmens and cists–, generates new questions regarding their distribution and the reasons for distinct densities of these rituals in some areas of the nuclear zone. Therefore, we propose different explanatory hypotheses, adapted to the distinct circumstances, as lithology, history, etc.

  9. Species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants, in Qazvin Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemshad, Khadijeh; Rafinejad, Javad; Kamali, Karim; Piazak, Norayer; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mahdi; Shemshad, Masoomeh; Biglarian, Akbar; Nourolahi, Fathollah; Valad Beigi, Enshallah; Enayati, Ahmad Ali

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first faunistic study of hard ticks in Qazvin province of Iran. The primary objective was to determine the species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks that parasitize domestic ruminants. Information about the abiotic preferences of these species has been provided. A total of 286 cattle, 1,053 goats, and 2,050 sheep were examined in 13 villages in 28 flocks distributed throughout the studied areas. Total direct body collections of ticks were made from each domestic ruminant. A total of 228 Ixodid specimens belonging to nine species in three different genera were recorded in the areas, including Boophilus annulatus (Say, 1821), Hyalomma anatolicum Koch, 1844, Hyalomma asiaticum (Schulze and Schlettke, 1929), Hyalomma detritum Schulze, 1919, Hyalomma dromedarii Koch, 1844, Hyalomma marginatum Koch 1844, Hyalomma schulzei Olenev, 1931, Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanz, 1878 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806). The most abundant species on sheep was R. sanguineus (46.92%), while B. annulatus (6.6%) found only on cattle. A finding of great significance was that R. sanguineus, the main vector of babesiosis, is firmly established throughout the counties. A further objective of the study was to compare the abundance of the major tick species on domestic ruminants. This was carried out at 19 sampling sites. The highest number of ticks was collected in July-August during the hot season.

  10. Geographical distribution of the annual mean radon concentrations in primary schools of Southern Serbia - application of geostatistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossew, P; Žunić, Z S; Stojanovska, Z; Tollefsen, T; Carpentieri, C; Veselinović, N; Komatina, S; Vaupotič, J; Simović, R D; Antignani, S; Bochicchio, F

    2014-01-01

    Between 2008 and 2011 a survey of radon ((222)Rn) was performed in schools of several districts of Southern Serbia. Some results have been published previously (Žunić et al., 2010; Carpentieri et al., 2011; Žunić et al., 2013). This article concentrates on the geographical distribution of the measured Rn concentrations. Applying geostatistical methods we generate "school radon maps" of expected concentrations and of estimated probabilities that a concentration threshold is exceeded. The resulting maps show a clearly structured spatial pattern which appears related to the geological background. In particular in areas with vulcanite and granitoid rocks, elevated radon (Rn) concentrations can be expected. The "school radon map" can therefore be considered as proxy to a map of the geogenic radon potential, and allows identification of radon-prone areas, i.e. areas in which higher Rn radon concentrations can be expected for natural reasons. It must be stressed that the "radon hazard", or potential risk, estimated this way, has to be distinguished from the actual radon risk, which is a function of exposure. This in turn may require (depending on the target variable which is supposed to measure risk) considering demographic and sociological reality, i.e. population density, distribution of building styles and living habits.

  11. Geographical Distribution Patterns of Iodine in Drinking-Water and Its Associations with Geological Factors in Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Zhijie; Hu, Yi; Bian, Jianchao; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Liqian; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-01

    County-based spatial distribution characteristics and the related geological factors for iodine in drinking-water were studied in Shandong Province (China). Spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial scan statistic were applied to analyze the spatial characteristics. Generalized linear models (GLMs) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) studies were conducted to explore the relationship between water iodine level and its related geological factors. The spatial distribution of iodine in drinking-water was significantly heterogeneous in Shandong Province (Moran’s I = 0.52, Z = 7.4, p water were identified in the south-western and north-western parts of Shandong Province by the purely spatial scan statistic approach. Both GLMs and GWR indicated a significantly global association between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. Furthermore, GWR showed obviously spatial variability across the study region. Soil type and distance to Yellow River were statistically significant at most areas of Shandong Province, confirming the hypothesis that the Yellow River causes iodine deposits in Shandong Province. Our results suggested that the more effective regional monitoring plan and water improvement strategies should be strengthened targeting at the cluster areas based on the characteristics of geological factors and the spatial variability of local relationships between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. PMID:24852390

  12. Geographic distribution and mortality risk factors during the cholera outbreak in a rural region of Haiti, 2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Page

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 and 2011, Haiti was heavily affected by a large cholera outbreak that spread throughout the country. Although national health structure-based cholera surveillance was rapidly initiated, a substantial number of community cases might have been missed, particularly in remote areas. We conducted a community-based survey in a large rural, mountainous area across four districts of the Nord department including areas with good versus poor accessibility by road, and rapid versus delayed response to the outbreak to document the true cholera burden and assess geographic distribution and risk factors for cholera mortality.A two-stage, household-based cluster survey was conducted in 138 clusters of 23 households in four districts of the Nord Department from April 22nd to May 13th 2011. A total of 3,187 households and 16,900 individuals were included in the survey, of whom 2,034 (12.0% reported at least one episode of watery diarrhea since the beginning of the outbreak. The two more remote districts, Borgne and Pilate were most affected with attack rates up to 16.2%, and case fatality rates up to 15.2% as compared to the two more accessible districts. Care seeking was also less frequent in the more remote areas with as low as 61.6% of reported patients seeking care. Living in remote areas was found as a risk factor for mortality together with older age, greater severity of illness and not seeking care.These results highlight important geographical disparities and demonstrate that the epidemic caused the highest burden both in terms of cases and deaths in the most remote areas, where up to 5% of the population may have died during the first months of the epidemic. Adapted strategies are needed to rapidly provide treatment as well as prevention measures in remote communities.

  13. Geographic distribution and mortality risk factors during the cholera outbreak in a rural region of Haiti, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Anne-Laure; Ciglenecki, Iza; Jasmin, Ernest Robert; Desvignes, Laurence; Grandesso, Francesco; Polonsky, Jonathan; Nicholas, Sarala; Alberti, Kathryn P; Porten, Klaudia; Luquero, Francisco J

    2015-03-01

    In 2010 and 2011, Haiti was heavily affected by a large cholera outbreak that spread throughout the country. Although national health structure-based cholera surveillance was rapidly initiated, a substantial number of community cases might have been missed, particularly in remote areas. We conducted a community-based survey in a large rural, mountainous area across four districts of the Nord department including areas with good versus poor accessibility by road, and rapid versus delayed response to the outbreak to document the true cholera burden and assess geographic distribution and risk factors for cholera mortality. A two-stage, household-based cluster survey was conducted in 138 clusters of 23 households in four districts of the Nord Department from April 22nd to May 13th 2011. A total of 3,187 households and 16,900 individuals were included in the survey, of whom 2,034 (12.0%) reported at least one episode of watery diarrhea since the beginning of the outbreak. The two more remote districts, Borgne and Pilate were most affected with attack rates up to 16.2%, and case fatality rates up to 15.2% as compared to the two more accessible districts. Care seeking was also less frequent in the more remote areas with as low as 61.6% of reported patients seeking care. Living in remote areas was found as a risk factor for mortality together with older age, greater severity of illness and not seeking care. These results highlight important geographical disparities and demonstrate that the epidemic caused the highest burden both in terms of cases and deaths in the most remote areas, where up to 5% of the population may have died during the first months of the epidemic. Adapted strategies are needed to rapidly provide treatment as well as prevention measures in remote communities.

  14. Contrasting patterns of clonality and fine-scale genetic structure in two rare sedges with differing geographic distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, R M; Millar, M A; Byrne, M

    2015-09-01

    For plants with mixed reproductive capabilities, asexual reproduction is more frequent in rare species and is considered a strategy for persistence when sexual recruitment is limited. We investigate whether asexual reproduction contributes to the persistence of two co-occurring, rare sedges that both experience irregular seed set and if their differing geographic distributions have a role in the relative contribution of clonality. Genotypic richness was high (R=0.889±0.02) across the clustered populations of Lepidosperma sp. Mt Caudan and, where detected, clonal patches were small, both in ramet numbers (⩽3 ramets/genet) and physical size (1.3±0.1 m). In contrast, genotypic richness was lower in the isolated L. sp. Parker Range populations, albeit more variable (R=0.437±0.13), with genets as large as 17 ramets and up to 5.8 m in size. Aggregated clonal growth generated significant fine-scale genetic structure in both species but to a greater spatial extent and with additional genet-level structure in L. sp. Parker Range that is likely due to restricted seed dispersal. Despite both species being rare, asexual reproduction clearly has a more important role in the persistence of L. sp. Parker Range than L. sp. Mt Caudan. This is consistent with our prediction that limitations to sexual reproduction, via geographic isolation to effective gene exchange, can lead to greater contributions of asexual reproduction. These results demonstrate the role of population isolation in affecting the balance of alternate reproductive modes and the contextual nature of asexual reproduction in rare species.

  15. Haplotypes, sub-haplotypes and geographical distribution in Omani patients with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suha Mustafa Hassan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that patients homozygous for the sickle cell disease (SCD mutation have an identical genotype, the severity of the disease can be extremely variable. The hemoglobin (Hb S mutation has been described on five different haplotypes with different clinical expression. Identifying the genotypes, haplotypes and sub-haplotypes of the β gene cluster in Oman needs to be studied in more details to establish a correlation between the genotype/haplotype and phenotype diversity observed in SCD patients for prognostic purposes, accurate diagnosis and thus planning for the best tailored treatment. We have investigated 125 HbS homozygotes from different parts of Oman and determined their haplotypes and sub-haplotypes and correlated this to the hematological and clinical expression. We have found 11 haplotype combinations differently distributed in the country, with the Asian/Asian HbS haplotype being the most predominant. Sub-haplotypes was only found among patients with CAR/OmanI haplotype. As expected, the correlation between haplotypes, sub-haplotypes and disease severity was mainly associated with HbF expression. Our study on haplotype/phenotype correlation has shown which major haplotypes occur in the different regions of Oman. Furthermore, neither the haplotype or sub-haplotype nor the HbF alone appeared to be fully associable with the variable clinical phenotypes. External factors do occur and are associated with the expression of the disease.  尽管镰状细胞突变病(SCD)患者拥有相同的基因类型,但患者的病患程度却大相径庭。血红蛋白(Hb)S突变有五种不同的单体型,各种类型在临床表现上也不相同。为了识别在阿曼地区β基因簇的基因型、单体型,亚单体型,需要研究更多以SCD患者预后为目的,关于其观察到的基因型、单体型,表型多样性之间联系的更多细节,以便作出准确的诊断,为各

  16. Description of the male of Eburella pinima Martins and notes on the geographical distribution of Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins and Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Botero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the male of Eburella pinima Martins and notes on the geographical distribution of Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins and Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. The male of Eburella pinima Martins, 1997 is described and illustrated for the first time. Information on Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins, 2006, previously known only from the female holotype, which lacked locality label, is herein complemented. This species is recorded from Brazil and the male is depicted for the first time. The geographical distribution of Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw, 1958 is further restricted here as some previous records are confirmed to result from misidentifications of E. aenigma.

  17. Modeling the geographic distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Micah; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Eisen, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to serving as vectors of several other human pathogens, the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, and western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls, are the primary vectors of the spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi ) that causes Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. Over the past two decades, the geographic range of I. pacificus has changed modestly while, in contrast, the I. scapularis range has expanded substantially, which likely contributes to the concurrent expansion in the distribution of human Lyme disease cases in the Northeastern, North-Central and Mid-Atlantic states. Identifying counties that contain suitable habitat for these ticks that have not yet reported established vector populations can aid in targeting limited vector surveillance resources to areas where tick invasion and potential human risk are likely to occur. We used county-level vector distribution information and ensemble modeling to map the potential distribution of I. scapularis and I. pacificus in the contiguous United States as a function of climate, elevation, and forest cover. Results show that I. pacificus is currently present within much of the range classified by our model as suitable for establishment. In contrast, environmental conditions are suitable for I. scapularis to continue expanding its range into northwestern Minnesota, central and northern Michigan, within the Ohio River Valley, and inland from the southeastern and Gulf coasts. Overall, our ensemble models show suitable habitat for I. scapularis in 441 eastern counties and for I. pacificus in 11 western counties where surveillance records have not yet supported classification of the counties as established.

  18. Different geographical distributions of two chemotypes of Barbarea vulgaris that differ in resistance to insects and a pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Stina; Heimes, Christine; Agerbirk, Niels; Kuzina, Vera; Olsen, Carl Erik; Hauser, Thure Pavlo

    2014-05-01

    The interactions of plants with herbivores and pathogens have been suggested to drive the evolution of resistances in plants and in some cases new lineages and taxa. However, such divergence may require reproductive isolation, e.g., in allopatry. In the crucifer Barbarea vulgaris, some plants are resistant to the flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum, due to production of specific saponins, whereas others are susceptible. Resistant and susceptible plants additionally differ in resistance to the pathogen Albugo candida, content of glucosinolates, and leaf pubescence, and they are genetically strongly divergent and partially reproductively incompatible. This suggests that at some point they were separated for a considerable length of time. Previously, the insect susceptible P-type had been described only from Denmark, Sweden, and Estonia, whereas the resistant G-type is widely distributed in Western Europe. Here, we tested whether the two plant types have divergent geographical distributions and maintain their distinct trait associations throughout their range. The insect-susceptible type was found in Russia, the Baltics, and parts of Fennoscandia, but not in Central Europe. In contrast, the insect resistant type was found from Finland and westwards. Their different trait associations were consistent within the two ranges. We therefore suggest that the two plant types diverged in allopatry at some time in the past, and evolved different resistances in response to local antagonists. The two plant types probably maintain their distinctness due to a hybridization barrier. Thus, the present distributions of the two types may be shaped by both historical processes and current differential biotic selection.

  19. Cleft lip-cleft palate in Zimbabwe: estimating the distribution of the surgical burden of disease using geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, Travis T; Shaye, David; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Mehdezadeh, Omid; Mahomva, Leonard; Chidzonga, Midion

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and unmet need for cleft lip-cleft palate reconstructive surgery by using incidence. Our hypotheses were that the age of presentation to screening clinics will decrease between 2006 and 2012, and the geospatial distribution of cases will expand to a more rural catchment area. Longitudinal cross-sectional/geospatial distribution study. An online, secure database was created from intake forms for children with cleft lip-cleft palate (N=604) in Zimbabwe (2006-2012). Univariate analysis was completed. A linear regression model was fitted to test the time trend of a child's age at the time of presentation. Unique patient addresses (n=411) were matched. Maps presenting cleft diagnosis and presentation year were created with geographic information systems (GIS) software. The median age of presentation was greater for isolated cleft palate (4.2 years, n=106) than isolated cleft lip (1.5 years, n=251) and cleft lip-cleft palate (2.0 years, n=175). Cleft lip cases were mostly left sided with equal gender distribution. The overall age of presentation remained stable (P=.83). The age of children with isolated cleft palate decreased by 0.8 years per surgical trip (P=.01), suggesting the prevalence of unrepaired cleft palate is decreasing due to local and visiting surgeons. The catchment area extended to a less populous area, but clustered around Harare and Bulawayo. This study gives Zimbabwe-specific evidence that supports reports of the persistent burden of disease requiring attention. The GIS software provided data for the primary needs assessment, which will direct communication to healthcare providers and prospective patients outside of the current catchment area. 3 © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. GIS-based characterization of the geographic distributions of wild and cultivated populations of the Mesoamerican fruit tree Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Allison J; Knouft, Jason H

    2006-12-01

    Humans are having a profound impact on the geographic distributions of plant populations. In crop species, domestication has been accompanied by the geographic expansion of cultivated populations relative to their wild ancestors. We used a geographical information system (GIS)-based approach to investigate differences in the environmental factors characterizing the geographic distributions of cultivated and wild populations of the Mesoamerican fruit tree Spondias purpurea. Locality data for 86 cultivated and 28 wild S. purpurea populations were used in conjunction with environmental data layers and Maxent, a maximum entropy application for predicting species distributions. Interpredictivity analyses and principal components analysis revealed that the predicted distribution of wild S. purpurea is nested within the cultivated distribution and that the ecological niche (defined by environmental characteristics) of cultivated S. purpurea has expanded relative to that of wild populations. Significant differences between wild and cultivated populations were detected for five environmental variables, corresponding to the expansion of S. purpurea during the domestication process from its native habitat in the Mesoamerican tropical dry forests into less seasonal habitats. These data suggest that humans have altered the range of habitats occupied by cultivated S. purpurea populations relative to their wild progenitors.

  1. Geographic and taxonomic distribution of a positive interaction: ant-tended homopterans indirectly benefit figs across southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, J Hall; Compton, Stephen G; Zachariades, Costas; Ware, Anthony B; Nefdt, Rory J C; Rashbrook, Vanessa K

    1998-09-01

    Although species pairs and assemblages often occur across geographic regions, ecologists know very little about the outcome of their interactions on such large spatial scales. Here, we assess the geographic distribution and taxonomic diversity of a positive interaction involving ant-tended homopterans and fig trees in the genus Ficus. Previous experimental studies at a few locations in South Africa indicated that Ficus sur indirectly benefited from the presence of a homopteran (Hilda patruelis) because it attracted ants (primarily Pheidole megacephala) that reduced the effects of both pre-dispersal ovule gallers and parasitoids of pollinating wasps. Based on this work, we evaluated three conditions that must be met in order to support the hypothesis that this indirect interaction involves many fig species and occurs throughout much of southern Africa and Madagascar. Data on 429 trees distributed among five countries indicated that 20 of 38 Ficus species, and 46% of all trees sampled, had ants on their figs. Members of the Sycomorus subgenus were significantly more likely to attract ants than those in the Urostigma subgenus, and ant-colonization levels on these species were significantly greater than for Urostigma species. On average, each ant-occupied F.sur tree had 37% of its fig crop colonized by ants, whereas the value was 24% for other Ficus species. H. patruelis was the most common source for attracting ants, although figs were also attacked by a range of other ant-tended homopterans. P. megacephala was significantly more common on figs than other ant species, being present on 58% of sampled trees. Ant densities commonly exceeded 4.5 per fig, which a field experiment indicated was sufficient to provide protection from ovule gallers and parasitoids of pollinators. Forty-nine percent of all colonized F. sur trees sampled had ant densities equal to or greater than 4.5 per fig, whereas this value was 23% for other Ficus species. We conclude that there is

  2. Modelling the potential geographic distribution of triatomines infected by Triatoma virus in the southern cone of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Soledad; Balsalobre, Agustín; Susevich, María Laura; Echeverria, María Gabriela; Gorla, David Eladio; Marti, Gerardo Aníbal

    2015-03-12

    Triatoma virus (TrV) is the only entomopathogenous virus identified in triatomines. We estimated the potential geographic distribution of triatomine species naturally infected by TrV, using remotely sensed and meteorological environmental variables, to predict new potential areas where triatomines infected with TrV may be found. Detection of TrV infection in samples was performed with RT-PCR. Ecological niche models (ENM) were constructed using the MaxEnt software. We used 42 environmental variables derived from remotely sensed imagery (AVHRR) and 19 bioclimatic variables (Bioclim). The MaxEnt Jackknife procedure was used to minimize the number of environmental variables that showed an influence on final models. The goodness of fit of the model predictions was evaluated by the mean area under the curve (AUC). We obtained 37 samples of 7 species of triatomines naturally infected with TrV. Of the TrV positive samples, 32% were from sylvatic habitat, 46% came from peridomicile habitats and 22% from domicile habitats. Five of the seven infected species were found only in the sylvatic habitat, one species only in the domicile and only Triatoma infestans was found in the three habitats. The MaxEnt model estimated with the Bioclim dataset identified five environmental variables as best predictors: temperature annual range, mean diurnal range, mean temperature of coldest quarter, temperature seasonality and annual mean temperature. The model using the AVHRR dataset identified six environmental variables: minimum Land Surface Temperature (LST), minimum Middle Infrared Radiation (MIR), LST annual amplitude, MIR annual amplitude annual, LST variance and MIR variance. The potential geographic distribution of triatomine species infected by TrV coincides with the Chaco and the Monte ecoregions either modelled by AVHRR or Bioclim environmental datasets. Our results show that the conditions of the Dry Chaco ecoregion in Argentina are favourable for the infection of triatomine

  3. A preliminary study of multilevel geographic distribution & prevalence of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in the state of Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadev, P V M; Fulmali, P V; Mishra, A C

    2004-09-01

    Dengue virus activity has never been reported in the state of Goa. The present study was carried out to document a multilevel geographic distribution, prevalence and preliminary analysis of risk factors for the invasions of Aedes aegypti in Goa. A geographic information system (GIS) based Ae. aegypti surveys were conducted in dry (April 2002) and wet (July 2002) seasons in the rural and urban settlements. The random walk method was used for household coverage. The non-residential area visits included ancillaries of roadways, railways, air-and seaports. Simultaneous adult mosquito collections and one-larva per container technique were adopted. The Ae. aegypti larval and adult prevalence was noted in all the four urban areas in both dry (Density index (DI)= 3 to 6) and wet (DI= 5 to 7) seasons and only one out of 3 villages showed Ae aegypti presence in wet season (DI= 5 to 7). In the residential areas, hutments showed higher relative prevalence indices (Breteau index, BI=100; container index, CI=11.95; adult house index, AHI=13.33) followed by close set cement houses (BI=44.1; CI=12.0; AHI=11.24). Ae aegypti relative prevalence indices were also more for households with pets (BI=85.11; CI=12.5; AHI= 42.85); those with tap had higher risk (larval house index, LHI =32.03; relative risk, RR>2, n=256). Plastic drum was the most preferred breeding place (chi(2) = 19.81; Pwet seasons and its scattered distribution in a rural settlement spell risk of dengue infection at macro-level. In the residential areas nature and types of the households, tap water supply and storage and communities' attitude and practices contribute to sustained meso-level risk of Ae aegypti prevalence dependant DEN. The non-residential areas offer transient meso-level risk as Ae aegypti prevalence was seasonally unstable and monsoon dependent. Risk at micro-level was due to the preferred larval habitats of Ae aegypti breeding viz., residential plastic-ware and tyres, and transport tyres in non

  4. Ownership structure and earnings management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; El Jai, Hind

    2012-01-01

    – as important monitoring device. Interestingly, our results show that ownership concentration – percentage shareholding of the largest shareholder – has no significant impact on earnings management. The result is in contrast to prior literature that suggests ownership concentration to either cause alignment...

  5. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaenson Thomas GT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. Methods A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Results Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the

  6. Ticks: Geographic Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of 4,000 to 10,500 feet. Transmits: Rocky Mountain spotted fever , Colorado tick fever , and tularemia . Comments: Adult ticks feed primarily on large mammals. Larvae and nymphs feed on small rodents. Adult ...

  7. Extent of mangrove nursery habitats determines the geographic distribution of a coral reef fish in a South-Pacific archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Paillon

    Full Text Available Understanding the drivers of species' geographic distribution has fundamental implications for the management of biodiversity. For coral reef fishes, mangroves have long been recognized as important nursery habitats sustaining biodiversity in the Western Atlantic but there is still debate about their role in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we combined LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry, underwater visual censuses (UVC and mangrove cartography to estimate the importance of mangroves for the Indo-Pacific coral reef fish Lutjanus fulviflamma in the archipelago of New Caledonia. Otolith elemental compositions allowed high discrimination of mangroves and reefs with 83.8% and 98.7% correct classification, respectively. Reefs were characterized by higher concentrations of Rb and Sr and mangroves by higher concentrations of Ba, Cr, Mn and Sn. All adult L. fulviflamma collected on reefs presented a mangrove signature during their juvenile stage with 85% inhabiting mangrove for their entire juvenile life (about 1 year. The analysis of 2942 UVC revealed that the species was absent from isolated islands of the New Caledonian archipelago where mangroves were absent. Furthermore, strong positive correlations existed between the abundance of L. fulviflamma and the area of mangrove (r = 0.84 for occurrence, 0.93 for density and 0.89 for biomass. These results indicate that mangrove forest is an obligatory juvenile habitat for L. fulviflamma in New Caledonia and emphasize the potential importance of mangroves for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes.

  8. Geographical distribution and ecological features of the great gerbil subspecies in the main zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis foci in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Reza Abai; Mohammad Ali Oshaghi; Leila Tajedin; Yavar Rassi; Amir Ahmad Akhavan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To reveal subspecies composition ofRhombomy opimus (R. opimus) in Iran. Methods: In this study, field specimens of the gerbil were collected from all its geographical rang in northeast and central parts of Iran and identified on basis of morphological characteristics.Results: Results revealed presence of two subspecies ofR. opimus sodalis andR. opimussargadensisin the country. The first subspecies with brown to hazel-nut color and a size bigger than a typicalR. opimuswas found only in Golestan province, an isolated colony which is located in plains of north slopes of Alborz Chain Mountains of the country, connected with the Turkmenistan. The subspecies ofR. opimussargadensiswith a yellowish color and similar size as a typicalR. opimus was found in all other areas of the great gerbil distribution in Iran. There was a distinct topographic difference but similar ectoparasites between colonies of the two subspecies in the study area.Conclusions: Further ecological and genetic investigations are required for more detailed description of theR. opimus subspecies range and structure. TheR. opimus-Phlebotomus papatasi-Leishmaniamajor association and theZCL severity and outcome in hosts are discussed.

  9. Investigation on the geographical distribution and life form of plant species in sub alpine zone Karsanak region, Shahrekord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanbakhsh Pairanj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in rangelands of Karsanak, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, which is regarded as one of the rich rangelands. Phytogeographically, this region is located in Irano-Turanian (zone of sub alpine. Endemic and rare plants were identified and geographical distribution and life form of identified plant species were investigated as well. Overall, 100 species from 17 families were identified from which 20 percent of identified species was endemic element of Irano-Turanian region. Results indicated that 75.7 percent of identified plants belonged to the Irano-Turanian and only 3 and 2 percent belonged to Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean regions respectively. The reason of high percentage of Irano-Turanian elements is probably the long distance of this region from other regions. Similarities of Irano-Turanian and Mediterranean were included 6.1 percent of identified plants and Irano-Turanian and Euro-Siberian included 2 percent. Results of life forms showed hemichryptophytes including 60 percent of life forms which indicate the cold and mountainous weather.

  10. [Analysis on the exposure level and geographic distribution trend of toxicological indicators in rural drinking water, Shandong Province, in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, F; Lyu, S P; Kong, F L; Yang, X T; Zhou, J Y

    2017-09-06

    Objective: To analyze the exposure level and the geographical distribution trend of toxicological indicators of rural drinking water in Shandong Province. Methods: The drawing method was used to randomly select no less than 60% villages and towns from 137 counties (cities, districts) of 17 cities in Shandong Province in 2015, and then 1-3 rural centralized water supply units were selected according to the circumstance of rural centralized water supply units in each village and town. In total, 735 villages and towns, 1 473 rural centralized water supply units were selected, and 1 473 water samples were collected. The water treatment process, water supply population and other circumstances of the rural centralized water supply units were investigated, the water quality was monitored, the content of toxicological indicators of drinking water in different areas was compared, and the trend surface isogram of excessive toxicological indicators was drawn. Results: The qualified rate of toxicological indicators in 1 473 water samples was 83.64% (n=1 232). The main toxicological indicators that affected the qualified rate of toxicological indicators of drinking water in rural areas in Shandong Province were nitrate and fluoride. The excessive rate of fluoride was 5.70% (n=84) and the exposed population was 1 736 709 (4.22%). The excessive rate of nitrate (as nitrogen) was 12.29% (n=181) and the exposed population was 1 393 612 (3.39%). The P(5)0 content of fluoride in the eastern, middle and western regions was 0.24, 0.29 and 0.59 mg/L, respective;which was higher in the western region than in the east and the middle regions (P0.05). The P(50) content of nitrate (as nitrogen) in the eastern, middle and western regions was 8.00, 7.48, and 2.00 mg/L, which was higher in the eastern and middle regions than in the west region (P0.05). The trend surface isogram of nitrate and fluoride content showed that the content of nitrate (as nitrogen) in rural drinking water in the eastern

  11. Geographical distribution and risk assessment of persistent organic pollutants in golden threads (Nemipterus virgatus) from the northern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qing; Sun, Yu-Xin; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Yao, Zi-Wei; Wang, You-Shao; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-10-01

    Fish are often used as good bioindicators to monitor the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on different scales in recent years. Forty-five golden threads (Nemipterus virgatus) were collected from six sampling sites in the northern South China Sea (SCS) to investigate the geographical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). Concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs ranged from 1.3-36.0, 2.3-76.5, 8.3-228 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. The highest PBDEs and DDTs concentrations were found in golden threads from Shantou, owing to the intensive electronic waste recycling activities and rapid development of agriculture. Samples from Haikou had the highest levels of PCBs, probably due to the existence of many shipbuilding yards in the past years. The concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were found in a decreasing trend from east to west and from north to south, while DDTs concentrations had no obvious trend in the distribution. PCBs were the most prevalent contaminants in Xiamen and Yangjiang, while DDTs were the dominant compounds at the other four sampling sites. Different profiles of POPs at each sampling site may attribute to different pollution sources in the northern SCS. Ratios of (DDD + DDE)/DDTs in golden threads suggested the probability of fresh input of DDT in the northern SCS. The estimated daily intakes of PBDEs, PCBs and DDTs were 0.030-0.069, 0.167-0.258 and 0.105-1.88 ng/kg/day, respectively, which were significantly lower than the acceptable daily intake, suggesting that consumption of golden threads from the northern SCS would not subject the residents in the coastal areas of SCS to significant health risk.

  12. Climate change effects on the geographic distribution of specialist tree species of the Brazilian tropical dry forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PMS Rodrigues

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the ecological niche models (ENMs for three specialist trees (Anadenantheracolubrina, Aspidosperma pyrifolium and Myracrodruon urundeuva in seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs in Brazil, considering present and future pessimist scenarios (2080 of climate change. These three species exhibit typical deciduousness and are widely distributed by SDTF in South America, being important in studies of the historical and evolutionary processes experienced by this ecosystem. The modeling of the potential geographic distribution of species was done by the method of maximum entropy (Maxent.We verified a general expansion of suitable areas for occurrence of the three species in future (c.a., 18%, although there was reduction of areas with high environmental suitability in Caatinga region. Precipitation of wettest quarter and temperature seasonality were the predictor variables that most contributed to our models. Climatic changes can provide more severe and longer dry season with increasing temperature and tree mortality in tropics. On this scenario, areas currently occupied by rainforest and savannas could become more suitable for occurrence of the SDTF specialist trees, whereas regions occupied by Caatinga could not support the future level of unsustainable (e.g., aridity. Long-term multidisciplinary studies are necessary to make reliable predictions of the plant’s adaptation strategies and responses to climate changes in dry forest at community level. Based on the high deforestation rate, endemism and threat, public policies to minimize the effects of climate change on the biodiversity found within SDTFs must be undertaken rapidly.

  13. Spatial distribution of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria using geographical information system and school based questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, H A; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Braide, E I; Ekpo, U F

    2013-10-15

    Urinary schistosomiasis is a serious disease in Cross River State, Nigeria. Dearth of information on its distribution has hampered the implementation of focused control of the disease. The availability of a rapid method for mapping the disease necessitated this research to provide data for control of Urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study used a rapid validated school-based questionnaire method in mapping schistosomiasis. Geographical information system (GIS) software tools were used to produce a spatial map for prevalence of infection and areas at risk for urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State. Data analysis with SPSS package revealed that 9,993 (10.2%) female and 10,328 (10.0%) male pupils in 218 schools passed blood in urine in one month out of 199,794 pupils interviewed. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence between male and female pupils with infection (p < 0.005). The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis using questionnaire method correlated positively with the filtration method used in determining the egg output (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). Endemic schools were distributed in thirteen Local Government Areas of Cross River State, Nigeria. Yala and Yakurr LGAs had the highest number of schools that reported schistosomiasis with 39 (59%) and 13 (59%), respectively. Odukpani LGA had the lowest prevalence of 1 (0.2%). The overall results showed a mean urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 10.2% for Cross River State, Nigeria. The findings of this study would guide Government and other relevant agencies in the implementation of control strategies for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria.

  14. An Analysis of the Geographic Distribution of Recently Graduated Dentists from the University of Western Australia: The World's Most Isolated Dental School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuxani, Amit; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the geographic distribution of all new dentists who graduated over a period of six years. Perth, the capital city of Western Australia, is one of the world's most isolated cities, with a population of approximately 1.6 million people, situated over 2000km from its nearest next major…

  15. Modeling species’ realized climatic niche space and predicting their response to global warming for several western forest species with small geographic distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V. Warwell; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2010-01-01

    The Random Forests multiple regression tree was used to develop an empirically based bioclimatic model of the presence-absence of species occupying small geographic distributions in western North America. The species assessed were subalpine larch (Larix lyallii), smooth Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica ssp. glabra...

  16. An Analysis of the Geographic Distribution of Recently Graduated Dentists from the University of Western Australia: The World's Most Isolated Dental School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuxani, Amit; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the geographic distribution of all new dentists who graduated over a period of six years. Perth, the capital city of Western Australia, is one of the world's most isolated cities, with a population of approximately 1.6 million people, situated over 2000km from its nearest next major capital…

  17. Notes on the geographic distribution and subspecific taxonomy of Sais rosalia (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini, including the first records in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio D. Ríos Díaz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Notes on the geographic distribution and subspecific taxonomy of Sais rosalia (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini, including the first records in Paraguay. This paper provides comments on the subspecific taxonomy and geographic distribution of Sais rosalia (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini, as well as an up-to-date distributional map, complemented with unpublished distributional data based on specimens deposited in the Coleção Entomológica Pe. Jesus S. Moure, Curitiba, Brazil and the Museo de Historia Natural, Lima, Peru. The following synonyms are proposed: Sais rosalia camariensis Haensch, 1905 syn. rev. as junior subjective synonym of Papilio rosalia Cramer, 1779 and Sais rosalia brasiliensis Talbot, 1928 syn. rev. as junior subjective synonym of Sais rosalia rosalinde Weymer, 1890. Additionally, the first country records of Sais rosalia in Paraguay, including the southernmost record of the species, are documented.

  18. Relative Abundance and Seasonal and Geographic Distribution of Coquillettidia Perturbans (Walker) Collected with Light Traps from USAF Installations in the Continental United States, 1971-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Cq. perturbans based upon our data (Fig. 5) closely agrees with that of Darsie and Ward (6) with two exceptions: our records show 107 Cq. perturbans...collected at Mountain Home AFB, Idaho, which is located 250 miles southwest of the distribution shown by Darsie and Ward (6). Second, we have records of...1978. 6. Darsie , R.F., and R.A. Ward. Identification and geographical distribution of the mosquitoes of North America, North of Mexico. Mosq Syst

  19. Unraveling Salt Tolerance Mechanisms in Halophytes: A Comparative Study on Four Mediterranean Limonium Species with Different Geographic Distribution Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Al Hassan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We have performed an extensive study on the responses to salt stress in four related Limonium halophytes with different geographic distribution patterns, during seed germination and early vegetative growth. The aims of the work were twofold: to establish the basis for the different chorology of these species, and to identify relevant mechanisms of salt tolerance dependent on the control of ion transport and osmolyte accumulation. Seeds were germinated in vitro, in the presence of increasing NaCl concentrations, and subjected to “recovery of germination” tests; germination percentages and velocity were determined to establish the relative tolerance and competitiveness of the four Limonium taxa. Salt treatments were also applied to young plants, by 1-month irrigation with NaCl up to 800 mM; then, growth parameters, levels of monovalent and divalent ions (in roots and leaves, and leaf contents of photosynthetic pigments and common osmolytes were determined in control and stressed plants of the four species. Seed germination is the most salt-sensitive developmental phase in Limonium. The different germination behavior of the investigated species appears to be responsible for their geographical range size: L. narbonense and L. virgatum, widespread throughout the Mediterranean, are the most tolerant and the most competitive at higher soil salinities; the endemic L. santapolense and L. girardianum are the most sensitive and more competitive only at lower salinities. During early vegetative growth, all taxa showed a strong tolerance to salt stress, although slightly higher in L. virgatum and L. santapolense. Salt tolerance is based on the efficient transport of Na+ and Cl− to the leaves and on the accumulation of fructose and proline for osmotic adjustment. Despite some species-specific quantitative differences, the accumulation patterns of the different ions were similar in all species, not explaining differences in tolerance, except for the

  20. Muscidae (Insecta: Diptera) of Latin America and the Caribbean: geographic distribution and check-list by country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwenberg-Neto, Peter; De Carvalho, Claudio J B

    2013-01-01

    Here we provide a geographic database for the Muscidae (Insecta: Diptera) that are endemic to Latin America and the Caribbean and non-synanthropic. We summarize the geographic information provided by specimens from three entomological collections in Brazil (DZUP, MNRJ, and MZUEFS) as well as geographic information we compiled in the literature. The resulting 817 species were linked to their geographic records by country, state/province/department, locality, latitude and longitude, including source reference. When coordinates were not provided in specimens' labels, we used the locality information to search geographic coordinates in online gazetteers. We also separated the species by country for a country-species list. These data comprise 250 years of collections and taxonomic studies of Neotropical Muscidae and we expect that it provides a foundation and serves as guide for future studies of systematics and biogeography of the family.

  1. The geographical distribution and habitats of three liver fluke intermediate hosts in South - Africa and the health implications involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. de Kock

    2008-09-01

    persons and authorities were totally unsuccessful. In view of statistics available for elsewhere in the world, it would be unwise to assume that no problems exist in this regard in South Africa. The number of people suffering from fasciolosis was already estimated at 2.4 million in 61 countries in 1995 and another 180 million at risk of becoming infected, with the highest prevalence’s reported from Bolivia, China, Ecuador, Egypt, France, Iran, Peru and Portugal. The results of recent serological assays for the detection of fasciolosis in cattle herds in selected areas in South Africa indicated positive cases from localities that closely correspond to the geographical distribution of the three Lymnaea species in this country. According to reports in the literature, the high prevalence of fasciolosis in livestock in the highlands of Ethiopia couldhave serious health implications for people in the area because they have to use the same water resources. In many rural areas in South Africa local populations also have no other options than to share natural water resources with their livestock. In most instances these water bodies harbour at least one of the Lymnaea species which can maintain the life cycle of fasciola. Under such conditions residents could daily be exposed to the risk of becoming infected. It is a matter of concern that epidemiological research with regard to human fasciolosis is such aneglected subject in South Africa. In our opinion epidemiological surveys should be conducted to determine the prevalence of human fasciolosis in specific areas which could be selected on the basis of using the geographical distribution of the three Linnaean species as guidelines. Efforts should also be made to conduct surveys to update the geographical distribution of the snail intermediate hosts and awareness programmes should be launched in rural areas at risk.

  2. The social disutility of software ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David M

    2011-09-01

    Software ownership allows the owner to restrict the distribution of software and to prevent others from reading the software's source code and building upon it. However, free software is released to users under software licenses that give them the right to read the source code, modify it, reuse it, and distribute the software to others. Proponents of free software such as Richard M. Stallman and Eben Moglen argue that the social disutility of software ownership is a sufficient justification for prohibiting it. This social disutility includes the social instability of disregarding laws and agreements covering software use and distribution, inequality of software access, and the inability to help others by sharing software with them. Here I consider these and other social disutility claims against withholding specific software rights from users, in particular, the rights to read the source code, duplicate, distribute, modify, imitate, and reuse portions of the software within new programs. I find that generally while withholding these rights from software users does cause some degree of social disutility, only the rights to duplicate, modify and imitate cannot legitimately be denied to users on this basis. The social disutility of withholding the rights to distribute the software, read its source code and reuse portions of it in new programs is insufficient to prohibit software owners from denying them to users. A compromise between the software owner and user can minimise the social disutility of withholding these particular rights from users. However, the social disutility caused by software patents is sufficient for rejecting such patents as they restrict the methods of reducing social disutility possible with other forms of software ownership.

  3. Effects of Abiotic Factors on the Geographic Distribution of Body Size Variation and Chromosomal Polymorphisms in Two Neotropical Grasshopper Species (Dichroplus: Melanoplinae: Acrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio J. Bidau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the effects of abiotic factors on body size in two grasshopper species with large geographical distributions: Dichroplus pratensis and D. vittatus, inhabiting Argentina in diverse natural habitats. Geographical spans for both species provide an opportunity to study the effects of changes in abiotic factors on body size. The analyses of body size distribution in both species revealed a converse Bergmannian pattern: body size is positively correlated with latitude, altitude, and seasonality that influences time available for development and growth. Allen’s rule is also inverted. Morphological variability increases towards the ends of the Bergmannian clines and, in D. pratensis, is related with a central-marginal distribution of chromosomal variants that influence recombination. The converse Bergmannian patterns influence sexual size dimorphism in both species but in different fashions. Body size variation at a microspatial scale in D. pratensis is extremely sensitive to microclimatic clines. We finally compare our results with those for other Orthopteran species.

  4. Analysis of Impact of Geographical Environment and Socio-economic Factors on the Spatial Distribution of Kaohsiung Dengue Fever Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Yin; Wen, Tzai-Hung; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2013-04-01

    Taiwan is located in subtropical and tropical regions with high temperature and high humidity in the summer. This kind of climatic condition is the hotbed for the propagation and spread of the dengue vector mosquito. Kaohsiung City has been the worst dengue fever epidemic city in Taiwan. During the study period, from January 1998 to December 2011, Taiwan CDC recorded 7071 locally dengue epidemic cases in Kaohsiung City, and the number of imported case is 118. Our research uses Quantile Regression, a spatial infection disease distribution, to analyze the correlation between dengue epidemic and geographic environmental factors and human society factors in Kaohsiung. According to our experiment statistics, agriculture and natural forest have a positive relation to dengue fever(5.5~34.39 and 3.91~15.52). The epidemic will rise when the ratio for agriculture and natural forest increases. Residential ratio has a negative relation for quantile 0.1 to 0.4(-0.005~-0.78), and a positive relation for quantile 0.5 to0.9(0.01~18.0) . The mean income is also a significant factor in social economy field, and it has a negative relation to dengue fever(-0.01~-0.04). Conclusion from our research is that the main factor affecting the degree of dengue fever in predilection area is the residential proportion and the ratio of agriculture and natural forest plays an important role affecting the degree of dengue fever in non predilection area. Moreover, the serious epidemic area located by regression model is the same as the actual condition in Kaohsiung. This model can be used to predict the serious epidemic area of dengue fever and provide some references for the Health Agencies

  5. The polymorphism and the geographical distribution of the knockdown resistance (kdr of Anopheles sinensis in the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Seunghyun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Republic of Korea (ROK, six sibling species of the Anopheles sinensis complex are considered the vector species of malaria, but data on their susceptibilities to malaria and vector capacities have been controversial. The intensive use of insecticides has contributed to the rapid development and spread of insecticide resistance in the An. sinensis complex. Knockdown resistance (kdr to pyrethroids and DDT in the An. sinensis complex is associated with a mutation in codon 1014 of the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC gene. Because the degree of insecticide resistance varies among mosquito species and populations, the detection of kdr mutations among the six sibling species of the An. sinensis complex is a prerequisite for establishing effective long-term vector control strategies in the ROK Methods In order to investigate species-specific kdr mutations, An. sinensis complex specimens have been collected from 22 sites in the ROK. Because of the difficulties with species identifications that are based only on morphological characteristics, molecular identification methods have been conducted on every specimen. Part of the IIS6 domain of the VGSC was polymerase chain reaction-amplified and directly sequenced. Results The molecular analyses revealed that mutations existed at codon 1014 only in An. sinensis sensu stricto and no mutations were found in the other five Anopheles species. In An. sinensis s.s., one wild type (TTG L1014 and three mutant types (TTT L1014F, TTC L1014F, and TGT L1014C of kdr alleles were detected. The TTC L1014F mutation was observed for the first time in this species. Conclusions The fact that the highly polymorphic kdr gene is only observed in An. sinensis s.s., out of the six Anopheles species and their geographical distribution suggest the need for future studies of insecticide resistance monitoring and investigations of species-specific resistance mechanisms in order to build successful malaria

  6. Spatially Explicit Models to Investigate Geographic Patterns in the Distribution of Forensic STRs: Application to the North-Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Francesco; Finocchio, Andrea; Akar, Nejat; Loutradis, Aphrodite; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanuel I.; Brdicka, Radim; Jodice, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Human forensic STRs used for individual identification have been reported to have little power for inter-population analyses. Several methods have been developed which incorporate information on the spatial distribution of individuals to arrive at a description of the arrangement of diversity. We genotyped at 16 forensic STRs a large population sample obtained from many locations in Italy, Greece and Turkey, i.e. three countries crucial to the understanding of discontinuities at the European/Asian junction and the genetic legacy of ancient migrations, but seldom represented together in previous studies. Using spatial PCA on the full dataset, we detected patterns of population affinities in the area. Additionally, we devised objective criteria to reduce the overall complexity into reduced datasets. Independent spatially explicit methods applied to these latter datasets converged in showing that the extraction of information on long- to medium-range geographical trends and structuring from the overall diversity is possible. All analyses returned the picture of a background clinal variation, with regional discontinuities captured by each of the reduced datasets. Several aspects of our results are confirmed on external STR datasets and replicate those of genome-wide SNP typings. High levels of gene flow were inferred within the main continental areas by coalescent simulations. These results are promising from a microevolutionary perspective, in view of the fast pace at which forensic data are being accumulated for many locales. It is foreseeable that this will allow the exploitation of an invaluable genotypic resource, assembled for other (forensic) purposes, to clarify important aspects in the formation of local gene pools. PMID:27898725

  7. Distributions and radiative forcings of various cloud types based on active and passive satellite datasets – Part 1: Geographical distributions and overlap of cloud types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on four year' 2B-CLDCLASS-Lidar (Radar-Lidar cloud classification product from CloudSat, we analyze the geographical distributions of different cloud types and their co-occurrence frequency across different seasons, moreover, utilize the vertical distributions of cloud type to further evaluate the cloud overlap assumptions. The statistical results show that more high clouds, altocumulus, stratocumulus or stratus and cumulus are identified in the Radar-Lidar cloud classification product compared to previous results from Radar-only cloud classification (2B-CLDCLASS product from CloudSat. In particularly, high clouds and cumulus cloud fractions increased by factors 2.5 and 4–7, respectively. The new results are in more reasonable agreement with other datasets (typically the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP and surface observer reports. Among the cloud types, altostratus and altocumulus are more popular over the arid/semi-arid land areas of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, respectively. These features weren't observed by using the ISCCP D1 dataset. For co-occurrence of cloud types, high cloud, altostratus, altocumulus and cumulus are much more likely to co-exist with other cloud types. However, stratus/stratocumulus, nimbostratus and convective clouds are much more likely to exhibit individual features. After considering the co-occurrence of cloud types, the cloud fraction based on the random overlap assumption is underestimated over the vast ocean except in the west-central Pacific Ocean warm pool. Obvious overestimations are mainly occurring over land areas in the tropics and subtropics. The investigation therefore indicates that incorporate co-occurrence information of cloud types based on Radar-Lidar cloud classification into the overlap assumption schemes used in the current GCMs possible be able to provide an better predictions for vertically projected total cloud fraction.

  8. Los Mezquites Mexicanos: Biodiversidad y Distribución Geográfica Mexican mesquites: Biodiversity and geographical distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón A. Palacios

    2006-07-01

    sp. nov. (Yucatán; 11 P. juliflora (Yucatán. A key to the 11 Mexican species is provided and their geographical distributions are illustrated.

  9. Self-Ownership, World-Ownership, and Initial Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Rogers

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available G.A. Cohen was perhaps libertarianism’s most formidable critic. In Self-Ownership, Freedom, and Equality he levels several strong criticisms against Robert Nozick’s theory put forth in Anarchy, State, and Utopia. In this paper, I counter several of Cohen’s criticisms. The debate operates at three stages: (1 self-ownership, (2 world-ownership, and (3 initial acquisition. At the first stage, Cohen does not attempt to refute self-ownership, but weaken its force in providing moral grounds for capitalism. Here I argue that Cohen’s attempt to overturn Nozick’s slavery argument is unsuccessful because partial-slavery, while normatively different from full-slavery, is still normatively wrong. At the second stage, Cohen argues for a joint-ownership view of the world’s resources. In particular, he claims that self-ownership is rendered merely formal in a jointly-owned world and in a capitalist world. To rebut this challenge I show that even if Cohen is right about this, libertarian self-ownership is only formal in Cohen’s peculiar case where only two people exist and one owns everything. In contrast, self-ownership in a jointly-owned world is formal in all cases. Lastly, at the third stage, Cohen argues against Nozick’s interpretation of the Lockean proviso, claiming that it is impossible to satisfy. Granting Cohen’s argument here, I go on to defend Jan Narveson’s no-proviso view of acquisition from Cohen’s thus far unanswered criticism. I show that significantly, in his critique, Cohen equivocates between positive and negative rights. Taken jointly, my responses at these three stages ground the anti-egalitarian conclusion that, in Cohen’s words, ‘[e]xtensive inequality of condition is unavoidable, or avoidable only on pain of violating people’s rights to themselves and to things.’ The sequence, then, is from self-ownership, to world-ownership, via initial acquisition.

  10. Ownership structure and inventory policy

    OpenAIRE

    Tribó, Josep A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper makes use of a database of Spanish manufacturing firms to explore the effect of a firm's ownership structure on its inventory policy. We have argued that the presence of institutional investors reduces a firm's liquidity needs and prevents overinvestment policies. This, in turn, leads to lower equilibrium inventory levels. Also, we expect, on average, less inventory investment when bank-equity financing is compared with bank-debt financing. Finally, other components of ownership st...

  11. State ownership and corporate governance

    OpenAIRE

    Pargendler, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    State ownership of publicly-traded corporations remains pervasive around the world, and has been increasing in recent years. Existing literature focuses on the implications of government ownership for corporate governance and performance at the firm level. This Article, by contrast, explores the different but equally important question of whether the presence of the state as a shareholder can impose negative externalities on the corporate law regime available to the private sec...

  12. 中国当代地理教授、研究员地域分异%Geographical Distribution and Regional Differentiation of Contemporary Geographical Professors and Researchers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李双双; 延军平

    2011-01-01

    There have been few studies on the talents with geographical background. Based on the statistical data, this article examines Chinese contemporary geographical professors and researchers in several aspects, including the number, age structure, native place, geographical distribution and regional differentiation, and reveals the reasons for regional differences and relevant influencing factors. The results show that there is greater regional differentiation in eastern China than in western China, and also greater in southern China than in northern China. A large number of geographical brains are concentrated in Shaanxi, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces, while fewer professors and researchers are distributed in northwestern China. The regional differences, to a certain extent, have been formed due to the intrinsic factors of geographical scholars, while they are affected by some factors such as economic condition, politics, and culture.%针对人才地理学对具有特殊专业或学科背景人才研究明显缺失的问题,选取具有地理学背景的教授、研究员为研究对象,对中国当代地理教授、研究员时空格局进行分析,揭示影响其数量、年龄结构及分布特征的因素。结果表明:当代地理教授、研究员地域分布不均衡,南方多于北方,沿海多于内陆。东部多于中部,西部最少。青年地理教授、研究员本区比例则呈现东部少于中部,中部少于西部的特征。工作地区域聚集和空间分异现象明显。其特点反映了中国当代地理教授、研究员地域分异,除受经济地理环境、政治、文化等一系列因素影响外,还有其自身形成原因。

  13. Geographical Distribution of Avena L. (Poaceae)%禾本科燕麦属植物的地理分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林磊; 刘青

    2015-01-01

    The geographical distribution of Avena L. (Aveneae, Poaceae) was studied by ifeld investigation and reviewing specimens and literature. The results showed that 29 species in Avena were distributed in Europe, Mediterranean, Northern Africa, Western Asia, Eastern Asia, and the Americas. In China, four species of Avena distribute in high altitude areas in the northern, northwestern, and southwestern provinces. Seven sections are delimited in Avena, including sect. Avenotrichon (Holub) Baum, sect. Ventricosa Baum, sect. Agraria Baum, sect. Tenuicarpa Baum, sect. Ethiopica Baum, sect. Pachycarpa Baum, and sect. Avena. The sect. Ethiopica occurs in Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen, and the remaining six sections occur in Mediterranean, Southwestern Europe, Northwestern Africa, Western Asia, Eastern Asia, and the Americas. The results suggest that the Mediterranean, Northwestern Africa, and Western Asia are the distribution centers and diversiifcation centers of Avena, while the origin center of Avena needs to be further studied.%为探讨燕麦属(Avena L.)植物的地理分布,通过野外调查及查阅标本和文献资料,对燕麦属植物的地理分布进行整理和研究。结果表明,燕麦属植物约有29种,主要分布在欧洲、地中海地区、北非、西亚、东亚和美洲。中国有4种,分布于华北、西北、西南各省(区)的高海拔地区。燕麦属下分7个组,分别是多年生燕麦组[sect. Avenotrichon (Holub) Baum]、偏凸燕麦组(sect. Ventricosa Baum)、耕地燕麦组(sect. Agraria Baum)、软果燕麦组(sect. Tenuicarpa Baum)、埃塞俄比亚燕麦组(sect. Ethiopica Baum)、厚果燕麦组(sect. Pachycarpa Baum)和真燕麦组(sect. Avena)。其中,埃塞俄比亚燕麦组分布在埃塞俄比亚、沙特阿拉伯、也门,其他6个组分布在欧洲、地中海、西北非洲、西亚、东亚和美洲地区。地中海、西北非洲、西亚地区分布有除埃塞俄比亚燕麦组之外的所有6

  14. Geographical Distribution of Sorghum Moench (Poaceae)%高粱属植物的地理分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欢; 曾飞燕; 刘青

    2014-01-01

    为探讨高粱属(Sorghum Moench)的系统发育关系,通过野外调查及查阅标本和文献资料,对高粱属植物的地理分布进行了整理和研究。高粱属植物约有29种,分布于全世界热带到温带地区,其中澳大利亚22种,亚洲15种,非洲9种,欧洲3种,地中海2种,美洲6种。中国有5种,分布在东北、西南到华南各省(区)。高粱属有5亚属,仅高粱亚属(subgen. Sorghum)延伸至新世界,其他亚属均分布在旧世界,高粱亚属覆盖非洲并扩散到全世界热带到温带地区;拟高粱亚属(subgen. Parasorghum)分布在非洲、亚洲、澳大利亚;有柄高粱亚属(subgen. Stiposorghum)主要分布在澳大利亚,个别种分布到亚洲;多毛高粱亚属(subgen. Chaetosorghum)分布在澳大利亚;异高粱亚属(subgen. Heterosorghum)分布在澳大利亚和亚洲。这表明澳大利亚东北部是高粱属的现代分布中心和多样化中心,非洲东北部和热带亚洲是否是高粱属的起源地尚需确证。%In order to accumulate data for the phylogenetic reconstruction of Sorghum, the geographical distribution of Sorghum Moench (Andropogoneae, Panicoideae, Poaceae) was studied by field investigation and reviewing specimen and literature. Sorghum, including about 29 species, is a representative group in the tribe Andropogoneae due to the paired heterogamous spikelets (one sessile, fertile; the other one pedicelled, staminate or sterile) made up racemes along each node of inlforescences. Sorghum species distribute in the tropical and subtropical to temperate regions, with the species number being 22, 15, 9, 3, 2 in Australia, Asia, Africa, Europe, and Mediterranean, respectively. In addition, six species have extended to the Americas. In China, five species distribute in northeastern, southwestern, and southern provinces. Among five subgenera of Sorghum, only subgen. Sorghum has representatives in the New World, other subgenera are

  15. The geographic distribution of strontium isotopes in Danish surface waters - A base for provenance studies in archaeology, hydrology and agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, Karin M., E-mail: kmfrei@hum.ku.dk [Danish National Research Foundation Centre for Textile Research, SAXO Institute, University of Copenhagen, Njalsgade 80, DK-2300 Copenhagen (Denmark); Frei, Robert [Institute of Geography and Geology and Nordic Center for Earth Evolution (NordCEE), University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Strontium isotope data of 192 surface waters from Denmark. {yields} Geographic baseline distribution of bio-available fractions. {yields} Applicable for provenance studies within archaeology, geology, agriculture and hydrology. {yields} Proposal of a band of strontium isotope values to characterize 'local' Danish signatures. - Abstract: In this paper Sr isotope signatures are reported for 192 surface water (lakes/ponds and rivers/creeks) samples from within Denmark and an isotope distribution map is presented that may serve as a base for provenance applications, including archaeological migration studies, ground water - surface water - seawater interaction/contamination monitoring, and potentially for agricultural applications, including cases of authenticity proof for particular food products. The Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters range from {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr = 0.7078 to 0.7125 (average 0.7096 {+-} 0.0016; 2{sigma}). This average value lies above the range of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values between 0.7078 and 0.7082 expected from Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (Oligocene) limestones which form the dominant bedrock type in a NW-SE trending belt in Denmark. The elevated {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr signatures >{approx}0.7095 are explained by additions to the surface waters of radiogenic Sr predominantly derived from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quarternary glaciogenic tills and soils deposited and formed during and after the last two ice age stages (Saale and Weichsel). The Sr isotopic compositions and concentrations of the surface waters can, therefore, best be modeled by a two-component mixing involving carbonaceous bedrock and glaciogenic cover sediments as the two predominant Sr sources. A feasibility study for using Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters as a proxy for bio-available Sr signatures was conducted in a representative test area on Zealand (Land of Legends, Lejre) where there is no use

  16. Geographic Distribution of the Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles of Colombia and their Representation in the Protected Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Forero-Medina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has a remarkable diversity of tortoises and freshwater turtles. However, a considerable portion of these species is threatened, and for others there is not enough information to make an adequate evaluation of their conservation status. This study is a first approximation to the quantitative evaluation of the geographic distribution of Colombia’s non-marine chelonians. Based on records of occurrence for each species, we evaluated the geographic distribution using statistical models (Maxent, hydrological basins, and the extent of occurrence and area of occupancy. Based on the presence data and the models, we studied the representation of each species in National Natural Parks (NNP, which correspond to the most rigorous conservation category of IUCN classification in Colombia, and other types of protected areas such as Private Reserves. We generated distribution models and estimated the area (km2 for 25 out of 27 species in the country. This information will be valuable for updating and evaluating the threat categories at the national level. The areas with the highest species richness correspond to the riverine ecosystems of the Amazon and Orinoco river basins and the Caribbean region, particularly the western Caribbean. This region is a top priority not only because of its richness butalso because of the presence of endemics and its high levelof threat. Only 56 % of the species have confirmed recordswithin National Parks. A greater portion could be present in these areas according to the statistical models, but only ten of those species would have more than 10 % of their ranges within a park’s boundary. Although the resulting models have certain limitations due to the nature of the data and analyses, they can be a starting point for research on the occurrence of turtles in NNP. Endemic species are poorly represented in protected areas, both in NNP and in other categories. Thus, protected areas that can assure the persistence of their

  17. The geographical distribution of the potential for seed germination and seedling establishment of Pinus densiflora in Japan as influenced by soil and air temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Y.

    1991-12-01

    The geographical distribution of Pinus densiflora forests in Japan was examined in relation to the seed germination and seedling establishment information obtained from laboratory experiments, field observations and field experiments. The laboratory experiments indicated that seed germination can occur in all areas of Japan because effective cumulative soil temperatures reaches to 75 °C · day everywhere. However, the field observations and field experiments suggested that seedling establishment is impossible in the northern, eastern and central parts of Hokkaido because the effective cumulative air temperature at a height of 6 cm over bare ground is less than 2 000 °C · day. These results agree approximately with the actual geographical distribution of P. densiflora forest, which can not be found under natural circumstances in these areas.

  18. The Geographic Distribution of a Tropical Montane Bird Is Limited by a Tree: Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) and Colombian Oaks (Quercus humboldtii) in the Northern Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Benjamin G; Mason, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Species distributions are limited by a complex array of abiotic and biotic factors. In general, abiotic (climatic) factors are thought to explain species' broad geographic distributions, while biotic factors regulate species' abundance patterns at local scales. We used species distribution models to test the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with a tree, the Colombian oak (Quercus humboldtii), limits the broad-scale distribution of the Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in the Northern Andes of South America. North American populations of Acorn Woodpeckers consume acorns from Quercus oaks and are limited by the presence of Quercus oaks. However, Acorn Woodpeckers in the Northern Andes seldom consume Colombian oak acorns (though may regularly drink sap from oak trees) and have been observed at sites without Colombian oaks, the sole species of Quercus found in South America. We found that climate-only models overpredicted Acorn Woodpecker distribution, suggesting that suitable abiotic conditions (e.g. in northern Ecuador) exist beyond the woodpecker's southern range margin. In contrast, models that incorporate Colombian oak presence outperformed climate-only models and more accurately predicted the location of the Acorn Woodpecker's southern range margin in southern Colombia. These findings support the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with Colombian oaks sets Acorn Woodpecker's broad-scale geographic limit in South America, probably because Acorn Woodpeckers rely on Colombian oaks as a food resource (possibly for the oak's sap rather than for acorns). Although empirical examples of particular plants limiting tropical birds' distributions are scarce, we predict that similar biotic interactions may play an important role in structuring the geographic distributions of many species of tropical montane birds with specialized foraging behavior.

  19. Low-Frequency Variability in the Northern Hemisphere Winter: Geographical Distribution, Structure and Time-Scale Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Yochanan; Wallace, John M.

    1989-10-01

    Low-frequency variability in wintertime 500 mb height is examined, with emphasis on its structure, geographical distribution, and frequency dependence. A 39-year record of 500 mb geopotential height fields from the NMC analyses is time filtered to partition the fluctuations into frequency bands corresponding to periods of 10-60 days, 60-180 days and > 180 days. Winter is defined as the six month period November through April. Variance, teleconnectivity, and anisotropy fields, and selected loading vectors derived from orthogonal and oblique rotations of the eigenvectors of the temporal correlation matrix for each band are shown and discussed.The variability in all frequency bands exhibits substantial anistropy, with meridionally elongated features arranged as zonally oriented wave trains prevailing over the continents and zonally elongated features organized in the form of north-south oriented dipole patterns prevailing over the oceanic sectors of the hemisphere. The wave trains are most pronounced in the 10-60 day variability, while the dipoles are most pronounced at lower frequencies. Eastward energy dispersion is apparent in the wave trains, but there is no evidence of phase propagation.Most of the `teleconnection patterns' identified in previous studies appear among the more prominent loading vectors. However, in most cases the loading vectors occur in pairs, in which the two patterns are in spatial quadrature with one another and account for comparable fractions of the hemispherically integrated variance. It is argued that such patterns should be interpreted as basis functions that can be linearly combined to form a continuum of anisotropic structures. Evidence of the existence of discrete `modal structures' is found only in the interannual (> 180-day period) variability, where two patterns stand out clearly above the background continuum: the Pacific-North American (PNA) pattern and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). These patterns leave clear imprints upon

  20. Molecular subdivision of the marine diatom Thalassiosira rotula in relation to geographic distribution, genome size, and physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whittaker Kerry A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine phytoplankton drift passively with currents, have high dispersal potentials and can be comprised of morphologically cryptic species. To examine molecular subdivision in the marine diatom Thalassiosira rotula, variations in rDNA sequence, genome size, and growth rate were examined among isolates collected from the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean basins. Analyses of rDNA included T. gravida because morphological studies have argued that T. rotula and T. gravida are conspecific. Results Culture collection isolates of T. gravida and T. rotula diverged by 7.0 ± 0.3% at the ITS1 and by 0.8 ± 0.03% at the 28S. Within T. rotula, field and culture collection isolates were subdivided into three lineages that diverged by 0.6 ± 0.3% at the ITS1 and 0% at the 28S. The predicted ITS1 secondary structure revealed no compensatory base pair changes among lineages. Differences in genome size were observed among isolates, but were not correlated with ITS1 lineages. Maximum acclimated growth rates of isolates revealed genotype by environment effects, but these were also not correlated with ITS1 lineages. In contrast, intra-individual variation in the multi-copy ITS1 revealed no evidence of recombination amongst lineages, and molecular clock estimates indicated that lineages diverged 0.68 Mya. The three lineages exhibited different geographic distributions and, with one exception, each field sample was dominated by a single lineage. Conclusions The degree of inter- and intra-specific divergence between T. gravida and T. rotula suggests they should continue to be treated as separate species. The phylogenetic distinction of the three closely-related T. rotula lineages was unclear. On the one hand, the lineages showed no physiological differences, no consistent genome size differences and no significant changes in the ITS1 secondary structure, suggesting there are no barriers to interbreeding among lineages. In contrast, analysis of intra

  1. Malacological survey and geographical distribution of vector snails for schistosomiasis within informal settlements of Kisumu City, western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opisa Selpha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although schistosomiasis is generally considered a rural phenomenon, infections have been reported within urban settings. Based on observations of high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in schools within the informal settlements of Kisumu City, a follow-up malacological survey incorporating 81 sites within 6 informal settlements of the City was conducted to determine the presence of intermediate host snails and ascertain whether active transmission was occurring within these areas. Methods Surveyed sites were mapped using a geographical information system. Cercaria shedding was determined from snails and species of snails identified based on shell morphology. Vegetation cover and presence of algal mass at the sites was recorded, and the physico-chemical characteristics of the water including pH and temperature were determined using a pH meter with a glass electrode and a temperature probe. Results Out of 1,059 snails collected, 407 (38.4% were putatively identified as Biomphalaria sudanica, 425 (40.1% as Biomphalaria pfeifferi and 227 (21.5% as Bulinus globosus. The spatial distribution of snails was clustered, with few sites accounting for most of the snails. The highest snail abundance was recorded in Nyamasaria (543 snails followed by Nyalenda B (313 snails. As expected, the mean snail abundance was higher along the lakeshore (18 ± 12 snails compared to inland sites (dams, rivers and springs (11 ± 32 snails (F1, 79 = 38.8, P Biomphalaria snails was higher in the inland (2.7% compared to the lakeshore sites (0.3% (P = 0.0109. B. sudanica was more abundant in sites along the lakeshore whereas B. pfeifferi and B. globosus were more abundant in the inland sites. Biomphalaria and Bulinus snails were found at 16 and 11 out of the 56 inland sites, respectively. Conclusions The high abundance of Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp. as well as observation of field-caught snails shedding cercariae confirmed that besides Lake

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Juab County Parcels "Database containing parcel boundary, parcel identifier, parcel address, owner type, and county recorder contact information" - HB113., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Millard County Parcels "Database containing parcel boundary, parcel identifier, parcel address, owner type, and county recorder contact information" - HB113., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Box Elder Co Parcels "Database containing parcel boundary, parcel identifier, parcel address, owner type, and county recorder contact information" - HB113., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Cache County Parcels "Database containing parcel boundary, parcel identifier, parcel address, owner type, and county recorder contact information" - HB113., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007....

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Sanpete County Parcels "Database containing parcel boundary, parcel identifier, parcel address, owner type, and county recorder contact information" - HB113., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It...

  7. Sistemática y distribución geográfica de Heterachthes flavicornis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae Systematics and geographical distribution of Heterachthes flavicornis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo R. Di Iorio

    Full Text Available Revision of 973 specimens of Heterachthes flavicornis (Thomson, 1865, mostly emerged from a same individual of different host plant species, shows that this species has a high phenotypical variation in the color of elytra, antennae and legs. This variability is not related to the geographical distribution or to the host plants. Heterachthes flavicornis sexsignatus (Thomson,1865, and Heterachthes flavicornis bonariensis (Thomson,1865 are considered into the synonymy of Heterachthes flavicornis (Thomson, 1865.

  8. Estimating cyclopoid copepod species richness and geographical distribution (Crustacea across a large hydrographical basin: comparing between samples from water column (plankton and macrophyte stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Perbiche-Neves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Species richness and geographical distribution of Cyclopoida freshwater copepods were analyzed along the "La Plata" River basin. Ninety-six samples were taken from 24 sampling sites, twelve sites for zooplankton in open waters and twelve sites for zooplankton within macrophyte stands, including reservoirs and lotic stretches. There were, on average, three species per sample in the plankton compared to five per sample in macrophytes. Six species were exclusive to the plankton, 10 to macrophyte stands, and 17 were common to both. Only one species was found in similar proportions in plankton and macrophytes, while five species were widely found in plankton, and thirteen in macrophytes. The distinction between species from open water zooplankton and macrophytes was supported by nonmetric multidimensional analysis. There was no distinct pattern of endemicity within the basin, and double sampling contributes to this result. This lack of sub-regional faunal differentiation is in accordance with other studies that have shown that cyclopoids generally have wide geographical distribution in the Neotropics and that some species there are cosmopolitan. This contrasts with other freshwater copepods such as Calanoida and some Harpacticoida. We conclude that sampling plankton and macrophytes together provided a more accurate estimate of the richness and geographical distribution of these organisms than sampling in either one of those zones alone.

  9. Relative importance of meteorological and geographical factors in the distribution of Fasciola hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hongyu; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Hongbin; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is an important trematode parasite of economic importance that infests sheep and cattle worldwide. We conducted a detailed investigation into the spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai (Wutumeiren) province, Mainland China. Mathematical modelling was used to assess the inter-relationships between meteorological and geographical factors and the risk of F. hepatica infestation across the province. A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test (MM3-SERO) was used to detect F. hepatica infestation. A niche model based on the maximum entropy method (MaxEnt) was used to estimate the influence of meteorological and geographical factors on the observed spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation. Results of jackknife analysis indicated that temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, digital elevation and slope were associated with the occurrence of F. hepatica infestation, and that infestation rates were significantly higher among animals from districts with a high percentage of grassland habitat. The findings indicate that meteorological and geographical factors may be important variables affecting the distribution of F. hepatica infestation and should be taken into account in the development of future surveillance and control programmes for fascioliasis. PMID:28000591

  10. Relative importance of meteorological and geographical factors in the distribution of Fasciola hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hongyu; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Hongbin; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is an important trematode parasite of economic importance that infests sheep and cattle worldwide. We conducted a detailed investigation into the spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai (Wutumeiren) province, Mainland China. Mathematical modelling was used to assess the inter-relationships between meteorological and geographical factors and the risk of F. hepatica infestation across the province. A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test (MM3-SERO) was used to detect F. hepatica infestation. A niche model based on the maximum entropy method (MaxEnt) was used to estimate the influence of meteorological and geographical factors on the observed spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation. Results of jackknife analysis indicated that temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, digital elevation and slope were associated with the occurrence of F. hepatica infestation, and that infestation rates were significantly higher among animals from districts with a high percentage of grassland habitat. The findings indicate that meteorological and geographical factors may be important variables affecting the distribution of F. hepatica infestation and should be taken into account in the development of future surveillance and control programmes for fascioliasis. © H. Qin et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  11. Relative importance of meteorological and geographical factors in the distribution of Fasciola hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica is an important trematode parasite of economic importance that infests sheep and cattle worldwide. We conducted a detailed investigation into the spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai (Wutumeiren province, Mainland China. Mathematical modelling was used to assess the inter-relationships between meteorological and geographical factors and the risk of F. hepatica infestation across the province. A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test (MM3-SERO was used to detect F. hepatica infestation. A niche model based on the maximum entropy method (MaxEnt was used to estimate the influence of meteorological and geographical factors on the observed spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation. Results of jackknife analysis indicated that temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, digital elevation and slope were associated with the occurrence of F. hepatica infestation, and that infestation rates were significantly higher among animals from districts with a high percentage of grassland habitat. The findings indicate that meteorological and geographical factors may be important variables affecting the distribution of F. hepatica infestation and should be taken into account in the development of future surveillance and control programmes for fascioliasis.

  12. 我国奥运会奖牌获得者地域分布特征研究%Research of Geographical Distribution of Olympic Medalists in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建强; 包呼格吉乐图; 徐宝芳

    2013-01-01

    The geographical distribution of Olympic medalists in China is analyzed in this paper by software based on the statistics of the Olympic Games medal count and the number of athletes since 1984. It is found that the Olympic medalists geographical distribution characteristics is more in the East region, lest in West region. The largest number of medals and athletes are appeared in East China form the point of administrative region,the total medal number is 198. From the point of the economic regionalization, the most medals are in the five central provinces,it is 134 medals. Natural geographical environment affect the growth of sports talent,economic promote the sports talent growth. Natural geographical environment has a direct impact on the geographical distribution of of the Chinese sports talents,and socio-economic development decisions the sports talent geographical distribution characteristics.%统计了1984年到2008年我国在奥运会上获得的奥运会奖牌数和运动员人数,对我国奥运会奖牌获得者的地域分布特征进行了分析.结果显示,我国奥运会奖牌获得者地域分布特征为东多西少,从行政区上看,奖牌数和运动员人数最多的地区是华东地区,奖牌数达到198枚,而从经济区划上看,中部5省区是奖牌数最多的地区,奖牌数达到134枚.自然地理环境影响体育人才的成长,社会经济发展促进体育人才的成长,自然地理环境和社会经济发展决定了体育人才的地域分布特征.

  13. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  14. Distributed numerical rainfall-runoff modelling in an arid region using Thematic Mapper data and a geographical information system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, K.D.; Menenti, M.; Huygen, J.; Fernandez, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    A transient one-dimensional finite-difference model describing the partitioning of precipitation between surface run-off, soil moisture storage and deep percolation, through the coupling of saturated and unsaturated zones, has been implemented in a geographical information system including data on v

  15. Corporate Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    Industrial foundations are self-governing non profit institutions that own business companies. This ownership structure is found in a fair number of Northern European companies, some of them successful world class competitors. Standard agency theory would predict foundation-owned companies...... to be relatively inefficient since they lack monitoring by residual claimants and access to equity finance from the stock market. Nevertheless, empirical research (Thomsen 1996) has found that Danish foundation-owned companies do no worse in terms of profitability and growth than companies with dispersed ownership...... or family ownership. The paper considers and tests alternative explanations of this paradox. Explanations based on tax incentives, alternative control mechanisms and product-market advantages are rejected, but some support is found for performance advantages related to family control and long term business...

  16. MULTIMEDIA ON GEOGRAPHIC NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Merlanti, Danilo

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the topic of the multimedia contents distribution on a geo- graphic network which is a rarefied and huge field. First of all we have to classify the main parts necessary in the multimedia distribution on a geographic network. The main aspects of a geographic network that will be highlighted in this thesis are: the mechanism used to retrieve the sources of the multimedia content; in the case of the peer-to-peer network on geographic network one of t...

  17. Geographical and Ethnic Distributions of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MTRR A66G Gene Polymorphisms in Chinese Populations: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingmin Wang

    Full Text Available The geographical and ethnic distributions of the polymorphic methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR mutations (C677T and A1298C and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR mutation (A66G remain heterogeneous in China. The goal of this study was to estimate the pooled frequencies of the alleles and associated genotypes of these gene polymorphisms among healthy populations in Mainland China.We systematically reviewed published epidemiological studies on the distributions of 3 genetic variants in Chinese healthy populations living in Mainland China through a meta-analysis. The relevant electronic databases were searched. All of the raw data of the eligible citations were extracted. The frequency estimates were stratified by geography, ethnicity and sex.Sixty-six studies were identified with a total of 92277 study participants. The meta-analysis revealed that the frequencies of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and MTRR A66G gene polymorphisms varied significantly between different ethnic groups and along geographical gradients. The frequencies of the 677T allele and 677TT genotype increased along the southern-central-northern direction across Mainland China (all Pvalues≤0.001. The frequencies of the 1298C, 1298CC, 66G and 66GG genotypes decreased along the south-central-north direction across the country (all Pvalues≤0.001.Our meta-analysis strongly indicates significant geographical and ethnic variations in the frequencies of the C677T, A1298C, and A66G gene polymorphisms in the folate metabolism pathway among Chinese populations.

  18. Predicting the geographic distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae and visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand the geographic distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS, Brazil, both the climatic niches of Lutzomyia longipalpis and VL cases were analysed. Distributional data were obtained from 55 of the 79 counties of MS between 2003-2012. Ecological niche models (ENM of Lu. longipalpis and VL cases were produced using the maximum entropy algorithm based on eight climatic variables. Lu. longipalpis showed a wide distribution in MS. The highest climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis was observed in southern MS. Temperature seasonality and annual mean precipitation were the variables that most influenced these models. Two areas of high climatic suitability for the occurrence of VL cases were predicted: one near Aquidauana and another encompassing several municipalities in the southeast region of MS. As expected, a large overlap between the models for Lu. longipalpis and VL cases was detected. Northern and northwestern areas of MS were suitable for the occurrence of cases, but did not show high climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis . ENM of vectors and human cases provided a greater understanding of the geographic distribution of VL in MS, which can be applied to the development of future surveillance strategies.

  19. Predicting the geographic distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) and visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Paulo Silva de; Sciamarelli, Alan; Batista, Paulo Mira; Ferreira, Ademar Dimas; Nascimento, João; Raizer, Josué; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-12-01

    To understand the geographic distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil, both the climatic niches of Lutzomyia longipalpis and VL cases were analysed. Distributional data were obtained from 55 of the 79 counties of MS between 2003-2012. Ecological niche models (ENM) of Lu. longipalpis and VL cases were produced using the maximum entropy algorithm based on eight climatic variables. Lu. longipalpis showed a wide distribution in MS. The highest climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis was observed in southern MS. Temperature seasonality and annual mean precipitation were the variables that most influenced these models. Two areas of high climatic suitability for the occurrence of VL cases were predicted: one near Aquidauana and another encompassing several municipalities in the southeast region of MS. As expected, a large overlap between the models for Lu. longipalpis and VL cases was detected. Northern and northwestern areas of MS were suitable for the occurrence of cases, but did not show high climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis. ENM of vectors and human cases provided a greater understanding of the geographic distribution of VL in MS, which can be applied to the development of future surveillance strategies.

  20. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas as surface ownership parcels dissolved on the same ownership classification. This map service was prepared to describe...

  1. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels (Generalized)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas as surface ownership parcels dissolved on the same ownership classification. This map service was prepared to describe...

  2. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels, detailed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ownership parcels of the surface estate. Each surface ownership parcel is tied to a particular legal transaction. The same...

  3. Racial Inequalities in Home Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Mary R.; Jackman, Robert W.

    1980-01-01

    Throughout the United States, the probability of home ownership is considerably lower for Blacks than for Whites who are comparable in terms of socioeconomic characteristics, family composition, and location. Outside the South, Black owner-occupied homes are worth considerably less than the homes of comparable Whites. (Author/GC)

  4. Inclusive Ownership of Participatory Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druin, Allison

    2014-01-01

    This discussion explores the journal's special issue from the construct of ownership and how it relates to participatory design. I examine the articles of researchers from Europe and the United States which offer data-centered perspectives and data-driven suggestions. These works suggest how to best involve different stakeholders and I examine how…

  5. The Total Cost of Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, C. William

    2000-01-01

    Examines what Total Cost of Ownership is regarding the purchase of technological resources for schools and the major expenses that are likely to occur after technological hardware and software have been installed. A list of best practices that can reduce costs approximately 15 percent and a checklist for technology budgeting are provided. (GR)

  6. The Art of Cloaking Ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalders, Gerard; Wiebes, Cees

    1996-01-01

    After years of intensive research in archives throughout Europe and the U.S., the authors of The Art of Cloaking Ownership discovered that firms located in 'neutral' Sweden supported the Nazis' financial and industrial leadership. The case of Enskilda, a bank owned by the still powerful Wallenberg f

  7. Corporate Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    to be relatively inefficient since they lack monitoring by residual claimants and access to equity finance from the stock market. Nevertheless, empirical research (Thomsen 1996) has found that Danish foundation-owned companies do no worse in terms of profitability and growth than companies with dispersed ownership...

  8. 47 CFR 73.3555 - Multiple ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section, the local radio multiple ownership rule). (3) To determine how many media... (released July 8, 1991), in order to determine whether common ownership, operation, or control of the... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple ownership. 73.3555 Section 73.3555...

  9. Ownership of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-02-01

    As teachers of chemistry, we deal with information, knowledge, and, if we are fortunate, even wisdom. An important part of what we do involves giving students access to information and devising better ways to help them assimilate it. Beyond that, we can help them gain knowledge and understanding. Ultimately we hope that the knowledge they gain will help them to make wise choices about their own and society's collective futures. We often view ourselves as altruistic providers of information, but of course our students do pay tuition fees and thereby at least part of our salaries. In that sense we can think of ourselves as involved in an information industry. We provide what has come to be called intellectual property in return for a salary from a school, college, or university that in turn has collected fees from those who value that intellectual property. Those of us who write books or create multimedia materials are even more closely allied with the information industry. Computers and the Internet have produced a quantum jump in the ease of dissemination, reception, and reproduction of large quantities of information. That has stimulated reexamination of conventional thinking about intellectual property, making copyrights, patents, and trademarks a red-hot area for lawyers. Insofar as we teachers are disseminators of intellectual property, we are going to be affected by the changes that will certainly happen in the laws, customs, and ethics that apply to ownership of information and of the means by which it is exchanged among members of our society. In other words, we need to pay attention to the current ferment regarding intellectual property, doing our best to ensure that the decisions made do not prevent us from teaching in the best ways we know. Available options, all of which have vocal proponents, range from complete freedom of copying and disseminating information through a level of control in which essentially every bit or byte delivered carries with it a

  10. The large-scale distribution of ammonia oxidizers in paddy soils is driven by soil pH, geographic distance and climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangwei eHu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paddy soils distribute widely from temperate to tropical regions, and are characterized by intensive nitrogen fertilization practices in China. Mounting evidence has confirmed the functional importance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and bacteria (AOB in soil nitrification, but little is known about their biogeographic distribution patterns in paddy ecosystems. Here, we used barcoded pyrosequencing to characterize the effects of climatic, geochemical and spatial factors on the distribution of ammonia oxidizers from 11 representative rice-growing regions (75-1945 km apart of China. Potential nitrification rates varied greatly by more than three orders of magnitude, and were significantly correlated with the abundances of AOA and AOB. The community composition of ammonia oxidizer was affected by multiple factors, but changes in relative abundances of the major lineages could be best predicted by soil pH. The alpha diversity of AOA and AOB displayed contrasting trends over the gradients of latitude and atmospheric temperature, indicating a possible niche separation between AOA and AOB along the latitude. The Bray-Curtis dissimilarities in ammonia-oxidizing community structure significantly increased with increasing geographical distance, indicating that more geographically distant paddy fields tend to harbor more dissimilar ammonia oxidizers. Variation partitioning analysis revealed that spatial, geochemical and climatic factors could jointly explain majority of the data variation, and were important drivers defining the ecological niches of AOA and AOB. Our findings suggest that both AOA and AOB are of functional importance in paddy soil nitrification, and ammonia oxidizers in paddy ecosystems exhibit large-scale biogeographic patterns shaped by soil pH, geographic distance, and climatic factors.

  11. Diagnostic description and geographic distribution of four new cryptic species of the blue-spotted maskray species complex (Myliobatoidei: Dasyatidae; Neotrygon spp.) based on DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, Philippe; Arlyza, Irma S.; Hoareau, Thierry B.; Shen, Kang-Ning

    2017-08-01

    Nine morphologically similar but genetically distinct lineages in the blue-spotted maskray species complex, previously Neotrygon kuhlii (Müller and Henle) qualify as cryptic species. Four of these lineages have been previously described as Neotrygon australiae Last, White and Séret, Neotrygon caeruleopunctata Last, White and Séret, Neotrygon orientale Last, White and Séret, and Neotrygon varidens (Garman), but the morphological characters used in the descriptions offered poor diagnoses and their geographic distributions were not delineated precisely. The objective of the present work is to complete the description of the cryptic species in the complex. Here, an additional four lineages are described as new species on the basis of their mitochondrial DNA sequences: Neotrygon bobwardi, whose distribution extends from the northern tip of Aceh to the western coast of Sumatera; Neotrygon malaccensis, sampled from the eastern part of the Andaman Sea and from the Malacca Strait; Neotrygon moluccensis, from the eastern half of the Banda Sea; and Neotrygon westpapuensis from the central portion of northern West Papua. The geographic distributions of N. australiae, N. coeruleopunctata, N. orientale, and N. varidens are updated. For each species, a diagnosis is provided in the form of a combination of private or partly-private nucleotides at 2-4 nucleotide sites along a 519-base pair fragment of the CO1 gene. We believe that the present taxonomic revision will provide information relevant to the sound management and conservation of cryptic species of the blue-spotted maskray in the Coral Triangle region.

  12. So far away, yet so close: strong genetic structure in Homonota uruguayensis (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae, a species with restricted geographic distribution in the Brazilian and Uruguayan Pampas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica F Felappi

    Full Text Available The Pampas is a biologically rich South American biome, but is poorly represented in phylogeographic studies. While the Pleistocene glacial cycles may have affected the evolutionary history of species distributed in forested biomes, little is known about their effects on the habitats that remained stable through glacial cycles. The South American Pampas have been covered by grasslands during both glacial and interglacial periods and therefore represent an interesting system to test whether the genetic structure in such environments is less pronounced. In this study, we sampled Pampean populations of Homonota uruguayensis from Southern Brazil and Uruguay to assess the tempo and mode of population divergence, using both morphological measurements and molecular markers. Our results indicate that, in spite of its narrow geographic distribution, populations of H. uruguayensis show high levels of genetic structure. We found four major well-supported mtDNA clades with strong geographic associations. Estimates of their divergence times fell between 3.16 and 1.82 million years before the present. Populations from the central portion of the species distribution, on the border between Uruguay and Brazil, have high genetic diversity and may have undergone a population expansion approximately 250,000 years before the present. The high degree of genetic structure is reflected in the analyses of morphological characters, and most individuals could be correctly assigned to their parental population based on morphology alone. Finally, we discuss the biogeographic and conservation implications of these findings.

  13. Modeling the distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and host snails in Uganda using satellite sensor data and Geographical Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Jørgensen, A; Kabatereine, N B

    2005-01-01

    by developing annual and seasonal composite models, and iteratively analysing for their relationship with parasite and snail distribution. The dry season composite model predicted an endemic area that produced the best fit with the distribution of schools with > or =5% prevalence. NDVI values of 151-174, day...

  14. Extended geographical distribution and host range of the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera Pyralidae)in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field exploration was conducted to confirm the southernmost distribution of Cactoblastis cactorum in Argentina. The distribution of the moth was extended to the south (40° 10´S) and west (66° 56´W). The native Opuntia penicilligera was recorded as a host for the first time. These findings should ...

  15. Choice of Ownership Structure and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Derek C; Kalmi, Panu; Mygind, Niels

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use rich panel data for a representative sample of Estonian enterprises to analysediverse issues related to the determinants of ownership structures and ownership changes afterprivatisation. A key focus is to determine whether ownership changes are related to economicefficiency....... While employee owned firms are found to be much more prone than other firms toswitch ownership categories, often `employee owned' firms remain `insider-owned' as ownershippasses from current employees to managers and former employees. Logit analyses of thedeterminants of ownership structures...... and ownership changes provides mixed support for severalhypotheses. As predicted: (i) wealth and resource constraints play a crucial role in thedetermination of ownership, with foreigners buying firms with the highest equity levels andinsiders buying firms with the lowest equity valuations; (ii) risk aversion...

  16. The Development of Employee Ownership in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels; Faigen, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    data, the purpose of this paper is to identify drivers of, and barriers to, the development of employee ownership in China. Design/methodology/approach: The scattered evidence from the literature and official statistical sources are collected and structured in a systematic analysis where the drivers...... and barriers for employee ownership in the transition process from plan to market are identified at three levels: society, the company and the individual. Findings: Employee ownership developed as a transitory stage between state and private ownership; employees acquired ownership stakes as part...... of the privatisation of small- and medium-sized state-owned enterprises as well as collectively owned enterprises. However, in most cases the dynamics of ownership resulted in dominant ownership by managers. This trend became more noticeable at later stages of the privatisation process. Research limitations...

  17. Trends in Employee Ownership in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Employee-owned companies are those where the broad group of employees owns the majority of shares. They have been widespread in the early transition process in Eastern Europe. This raises the question of why this type of ownership was so frequently used in some of the countries involved, and why...... there was a subsequent rapid transfer to manager ownership or outside ownership. This article gives a theoretical overview of the factors driving and hampering employee ownership, and develops hypotheses about how the transition process provided specific conditions for the development of these firms. The predictions...... employee ownership. The article concludes that privatization was the main determinant for the initial spread of employee ownership. However, other factors undermined the sustainability of employee-owned firms. No institutions created a framework for employee ownership. The long and deep production crisis...

  18. Padrões de distribuição geográfica dos gêneros de Eriocaulaceae Patterns of geographic distribution of the genera of Eriocaulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Giulietti

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados neste trabalho, os padrões de distribuição geográfica dos gêneros de Eriocaulaceae, com ênfase nos gêneros americanos. A divisão genérica da família especialmente na região neotropical ainda não é definitiva, porém existem alguns padrões de distribuição que podem ser detectados. Os nove gêneros americanos, incluem-se em quatro padrões gerais de distribuição: amplamente distribuídos nos trópicos; amplamente distribuído na Africa e América do Sul; limitado a América do Norte; limitado a América do Sul.A review of the distribution patterns of the genera of Eriocaulaceae are presented. The present state of the systematics of the family in the Neotropics does not allow for conclusive interpretations on the geographical distribution, but the nine American genera fall into four broad distributional categories: widely distributed throughout the tropics; widely distributed in Africa and Neotropics; limited to North America and limited to South America. These distributions are discussed and interpreted.

  19. A review of the current geographic distribution of and debate surrounding electronic cigarette clean air regulations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Joy; Vuolo, Mike; Kelly, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the results of a systematic review of state, county, and municipal restrictions on the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in public spaces within the United States, alongside an overview of the current legal landscape. The lack of federal guidance leaves lower-level jurisdictions to debate the merits of restrictions on use in public spaces without sufficient scientific research. As we show through a geographic assessment of restrictions, this has resulted in an inconsistent patchwork of e-cigarette use bans across the United States of varying degrees of coverage. Bans have emerged over time in a manner that suggests a "bottom up" diffusion of e-cigarette clean air policies. Ultimately, the lack of clinical and scientific knowledge on the risks and potential harm reduction benefits has led to precautionary policymaking, which often lacks grounding in empirical evidence and results in spatially uneven diffusion of policy.

  20. Diversity, geographic distribution, and habitat-specific variations of microbi