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Sample records for geocom code final

  1. Geothermal wells: the cost benefit of fracture stimulation estimated by the GEOCOM code. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.L.

    1983-09-01

    GEOCOM, a computer code that provides life cycle cost/benefit analysis of completion technologies applied to geothermal wells, is used to study fracture stimulation techniques. it is estimated that stimulation must increase flow by roughly tons per $100,000 in order to be cost effective. Typically, hydraulic fracturing costs $100,000 to $500,000 per well, and the attempts at stimulation to date have generally not achieved the desired flow increases. The cost effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing is considered for several geothermal reservoirs.

  2. FinalReferencing within Code in Software Engineering Education!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HILL Gary; TURNER Scott

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally computer sciences courses will assess software code. It is common and accepted good practice (as in written reports) to reference other sources of appropriate material. However there appears to be no explicit method, recommendation or advice available to computer science tutors and students on a referencing approach! This paper aims to stimulate discussion from peers involved in software engineering education. By discussing the apparent lack of "referencing within code" advice to students and proposing suggestions for appropriate solutions. This will be based on the authors' experience of assessing code and the current advice given to their students.

  3. Final Technical Report: Hydrogen Codes and Standards Outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Karen I.

    2007-05-12

    This project contributed significantly to the development of new codes and standards, both domestically and internationally. The NHA collaborated with codes and standards development organizations to identify technical areas of expertise that would be required to produce the codes and standards that industry and DOE felt were required to facilitate commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and infrastructure. NHA staff participated directly in technical committees and working groups where issues could be discussed with the appropriate industry groups. In other cases, the NHA recommended specific industry experts to serve on technical committees and working groups where the need for this specific industry expertise would be on-going, and where this approach was likely to contribute to timely completion of the effort. The project also facilitated dialog between codes and standards development organizations, hydrogen and fuel cell experts, the government and national labs, researchers, code officials, industry associations, as well as the public regarding the timeframes for needed codes and standards, industry consensus on technical issues, procedures for implementing changes, and general principles of hydrogen safety. The project facilitated hands-on learning, as participants in several NHA workshops and technical meetings were able to experience hydrogen vehicles, witness hydrogen refueling demonstrations, see metal hydride storage cartridges in operation, and view other hydrogen energy products.

  4. Final report for hydrologic studies support: INTERCOMP code conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimura, V.

    1982-01-11

    Mass and energy balance errors noted in a number of IBM-executed problems are caused by the lack of precision in computing total mass and energy values for a domain. This problem is evident in domains constructed with highly variable mesh sizes during the early time of simulation. The machine round-off was corrected by double-precisioning certain calculations for mass and energy balance. Small differences that exist between the improved INTERCOMP code operating on an IBM machine and the old version on a CDC machine seem unimportant. The noted differences are greatest at an onset of physical system perturbation. These differences diminish rapidly with each succeeding time step. Comparisons with numerical and analytical solutions appear to prove authenticity of code results. Numerical comparisons with the CCC computer code on the Mobile experiment data demonstrate the advantage of using aquifer influence functions in place of an infinitely large mesh. The one-dimensional heat transfer in the overburden and underburden appears sufficiently accurate to describe aquifer heat losses.

  5. Final Report for National Transport Code Collaboration PTRANSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold H. Kritz

    2012-06-14

    PTRANSP, which is the predictive version of the TRANSP code, was developed in a collaborative effort involving the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, General Atomics Corporation, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Lehigh University. The PTRANSP/TRANSP suite of codes is the premier integrated tokamak modeling software in the United States. A production service for PTRANSP/TRANSP simulations is maintained at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory; the server has a simple command line client interface and is subscribed to by about 100 researchers from tokamak projects in the US, Europe, and Asia. This service produced nearly 13000 PTRANSP/TRANSP simulations in the four year period FY 2005 through FY 2008. Major archives of TRANSP results are maintained at PPPL, MIT, General Atomics, and JET. Recent utilization, counting experimental analysis simulations as well as predictive simulations, more than doubled from slightly over 2000 simulations per year in FY 2005 and FY 2006 to over 4300 simulations per year in FY 2007 and FY 2008. PTRANSP predictive simulations applied to ITER increased eight fold from 30 simulations per year in FY 2005 and FY 2006 to 240 simulations per year in FY 2007 and FY 2008, accounting for more than half of combined PTRANSP/TRANSP service CPU resource utilization in FY 2008. PTRANSP studies focused on ITER played a key role in journal articles. Examples of validation studies carried out for momentum transport in PTRANSP simulations were presented at the 2008 IAEA conference. The increase in number of PTRANSP simulations has continued (more than 7000 TRANSP/PTRANSP simulations in 2010) and results of PTRANSP simulations appear in conference proceedings, for example the 2010 IAEA conference, and in peer reviewed papers. PTRANSP provides a bridge to the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) and to the future of integrated modeling. Through years of widespread usage, each of the many parts of the PTRANSP suite of codes has been thoroughly

  6. A transient, Hex-Z nodal code corrected by discontinuity factors. Volume 1: The transient nodal code; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shatilla, Y.A.M.; Henry, A.F.

    1993-12-31

    This document constitutes Volume 1 of the Final Report of a three-year study supported by the special Research Grant Program for Nuclear Energy Research set up by the US Department of Energy. The original motivation for the work was to provide a fast and accurate computer program for the analysis of transients in heavy water or graphite-moderated reactors being considered as candidates for the New Production Reactor. Thus, part of the funding was by way of pass-through money from the Savannah River Laboratory. With this intent in mind, a three-dimensional (Hex-Z), general-energy-group transient, nodal code was created, programmed, and tested. In order to improve accuracy, correction terms, called {open_quotes}discontinuity factors,{close_quotes} were incorporated into the nodal equations. Ideal values of these factors force the nodal equations to provide node-integrated reaction rates and leakage rates across nodal surfaces that match exactly those edited from a more exact reference calculation. Since the exact reference solution is needed to compute the ideal discontinuity factors, the fact that they result in exact nodal equations would be of little practical interest were it not that approximate discontinuity factors, found at a greatly reduced cost, often yield very accurate results. For example, for light-water reactors, discontinuity factors found from two-dimensional, fine-mesh, multigroup transport solutions for two-dimensional cuts of a fuel assembly provide very accurate predictions of three-dimensional, full-core power distributions. The present document (volume 1) deals primarily with the specification, programming and testing of the three-dimensional, Hex-Z computer program. The program solves both the static (eigenvalue) and transient, general-energy-group, nodal equations corrected by user-supplied discontinuity factors.

  7. Analysis of airborne radiometric data. Volume 2. Description, listing, and operating instructions for the code DELPHI/MAZAS. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, M.; Shreve, D.C.

    1978-12-01

    The computer code DELPHI is an interactive English language command system for the analysis of airborne radiometric data. The code includes modules for data reduction, data simulation, time filtering, data adjustment and graphical presentation of the results. DELPHI is implemented in FORTRAN on a DEC-10 computer. This volume gives a brief set of operations instructions, samples of the output obtained from hard copies of the display on a Tektronix terminal and finally a listing of the code.

  8. The International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters: Finalization, Adoption and Law of the Sea Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Jensen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The most recent instrument specifically designed to make navigation in polar waters safer and more environmentally friendly is the International Maritime Organization's long-awaited “International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters” – the Polar Code. This article first briefly examines the legislative history of the Code, with emphasis on the final and consolidating phase of development. Second, an account is provided of the main contents of the Code as regards its regulations on safety measures and pollution prevention. Finally, the analysis places the new framework in the broader context of international law, including an examination of the Polar Code's relationship to specific provisions and legislative arrangements of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

  9. Final Report. An Integrated Partnership to Create and Lead the Solar Codes and Standards Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Andrew [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2013-12-30

    The DOE grant, “An Integrated Partnership to Create and Lead the Solar Codes and Standards Working Group,” to New Mexico State University created the Solar America Board for Codes and Standards (Solar ABCs). From 2007 – 2013 with funding from this grant, Solar ABCs identified current issues, established a dialogue among key stakeholders, and catalyzed appropriate activities to support the development of codes and standards that facilitated the installation of high quality, safe photovoltaic systems. Solar ABCs brought the following resources to the PV stakeholder community; Formal coordination in the planning or revision of interrelated codes and standards removing “stove pipes” that have only roofing experts working on roofing codes, PV experts on PV codes, fire enforcement experts working on fire codes, etc.; A conduit through which all interested stakeholders were able to see the steps being taken in the development or modification of codes and standards and participate directly in the processes; A central clearing house for new documents, standards, proposed standards, analytical studies, and recommendations of best practices available to the PV community; A forum of experts that invites and welcomes all interested parties into the process of performing studies, evaluating results, and building consensus on standards and code-related topics that affect all aspects of the market; and A biennial gap analysis to formally survey the PV community to identify needs that are unmet and inhibiting the market and necessary technical developments.

  10. Establishment of a New Drug Code for Marihuana Extract. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    The Drug Enforcement Administration is creating a new Administration Controlled Substances Code Number for "Marihuana Extract." This code number will allow DEA and DEA-registered entities to track quantities of this material separately from quantities of marihuana. This, in turn, will aid in complying with relevant treaty provisions. Under international drug control treaties administered by the United Nations, some differences exist between the regulatory controls pertaining to marihuana extract versus those for marihuana and tetrahydrocannabinols. The DEA has previously established separate code numbers for marihuana and for tetrahydrocannabinols, but not for marihuana extract. To better track these materials and comply with treaty provisions, DEA is creating a separate code number for marihuana extract with the following definition: "Meaning an extract containing one or more cannabinoids that has been derived from any plant of the genus Cannabis, other than the separated resin (whether crude or purified) obtained from the plant." Extracts of marihuana will continue to be treated as Schedule I controlled substances.

  11. Final Technical Report for GO17004 Regulatory Logic: Codes and Standards for the Hydrogen Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakarado, Gary L. [Regulatory Logic LLC, Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-22

    The objectives of this project are to: develop a robust supporting research and development program to provide critical hydrogen behavior data and a detailed understanding of hydrogen combustion and safety across a range of scenarios, needed to establish setback distances in building codes and minimize the overall data gaps in code development; support and facilitate the completion of technical specifications by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for gaseous hydrogen refueling (TS 20012) and standards for on-board liquid (ISO 13985) and gaseous or gaseous blend (ISO 15869) hydrogen storage by 2007; support and facilitate the effort, led by the NFPA, to complete the draft Hydrogen Technologies Code (NFPA 2) by 2008; with experimental data and input from Technology Validation Program element activities, support and facilitate the completion of standards for bulk hydrogen storage (e.g., NFPA 55) by 2008; facilitate the adoption of the most recently available model codes (e.g., from the International Code Council [ICC]) in key regions; complete preliminary research and development on hydrogen release scenarios to support the establishment of setback distances in building codes and provide a sound basis for model code development and adoption; support and facilitate the development of Global Technical Regulations (GTRs) by 2010 for hydrogen vehicle systems under the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations and Working Party on Pollution and Energy Program (ECE-WP29/GRPE); and to Support and facilitate the completion by 2012 of necessary codes and standards needed for the early commercialization and market entry of hydrogen energy technologies.

  12. Validation of coupled neutronic / thermal-hydraulic codes for VVER reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittag, S.; Grundmann, U.; Kliem, S.; Kozmenkov, Y.; Rindelhardt, U.; Rohde, U.; Weiss, F.-P.; Langenbuch, S.; Krzykacz-Hausmann, B.; Schmidt, K.-D.; Vanttola, T.; Haemaelaeinen, A.; Kaloinen, E.; Kereszturi, A.; Hegyi, G.; Panka, I.; Hadek, J.; Strmensky, C.; Darilek, P.; Petkov, P.; Stefanova, S.; Kuchin, A.; Khalimonchuk, V.; Hlbocky, P.; Sico, D.; Danilin, S.; Ionov, V.; Nikonov, S.; Powney, D.

    2004-08-01

    In recent years, the simulation methods for the safety analysis of nuclear power plants have been continuously improved to perform realistic calculations. Therefore in VALCO work package 2 (WP 2), the usual application of coupled neutron-kinetic / thermal-hydraulic codes to VVER has been supplemented by systematic uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. A comprehensive uncertainty analysis has been carried out. The GRS uncertainty and sensitivity method based on the statistical code package SUSA was applied to the two transients studied earlier in SRR-1/95: A load drop of one turbo-generator in Loviisa-1 (VVER-440), and a switch-off of one feed water pump in Balakovo-4 (VVER-1000). The main steps of these analyses and the results obtained by applying different coupled code systems (SMABRE - HEXTRAN, ATHLET - DYN3D, ATHLET - KIKO3D, ATHLET - BIPR-8) are described in this report. The application of this method is only based on variations of input parameter values. No internal code adjustments are needed. An essential result of the analysis using the GRS SUSA methodology is the identification of the input parameters, such as the secondary-circuit pressure, the control-assembly position (as a function of time), and the control-assembly efficiency, that most sensitively affect safety-relevant output parameters, like reactor power, coolant heat-up, and primary pressure. Uncertainty bands for these output parameters have been derived. The variation of potentially uncertain input parameter values as a consequence of uncertain knowledge can activate system actions causing quite different transient evolutions. This gives indications about possible plant conditions that might be reached from the initiating event assuming only small disturbances. In this way, the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis reveals the spectrum of possible transient evolutions. Deviations of SRR-1/95 coupled code calculations from measurements also led to the objective to separate neutron kinetics from

  13. Distributed video coding for arrays of remote sensing nodes : final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecimore, Ivan (New Mexico State University); Creusere, Chuck D. (New Mexico State University); Merchant, Bion John

    2010-06-01

    This document is the final report for the Sandia National Laboratory funded Student Fellowship position at New Mexico State University (NMSU) from 2008 to 2010. Ivan Mecimore, the PhD student in Electrical Engineering at NMSU, was conducting research into image and video processing techniques to identify features and correlations within images without requiring the decoding of the data compression. Such an analysis technique would operate on the encoded bit stream, potentially saving considerable processing time when operating on a platform that has limited computational resources. Unfortunately, the student has elected in mid-year not to continue with his research or the fellowship position. The student is unavailable to provide any details of his research for inclusion in this final report. As such, this final report serves solely to document the information provided in the previous end of year summary.

  14. Final Report A Multi-Language Environment For Programmable Code Optimization and Empirical Tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Qing [Univ. of Colorado, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Whaley, Richard Clint [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Qasem, Apan [Texas State Univ., San Marcos, TX (United States); Quinlan, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-11-23

    This report summarizes our effort and results of building an integrated optimization environment to effectively combine the programmable control and the empirical tuning of source-to-source compiler optimizations within the framework of multiple existing languages, specifically C, C++, and Fortran. The environment contains two main components: the ROSE analysis engine, which is based on the ROSE C/C++/Fortran2003 source-to-source compiler developed by Co-PI Dr.Quinlan et. al at DOE/LLNL, and the POET transformation engine, which is based on an interpreted program transformation language developed by Dr. Yi at University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). The ROSE analysis engine performs advanced compiler analysis, identifies profitable code transformations, and then produces output in POET, a language designed to provide programmable control of compiler optimizations to application developers and to support the parameterization of architecture-sensitive optimizations so that their configurations can be empirically tuned later. This POET output can then be ported to different machines together with the user application, where a POET-based search engine empirically reconfigures the parameterized optimizations until satisfactory performance is found. Computational specialists can write POET scripts to directly control the optimization of their code. Application developers can interact with ROSE to obtain optimization feedback as well as provide domain-specific knowledge and high-level optimization strategies. The optimization environment is expected to support different levels of automation and programmer intervention, from fully-automated tuning to semi-automated development and to manual programmable control.

  15. Fluid-structure interaction in BWR suppression pool systems. Final report. [PELE-IC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1979-09-01

    The discharge of safety relief valves or a severe loss-of-coolant event in a boiling-water-cooled reactor steam supply system triggers a complex pressure suppression system that is based upon sub-surface steam condensation in large pools of water. The physical problems fall into two categories. The first is referred to as vent clearing and describes the process of expelling non-condensables from the system prior to steam flow. The second category covers a variety of phenomena related to the transient overexpansion of a condensable volume and the subsequent inertially-driven volume decrease. The dynamic loading of either event, depending upon fluid-structural design parameters, can be of concern in safety analysis. This report describes the development of a method for calculating the loads and the structural response for both types of problems. The method is embedded in a computer code, called PELE-IC, that couples a two-dimensional, incompressible eulerian fluid algorithm to a finite element shell algorithm. The fluid physics is based upon the SOLA algorithm, which provideds a trial velocity field using the Navier-Stokes equations that is subsequently corrected iteratively so that incompressibility, fluid-structure interface compatibility, and boundary conditions are satisfied. These fluid and fluid-structure algorithms have been extensively verified through calculations of known solutions from the classical literature, and by comparison to air and steam blowdown experiments.

  16. Code development incorporating environmental, safety, and economic aspects of fusion reactors (FY 92--94). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, S.K.; Fowler, T.K.; Holdren, J.P. [eds.

    1994-11-01

    This is the Final Report for a three-year (FY 92--94) study of the Environmental, Safety, and Economic (ESE) aspects of fusion energy systems, emphasizing development of computerized approaches suitable for incorporation as modules in fusion system design codes. First, as is reported in Section 2, the authors now have operating a simplified but complete environment and safety evaluation code, BESAFE. The first tests of BESAFE as a module of the SUPERCODE, a design optimization systems code at LLNL, are reported in Section 3. Secondly, as reported in Section 4, the authors have maintained a strong effort in developing fast calculational schemes for activation inventory evaluation. In addition to these major accomplishments, considerable progress has been made on research on specific topics as follows. A tritium modeling code TRIDYN was developed in collaboration with the TSTA group at LANL and the Fusion Nuclear Technology group at UCLA. A simplified algorithm has been derived to calculate the transient temperature profiles in the blanket during accidents. The scheme solves iteratively a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations describing about 10 regions of the blanket by preserving energy balance. The authors have studied the physics and engineering aspects of divertor modeling for safety applications. Several modifications in the automation and characterization of environmental and safety indices have been made. They have applied this work to the environmental and safety comparisons of stainless steel with alternative structural materials for fusion reactors. A methodology in decision analysis utilizing influence and decision diagrams has been developed to model fusion reactor design problems. Most of the work during this funding period has been reported in 26 publications including theses, journal publications, conference papers, and technical reports, as listed in Section 11.

  17. TECATE - a code for anisotropic thermoelasticity in high-average-power laser technology. Phase 1 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelinas, R.J.; Doss, S.K.; Carlson, N.N.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes a totally Eulerian code for anisotropic thermoelasticity (code name TECATE) which may be used in evaluations of prospective crystal media for high-average-power lasers. The present TECATE code version computes steady-state distributions of material temperatures, stresses, strains, and displacement fields in 2-D slab geometry. Numerous heat source and coolant boundary condition options are available in the TECATE code for laser design considerations. Anisotropic analogues of plane stress and plane strain evaluations can be executed for any and all crystal symmetry classes. As with all new and/or large physics codes, it is likely that some code imperfections will emerge at some point in time.

  18. NASAP: a computer code for the evaluation of the Non-proliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program concepts. Final report in support of Task 2. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maul, B.A.

    1979-09-01

    The Non-Proliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) computer code was developed to calculate the LWR and NASAP choice reactor cost through an arbitrary year T/sub N/. The final cost is arrived at by calculation of cost contributory factors for both LWR and NASAP choice reactors.

  19. Telemetry coding study for the international magnetosphere explorers, mother/daughter and heliocentric missions. Volume 2: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    A convolutional coding theory is given for the IME and the Heliocentric spacecraft. The amount of coding gain needed by the mission is determined. Recommendations are given for an encoder/decoder system to provide the gain along with an evaluation of the impact of the system on the space network in terms of costs and complexity.

  20. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  1. Literature and data review and compilation. Final topical report. [Mathematical codes describing fluidized bed gasifiers, CHEMFLUB and FLAG; 215 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matulevicius, E.S.; Golan, L.P.; Heard, W.B.; Bhagat, P.M.; Segev, A.

    1984-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a database for the evaluation and validation of mathematical codes describing fluidized bed gasifiers. This review was prompted by the need to evaluate two numerical codes, CHEMFLUB and FLAG, developed under Department of Energy sponsorship. Because of fundamental nature of the codes, they may possibly be used as a potential method for minimizing the cost and time required to develop and commercialize fluidized bed gasifiers. In order to have the confidence that these codes can accurately predict fluidization and gasification phenonmena, a logical and systematic comparison of the codes against key correlations is required. This review contains the necessary data and correlations for this evaluation. Previously developed computer models of fluidized bed gasifiers are empirical in nature. Hence, they are useful only in regions where the assumptions are valid. On the other hand, CHEMFLUB and FLAG begin with a fundamental description of the fluid mechanics, chemistry and heat transfer relationships. Because of this, there is promise that these models could be used in areas where experimental information is not readily available, to address issues of scale-up, and to examine transient phenomena often associated with operating and safety issues. In order to have confidence that the models are able to predict gasifier behavior, it is necessary that key physical parameters be efficiently and accurately calculated. This review divides the database required into two major areas, gasification kinetics, and fluidization behavior. The review is not intended to critically analyze all the information in the literature. Rather, it is a selective review of the literature, tailored to provide the necessary data to evaluate and validate the codes. 215 references.

  2. A new code for modelling the near field diffusion releases from the final disposal of nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vopálka, D.; Vokál, A.

    2003-01-01

    The canisters with spent nuclear fuel produced during the operation of WWER reactors at the Czech power plants are planned, like in other countries, to be disposed of in an underground repository. Canisters will be surrounded by compacted bentonite that will retard the migration of safety-relevant radionuclides into the host rock. A new code that enables the modelling of the critical radionuclides transport from the canister through the bentonite layer in the cylindrical geometry was developed. The code enables to solve the diffusion equation for various types of initial and boundary conditions by means of the finite difference method and to take into account the non-linear shape of the sorption isotherm. A comparison of the code reported here with code PAGODA, which is based on analytical solution of the transport equation, was made for the actinide chain 4N+3 that includes 239Pu. A simple parametric study of the releases of 239Pu, 129I, and 14C into geosphere is discussed.

  3. Phrase-Final Prepositions in Quebec French: An Empirical Study of Contact, Code-Switching and Resistance to Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate whether preposition stranding, a stereotypical non-standard feature of North American French, results from convergence with English, and the role of bilingual code-switchers in its adoption and diffusion. Establishing strict criteria for the validation of contact-induced change, we make use of the comparative…

  4. Final Report for "Implimentation and Evaluation of Multigrid Linear Solvers into Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Codes for Petascale Computing"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinath Vadlamani; Scott Kruger; Travis Austin

    2008-06-19

    Extended magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) codes are used to model the large, slow-growing instabilities that are projected to limit the performance of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The multiscale nature of the extended MHD equations requires an implicit approach. The current linear solvers needed for the implicit algorithm scale poorly because the resultant matrices are so ill-conditioned. A new solver is needed, especially one that scales to the petascale. The most successful scalable parallel processor solvers to date are multigrid solvers. Applying multigrid techniques to a set of equations whose fundamental modes are dispersive waves is a promising solution to CEMM problems. For the Phase 1, we implemented multigrid preconditioners from the HYPRE project of the Center for Applied Scientific Computing at LLNL via PETSc of the DOE SciDAC TOPS for the real matrix systems of the extended MHD code NIMROD which is a one of the primary modeling codes of the OFES-funded Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) SciDAC. We implemented the multigrid solvers on the fusion test problem that allows for real matrix systems with success, and in the process learned about the details of NIMROD data structures and the difficulties of inverting NIMROD operators. The further success of this project will allow for efficient usage of future petascale computers at the National Leadership Facilities: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center. The project will be a collaborative effort between computational plasma physicists and applied mathematicians at Tech-X Corporation, applied mathematicians Front Range Scientific Computations, Inc. (who are collaborators on the HYPRE project), and other computational plasma physicists involved with the CEMM project.

  5. Holographic codes

    CERN Document Server

    Latorre, Jose I

    2015-01-01

    There exists a remarkable four-qutrit state that carries absolute maximal entanglement in all its partitions. Employing this state, we construct a tensor network that delivers a holographic many body state, the H-code, where the physical properties of the boundary determine those of the bulk. This H-code is made of an even superposition of states whose relative Hamming distances are exponentially large with the size of the boundary. This property makes H-codes natural states for a quantum memory. H-codes exist on tori of definite sizes and get classified in three different sectors characterized by the sum of their qutrits on cycles wrapped through the boundaries of the system. We construct a parent Hamiltonian for the H-code which is highly non local and finally we compute the topological entanglement entropy of the H-code.

  6. Commercial applications of solar total energy systems. Volume 4. Appendices. Final report. [Solar Total Energy System Evaluation Program (STESEP) code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boobar, M.G.; McFarland, B.L.; Nalbandian, S.J.; Willcox, W.W.; French, E.P.; Smith, K.E.

    1978-07-01

    A methodology has been developed by Atomics International under contract to the Department of Energy to define the applicability of solar total energy systems (STES) to the commercial sector (e.g., retail stores, shopping centers, offices, etc.) in the United States. Candidate STES concepts were selected to provide on-site power generation capability, as well as thermal energy for both heating and cooling applications. Each concept was evaluated on the basis of its cost effectiveness (i.e., as compared to other concepts) and its ability to ultimately penetrate and capture a significant segment of this market, thereby resulting in a saving of fossil fuel resources. This volume contains the appendices. Topics include deterministic insolation model computer code; building energy usage data; computer simulation programs for building energy demand analysis; model buildings for STES evaluation; Solar Total Energy System Evaluation Program (STESEP) computer code; transient simulation of STES concept; solar data tape analysis; program listings and sample output for use with TRNSYS; transient simulation, and financial parameters sensitivities. (WHK)

  7. Strong Trinucleotide Circular Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Michel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we identified a hierarchy relation between trinucleotide comma-free codes and trinucleotide circular codes (see our previous works. Here, we extend our hierarchy with two new classes of codes, called DLD and LDL codes, which are stronger than the comma-free codes. We also prove that no circular code with 20 trinucleotides is a DLD code and that a circular code with 20 trinucleotides is comma-free if and only if it is a LDL code. Finally, we point out the possible role of the symmetric group ∑4 in the mathematical study of trinucleotide circular codes.

  8. Development of safety analysis codes and experimental validation for a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh

    2006-03-01

    The very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is envisioned as a single- or dual-purpose reactor for electricity and hydrogen generation. The concept has average coolant temperatures above 9000C and operational fuel temperatures above 12500C. The concept provides the potential for increased energy conversion efficiency and for high-temperature process heat application in addition to power generation. While all the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) concepts have sufficiently high temperature to support process heat applications, such as coal gasification, desalination or cogenerative processes, the VHTR’s higher temperatures allow broader applications, including thermochemical hydrogen production. However, the very high temperatures of this reactor concept can be detrimental to safety if a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) occurs. Following the loss of coolant through the break and coolant depressurization, air will enter the core through the break by molecular diffusion and ultimately by natural convection, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. The oxidation will accelerate heatup of the reactor core and the release of toxic gasses (CO and CO2) and fission products. Thus, without any effective countermeasures, a pipe break may lead to significant fuel damage and fission product release. Prior to the start of this Korean/United States collaboration, no computer codes were available that had been sufficiently developed and validated to reliably simulate a LOCA in the VHTR. Therefore, we have worked for the past three years on developing and validating advanced computational methods for simulating LOCAs in a VHTR. Research Objectives As described above, a pipe break may lead to significant fuel damage and fission product release in the VHTR. The objectives of this Korean/United States collaboration were to develop and validate advanced computational methods for VHTR safety analysis. The methods that have been developed are now

  9. Space Time Codes from Permutation Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    A new class of space time codes with high performance is presented. The code design utilizes tailor-made permutation codes, which are known to have large minimal distances as spherical codes. A geometric connection between spherical and space time codes has been used to translate them into the final space time codes. Simulations demonstrate that the performance increases with the block lengths, a result that has been conjectured already in previous work. Further, the connection to permutation codes allows for moderate complex en-/decoding algorithms.

  10. Administrative simplification: change to the compliance date for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS) medical data code sets. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-04

    This final rule implements section 212 of the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014 by changing the compliance date for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) for diagnosis coding, including the Official ICD-10-CM Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, and the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS) for inpatient hospital procedure coding, including the Official ICD-10-PCS Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, from October 1, 2014 to October 1, 2015. It also requires the continued use of the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, Volumes 1 and 2 (diagnoses), and 3 (procedures) (ICD-9-CM), including the Official ICD-9-CM Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, through September 30, 2015.

  11. Hybrid Noncoherent Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Skachek, Vitaly; Nedic, Angelia

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel extension of subspace codes for noncoherent networks, suitable for use when the network is viewed as a communication system that introduces both dimension and symbol errors. We show that when symbol erasures occur in a significantly large number of different basis vectors transmitted through the network and when the min-cut of the networks is much smaller then the length of the transmitted codewords, the new family of codes outperforms their subspace code counterparts. For the proposed coding scheme, termed hybrid network coding, we derive two upper bounds on the size of the codes. These bounds represent a variation of the Singleton and of the sphere-packing bound. We show that a simple concatenated scheme that represents a combination of subspace codes and Reed-Solomon codes is asymptotically optimal with respect to the Singleton bound. Finally, we describe two efficient decoding algorithms for concatenated subspace codes that in certain cases have smaller complexity than subspace decoder...

  12. CENER/NREL Collaboration in Testing Facility and Code Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-207

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, P.

    2014-11-01

    Under the funds-in CRADA agreement, NREL and CENER will collaborate in the areas of blade and drivetrain testing facility development and code development. The project shall include NREL assisting in the review and instruction necessary to assist in commissioning the new CENER blade test and drivetrain test facilities. In addition, training will be provided by allowing CENER testing staff to observe testing and operating procedures at the NREL blade test and drivetrain test facilities. CENER and NREL will exchange blade and drivetrain facility and equipment design and performance information. The project shall also include exchanging expertise in code development and data to validate numerous computational codes.

  13. National Transport Code Collaboration (NTCC) PTRANSP, Final Report to the US Department of Energy for the Period August 1, 2007 Through July 31, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lao, Lang L. [General Atomics; St John, Holger [General Atomics; Staebler, Gary M. [General Atomics; Snyder, Phil B. [General Atomics

    2010-08-20

    This report describes the work done under U.S. Department of Energy grant number DE-FG02-07ER54935 for the period ending July 31, 2010. The goal of this project was to provide predictive transport analysis to the PTRANSP code. Our contribution to this effort consisted of three parts: (a) a predictive solver suitable for use with highly non-linear transport models and installation of the turbulent confinement models GLF23 and TGLF, (b) an interface of this solver with the PTRANSP code, and (c) initial development of an EPED1 edge pedestal model interface with PTRANSP. PTRANSP has been installed locally on this cluster by importing a complete PTRANSP build environment that always contains the proper version of the libraries and other object files that PTRANSP requires. The GCNMP package and its interface code have been added to the SVN repository at PPPL.

  14. Steady-State Gyrokinetics Transport Code (SSGKT), A Scientific Application Partnership with the Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahey, Mark R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Candy, Jeff [General Atomics

    2013-11-07

    This project initiated the development of TGYRO ? a steady-state Gyrokinetic transport code (SSGKT) that integrates micro-scale GYRO turbulence simulations into a framework for practical multi-scale simulation of conventional tokamaks as well as future reactors. Using a lightweight master transport code, multiple independent (each massively parallel) gyrokinetic simulations are coordinated. The capability to evolve profiles using the TGLF model was also added to TGYRO and represents a more typical use-case for TGYRO. The goal of the project was to develop a steady-state Gyrokinetic transport code (SSGKT) that integrates micro-scale gyrokinetic turbulence simulations into a framework for practical multi-scale simulation of a burning plasma core ? the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in particular. This multi-scale simulation capability will be used to predict the performance (the fusion energy gain, Q) given the H-mode pedestal temperature and density. At present, projections of this type rely on transport models like GLF23, which are based on rather approximate fits to the results of linear and nonlinear simulations. Our goal is to make these performance projections with precise nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The method of approach is to use a lightweight master transport code to coordinate multiple independent (each massively parallel) gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code. This project targets the practical multi-scale simulation of a reactor core plasma in order to predict the core temperature and density profiles given the H-mode pedestal temperature and density. A master transport code will provide feedback to O(16) independent gyrokinetic simulations (each massively parallel). A successful feedback scheme offers a novel approach to predictive modeling of an important national and international problem. Success in this area of fusion simulations will allow US scientists to direct the research path of ITER over the next two

  15. Software testing and source code for the calculation of clearance values. Final report; Erprobung von Software und Quellcode zur Berechnung von Freigabewerten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artmann, Andreas; Meyering, Henrich

    2016-11-15

    The GRS research project was aimed to the test the appropriateness of the software package ''residual radioactivity'' (RESRAD) for the calculation of clearance values according to German and European regulations. Comparative evaluations were performed with RESRAD-OFFSITE and the code SiWa-PRO DSS used by GRS and the GRS program code ARTM. It is recommended to use RESRAD-OFFSITE for comparative calculations. The dose relevant air-path dispersion of radionuclides should not be modeled using RESRAD-OFFSITE, the use of ARTM is recommended. The sensitivity analysis integrated into RESRAD-OFFSITE allows a fast identification of crucial parameters.

  16. FY08 LDRD Final Report A New Method for Wave Propagation in Elastic Media LDRD Project Tracking Code: 05-ERD-079

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, A

    2009-01-29

    The LDRD project 'A New Method for Wave Propagation in Elastic Media' developed several improvements to the traditional finite difference technique for seismic wave propagation, including a summation-by-parts discretization which is provably stable for arbitrary heterogeneous materials, an accurate treatment of non-planar topography, local mesh refinement, and stable outflow boundary conditions. This project also implemented these techniques in a parallel open source computer code called WPP, and participated in several seismic modeling efforts to simulate ground motion due to earthquakes in Northern California. This research has been documented in six individual publications which are summarized in this report. Of these publications, four are published refereed journal articles, one is an accepted refereed journal article which has not yet been published, and one is a non-refereed software manual. The report concludes with a discussion of future research directions and exit plan.

  17. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion power system development. Phase I: preliminary design. Final report. [OSAP-1 code; OTEC Steady-State Analysis Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerberg, Arthur

    1978-12-04

    The following appendices are included: highlights of direction and correspondence; user manual for OTEC Steady-State Analysis Program (OSAP-1); sample results of OSAP-1; surface condenser installations; double-clad systems; aluminum alloy seawater piping; references searched for ammonia evaluation; references on stress-corrosion for ammonia; references on anhydrous ammonia storage; references on miscellaneous ammonia items; OTEC materials testing; test reports; OTEC technical specification chlorination system; OTEC technical specification AMERTAP system; OTEC optimization program users guide; concrete hull construction; weight and stability estimates; packing factor data; machinery and equipment list; letter from HPTI on titanium tubes; tables on Wolverine Korodense tubes; evaporator and condenser enhancement tables; code weld titanium tube price, weight tables Alcoa tubing tables; Union Carbide tubing pricing tables; turbotec tubing pricing tables; Wolverine tubing pricing tables; Union Carbide tubing characteristics and pricing; working fluids and turbines for OTEC power system; and hydrodynamic design of prototype OTEC cold and warm seawater pumps. (WHK)

  18. Super Special Codes using Super Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha; Ilanthenral, K

    2010-01-01

    The new classes of super special codes are constructed in this book using the specially constructed super special vector spaces. These codes mainly use the super matrices. These codes can be realized as a special type of concatenated codes. This book has four chapters. In chapter one basic properties of codes and super matrices are given. A new type of super special vector space is constructed in chapter two of this book. Three new classes of super special codes namely, super special row code, super special column code and super special codes are introduced in chapter three. Applications of these codes are given in the final chapter.

  19. Final Report on EURAMET key comparison (EURAMET.M.M-K2.5) of 10 kg mass standards in stainless steel (Project code: EURAMET 1222)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vámossy, Csilla; Bulku, Defrim; Borys, Michael; Alisic, Sejla; Boskovic, Tamara; Zelenka, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    The report describes a European regional key comparison of a stainless steel 10 kg standard as a multiple of the kilogram carried out under the auspices of EURAMET and designated Project 1222. This comparison is also a KCDB Regional Key Comparison, registered as EURAMET.M.M-K2.5. The objectives of this comparison are to check the measurement capabilities in the field of mass of the participating national laboratories, to facilitate the demonstration of metrological equivalence between the laboratories in Europe, and to check or support the validity of quoted calibration measurement capabilities (CMC). This comparison provides a link to CCM.M-K2. BEV (Austria) was the pilot laboratory and the provider of the transfer standard. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  20. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  1. Sharing code

    OpenAIRE

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  2. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  3. Polar Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    QPSK Gaussian channels . .......................................................................... 39 vi 1. INTRODUCTION Forward error correction (FEC...Capacity of BSC. 7 Figure 5. Capacity of AWGN channel . 8 4. INTRODUCTION TO POLAR CODES Polar codes were introduced by E. Arikan in [1]. This paper...Under authority of C. A. Wilgenbusch, Head ISR Division EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report describes the results of the project “More reliable wireless

  4. BILINEAR FORMS AND LINEAR CODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莹

    2004-01-01

    Abraham Lempel et al[1] made a connection between linear codes and systems of bilinear forms over finite fields. In this correspondence, a new simple proof of a theorem in [1] is presented; in addition, the encoding process and the decoding procedure of RS codes are simplified via circulant matrices. Finally, the results show that the correspondence between bilinear forms and linear codes is not unique.

  5. Code Speed Measuring for VC++

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 688 Technical Report ARWSE-TR-14025 CODE SPEED MEASURING FOR VC++ Tom Nealis...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CODE SPEED MEASURING FOR VC++ 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...ABSTRACT It’s often important to know how fast a snippet of code executes. This information allows the coder to make important decisions

  6. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  7. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    ; alternatives to mainstream development, from performances of the live-coding scene to the organizational forms of commons-based peer production; the democratic promise of social media and their paradoxical role in suppressing political expression; and the market’s emptying out of possibilities for free...... development, Speaking Code unfolds an argument to undermine the distinctions between criticism and practice, and to emphasize the aesthetic and political aspects of software studies. Not reducible to its functional aspects, program code mirrors the instability inherent in the relationship of speech...... expression in the public realm. The book’s line of argument defends language against its invasion by economics, arguing that speech continues to underscore the human condition, however paradoxical this may seem in an era of pervasive computing....

  8. Quantifying the Performance of Quantum Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Cafaro, C; Lupo, C; Mancini, S

    2011-01-01

    We study the properties of error correcting codes for noise models in the presence of asymmetries and/or correlations by means of the entanglement fidelity and the code entropy. First, we consider a dephasing Markovian memory channel and characterize the performance of both a repetition code and an error avoiding code in terms of the entanglement fidelity. We also consider the concatenation of such codes and show that it is especially advantageous in the regime of partial correlations. Finally, we characterize the effectiveness of the codes and their concatenation by means of the code entropy and find, in particular, that the effort required for recovering such codes decreases when the error probability decreases and the memory parameter increases. Second, we consider both symmetric and asymmetric depolarizing noisy quantum memory channels and perform quantum error correction via the five qubit stabilizer code. We characterize this code by means of the entanglement fidelity and the code entropy as function of...

  9. Administrative simplification: adoption of a standard for a unique health plan identifier; addition to the National Provider Identifier requirements; and a change to the compliance date for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS) medical data code sets. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    This final rule adopts the standard for a national unique health plan identifier (HPID) and establishes requirements for the implementation of the HPID. In addition, it adopts a data element that will serve as an other entity identifier (OEID), or an identifier for entities that are not health plans, health care providers, or individuals, but that need to be identified in standard transactions. This final rule also specifies the circumstances under which an organization covered health care provider must require certain noncovered individual health care providers who are prescribers to obtain and disclose a National Provider Identifier (NPI). Lastly, this final rule changes the compliance date for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) for diagnosis coding, including the Official ICD-10-CM Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, and the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS) for inpatient hospital procedure coding, including the Official ICD-10-PCS Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, from October 1, 2013 to October 1, 2014.

  10. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  11. Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe...... the codes succinctly using Gröbner bases....

  12. The Phantom SPH code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Daniel; Wurster, James; Nixon, Chris

    2016-05-01

    I will present the capabilities of the Phantom SPH code for global simulations of dust and gas in protoplanetary discs. I will present our new algorithms for simulating both small and large grains in discs, as well as our progress towards simulating evolving grain populations and coupling with radiation. Finally, I will discuss our recent applications to HL Tau and the physics of dust gap opening.

  13. 76 FR 36231 - American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No... 50 RIN 3150-AI35 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code... 2004 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1; 2007 ASME Boiler and...

  14. A new parallel TreeSPH code

    OpenAIRE

    Lia, Cesario; Carraro, Giovanni; Chiosi, Cesare; Voli, Marco

    1998-01-01

    In this report we describe a parallel implementation of a Tree-SPH code realized using the SHMEM libraries in the Cray T3E supercomputer at CINECA. We show the result of a 3D test to check the code performances against its scalar version. Finally we compare the load balancing and scalability of the code with PTreeSPH (Dav\\'e et al 1997), the only other parallel Tree-SPH code present in the literature.

  15. NOVEL BIPHASE CODE -INTEGRATED SIDELOBE SUPPRESSION CODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feixue; Ou Gang; Zhuang Zhaowen

    2004-01-01

    A kind of novel binary phase code named sidelobe suppression code is proposed in this paper. It is defined to be the code whose corresponding optimal sidelobe suppression filter outputs the minimum sidelobes. It is shown that there do exist sidelobe suppression codes better than the conventional optimal codes-Barker codes. For example, the sidelobe suppression code of length 11 with filter of length 39 has better sidelobe level up to 17dB than that of Barker code with the same code length and filter length.

  16. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...

  17. Reliability-Based Code Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M.H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2003-01-01

    The present paper addresses fundamental concepts of reliability based code calibration. First basic principles of structural reliability theory are introduced and it is shown how the results of FORM based reliability analysis may be related to partial safety factors and characteristic values....... Thereafter the code calibration problem is presented in its principal decision theoretical form and it is discussed how acceptable levels of failure probability (or target reliabilities) may be established. Furthermore suggested values for acceptable annual failure probabilities are given for ultimate...... and serviceability limit states. Finally the paper describes the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) recommended procedure - CodeCal - for the practical implementation of reliability based code calibration of LRFD based design codes....

  18. Securing mobile code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called &apos

  19. Good Codes From Generalised Algebraic Geometry Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Jibril, Mubarak; Ahmed, Mohammed Zaki; Tjhai, Cen

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic geometry codes or Goppa codes are defined with places of degree one. In constructing generalised algebraic geometry codes places of higher degree are used. In this paper we present 41 new codes over GF(16) which improve on the best known codes of the same length and rate. The construction method uses places of small degree with a technique originally published over 10 years ago for the construction of generalised algebraic geometry codes.

  20. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  1. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Ole F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call this centered allele coding. This study considered effects of different allele coding methods on inference. Both marker-based and equivalent models were considered, and restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were used in inference. Results Theoretical derivations showed that parameter estimates and estimated marker effects in marker-based models are the same irrespective of the allele coding, provided that the model has a fixed general mean. For the equivalent models, the same results hold, even though different allele coding methods lead to different genomic relationship matrices. Calculated genomic breeding values are independent of allele coding when the estimate of the general mean is included into the values. Reliabilities of estimated genomic breeding values calculated using elements of the inverse of the coefficient matrix depend on the allele coding because different allele coding methods imply different models. Finally, allele coding affects the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, with the centered coding being

  2. Efficient and Universal Corruption Resilient Fountain Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Asaf; Tzachar, Nir

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new family of fountain codes which overcome adversarial errors. That is, we consider the possibility that some portion of the arriving packets of a rateless erasure code are corrupted in an undetectable fashion. In practice, the corrupted packets may be attributed to a portion of the communication paths which are controlled by an adversary or to a portion of the sources that are malicious. The presented codes resemble and extend LT and Raptor codes. Yet, their benefits over existing coding schemes are manifold. First, to overcome the corrupted packets, our codes use information theoretic techniques, rather than cryptographic primitives. Thus, no secret channel between the senders and the receivers is required. Second, the encoders in the suggested scheme are oblivious to the strength of the adversary, yet perform as if its strength was known in advance. Third, the sparse structure of the codes facilitates efficient decoding. Finally, the codes easily fit a decentralized scenario wi...

  3. Multimedia Data Coding and its Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The requirements of data coding in multimedia applications are presented, the current technique of coding and relative standards is introduced, then the work that have been doing is presented, i.e. the wavelet-based coding method and the VE (Visual Entropy)-based coding method. The experiment results prove that these methods have gained a better perceptual quality of a reconstructed image and a lower bit rate. Their performance evaluations are better than JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) coding. Finally, the future topics of study are put forward.

  4. Joint source channel coding using arithmetic codes

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Dongsheng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the encoding process, arithmetic codes can be viewed as tree codes and current proposals for decoding arithmetic codes with forbidden symbols belong to sequential decoding algorithms and their variants. In this monograph, we propose a new way of looking at arithmetic codes with forbidden symbols. If a limit is imposed on the maximum value of a key parameter in the encoder, this modified arithmetic encoder can also be modeled as a finite state machine and the code generated can be treated as a variable-length trellis code. The number of states used can be reduced and techniques used fo

  5. Model Children's Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  6. Review of AVS Audio Coding Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tao; ZHANG Caixia; ZHAO Xin

    2016-01-01

    Audio Video Coding Standard (AVS) is a second⁃generation source coding standard and the first standard for audio and video coding in China with independent intellectual property rights. Its performance has reached the international standard. Its coding efficiency is 2 to 3 times greater than that of MPEG⁃2. This technical solution is more simple, and it can greatly save channel resource. After more than ten years ’develop⁃ment, AVS has achieved great success. The latest version of the AVS audio coding standard is ongoing and mainly aims at the increasing demand for low bitrate and high quality audio services. The paper reviews the history and recent develop⁃ment of AVS audio coding standard in terms of basic fea⁃tures, key techniques and performance. Finally, the future de⁃velopment of AVS audio coding standard is discussed.

  7. Construction and execution of experiments at the multi-purpose thermal hydraulic test facility TOPFLOW for generic investigations of two-phase flows and the development and validation of CFD codes - Final report

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The works aimed at the further development and validation of models for CFD codes. For this reason, the new thermal-hydraulic test facility TOPFLOW was erected and equipped with wire-mesh sensors with high spatial and time resolution. Vertical test sections with nominal diameters of DN50 and DN200 operating with air-water as well as steam-water two-phase flows provided results on the evaluation of flow patterns, on the be¬haviour of the interfacial area as well as on interfacial momentum and ...

  8. A FINE GRANULAR JOINT SOURCE CHANNEL CODING METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo Li; Shen Lansun; Zhu Qing

    2003-01-01

    An improved FGS (Fine Granular Scalability) coding method is proposed in this letter, which is based on human visual characteristics. This method adjusts FGS coding frame rate according to the evaluation of video sequences so as to improve the coding efficiency and subject perceived quality of reconstructed images. Finally, a fine granular joint source channel coding is proposed based on the source coding method, which not only utilizes the network resources efficiently, but guarantees the reliable transmission of video information.

  9. Code Development and Analysis Program: developmental checkout of the BEACON/MOD2A code. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsthaler, J. A.; Lime, J. F.; Sahota, M. S.

    1978-12-01

    A best-estimate transient containment code, BEACON, is being developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's reactor safety research program. This is an advanced, two-dimensional fluid flow code designed to predict temperatures and pressures in a dry PWR containment during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. The most recent version of the code, MOD2A, is presently in the final stages of production prior to being released to the National Energy Software Center. As part of the final code checkout, seven sample problems were selected to be run with BEACON/MOD2A.

  10. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  11. Coding for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on exercises help you learn to code like a pro No coding experience is required for Coding For Dummies,your one-stop guide to building a foundation of knowledge inwriting computer code for web, application, and softwaredevelopment. It doesn't matter if you've dabbled in coding or neverwritten a line of code, this book guides you through the basics.Using foundational web development languages like HTML, CSS, andJavaScript, it explains in plain English how coding works and whyit's needed. Online exercises developed by Codecademy, a leading online codetraining site, help hone coding skill

  12. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  13. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, Edward [Univ. of Oklahoma

    2014-04-28

    The progress over the course of the grant period was excellent. We went from 3-D test codes to full 3-D production codes. We studied several SNe Ia. Most of the support has gone for the 3 years of support of OU graduate student Brian Friesen, who is now mature in his fourth year of research. It is unfortunate that there will be no further DOE support to see him through to the completion of his PhD.

  14. On the role of code comparisons in verification and validation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Pilch, Martin M.

    2003-08-01

    This report presents a perspective on the role of code comparison activities in verification and validation. We formally define the act of code comparison as the Code Comparison Principle (CCP) and investigate its application in both verification and validation. One of our primary conclusions is that the use of code comparisons for validation is improper and dangerous. We also conclude that while code comparisons may be argued to provide a beneficial component in code verification activities, there are higher quality code verification tasks that should take precedence. Finally, we provide a process for application of the CCP that we believe is minimal for achieving benefit in verification processes.

  15. Locally Orderless Registration Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  16. Locally orderless registration code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  17. QR Codes 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  18. Constructing quantum codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Quantum error correcting codes are indispensable for quantum information processing and quantum computation.In 1995 and 1996,Shor and Steane gave first several examples of quantum codes from classical error correcting codes.The construction of efficient quantum codes is now an active multi-discipline research field.In this paper we review the known several constructions of quantum codes and present some examples.

  19. Index Coding - An Interference Alignment Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Maleki, Hamed; Jafar, Syed A

    2012-01-01

    The index coding problem is studied from an interference alignment perspective, providing new results as well as new insights into, and generalizations of, previously known results. An equivalence is established between multiple unicast index coding where each message is desired by exactly one receiver, and multiple groupcast index coding where a message can be desired by multiple receivers, which settles the heretofore open question of insufficiency of linear codes for the multiple unicast index coding problem by equivalence with multiple groupcast settings where this question has previously been answered. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the achievability of rate half per message are shown to be a natural consequence of interference alignment constraints, and generalizations to feasibility of rate $\\frac{1}{L+1}$ per message when each destination desires at least $L$ messages, are similarly obtained. Finally, capacity optimal solutions are presented to a series of symmetric index coding problems insp...

  20. University of Washington/ Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center Tidal Current Technology Test Protocol, Instrumentation, Design Code, and Oceanographic Modeling Collaboration: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-452

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Frederick R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The University of Washington (UW) - Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (UW-NNMREC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will collaborate to advance research and development (R&D) of Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) renewable energy technology, specifically renewable energy captured from ocean tidal currents. UW-NNMREC is endeavoring to establish infrastructure, capabilities and tools to support in-water testing of marine energy technology. NREL is leveraging its experience and capabilities in field testing of wind systems to develop protocols and instrumentation to advance field testing of MHK systems. Under this work, UW-NNMREC and NREL will work together to develop a common instrumentation system and testing methodologies, standards and protocols. UW-NNMREC is also establishing simulation capabilities for MHK turbine and turbine arrays. NREL has extensive experience in wind turbine array modeling and is developing several computer based numerical simulation capabilities for MHK systems. Under this CRADA, UW-NNMREC and NREL will work together to augment single device and array modeling codes. As part of this effort UW NNMREC will also work with NREL to run simulations on NREL's high performance computer system.

  1. Simulink Code Generation: Tutorial for Generating C Code from Simulink Models using Simulink Coder

    Science.gov (United States)

    MolinaFraticelli, Jose Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This document explains all the necessary steps in order to generate optimized C code from Simulink Models. This document also covers some general information on good programming practices, selection of variable types, how to organize models and subsystems, and finally how to test the generated C code and compare it with data from MATLAB.

  2. Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1996-01-01

    The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...

  3. Does an Arithmetic Coding Followed by Run-length Coding Enhance the Compression Ratio?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Otair

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Compression is a technique to minimize the quantity of image without excessively decreasing the quality of the image. Then, the translating of compressed image is much more efficient and rapidly than original image. Arithmetic and Huffman coding are mostly used techniques in the entropy coding. This study tries to prove that RLC may be added after Arithmetic coding as an extra processing step which may therefore be coded efficiently without any further degradation of the image quality. So, the main purpose of this study is to answer the following question "Which entropy coding, arithmetic with RLC or Huffman with RLC, is more suitable from the compression ratio perspective?" Finally, experimental results show that an Arithmetic followed by RLC coding yields better compression performance than Huffman with RLC coding.

  4. Improved FEC Code Based on Concatenated Code for Optical Transmission Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jian-guo; JIANG Ze; MAO You-ju

    2006-01-01

    The improved three novel schemes of the super forward error correction(super-FEC) concatenated codes are proposed after the development trend of long-haul optical transmission systems and the defects of the existing FEC codes have been analyzed. The performance simulation of the Reed-Solomon(RS)+Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocguenghem(BCH) inner-outer serial concatenated code is implemented and the conceptions of encoding/decoding the parallel-concatenated code are presented. Furthermore,the simulation results for the RS(255,239)+RS(255,239) code and the RS(255,239)+RS(255,223) code show that the two consecutive concatenated codes are a superior coding scheme with such advantages as the better error correction,moderate redundancy and easy realization compared to the classic RS(255,239) code and other codes,and their signal to noise ratio gains are respectively 2~3 dB more than that of the RS(255,239)code at the bit error rate of 1×10-13. Finally,the frame structure of the novel consecutive concatenated code is arranged to lay a firm foundation in designing its hardware.

  5. Network coding for computing: Linear codes

    CERN Document Server

    Appuswamy, Rathinakumar; Karamchandani, Nikhil; Zeger, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    In network coding it is known that linear codes are sufficient to achieve the coding capacity in multicast networks and that they are not sufficient in general to achieve the coding capacity in non-multicast networks. In network computing, Rai, Dey, and Shenvi have recently shown that linear codes are not sufficient in general for solvability of multi-receiver networks with scalar linear target functions. We study single receiver networks where the receiver node demands a target function of the source messages. We show that linear codes may provide a computing capacity advantage over routing only when the receiver demands a `linearly-reducible' target function. % Many known target functions including the arithmetic sum, minimum, and maximum are not linearly-reducible. Thus, the use of non-linear codes is essential in order to obtain a computing capacity advantage over routing if the receiver demands a target function that is not linearly-reducible. We also show that if a target function is linearly-reducible,...

  6. Upper and lower bounds on quantum codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graeme Stewart Baird

    This thesis provides bounds on the performance of quantum error correcting codes when used for quantum communication and quantum key distribution. The first two chapters provide a bare-bones introduction to classical and quantum error correcting codes, respectively. The next four chapters present achievable rates for quantum codes in various scenarios. The final chapter is dedicated to an upper bound on the quantum channel capacity. Chapter 3 studies coding for adversarial noise using quantum list codes, showing there exist quantum codes with high rates and short lists. These can be used, together with a very short secret key, to communicate with high fidelity at noise levels for which perfect fidelity is, impossible. Chapter 4 explores the performance of a family of degenerate codes when used to communicate over Pauli channels, showing they can be used to communicate over almost any Pauli channel at rates that are impossible for a nondegenerate code and that exceed those of previously known degenerate codes. By studying the scaling of the optimal block length as a function of the channel's parameters, we develop a heuristic for designing even better codes. Chapter 5 describes an equivalence between a family of noisy preprocessing protocols for quantum key distribution and entanglement distillation protocols whose target state belongs to a class of private states called "twisted states." In Chapter 6, the codes of Chapter 4 are combined with the protocols of Chapter 5 to provide higher key rates for one-way quantum key distribution than were previously thought possible. Finally, Chapter 7 presents a new upper bound on the quantum channel capacity that is both additive and convex, and which can be interpreted as the capacity of the channel for communication given access to side channels from a class of zero capacity "cloning" channels. This "clone assisted capacity" is equal to the unassisted capacity for channels that are degradable, which we use to find new upper

  7. Practices in Code Discoverability

    CERN Document Server

    Teuben, Peter; Nemiroff, Robert J; Shamir, Lior

    2012-01-01

    Much of scientific progress now hinges on the reliability, falsifiability and reproducibility of computer source codes. Astrophysics in particular is a discipline that today leads other sciences in making useful scientific components freely available online, including data, abstracts, preprints, and fully published papers, yet even today many astrophysics source codes remain hidden from public view. We review the importance and history of source codes in astrophysics and previous efforts to develop ways in which information about astrophysics codes can be shared. We also discuss why some scientist coders resist sharing or publishing their codes, the reasons for and importance of overcoming this resistance, and alert the community to a reworking of one of the first attempts for sharing codes, the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL). We discuss the implementation of the ASCL in an accompanying poster paper. We suggest that code could be given a similar level of referencing as data gets in repositories such ...

  8. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  9. Building Energy Codes: Policy Overview and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-19

    Globally, 32% of total final energy consumption is attributed to the building sector. To reduce energy consumption, energy codes set minimum energy efficiency standards for the building sector. With effective implementation, building energy codes can support energy cost savings and complementary benefits associated with electricity reliability, air quality improvement, greenhouse gas emission reduction, increased comfort, and economic and social development. This policy brief seeks to support building code policymakers and implementers in designing effective building code programs.

  10. Enhancing QR Code Security

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Linfan; Zheng, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Quick Response code opens possibility to convey data in a unique way yet insufficient prevention and protection might lead into QR code being exploited on behalf of attackers. This thesis starts by presenting a general introduction of background and stating two problems regarding QR code security, which followed by a comprehensive research on both QR code itself and related issues. From the research a solution taking advantages of cloud and cryptography together with an implementation come af...

  11. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  12. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  13. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon); A. van den Bergh; G. Kok

    2001-01-01

    textabstractTwo key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from

  14. Informal Control code logic

    CERN Document Server

    Bergstra, Jan A

    2010-01-01

    General definitions as well as rules of reasoning regarding control code production, distribution, deployment, and usage are described. The role of testing, trust, confidence and risk analysis is considered. A rationale for control code testing is sought and found for the case of safety critical embedded control code.

  15. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  16. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, A. van; Moonen, L.M.F.; Bergh, A. van den; Kok, G.

    2001-01-01

    Two key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from refactoring product

  17. Construction of TH code development and validation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, Hee-Kyung; Bae, Kyoo-Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, each component of code development and validation system, i.e. IVS and Mercurial will be introduced and Redmine, the integrated platform of IVS and Mercurial, will be explained later. Integrated TH code validation system, IVS and code development and management environment are constructed. The code validation could be achieved by a comparison of results with corresponding experiments. The development of thermal-hydraulic (TH) system code for nuclear reactor requires much time and effort, also for its validation and verification(V and V). In previous, TASS/SMR-S code (hereafter TASS) for SMART is developed by KAERI through V and V process. On the way of code development, the version control of source code has great importance. Also, during the V and V process, the way to reduce repeated labor- and time-consuming work of running the code before releasing new version of TH code, is required. Therefore, the integrated platform for TH code development and validation environment is constructed. Finally, Redmine, the project management and issue tracking system, is selected as platform, Mercurial (hg) for source version control and IVS (Integrated Validation System) for TASS is constructed as a prototype for automated V and V. IVS is useful before release a new code version. The code developer can validate code result easily using IVS. Even during code development, IVS could be used for validation of code modification. Using Redmine and Mercurial, users and developers can use IVS result more effectively.

  18. ARC Code TI: CODE Software Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CODE is a software framework for control and observation in distributed environments. The basic functionality of the framework allows a user to observe a distributed...

  19. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of ROC...

  20. Fountain Codes: LT And Raptor Codes Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bazzi, Hiba Harb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital fountain codes are a new class of random error correcting codes designed for efficient and reliable data delivery over erasure channels such as internet. These codes were developed to provide robustness against erasures in a way that resembles a fountain of water. A digital fountain is rateless in a way that sender can send limitless number of encoded packets. The receiver doesn’t care which packets are received or lost as long as the receiver gets enough packets to recover original data. In this paper, the design of the fountain codes is explored with its implementation of the encoding and decoding algorithm so that the performance in terms of encoding/decoding symbols, reception overhead, data length, and failure probability is studied.

  1. Johnson Type Bounds on Constant Dimension Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Shu-Tao

    2007-01-01

    Very recently, an operator channel was defined by Koetter and Kschischang when they studied random network coding. They also introduced constant dimension codes and demonstrated that these codes can be employed to correct errors and/or erasures over the operator channel. Constant dimension codes are equivalent to the so-called linear authentication codes introduced by Wang, Xing and Safavi-Naini when constructing distributed authentication systems in 2003. In this paper, we study constant dimension codes. It is shown that Steiner structures are optimal constant dimension codes achieving the Wang-Xing-Safavi-Naini bound. Furthermore, we show that constant dimension codes achieve the Wang-Xing-Safavi-Naini bound if and only if they are certain Steiner structures. Then, we derive two Johnson type upper bounds, say I and II, on constant dimension codes. The Johnson type bound II slightly improves on the Wang-Xing-Safavi-Naini bound. Finally, we point out that a family of known Steiner structures is actually a fam...

  2. The puzzling origin of the genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedergren, R; Miramontes, P

    1996-06-01

    Recent results add to the mystery of the origin of the genetic code. In spite of early doubts, RNA can discriminate between hydrophobic amino acids under certain contexts. Moreover, codon reassignment, which has taken place in several organisms and mitochondria, is not a random process. Finally, phylogenies of some aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases suggest that the entire code was not completely assigned at the time of the divergence of bacteria from nucleated cells.

  3. Universal Rateless Codes From Coupled LT Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Aref, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    It was recently shown that spatial coupling of individual low-density parity-check codes improves the belief-propagation threshold of the coupled ensemble essentially to the maximum a posteriori threshold of the underlying ensemble. We study the performance of spatially coupled low-density generator-matrix ensembles when used for transmission over binary-input memoryless output-symmetric channels. We show by means of density evolution that the threshold saturation phenomenon also takes place in this setting. Our motivation for studying low-density generator-matrix codes is that they can easily be converted into rateless codes. Although there are already several classes of excellent rateless codes known to date, rateless codes constructed via spatial coupling might offer some additional advantages. In particular, by the very nature of the threshold phenomenon one expects that codes constructed on this principle can be made to be universal, i.e., a single construction can uniformly approach capacity over the cl...

  4. Maximum Multiflow in Wireless Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jin-Yi; Jiang, Yong; Zheng, Hai-Tao

    2012-01-01

    In a multihop wireless network, wireless interference is crucial to the maximum multiflow (MMF) problem, which studies the maximum throughput between multiple pairs of sources and sinks. In this paper, we observe that network coding could help to decrease the impacts of wireless interference, and propose a framework to study the MMF problem for multihop wireless networks with network coding. Firstly, a network model is set up to describe the new conflict relations modified by network coding. Then, we formulate a linear programming problem to compute the maximum throughput and show its superiority over one in networks without coding. Finally, the MMF problem in wireless network coding is shown to be NP-hard and a polynomial approximation algorithm is proposed.

  5. Coding for Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  6. Noisy Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Sung Hoon; Gamal, Abbas El; Chung, Sae-Young

    2010-01-01

    A noisy network coding scheme for sending multiple sources over a general noisy network is presented. For multi-source multicast networks, the scheme naturally extends both network coding over noiseless networks by Ahlswede, Cai, Li, and Yeung, and compress-forward coding for the relay channel by Cover and El Gamal to general discrete memoryless and Gaussian networks. The scheme also recovers as special cases the results on coding for wireless relay networks and deterministic networks by Avestimehr, Diggavi, and Tse, and coding for wireless erasure networks by Dana, Gowaikar, Palanki, Hassibi, and Effros. The scheme involves message repetition coding, relay signal compression, and simultaneous decoding. Unlike previous compress--forward schemes, where independent messages are sent over multiple blocks, the same message is sent multiple times using independent codebooks as in the network coding scheme for cyclic networks. Furthermore, the relays do not use Wyner--Ziv binning as in previous compress-forward sch...

  7. Testing algebraic geometric codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao

    2009-01-01

    Property testing was initially studied from various motivations in 1990's.A code C (∩)GF(r)n is locally testable if there is a randomized algorithm which can distinguish with high possibility the codewords from a vector essentially far from the code by only accessing a very small (typically constant) number of the vector's coordinates.The problem of testing codes was firstly studied by Blum,Luby and Rubinfeld and closely related to probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs).How to characterize locally testable codes is a complex and challenge problem.The local tests have been studied for Reed-Solomon (RS),Reed-Muller (RM),cyclic,dual of BCH and the trace subcode of algebraicgeometric codes.In this paper we give testers for algebraic geometric codes with linear parameters (as functions of dimensions).We also give a moderate condition under which the family of algebraic geometric codes cannot be locally testable.

  8. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  9. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  10. Code of Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelstein, Jennifer; Clegg, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Ethical codes have been hailed as an explicit vehicle for achieving more sustainable and defensible organizational practice. Nonetheless, when legal compliance and corporate governance codes are conflated, codes can be used to define organizational interests ostentatiously by stipulating norms...... for employee ethics. Such codes have a largely cosmetic and insurance function, acting subtly and strategically to control organizational risk management and protection. In this paper, we conduct a genealogical discourse analysis of a representative code of ethics from an international corporation...... to understand how management frames expectations of compliance. Our contribution is to articulate the problems inherent in codes of ethics, and we make some recommendations to address these to benefit both an organization and its employees. In this way, we show how a code of ethics can provide a foundation...

  11. Defeating the coding monsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, Ross

    2007-02-01

    Accuracy in coding is rapidly becoming a required skill for military health care providers. Clinic staffing, equipment purchase decisions, and even reimbursement will soon be based on the coding data that we provide. Learning the complicated myriad of rules to code accurately can seem overwhelming. However, the majority of clinic visits in a typical outpatient clinic generally fall into two major evaluation and management codes, 99213 and 99214. If health care providers can learn the rules required to code a 99214 visit, then this will provide a 90% solution that can enable them to accurately code the majority of their clinic visits. This article demonstrates a step-by-step method to code a 99214 visit, by viewing each of the three requirements as a monster to be defeated.

  12. Testing algebraic geometric codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Property testing was initially studied from various motivations in 1990’s. A code C  GF (r)n is locally testable if there is a randomized algorithm which can distinguish with high possibility the codewords from a vector essentially far from the code by only accessing a very small (typically constant) number of the vector’s coordinates. The problem of testing codes was firstly studied by Blum, Luby and Rubinfeld and closely related to probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs). How to characterize locally testable codes is a complex and challenge problem. The local tests have been studied for Reed-Solomon (RS), Reed-Muller (RM), cyclic, dual of BCH and the trace subcode of algebraicgeometric codes. In this paper we give testers for algebraic geometric codes with linear parameters (as functions of dimensions). We also give a moderate condition under which the family of algebraic geometric codes cannot be locally testable.

  13. Serially Concatenated IRA Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Taikun; Belzer, Benjamin J

    2007-01-01

    We address the error floor problem of low-density parity check (LDPC) codes on the binary-input additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, by constructing a serially concatenated code consisting of two systematic irregular repeat accumulate (IRA) component codes connected by an interleaver. The interleaver is designed to prevent stopping-set error events in one of the IRA codes from propagating into stopping set events of the other code. Simulations with two 128-bit rate 0.707 IRA component codes show that the proposed architecture achieves a much lower error floor at higher SNRs, compared to a 16384-bit rate 1/2 IRA code, but incurs an SNR penalty of about 2 dB at low to medium SNRs. Experiments indicate that the SNR penalty can be reduced at larger blocklengths.

  14. Code Development for Collective Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce Li, Kevin Shing; Hegglin, Stefan Eduard; Iadarola, Giovanni; Oeftiger, Adrian; Passarelli, Andrea; Romano, Annalisa; Rumolo, Giovanni; Schenk, Michael; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The presentation will cover approaches and strategies of modeling and implementing collective effects in modern simulation codes. We will review some of the general approaches to numerically model collective beam dynamics in circular accelerators. We will then look into modern ways of implementing collective effects with a focus on plainness, modularity and flexibility, using the example of the PyHEADTAIL framework, and highlight some of the advantages and drawbacks emerging from this method. To ameliorate one of the main drawbacks, namely a potential loss of performance compared to the classical fully compiled codes, several options for speed improvements will be mentioned and discussed. Finally some examples and applications will be shown together with future plans and perspectives.

  15. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published...

  16. Verified OS Interface Code Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Gerwin Klein, Toby Murray 5d.  PROJECT NUMBER 5e.  TASK NUMBER 5f.  WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...llisapi.dll Verified OS Interface Code Synthesis Final Report for AFOSR AOARD Grant FA2386-14-1-4093 Gerwin Klein, Ramana Kumar, Toby Murray gerwin.klein... Murray t +61 2 8306 0550 e gerwin.klein@data61.csiro.au w trustworthy.systems DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited.

  17. SELF-DUAL PERMUTATION CODES OVER FORMAL POWER SERIES RINGS AND FINITE PRINCIPAL IDEAL RINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光辉; 刘宏伟

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study self-dual permutation codes over formal power series rings and finite principal ideal rings. We first give some results on the torsion codes associated with the linear codes over formal power series rings. These results allow for obtaining some conditions for non-existence of self-dual permutation codes over formal power series rings. Finally, we describe self-dual permutation codes over finite principal ideal rings by examining permutation codes over their component chain rings.

  18. Rewriting the Genetic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Takahito; Lajoie, Marc J; Englert, Markus; Söll, Dieter

    2017-09-08

    The genetic code-the language used by cells to translate their genomes into proteins that perform many cellular functions-is highly conserved throughout natural life. Rewriting the genetic code could lead to new biological functions such as expanding protein chemistries with noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) and genetically isolating synthetic organisms from natural organisms and viruses. It has long been possible to transiently produce proteins bearing ncAAs, but stabilizing an expanded genetic code for sustained function in vivo requires an integrated approach: creating recoded genomes and introducing new translation machinery that function together without compromising viability or clashing with endogenous pathways. In this review, we discuss design considerations and technologies for expanding the genetic code. The knowledge obtained by rewriting the genetic code will deepen our understanding of how genomes are designed and how the canonical genetic code evolved.

  19. On Polynomial Remainder Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jiun-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Polynomial remainder codes are a large class of codes derived from the Chinese remainder theorem that includes Reed-Solomon codes as a special case. In this paper, we revisit these codes and study them more carefully than in previous work. We explicitly allow the code symbols to be polynomials of different degrees, which leads to two different notions of weight and distance. Algebraic decoding is studied in detail. If the moduli are not irreducible, the notion of an error locator polynomial is replaced by an error factor polynomial. We then obtain a collection of gcd-based decoding algorithms, some of which are not quite standard even when specialized to Reed-Solomon codes.

  20. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  1. The aeroelastic code FLEXLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, B. [Stork Product Eng., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    To support the discussion on aeroelastic codes, a description of the code FLEXLAST was given and experiences within benchmarks and measurement programmes were summarized. The code FLEXLAST has been developed since 1982 at Stork Product Engineering (SPE). Since 1992 FLEXLAST has been used by Dutch industries for wind turbine and rotor design. Based on the comparison with measurements, it can be concluded that the main shortcomings of wind turbine modelling lie in the field of aerodynamics, wind field and wake modelling. (au)

  2. Opening up codings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Heinemann, Trine

    2015-01-01

    We welcome Tanya Stivers’s discussion (Stivers, 2015/this issue) of coding social interaction and find that her descriptions of the processes of coding open up important avenues for discussion, among other things of the precise ad hoc considerations that researchers need to bear in mind, both when....... Instead we propose that the promise of coding-based research lies in its ability to open up new qualitative questions....

  3. Industrial Computer Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1996-01-01

    This is an overview of new and updated industrial codes for seal design and testing. GCYLT (gas cylindrical seals -- turbulent), SPIRALI (spiral-groove seals -- incompressible), KTK (knife to knife) Labyrinth Seal Code, and DYSEAL (dynamic seal analysis) are covered. CGYLT uses G-factors for Poiseuille and Couette turbulence coefficients. SPIRALI is updated to include turbulence and inertia, but maintains the narrow groove theory. KTK labyrinth seal code handles straight or stepped seals. And DYSEAL provides dynamics for the seal geometry.

  4. ARC Code TI: ACCEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACCEPT consists of an overall software infrastructure framework and two main software components. The software infrastructure framework consists of code written to...

  5. QR codes for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Find out how to effectively create, use, and track QR codes QR (Quick Response) codes are popping up everywhere, and businesses are reaping the rewards. Get in on the action with the no-nonsense advice in this streamlined, portable guide. You'll find out how to get started, plan your strategy, and actually create the codes. Then you'll learn to link codes to mobile-friendly content, track your results, and develop ways to give your customers value that will keep them coming back. It's all presented in the straightforward style you've come to know and love, with a dash of humor thrown

  6. Tokamak Systems Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

  7. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.

  8. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinis, Panos [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-07

    This is the final report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.

  9. Research on universal combinatorial coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Mo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The conception of universal combinatorial coding is proposed. Relations exist more or less in many coding methods. It means that a kind of universal coding method is objectively existent. It can be a bridge connecting many coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding is lossless and it is based on the combinatorics theory. The combinational and exhaustive property make it closely related with the existing code methods. Universal combinatorial coding does not depend on the probability statistic characteristic of information source, and it has the characteristics across three coding branches. It has analyzed the relationship between the universal combinatorial coding and the variety of coding method and has researched many applications technologies of this coding method. In addition, the efficiency of universal combinatorial coding is analyzed theoretically. The multicharacteristic and multiapplication of universal combinatorial coding are unique in the existing coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding has theoretical research and practical application value.

  10. A FINE GRANULAR JOINT SOURCE CHANNEL CODING METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuoLi; ShenLanusun

    2003-01-01

    An improved FGS (Fine Granular Scalability) coding method is proposed in this letter,which is based on human visual characteristics.This method adjusts FGS coding frame rate according to the evaluation of video sequences so as to improve the coding efficiency and subject perceived quality of reconstructed images.Finally,a fine granular joint source channel coding is proposed based on the source coding method,which not only utilizes the network resources efficiently,but guarantees the reliable transmission of video information.

  11. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, Jon B

    2006-04-30

    High performance computational science and engineering simulations have become an increasingly important part of the scientist's problem solving toolset. A key reason is the development of widely used codes and libraries that support these applications, for example, Netlib, a collection of numerical libraries [33]. The term community codes refers to those libraries or applications that have achieved some critical level of acceptance by a user community. Many of these applications are on the high-end in terms of required resources: computation, storage, and communication. Recently, there has been considerable interest in putting such applications on-line and packaging them as network services to make them available to a wider user base. Applications such as data mining [22], theorem proving and logic [14], parallel numerical computation [8][32] are example services that are all going on-line. Transforming applications into services has been made possible by advances in packaging and interface technologies including component systems [2][6][13][28][37], proposed communication standards [34], and newer Web technologies such as Web Services [38]. Network services allow the user to focus on their application and obtain remote service when needed by simply invoking the service across the network. The user can be assured that the most recent version of the code or service is always provided and they do not need to install, maintain, and manage significant infrastructure to access the service. For high performance applications in particular, the user is still often required to install a code base (e.g. MPI), and therefore become involved with the tedious details of infrastructure management. In the network service model, the service provider is responsible for all of these activities and not the user. The user need not become an expert in high performance computing. An additional advantage of high-end network services is that the user need not have specialized

  12. Safety Code A12

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2005-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Code A12 (Code A12) entitled "THE SAFETY COMMISSION (SC)" is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/479423/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Unit Secretariat, e-mail: sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  13. Dress Codes for Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses an e-mail survey of principals from across the country regarding whether or not their school had a formal staff dress code. The results indicate that most did not have a formal dress code, but agreed that professional dress for teachers was not only necessary, but showed respect for the school and had a…

  14. Nuremberg code turns 60

    OpenAIRE

    Thieren, Michel; Mauron, Alex

    2007-01-01

    This month marks sixty years since the Nuremberg code – the basic text of modern medical ethics – was issued. The principles in this code were articulated in the context of the Nuremberg trials in 1947. We would like to use this anniversary to examine its ability to address the ethical challenges of our time.

  15. Pseudonoise code tracking loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflame, D. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A delay-locked loop is presented for tracking a pseudonoise (PN) reference code in an incoming communication signal. The loop is less sensitive to gain imbalances, which can otherwise introduce timing errors in the PN reference code formed by the loop.

  16. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene; Dahlgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven agile teams...

  17. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene; Dahlgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven agile teams...

  18. READING A NEURAL CODE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BIALEK, W; RIEKE, F; VANSTEVENINCK, RRD; WARLAND, D

    1991-01-01

    Traditional approaches to neural coding characterize the encoding of known stimuli in average neural responses. Organisms face nearly the opposite task - extracting information about an unknown time-dependent stimulus from short segments of a spike train. Here the neural code was characterized from

  19. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    , Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important...

  20. Retrotransposons and non-protein coding RNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourier, Tobias; Willerslev, Eske

    2009-01-01

    does not merely represent spurious transcription. We review examples of functional RNAs transcribed from retrotransposons, and address the collection of non-protein coding RNAs derived from transposable element sequences, including numerous human microRNAs and the neuronal BC RNAs. Finally, we review...

  1. Transformation invariant sparse coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    Sparse coding is a well established principle for unsupervised learning. Traditionally, features are extracted in sparse coding in specific locations, however, often we would prefer invariant representation. This paper introduces a general transformation invariant sparse coding (TISC) model....... The model decomposes images into features invariant to location and general transformation by a set of specified operators as well as a sparse coding matrix indicating where and to what degree in the original image these features are present. The TISC model is in general overcomplete and we therefore invoke...... sparse coding to estimate its parameters. We demonstrate how the model can correctly identify components of non-trivial artificial as well as real image data. Thus, the model is capable of reducing feature redundancies in terms of pre-specified transformations improving the component identification....

  2. The SIFT Code Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The specification of Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT) consists of two parts, the specifications of the SIFT models and the specifications of the SIFT PASCAL program which actually implements the SIFT system. The code specifications are the last of a hierarchy of models describing the operation of the SIFT system and are related to the SIFT models as well as the PASCAL program. These Specifications serve to link the SIFT models to the running program. The specifications are very large and detailed and closely follow the form and organization of the PASCAL code. In addition to describing each of the components of the SIFT code, the code specifications describe the assumptions of the upper SIFT models which are required to actually prove that the code will work as specified. These constraints are imposed primarily on the schedule tables.

  3. The Aesthetics of Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    discusses code as the artist’s material and, further, formulates a critique of Cramer. The seductive magic in computer-generated art does not lie in the magical expression, but nor does it lie in the code/material/text itself. It lies in the nature of code to do something – as if it was magic......Computer art is often associated with computer-generated expressions (digitally manipulated audio/images in music, video, stage design, media facades, etc.). In recent computer art, however, the code-text itself – not the generated output – has become the artwork (Perl Poetry, ASCII Art, obfuscated...... avant-garde’. In line with Cramer, the artists Alex McLean and Adrian Ward (aka Slub) declare: “art-oriented programming needs to acknowledge the conditions of its own making – its poesis.” By analysing the Live Coding performances of Slub (where they program computer music live), the presentation...

  4. Combustion chamber analysis code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Lai, Y. G.; Krishnan, A.; Avva, R. K.; Giridharan, M. G.

    1993-05-01

    A three-dimensional, time dependent, Favre averaged, finite volume Navier-Stokes code has been developed to model compressible and incompressible flows (with and without chemical reactions) in liquid rocket engines. The code has a non-staggered formulation with generalized body-fitted-coordinates (BFC) capability. Higher order differencing methodologies such as MUSCL and Osher-Chakravarthy schemes are available. Turbulent flows can be modeled using any of the five turbulent models present in the code. A two-phase, two-liquid, Lagrangian spray model has been incorporated into the code. Chemical equilibrium and finite rate reaction models are available to model chemically reacting flows. The discrete ordinate method is used to model effects of thermal radiation. The code has been validated extensively against benchmark experimental data and has been applied to model flows in several propulsion system components of the SSME and the STME.

  5. Astrophysics Source Code Library

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Alice; Berriman, Bruce; Hanisch, Robert J; Mink, Jessica; Teuben, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), founded in 1999, is a free on-line registry for source codes of interest to astronomers and astrophysicists. The library is housed on the discussion forum for Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) and can be accessed at http://ascl.net. The ASCL has a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used to generate results published in or submitted to refereed journals and continues to grow. The ASCL currently has entries for over 500 codes; its records are citable and are indexed by ADS. The editors of the ASCL and members of its Advisory Committee were on hand at a demonstration table in the ADASS poster room to present the ASCL, accept code submissions, show how the ASCL is starting to be used by the astrophysics community, and take questions on and suggestions for improving the resource.

  6. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-12

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves.

  7. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-02-07

    This is the final report of our research program on electronic transport experiments on Topological Insulator (TI) devices, funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. TIbased electronic devices are attractive as platforms for spintronic applications, and for detection of emergent properties such as Majorana excitations , electron-hole condensates , and the topological magneto-electric effect . Most theoretical proposals envision geometries consisting of a planar TI device integrated with materials of distinctly different physical phases (such as ferromagnets and superconductors). Experimental realization of physics tied to the surface states is a challenge due to the ubiquitous presence of bulk carriers in most TI compounds as well as degradation during device fabrication.

  8. Verification of the computer code ATHLET in the framework of the external verification group ATHLET BETHSY test 9.3 - steam generator U-tube rupture with failure of the high pressure injection. Final report; Verifikation des ATHLET-Rechenprogramms im Rahmen der externen Verifikationsgruppe ATHLET BETHSY Test 9.3 - Heizrohrbruch mit Versagen der Hochdruck-Noteinspeisung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krepper, E.; Schaefer, F. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR) (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung

    1998-08-01

    In the framework of the external validation of the thermalhydraulic code ATHLET MOD 1.1 CYCLE D, which is being developed by the GRS, post test analyses of two experiments were done, which were performed at the French integral test facility BETHSY. During test 9.3 the consequences of a steam generator U-tube rupture with failure of the high pressure injection and of the auxiliary feedwater supply were investigated. As accident management measures, the depressurization of the secondary sides, first of the two intact steam generators, then of the damaged steam generator and finally the primary depressurization by opening of the pressurizer valve were performed. The results show, that the code ATHLET is able to describe the complex scenario in good accordance with the experiment. The safety relevant statement could be reproduced. Deviations, which did not impose the general results, occurred concerning the break mass flow during the depressurization of the damaged steam generator and the description of the failure of the heat transfer to the damaged steam generator. Reasons are hardly to find, because these processes are highly complex. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der externen Validierung des von der Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit entwickelten Stoerfallcodes ATHLET, der in der Version Mod 1.1 Cycle D vorlag, wurden zwei Experimente nachgerechnet und analysiert, die an der franzoesischen Versuchsanlage BETHSY durchgefuehrt wurden. Im Test 9.3 werden die Konsequenzen untersucht, wenn bei einem Heizrohrbruch die Hochdruckeinspeisung sowie die Not-Speisewasserversorgung der Dampferzeuger versagen und nur die Druckspeicher sowie die Niederdruckeinspeisung zur Verfuegung stehen. Als Accident Management Massnahmen wurde die sekundaere Druckentlastung und schliesslich die primaere Entlastung ueber den Druckhalter untersucht. Die Analyse kommt zu dem Ergebnis, dass der Code ATHLET in der Lage ist, dieses komplexe Szenario recht gut zu beschreiben. Die

  9. Quantum Codes for Controlling Coherent Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Sharf, Y; Cory, D G; Sharf, Yehuda; Havel, Timothy F.; Cory, David G.

    2000-01-01

    Control over spin dynamics has been obtained in NMR via coherent averaging, which is implemented through a sequence of RF pulses, and via quantum codes which can protect against incoherent evolution. Here, we discuss the design and implementation of quantum codes to protect against coherent evolution. A detailed example is given of a quantum code for protecting two data qubits from evolution under a weak coupling (Ising) term in the Hamiltonian, using an ``isolated'' ancilla which does not evolve on the experimental time scale. The code is realized in a three-spin system by liquid-state NMR spectroscopy on 13C-labelled alanine, and tested for two initial states. It is also shown that for coherent evolution and isolated ancillae, codes exist that do not require the ancillae to initially be in a (pseudo-)pure state. Finally, it is shown that even with non-isolated ancillae quantum codes exist which can protect against evolution under weak coupling. An example is presented for a six qubit code that protects two ...

  10. Embedded foveation image coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Bovik, A C

    2001-01-01

    The human visual system (HVS) is highly space-variant in sampling, coding, processing, and understanding. The spatial resolution of the HVS is highest around the point of fixation (foveation point) and decreases rapidly with increasing eccentricity. By taking advantage of this fact, it is possible to remove considerable high-frequency information redundancy from the peripheral regions and still reconstruct a perceptually good quality image. Great success has been obtained previously by a class of embedded wavelet image coding algorithms, such as the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) and the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithms. Embedded wavelet coding not only provides very good compression performance, but also has the property that the bitstream can be truncated at any point and still be decoded to recreate a reasonably good quality image. In this paper, we propose an embedded foveation image coding (EFIC) algorithm, which orders the encoded bitstream to optimize foveated visual quality at arbitrary bit-rates. A foveation-based image quality metric, namely, foveated wavelet image quality index (FWQI), plays an important role in the EFIC system. We also developed a modified SPIHT algorithm to improve the coding efficiency. Experiments show that EFIC integrates foveation filtering with foveated image coding and demonstrates very good coding performance and scalability in terms of foveated image quality measurement.

  11. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity in the net...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof.......Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...

  12. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  13. Application of RS Codes in Decoding QR Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Suxia(朱素霞); Ji Zhenzhou; Cao Zhiyan

    2003-01-01

    The QR Code is a 2-dimensional matrix code with high error correction capability. It employs RS codes to generate error correction codewords in encoding and recover errors and damages in decoding. This paper presents several QR Code's virtues, analyzes RS decoding algorithm and gives a software flow chart of decoding the QR Code with RS decoding algorithm.

  14. Evaluation Codes from an Affine Veriety Code Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation codes (also called order domain codes) are traditionally introduced as generalized one-point geometric Goppa codes. In the present paper we will give a new point of view on evaluation codes by introducing them instead as particular nice examples of affine variety codes. Our study...

  15. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, Jeff

    2014-07-31

    The purpose of this project was to develop tools and techniques to improve the ability of computational scientists to investigate and correct problems (bugs) in their programs. Specifically, the University of Maryland component of this project focused on the problems associated with the finite number of bits available in a computer to represent numeric values. In large scale scientific computation, numbers are frequently added to and multiplied with each other billions of times. Thus even small errors due to the representation of numbers can accumulate into big errors. However, using too many bits to represent a number results in additional computation, memory, and energy costs. Thus it is critical to find the right size for numbers. This project focused on several aspects of this general problem. First, we developed a tool to look for cancelations, the catastrophic loss of precision in numbers due to the addition of two numbers whose actual values are close to each other, but whose representation in a computer is identical or nearly so. Second, we developed a suite of tools to allow programmers to identify exactly how much precision is required for each operation in their program. This tool allows programmers to both verify that enough precision is available, but more importantly find cases where extra precision could be eliminated to allow the program to use less memory, computer time, or energy. These tools use advanced binary modification techniques to allow the analysis of actual optimized code. The system, called Craft, has been applied to a number of benchmarks and real applications.

  16. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, Jeff

    2014-07-31

    The purpose of this project was to develop tools and techniques to improve the ability of computational scientists to investigate and correct problems (bugs) in their programs. Specifically, the University of Maryland component of this project focused on the problems associated with the finite number of bits available in a computer to represent numeric values. In large scale scientific computation, numbers are frequently added to and multiplied with each other billions of times. Thus even small errors due to the representation of numbers can accumulate into big errors. However, using too many bits to represent a number results in additional computation, memory, and energy costs. Thus it is critical to find the right size for numbers. This project focused on several aspects of this general problem. First, we developed a tool to look for cancelations, the catastrophic loss of precision in numbers due to the addition of two numbers whose actual values are close to each other, but whose representation in a computer is identical or nearly so. Second, we developed a suite of tools to allow programmers to identify exactly how much precision is required for each operation in their program. This tool allows programmers to both verify that enough precision is available, but more importantly find cases where extra precision could be eliminated to allow the program to use less memory, computer time, or energy. These tools use advanced binary modification techniques to allow the analysis of actual optimized code. The system, called Craft, has been applied to a number of benchmarks and real applications.

  17. Distributed multiple description coding

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Huihui; Zhao, Yao

    2011-01-01

    This book examines distributed video coding (DVC) and multiple description coding (MDC), two novel techniques designed to address the problems of conventional image and video compression coding. Covering all fundamental concepts and core technologies, the chapters can also be read as independent and self-sufficient, describing each methodology in sufficient detail to enable readers to repeat the corresponding experiments easily. Topics and features: provides a broad overview of DVC and MDC, from the basic principles to the latest research; covers sub-sampling based MDC, quantization based MDC,

  18. Cryptography cracking codes

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    While cracking a code might seem like something few of us would encounter in our daily lives, it is actually far more prevalent than we may realize. Anyone who has had personal information taken because of a hacked email account can understand the need for cryptography and the importance of encryption-essentially the need to code information to keep it safe. This detailed volume examines the logic and science behind various ciphers, their real world uses, how codes can be broken, and the use of technology in this oft-overlooked field.

  19. Coded MapReduce

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Songze; Maddah-Ali, Mohammad Ali; Avestimehr, A. Salman

    2015-01-01

    MapReduce is a commonly used framework for executing data-intensive jobs on distributed server clusters. We introduce a variant implementation of MapReduce, namely "Coded MapReduce", to substantially reduce the inter-server communication load for the shuffling phase of MapReduce, and thus accelerating its execution. The proposed Coded MapReduce exploits the repetitive mapping of data blocks at different servers to create coding opportunities in the shuffling phase to exchange (key,value) pair...

  20. Classical Holographic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Brehm, Enrico M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce classical holographic codes. These can be understood as concatenated probabilistic codes and can be represented as networks uniformly covering hyperbolic space. In particular, classical holographic codes can be interpreted as maps from bulk degrees of freedom to boundary degrees of freedom. Interestingly, they are shown to exhibit features similar to those expected from the AdS/CFT correspondence. Among these are a version of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula and intriguing properties regarding bulk reconstruction and boundary representations of bulk operations. We discuss the relation of our findings with expectations from AdS/CFT and, in particular, with recent results from quantum error correction.

  1. HIGH-PERFORMANCE SIMPLE-ENCODING GENERATOR-BASED SYSTEMATIC IRREGULAR LDPC CODES AND RESULTED PRODUCT CODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) code is one of the most exciting topics among the coding theory community. It is of great importance in both theory and practical communications over noisy channels. The most advantage of LDPC codes is their relatively lower decoding complexity compared with turbo codes, while the disadvantage is its higher encoding complexity. In this paper, a new approach is first proposed to construct high performance irregular systematic LDPC codes based on sparse generator matrix, which can significantly reduce the encoding complexity under the same decoding complexity as that of regular or irregular LDPC codes defined by traditional sparse parity-check matrix. Then, the proposed generator-based systematic irregular LDPC codes are adopted ss constituent block codes in rows and columns to design a new kind of product codes family, which also can be interpreted as irregular LDPC codes characterized by graph and thus decoded iteratively. Finally,the performance of the generator-based LDPC codes and the resultant product codes is investigated over an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and also compared with the conventional LDPC codes under the same conditions of decoding complexity and channel noise.

  2. Evolution of coding microsatellites in primate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loire, Etienne; Higuet, Dominique; Netter, Pierre; Achaz, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellites (SSRs) are highly susceptible to expansions and contractions. When located in a coding sequence, the insertion or the deletion of a single unit for a mono-, di-, tetra-, or penta(nucleotide)-SSR creates a frameshift. As a consequence, one would expect to find only very few of these SSRs in coding sequences because of their strong deleterious potential. Unexpectedly, genomes contain many coding SSRs of all types. Here, we report on a study of their evolution in a phylogenetic context using the genomes of four primates: human, chimpanzee, orangutan, and macaque. In a set of 5,015 orthologous genes unambiguously aligned among the four species, we show that, except for tri- and hexa-SSRs, for which insertions and deletions are frequently observed, SSRs in coding regions evolve mainly by substitutions. We show that the rate of substitution in all types of coding SSRs is typically two times higher than in the rest of coding sequences. Additionally, we observe that although numerous coding SSRs are created and lost by substitutions in the lineages, their numbers remain constant. This last observation suggests that the coding SSRs have reached equilibrium. We hypothesize that this equilibrium involves a combination of mutation, drift, and selection. We thus estimated the fitness cost of mono-SSRs and show that it increases with the number of units. We finally show that the cost of coding mono-SSRs greatly varies from function to function, suggesting that the strength of the selection that acts against them can be correlated to gene functions.

  3. The fast code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, L.N.; Wilson, R.E. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The FAST Code which is capable of determining structural loads on a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data are given at two wind speeds for the ESI-80. The FAST Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade bending, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffnesses, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms, and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST Code and test results is good. (au)

  4. VT ZIP Code Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) A ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) is a statistical geographic entity that approximates the delivery area for a U.S. Postal Service five-digit...

  5. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof....

  6. GOOGLE SUMMER OF CODE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leslie Hawthorn

    2008-01-01

      This article examines the Google Summer of Code (GSoC) program, the world's first global initiative to introduce College and University students to free/libre open source software (F/LOSS) development...

  7. Importance of Building Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Banerjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum standards for constructed objects such as buildings and non building structures. The main purpose of building codes are to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or private authority. Building codes are generally intended to be applied by architects, engineers, constructors and regulators but are also used for various purposes by safety inspectors, environmental scientists, real estate developers, subcontractors, manufacturers of building products and materials, insurance companies, facility managers, tenants and others.

  8. Bandwidth efficient coding

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, John B

    2017-01-01

    Bandwidth Efficient Coding addresses the major challenge in communication engineering today: how to communicate more bits of information in the same radio spectrum. Energy and bandwidth are needed to transmit bits, and bandwidth affects capacity the most. Methods have been developed that are ten times as energy efficient at a given bandwidth consumption as simple methods. These employ signals with very complex patterns and are called "coding" solutions. The book begins with classical theory before introducing new techniques that combine older methods of error correction coding and radio transmission in order to create narrowband methods that are as efficient in both spectrum and energy as nature allows. Other topics covered include modulation techniques such as CPM, coded QAM and pulse design.

  9. Coded Random Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paolini, Enrico; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Liva, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    , in which the structure of the access protocol can be mapped to a structure of an erasure-correcting code defined on graph. This opens the possibility to use coding theory and tools for designing efficient random access protocols, offering markedly better performance than ALOHA. Several instances of coded......The rise of machine-to-machine communications has rekindled the interest in random access protocols as a support for a massive number of uncoordinatedly transmitting devices. The legacy ALOHA approach is developed under a collision model, where slots containing collided packets are considered...... as waste. However, if the common receiver (e.g., base station) is capable to store the collision slots and use them in a transmission recovery process based on successive interference cancellation, the design space for access protocols is radically expanded. We present the paradigm of coded random access...

  10. Code Disentanglement: Initial Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlbier, John Greaton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockefeller, Gabriel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Calef, Matthew Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    The first step to making more ambitious changes in the EAP code base is to disentangle the code into a set of independent, levelized packages. We define a package as a collection of code, most often across a set of files, that provides a defined set of functionality; a package a) can be built and tested as an entity and b) fits within an overall levelization design. Each package contributes one or more libraries, or an application that uses the other libraries. A package set is levelized if the relationships between packages form a directed, acyclic graph and each package uses only packages at lower levels of the diagram (in Fortran this relationship is often describable by the use relationship between modules). Independent packages permit independent- and therefore parallel|development. The packages form separable units for the purposes of development and testing. This is a proven path for enabling finer-grained changes to a complex code.

  11. Annotated Raptor Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Mahdaviani, Kaveh; Tellambura, Chintha

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an extension of raptor codes is introduced which keeps all the desirable properties of raptor codes, including the linear complexity of encoding and decoding per information bit, unchanged. The new design, however, improves the performance in terms of the reception rate. Our simulations show a 10% reduction in the needed overhead at the benchmark block length of 64,520 bits and with the same complexity per information bit.

  12. The PHENIX final texts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasile, A.; Fontaine, B.; Vanier, M.; Gauthe, P.; Pascal, V.; Prulhiere, G.; Jaecki, P.; Martin, L. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Tenchine, D. [CEA Grenoble, 38 (France); Sauvage, J.F. [Electricite de France (EDF/SEPTEN), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Dupraz, R.; Woaye Hune, A. [AREVA NP, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-11-15

    The 250 MWe (140 MWe since 1993) PHENIX sodium cooled fast reactor was shut down on March 6, 2009. Before decommissioning, a final set of tests was performed during May 2009 - January 2010. These tests covered core physics, fuel behaviour and thermal-hydraulics areas. Detailed analysis of the tests results is ongoing. It will be used for the extension of the validation of ERANOS and DARWIN codes for core physics, TRIO{sub U} and CATHARE for thermal-hydraulics and GERMINAL for fuel behaviour. In addition, the program included 2 tests related to the comprehension of the four negative reactivity transients (AURN) experienced during the reactor operation in 1989 and 1990 and not yet fully explained. This was also a great opportunity to involve young engineers in the different processes like the design of the tests, their carrying out and the analysis of the results. The standard instrumentation of the reactor was completed by specifically designed devices. (authors)

  13. Robust Nonlinear Neural Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qianli; Pitkow, Xaq

    2015-03-01

    Most interesting natural sensory stimuli are encoded in the brain in a form that can only be decoded nonlinearly. But despite being a core function of the brain, nonlinear population codes are rarely studied and poorly understood. Interestingly, the few existing models of nonlinear codes are inconsistent with known architectural features of the brain. In particular, these codes have information content that scales with the size of the cortical population, even if that violates the data processing inequality by exceeding the amount of information entering the sensory system. Here we provide a valid theory of nonlinear population codes by generalizing recent work on information-limiting correlations in linear population codes. Although these generalized, nonlinear information-limiting correlations bound the performance of any decoder, they also make decoding more robust to suboptimal computation, allowing many suboptimal decoders to achieve nearly the same efficiency as an optimal decoder. Although these correlations are extremely difficult to measure directly, particularly for nonlinear codes, we provide a simple, practical test by which one can use choice-related activity in small populations of neurons to determine whether decoding is suboptimal or optimal and limited by correlated noise. We conclude by describing an example computation in the vestibular system where this theory applies. QY and XP was supported by a grant from the McNair foundation.

  14. Scalable motion vector coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarien, Joeri; Munteanu, Adrian; Verdicchio, Fabio; Andreopoulos, Yiannis; Cornelis, Jan P.; Schelkens, Peter

    2004-11-01

    Modern video coding applications require transmission of video data over variable-bandwidth channels to a variety of terminals with different screen resolutions and available computational power. Scalable video coding is needed to optimally support these applications. Recently proposed wavelet-based video codecs employing spatial domain motion compensated temporal filtering (SDMCTF) provide quality, resolution and frame-rate scalability while delivering compression performance comparable to that of the state-of-the-art non-scalable H.264-codec. These codecs require scalable coding of the motion vectors in order to support a large range of bit-rates with optimal compression efficiency. Scalable motion vector coding algorithms based on the integer wavelet transform followed by embedded coding of the wavelet coefficients were recently proposed. In this paper, a new and fundamentally different scalable motion vector codec (MVC) using median-based motion vector prediction is proposed. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed MVC systematically outperforms the wavelet-based state-of-the-art solutions. To be able to take advantage of the proposed scalable MVC, a rate allocation mechanism capable of optimally dividing the available rate among texture and motion information is required. Two rate allocation strategies are proposed and compared. The proposed MVC and rate allocation schemes are incorporated into an SDMCTF-based video codec and the benefits of scalable motion vector coding are experimentally demonstrated.

  15. On Expanded Cyclic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yingquan

    2008-01-01

    The paper has a threefold purpose. The first purpose is to present an explicit description of expanded cyclic codes defined in $\\GF(q^m)$. The proposed explicit construction of expanded generator matrix and expanded parity check matrix maintains the symbol-wise algebraic structure and thus keeps many important original characteristics. The second purpose of this paper is to identify a class of constant-weight cyclic codes. Specifically, we show that a well-known class of $q$-ary BCH codes excluding the all-zero codeword are constant-weight cyclic codes. Moreover, we show this class of codes achieve the Plotkin bound. The last purpose of the paper is to characterize expanded cyclic codes utilizing the proposed expanded generator matrix and parity check matrix. We analyze the properties of component codewords of a codeword and particularly establish the precise conditions under which a codeword can be represented by a subbasis. With the new insights, we present an improved lower bound on the minimum distance of...

  16. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Robert C. [Texas A& M University; Kamon, Teruki [Texas A& M University; Toback, David [Texas A& M University; Safonov, Alexei [Texas A& M University; Dutta, Bhaskar [Texas A& M University; Dimitri, Nanopoulos [Texas A& M University; Pope, Christopher [Texas A& M University; White, James [Texas A& M University

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  17. Loss less DNA Solidity Using Huffman and Arithmetic Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Mythri Dasari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DNA Sequences making up any bacterium comprise the blue print of that bacterium so that understanding and analyzing different genes with in sequences has become an exceptionally significant mission. Naturalists are manufacturing huge volumes of DNA Sequences every day that makes genome sequence catalogue emergent exponentially. The data bases such as Gen-bank represents millions of DNA Sequences filling many thousands of gigabytes workstation storing capability. Solidity of Genomic sequences can decrease the storage requirements, and increase the broadcast speed. In this paper we compare two lossless solidity algorithms (Huffman and Arithmetic coding. In Huffman coding, individual bases are coded and assigned a specific binary number. But for Arithmetic coding entire DNA is coded in to a single fraction number and binary word is coded to it. Solidity ratio is compared for both the methods and finally we conclude that arithmetic coding is the best.

  18. Packet combining based on cross-packet coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN DengSheng; XIAO Ming; LI ShaoQian

    2013-01-01

    We propose a packet combining scheme of using cross-packet coding. With the coding scheme, one redundant packet can be used to ensure the error-correction of multiple source packets. Thus, the proposed scheme can increase the code rate. Moreover, the proposed coding scheme has also advantages of decoding complexity, reducing undetectable errors (by the proposed low-complexity decoder) and flexibility (applicable to channels with and without feedback). Theoretical analysis under the proposed low-complexity decoding algorithm is given to maximize the code rate by optimizing the number of source packets. Finally, we give numerical results to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed scheme in terms of code rates compared to the traditional packet combining without coding or ARQ (automatic repeat-request) techniques.

  19. A New Evolutionary Algorithm Based on the Decimal Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Traditional Evolutionary Algorithm (EAs) is based on the binary code, real number code, structure code and so on. But these coding strategies have their own advantages and disadvantages for the optimization of functions. In this paper a new Decimal Coding Strategy (DCS) ,which is convenient for space division and alterable precision, was proposed, and the theory analysis of its implicit parallelism and convergence was also discussed. We also redesign several genetic operators for the decimal code. In order to utilize the historical information of the existing individuals in the process of evolution and avoid repeated exploring,the strategies of space shrinking and precision alterable, are adopted. Finally, the evolutionary algorithm based on decimal coding (DCEAs) was applied to the optimization of functions, the optimization of parameter, mixed-integer nonlinear programming. Comparison with traditional GAs was made and the experimental results show that the performances of DCEAS are better than the tradition GAs.

  20. Research and Design in Unified Coding Architecture for Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Han

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Standardized and sharing information platform is the foundation of the Smart Grids. In order to improve the dispatching center information integration of the power grids and achieve efficient data exchange, sharing and interoperability, a unified coding architecture is proposed. The architecture includes coding management layer, coding generation layer, information models layer and application system layer. Hierarchical design makes the whole coding architecture to adapt to different application environments, different interfaces, loosely coupled requirements, which can realize the integration model management function of the power grids. The life cycle and evaluation method of survival of unified coding architecture is proposed. It can ensure the stability and availability of the coding architecture. Finally, the development direction of coding technology of the Smart Grids in future is prospected.

  1. Non-Binary Polar Codes using Reed-Solomon Codes and Algebraic Geometry Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Ryuhei

    2010-01-01

    Polar codes, introduced by Arikan, achieve symmetric capacity of any discrete memoryless channels under low encoding and decoding complexity. Recently, non-binary polar codes have been investigated. In this paper, we calculate error probability of non-binary polar codes constructed on the basis of Reed-Solomon matrices by numerical simulations. It is confirmed that 4-ary polar codes have significantly better performance than binary polar codes on binary-input AWGN channel. We also discuss an interpretation of polar codes in terms of algebraic geometry codes, and further show that polar codes using Hermitian codes have asymptotically good performance.

  2. BTREE: A FORTRAN Code for B+ Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    AD- 55 026 STREE:SA FORTRAN CODE FOR 0- TREE IUT NAVAL SURFACE 1f, WOEAPONS CENTER SI LVER SPRING WD E WINSION 01 APR 05 NSWC/TR 85-5 F/0 9/2 NL...and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED BTREE: A FORTRAN CODE FOR A B+ TREE Final: Fiscal Year 85 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR...reveres side It necessary d identify by block number) B+ Tree , Database Manager, Node, Leaf. Root 20. ABSTRACT (ContUum an terees side It ncee.sy al

  3. Distributed Video Coding: Iterative Improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van

    Nowadays, emerging applications such as wireless visual sensor networks and wireless video surveillance are requiring lightweight video encoding with high coding efficiency and error-resilience. Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new coding paradigm which exploits the source statistics...

  4. Polynomial weights and code constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massey, J; Costello, D; Justesen, Jørn

    1973-01-01

    polynomial included. This fundamental property is then used as the key to a variety of code constructions including 1) a simplified derivation of the binary Reed-Muller codes and, for any primepgreater than 2, a new extensive class ofp-ary "Reed-Muller codes," 2) a new class of "repeated-root" cyclic codes...... that are subcodes of the binary Reed-Muller codes and can be very simply instrumented, 3) a new class of constacyclic codes that are subcodes of thep-ary "Reed-Muller codes," 4) two new classes of binary convolutional codes with large "free distance" derived from known binary cyclic codes, 5) two new classes...... of long constraint length binary convolutional codes derived from2^r-ary Reed-Solomon codes, and 6) a new class ofq-ary "repeated-root" constacyclic codes with an algebraic decoding algorithm....

  5. FREQUENCY-CODED OPTIMIZATION OF HOPPED-FREQUENCY PULSE SIGNAL BASED ON GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zheng; Mu Xuehua

    2005-01-01

    The Frequency-Coded Pulse (FCP) signal has good performance of range and Doppler resolution. This paper first gives the mathematical expression of the ambiguity function for FCP signals, and then presents a coding rule for optimizing FCP signal. The genetic algorithm is presented to solve this kind of problem for optimizing codes. Finally, an example for optimizing calculation is illustrated and the optimized frequency coding results are given with the code length N=64 and N=128 respectively.

  6. Current and anticipated uses of thermal-hydraulic codes in NFI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, K. [Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Takayasu, M. [Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., Sennann-gun (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents the thermal-hydraulic codes currently used in NFI for the LWR fuel development and licensing application including transient and design basis accident analyses of LWR plants. The current status of the codes are described in the context of code capability, modeling feature, and experience of code application related to the fuel development and licensing. Finally, the anticipated use of the future thermal-hydraulic code in NFI is briefly given.

  7. Optimal interference code based on machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ye; Chen, Qian; Hu, Xiaobo; Cao, Ercong; Qian, Weixian; Gu, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of pseudo-random code, by the case of m sequence. Depending on the description of coding theory, we introduce the jamming methods. We simulate the interference effect or probability model by the means of MATLAB to consolidate. In accordance with the length of decoding time the adversary spends, we find out the optimal formula and optimal coefficients based on machine learning, then we get the new optimal interference code. First, when it comes to the phase of recognition, this study judges the effect of interference by the way of simulating the length of time over the decoding period of laser seeker. Then, we use laser active deception jamming simulate interference process in the tracking phase in the next block. In this study we choose the method of laser active deception jamming. In order to improve the performance of the interference, this paper simulates the model by MATLAB software. We find out the least number of pulse intervals which must be received, then we can make the conclusion that the precise interval number of the laser pointer for m sequence encoding. In order to find the shortest space, we make the choice of the greatest common divisor method. Then, combining with the coding regularity that has been found before, we restore pulse interval of pseudo-random code, which has been already received. Finally, we can control the time period of laser interference, get the optimal interference code, and also increase the probability of interference as well.

  8. Product Codes for Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    2002-01-01

    Many optical communicaton systems might benefit from forward-error-correction. We present a hard-decision decoding algorithm for the "Block Turbo Codes", suitable for optical communication, which makes this coding-scheme an alternative to Reed-Solomon codes.......Many optical communicaton systems might benefit from forward-error-correction. We present a hard-decision decoding algorithm for the "Block Turbo Codes", suitable for optical communication, which makes this coding-scheme an alternative to Reed-Solomon codes....

  9. Some new ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  10. Algebraic geometric codes with applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao

    2007-01-01

    The theory of linear error-correcting codes from algebraic geomet-ric curves (algebraic geometric (AG) codes or geometric Goppa codes) has been well-developed since the work of Goppa and Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink in 1981-1982. In this paper we introduce to readers some recent progress in algebraic geometric codes and their applications in quantum error-correcting codes, secure multi-party computation and the construction of good binary codes.

  11. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  12. Algebraic and stochastic coding theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kythe, Dave K

    2012-01-01

    Using a simple yet rigorous approach, Algebraic and Stochastic Coding Theory makes the subject of coding theory easy to understand for readers with a thorough knowledge of digital arithmetic, Boolean and modern algebra, and probability theory. It explains the underlying principles of coding theory and offers a clear, detailed description of each code. More advanced readers will appreciate its coverage of recent developments in coding theory and stochastic processes. After a brief review of coding history and Boolean algebra, the book introduces linear codes, including Hamming and Golay codes.

  13. NDSPMHD Smoothed Particle Magnetohydrodynamics Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and introduction to Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics and Magnetohydrodynamics in theory and in practice. Firstly, we give a basic grounding in the fundamentals of SPH, showing how the equations of motion and energy can be self-consistently derived from the density estimate. We then show how to interpret these equations using the basic SPH interpolation formulae and highlight the subtle difference in approach between SPH and other particle methods. In doing so, we also critique several 'urban myths' regarding SPH, in particular the idea that one can simply increase the 'neighbour number' more slowly than the total number of particles in order to obtain convergence. We also discuss the origin of numerical instabilities such as the pairing and tensile instabilities. Finally, we give practical advice on how to resolve three of the main issues with SPMHD: removing the tensile instability, formulating dissipative terms for MHD shocks and enforcing the divergence constraint on the particles, and we give the current status of developments in this area. Accompanying the paper is the first public release of the NDSPMHD SPH code, a 1, 2 and 3 dimensional code designed as a testbed for SPH/SPMHD algorithms that can be used to test many of the ideas and used to run all of the numerical examples contained in the paper.

  14. Golden Coded Multiple Beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Boyu

    2010-01-01

    The Golden Code is a full-rate full-diversity space-time code, which achieves maximum coding gain for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems with two transmit and two receive antennas. Since four information symbols taken from an M-QAM constellation are selected to construct one Golden Code codeword, a maximum likelihood decoder using sphere decoding has the worst-case complexity of O(M^4), when the Channel State Information (CSI) is available at the receiver. Previously, this worst-case complexity was reduced to O(M^(2.5)) without performance degradation. When the CSI is known by the transmitter as well as the receiver, beamforming techniques that employ singular value decomposition are commonly used in MIMO systems. In the absence of channel coding, when a single symbol is transmitted, these systems achieve the full diversity order provided by the channel. Whereas this property is lost when multiple symbols are simultaneously transmitted. However, uncoded multiple beamforming can achieve the full div...

  15. Coded source neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100 m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100um and 10um aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  16. Coded source neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Philip; Santos-Villalobos, Hector; Tobin, Ken

    2011-03-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100μm) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100μm and 10μm aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  17. Coding technique with progressive reconstruction based on VQ and entropy coding applied to medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Fernandez, Marcos; Alberola-Lopez, Carlos; Guerrero-Rodriguez, David; Ruiz-Alzola, Juan

    2000-12-01

    In this paper we propose a novel lossless coding scheme for medical images that allows the final user to switch between a lossy and a lossless mode. This is done by means of a progressive reconstruction philosophy (which can be interrupted at will) so we believe that our scheme gives a way to trade off between the accuracy needed for medical diagnosis and the information reduction needed for storage and transmission. We combine vector quantization, run-length bit plane and entropy coding. Specifically, the first step is a vector quantization procedure; the centroid codes are Huffman- coded making use of a set of probabilities that are calculated in the learning phase. The image is reconstructed at the coder in order to obtain the error image; this second image is divided in bit planes, which are then run-length and Huffman coded. A second statistical analysis is performed during the learning phase to obtain the parameters needed in this final stage. Our coder is currently trained for hand-radiographs and fetal echographies. We compare our results for this two types of images to classical results on bit plane coding and the JPEG standard. Our coder turns out to outperform both of them.

  18. Speech coding code- excited linear prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Bäckström, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This book provides scientific understanding of the most central techniques used in speech coding both for advanced students as well as professionals with a background in speech audio and or digital signal processing. It provides a clear connection between the whys hows and whats thus enabling a clear view of the necessity purpose and solutions provided by various tools as well as their strengths and weaknesses in each respect Equivalently this book sheds light on the following perspectives for each technology presented Objective What do we want to achieve and especially why is this goal important Resource Information What information is available and how can it be useful and Resource Platform What kind of platforms are we working with and what are their capabilities restrictions This includes computational memory and acoustic properties and the transmission capacity of devices used. The book goes on to address Solutions Which solutions have been proposed and how can they be used to reach the stated goals and ...

  19. Phase-coded pulse aperiodic transmitter coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Virtanen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Both ionospheric and weather radar communities have already adopted the method of transmitting radar pulses in an aperiodic manner when measuring moderately overspread targets. Among the users of the ionospheric radars, this method is called Aperiodic Transmitter Coding (ATC, whereas the weather radar users have adopted the term Simultaneous Multiple Pulse-Repetition Frequency (SMPRF. When probing the ionosphere at the carrier frequencies of the EISCAT Incoherent Scatter Radar facilities, the range extent of the detectable target is typically of the order of one thousand kilometers – about seven milliseconds – whereas the characteristic correlation time of the scattered signal varies from a few milliseconds in the D-region to only tens of microseconds in the F-region. If one is interested in estimating the scattering autocorrelation function (ACF at time lags shorter than the F-region correlation time, the D-region must be considered as a moderately overspread target, whereas the F-region is a severely overspread one. Given the technical restrictions of the radar hardware, a combination of ATC and phase-coded long pulses is advantageous for this kind of target. We evaluate such an experiment under infinitely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR conditions using lag profile inversion. In addition, a qualitative evaluation under high-SNR conditions is performed by analysing simulated data. The results show that an acceptable estimation accuracy and a very good lag resolution in the D-region can be achieved with a pulse length long enough for simultaneous E- and F-region measurements with a reasonable lag extent. The new experiment design is tested with the EISCAT Tromsø VHF (224 MHz radar. An example of a full D/E/F-region ACF from the test run is shown at the end of the paper.

  20. Nested Quantum Error Correction Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhuo; Fan, Hen; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-01-01

    The theory of quantum error correction was established more than a decade ago as the primary tool for fighting decoherence in quantum information processing. Although great progress has already been made in this field, limited methods are available in constructing new quantum error correction codes from old codes. Here we exhibit a simple and general method to construct new quantum error correction codes by nesting certain quantum codes together. The problem of finding long quantum error correction codes is reduced to that of searching several short length quantum codes with certain properties. Our method works for all length and all distance codes, and is quite efficient to construct optimal or near optimal codes. Two main known methods in constructing new codes from old codes in quantum error-correction theory, the concatenating and pasting, can be understood in the framework of nested quantum error correction codes.

  1. MHD Generation Code

    CERN Document Server

    Frutos-Alfaro, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full Magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program used the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the MHD equations to obtain a code that can be used as a seed for a MHD code for numerical applications. As an example, we present part of output of our programs for Cartesian coordinates and how to do the discretization.

  2. Autocatalysis, information and coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, P R

    2001-01-01

    Autocatalytic self-construction in macromolecular systems requires the existence of a reflexive relationship between structural components and the functional operations they perform to synthesise themselves. The possibility of reflexivity depends on formal, semiotic features of the catalytic structure-function relationship, that is, the embedding of catalytic functions in the space of polymeric structures. Reflexivity is a semiotic property of some genetic sequences. Such sequences may serve as the basis for the evolution of coding as a result of autocatalytic self-organisation in a population of assignment catalysts. Autocatalytic selection is a mechanism whereby matter becomes differentiated in primitive biochemical systems. In the case of coding self-organisation, it corresponds to the creation of symbolic information. Prions are present-day entities whose replication through autocatalysis reflects aspects of biological semiotics less obvious than genetic coding.

  3. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  4. Adjoint code generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Qiang; CAO JianWen; WANG Bin; ZHANG HaiBin

    2009-01-01

    The adjoint code generator (ADG) is developed to produce the adjoint codes, which are used to analytically calculate gradients and the Hessian-vector products with the costs independent of the number of the independent variables. Different from other automatic differentiation tools, the implementation of ADG has advantages of using the least program behavior decomposition method and several static dependence analysis techniques. In this paper we first address the concerned concepts and fundamentals, and then introduce the functionality and the features of ADG. In particular, we also discuss the design architecture of ADG and implementation details including the recomputation and storing strategy and several techniques for code optimization. Some experimental results in several applications are presented at the end.

  5. Code query by example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  6. Spread codes and spread decoding in network coding

    OpenAIRE

    Manganiello, F; Gorla, E.; Rosenthal, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the class of spread codes for the use in random network coding. Spread codes are based on the construction of spreads in finite projective geometry. The major contribution of the paper is an efficient decoding algorithm of spread codes up to half the minimum distance.

  7. Graph Codes with Reed-Solomon Component Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    We treat a specific case of codes based on bipartite expander graphs coming from finite geometries. The code symbols are associated with the branches and the symbols connected to a given node are restricted to be codewords in a Reed-Solomon code. We give results on the parameters of the codes...

  8. Product Perfect Z2Z4-linear codes in Steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Rifa, J

    2010-01-01

    Product perfect codes have been proven to enhance the performance of the F5 steganographic method, whereas perfect Z2Z4-linear codes have been recently introduced as an efficient way to embed data, conforming to the +/-1-steganography. In this paper, we present two steganographic methods. On the one hand, a generalization of product perfect codes is made. On the other hand, this generalization is applied to perfect Z2Z4-linear codes. Finally, the performance of the proposed methods is evaluated and compared with those of the aforementioned schemes.

  9. Snake-in-the-Box Codes for Rank Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Yehezkeally, Yonatan

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the rank-modulation scheme with applications to flash memory, we consider Gray codes capable of detecting a single error, also known as snake-in-the-box codes. We study two error metrics: Kendall's $\\tau$-metric, which applies to charge-constrained errors, and the $\\ell_\\infty$-metric, which is useful in the case of limited magnitude errors. In both cases we construct snake-in-the-box codes with rate asymptotically tending to 1. We also provide efficient successor-calculation functions, as well as ranking and unranking functions. Finally, we also study bounds on the parameters of such codes.

  10. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  11. Construction of Large Constant Dimension Codes With a Prescribed Minimum Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Kohnert, Axel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we construct constant dimension space codes with prescribed minimum distance. There is an increased interest in space codes since a paper by Koetter and Kschischang were they gave an application in network coding. There is also a connection to the theory of designs over finite fields. We will modify a method of Braun, Kerber and Laue which they used for the construction of designs over finite fields to do the construction of space codes. Using this approach we found many new constant dimension spaces codes with a larger number of codewords than previously known codes. We will finally give a table of the best found constant dimension space codes.

  12. A reflexive exploration of two qualitative data coding techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Blair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to help find meaning within qualitative data, researchers commonly start by coding their data. There are a number of coding systems available to researchers and this reflexive account explores my reflections on the use of two such techniques. As part of a larger investigation, two pilot studies were undertaken as a means to examine the relative merits of open coding and template coding for examining transcripts. This article does not describe the research project per se but attempts to step back and offer a reflexive account of the development of data coding tools. Here I reflect upon and evaluate the two data coding techniques that were piloted, and discuss how using appropriate aspects of both led to the development of my final data coding approach. My exploration found there was no clear-cut ‘best’ option but that the data coding techniques needed to be reflexively-aligned to meet the specific needs of my project. This reflection suggests that, when coding qualitative data, researchers should be methodologically thoughtful when they attempt to apply any data coding technique; that they do not assume pre-established tools are aligned to their particular paradigm; and that they consider combining and refining established techniques as a means to define their own specific codes. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v6i1.18772DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v6i1.18772

  13. A construction of quantum turbo product codes based on CSS-type quantum convolutional codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hailin; Ni, Ju; Xie, Wu; Ouyang, Shan

    As in classical coding theory, turbo product codes (TPCs) through serially concatenated block codes can achieve approximatively Shannon capacity limit and have low decoding complexity. However, special requirements in the quantum setting severely limit the structures of turbo product codes (QTPCs). To design a good structure for QTPCs, we present a new construction of QTPCs with the interleaved serial concatenation of CSS(L1,L2)-type quantum convolutional codes (QCCs). First, CSS(L1,L2)-type QCCs are proposed by exploiting the theory of CSS-type quantum stabilizer codes and QCCs, and the description and the analysis of encoder circuit are greatly simplified in the form of Hadamard gates and C-NOT gates. Second, the interleaved coded matrix of QTPCs is derived by quantum permutation SWAP gate definition. Finally, we prove the corresponding relation on the minimum Hamming distance of QTPCs associated with classical TPCs, and describe the state diagram of encoder and decoder of QTPCs that have a highly regular structure and simple design idea.

  14. Transfer reaction code with nonlocal interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Titus, L J; Nunes, F M

    2016-01-01

    We present a suite of codes (NLAT for nonlocal adiabatic transfer) to calculate the transfer cross section for single-nucleon transfer reactions, $(d,N)$ or $(N,d)$, including nonlocal nucleon-target interactions, within the adiabatic distorted wave approximation. For this purpose, we implement an iterative method for solving the second order nonlocal differential equation, for both scattering and bound states. The final observables that can be obtained with NLAT are differential angular distributions for the cross sections of $A(d,N)B$ or $B(N,d)A$. Details on the implementation of the T-matrix to obtain the final cross sections within the adiabatic distorted wave approximation method are also provided. This code is suitable to be applied for deuteron induced reactions in the range of $E_d=10-70$ MeV, and provides cross sections with $4\\%$ accuracy.

  15. Transfer reaction code with nonlocal interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, L. J.; Ross, A.; Nunes, F. M.

    2016-10-01

    We present a suite of codes (NLAT for nonlocal adiabatic transfer) to calculate the transfer cross section for single-nucleon transfer reactions, (d , N) or (N , d) , including nonlocal nucleon-target interactions, within the adiabatic distorted wave approximation. For this purpose, we implement an iterative method for solving the second order nonlocal differential equation, for both scattering and bound states. The final observables that can be obtained with NLAT are differential angular distributions for the cross sections of A(d , N) B or B(N , d) A. Details on the implementation of the T-matrix to obtain the final cross sections within the adiabatic distorted wave approximation method are also provided. This code is suitable to be applied for deuteron induced reactions in the range of Ed =10-70 MeV, and provides cross sections with 4% accuracy.

  16. New code match strategy for wideband code division multiple access code tree management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Orthogonal variable spreading factor channelization codes are widely used to provide variable data rates for supporting different bandwidth requirements in wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) systems. A new code match scheme for WCDMA code tree management was proposed. The code match scheme is similar to the existing crowed-first scheme. When choosing a code for a user, the code match scheme only compares the one up layer of the allocated codes, unlike the crowed-first scheme which perhaps compares all up layers. So the operation of code match scheme is simple, and the average time delay is decreased by 5.1%. The simulation results also show that the code match strategy can decrease the average code blocking probability by 8.4%.

  17. Reed-Solomon convolutional codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gluesing-Luerssen, H; Schmale, W

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we will introduce a specific class of cyclic convolutional codes. The construction is based on Reed-Solomon block codes. The algebraic parameters as well as the distance of these codes are determined. This shows that some of these codes are optimal or near optimal.

  18. New code of conduct

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    During his talk to the staff at the beginning of the year, the Director-General mentioned that a new code of conduct was being drawn up. What exactly is it and what is its purpose? Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources (HR) Department, talked to us about the whys and wherefores of the project.   Drawing by Georges Boixader from the cartoon strip “The World of Particles” by Brian Southworth. A code of conduct is a general framework laying down the behaviour expected of all members of an organisation's personnel. “CERN is one of the very few international organisations that don’t yet have one", explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin. “We have been thinking about introducing a code of conduct for a long time but lacked the necessary resources until now”. The call for a code of conduct has come from different sources within the Laboratory. “The Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel (read also the "Equal opportuni...

  19. Physical layer network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Popovski, Petar; Yomo, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has been proposed to improve throughput of the two-way relay channel, where two nodes communicate with each other, being assisted by a relay node. Most of the works related to PLNC are focused on a simple three-node model and they do not take into account...

  20. Corporate governance through codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, I.; Aguilera, R.V.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The UK's 1992 Cadbury Report defines corporate governance (CG) as the system by which businesses are directed and controlled. CG codes are a set of best practices designed to address deficiencies in the formal contracts and institutions by suggesting prescriptions on the preferred role and compositi

  1. Polar Code Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-30

    SUMMARY OF POLAR ACHIEVEMENTS ..... .......... 3 3. POLAR CODE PHYSICAL MODELS ..... ............. 5 3.1 PL- ASMA Su ^"ru5 I1LS SH A...of this problem. 1.1. The Charge-2 Rocket The Charge-2 payload was launched on a Black Brant VB from White Sands Mis- sile Range in New Mexico in

  2. Corporate governance through codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, I.; Aguilera, R.V.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The UK's 1992 Cadbury Report defines corporate governance (CG) as the system by which businesses are directed and controlled. CG codes are a set of best practices designed to address deficiencies in the formal contracts and institutions by suggesting prescriptions on the preferred role and

  3. (Almost) practical tree codes

    KAUST Repository

    Khina, Anatoly

    2016-08-15

    We consider the problem of stabilizing an unstable plant driven by bounded noise over a digital noisy communication link, a scenario at the heart of networked control. To stabilize such a plant, one needs real-time encoding and decoding with an error probability profile that decays exponentially with the decoding delay. The works of Schulman and Sahai over the past two decades have developed the notions of tree codes and anytime capacity, and provided the theoretical framework for studying such problems. Nonetheless, there has been little practical progress in this area due to the absence of explicit constructions of tree codes with efficient encoding and decoding algorithms. Recently, linear time-invariant tree codes were proposed to achieve the desired result under maximum-likelihood decoding. In this work, we take one more step towards practicality, by showing that these codes can be efficiently decoded using sequential decoding algorithms, up to some loss in performance (and with some practical complexity caveats). We supplement our theoretical results with numerical simulations that demonstrate the effectiveness of the decoder in a control system setting.

  4. Corner neutronic code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Bereznev

    2015-10-01

    An iterative solution process is used, including external iterations for the fission source and internal iterations for the scattering source. The paper presents the results of a cross-verification against the Monte Carlo MMK code [3] and on a model of the BN-800 reactor core.

  5. Ready, steady… Code!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    This summer, CERN took part in the Google Summer of Code programme for the third year in succession. Open to students from all over the world, this programme leads to very successful collaborations for open source software projects.   Image: GSoC 2013. Google Summer of Code (GSoC) is a global programme that offers student developers grants to write code for open-source software projects. Since its creation in 2005, the programme has brought together some 6,000 students from over 100 countries worldwide. The students selected by Google are paired with a mentor from one of the participating projects, which can be led by institutes, organisations, companies, etc. This year, CERN PH Department’s SFT (Software Development for Experiments) Group took part in the GSoC programme for the third time, submitting 15 open-source projects. “Once published on the Google Summer for Code website (in April), the projects are open to applications,” says Jakob Blomer, one of the o...

  6. Focusing Automatic Code Inspections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic Code Inspection tools help developers in early detection of defects in software. A well-known drawback of many automatic inspection approaches is that they yield too many warnings and require a clearer focus. In this thesis, we provide such focus by proposing two methods to prioritize

  7. Coding of intonational meanings beyond F0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    An acoustic analysis of a German read-speech corpus showed that utterance-final /t/ aspirations differ systematically depending on the accompanying nuclear accent contour. Two contours were included: Terminal-falling early and late F0 peaks in terms of the Kiel Intonation Model. They correspond t......, so far solely associated with intonation contours. Hence, the traditionally separated segmental and suprasegmental coding levels seem to be more intertwined than previously thought....

  8. Fundamentals of coding and reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Paula

    2002-01-01

    After completing this introduction to radiology coding and reimbursement, readers will: Understand how health care reimbursement evolved over the past 50 years. Know the importance of documenting the patient's history. Have an overall picture of the standardized numerical coding system. Understand how accurate coding affects reimbursement. Understand coding functions as they pertain to regulatory compliance in the radiology department. Be familiar with the U.S. Justice Department's use of coding in tracking health care fraud.

  9. On Asymmetric Quantum MDS Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ezerman, Martianus Frederic; Ling, San

    2010-01-01

    Assuming the validity of the MDS Conjecture, the weight distribution of all MDS codes is known. Using a recently-established characterization of asymmetric quantum error-correcting codes, linear MDS codes can be used to construct asymmetric quantum MDS codes with $d_{z} \\geq d_{x}\\geq 2$ for all possible values of length $n$ for which linear MDS codes over $\\F_{q}$ are known to exist.

  10. Lossless quantum coding in many-letter spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Boström, K J

    2000-01-01

    Based on the concept of many-letter theory a general characterization of quantum codes using the Kraus representation is given. Compression codes are defined by their property of decreasing the average information content of a given a priori message ensemble. Lossless quantum codes, in contrast to lossy codes, provide the retrieval of the original input states with perfect fidelity. A general lossless coding scheme is given that translates between two quantum alphabets. It is shown that this scheme is never compressive. Furthermore, a lossless quantum coding scheme, analog to the classical Huffman scheme but different from the Braunstein scheme, is implemented, which provides optimal compression. Motivated by the concept of lossless quantum compression, an observable is defined that measures the amount of compressible quantum information contained in a particular message with respect to a given \\emph{a priori} message ensemble. The average of this observable yields the von Neumann entropy, which is finally es...

  11. Continuous Materiality: Through a Hierarchy of Computational Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichen Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The legacy of Cartesian dualism inherent in linguistic theory deeply influences current views on the relation between natural language, computer code, and the physical world. However, the oversimplified distinction between mind and body falls short of capturing the complex interaction between the material and the immaterial. In this paper, we posit a hierarchy of codes to delineate a wide spectrum of continuous materiality. Our research suggests that diagrams in architecture provide a valuable analog for approaching computer code in emergent digital systems. After commenting on ways that Cartesian dualism continues to haunt discussions of code, we turn our attention to diagrams and design morphology. Finally we notice the implications a material understanding of code bears for further research on the relation between human cognition and digital code. Our discussion concludes by noticing several areas that we have projected for ongoing research.

  12. Rate-adaptive BCH codes for distributed source coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Larsen, Knud J.; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes for distributed source coding. A feedback channel is employed to adapt the rate of the code during the decoding process. The focus is on codes with short block lengths for independently coding a binary source X and decoding it given its...... strategies for improving the reliability of the decoded result are analyzed, and methods for estimating the performance are proposed. In the analysis, noiseless feedback and noiseless communication are assumed. Simulation results show that rate-adaptive BCH codes achieve better performance than low...... correlated side information Y. The proposed codes have been analyzed in a high-correlation scenario, where the marginal probability of each symbol, Xi in X, given Y is highly skewed (unbalanced). Rate-adaptive BCH codes are presented and applied to distributed source coding. Adaptive and fixed checking...

  13. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  14. Fountain Codes with Multiplicatively Repeated Non-Binary LDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Kasai, Kenta

    2010-01-01

    We study fountain codes transmitted over the binary-input symmetric-output channel. For channels with small capacity, receivers needs to collects many channel outputs to recover information bits. Since a collected channel output yields a check node in the decoding Tanner graph, the channel with small capacity leads to large decoding complexity. In this paper, we introduce a novel fountain coding scheme with non-binary LDPC codes. The decoding complexity of the proposed fountain code does not depend on the channel. Numerical experiments show that the proposed codes exhibit better performance than conventional fountain codes, especially for small number of information bits.

  15. Quantum codes from linear codes over finite chain rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiusheng; Liu, Hualu

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we provide two methods of constructing quantum codes from linear codes over finite chain rings. The first one is derived from the Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) construction applied to self-dual codes over finite chain rings. The second construction is derived from the CSS construction applied to Gray images of the linear codes over finite chain ring {\\mathbb {F}}_{p^{2m}}+u{\\mathbb {F}}_{p^{2m}}. The good parameters of quantum codes from cyclic codes over finite chain rings are obtained.

  16. The metaethics of nursing codes of ethics and conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Paul C

    2016-10-01

    Nursing codes of ethics and conduct are features of professional practice across the world, and in the UK, the regulator has recently consulted on and published a new code. Initially part of a professionalising agenda, nursing codes have recently come to represent a managerialist and disciplinary agenda and nursing can no longer be regarded as a self-regulating profession. This paper argues that codes of ethics and codes of conduct are significantly different in form and function similar to the difference between ethics and law in everyday life. Some codes successfully integrate these two functions within the same document, while others, principally the UK Code, conflate them resulting in an ambiguous document unable to fulfil its functions effectively. The paper analyses the differences between ethical-codes and conduct-codes by discussing titles, authorship, level, scope for disagreement, consequences of transgression, language and finally and possibly most importantly agent-centeredness. It is argued that conduct-codes cannot require nurses to be compassionate because compassion involves an emotional response. The concept of kindness provides a plausible alternative for conduct-codes as it is possible to understand it solely in terms of acts. But if kindness is required in conduct-codes, investigation and possible censure follows from its absence. Using examples it is argued that there are at last five possible accounts of the absence of kindness. As well as being potentially problematic for disciplinary panels, difficulty in understanding the features of blameworthy absence of kindness may challenge UK nurses who, following a recently introduced revalidation procedure, are required to reflect on their practice in relation to The Code. It is concluded that closer attention to metaethical concerns by code writers will better support the functions of their issuing organisations.

  17. Optical image encryption based on real-valued coding and subtracting with the help of QR code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaopeng

    2015-08-01

    A novel optical image encryption based on real-valued coding and subtracting is proposed with the help of quick response (QR) code. In the encryption process, the original image to be encoded is firstly transformed into the corresponding QR code, and then the corresponding QR code is encoded into two phase-only masks (POMs) by using basic vector operations. Finally, the absolute values of the real or imaginary parts of the two POMs are chosen as the ciphertexts. In decryption process, the QR code can be approximately restored by recording the intensity of the subtraction between the ciphertexts, and hence the original image can be retrieved without any quality loss by scanning the restored QR code with a smartphone. Simulation results and actual smartphone collected results show that the method is feasible and has strong tolerance to noise, phase difference and ratio between intensities of the two decryption light beams.

  18. 76 FR 49772 - Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements-Questions and Answers; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements... Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements--Questions and Answers'' dated August 2011. The guidance announced in... finalizes the draft guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements--Questions and...

  19. AN APPLICATION OF PLANAR BINARY BITREES TO PREFIX AND HUFFMAN PREFIX CODE

    OpenAIRE

    Erjavec, Zlatko

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we construct prefix code in which the use of planar binary trees is replaced by the use of the planar binary bitrees. In addition, we apply the planar binary bitrees to the Huffman prefix code. Finally, we code English alphabet in such a way that characters have codewords different from already established ones.

  20. On decoding of multi-level MPSK modulation codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu; Gupta, Alok Kumar

    1990-01-01

    The decoding problem of multi-level block modulation codes is investigated. The hardware design of soft-decision Viterbi decoder for some short length 8-PSK block modulation codes is presented. An effective way to reduce the hardware complexity of the decoder by reducing the branch metric and path metric, using a non-uniform floating-point to integer mapping scheme, is proposed and discussed. The simulation results of the design are presented. The multi-stage decoding (MSD) of multi-level modulation codes is also investigated. The cases of soft-decision and hard-decision MSD are considered and their performance are evaluated for several codes of different lengths and different minimum squared Euclidean distances. It is shown that the soft-decision MSD reduces the decoding complexity drastically and it is suboptimum. The hard-decision MSD further simplifies the decoding while still maintaining a reasonable coding gain over the uncoded system, if the component codes are chosen properly. Finally, some basic 3-level 8-PSK modulation codes using BCH codes as component codes are constructed and their coding gains are found for hard decision multistage decoding.

  1. Hierarchical and High-Girth QC LDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yige; Yedidia, Jonathan S

    2011-01-01

    We present a general approach to designing capacity-approaching high-girth low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes that are friendly to hardware implementation. Our methodology starts by defining a new class of "hierarchical" quasi-cyclic (HQC) LDPC codes that generalizes the structure of quasi-cyclic (QC) LDPC codes. Whereas the parity check matrices of QC LDPC codes are composed of circulant sub-matrices, those of HQC LDPC codes are composed of a hierarchy of circulant sub-matrices that are in turn constructed from circulant sub-matrices, and so on, through some number of levels. We show how to map any class of codes defined using a protograph into a family of HQC LDPC codes. Next, we present a girth-maximizing algorithm that optimizes the degrees of freedom within the family of codes to yield a high-girth HQC LDPC code. Finally, we discuss how certain characteristics of a code protograph will lead to inevitable short cycles, and show that these short cycles can be eliminated using a "squashing" procedure tha...

  2. 78 FR 13139 - In the Matter of Digital Video Systems, Inc., Geocom Resources, Inc., and GoldMountain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Corp., and Real Data, Inc. (a/k/a Galtech Semiconductor Materials Corporation) February 22, 2013. Order... Real Data, Inc. (a/k/a Galtech Semiconductor Materials Corporation), because it has not filed...

  3. Reserved-Length Prefix Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Michael B

    2008-01-01

    Huffman coding finds an optimal prefix code for a given probability mass function. Consider situations in which one wishes to find an optimal code with the restriction that all codewords have lengths that lie in a user-specified set of lengths (or, equivalently, no codewords have lengths that lie in a complementary set). This paper introduces a polynomial-time dynamic programming algorithm that finds optimal codes for this reserved-length prefix coding problem. This has applications to quickly encoding and decoding lossless codes. In addition, one modification of the approach solves any quasiarithmetic prefix coding problem, while another finds optimal codes restricted to the set of codes with g codeword lengths for user-specified g (e.g., g=2).

  4. Decoding Generalized Concatenated Codes Using Interleaved Reed-Solomon Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Senger, Christian; Bossert, Martin; Zyablov, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Generalized Concatenated codes are a code construction consisting of a number of outer codes whose code symbols are protected by an inner code. As outer codes, we assume the most frequently used Reed-Solomon codes; as inner code, we assume some linear block code which can be decoded up to half its minimum distance. Decoding up to half the minimum distance of Generalized Concatenated codes is classically achieved by the Blokh-Zyablov-Dumer algorithm, which iteratively decodes by first using the inner decoder to get an estimate of the outer code words and then using an outer error/erasure decoder with a varying number of erasures determined by a set of pre-calculated thresholds. In this paper, a modified version of the Blokh-Zyablov-Dumer algorithm is proposed, which exploits the fact that a number of outer Reed-Solomon codes with average minimum distance d can be grouped into one single Interleaved Reed-Solomon code which can be decoded beyond d/2. This allows to skip a number of decoding iterations on the one...

  5. The NIMROD Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, D. D.; Glasser, A. H.

    1996-11-01

    NIMROD is a new code system that is being developed for the analysis of modern fusion experiments. It is being designed from the beginning to make the maximum use of massively parallel computer architectures and computer graphics. The NIMROD physics kernel solves the three-dimensional, time-dependent two-fluid equations with neo-classical effects in toroidal geometry of arbitrary poloidal cross section. The NIMROD system also includes a pre-processor, a grid generator, and a post processor. User interaction with NIMROD is facilitated by a modern graphical user interface (GUI). The NIMROD project is using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) team management techniques to minimize re-engineering and reduce code development time. This paper gives an overview of the NIMROD project. Operation of the GUI is demonstrated, and the first results from the physics kernel are given.

  6. Epetra developers coding guidelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, Michael Allen; Sexton, Paul Michael

    2003-12-01

    Epetra is a package of classes for the construction and use of serial and distributed parallel linear algebra objects. It is one of the base packages in Trilinos. This document describes guidelines for Epetra coding style. The issues discussed here go beyond correct C++ syntax to address issues that make code more readable and self-consistent. The guidelines presented here are intended to aid current and future development of Epetra specifically. They reflect design decisions that were made in the early development stages of Epetra. Some of the guidelines are contrary to more commonly used conventions, but we choose to continue these practices for the purposes of self-consistency. These guidelines are intended to be complimentary to policies established in the Trilinos Developers Guide.

  7. Efficient convolutional sparse coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlberg, Brendt

    2017-06-20

    Computationally efficient algorithms may be applied for fast dictionary learning solving the convolutional sparse coding problem in the Fourier domain. More specifically, efficient convolutional sparse coding may be derived within an alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) framework that utilizes fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to solve the main linear system in the frequency domain. Such algorithms may enable a significant reduction in computational cost over conventional approaches by implementing a linear solver for the most critical and computationally expensive component of the conventional iterative algorithm. The theoretical computational cost of the algorithm may be reduced from O(M.sup.3N) to O(MN log N), where N is the dimensionality of the data and M is the number of elements in the dictionary. This significant improvement in efficiency may greatly increase the range of problems that can practically be addressed via convolutional sparse representations.

  8. Decoding the productivity code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David

    .e., to be prepared to initiate improvement. The study shows how the effectiveness of the improvement system depends on the congruent fit between the five elements as well as the bridging coherence between the improvement system and the work system. The bridging coherence depends on how improvements are activated...... approach often ends up with demanding intense employee focus to sustain improvement and engagement. Likewise, a single-minded employee development approach often ends up demanding rationalization to achieve the desired financial results. These ineffective approaches make organizations react like pendulums...... that swing between rationalization and employee development. The productivity code is the lack of alternatives to this ineffective approach. This thesis decodes the productivity code based on the results from a 3-year action research study at a medium-sized manufacturing facility. During the project period...

  9. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, however, that national views of good governance reflect different political cultures and institutional heritages. Fourteen national codes of conduct are analyzed. The findings suggest that public values converge and that they match model codes from the United Nations and the European Council as well...... as conceptions of good governance from other international organizations. While values converge, they are balanced and communicated differently, and seem to some extent to be translated into the national cultures. The set of global public values derived from this analysis include public interest, regime dignity...

  10. Confocal coded aperture imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

  11. The Liege Oscillation Code

    CERN Document Server

    Scuflaire, R; Théado, S; Bourge, P -O; Miglio, A; Godart, M; Thoul, A; Noels, A

    2007-01-01

    The Liege Oscillation code can be used as a stand-alone program or as a library of subroutines that the user calls from a Fortran main program of his own to compute radial and non-radial adiabatic oscillations of stellar models. We describe the variables and the equations used by the program and the methods used to solve them. A brief account is given of the use and the output of the program.

  12. Status of MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  13. ARQ for Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Sundararajan, Jay Kumar; Médard, Muriel

    2008-01-01

    A new coding and queue management algorithm is proposed for communication networks that employ linear network coding. The algorithm has the feature that the encoding process is truly online, as opposed to a block-by-block approach. The setup assumes a packet erasure broadcast channel with stochastic arrivals and full feedback, but the proposed scheme is potentially applicable to more general lossy networks with link-by-link feedback. The algorithm guarantees that the physical queue size at the sender tracks the backlog in degrees of freedom (also called the virtual queue size). The new notion of a node "seeing" a packet is introduced. In terms of this idea, our algorithm may be viewed as a natural extension of ARQ schemes to coded networks. Our approach, known as the drop-when-seen algorithm, is compared with a baseline queuing approach called drop-when-decoded. It is shown that the expected queue size for our approach is $O(\\frac1{1-\\rho})$ as opposed to $\\Omega(\\frac1{(1-\\rho)^2})$ for the baseline approach...

  14. MELCOR computer code manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  15. low bit rate video coding low bit rate video coding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    ariable length bit rate (VLBR) broadly encompasses video coding which broadly encompasses ... for motion estimation and compensation to reduce the prediction sation to reduce the ... a special interest among the video coding community ...

  16. Decoding of concatenated codes with interleaved outer codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Thommesen, Christian; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved Reed/Solomon codes, which allows close to errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes. (NK) N-K...

  17. Random linear codes in steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kaczyński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Syndrome coding using linear codes is a technique that allows improvement in the steganographic algorithms parameters. The use of random linear codes gives a great flexibility in choosing the parameters of the linear code. In parallel, it offers easy generation of parity check matrix. In this paper, the modification of LSB algorithm is presented. A random linear code [8, 2] was used as a base for algorithm modification. The implementation of the proposed algorithm, along with practical evaluation of algorithms’ parameters based on the test images was made.[b]Keywords:[/b] steganography, random linear codes, RLC, LSB

  18. Convolutional coding techniques for data protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of research on the use of convolutional codes in data communications are presented. Convolutional coding fundamentals are discussed along with modulation and coding interaction. Concatenated coding systems and data compression with convolutional codes are described.

  19. Code Flows : Visualizing Structural Evolution of Source Code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Auber, David

    2008-01-01

    Understanding detailed changes done to source code is of great importance in software maintenance. We present Code Flows, a method to visualize the evolution of source code geared to the understanding of fine and mid-level scale changes across several file versions. We enhance an existing visual met

  20. Code flows : Visualizing structural evolution of source code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Auber, David

    2008-01-01

    Understanding detailed changes done to source code is of great importance in software maintenance. We present Code Flows, a method to visualize the evolution of source code geared to the understanding of fine and mid-level scale changes across several file versions. We enhance an existing visual met

  1. The Phenix final tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasile, A.; Fontaine, B.; Vanier, M.; Gauthe, P.; Pascal, V.; Prulhiere, G.; Jaecki, P. [CEA Cadarache, BP 1, 13108 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Tenchine, D. [CEA Grenoble (France); Martin, L. [Centrale Phenix - CEA Marcoule (France); Sauvage, J.F. [EDF / SEPTEN - 12 av. Dutrievoz 69628 Villeurbanne (France); Dupraz, R.; Woaye-Hune, A. [AREVA NP - 10 rue Juliette Recamier 69456 LYON Cedex (France)

    2010-07-01

    The 250 MWe (140 MWe since 1993) Phenix sodium cooled fast reactor was shut down on March 6, 2009. Before decommissioning, a final set of tests were performed during the May 2009 - January 2010 period covering core physics, fuel behaviour and thermal-hydraulics areas. Detailed analysis of the tests results is ongoing. It will be used for the extension of the validation of ERANOS and DARWIN codes for core physics, TRIO-U and CATHARE for Thermal-hydraulics and GERMINAL for fuel behaviour. In addition, the program included two tests related to the comprehension of the four negative reactivity transients (AURN in French acronym) experienced during the reactor operation in '89 and '90 and not yet fully explained. This was also a great opportunity to involve young engineers in the different processes like the design of the tests, their carrying out, and the analysis of the results. The standard instrumentation of the reactor was completed by specifically designed devises. (authors)

  2. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriy Y. Anistratov; Marvin L. Adams; Todd S. Palmer; Kord S. Smith; Kevin Clarno; Hikaru Hiruta; Razvan Nes

    2003-08-04

    OAK B202 Final Technical Report. The present generation of reactor analysis methods uses few-group nodal diffusion approximations to calculate full-core eigenvalues and power distributions. The cross sections, diffusion coefficients, and discontinuity factors (collectively called ''group constants'') in the nodal diffusion equations are parameterized as functions of many variables, ranging from the obvious (temperature, boron concentration, etc.) to the more obscure (spectral index, moderator temperature history, etc.). These group constants, and their variations as functions of the many variables, are calculated by assembly-level transport codes. The current methodology has two main weaknesses that this project addressed. The first weakness is the diffusion approximation in the full-core calculation; this can be significantly inaccurate at interfaces between different assemblies. This project used the nodal diffusion framework to implement nodal quasidiffusion equations, which can capture transport effects to an arbitrary degree of accuracy. The second weakness is in the parameterization of the group constants; current models do not always perform well, especially at interfaces between unlike assemblies. The project developed a theoretical foundation for parameterization and homogenization models and used that theory to devise improved models. The new models were extended to tabulate information that the nodal quasidiffusion equations can use to capture transport effects in full-core calculations.

  3. Transfert radiatif numerique pour un code SPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viau, Joseph Edmour Serge

    2001-03-01

    Le besoin de reproduire la formation d'etoiles par simulations numeriques s'est fait de plus en plus present au cours des 30 dernieres annees. Depuis Larson (1968), les codes de simulations n'ont eu de cesse de s'ameliorer. D'ailleurs, en 1977, Lucy introduit une autre methode de calcul venant concurrencer la methode par grille. Cette nouvelle facon de calculer utilise en effet des points a defaut d'utiliser des grilles, ce qui est une bien meilleure adaptation aux calculs d'un effondrement gravitationnel. Il restait cependant le probleme d'ajouter le transfert radiatif a un tel code. Malgre la proposition de Brookshaw (1984), qui nous montre une formule permettant d'ajouter le transfert radiatif sous la forme SPH tout en evitant la double sommation genante qu'elle implique, aucun code SPH a ce jour ne contient un transfert radiatif satisfaisant. Cette these presente pour la premiere fois un code SPH muni d'un transfert radiatif adequat. Toutes les difficultes ont pu etre surmontees afin d'obtenir finalement le transfert radiatif "vrai" qui survient dans l'effondrement d'un nuage moleculaire. Pour verifier l'integrite de nos resultats, une comparaison avec le nonisothermal test case de Boss & Myhill (1993) nous revele un resultat fort satisfaisant. En plus de suivre fidelement la courbe de l'evolution de la temperature centrale en fonction de la densite centrale, notre code est exempt de toutes les anomalies rencontrees par les codes par grille. Le test du cas de la conduction thermique nous a lui aussi servit a verifier la fiabilite de notre code. La aussi les resultats sont fort satisfaisants. Faisant suite a ces resultats, le code fut utilise dans deux situations reelles de recherche, ce qui nous a permis de demontrer les nombreuses possibilites que nous donne notre nouveau code. Dans un premier temps, nous avons tudie le comportement de la temperature dans un disque d'accretion durant son evolution. Ensuite nous avons refait en partie une experience de Bonnell

  4. What Froze the Genetic Code?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lluís Ribas de Pouplana; Adrian Gabriel Torres; albert Rafels-Ybern

    2017-01-01

    The frozen accident theory of the Genetic Code was a proposal by Francis Crick that attempted to explain the universal nature of the Genetic Code and the fact that it only contains information for twenty amino acids...

  5. Decoding Xing-Ling codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient decoding method for a recent construction of good linear codes as well as an extension to the construction. Furthermore, asymptotic properties and list decoding of the codes are discussed.......This paper describes an efficient decoding method for a recent construction of good linear codes as well as an extension to the construction. Furthermore, asymptotic properties and list decoding of the codes are discussed....

  6. The path of code linting

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Join the path of code linting and discover how it can help you reach higher levels of programming enlightenment. Today we will cover how to embrace code linters to offload cognitive strain on preserving style standards in your code base as well as avoiding error-prone constructs. Additionally, I will show you the journey ahead for integrating several code linters in the programming tools your already use with very little effort.

  7. Multiple LDPC decoding for distributed source coding and video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Distributed source coding (DSC) is a coding paradigm for systems which fully or partly exploit the source statistics at the decoder to reduce the computational burden at the encoder. Distributed video coding (DVC) is one example. This paper considers the use of Low Density Parity Check Accumulate...... (LDPCA) codes in a DSC scheme with feed-back. To improve the LDPC coding performance in the context of DSC and DVC, while retaining short encoder blocks, this paper proposes multiple parallel LDPC decoding. The proposed scheme passes soft information between decoders to enhance performance. Experimental...

  8. Code stroke in Asturias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, L; Villanueva, M J; Vega, P; Casado, I; Vidal, J A; Castaño, B; Amorín, M; de la Vega, V; Santos, H; Trigo, A; Gómez, M B; Larrosa, D; Temprano, T; González, M; Murias, E; Calleja, S

    2016-04-01

    Intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase is an effective treatment for ischaemic stroke when applied during the first 4.5 hours, but less than 15% of patients have access to this technique. Mechanical thrombectomy is more frequently able to recanalise proximal occlusions in large vessels, but the infrastructure it requires makes it even less available. We describe the implementation of code stroke in Asturias, as well as the process of adapting various existing resources for urgent stroke care in the region. By considering these resources, and the demographic and geographic circumstances of our region, we examine ways of reorganising the code stroke protocol that would optimise treatment times and provide the most appropriate treatment for each patient. We distributed the 8 health districts in Asturias so as to permit referral of candidates for reperfusion therapies to either of the 2 hospitals with 24-hour stroke units and on-call neurologists and providing IV fibrinolysis. Hospitals were assigned according to proximity and stroke severity; the most severe cases were immediately referred to the hospital with on-call interventional neurology care. Patient triage was provided by pre-hospital emergency services according to the NIHSS score. Modifications to code stroke in Asturias have allowed us to apply reperfusion therapies with good results, while emphasising equitable care and managing the severity-time ratio to offer the best and safest treatment for each patient as soon as possible. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. MHD Generation Code

    OpenAIRE

    Frutos-Alfaro, Francisco; Carboni-Mendez, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full Magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program used the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the MHD equations to obtain a c...

  10. Cinder begin creative coding

    CERN Document Server

    Rijnieks, Krisjanis

    2013-01-01

    Presented in an easy to follow, tutorial-style format, this book will lead you step-by-step through the multi-faceted uses of Cinder.""Cinder: Begin Creative Coding"" is for people who already have experience in programming. It can serve as a transition from a previous background in Processing, Java in general, JavaScript, openFrameworks, C++ in general or ActionScript to the framework covered in this book, namely Cinder. If you like quick and easy to follow tutorials that will let yousee progress in less than an hour - this book is for you. If you are searching for a book that will explain al

  11. Code Optimization in FORM

    CERN Document Server

    Kuipers, J; Vermaseren, J A M

    2013-01-01

    We describe the implementation of output code optimization in the open source computer algebra system FORM. This implementation is based on recently discovered techniques of Monte Carlo tree search to find efficient multivariate Horner schemes, in combination with other optimization algorithms, such as common subexpression elimination. For systems for which no specific knowledge is provided it performs significantly better than other methods we could compare with. Because the method has a number of free parameters, we also show some methods by which to tune them to different types of problems.

  12. Topological code Autotune

    CERN Document Server

    Fowler, Austin G; McInnes, Angus L; Rabbani, Alimohammad

    2012-01-01

    Tailoring a fault-tolerant quantum error correction scheme to a specific physical architecture can be a laborious task. We describe a tool Autotune capable of analyzing and optimizing the classical processing for an arbitrary 2-D qubit architecture making use of arbitrary circuits implementing either the surface code or progressively generated slices of a 3-D topological cluster state with arbitrary stochastic error models for each quantum gate. Autotune is designed to facilitate precise study of the performance of real hardware running topological quantum error correction.

  13. Code Generation with Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Arnoldus, Jeroen; Serebrenik, A

    2012-01-01

    Templates are used to generate all kinds of text, including computer code. The last decade, the use of templates gained a lot of popularity due to the increase of dynamic web applications. Templates are a tool for programmers, and implementations of template engines are most times based on practical experience rather than based on a theoretical background. This book reveals the mathematical background of templates and shows interesting findings for improving the practical use of templates. First, a framework to determine the necessary computational power for the template metalanguage is presen

  14. Memory Code©

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Londoño, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    El proyecto Memory Code© pertenece al ámbito de las cosmopolíticas del arte contemporáneo porque se ocupa de una relación singular de lo humano (mujer) con lo no-humano (caballo y técnicas)5. Específicamente enmarca el estudio del Binomio Ecuestre: caballo-jinete en el marco de una relación afectiva y de adiestramiento (doma clásica). Dicha relación estuvo compuesta por los siguientes operadores : a) Elementos de con-tacto entre jinete-caballo: espuelas, estribus, fustas b) Sistemas rítmicos ...

  15. Wavefront coding with adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbana, Temitope E.; Soloviev, Oleg; Bezzubik, Vitalii; Patlan, Vsevolod; Verhaegen, Michel; Vdovin, Gleb

    2015-03-01

    We have implemented an extended depth of field optical system by wavefront coding with a micromachined membrane deformable mirror. This approach provides a versatile extension to standard wavefront coding based on fixed phase mask. First experimental results validate the feasibility of the use of adaptive optics for variable depth wavefront coding in imaging optical systems.

  16. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  17. Strongly-MDS convolutional codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gluesing-Luerssen, H; Rosenthal, J; Smarandache, R

    2006-01-01

    Maximum-distance separable (MDS) convolutional codes have the property that their free distance is maximal among all codes of the same rate and the same degree. In this paper, a class of MDS convolutional codes is introduced whose column distances reach the generalized Singleton bound at the earlies

  18. Improved code-tracking loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflame, D. T.

    1980-01-01

    Delay-locked loop tracks pseudonoise codes without introducing dc timing errors, because it is not sensitive to gain imbalance between signal processing arms. "Early" and "late" reference codes pass in combined form through both arms, and each arm acts on both codes. Circuit accomodates 1 dB weaker input signals with tracking ability equal to that of tau-dither loops.

  19. On Maximum Lee Distance Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Alderson, Tim L.; Svenja Huntemann

    2013-01-01

    Singleton-type upper bounds on the minimum Lee distance of general (not necessarily linear) Lee codes over ℤq are discussed. Two bounds known for linear codes are shown to also hold in the general case, and several new bounds are established. Codes meeting these bounds are investigated and in some cases characterised.

  20. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  1. The Weights in MDS Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ezerman, Martianus Frederic; Sole, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The weights in MDS codes of length n and dimension k over the finite field GF(q) are studied. Up to some explicit exceptional cases, the MDS codes with parameters given by the MDS conjecture are shown to contain all k weights in the range n-k+1 to n. The proof uses the covering radius of the dual code

  2. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  3. Order functions and evaluation codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pellikaan, Ruud; van Lint, Jack

    1997-01-01

    Based on the notion of an order function we construct and determine the parameters of a class of error-correcting evaluation codes. This class includes the one-point algebraic geometry codes as wella s the generalized Reed-Muller codes and the parameters are detremined without using the heavy...

  4. Order functions and evaluation codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pellikaan, Ruud; van Lint, Jack

    1997-01-01

    Based on the notion of an order function we construct and determine the parameters of a class of error-correcting evaluation codes. This class includes the one-point algebraic geometry codes as wella s the generalized Reed-Muller codes and the parameters are detremined without using the heavy...... machinery of algebraic geometry....

  5. A class of constacyclic BCH codes and new quantum codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    liu, Yang; Li, Ruihu; Lv, Liangdong; Ma, Yuena

    2017-03-01

    Constacyclic BCH codes have been widely studied in the literature and have been used to construct quantum codes in latest years. However, for the class of quantum codes of length n=q^{2m}+1 over F_{q^2} with q an odd prime power, there are only the ones of distance δ ≤ 2q^2 are obtained in the literature. In this paper, by a detailed analysis of properties of q2-ary cyclotomic cosets, maximum designed distance δ _{max} of a class of Hermitian dual-containing constacyclic BCH codes with length n=q^{2m}+1 are determined, this class of constacyclic codes has some characteristic analog to that of primitive BCH codes over F_{q^2}. Then we can obtain a sequence of dual-containing constacyclic codes of designed distances 2q^2 2q^2 can be constructed from these dual-containing codes via Hermitian Construction. These newly obtained quantum codes have better code rate compared with those constructed from primitive BCH codes.

  6. MCOR - Monte Carlo depletion code for reference LWR calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puente Espel, Federico, E-mail: fup104@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Tippayakul, Chanatip, E-mail: cut110@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Ivanov, Kostadin, E-mail: kni1@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Misu, Stefan, E-mail: Stefan.Misu@areva.com [AREVA, AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    , several interesting studies performed with MCOR are explained; its validation against MONTEBURNS, OCTOPUS and TRIPOLI-PEPIN; sensitivity studies with different voids and cross-section libraries; detailed comparison against measurement. Finally, the MCOR is used as a reference tool for benchmarking deterministic codes on the example of qualification of the spectral codes (APOLLO2-A and CASMO-4).

  7. ON CLASSICAL BCH CODES AND QUANTUM BCH CODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yajie; Ma Zhi; Zhang Chunyuan

    2009-01-01

    It is a regular way of constructing quantum error-correcting codes via codes with self-orthogonal property, and whether a classical Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) code is self-orthogonal can be determined by its designed distance. In this paper, we give the sufficient and necessary condition for arbitrary classical BCH codes with self-orthogonal property through algorithms. We also give a better upper bound of the designed distance of a classical narrow-sense BCH code which contains its Euclidean dual. Besides these, we also give one algorithm to compute the dimension of these codes. The complexity of all algorithms is analyzed. Then the results can be applied to construct a series of quantum BCH codes via the famous CSS constructions.

  8. New quantum codes constructed from quaternary BCH codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Ma, Yuena

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we firstly study construction of new quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of quaternary imprimitive BCH codes. As a result, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing quaternary BCH codes are determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 53:1183-1188, 2007) for each different code length. Thus, families of new QECCs are newly obtained, and the constructed QECCs have larger distance than those in the previous literature. Secondly, we apply a combinatorial construction to the imprimitive BCH codes with their corresponding primitive counterpart and construct many new linear quantum codes with good parameters, some of which have parameters exceeding the finite Gilbert-Varshamov bound for linear quantum codes.

  9. Structured error recovery for code-word-stabilized quantum codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunfan; Dumer, Ilya; Grassl, Markus; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2010-05-01

    Code-word-stabilized (CWS) codes are, in general, nonadditive quantum codes that can correct errors by an exhaustive search of different error patterns, similar to the way that we decode classical nonlinear codes. For an n-qubit quantum code correcting errors on up to t qubits, this brute-force approach consecutively tests different errors of weight t or less and employs a separate n-qubit measurement in each test. In this article, we suggest an error grouping technique that allows one to simultaneously test large groups of errors in a single measurement. This structured error recovery technique exponentially reduces the number of measurements by about 3t times. While it still leaves exponentially many measurements for a generic CWS code, the technique is equivalent to syndrome-based recovery for the special case of additive CWS codes.

  10. On (Partial) Unit Memory Codes Based on Gabidulin Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Antonia; Bossert, Martin; Zyablov, Victor

    2011-01-01

    (Partial) Unit Memory ((P)UM) codes provide a powerful possibility to construct convolutional codes based on block codes in order to achieve a high decoding performance. In this contribution, a construction based on Gabidulin codes is considered. This construction requires a modified rank metric, the so-called sum rank metric. For the sum rank metric, the free rank distance, the extended row rank distance and its slope are defined analogous to the extended row distance in Hamming metric. Upper bounds for the free rank distance and the slope of (P)UM codes in the sum rank metric are derived and an explicit construction of (P)UM codes based on Gabidulin codes is given, achieving the upper bound for the free rank distance.

  11. Improvement of QR Code Recognition Based on Pillbox Filter Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shing Sheu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to perform the innovation design for improving the recognition of a captured QR code image with blur through the Pillbox filter analysis. QR code images can be captured by digital video cameras. Many factors contribute to QR code decoding failure, such as the low quality of the image. Focus is an important factor that affects the quality of the image. This study discusses the out-of-focus QR code image and aims to improve the recognition of the contents in the QR code image. Many studies have used the pillbox filter (circular averaging filter method to simulate an out-of-focus image. This method is also used in this investigation to improve the recognition of a captured QR code image. A blurred QR code image is separated into nine levels. In the experiment, four different quantitative approaches are used to reconstruct and decode an out-of-focus QR code image. These nine reconstructed QR code images using methods are then compared. The final experimental results indicate improvements in identification.

  12. Recent developments in KTF. Code optimization and improved numerics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Javier; Avramova, Maria; Sanchez, Victor Hugo; Ivanov, Kostadin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany). Inst. for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR)

    2012-11-01

    The rapid increase of computer power in the last decade facilitated the development of high fidelity simulations in nuclear engineering allowing a more realistic and accurate optimization as well as safety assessment of reactor cores and power plants compared to the legacy codes. Thermal hydraulic subchannel codes together with time dependent neutron transport codes are the options of choice for an accurate prediction of local safety parameters. Moreover, fast running codes with the best physical models are needed for high fidelity coupled thermal hydraulic / neutron kinetic solutions. Hence at KIT, different subchannel codes such as SUBCHANFLOW and KTF are being improved, validated and coupled with different neutron kinetics solutions. KTF is a subchannel code developed for best-estimate analysis of both Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and BWR. It is based on the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) version of COBRA-TF (Coolant Boling in Rod Arrays Two Fluids) named CTF. In this paper, the investigations devoted to the enhancement of the code numeric and informatics structure are presented and discussed. By some examples the gain on code speed-up will be demonstrated and finally an outlook of further activities concentrated on the code improvements will be given. (orig.)

  13. Building Reusable Software Component For Optimization Check in ABAP Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Shireesha, P; 10.5121/ijsea.2010.1303

    2010-01-01

    Software component reuse is the software engineering practice of developing new software products from existing components. A reuse library or component reuse repository organizes stores and manages reusable components. This paper describes how a reusable component is created, how it reuses the function and checking if optimized code is being used in building programs and applications. Finally providing coding guidelines, standards and best practices used for creating reusable components and guidelines and best practices for making configurable and easy to use.

  14. Design of a VLSI Decoder for Partially Structured LDPC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Vacca

    2008-01-01

    of their parity matrix can be partitioned into two disjoint sets, namely, the structured and the random ones. For the proposed class of codes a constructive design method is provided. To assess the value of this method the constructed codes performance are presented. From these results, a novel decoding method called split decoding is introduced. Finally, to prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach a whole VLSI decoder is designed and characterized.

  15. Building Reusable Software Component For Optimization Check in ABAP Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Shireesha, P.; S.S.V.N.Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Software component reuse is the software engineering practice of developing new software products from existing components. A reuse library or component reuse repository organizes stores and manages reusable components. This paper describes how a reusable component is created, how it reuses the function and checking if optimized code is being used in building programs and applications. Finally providing coding guidelines, standards and best practices used for creating reusable components and ...

  16. Physical Layer Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Yomo, Hironori; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause/receive inter......Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause....../receive interference. The way to deal with this problem in distributed wireless networks is usage of MAC-layer mechanisms that make a spatial reservation of the shared wireless medium, similar to the well-known RTS/CTS in IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. In this paper, we investigate two-way relaying in presence...

  17. Security Embedding Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ly, Hung D; Blankenship, Yufei

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of simultaneously communicating two messages, a high-security message and a low-security message, to a legitimate receiver, referred to as the security embedding problem. An information-theoretic formulation of the problem is presented. A coding scheme that combines rate splitting, superposition coding, nested binning and channel prefixing is considered and is shown to achieve the secrecy capacity region of the channel in several scenarios. Specifying these results to both scalar and independent parallel Gaussian channels (under an average individual per-subchannel power constraint), it is shown that the high-security message can be embedded into the low-security message at full rate (as if the low-security message does not exist) without incurring any loss on the overall rate of communication (as if both messages are low-security messages). Extensions to the wiretap channel II setting of Ozarow and Wyner are also considered, where it is shown that "perfect" security embedding...

  18. Supervised Transfer Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2014-07-27

    A combination of the sparse coding and transfer learn- ing techniques was shown to be accurate and robust in classification tasks where training and testing objects have a shared feature space but are sampled from differ- ent underlying distributions, i.e., belong to different do- mains. The key assumption in such case is that in spite of the domain disparity, samples from different domains share some common hidden factors. Previous methods often assumed that all the objects in the target domain are unlabeled, and thus the training set solely comprised objects from the source domain. However, in real world applications, the target domain often has some labeled objects, or one can always manually label a small num- ber of them. In this paper, we explore such possibil- ity and show how a small number of labeled data in the target domain can significantly leverage classifica- tion accuracy of the state-of-the-art transfer sparse cod- ing methods. We further propose a unified framework named supervised transfer sparse coding (STSC) which simultaneously optimizes sparse representation, domain transfer and classification. Experimental results on three applications demonstrate that a little manual labeling and then learning the model in a supervised fashion can significantly improve classification accuracy.

  19. Ombuds’ corner: Code of Conduct and change of behaviour

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   Is our Code of Conduct actually effective in influencing behaviour? Research studies suggest that codes, while necessary, are insufficient as a means of encouraging respectful behaviour among employees. Codes are only a potential means of influencing employee behaviour. For a Code of Conduct to be effective, several elements must be in place. Firstly, there needs to be communication and effective training using relevant examples to make the code real. It should be embraced by the leaders and accepted by the personnel. Finally, it should be embedded in the CERN culture and not seen as a separate entity, which requires serious discussions to raise awareness. In addition, every c...

  20. TEA: A Code for Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, M Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. (1958) and Eriksson (1971). It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp (1999), the free thermochemical equilibrium code CEA (Chemical Equilibrium with Applications), and the example given by White et al. (1958). Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is ...

  1. QUATERNARY DELSARTE-GOETHALS AND GOETHALS-DELSARTE CODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Jie; WAN Zhexian

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the quaternary Delsarte-Goethals code DG(m,δ) and its dual code GD(m, δ) are discussed. The type and the trace representation are given for DG(m, δ),while the type and the minimum Lee weight are determined for GD(m, δ). The shortened codes of DG(m, δ) and GD(m, δ) are proved to be Z4-cyclic. The binary image of DG(m, δ)is proved to be the binary Delsarte-Goethals code DG(m+1, δ), and the essential difference between the binary image of GD(m, δ) and the binary Goethals-Delsarte code GD(m +1, δ)is exhibited. Finally, the decoding algorithms of DG(m, δ) and GD(m, δ) are discussed.

  2. QUATERNARY DELSARTE—GOETHALS AND GOETHALS—DELSARTE CODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUIJie; WANZhexian

    2002-01-01

    In this paper,the quaternary Delsarte-Goethals code DG(m,δ)and its dual code GD(m,δ)are discussed.The type and the trace representation are given for DG\\(m,δ),while the type and the minimum Lee weight are determined for GD(m,δ),The shortened codes of DG(m,δ)and GD(m,δ),are proved to be ZZ4-cyclic.The binary image of DG(m,δ) is proved to be the binary Delsarte-Goethals code DG((m+1,δ),and the essential difference between the binary image of GD(m,δ)and the binary Goethals-Delsarte code GD((m+1,δ)is exhibited.Finally,the decoding algorithms of DG(m,δ)and GD(m,δ)are discussed.

  3. Optimized puncturing distributions for irregular non-binary LDPC codes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorgoglione, Matteo; Declercq, David

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we design non-uniform bit-wise puncturing distributions for irregular non-binary LDPC (NB-LDPC) codes. The puncturing distributions are optimized by minimizing the decoding threshold of the punctured LDPC code, the threshold being computed with a Monte-Carlo implementation of Density Evolution. First, we show that Density Evolution computed with Monte-Carlo simulations provides accurate (very close) and precise (small variance) estimates of NB-LDPC code ensemble thresholds. Based on the proposed method, we analyze several puncturing distributions for regular and semi-regular codes, obtained either by clustering punctured bits, or spreading them over the symbol-nodes of the Tanner graph. Finally, optimized puncturing distributions for non-binary LDPC codes with small maximum degree are presented, which exhibit a gap between 0.2 and 0.5 dB to the channel capacity, for punctured rates varying from 0.5 to 0.9.

  4. Reducing Computational Overhead of Network Coding with Intrinsic Information Conveying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Zhang, Qi; Pedersen, Morten V.

    This paper investigated the possibility of intrinsic information conveying in network coding systems. The information is embedded into the coding vector by constructing the vector based on a set of predefined rules. This information can subsequently be retrieved by any receiver. The starting point...... to the overall energy consumption, which is particular problematic for mobile battery-driven devices. In RLNC coding is performed over a FF (Finite Field). We propose to divide this field into sub fields, and let each sub field signify some information or state. In order to embed the information correctly...... the coding operations must be performed in a particular way, which we introduce. Finally we evaluate the suggested system and find that the amount of coding can be significantly reduced both at nodes that recode and decode....

  5. An Efficient Retransmission Based on Network Coding with Unicast Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Zhiheng; Tan, Yuanquan; Wang, Xing

    2010-01-01

    Recently, network coding technique has emerged as a promising approach that supports reliable transmission over wireless loss channels. In existing protocols where users have no interest in considering the encoded packets they had in coding or decoding operations, this rule is expensive and inef-ficient. This paper studies the impact of encoded packets in the reliable unicast network coding via some theoretical analysis. Using our approach, receivers do not only store the encoded packets they overheard, but also report these information to their neighbors, such that users enable to take account of encoded packets in their coding decisions as well as decoding operations. Moreover, we propose a redistribution algorithm to maximize the coding opportunities, which achieves better retransmission efficiency. Finally, theoretical analysis and simulation results for a wheel network illustrate the improve-ment in retransmissions efficiency due to the encoded packets.

  6. Sub-Transport Layer Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    Packet losses in wireless networks dramatically curbs the performance of TCP. This paper introduces a simple coding shim that aids IP-layer traffic in lossy environments while being transparent to transport layer protocols. The proposed coding approach enables erasure correction while being...... oblivious to the congestion control algorithms of the utilised transport layer protocol. Although our coding shim is indifferent towards the transport layer protocol, we focus on the performance of TCP when ran on top of our proposed coding mechanism due to its widespread use. The coding shim provides gains...

  7. The Art of Readable Code

    CERN Document Server

    Boswell, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    As programmers, we've all seen source code that's so ugly and buggy it makes our brain ache. Over the past five years, authors Dustin Boswell and Trevor Foucher have analyzed hundreds of examples of "bad code" (much of it their own) to determine why they're bad and how they could be improved. Their conclusion? You need to write code that minimizes the time it would take someone else to understand it-even if that someone else is you. This book focuses on basic principles and practical techniques you can apply every time you write code. Using easy-to-digest code examples from different languag

  8. Three Paradigms for Mixing Coding and Games: Coding in a Game, Coding as a Game, and Coding for a Game

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Games for teaching coding have been an educational holy grail since at least the early 1980s. Yet for decades, with games more popular than ever and with the need to teach kids coding having been well-recognized, no blockbuster coding games have arisen (see Chapter 2). Over the years, the research community has made various games for teaching computer science: a survey made by shows that most do not teach coding, and of the ones that do teach coding, most are research prototypes (not produc...

  9. Remarks on generalized toric codes

    CERN Document Server

    Little, John B

    2011-01-01

    This note presents some new information on how the minimum distance of the generalized toric code corresponding to a fixed set of integer lattice points S in R^2 varies with the base field. The main results show that in some cases, over sufficiently large fields, the minimum distance of the code corresponding to a set S will be the same as that of the code corresponding to the convex hull of S. In an example, we will also discuss a [49,12,28] generalized toric code over GF(8), better than any previously known code according to M. Grassl's online tables, as of July 2011.

  10. Rotated and Scaled Alamouti Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Willems, Frans M J

    2008-01-01

    Repetition-based retransmission is used in Alamouti-modulation [1998] for $2\\times 2$ MIMO systems. We propose to use instead of ordinary repetition so-called "scaled repetition" together with rotation. It is shown that the rotated and scaled Alamouti code has a hard-decision performance which is only slightly worse than that of the Golden code [2005], the best known $2\\times 2$ space-time code. Decoding the Golden code requires an exhaustive search over all codewords, while our rotated and scaled Alamouti code can be decoded with an acceptable complexity however.

  11. On constructing disjoint linear codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Weiguo; CAI Mian; XIAO Guozhen

    2007-01-01

    To produce a highly nonlinear resilient function,the disjoint linear codes were originally proposed by Johansson and Pasalic in IEEE Trans.Inform.Theory,2003,49(2):494-501.In this paper,an effective method for finding a set of such disjoint linear codes is presented.When n≥2k,we can find a set of[n,k] disjoint linear codes with joint linear codes exists with cardinality at least 2.We also describe a result on constructing a set of [n,k] disjoint linear codes with minimum distance at least some fixed positive integer.

  12. Convolutional cylinder-type block-circulant cycle codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gholami

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a class of column-weight two quasi-cyclic low-density paritycheck codes in which the girth can be large enough, as an arbitrary multiple of 8. Then we devote a convolutional form to these codes, such that their generator matrix can be obtained by elementary row and column operations on the parity-check matrix. Finally, we show that the free distance of the convolutional codes is equal to the minimum distance of their block counterparts.

  13. A GPU code for analytic continuation through a sampling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Johan; Schött, Johan; Locht, Inka L. M.; Di Marco, Igor

    We here present a code for performing analytic continuation of fermionic Green's functions and self-energies as well as bosonic susceptibilities on a graphics processing unit (GPU). The code is based on the sampling method introduced by Mishchenko et al. (2000), and is written for the widely used CUDA platform from NVidia. Detailed scaling tests are presented, for two different GPUs, in order to highlight the advantages of this code with respect to standard CPU computations. Finally, as an example of possible applications, we provide the analytic continuation of model Gaussian functions, as well as more realistic test cases from many-body physics.

  14. Orthogonal coding of object location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Per Magne; Ahissar, Ehud

    2009-02-01

    It has been argued whether internal representations are encoded using a universal ('the neural code') or multiple codes. Here, we review a series of experiments that demonstrate that tactile encoding of object location via whisking employs an orthogonal, triple-code scheme. Rats, and other rodents, actively move the whiskers back and forth to localize and identify objects. Neural recordings from primary sensory afferents, along with behavioral observations, demonstrate that vertical coordinates of contacted objects are encoded by the identity of activated afferents, horizontal coordinates by the timing of activation and radial coordinates by the intensity of activation. Because these codes are mutually independent, the three-dimensional location of an object could, in principle, be encoded by individual afferents during single whisker-object contacts. One advantage of such a same-neuron-different-codes scheme over the traditionally assumed same-code-different-neurons scheme is a reduction of code ambiguity that, in turn, simplifies decoding circuits.

  15. New Codes for Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Yousif Ahmed

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new code structure with zero in-phase cross correlation for spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA system is proposed, and called zero vectors combinatorial (ZVC. This code is constructed in a simple algebraic way using Euclidean vectors and combinatorial theories based on the relationship between the number of users N and the weight W. One of the important properties of this code is that the maximum cross correlation (CC is always zero, which means that multi-user interference (MUI and phase induced intensity noise (PIIN are reduced. Bit error rate (BER performance is compared with previous reported codes. Therefore, theoretically, we demonstrate the performance of ZVC code with the related equations. In addition, the structure of the encoder/decoder based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs and the proposed system have been analyzed theoretically by taking into consideration the effects of some noises. The results characterizing BER with respect to the total number of active users show that ZVC code offers a significantly improved performance over previous reported codes by supporting large numbers of users at BER≥ 10-9. A comprehensive simulation study has been carried out using a commercial optical system simulator “VPI™”. Moreover, it was shown that the proposed code managed to reduce the hardware complexity and eventually the cost.

  16. Making your code citable with the Astrophysics Source Code Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alice; DuPrie, Kimberly; Schmidt, Judy; Berriman, G. Bruce; Hanisch, Robert J.; Mink, Jessica D.; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Shamir, Lior; Shortridge, Keith; Taylor, Mark B.; Teuben, Peter J.; Wallin, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL, ascl.net) is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research. With nearly 1,200 codes, it is the largest indexed resource for astronomy codes in existence. Established in 1999, it offers software authors a path to citation of their research codes even without publication of a paper describing the software, and offers scientists a way to find codes used in refereed publications, thus improving the transparency of the research. It also provides a method to quantify the impact of source codes in a fashion similar to the science metrics of journal articles. Citations using ASCL IDs are accepted by major astronomy journals and if formatted properly are tracked by ADS and other indexing services. The number of citations to ASCL entries increased sharply from 110 citations in January 2014 to 456 citations in September 2015. The percentage of code entries in ASCL that were cited at least once rose from 7.5% in January 2014 to 17.4% in September 2015. The ASCL's mid-2014 infrastructure upgrade added an easy entry submission form, more flexible browsing, search capabilities, and an RSS feeder for updates. A Changes/Additions form added this past fall lets authors submit links for papers that use their codes for addition to the ASCL entry even if those papers don't formally cite the codes, thus increasing the transparency of that research and capturing the value of their software to the community.

  17. Self-Inverse Interleavers for Turbo Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Sakzad, Amin; Panario, Daniel; Eshghi, Nasim

    2010-01-01

    In this work we introduce and study a set of new interleavers based on permutation polynomials and functions with known inverses over a finite field $\\mathbb{F}_q$ for using in turbo code structures. We use Monomial, Dickson, M\\"{o}bius and R\\'edei functions in order to get new interleavers. In addition we employ Skolem sequences in order to find new interleavers with known cycle structure. As a byproduct we give an exact formula for the inverse of every R\\'edei function. The cycle structure of R\\'edei functions are also investigated. Finally, self-inverse versions of permutation functions are used to construct interleavers. These interleavers are their own de-interleavers and are useful for turbo coding and turbo decoding. Experiments carried out for self-inverse interleavers constructed using these kind of permutation polynomials and functions show excellent agreement with our theoretical results.

  18. On Bounded Weight Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Bachoc, Christine; Cohen, Gerard; Sole, Patrick; Tchamkerten, Aslan

    2010-01-01

    The maximum size of a binary code is studied as a function of its length N, minimum distance D, and minimum codeword weight W. This function B(N,D,W) is first characterized in terms of its exponential growth rate in the limit as N tends to infinity for fixed d=D/N and w=W/N. The exponential growth rate of B(N,D,W) is shown to be equal to the exponential growth rate of A(N,D) for w <= 1/2, and equal to the exponential growth rate of A(N,D,W) for 1/2< w <= 1. Second, analytic and numerical upper bounds on B(N,D,W) are derived using the semidefinite programming (SDP) method. These bounds yield a non-asymptotic improvement of the second Johnson bound and are tight for certain values of the parameters.

  19. Homomorphic encryption from codes

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, Andrej

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new homomorphic encryption scheme based on the hardness of decoding under independent random noise from certain affine families of codes. Unlike in previous lattice-based homomorphic encryption schemes, where the message is hidden in the noisy part of the ciphertext, our scheme carries the message in the affine part of the transformation and applies noise only to achieve security. Our scheme can tolerate noise of arbitrary magnitude, as long as the noise vector has sufficiently small hamming weight (and its entries are independent). Our design achieves "proto-homomorphic" properties in an elementary manner: message addition and multiplication are emulated by pointwise addition and multiplication of the ciphertext vectors. Moreover, the extremely simple nature of our decryption makes the scheme easily amenable to bootstrapping. However, some complications are caused by the inherent presence of noticeable encryption error. Our main technical contribution is the development of two new techniques for...

  20. LDGM Codes for Channel Coding and Joint Source-Channel Coding of Correlated Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Garcia-Frias

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a coding scheme based on the use of systematic linear codes with low-density generator matrix (LDGM codes for channel coding and joint source-channel coding of multiterminal correlated binary sources. In both cases, the structures of the LDGM encoder and decoder are shown, and a concatenated scheme aimed at reducing the error floor is proposed. Several decoding possibilities are investigated, compared, and evaluated. For different types of noisy channels and correlation models, the resulting performance is very close to the theoretical limits.

  1. Improved lossless intra coding for next generation video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanam, Rahul; He, Yuwen; Ye, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Recently, there have been efforts by the ITU-T VCEG and ISO/IEC MPEG to further improve the compression performance of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard for developing a potential next generation video coding standard. The exploratory codec software of this potential standard includes new coding tools for inter and intra coding. In this paper, we present a new intra prediction mode for lossless intra coding. Our new intra mode derives a prediction filter for each input pixel using its neighboring reconstructed pixels, and applies this filter to the nearest neighboring reconstructed pixels to generate a prediction pixel. The proposed intra mode is demonstrated to improve the performance of the exploratory software for lossless intra coding, yielding a maximum and average bitrate savings of 4.4% and 2.11%, respectively.

  2. Selection of Code and Interleaver for Turbo Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1998-01-01

    The selection of component codes for turbo coding has often been based on the performance at high SNR's. However, we will argue that the selection mainly should be based on the performance at low SNR's, i.e. the convergence properties. Further, we will present a way to construct interleavers...... that significantly improve the performance of the turbo coding scheme at high SNR's, i.e. lowers the error floor...

  3. Superimposed Code Theorectic Analysis of DNA Codes and DNA Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Bounds for DNA Codes Based on Fibonacci Ensembles of DNA Sequences ”, 2008 IEEE Proceedings of International Symposium on Information Theory, pp. 2292...5, June 2008, pp. 525-34. 32 28. A. Macula, et al., “Random Coding Bounds for DNA Codes Based on Fibonacci Ensembles of DNA Sequences ”, 2008...combinatorial method of bio-memory design and detection that encodes item or process information as numerical sequences represented in DNA. ComDMem is a

  4. Source Code Generator Based on Dynamic Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Radošević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Obična tablica"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This paper presents the model of source code generator based on dynamic frames. The model is named as the SCT model because if its three basic components: Specification (S, which describes the application characteristics, Configuration (C, which describes the rules for building applications, and Templates (T, which refer to application building blocks. The process of code generation dynamically creates XML frames containing all building elements (S, C ant T until final code is produced. This approach is compared to existing XVCL frames based model for source code generating. The SCT model is described by both XML syntax and the appropriate graphical elements. The SCT model is aimed to build complete applications, not just skeletons. The main advantages of the presented model are its textual and graphic description, a fully configurable generator, and the reduced overhead of the generated source code. The presented SCT model is shown on development of web application example in order to demonstrate its features and justify our design choices.

  5. Bit-Interleaved Coded Multiple Beamforming with Perfect Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Boyu

    2010-01-01

    When the channel state information is known by the transmitter as well as the receiver, beamforming techniques that employ Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) are commonly used in Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems. Without channel coding, when a single symbol is transmitted, these systems achieve the full diversity order. Whereas, this property is lost when multiple symbols are simultaneously transmitted. Full diversity can be restored when channel coding is added, as long as the code rate Rc and the number of employed subchannels S satisfy the condition RcS =< 1. Moreover, by adding a proper constellation precoder, full diversity can be achieved for both uncoded and coded SVD systems, e.g., Fully Precoded Multiple Beamforming (FPMB) and Bit-Interleaved Coded Multiple Beamforming with Full Precoding (BICMB-FP). Perfect Space-Time Block Code (PSTBC) is a full-rate full-diversity space-time code, which achieves maximum coding gain for MIMO systems. Previously, Perfect Coded Multiple Beamforming (P...

  6. Practices in Code Discoverability: Astrophysics Source Code Library

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Alice; Nemiroff, Robert J; Shamir, Lior

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), which takes an active approach to sharing astrophysical source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL now has over 340 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL (http://ascl.net) has on average added 19 new codes per month. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of the new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available ei...

  7. Neutron noise computation using panda deterministic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbert, Ph. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel (France)

    2003-07-01

    PANDA is a general purpose discrete ordinates neutron transport code with deterministic and non deterministic applications. In this paper we consider the adaptation of PANDA to stochastic neutron counting problems. More specifically we consider the first two moments of the count number probability distribution. In a first part we will recall the equations for the single neutron and source induced count number moments with the corresponding expression for the excess of relative variance or Feynman function. In a second part we discuss the numerical solution of these inhomogeneous adjoint time dependent transport coupled equations with discrete ordinate methods. Finally, numerical applications are presented in the third part. (author)

  8. Data Representation, Coding, and Communication Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Milon; Dhir, Rajiv

    2015-06-01

    The immense volume of cases signed out by surgical pathologists on a daily basis gives little time to think about exactly how data are stored. An understanding of the basics of data representation has implications that affect a pathologist's daily practice. This article covers the basics of data representation and its importance in the design of electronic medical record systems. Coding in surgical pathology is also discussed. Finally, a summary of communication standards in surgical pathology is presented, including suggested resources that establish standards for select aspects of pathology reporting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Origin and Evolution of the Universal Genetic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene V; Novozhilov, Artem S

    2017-08-30

    The standard genetic code (SGC) is virtually universal among extant life forms. Although many deviations from the universal code exist, particularly in organelles and prokaryotes with small genomes, they are limited in scope and obviously secondary. The universality of the code likely results from the combination of a frozen accident, i.e., the deleterious effect of codon reassignment in the SGC, and the inhibitory effect of changes in the code on horizontal gene transfer. The structure of the SGC is nonrandom and ensures high robustness of the code to mutational and translational errors. However, this error minimization is most likely a by-product of the primordial code expansion driven by the diversification of the repertoire of protein amino acids, rather than a direct result of selection. Phylogenetic analysis of translation system components, in particular aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, shows that, at a stage of evolution when the translation system had already attained high fidelity, the correspondence between amino acids and cognate codons was determined by recognition of amino acids by RNA molecules, i.e., proto-tRNAs. We propose an experimentally testable scenario for the evolution of the code that combines recognition of amino acids by unique sites on proto-tRNAs (distinct from the anticodons), expansion of the code via proto-tRNA duplication, and frozen accident. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genetics Volume 51 is November 23, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  10. Elements of algebraic coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso da Rocha, Jr, Valdemar

    2014-01-01

    Elements of Algebraic Coding Systems is an introductory textto algebraic coding theory. In the first chapter, you'll gain insideknowledge of coding fundamentals, which is essential for a deeperunderstanding of state-of-the-art coding systems.This book is a quick reference for those who are unfamiliar withthis topic, as well as for use with specific applications such as cryptographyand communication. Linear error-correcting block codesthrough elementary principles span eleven chapters of the text.Cyclic codes, some finite field algebra, Goppa codes, algebraic decodingalgorithms, and applications in public-key cryptography andsecret-key cryptography are discussed, including problems and solutionsat the end of each chapter. Three appendices cover the Gilbertbound and some related derivations, a derivation of the Mac-Williams' identities based on the probability of undetected error,and two important tools for algebraic decoding-namely, the finitefield Fourier transform and the Euclidean algorithm for polynomials.

  11. Image Coding Based on Address Vector Quantization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yushu

    Adaptive VQ Technique" is presented. In addition to chapters 2 through 6 which report on new work, this dissertation includes one chapter (chapter 1) and part of chapter 2 which review previous work on VQ and image coding, respectively. Finally, a short discussion of directions for further research is presented in conclusion.

  12. Decodeurs rapides pour codes topologiques quantiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos-Cianci, Guillaume

    L'encodage topologique de l'information quantique a attire beaucoup d'attention, car c'est un modele qui semble propice a resister aux erreurs locales. Tout d'abord, le modele du calcul topologique est base sur la statistique anyonique non-Abelienne universelle et sur son controle. Des anyons indesirables peuvent apparaitre soudainement, en raison de fluctuations thermiques ou de processus virtuels. La presence de ces anyons peut corrompre l'information encodee, il est necessaire de les eliminer: la correction consiste a fusionner les defauts tout en preservant la topologie du systeme. Ensuite, dans le cas des codes topologiques, on doit aussi proteger l'information encodee dans la topologie. En effet, dans ces systemes, on n'a acces qu'a une fraction de l'information decrivant l'erreur. Elle est recueillie par des mesures et peut etre interpretee en termes de particules. Ces defauts peuplent le code et doivent etre annihiles adequatement dans le but de preserver l'information encodee. Dans ce memoire, nous proposons un algorithme efficace, appele decodeur, pouvant etre utilise dans les deux contextes decrits ci-haut. Pour y parvenir, cet algorithme s'inspire de methodes de renormalisation et de propagation de croyance. Il est exponentiellement plus rapide que les methodes deja existantes, etant de complexite O (ℓ2 log ℓ) en serie et, si on parallelise, O (log ℓ) en temps, contre O (ℓ6) pour les autres decodeurs. Le temps etant le facteur limitant dans le probleme du decodage, cette caracteristique est primordiale. De plus, il tolere une plus grande amplitude de bruit que les methodes existantes; il possede un seuil de ˜ 16.5% sur le canal depolarisant surpassant le seuil deja etabli de ˜ 15.5%. Finalement, il est plus versatile. En effet, en etant limite au code de Kitaev, on ne savait pas decoder les codes topologiques de maniere generale (e.g. codes de couleur). Or, le decodeur propose dans ce memoire peut traiter la grande classe des codes

  13. Error correcting coding for OTN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.; Pedersen, Lars A.

    2010-01-01

    Forward error correction codes for 100 Gb/s optical transmission are currently receiving much attention from transport network operators and technology providers. We discuss the performance of hard decision decoding using product type codes that cover a single OTN frame or a small number...... of such frames. In particular we argue that a three-error correcting BCH is the best choice for the component code in such systems....

  14. High performance scalable image coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan Tao; He Yanmin; Zhu Weile

    2007-01-01

    A high performance scalable image coding algorithm is proposed. The salient features of this algorithm are the ways to form and locate the significant clusters. Thanks to the list structure, the new coding algorithm achieves fine fractional bit-plane coding with negligible additional complexity. Experiments show that it performs comparably or better than the state-of-the-art coders. Furthermore, the flexible codec supports both quality and resolution scalability, which is very attractive in many network applications.

  15. ACE spectrum of LDPC codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukobratović Dejan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction of short-length LDPC codes with good, both waterfall and error-floor, behavior is still an attractive research problem. Recently proposed construction algorithms in this field are based on remarkably simple ideas, but yet, their effectiveness can still be questioned. In this paper we investigate a novel measure of goodness of a given LDPC code namely its ACE spectrum, based on a previously introduced ACE metrics associated with each cycle in LDPC code graph.

  16. QR code for medical information uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Ducut, Erick G

    2008-11-06

    We developed QR code online tools, simulated and tested QR code applications for medical information uses including scanning QR code labels, URLs and authentication. Our results show possible applications for QR code in medicine.

  17. Astrophysics Source Code Library Enhancements

    CERN Document Server

    Hanisch, Robert J; Berriman, G Bruce; DuPrie, Kimberly; Mink, Jessica; Nemiroff, Robert J; Schmidt, Judy; Shamir, Lior; Shortridge, Keith; Taylor, Mark; Teuben, Peter J; Wallin, John

    2014-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL; ascl.net) is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research; it currently contains over 900 codes and is indexed by ADS. The ASCL has recently moved a new infrastructure into production. The new site provides a true database for the code entries and integrates the WordPress news and information pages and the discussion forum into one site. Previous capabilities are retained and permalinks to ascl.net continue to work. This improvement offers more functionality and flexibility than the previous site, is easier to maintain, and offers new possibilities for collaboration. This presentation covers these recent changes to the ASCL.

  18. Multiple Beamforming with Perfect Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Boyu

    2011-01-01

    In Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) beamforming, without channel coding, there is a trade-off between full diversity and full multiplexing. Adding channel coding, full diversity and full multiplexing can be both achieved, as long as the code rate Rc and the number of subchannels S satisfy RcS1. Recently discovered Perfect Space-Time Block Codes (PSTBCs) are full-rate full-diversity space-time codes, achieving maximum coding gain. In this paper, two novel techniques, Perfect Coded Multiple Beamforming (PCMB) and Bit-Interleaved Coded Multiple Beamforming with Perfect Coding (BICMB-PC), are proposed, employing PSTBCs. PCMB achieves full diversity, full multiplexing, and full rate simultaneously, and its performance is close to PSTBC and FPMB, while the decoding complexity is significantly less than PSTBC and much lower than FPMB of dimensions 2 and 4. On the other hand, BICMB-PC achieves both full diversity and full multiplexing, and its performance is similar to BICMB-FP, but provides much lower decoding com...

  19. Automatic code generation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Marian Sorin; Kuhrmann, Marco; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2016-01-01

    -specific language to specify those requirements and to allow for generating a safety-enforcing layer of code, which is deployed to the robot. The paper at hand reports experiences in practically applying code generation to mobile robots. For two cases, we discuss how we addressed challenges, e.g., regarding weaving...... code generation into proprietary development environments and testing of manually written code. We find that a DSL based on the same conceptual model can be used across different kinds of hardware modules, but a significant adaptation effort is required in practical scenarios involving different kinds...

  20. Should you learn to code?

    CERN Document Server

    Team, The Hyperink

    2013-01-01

    On May 15, 2012 Jeff Atwood (co-founder of Stack Overflow) published a blog post titled "Please Don't Learn to Code" in response to Mayor Mike Bloomberg's resolution to learn how to code in 2012. In that post he argues against "learning to code just for the sake of learning how to code," a sentiment that sparked an active online debate. This book is a compilation of several different perspectives on that debate. Should programming be taught to every student as part of their core curriculum, similar to mathematics, reading, and writing? Should every working professional take time to learn a

  1. Grassmann codes and Schubert unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties over a field , such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study such sets in detail, and give applications to coding theory, in particular for Grassmann codes. For much is known about such Schubert unions...... with a maximal number of -rational points for a given spanning dimension. We study the case and give a conjecture for general . We also define Schubert union codes in general, and study the parameters and support weights of these codes....

  2. Semi-supervised sparse coding

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-07-06

    Sparse coding approximates the data sample as a sparse linear combination of some basic codewords and uses the sparse codes as new presentations. In this paper, we investigate learning discriminative sparse codes by sparse coding in a semi-supervised manner, where only a few training samples are labeled. By using the manifold structure spanned by the data set of both labeled and unlabeled samples and the constraints provided by the labels of the labeled samples, we learn the variable class labels for all the samples. Furthermore, to improve the discriminative ability of the learned sparse codes, we assume that the class labels could be predicted from the sparse codes directly using a linear classifier. By solving the codebook, sparse codes, class labels and classifier parameters simultaneously in a unified objective function, we develop a semi-supervised sparse coding algorithm. Experiments on two real-world pattern recognition problems demonstrate the advantage of the proposed methods over supervised sparse coding methods on partially labeled data sets.

  3. Coding, cryptography and combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald; Xing, Chaoping

    2004-01-01

    It has long been recognized that there are fascinating connections between cod­ ing theory, cryptology, and combinatorics. Therefore it seemed desirable to us to organize a conference that brings together experts from these three areas for a fruitful exchange of ideas. We decided on a venue in the Huang Shan (Yellow Mountain) region, one of the most scenic areas of China, so as to provide the additional inducement of an attractive location. The conference was planned for June 2003 with the official title Workshop on Coding, Cryptography and Combi­ natorics (CCC 2003). Those who are familiar with events in East Asia in the first half of 2003 can guess what happened in the end, namely the conference had to be cancelled in the interest of the health of the participants. The SARS epidemic posed too serious a threat. At the time of the cancellation, the organization of the conference was at an advanced stage: all invited speakers had been selected and all abstracts of contributed talks had been screened by the p...

  4. Polymatroids with Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Te Sun

    2010-01-01

    The problem of network coding for multicasting a single source to multiple sinks has first been studied by Ahlswede, Cai, Li and Yeung in 2000, in which they have established the celebrated max-flow mini-cut theorem on non-physical information flow over a network of independent channels. On the other hand, in 1980, Han has studied the case with correlated multiple sources and a single sink from the viewpoint of polymatroidal functions in which a necessary and sufficient condition has been demonstrated for reliable transmission over the network. This paper presents an attempt to unify both cases, which leads to establish a necessary and sufficient condition for reliable transmission over a noisy network for multicasting all the correlated multiple sources to all the multiple sinks. Furthermore, we address also the problem of transmitting "independent" sources over a multiple-access-type of network as well as over a broadcast-type of network, which reveals that the (co-) polymatroidal structures are intrinsical...

  5. Consensus Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Biswarup

    2017-04-11

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) is a promising direction for unsupervised learning in computer vision. In contrast to recent supervised methods, CSC allows for convolutional image representations to be learned that are equally useful for high-level vision tasks and low-level image reconstruction and can be applied to a wide range of tasks without problem-specific retraining. Due to their extreme memory requirements, however, existing CSC solvers have so far been limited to low-dimensional problems and datasets using a handful of low-resolution example images at a time. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solving CSC as a consensus optimization problem, which lifts these limitations. By learning CSC features from large-scale image datasets for the first time, we achieve significant quality improvements in a number of imaging tasks. Moreover, the proposed method enables new applications in high dimensional feature learning that has been intractable using existing CSC methods. This is demonstrated for a variety of reconstruction problems across diverse problem domains, including 3D multispectral demosaickingand 4D light field view synthesis.

  6. Decoding of concatenated codes with interleaved outer codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom; Thommesen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved (N, K) Reed-Solomon codes, which allows close to N-K errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes....

  7. The KIDTALK Behavior and Language Code: Manual and Coding Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Elizabeth M.; Ezell, Sara S.; Solomon, Ned A.; Hancock, Terry B.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    Developed as part of the Milieu Language Teaching Project at the John F. Kennedy Center at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, this KIDTALK Behavior-Language Coding Protocol and manual measures behavior occurring during adult-child interactions. The manual is divided into 5 distinct sections: (1) the adult behavior codes describe…

  8. Design of additive quantum codes via the codeword-stabilized framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryadko, Leonid P.; Dumer, Ilya; Kovalev, Alexey A.

    2012-02-01

    Codeword stabilized (CWS) construction defines a quantum code by combining a classical binary code with some underlying graph state. In general, CWS codes are non-additive but become additive stabilizer codes if derived from a linear binary code. Generic CWS codes typically require complex error correction; however, we show that the CWS framework is an efficient tool for constructing good stabilizer codes with simple decoding. We start by proving the lower Gilbert-Varshamov bound on the parameters of an additive CWS code which can be obtained from a given graph. We also show that cyclic additive CWS codes belong to a previously overlooked family of single-generator cyclic stabilizer codes; these codes are derived from a circulant graph and a cyclic binary code. Finally, we present several families of simple stabilizer codes with relatively good parameters, including a family of the smallest toric-like cyclic CWS codes which have length, dimension, and distance as follows: [[t^2+(t+1)^2,1,2t+1

  9. Source-channel optimized trellis codes for bitonal image transmission over AWGN channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, J M; Phamdo, N

    1999-01-01

    We consider the design of trellis codes for transmission of binary images over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels. We first model the image as a binary asymmetric Markov source (BAMS) and then design source-channel optimized (SCO) trellis codes for the BAMS and AWGN channel. The SCO codes are shown to be superior to Ungerboeck's codes by approximately 1.1 dB (64-state code, 10(-5) bit error probability), We also show that a simple "mapping conversion" method can be used to improve the performance of Ungerboeck's codes by approximately 0.4 dB (also 64-state code and 10 (-5) bit error probability). We compare the proposed SCO system with a traditional tandem system consisting of a Huffman code, a convolutional code, an interleaver, and an Ungerboeck trellis code. The SCO system significantly outperforms the tandem system. Finally, using a facsimile image, we compare the image quality of an SCO code, an Ungerboeck code, and the tandem code, The SCO code yields the best reconstructed image quality at 4-5 dB channel SNR.

  10. Coded Path Protection: Efficient Conversion of Sharing to Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Avci, Serhat Nazim

    2011-01-01

    Link failures in wide area networks are common and cause significant data losses. Mesh-based protection schemes offer high capacity efficiency but they are slow and require complex signaling. Additionally, real-time reconfiguration of a cross-connect threatens their transmission integrity. On the other hand, coding-based protection schemes are proactive. Therefore, they have higher restoration speed, lower signaling complexity, and higher transmission integrity. This paper introduces a coding-based protection scheme, named Coded Path Protection (CPP). In CPP, a backup copy of the primary data is encoded with other data streams, resulting in capacity savings. This paper presents an optimal and simple capacity placement and coding group formation algorithm. The algorithm converts the sharing structure of any solution of a Shared Path Protection (SPP) technique into a coding structure with minimum extra capacity. We conducted quantitative and qualitative comparisons of our technique with the SPP and, another tec...

  11. Civil Code, 11 December 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Article 162 of this Mexican Code provides, among other things, that "Every person has the right freely, responsibly, and in an informed fashion to determine the number and spacing of his or her children." When a marriage is involved, this right is to be observed by the spouses "in agreement with each other." The civil codes of the following states contain the same provisions: 1) Baja California (Art. 159 of the Civil Code of 28 April 1972 as revised in Decree No. 167 of 31 January 1974); 2) Morelos (Art. 255 of the Civil Code of 26 September 1949 as revised in Decree No. 135 of 29 December 1981); 3) Queretaro (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 29 December 1950 as revised in the Act of 9 January 1981); 4) San Luis Potosi (Art. 147 of the Civil Code of 24 March 1946 as revised in 13 June 1978); Sinaloa (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 18 June 1940 as revised in Decree No. 28 of 14 October 1975); 5) Tamaulipas (Art. 146 of the Civil Code of 21 November 1960 as revised in Decree No. 20 of 30 April 1975); 6) Veracruz-Llave (Art. 98 of the Civil Code of 1 September 1932 as revised in the Act of 30 December 1975); and 7) Zacatecas (Art. 253 of the Civil Code of 9 February 1965 as revised in Decree No. 104 of 13 August 1975). The Civil Codes of Puebla and Tlaxcala provide for this right only in the context of marriage with the spouses in agreement. See Art. 317 of the Civil Code of Puebla of 15 April 1985 and Article 52 of the Civil Code of Tlaxcala of 31 August 1976 as revised in Decree No. 23 of 2 April 1984. The Family Code of Hidalgo requires as a formality of marriage a certification that the spouses are aware of methods of controlling fertility, responsible parenthood, and family planning. In addition, Article 22 the Civil Code of the Federal District provides that the legal capacity of natural persons is acquired at birth and lost at death; however, from the moment of conception the individual comes under the protection of the law, which is valid with respect to the

  12. Multidisciplinary mock codes: dream it, plan it, do it, rate it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, M J; Hayward, M F

    1989-01-01

    A mock code program using the nursing process was developed to teach nurses to cope with code situations. In addition, the program was designed to increase staff feelings of competency and effectiveness in response to a code, and provide a review of procedures, equipment, and roles during a code. The mock code program began with a multidisciplinary 2-hour minishop followed by a 6-month pilot project of prescheduled, and "briefed" mock codes. The specific behavioral objectives for mock code outcomes were translated into an evaluation questionnaire sent to each participant. Final evaluation, including cost analysis, proved the efficiency of the mock code exercises. This article describes how to get started in developing a similar program. Planning is the key. Creative teaching/learning approaches, active participation, realistic simulations, and immediate feedback all contribute to program success.

  13. An algebraic look into MAC-DMT of lattice space-time codes

    CERN Document Server

    Vehkalahti, Roope; Lu,

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we are concentrating on the diversity-multiplexing gain trade-off (DMT) of some space-time lattice codes. First we give a DMT bound for lattice codes having restricted dimension. We then recover the well known results of the DMT of algebraic number field codes and the Alamouti code by using the union bound and see that these codes do achieve the previously mentioned bound. During our analysis interesting connections to the Dedekind's zeta-function and to the unit group of algebraic number fields are revealed. Finally we prove that both the number field codes and Alamouti code are in some sense optimal codes in the multiple access channel (MAC).

  14. An algebraic approach to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinero, Fernando

    theory as evaluation codes. Chapter three consists of the introduction to graph based codes, such as Tanner codes and graph codes. In Chapter four, we compute the dimension of some graph based codes with a result combining graph based codes and subfield subcodes. Moreover, some codes in chapter four......This thesis consists of six chapters. The first chapter, contains a short introduction to coding theory in which we explain the coding theory concepts we use. In the second chapter, we present the required theory for evaluation codes and also give an example of some fundamental codes in coding...... are optimal or best known for their parameters. In chapter five we study some graph codes with Reed–Solomon component codes. The underlying graph is well known and widely used for its good characteristics. This helps us to compute the dimension of the graph codes. We also introduce a combinatorial concept...

  15. Revised Safety Code A2

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2005-01-01

    Please note that the revised Safety Code A2 (Code A2 rev.) entitled "REPORTING OF ACCIDENTS AND NEAR MISSES" is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/335502/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Unit Secretariat, e-mail: sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  16. Flow Analysis of Code Customizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessellund, Anders; Sestoft, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Inconsistency between metadata and code customizations is a major concern in modern, configurable enterprise systems. The increasing reliance on metadata, in the form of XML files, and code customizations, in the form of Java files, has led to a hybrid development platform. The expected consisten...

  17. NETWORK CODING BY BEAM FORMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Network coding by beam forming in networks, for example, in single frequency networks, can provide aid in increasing spectral efficiency. When network coding by beam forming and user cooperation are combined, spectral efficiency gains may be achieved. According to certain embodiments, a method...... cooperating with the plurality of user equipment to decode the received data....

  18. Grassmann codes and Schubert unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties over a field , such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study such sets in detail, and give applications to coding theory, in particular for Grassmann codes. For much is known about such Schubert unions...

  19. Code breaking in the pacific

    CERN Document Server

    Donovan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Covers the historical context and the evolution of the technically complex Allied Signals Intelligence (Sigint) activity against Japan from 1920 to 1945 Describes, explains and analyzes the code breaking techniques developed during the war in the Pacific Exposes the blunders (in code construction and use) made by the Japanese Navy that led to significant US Naval victories

  20. Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, F.; Basset, R.; Bellodi, G.; Benedetto, E.; Dorda, U.; Giovannozzi, M.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pieloni, T.; Ruggiero, F.; Rumolo, G.; Schmidt, F.; Todesco, E.; Zotter, B.W.; /CERN; Payet, J.; /Saclay; Bartolini, R.; /RAL, Diamond; Farvacque, L.; /ESRF, Grenoble; Sen, T.; /Fermilab; Chin, Y.H.; Ohmi, K.; Oide, K.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Furman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley /Oak Ridge /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /SLAC /TRIUMF /Tech-X, Boulder /UC, San Diego /Darmstadt, GSI /Rutherford /Brookhaven

    2006-10-24

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  1. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  2. Distributed space-time coding

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, Yindi

    2014-01-01

    Distributed Space-Time Coding (DSTC) is a cooperative relaying scheme that enables high reliability in wireless networks. This brief presents the basic concept of DSTC, its achievable performance, generalizations, code design, and differential use. Recent results on training design and channel estimation for DSTC and the performance of training-based DSTC are also discussed.

  3. Recommendations for ECG diagnostic coding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonner, R.E.; Caceres, C.A.; Cuddy, T.E.; Meijler, F.L.; Milliken, J.A.; Rautaharju, P.M.; Robles de Medina, E.O.; Willems, J.L.; Wolf, H.K.; Working Group 'Diagnostic Codes'

    1978-01-01

    The Oxford dictionary defines code as "a body of laws so related to each other as to avoid inconsistency and overlapping". It is obvious that natural language with its high degree of ambiguity does not qualify as a code in the sense of this definition. Everyday experiences provide ample evidence tha

  4. Bounds on Generalized Huffman Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Michael B

    2007-01-01

    New lower and upper bounds are obtained for the compression of optimal binary prefix codes according to various nonlinear codeword length objectives. Like the coding bounds for Huffman coding - which concern the traditional linear code objective of minimizing average codeword length -- these are in terms of a form of entropy and the probability of the most probable input symbol. As in Huffman coding, some upper bounds can be found using sufficient conditions for the codeword corresponding to the most probable symbol being one bit long. Whereas having probability no less than 0.4 is a tight sufficient condition for this to be the case in Huffman coding, other penalties differ, some having a tighter condition, some a looser condition, and others having no such sufficient condition. The objectives explored here are ones for which optimal codes can be found using a generalized form of Huffman coding. These objectives include one related to queueing (an increasing exponential average), one related to single-shot c...

  5. LFSC - Linac Feedback Simulation Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Valentin; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    The computer program LFSC (Code>) is a numerical tool for simulation beam based feedback in high performance linacs. The code LFSC is based on the earlier version developed by a collective of authors at SLAC (L.Hendrickson, R. McEwen, T. Himel, H. Shoaee, S. Shah, P. Emma, P. Schultz) during 1990-2005. That code was successively used in simulation of SLC, TESLA, CLIC and NLC projects. It can simulate as pulse-to-pulse feedback on timescale corresponding to 5-100 Hz, as slower feedbacks, operating in the 0.1-1 Hz range in the Main Linac and Beam Delivery System. The code LFSC is running under Matlab for MS Windows operating system. It contains about 30,000 lines of source code in more than 260 subroutines. The code uses the LIAR ('Linear Accelerator Research code') for particle tracking under ground motion and technical noise perturbations. It uses the Guinea Pig code to simulate the luminosity performance. A set of input files includes the lattice description (XSIF format), and plane text files with numerical parameters, wake fields, ground motion data etc. The Matlab environment provides a flexible system for graphical output.

  6. Recommendations for ECG diagnostic coding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonner, R.E.; Caceres, C.A.; Cuddy, T.E.; Meijler, F.L.; Milliken, J.A.; Rautaharju, P.M.; Robles de Medina, E.O.; Willems, J.L.; Wolf, H.K.; Working Group 'Diagnostic Codes'

    1978-01-01

    The Oxford dictionary defines code as "a body of laws so related to each other as to avoid inconsistency and overlapping". It is obvious that natural language with its high degree of ambiguity does not qualify as a code in the sense of this definition. Everyday experiences provide ample evidence tha

  7. Cyclic Codes of Length 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manju Pruthi

    2001-11-01

    In this paper explicit expressions of + 1 idempotents in the ring $R = F_q[X]/\\langle X^{2^m}-1\\rangle$ are given. Cyclic codes of length 2 over the finite field , of odd characteristic, are defined in terms of their generator polynomials. The exact minimum distance and the dimension of the codes are obtained.

  8. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The concept of coded continuous wave meteor radar is introduced. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudo-random waveform, which has several advantages: coding avoids range aliased echoes, which are often seen with commonly used pulsed specular meteor radars (SMRs); continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation with significantly lower peak transmit power; the temporal resolution can be changed after ...

  9. MAPCLASS a code to optimize high order aberrations

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R

    2006-01-01

    MAPCLASS is a code written in PYTHON conceived to optimize the non-linear aberrations of the Final Focus System of CLIC. MAPCLASS calls MADX-PTC to obtain the map coefficients and uses optimization algorithms like the Simplex to compensate the high order aberrations.

  10. Differential Cross Section Kinematics for 3-dimensional Transport Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In support of the development of 3-dimensional transport codes, this paper derives the relevant relativistic particle kinematic theory. Formulas are given for invariant, spectral and angular distributions in both the lab (spacecraft) and center of momentum frames, for collisions involving 2, 3 and n - body final states.

  11. Optical encryption of personal identification information using orthogonal code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed N.; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2006-05-01

    Optical information processing techniques have been developed for information security and fraud deterrent applications. Several encryption methods have been proposed in the literature, which includes optical double random-phase encryption, polarization encoding, encryption and verification using a multiplexed minimum average correlation energy phase-encrypted filter. All these reports employed a pseudo-random number for the code. But as such numbers are not uncorrelated, the security is not guaranteed because a wrong code may also extract some of the features of the coded information. The objective of the paper is to develop an optical security system employing orthogonal code for protection of personal identification information. As the orthogonal codes have zero or minimum cross-correlation depending on the offset between the codes, a wrong code can not decrypt any information. Here a simple encryption technique is proposed in spatial domain, where the input images are first spread in one dimension using an optical lens and then multiplied by the respective code. Finally, the individual encrypted images are superimposed on a common spatial domain. The individual images can then be decrypted by correlating the received signal with the respective address code. Computer simulation results show that any information containing binary characters can be encrypted and then decrypted successfully. The encrypted images are found to be secure, because no unwanted reproduction is possible without having the appropriate code. The technique also offers an efficient use of the storage or transmission capacity. Therefore, the proposed optical encryption technique can be applied to securing personal identification or similar information.

  12. Distributed source coding of video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Van Luong, Huynh

    2015-01-01

    A foundation for distributed source coding was established in the classic papers of Slepian-Wolf (SW) [1] and Wyner-Ziv (WZ) [2]. This has provided a starting point for work on Distributed Video Coding (DVC), which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side offering shifting processing...... steps, conventionally performed at the video encoder side, to the decoder side. Emerging applications such as wireless visual sensor networks and wireless video surveillance all require lightweight video encoding with high coding efficiency and error-resilience. The video data of DVC schemes differ from...... the assumptions of SW and WZ distributed coding, e.g. by being correlated in time and nonstationary. Improving the efficiency of DVC coding is challenging. This paper presents some selected techniques to address the DVC challenges. Focus is put on pin-pointing how the decoder steps are modified to provide...

  13. Quantum source-channel codes

    CERN Document Server

    Pastawski, Fernando; Wilming, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Approximate quantum error-correcting codes are codes with "soft recovery guarantees" wherein information can be approximately recovered. In this article, we propose a complementary "soft code-spaces" wherein a weighted prior distribution is assumed over the possible logical input states. The performance for protecting information from noise is then evaluated in terms of entanglement fidelity. We apply a recent construction for approximate recovery maps, which come with a guaranteed lower-bounds on the decoding performance. These lower bound are straightforwardly obtained by evaluating entropies on marginals of the mixed state which represents the "soft code-space". As an example, we consider thermal states of the transverse field Ising model at criticality and provide numerical evidence that the entanglement fidelity admits non-trivial recoverability from local errors. This provides the first concrete interpretation of a bonafide conformal field theory as a quantum error-correcting code. We further suggest, t...

  14. Distributed source coding of video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Van Luong, Huynh

    2015-01-01

    steps, conventionally performed at the video encoder side, to the decoder side. Emerging applications such as wireless visual sensor networks and wireless video surveillance all require lightweight video encoding with high coding efficiency and error-resilience. The video data of DVC schemes differ from......A foundation for distributed source coding was established in the classic papers of Slepian-Wolf (SW) [1] and Wyner-Ziv (WZ) [2]. This has provided a starting point for work on Distributed Video Coding (DVC), which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side offering shifting processing...... the assumptions of SW and WZ distributed coding, e.g. by being correlated in time and nonstationary. Improving the efficiency of DVC coding is challenging. This paper presents some selected techniques to address the DVC challenges. Focus is put on pin-pointing how the decoder steps are modified to provide...

  15. Writing the Live Coding Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackwell, Alan; Cox, Geoff; Lee, Sang Wong

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a speculation on the relationship between coding and writing, and the ways in which technical innovations and capabilities enable us to rethink each in terms of the other. As a case study, we draw on recent experiences of preparing a book on live coding, which integrates a wide rang...... of personal, historical, technical and critical perspectives. This book project has been both experimental and reflective, in a manner that allows us to draw on critical understanding of both code and writing, and point to the potential for new practices in the future.......This paper is a speculation on the relationship between coding and writing, and the ways in which technical innovations and capabilities enable us to rethink each in terms of the other. As a case study, we draw on recent experiences of preparing a book on live coding, which integrates a wide range...

  16. Binary Error Correcting Network Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qiwen; Li, Shuo-Yen Robert

    2011-01-01

    We consider network coding for networks experiencing worst-case bit-flip errors, and argue that this is a reasonable model for highly dynamic wireless network transmissions. We demonstrate that in this setup prior network error-correcting schemes can be arbitrarily far from achieving the optimal network throughput. We propose a new metric for errors under this model. Using this metric, we prove a new Hamming-type upper bound on the network capacity. We also show a commensurate lower bound based on GV-type codes that can be used for error-correction. The codes used to attain the lower bound are non-coherent (do not require prior knowledge of network topology). The end-to-end nature of our design enables our codes to be overlaid on classical distributed random linear network codes. Further, we free internal nodes from having to implement potentially computationally intensive link-by-link error-correction.

  17. What Froze the Genetic Code?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas de Pouplana, Lluís; Torres, Adrian Gabriel; Rafels-Ybern, Àlbert

    2017-04-05

    The frozen accident theory of the Genetic Code was a proposal by Francis Crick that attempted to explain the universal nature of the Genetic Code and the fact that it only contains information for twenty amino acids. Fifty years later, it is clear that variations to the universal Genetic Code exist in nature and that translation is not limited to twenty amino acids. However, given the astonishing diversity of life on earth, and the extended evolutionary time that has taken place since the emergence of the extant Genetic Code, the idea that the translation apparatus is for the most part immobile remains true. Here, we will offer a potential explanation to the reason why the code has remained mostly stable for over three billion years, and discuss some of the mechanisms that allow species to overcome the intrinsic functional limitations of the protein synthesis machinery.

  18. P-adic arithmetic coding

    CERN Document Server

    Rodionov, Anatoly

    2007-01-01

    A new incremental algorithm for data compression is presented. For a sequence of input symbols algorithm incrementally constructs a p-adic integer number as an output. Decoding process starts with less significant part of a p-adic integer and incrementally reconstructs a sequence of input symbols. Algorithm is based on certain features of p-adic numbers and p-adic norm. p-adic coding algorithm may be considered as of generalization a popular compression technique - arithmetic coding algorithms. It is shown that for p = 2 the algorithm works as integer variant of arithmetic coding; for a special class of models it gives exactly the same codes as Huffman's algorithm, for another special model and a specific alphabet it gives Golomb-Rice codes.

  19. PARAVT: Parallel Voronoi tessellation code

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R. E.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present a new open source code for massive parallel computation of Voronoi tessellations (VT hereafter) in large data sets. The code is focused for astrophysical purposes where VT densities and neighbors are widely used. There are several serial Voronoi tessellation codes, however no open source and parallel implementations are available to handle the large number of particles/galaxies in current N-body simulations and sky surveys. Parallelization is implemented under MPI and VT using Qhull library. Domain decomposition takes into account consistent boundary computation between tasks, and includes periodic conditions. In addition, the code computes neighbors list, Voronoi density, Voronoi cell volume, density gradient for each particle, and densities on a regular grid. Code implementation and user guide are publicly available at https://github.com/regonzar/paravt.

  20. Portable code development in C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.A.

    1990-11-06

    With a new generation of high performance computers appearing around us on a time scale of months, a new challenge for developers of simulation codes is to write and maintain production codes that are both highly portable and maximally efficient. My contention is that C is the language that is both best suited to that goal and is widely available today. GLF is a new code written mainly in C which is intended to have all of the XRASER physics and run on any platform of interest. It demonstrates the power of the C paradigm for code developers and flexibility and ease of use for the users. Three fundamental problems are discussed: the C/UNIX development environment; the supporting tools and libraries which handle data and graphics portability issues; and the advantages of C in numerical simulation code development.

  1. Medical coding in clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deven Babre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Data generated in all clinical trial are recorded on the data collection instrument Case report Form / Electronic Case Report Form by investigators located at various sites in various countries. In multicentric clinical trials since different investigator or medically qualified experts are from different sites / centers recording the medical term(s uniformly is a big challenge. Medical coders from clinical data management team process these terms and perform medical coding. Medical coding is performed to categorize the medical terms reported appropriately so that they can be analyzed/reviewed. This article describes process which is used for medical coding in clinical data management and two most commonly used medical dictionaries MedDRA and WHO-DDE in brief. It is expected to help medical coders to understand the process of medical coding in clinical data management. Few common issues which the medical coder faces while performing medical coding, are also highlighted.

  2. Non-Protein Coding RNAs

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Nils G; Batey, Robert T

    2009-01-01

    This book assembles chapters from experts in the Biophysics of RNA to provide a broadly accessible snapshot of the current status of this rapidly expanding field. The 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to the discoverers of RNA interference, highlighting just one example of a large number of non-protein coding RNAs. Because non-protein coding RNAs outnumber protein coding genes in mammals and other higher eukaryotes, it is now thought that the complexity of organisms is correlated with the fraction of their genome that encodes non-protein coding RNAs. Essential biological processes as diverse as cell differentiation, suppression of infecting viruses and parasitic transposons, higher-level organization of eukaryotic chromosomes, and gene expression itself are found to largely be directed by non-protein coding RNAs. The biophysical study of these RNAs employs X-ray crystallography, NMR, ensemble and single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, optical tweezers, cryo-electron microscopy, and ot...

  3. Efficient Decoding of Turbo Codes with Nonbinary Belief Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lestable

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to decode turbo codes using a nonbinary belief propagation decoder. The proposed approach can be decomposed into two main steps. First, a nonbinary Tanner graph representation of the turbo code is derived by clustering the binary parity-check matrix of the turbo code. Then, a group belief propagation decoder runs several iterations on the obtained nonbinary Tanner graph. We show in particular that it is necessary to add a preprocessing step on the parity-check matrix of the turbo code in order to ensure good topological properties of the Tanner graph and then good iterative decoding performance. Finally, by capitalizing on the diversity which comes from the existence of distinct efficient preprocessings, we propose a new decoding strategy, called decoder diversity, that intends to take benefits from the diversity through collaborative decoding schemes.

  4. Sending policies in dynamic wireless mesh using network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandi, Sreekrishna; Fitzek, Frank; Pihl, Jeppe;

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the quick prototyping capabilities of the Python-Kodo library for network coding based performance evaluation and investigates the problem of data redundancy in a network coded wireless mesh with opportunistic overhearing. By means of several wireless meshed architectures...... of appropriate relays. Finally, various sending policies that can be employed by the nodes in order to improve the overall transmission efficiency in a dynamic wireless mesh network are discussed and their performance is analysed on the constructed simulation setup....... simulated on the constructed test-bed, the advantage of network coding over state of the art routing schemes and the challenges of this new technology are shown. By providing maximum control of the network coding parameters and the simulation environment to the user, the test-bed facilitates quick...

  5. Detecting non-coding selective pressure in coding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchette Mathieu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics approaches, where orthologous DNA regions are compared and inter-species conserved regions are identified, have proven extremely powerful for identifying non-coding regulatory regions located in intergenic or intronic regions. However, non-coding functional elements can also be located within coding region, as is common for exonic splicing enhancers, some transcription factor binding sites, and RNA secondary structure elements affecting mRNA stability, localization, or translation. Since these functional elements are located in regions that are themselves highly conserved because they are coding for a protein, they generally escaped detection by comparative genomics approaches. Results We introduce a comparative genomics approach for detecting non-coding functional elements located within coding regions. Codon evolution is modeled as a mixture of codon substitution models, where each component of the mixture describes the evolution of codons under a specific type of coding selective pressure. We show how to compute the posterior distribution of the entropy and parsimony scores under this null model of codon evolution. The method is applied to a set of growth hormone 1 orthologous mRNA sequences and a known exonic splicing elements is detected. The analysis of a set of CORTBP2 orthologous genes reveals a region of several hundred base pairs under strong non-coding selective pressure whose function remains unknown. Conclusion Non-coding functional elements, in particular those involved in post-transcriptional regulation, are likely to be much more prevalent than is currently known. With the numerous genome sequencing projects underway, comparative genomics approaches like that proposed here are likely to become increasingly powerful at detecting such elements.

  6. Data calculation program for RELAP 5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, Larissa J.B.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: larissajbs@usp.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    As the criteria and requirements for a nuclear power plant are extremely rigid, computer programs for simulation and safety analysis are required for certifying and licensing a plant. Based on this scenario, some sophisticated computational tools have been used such as the Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program (RELAP5), which is the most used code for the thermo-hydraulic analysis of accidents and transients in nuclear reactors. A major difficulty in the simulation using RELAP5 code is the amount of information required for the simulation of thermal-hydraulic accidents or transients. The preparation of the input data leads to a very large number of mathematical operations for calculating the geometry of the components. Therefore, a mathematical friendly preprocessor was developed in order to perform these calculations and prepare RELAP5 input data. The Visual Basic for Application (VBA) combined with Microsoft EXCEL demonstrated to be an efficient tool to perform a number of tasks in the development of the program. Due to the absence of necessary information about some RELAP5 components, this work aims to make improvements to the Mathematic Preprocessor for RELAP5 code (PREREL5). For the new version of the preprocessor, new screens of some components that were not programmed in the original version were designed; moreover, screens of pre-existing components were redesigned to improve the program. In addition, an English version was provided for the new version of the PREREL5. The new design of PREREL5 contributes for saving time and minimizing mistakes made by users of the RELAP5 code. The final version of this preprocessor will be applied to Angra 2. (author)

  7. Xenomicrobiology: a roadmap for genetic code engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G; Budisa, Nediljko

    2016-09-01

    Biology is an analytical and informational science that is becoming increasingly dependent on chemical synthesis. One example is the high-throughput and low-cost synthesis of DNA, which is a foundation for the research field of synthetic biology (SB). The aim of SB is to provide biotechnological solutions to health, energy and environmental issues as well as unsustainable manufacturing processes in the frame of naturally existing chemical building blocks. Xenobiology (XB) goes a step further by implementing non-natural building blocks in living cells. In this context, genetic code engineering respectively enables the re-design of genes/genomes and proteins/proteomes with non-canonical nucleic (XNAs) and amino (ncAAs) acids. Besides studying information flow and evolutionary innovation in living systems, XB allows the development of new-to-nature therapeutic proteins/peptides, new biocatalysts for potential applications in synthetic organic chemistry and biocontainment strategies for enhanced biosafety. In this perspective, we provide a brief history and evolution of the genetic code in the context of XB. We then discuss the latest efforts and challenges ahead for engineering the genetic code with focus on substitutions and additions of ncAAs as well as standard amino acid reductions. Finally, we present a roadmap for the directed evolution of artificial microbes for emancipating rare sense codons that could be used to introduce novel building blocks. The development of such xenomicroorganisms endowed with a 'genetic firewall' will also allow to study and understand the relation between code evolution and horizontal gene transfer. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. On the Minimum Distance of Non Binary LDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Pulikkoonattu, Rethnakaran

    2009-01-01

    Minimum distance is an important parameter of a linear error correcting code. For improved performance of binary Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, we need to have the minimum distance grow fast with n, the codelength. However, the best we can hope for is a linear growth in dmin with n. For binary LDPC codes, the necessary and sufficient conditions on the LDPC ensemble parameters, to ensure linear growth of minimum distance is well established. In the case of non-binary LDPC codes, the structure of logarithmic weight codewords is different from that of binary codes. We have carried out a preliminary study on the logarithmic bound on the the minimum distance of non-binary LDPC code ensembles. In particular, we have investigated certain configurations which would lead to low weight codewords. A set of simulations are performed to identify some of these configurations. Finally, we have provided a bound on the logarithmic minimum distance of nonbinary codes, using a strategy similar to the girth bound for bin...

  9. 77 FR 3073 - American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants (OM Code). The final rule also incorporated by reference (with conditions... described in the GALL report, or propose alternatives (exceptions) for the NRC to review as part of a plant... acceptable approach for aging management--through inservice inspection--of PWR nickel-alloy upper vessel head...

  10. Does a code make a difference – assessing the English code of practice on international recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensah Kwadwo

    2009-04-01

    global code: without a clear link between explicit objectives of a code, and relevant monitoring capacity, it is not possible to judge the actual impact of a code. A second message for policy-makers is that attempts to use a single country code in other countries where there are a multiplicity of independent, private-sector health care employers, or where there is a federated political and regulatory structure, will be a much more challenging and complex issue than in England, which has one major public sector health care employer and one national point of entry for regulated health professionals. Finally, there is a message about the importance of the "visibility" of any recruitment code – for policy-makers, employers and potential recruits. The Department of Health Code has a good level of recognition in the National Health Service, but would benefit from better dissemination in low-income countries, particularly in Africa, together with further consultation on the appropriateness of its provisions in specific countries. To achieve high visibility and recognition of any global code will be a much bigger challenge.

  11. CYCLIC CODES OVER FORMAL POWER SERIES RINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dougherty Steven T.; Liu Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    In this article, cyclic codes and negacyclic codes over formal power series rings are studied. The structure of cyclic codes over this class of rings is given, and the relationship between these codes and cyclic codes over finite chain rings is obtained. Using an isomorphism between cyclic and negacyclic codes over formal power series rings, the structure of negacyclic codes over the formal power series rings is obtained.

  12. Non-Pauli observables for CWS codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Douglas F. G.; Portugal, Renato; Melo, Nolmar

    2013-05-01

    It is known that nonadditive quantum codes can have higher code dimensions than stabilizer codes for the same length and minimum distance. The class of codeword stabilized codes (CWS) provides tools to obtain new nonadditive quantum codes by reducing the problem to finding nonlinear classical codes. In this work, we establish some results on the kind of non-Pauli operators that can be used as observables in the decoding scheme of CWS codes and propose a procedure to obtain those observables.

  13. The Flutter Shutter Code Calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohann Tendero

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the flutter shutter is to make uniform motion blur invertible, by a"fluttering" shutter that opens and closes on a sequence of well chosen sub-intervals of the exposure time interval. In other words, the photon flux is modulated according to a well chosen sequence calledflutter shutter code. This article provides a numerical method that computes optimal flutter shutter codes in terms of mean square error (MSE. We assume that the observed objects follow a known (or learned random velocity distribution. In this paper, Gaussian and uniform velocity distributions are considered. Snapshots are also optimized taking the velocity distribution into account. For each velocity distribution, the gain of the optimal flutter shutter code with respectto the optimal snapshot in terms of MSE is computed. This symmetric optimization of theflutter shutter and of the snapshot allows to compare on an equal footing both solutions, i.e. camera designs. Optimal flutter shutter codes are demonstrated to improve substantially the MSE compared to classic (patented or not codes. A numerical method that permits to perform a reverse engineering of any existing (patented or not flutter shutter codes is also describedand an implementation is given. In this case we give the underlying velocity distribution fromwhich a given optimal flutter shutter code comes from. The combination of these two numerical methods furnishes a comprehensive study of the optimization of a flutter shutter that includes a forward and a backward numerical solution.

  14. Constructions of Rank Modulation Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Mazumdar, Arya; Zémor, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Rank modulation is a way of encoding information to correct errors in flash memory devices as well as impulse noise in transmission lines. Modeling rank modulation involves construction of packings of the space of permutations equipped with the Kendall tau distance. We present several general constructions of codes in permutations that cover a broad range of code parameters. In particular, we show a number of ways in which conventional error-correcting codes can be modified to correct errors in the Kendall space. Codes that we construct afford simple encoding and decoding algorithms of essentially the same complexity as required to correct errors in the Hamming metric. For instance, from binary BCH codes we obtain codes correcting $t$ Kendall errors in $n$ memory cells that support the order of $n!/(\\log_2n!)^t$ messages, for any constant $t= 1,2,...$ We also construct families of codes that correct a number of errors that grows with $n$ at varying rates, from $\\Theta(n)$ to $\\Theta(n^{2})$. One of our constr...

  15. Trajectory Codes for Flash Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Anxiao,; Langberg, Michael; Schwartz, Moshe; Bruck, Jehoshua

    2010-01-01

    Flash memory is well-known for its inherent asymmetry: the flash-cell charge levels are easy to increase but are hard to decrease. In a general rewriting model, the stored data changes its value with certain patterns. The patterns of data updates are determined by the data structure and the application, and are independent of the constraints imposed by the storage medium. Thus, an appropriate coding scheme is needed so that the data changes can be updated and stored efficiently under the storage-medium's constraints. In this paper, we define the general rewriting problem using a graph model. It extends many known rewriting models such as floating codes, WOM codes, buffer codes, etc. We present a new rewriting scheme for flash memories, called the trajectory code, for rewriting the stored data as many times as possible without block erasures. We prove that the trajectory code is asymptotically optimal in a wide range of scenarios. We also present randomized rewriting codes optimized for expected performance (g...

  16. ETR/ITER systems code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, W.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Brooks, J.N.; Bulmer, R.H.; Busigin, A.; DuBois, P.F.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Fink, J.; Finn, P.A.; Galambos, J.D.; Gohar, Y.; Gorker, G.E.; Haines, J.R.; Hassanein, A.M.; Hicks, D.R.; Ho, S.K.; Kalsi, S.S.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Kerns, J.A.; Lee, J.D.; Miller, J.R.; Miller, R.L.; Myall, J.O.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Perkins, L.J.; Spampinato, P.T.; Strickler, D.J.; Thomson, S.L.; Wagner, C.E.; Willms, R.S.; Reid, R.L. (ed.)

    1988-04-01

    A tokamak systems code capable of modeling experimental test reactors has been developed and is described in this document. The code, named TETRA (for Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor Analysis), consists of a series of modules, each describing a tokamak system or component, controlled by an optimizer/driver. This code development was a national effort in that the modules were contributed by members of the fusion community and integrated into a code by the Fusion Engineering Design Center. The code has been checked out on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center and has satisfactorily simulated the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor II (TIBER) design. A feature of this code is the ability to perform optimization studies through the use of a numerical software package, which iterates prescribed variables to satisfy a set of prescribed equations or constraints. This code will be used to perform sensitivity studies for the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). 22 figs., 29 tabs.

  17. CodedStream: live media streaming with overlay coded multicast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiang; Zhu, Ying; Li, Baochun

    2003-12-01

    Multicasting is a natural paradigm for streaming live multimedia to multiple end receivers. Since IP multicast is not widely deployed, many application-layer multicast protocols have been proposed. However, all of these schemes focus on the construction of multicast trees, where a relatively small number of links carry the multicast streaming load, while the capacity of most of the other links in the overlay network remain unused. In this paper, we propose CodedStream, a high-bandwidth live media distribution system based on end-system overlay multicast. In CodedStream, we construct a k-redundant multicast graph (a directed acyclic graph) as the multicast topology, on which network coding is applied to work around bottlenecks. Simulation results have shown that the combination of k-redundant multicast graph and network coding may indeed bring significant benefits with respect to improving the quality of live media at the end receivers.

  18. Surface code implementation of block code state distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Austin G.; Devitt, Simon J.; Jones, Cody

    2013-01-01

    State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states produced a single improved |A〉 state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A〉 states given 3k + 8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three. PMID:23736868

  19. Coding and decoding for code division multiple user communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    A new algorithm is introduced which decodes code division multiple user communication signals. The algorithm makes use of the distinctive form or pattern of each signal to separate it from the composite signal created by the multiple users. Although the algorithm is presented in terms of frequency-hopped signals, the actual transmitter modulator can use any of the existing digital modulation techniques. The algorithm is applicable to error-free codes or to codes where controlled interference is permitted. It can be used when block synchronization is assumed, and in some cases when it is not. The paper also discusses briefly some of the codes which can be used in connection with the algorithm, and relates the algorithm to past studies which use other approaches to the same problem.

  20. Code-Mixing and Code Switchingin The Process of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diyah Atiek Mustikawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe a form of code switching and code mixing specific form found in the teaching and learning activities in the classroom as well as determining factors influencing events stand out that form of code switching and code mixing in question.Form of this research is descriptive qualitative case study which took place in Al Mawaddah Boarding School Ponorogo. Based on the analysis and discussion that has been stated in the previous chapter that the form of code mixing and code switching learning activities in Al Mawaddah Boarding School is in between the use of either language Java language, Arabic, English and Indonesian, on the use of insertion of words, phrases, idioms, use of nouns, adjectives, clauses, and sentences. Code mixing deciding factor in the learning process include: Identification of the role, the desire to explain and interpret, sourced from the original language and its variations, is sourced from a foreign language. While deciding factor in the learning process of code, includes: speakers (O1, partners speakers (O2, the presence of a third person (O3, the topic of conversation, evoke a sense of humour, and just prestige. The significance of this study is to allow readers to see the use of language in a multilingual society, especially in AL Mawaddah boarding school about the rules and characteristics variation in the language of teaching and learning activities in the classroom. Furthermore, the results of this research will provide input to the ustadz / ustadzah and students in developing oral communication skills and the effectiveness of teaching and learning strategies in boarding schools.

  1. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuur, Edward [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Luo, Yiqi [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This final grant report is a continuation of the final grant report submitted for DE-SC0006982 as the Principle Investigator (Schuur) relocated from the University of Florida to Northern Arizona University. This report summarizes the original project goals, as well as includes new project activities that were completed in the final period of the project.

  2. Network Coding Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Medard, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    Network coding is a field of information and coding theory and is a method of attaining maximum information flow in a network. This book is an ideal introduction for the communications and network engineer, working in research and development, who needs an intuitive introduction to network coding and to the increased performance and reliability it offers in many applications. This book is an ideal introduction for the research and development communications and network engineer who needs an intuitive introduction to the theory and wishes to understand the increased performance and reliabil

  3. State building energy codes status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This document contains the State Building Energy Codes Status prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 and dated September 1996. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards has developed this document to provide an information resource for individuals interested in energy efficiency of buildings and the relevant building energy codes in each state and U.S. territory. This is considered to be an evolving document and will be updated twice a year. In addition, special state updates will be issued as warranted.

  4. Neural Decoder for Topological Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlai, Giacomo; Melko, Roger G.

    2017-07-01

    We present an algorithm for error correction in topological codes that exploits modern machine learning techniques. Our decoder is constructed from a stochastic neural network called a Boltzmann machine, of the type extensively used in deep learning. We provide a general prescription for the training of the network and a decoding strategy that is applicable to a wide variety of stabilizer codes with very little specialization. We demonstrate the neural decoder numerically on the well-known two-dimensional toric code with phase-flip errors.

  5. Atlas C++ Coding Standard Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Albrand, S; Barberis, D; Bosman, M; Jones, B; Stavrianakou, M; Arnault, C; Candlin, D; Candlin, R; Franck, E; Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl; Malon, D; Qian, S; Quarrie, D; Schaffer, R D

    2001-01-01

    This document defines the ATLAS C++ coding standard, that should be adhered to when writing C++ code. It has been adapted from the original "PST Coding Standard" document (http://pst.cern.ch/HandBookWorkBook/Handbook/Programming/programming.html) CERN-UCO/1999/207. The "ATLAS standard" comprises modifications, further justification and examples for some of the rules in the original PST document. All changes were discussed in the ATLAS Offline Software Quality Control Group and feedback from the collaboration was taken into account in the "current" version.

  6. Nonlocally Centralized Simultaneous Sparse Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷阳; 宋占杰

    2016-01-01

    The concept of structured sparse coding noise is introduced to exploit the spatial correlations and nonlo-cal constraint of the local structure. Then the model of nonlocally centralized simultaneous sparse coding(NC-SSC)is proposed for reconstructing the original image, and an algorithm is proposed to transform the simultaneous sparse coding into reweighted low-rank approximation. Experimental results on image denoisng, deblurring and super-resolution demonstrate the advantage of the proposed NC-SSC method over the state-of-the-art image resto-ration methods.

  7. LiveCode mobile development

    CERN Document Server

    Lavieri, Edward D

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide written in a tutorial-style, ""LiveCode Mobile Development Hotshot"" walks you step-by-step through 10 individual projects. Every project is divided into sub tasks to make learning more organized and easy to follow along with explanations, diagrams, screenshots, and downloadable material.This book is great for anyone who wants to develop mobile applications using LiveCode. You should be familiar with LiveCode and have access to a smartphone. You are not expected to know how to create graphics or audio clips.

  8. PRACTICAL ALGORITHMS FOR TORNADO CODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Tornado codes have been used in the error control of data transmission in IP network. The efficiency of this erasure codes is critically affected by the short cycles in its bipartite graph. To remove this effect,two algorithms are introduced: (1) while generating the graph, the cycle eliminating algorithm is used to reduce the number of the short cycles in it; (2) in the decoding algorithm, cycles that are inevitably in the graph are used to remove decoding efficiency degradation. The simulation results show that they have a better performance than that of general tornado codes.

  9. i-Review: Sharing Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Kubilius

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF. GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  10. Final Focus Test Stand final report

    CERN Document Server

    Jeremie, A; Burrows, P

    2013-01-01

    Future Linear colliders will need particle beam sizes in the nanometre range. The beam also needs to be stable all along the beam line and especially at the Final Focus section. A dedicated Final Focus test stand has been used for this study and is comprised of several sub-parts. First there is the Stabilisation/Isolation system with sensors and actuators stabilizing down to sub-nanometre level. Then the Magnet itself needs to comply with very specific design constraints. In addition to the mechanical items, the beam can be stabilized acting on the trajectory directly and Beam-based controls have been developed and tested on different accelerator facilities.

  11. Introduction to coding and information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    1997-01-01

    This book is intended to introduce coding theory and information theory to undergraduate students of mathematics and computer science. It begins with a review of probablity theory as applied to finite sample spaces and a general introduction to the nature and types of codes. The two subsequent chapters discuss information theory: efficiency of codes, the entropy of information sources, and Shannon's Noiseless Coding Theorem. The remaining three chapters deal with coding theory: communication channels, decoding in the presence of errors, the general theory of linear codes, and such specific codes as Hamming codes, the simplex codes, and many others.

  12. Beam-dynamics codes used at DARHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Jr., Carl August [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Several beam simulation codes are used to help gain a better understanding of beam dynamics in the DARHT LIAs. The most notable of these fall into the following categories: for beam production – Tricomp Trak orbit tracking code, LSP Particle in cell (PIC) code, for beam transport and acceleration – XTR static envelope and centroid code, LAMDA time-resolved envelope and centroid code, LSP-Slice PIC code, for coasting-beam transport to target – LAMDA time-resolved envelope code, LSP-Slice PIC code. These codes are also being used to inform the design of Scorpius.

  13. 77 FR 18716 - Transportation Security Administration Postal Zip Code Change; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Postal Zip Code Change; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule is a technical change to correct a regulatory reference to TSA's postal zip code. This rule revises existing regulations to reflect organizational changes and it has no...

  14. Benchmarking of the Placet and Dimad tracking codes using the CLIC Post-Collision line

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, I; Ferrari, A; Latina, A

    2009-01-01

    In this benchmarking study, two contemporary codes, DIMAD and PLACET, are compared. We consider the 20 mrad post-collision line of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and perform tracking studies of heavily disrupted post-collision electron beams. We successfully find that the two codes provide an equivalent description of the beam transport from the interaction point to the final dump.

  15. Scheduling Linearly Indexed Assignment Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailath, Thomas; Roychowdhury, Vwani P.

    1989-05-01

    It has been recently shown that linearly indexed Assignment Codes can be efficiently used for coding several problems especially in signal processing and matrix algebra. In fact, mathematical expressions for many algorithms are directly in the form of linearly indexed codes, and examples include the formulas for matrix multiplication, any m-dimensional convolution/correlation, matrix transposition, and solving matrix Lyapunov's equation. Systematic procedures for converting linearly indexed Assignment Codes to localized algorithms that are closely related to Regular Iterative Algorithms (RIAs) have also been developed. These localized algorithms can be often efficiently scheduled by modeling them as RIAs; however, it is not always efficient to do so. In this paper we shall analyze and develop systematic procedures for determining efficient schedules directly for the linearly indexed ACs and the localized algorithms. We shall also illustrate our procedures by determining schedules for examples such as matrix transposition and Gauss-Jordan elimination algorithm.

  16. Upper Air Observations - Synoptic Code

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily radiosonde and rawinsonde observations at standard and significant levels, recorded in synoptic code. Period of record 1950-1951.

  17. Multimedia signal coding and transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Ohm, Jens-Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This textbook covers the theoretical background of one- and multidimensional signal processing, statistical analysis and modelling, coding and information theory with regard to the principles and design of image, video and audio compression systems. The theoretical concepts are augmented by practical examples of algorithms for multimedia signal coding technology, and related transmission aspects. On this basis, principles behind multimedia coding standards, including most recent developments like High Efficiency Video Coding, can be well understood. Furthermore, potential advances in future development are pointed out. Numerous figures and examples help to illustrate the concepts covered. The book was developed on the basis of a graduate-level university course, and most chapters are supplemented by exercises. The book is also a self-contained introduction both for researchers and developers of multimedia compression systems in industry.

  18. Zip Code Level Enrollment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The dataset includes is the number of Qualified Health Plan selections by ZIP code for 36 states that are participating in the Federally-facilitated Marketplace or...

  19. Forms and Linear Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan P.

    spaces of Veronese varieties. Linear network coding transmits information in terms of a basis of a vector space and the information is received as a basis of a possibly altered vector space. Ralf Koetter and Frank R. Kschischang introduced a metric on the set af vector spaces and showed that a minimal......We present a general theory to obtain linear network codes utilizing forms and obtain explicit families of equidimensional vector spaces, in which any pair of distinct vector spaces intersect in the same small dimension. The theory is inspired by the methods of the author utilizing the osculating...... them suitable for linear network coding. The parameters of the resulting linear network codes are determined....

  20. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive...

  1. FLYCHK Collisional-Radiative Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 160 FLYCHK Collisional-Radiative Code (Web, free access)   FLYCHK provides a capability to generate atomic level populations and charge state distributions for low-Z to mid-Z elements under NLTE conditions.

  2. Allegheny County Zip Code Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the zip code boundaries that lie within Allegheny County. These are not clipped to the Allgeheny County boundary. If viewing this...

  3. Squares of Random Linear Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascudo Pueyo, Ignacio; Cramer, Ronald; Mirandola, Diego

    2015-01-01

    a positive answer, for codes of dimension $k$ and length roughly $\\frac{1}{2}k^2$ or smaller. Moreover, the convergence speed is exponential if the difference $k(k+1)/2-n$ is at least linear in $k$. The proof uses random coding and combinatorial arguments, together with algebraic tools involving the precise......Given a linear code $C$, one can define the $d$-th power of $C$ as the span of all componentwise products of $d$ elements of $C$. A power of $C$ may quickly fill the whole space. Our purpose is to answer the following question: does the square of a code ``typically'' fill the whole space? We give...

  4. The Serializability of Network Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Blasiak, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Network coding theory studies the transmission of information in networks whose vertices may perform nontrivial encoding and decoding operations on data as it passes through the network. The main approach to deciding the feasibility of network coding problems aims to reduce the problem to optimization over a polytope of entropic vectors subject to constraints imposed by the network structure. In the case of directed acyclic graphs, these constraints are completely understood, but for general graphs the problem of enumerating them remains open: it is not known how to classify the constraints implied by a property that we call serializability, which refers to the absence of paradoxical circular dependencies in a network code. In this work we initiate the first systematic study of the constraints imposed on a network code by serializability. We find that serializability cannot be detected solely by evaluating the Shannon entropy of edge sets in the graph, but nevertheless, we give a polynomial-time algorithm tha...

  5. On Reed-Solomon Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qunying LIAO

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of decoding the standard Reed-Solomon code is a well-known open problem in coding theory. The main problem is to compute the error distance of a received word.Using the Weil bound for character sum estimate,Li and Wan showed that the error distance can be determined when the degree of the received word as a polynomial is small.In the first part,the result of Li and Wan is improved.On the other hand,one of the important parameters of an error-correcting code is the dimension.In most cases,one can only get bounds for the dinension.In the second part,a formula for the dimension of the generalized trace Reed-Solonon codes in some cases is obtained.

  6. Code properties from holographic geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Pastawski, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Almheiri, Dong, and Harlow [hep-th/1411.7041] proposed a highly illuminating connection between the AdS/CFT holographic correspondence and operator algebra quantum error correction (OAQEC). Here we explore this connection further. We derive some general results about OAQEC, as well as results that apply specifically to quantum codes which admit a holographic interpretation. We introduce a new quantity called `price', which characterizes the support of a protected logical system, and find constraints on the price and the distance for logical subalgebras of quantum codes. We show that holographic codes defined on bulk manifolds with asymptotically negative curvature exhibit `uberholography', meaning that a bulk logical algebra can be supported on a boundary region with a fractal structure. We argue that, for holographic codes defined on bulk manifolds with asymptotically flat or positive curvature, the boundary physics must be highly nonlocal, an observation with potential implications for black holes and for q...

  7. Efficient codes and balanced networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denève, Sophie; Machens, Christian K

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in inhibitory interneurons and their circuits. A striking property of cortical inhibition is how tightly it balances excitation. Inhibitory currents not only match excitatory currents on average, but track them on a millisecond time scale, whether they are caused by external stimuli or spontaneous fluctuations. We review, together with experimental evidence, recent theoretical approaches that investigate the advantages of such tight balance for coding and computation. These studies suggest a possible revision of the dominant view that neurons represent information with firing rates corrupted by Poisson noise. Instead, tight excitatory/inhibitory balance may be a signature of a highly cooperative code, orders of magnitude more precise than a Poisson rate code. Moreover, tight balance may provide a template that allows cortical neurons to construct high-dimensional population codes and learn complex functions of their inputs.

  8. Zip Codes - MDC_WCSZipcode

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The WCSZipcode polygon feature class was created by Miami-Dade Enterprise Technology Department to be used in the WCS batch jobs to assign the actual zip code of...

  9. The moving mesh code Shadowfax

    CERN Document Server

    Vandenbroucke, Bert

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the moving mesh code Shadowfax, which can be used to evolve a mixture of gas, subject to the laws of hydrodynamics and gravity, and any collisionless fluid only subject to gravity, such as cold dark matter or stars. The code is written in C++ and its source code is made available to the scientific community under the GNU Affero General Public License. We outline the algorithm and the design of our implementation, and demonstrate its validity through the results of a set of basic test problems, which are also part of the public version. We also compare Shadowfax with a number of other publicly available codes using different hydrodynamical integration schemes, illustrating the advantages and disadvantages of the moving mesh technique.

  10. The moving mesh code SHADOWFAX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, B.; De Rijcke, S.

    2016-07-01

    We introduce the moving mesh code SHADOWFAX, which can be used to evolve a mixture of gas, subject to the laws of hydrodynamics and gravity, and any collisionless fluid only subject to gravity, such as cold dark matter or stars. The code is written in C++ and its source code is made available to the scientific community under the GNU Affero General Public Licence. We outline the algorithm and the design of our implementation, and demonstrate its validity through the results of a set of basic test problems, which are also part of the public version. We also compare SHADOWFAX with a number of other publicly available codes using different hydrodynamical integration schemes, illustrating the advantages and disadvantages of the moving mesh technique.

  11. Ultrasound imaging using coded signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Athanasios

    Modulated (or coded) excitation signals can potentially improve the quality and increase the frame rate in medical ultrasound scanners. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate systematically the applicability of modulated signals in medical ultrasound imaging and to suggest appropriate...... methods for coded imaging, with the goal of making better anatomic and flow images and three-dimensional images. On the first stage, it investigates techniques for doing high-resolution coded imaging with improved signal-to-noise ratio compared to conventional imaging. Subsequently it investigates how...... coded excitation can be used for increasing the frame rate. The work includes both simulated results using Field II, and experimental results based on measurements on phantoms as well as clinical images. Initially a mathematical foundation of signal modulation is given. Pulse compression based...

  12. n-Nucleotide circular codes in graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimmel, Elena; Michel, Christian J; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2016-03-13

    The circular code theory proposes that genes are constituted of two trinucleotide codes: the classical genetic code with 61 trinucleotides for coding the 20 amino acids (except the three stop codons {TAA,TAG,TGA}) and a circular code based on 20 trinucleotides for retrieving, maintaining and synchronizing the reading frame. It relies on two main results: the identification of a maximal C(3) self-complementary trinucleotide circular code X in genes of bacteria, eukaryotes, plasmids and viruses (Michel 2015 J. Theor. Biol. 380, 156-177. (doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2015.04.009); Arquès & Michel 1996 J. Theor. Biol. 182, 45-58. (doi:10.1006/jtbi.1996.0142)) and the finding of X circular code motifs in tRNAs and rRNAs, in particular in the ribosome decoding centre (Michel 2012 Comput. Biol. Chem. 37, 24-37. (doi:10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2011.10.002); El Soufi & Michel 2014 Comput. Biol. Chem. 52, 9-17. (doi:10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2014.08.001)). The univerally conserved nucleotides A1492 and A1493 and the conserved nucleotide G530 are included in X circular code motifs. Recently, dinucleotide circular codes were also investigated (Michel & Pirillo 2013 ISRN Biomath. 2013, 538631. (doi:10.1155/2013/538631); Fimmel et al. 2015 J. Theor. Biol. 386, 159-165. (doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2015.08.034)). As the genetic motifs of different lengths are ubiquitous in genes and genomes, we introduce a new approach based on graph theory to study in full generality n-nucleotide circular codes X, i.e. of length 2 (dinucleotide), 3 (trinucleotide), 4 (tetranucleotide), etc. Indeed, we prove that an n-nucleotide code X is circular if and only if the corresponding graph [Formula: see text] is acyclic. Moreover, the maximal length of a path in [Formula: see text] corresponds to the window of nucleotides in a sequence for detecting the correct reading frame. Finally, the graph theory of tournaments is applied to the study of dinucleotide circular codes. It has full equivalence between the combinatorics

  13. Facilitating Internet-Scale Code Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Sushil Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Internet-Scale code retrieval deals with the representation, storage, and access of relevant source code from a large amount of source code available on the Internet. Internet-Scale code retrieval systems support common emerging practices among software developers related to finding and reusing source code. In this dissertation we focus on some…

  14. Decoder for Nonbinary CWS Quantum Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Melo, Nolmar; Portugal, Renato

    2012-01-01

    We present a decoder for nonbinary CWS quantum codes using the structure of union codes. The decoder runs in two steps: first we use a union of stabilizer codes to detect a sequence of errors, and second we build a new code, called union code, that allows to correct the errors.

  15. Qualification of the nuclear reactor core model DYN3D coupled to the thermohydraulic system code ATHLET, applied as an advanced tool for accident analysis of VVER-type reactors. Final report; Qualifizierung des Kernmodells DYN3D im Komplex mit dem Stoerfallcode ATHLET als fortgeschrittenes Werkzeug fuer die Stoerfallanalyse von WWER-Reaktoren. T. 1. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmann, U.; Kliem, S.; Krepper, E.; Mittag, S; Rohde, U.; Schaefer, F.; Seidel, A.

    1998-03-01

    The nuclear reactor core model DYN3D with 3D neutron kinetics has been coupled to the thermohydraulic system code ATHLET. In the report, activities on qualification of the coupled code complex ATHLET-DYN3D as a validated tool for the accident analysis of russian VVER type reactors are described. That includes: - Contributions to the validation of the single codes ATHLET and DYN3D by the analysis of experiments on natural circulation behaviour in thermohydraulic test facilities and solution of benchmark tasks on reactivity initiated transients, - the acquisition and evaluation of measurement data on transients in nuclear power plants, the validation of ATHLET-DYN3D by calculating an accident with delayed scram and a pump trip in VVER plants, - the complementary improvement of the code DYN3D by extension of the neutron physical data base, implementation of an improved coolant mixing model, consideration of decay heat release and xenon transients, - the analysis of steam leak scenarios for VVER-440 type reactors with failure of different safety systems, investigation of different model options. The analyses showed, that with realistic coolant mixing modelling in the downcomer and the lower plenum, recriticality of the scramed reactor due to overcooling can be reached. The application of the code complex ATHLET-DYN3D in Czech Republic, Bulgaria and the Ukraine has been started. Future work comprises the verification of ATHLET-DYN3D with a DYN3D version for the square fuel element geometry of western PWR. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Reaktorkernmodell DYN3D mit 3D Neutronenkinetik wurde an den Thermohydraulik-Systemcode ATHLET angekoppelt. Im vorliegenden Bericht werden Arbeiten zur Qualifizierung des gekoppelten Codekomplexes zu einem validierten Hilfsmittel fuer Stoerfallablaufanalysen zu Reaktoren des russischen Typs WWER dargestellt. Diese umfassten im einzelnen: - Beitraege zur Validierung der Einzelcodes ATHLET und DYN3D anhand der Nachrechnung von Experimenten zum

  16. Parametric Coding of Stereo Audio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Schuijers

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Parametric-stereo coding is a technique to efficiently code a stereo audio signal as a monaural signal plus a small amount of parametric overhead to describe the stereo image. The stereo properties are analyzed, encoded, and reinstated in a decoder according to spatial psychoacoustical principles. The monaural signal can be encoded using any (conventional audio coder. Experiments show that the parameterized description of spatial properties enables a highly efficient, high-quality stereo audio representation.

  17. Interleaver Design for Turbo Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl; Zyablov, Viktor

    1997-01-01

    By a combination of construction and random search based on a careful analysis of the low weight words and the distance properties of the component codes, it is possible to find interleavers for turbo coding with a high minimum distance. We have designed a block interleaver with permutations...... of each row, and found a combination of permutations where a tight upper bound to the minimum distance of the complete turbo scheme is 108....

  18. Summary of Code of Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Kerri

    2016-01-01

    The Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses is an excellent guideline for all nurses regardless of their area of practice. I greatly enjoyed reading the revisions in place within the 2015 edition and refreshing my nursing conscience. I plan to always keep my Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses near in order to keep my moral compass from veering off the path of quality care.

  19. Coded nanoscale self-assembly

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prathyush Samineni; Debabrata Goswami

    2008-12-01

    We demonstrate coded self-assembly in nanostructures using the code seeded at the component level through computer simulations. Defects or cavities occur in all natural assembly processes including crystallization and our simulations capture this essential aspect under surface minimization constraints for self-assembly. Our bottom-up approach to nanostructures would provide a new dimension towards nanofabrication and better understanding of defects and crystallization process.

  20. Verification of ONED90 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Lee, Ki Bog; Zee, Sung Kyun; Lee, Chang Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-01

    ONED90 developed by KAERI is a 1-dimensional 2-group diffusion theory code. For nuclear design and reactor simulation, the usage of ONED90 encompasses core follow calculation, load follow calculation, plant power control simulation, xenon oscillation simulation and control rod maneuvering, etc. In order to verify the validity of ONED90 code, two well-known benchmark problems are solved by ONED90 shows very similar result to reference solution. (Author) 11 refs., 5 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Product Work Classification and Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    detail is much more useful in planning steel welding processes. In this regard remember that mild steel , HSLA steel , and high-yield steel (e.g. HY80 ...manufacturing facility. In Figure 2.3-2, a classification and coding system for steel parts is shown. This classification and coding system sorts steel parts...system would provide a shop which produced steel parts with a means of organizing parts. Rather than attempting to manage all of its parts as a single

  2. A Pixel Domain Video Coding based on Turbo code and Arithmetic code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrine Lahsini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with emerging applications such as multimedia sensors networks, wirelesslow-power surveillance and mobile camera phones, the traditional video coding architecture in beingchallenged. In fact, these applications have different requirements than those of the broadcast videodelivery systems: a low power consumption at the encoder side is essential.In this context, we propose a pixel-domain video coding scheme which fits well in these senarios.In this system, both the arithmetic and turbo codes are used to encode the video sequence's frames.Simulations results show significant gains over Pixel-domain Wyner-Ziv video codeingr.

  3. Cassini's Grand Finale: The Final Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Linda; Edgington, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission, a joint collaboration between NASA, ESA and the Italian Space Agency, is approaching its last year of operations after nearly 12 years in orbit around Saturn. Cassini will send back its final bits of unique data on September 15th, 2017 as it plunges into Saturn's atmosphere, vaporizing and satisfying planetary protection requirements. Before that time Cassini will continue its legacy of exploration and discovery with 12 close flybys of Titan in 2016 and 2017 that will return new science data as well as sculpt the inclinations and periods of the final orbits. Even though all of our close icy satellite flybys, including those of Enceladus, are now completed, numerous Voyager-class flybys (summer solstice approaches. In November 2016 Cassini will transition to a series of orbits with peripases just outside Saturn's F ring. These 20 orbits will include close flybys of some tiny ring moons and excellent views of the F ring and outer A ring. The 126th and final close flyby of Titan will propel Cassini across Saturn's main rings and into its final orbits. Cassini's Grand Finale, starting in April 2017, is comprised of 22 orbits at an inclination of 63 degrees. Cassini will repeatedly dive between the innermost rings and the upper atmosphere of the planet providing insights into fundamental questions unattainable during the rest of the mission. Cassini will be the first spacecraft to explore this region. These close orbits provide the highest resolution observations of both the rings and Saturn, and direct in situ sampling of the ring particles, composition, plasma, Saturn's exosphere and the innermost radiation belts. Saturn's gravitational field will be measured to unprecedented accuracy, providing information on the interior structure of the planet, winds in the outer layers of Saturn's atmosphere, and the mass distribution in the rings. Probing the magnetic field will give insight into the nature of the magnetic dynamo, telling us: why the

  4. QR Code Image Correction based on Corner Detection and Convex Hull Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suran Kong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the angular deviation produced when shooting a QR code image by a camera would cause geometric distortion of the QR code image, the traditional algorithm of QR code image correction would produce distortion. Therefore this paper puts forward the algorithm which combines corner detection with convex hull algorithm. Firstly, binaryzation of the collected QR code image with uneven light is obtained by the methods of local threshold and mathematical morphology. Next, the outline of the QR code and the dots on it are found and the distorted image is recovered by perspective collineation, according to the algorithm raised by this paper. Finally, experimental verification is made that the algorithm raised by this paper can correctly find the four apexes of QR code and achieves good effects of geometric correction. It will also significantly increase the recognition rate of seriously distorted QR code images

  5. Efficient RTL-based code generation for specified DSP C-compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiaohai; Liu, Peng; Shi, Ce; Yao, Qingdong; Zhu, Shaobo; Yan, Li; Zhou, Ying; Huang, Weibing

    2001-12-01

    A C-compiler is a basic tool for most embedded systems programmers. It is the tool by which the ideas and algorithms in your application (expressed as C source code) are transformed into machine code executable by the target processor. Our research was to develop an optimizing C-compiler for a specified 16-bit DSP. As one of the most important part in the C-compiler, Code Generation's efficiency and performance directly affect to the resultant target assembly code. Thus, in order to improve the performance of the C-compiler, we constructed an efficient code generation based on RTL, an intermediate language used in GNU CC. The code generation accepts RTL as main input, takes good advantage of features specific to RTL and specified DSP's architecture, and generates compact assembly code of the specified DSP. In this paper, firstly, the features of RTL will be briefly introduced. Then, the basic principle of constructing the code generation will be presented in detail. According to the basic principle, this paper will discuss the architecture of the code generation, including: syntax tree construction / reconstruction, basic RTL instruction extraction, behavior description at RTL level, and instruction description at assembly level. The optimization strategies used in the code generation for generating compact assembly code will also be given in this paper. Finally, we will achieve the conclusion that the C-compiler using this special code generation achieved high efficiency we expected.

  6. The Proteomic Code: a molecular recognition code for proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Jan C

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Proteomic Code is a set of rules by which information in genetic material is transferred into the physico-chemical properties of amino acids. It determines how individual amino acids interact with each other during folding and in specific protein-protein interactions. The Proteomic Code is part of the redundant Genetic Code. Review The 25-year-old history of this concept is reviewed from the first independent suggestions by Biro and Mekler, through the works of Blalock, Root-Bernstein, Siemion, Miller and others, followed by the discovery of a Common Periodic Table of Codons and Nucleic Acids in 2003 and culminating in the recent conceptualization of partial complementary coding of interacting amino acids as well as the theory of the nucleic acid-assisted protein folding. Methods and conclusions A novel cloning method for the design and production of specific, high-affinity-reacting proteins (SHARP is presented. This method is based on the concept of proteomic codes and is suitable for large-scale, industrial production of specifically interacting peptides.

  7. Nonterminals and codings in defining variations of OL-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    1974-01-01

    The use of nonterminals versus the use of codings in variations of OL-systems is studied. It is shown that the use of nonterminals produces a comparatively low generative capacity in deterministic systems while it produces a comparatively high generative capacity in nondeterministic systems....... Finally it is proved that the family of context-free languages is contained in the family generated by codings on propagating OL-systems with a finite set of axioms, which was one of the open problems in [10]. All the results in this paper can be found in [71] and [72]....

  8. Convolutional Goppa codes defined on fibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Curto, J I Iglesias; Martín, F J Plaza; Sotelo, G Serrano

    2010-01-01

    We define a new class of Convolutional Codes in terms of fibrations of algebraic varieties generalizaing our previous constructions of Convolutional Goppa Codes. Using this general construction we can give several examples of Maximum Distance Separable (MDS) Convolutional Codes.

  9. RELAP-7 Code Assessment Plan and Requirement Traceability Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Junsoo; Choi, Yong-joon; Smith, Curtis L.

    2016-10-01

    The RELAP-7, a safety analysis code for nuclear reactor system, is under development at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Overall, the code development is directed towards leveraging the advancements in computer science technology, numerical solution methods and physical models over the last decades. Recently, INL has also been putting an effort to establish the code assessment plan, which aims to ensure an improved final product quality through the RELAP-7 development process. The ultimate goal of this plan is to propose a suitable way to systematically assess the wide range of software requirements for RELAP-7, including the software design, user interface, and technical requirements, etc. To this end, we first survey the literature (i.e., international/domestic reports, research articles) addressing the desirable features generally required for advanced nuclear system safety analysis codes. In addition, the V&V (verification and validation) efforts as well as the legacy issues of several recently-developed codes (e.g., RELAP5-3D, TRACE V5.0) are investigated. Lastly, this paper outlines the Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM) for RELAP-7 which can be used to systematically evaluate and identify the code development process and its present capability.

  10. The Genomic Code: Genome Evolution and Potential Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Bernardi, Giorgio

    2016-01-25

    The genome of metazoans is organized according to a genomic code which comprises three laws: 1) Compositional correlations hold between contiguous coding and non-coding sequences, as well as among the three codon positions of protein-coding genes; these correlations are the consequence of the fact that the genomes under consideration consist of fairly homogeneous, long (≥200Kb) sequences, the isochores; 2) Although isochores are defined on the basis of purely compositional properties, GC levels of isochores are correlated with all tested structural and functional properties of the genome; 3) GC levels of isochores are correlated with chromosome architecture from interphase to metaphase; in the case of interphase the correlation concerns isochores and the three-dimensional “topological associated domains” (TADs); in the case of mitotic chromosomes, the correlation concerns isochores and chromosomal bands. Finally, the genomic code is the fourth and last pillar of molecular biology, the first three pillars being 1) the double helix structure of DNA; 2) the regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes; and 3) the genetic code.

  11. Analysis of quantum error-correcting codes: Symplectic lattice codes and toric codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James William

    Quantum information theory is concerned with identifying how quantum mechanical resources (such as entangled quantum states) can be utilized for a number of information processing tasks, including data storage, computation, communication, and cryptography. Efficient quantum algorithms and protocols have been developed for performing some tasks (e.g. , factoring large numbers, securely communicating over a public channel, and simulating quantum mechanical systems) that appear to be very difficult with just classical resources. In addition to identifying the separation between classical and quantum computational power, much of the theoretical focus in this field over the last decade has been concerned with finding novel ways of encoding quantum information that are robust against errors, which is an important step toward building practical quantum information processing devices. In this thesis I present some results on the quantum error-correcting properties of oscillator codes (also described as symplectic lattice codes) and toric codes. Any harmonic oscillator system (such as a mode of light) can be encoded with quantum information via symplectic lattice codes that are robust against shifts in the system's continuous quantum variables. I show the existence of lattice codes whose achievable rates match the one-shot coherent information over the Gaussian quantum channel. Also, I construct a family of symplectic self-dual lattices and search for optimal encodings of quantum information distributed between several oscillators. Toric codes provide encodings of quantum information into two-dimensional spin lattices that are robust against local clusters of errors and which require only local quantum operations for error correction. Numerical simulations of this system under various error models provide a calculation of the accuracy threshold for quantum memory using toric codes, which can be related to phase transitions in certain condensed matter models. I also present

  12. Final Performance Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houldin, Joseph [Delaware Valley Industrial Resource Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Saboor, Veronica [Delaware Valley Industrial Resource Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-03-30

    about assessing a company’s technical assets, broadening our view of the business to go beyond what they make or what NAICS code they have…to better understand their capacity, capability, and expertise, and to learn more about THEIR customers. Knowing more about the markets they serve can often provide insight into their level of technical knowledge and sophistication. Finally, in the spirit of realizing the intent of the Accelerator we strove to align and integrate the work and activities supported by the five funding agencies to leverage each effort. To that end, we include in the Integrated Work Plan a graphic that illustrates that integration. What follows is our summary report of the project, aggregated from prior reports.

  13. Blind recognition of punctured convolutional codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Peizhong; LI Shen; ZOU Yan; LUO Xiangyang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for blind recognition of punctured convolutional codes which is an important problem in adaptive modulation and coding. For a given finite sequence of convolutional code, the parity check matrix of the convolutional code is first computed by solving a linear system with adequate error tolerance. Then a minimal basic encoding matrix of the original convolutional code and its puncturing pattern are determined according to the known parity check matrix of the punctured convolutional code.

  14. Wireless Network Coding with Local Network Views: Coded Layer Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Vahid, Alireza; Avestimehr, A Salman; Sabharwal, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    One of the fundamental challenges in the design of distributed wireless networks is the large dynamic range of network state. Since continuous tracking of global network state at all nodes is practically impossible, nodes can only acquire limited local views of the whole network to design their transmission strategies. In this paper, we study multi-layer wireless networks and assume that each node has only a limited knowledge, namely 1-local view, where each S-D pair has enough information to perform optimally when other pairs do not interfere, along with connectivity information for rest of the network. We investigate the information-theoretic limits of communication with such limited knowledge at the nodes. We develop a novel transmission strategy, namely Coded Layer Scheduling, that solely relies on 1-local view at the nodes and incorporates three different techniques: (1) per layer interference avoidance, (2) repetition coding to allow overhearing of the interference, and (3) network coding to allow inter...

  15. Requirements of a Better Secure Program Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius POPA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Secure program coding refers to how manage the risks determined by the security breaches because of the program source code. The papers reviews the best practices must be doing during the software development life cycle for secure software assurance, the methods and techniques used for a secure coding assurance, the most known and common vulnerabilities determined by a bad coding process and how the security risks are managed and mitigated. As a tool of the better secure program coding, the code review process is presented, together with objective measures for code review assurance and estimation of the effort for the code improvement.

  16. Multiplicatively Repeated Non-Binary LDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Kasai, Kenta; Poulliat, Charly; Sakaniwa, Kohichi

    2010-01-01

    We propose non-binary LDPC codes concatenated with multiplicative repetition codes. By multiplicatively repeating the (2,3)-regular non-binary LDPC mother code of rate 1/3, we construct rate-compatible codes of lower rates 1/6, 1/9, 1/12,... Surprisingly, such simple low-rate non-binary LDPC codes outperform the best low-rate binary LDPC codes so far. Moreover, we propose the decoding algorithm for the proposed codes, which can be decoded with almost the same computational complexity as that of the mother code.

  17. New multilevel codes over GF(q)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiantian; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Set partitioning to multi-dimensional signal spaces over GF(q), particularly GF sup q-1(q) and GF sup q (q), and show how to construct both multi-level block codes and multi-level trellis codes over GF(q). Two classes of multi-level (n, k, d) block codes over GF(q) with block length n, number of information symbols k, and minimum distance d sub min greater than or = d, are presented. These two classes of codes use Reed-Solomon codes as component codes. They can be easily decoded as block length q-1 Reed-Solomon codes or block length q or q + 1 extended Reed-Solomon codes using multi-stage decoding. Many of these codes have larger distances than comparable q-ary block codes, as component codes. Low rate q-ary convolutional codes, work error correcting convolutional codes, and binary-to-q-ary convolutional codes can also be used to construct multi-level trellis codes over GF(q) or binary-to-q-ary trellis codes, some of which have better performance than the above block codes. All of the new codes have simple decoding algorithms based on hard decision multi-stage decoding.

  18. Combinatorial polarization, code loops, and codes of high level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vojtěchovský

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We first find the combinatorial degree of any map f:V→F, where F is a finite field and V is a finite-dimensional vector space over F. We then simplify and generalize a certain construction, due to Chein and Goodaire, that was used in characterizing code loops as finite Moufang loops that possess at most two squares. The construction yields binary codes of high divisibility level with prescribed Hamming weights of intersections of codewords.

  19. Sparsity in Linear Predictive Coding of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacobello, Daniele

    modern speech coders. In the first part of the thesis, we provide an overview of Sparse Linear Predic- tion, a set of speech processing tools created by introducing sparsity constraints into the LP framework. This approach defines predictors that look for a sparse residual rather than a minimum variance...... of high-order sparse predictors. These predictors, by modeling efficiently the spectral envelope and the harmonics components with very few coefficients, have direct applications in speech processing, engendering a joint estimation of short-term and long-term predictors. We also give preliminary results...... sensing formulation. Furthermore, we define a novel re-estimation procedure to adapt the predictor coefficients to the given sparse excitation, balancing the two representations in the context of speech coding. Finally, the advantages of the compact parametric representation of a segment of speech, given...

  20. Coding for Two Dimensional Constrained Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben Vaarbye

    2006-01-01

    for the No Isolated Bits constraint. Finally we present a variation of the encoding scheme of bit-stuffing that is applicable to the class of checkerboard constrained fields. It is possible to calculate the entropy of the coding scheme thus obtaining lower bounds on the entropy of the fields considered. These lower....... The important concept of entropy is introduced. In general, the entropy of a constrained field is not readily computable, but we give a series of upper and lower bounds based on one dimensional techniques. We discuss the use of a Pickard probability model for constrained fields. The novelty lies in using...... bounds are very tight for the Run-Length limited fields. Explicit bounds are given for the diamond constrained field as well....

  1. Complexity-aware high efficiency video coding

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, Guilherme; Agostini, Luciano; Cruz, Luis A da Silva

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses computational complexity of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) encoders with coverage extending from the analysis of HEVC compression efficiency and computational complexity to the reduction and scaling of its encoding complexity. After an introduction to the topic and a review of the state-of-the-art research in the field, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the HEVC encoding tools compression efficiency and computational complexity.  Readers will benefit from a set of algorithms for scaling the computational complexity of HEVC encoders, all of which take advantage from the flexibility of the frame partitioning structures allowed by the standard.  The authors also provide a set of early termination methods based on data mining and machine learning techniques, which are able to reduce the computational complexity required to find the best frame partitioning structures. The applicability of the proposed methods is finally exemplified with an encoding time control system that emplo...

  2. On the Dimension of Graph Codes with Reed–Solomon Component Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Peter; Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    We study a class of graph based codes with Reed-Solomon component codes as affine variety codes. We give a formulation of the exact dimension of graph codes in general. We give an algebraic description of these codes which makes the exact computation of the dimension of the graph codes easier....

  3. 76 FR 77549 - Lummi Nation-Title 20-Code of Laws-Liquor Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Lummi Nation--Title 20--Code of Laws--Liquor Code AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...--Code of Laws--Liquor Code. The Code regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of... this Code allows for the possession and sale of alcoholic beverages within the Lummi...

  4. The real code of leonardo da vinci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ose, Leiv

    2008-02-01

    Leonardo da Vinci was born in Italy. Among the researchers and scientists, he is favourably known for his remarkable efforts in scientific work. His investigations of atherosclerosis judiciously combine three separate fields of research. In 1506, he finished his masterpiece, painting of Mona Lisa. A careful clinical examination of the famous painting reveals a yellow irregular leather-like spot at the inner end of the left upper eyelid and a soft bumpy well-defined swelling of the dorsum of the right hand beneath the index finger about 3 cm long. This is probably the first case of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). The FH code of Leonardo da Vinci was given immense consideration by scientists like Carl Muller, who described the xanthomas tuberosum and angina pectoris. On the contrary, Akira Endo searched for microbial metabolites that would inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol and finally, Michael Brown and Joseph Goldstein published a remarkable series of elegant and insightful papers in the 70s and 80s. They established that the cellular uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) essentially requires the LDL receptor. this was the real Code of Leonardo da Vinci.

  5. Index coding via linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Blasiak, Anna; Lubetzky, Eyal

    2010-01-01

    Index Coding has received considerable attention recently motivated in part by applications such as fast video-on-demand and efficient communication in wireless networks and in part by its connection to Network Coding. The basic setting of Index Coding encodes the side-information relation, the problem input, as an undirected graph and the fundamental parameter is the broadcast rate $\\beta$, the average communication cost per bit for sufficiently long messages (i.e. the non-linear vector capacity). Recent nontrivial bounds on $\\beta$ were derived from the study of other Index Coding capacities (e.g. the scalar capacity $\\beta_1$) by Bar-Yossef et al (FOCS'06), Lubetzky and Stav (FOCS'07) and Alon et al (FOCS'08). However, these indirect bounds shed little light on the behavior of $\\beta$ and its exact value remained unknown for \\emph{any graph} where Index Coding is nontrivial. Our main contribution is a hierarchy of linear programs whose solutions trap $\\beta$ between them. This enables a direct information-...

  6. Driver Code for Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shanti

    2007-01-01

    A special-purpose computer code for a deformable-mirror adaptive-optics control system transmits pixel-registered control from (1) a personal computer running software that generates the control data to (2) a circuit board with 128 digital-to-analog converters (DACs) that generate voltages to drive the deformable-mirror actuators. This program reads control-voltage codes from a text file, then sends them, via the computer s parallel port, to a circuit board with four AD5535 (or equivalent) chips. Whereas a similar prior computer program was capable of transmitting data to only one chip at a time, this program can send data to four chips simultaneously. This program is in the form of C-language code that can be compiled and linked into an adaptive-optics software system. The program as supplied includes source code for integration into the adaptive-optics software, documentation, and a component that provides a demonstration of loading DAC codes from a text file. On a standard Windows desktop computer, the software can update 128 channels in 10 ms. On Real-Time Linux with a digital I/O card, the software can update 1024 channels (8 boards in parallel) every 8 ms.

  7. LDPC Codes for Compressed Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Dimakis, Alexandros G; Vontobel, Pascal O

    2010-01-01

    We present a mathematical connection between channel coding and compressed sensing. In particular, we link, on the one hand, \\emph{channel coding linear programming decoding (CC-LPD)}, which is a well-known relaxation of maximum-likelihood channel decoding for binary linear codes, and, on the other hand, \\emph{compressed sensing linear programming decoding (CS-LPD)}, also known as basis pursuit, which is a widely used linear programming relaxation for the problem of finding the sparsest solution of an under-determined system of linear equations. More specifically, we establish a tight connection between CS-LPD based on a zero-one measurement matrix over the reals and CC-LPD of the binary linear channel code that is obtained by viewing this measurement matrix as a binary parity-check matrix. This connection allows the translation of performance guarantees from one setup to the other. The main message of this paper is that parity-check matrices of "good" channel codes can be used as provably "good" measurement ...

  8. Applications guide to the MORSE Monte Carlo code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1985-08-01

    A practical guide for the implementation of the MORESE-CG Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code system is presented. The various versions of the MORSE code are compared and contrasted, and the many references dealing explicitly with the MORSE-CG code are reviewed. The treatment of angular scattering is discussed, and procedures for obtaining increased differentiality of results in terms of reaction types and nuclides from a multigroup Monte Carlo code are explained in terms of cross-section and geometry data manipulation. Examples of standard cross-section data input and output are shown. Many other features of the code system are also reviewed, including (1) the concept of primary and secondary particles, (2) fission neutron generation, (3) albedo data capability, (4) DOMINO coupling, (5) history file use for post-processing of results, (6) adjoint mode operation, (7) variance reduction, and (8) input/output. In addition, examples of the combinatorial geometry are given, and the new array of arrays geometry feature (MARS) and its three-dimensional plotting code (JUNEBUG) are presented. Realistic examples of user routines for source, estimation, path-length stretching, and cross-section data manipulation are given. A deatiled explanation of the coupling between the random walk and estimation procedure is given in terms of both code parameters and physical analogies. The operation of the code in the adjoint mode is covered extensively. The basic concepts of adjoint theory and dimensionality are discussed and examples of adjoint source and estimator user routines are given for all common situations. Adjoint source normalization is explained, a few sample problems are given, and the concept of obtaining forward differential results from adjoint calculations is covered. Finally, the documentation of the standard MORSE-CG sample problem package is reviewed and on-going and future work is discussed.

  9. Halftone Coding with JBIG2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    2000-01-01

    of a halftone pattern dictionary.The decoder first decodes the gray-scale image. Then for each gray-scale pixel looks up the corresponding halftonepattern in the dictionary and places it in the reconstruction bitmap at the position corresponding to the gray-scale pixel. The coding method is inherently lossy......The emerging international standard for compression of bilevel images and bi-level documents, JBIG2,provides a mode dedicated for lossy coding of halftones. The encoding procedure involves descreening of the bi-levelimage into gray-scale, encoding of the gray-scale image, and construction...... and care must be taken to avoid introducing artifacts in the reconstructed image. We describe how to apply this coding method for halftones created by periodic ordered dithering, by clustered dot screening (offset printing), and by techniques which in effect dithers with blue noise, e.g., error diffusion...

  10. Roadmap to Majorana surface codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plugge, S.; Landau, L. A.; Sela, E.; Altland, A.; Flensberg, K.; Egger, R.

    2016-11-01

    Surface codes offer a very promising avenue towards fault-tolerant quantum computation. We argue that two-dimensional interacting networks of Majorana bound states in topological superconductor/semiconductor heterostructures hold several key advantages in that direction, concerning both the hardware realization and the actual operation of the code. We here discuss how topologically protected logical qubits in this Majorana surface code architecture can be defined, initialized, manipulated, and read out. All physical ingredients needed to implement these operations are routinely used in topologically trivial quantum devices. By means of quantum interference terms in linear conductance measurements, single-electron pumping protocols, and gate-tunable tunnel barriers, the full set of quantum gates required for universal quantum computation can be achieved. In particular, we show that designated multistep pumping sequences via tunnel-coupled quantum dots realize high-fidelity ancilla states for phase gates.

  11. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  12. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  13. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standen, Ismo; Christensen, Ole Fredslund

    2011-01-01

    Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker...... effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous...... genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call...

  14. Tree Coding of Bilevel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Presently, sequential tree coders are the best general purpose bilevel image coders and the best coders of halftoned images. The current ISO standard, Joint Bilevel Image Experts Group (JBIG), is a good example. A sequential tree coder encodes the data by feeding estimates of conditional...... probabilities to an arithmetic coder. The conditional probabilities are estimated from co-occurrence statistics of past pixels, the statistics are stored in a tree. By organizing the code length calculations properly, a vast number of possible models (trees) reflecting different pixel orderings can...... is one order of magnitude slower than JBIG, obtains excellent and highly robust compression performance. A multipass free tree coding scheme produces superior compression results for all test images. A multipass free template coding scheme produces significantly better results than JBIG for difficult...

  15. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC EQUATIONS (MHD GENERATION CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Frutos Alfaro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program uses the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the magnetohydrodynamic equations to obtain a code that can be used as a seed for a magnetohydrodynamic code for numerical applications. As an example, we present part of the output of our programs for Cartesian coordinates and how to do the discretization.

  16. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  17. Analysis of Error Floors of Non-Binary LDPC Codes over MBIOS Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Nozaki, Takayuki; Sakaniwa, Kohichi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the error floors of non-binary low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes transmitted over the memoryless binary-input output-symmetric (MBIOS) channels. We provide a necessary and sufficient condition for successful decoding of zigzag cycle codes over the MBIOS channel by the belief propagation decoder. We consider an expurgated ensemble of non-binary LDPC codes by using the above necessary and sufficient condition, and hence exhibit lower error floors. Finally, we show lower bounds of the error floors for the expurgated LDPC code ensembles over the MBIOS channel.

  18. Zigzag Codes: MDS Array Codes with Optimal Rebuilding

    CERN Document Server

    Tamo, Itzhak; Bruck, Jehoshua

    2011-01-01

    MDS array codes are widely used in storage systems to protect data against erasures. We address the \\emph{rebuilding ratio} problem, namely, in the case of erasures, what is the fraction of the remaining information that needs to be accessed in order to rebuild \\emph{exactly} the lost information? It is clear that when the number of erasures equals the maximum number of erasures that an MDS code can correct then the rebuilding ratio is 1 (access all the remaining information). However, the interesting and more practical case is when the number of erasures is smaller than the erasure correcting capability of the code. For example, consider an MDS code that can correct two erasures: What is the smallest amount of information that one needs to access in order to correct a single erasure? Previous work showed that the rebuilding ratio is bounded between 1/2 and 3/4, however, the exact value was left as an open problem. In this paper, we solve this open problem and prove that for the case of a single erasure with ...

  19. Signal Constellations for Multilevel Coded Modulation with Sparse Graph Codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cronie, Harm S.

    2005-01-01

    A method to combine error-correction coding and spectral efficient modulation for transmission over channels with Gaussian noise is presented. The method of modulation leads to a signal constellation in which the constellation symbols have a nonuniform distribution. This gives a so-called shape gain

  20. The stellar atmosphere simulation code Bifrost. Code description and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiksen, B. V.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V. H.; Hayek, W.; Leenaarts, J.; Martínez-Sykora, J.

    2011-07-01

    Context. Numerical simulations of stellar convection and photospheres have been developed to the point where detailed shapes of observed spectral lines can be explained. Stellar atmospheres are very complex, and very different physical regimes are present in the convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, transition region and corona. To understand the details of the atmosphere it is necessary to simulate the whole atmosphere since the different layers interact strongly. These physical regimes are very diverse and it takes a highly efficient massively parallel numerical code to solve the associated equations. Aims: The design, implementation and validation of the massively parallel numerical code Bifrost for simulating stellar atmospheres from the convection zone to the corona. Methods: The code is subjected to a number of validation tests, among them the Sod shock tube test, the Orzag-Tang colliding shock test, boundary condition tests and tests of how the code treats magnetic field advection, chromospheric radiation, radiative transfer in an isothermal scattering atmosphere, hydrogen ionization and thermal conduction. Results.Bifrost completes the tests with good results and shows near linear efficiency scaling to thousands of computing cores.

  1. Halftone Coding with JBIG2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    2000-01-01

    The emerging international standard for compression of bilevel images and bi-level documents, JBIG2,provides a mode dedicated for lossy coding of halftones. The encoding procedure involves descreening of the bi-levelimage into gray-scale, encoding of the gray-scale image, and construction...... and care must be taken to avoid introducing artifacts in the reconstructed image. We describe how to apply this coding method for halftones created by periodic ordered dithering, by clustered dot screening (offset printing), and by techniques which in effect dithers with blue noise, e.g., error diffusion....... Besides descreening and construction of the dictionary, we address graceful degradationand artifact removal....

  2. Hybrid codes: Methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winske, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Omidi, N. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

  3. An Analysis of Syndrome Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiruzzaman, Md; Abdullah-Al-Wadud, M.; Chung, Yoojin

    In this paper a detail analysis is presented based on BCH syndrome coding for covert channel data hiding methods. The experimented technique is nothing but a syndrome coding algorithm with a coset based approach, analyzed results are showing that the examined method has more flexibility to choose coset, also providing less modification distortion caused by data hiding. Analyzed method presented by clear mathematical way. As it is mathematical equation dependent, hence analyzed results are showing that the analyzed method has fast computation ability and find perfect roots for modification.

  4. List Decoding of Matrix-Product Codes from nested codes: an application to Quasi-Cyclic codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernando, Fernando; Høholdt, Tom; Ruano, Diego

    2012-01-01

    A list decoding algorithm for matrix-product codes is provided when $C_1,..., C_s$ are nested linear codes and $A$ is a non-singular by columns matrix. We estimate the probability of getting more than one codeword as output when the constituent codes are Reed-Solomon codes. We extend this list...... decoding algorithm for matrix-product codes with polynomial units, which are quasi-cyclic codes. Furthermore, it allows us to consider unique decoding for matrix-product codes with polynomial units....

  5. List Decoding of Matrix-Product Codes from nested codes: an application to Quasi-Cyclic codes

    OpenAIRE

    Hernando, Fernando; Høholdt, Tom; Ruano, Diego

    2012-01-01

    A list decoding algorithm for matrix-product codes is provided when $C_1,..., C_s$ are nested linear codes and $A$ is a non-singular by columns matrix. We estimate the probability of getting more than one codeword as output when the constituent codes are Reed-Solomon codes. We extend this list decoding algorithm for matrix-product codes with polynomial units, which are quasi-cyclic codes. Furthermore, it allows us to consider unique decoding for matrix-product codes with polynomial units.

  6. Online multipath convolutional coding for real-time transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Thai, Tuan Tran; Lacan, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    Most of multipath multimedia streaming proposals use Forward Error Correction (FEC) approach to protect from packet losses. However, FEC does not sustain well burst of losses even when packets from a given FEC block are spread over multiple paths. In this article, we propose an online multipath convolutional coding for real-time multipath streaming based on an on-the-fly coding scheme called Tetrys. We evaluate the benefits brought out by this coding scheme inside an existing FEC multipath load splitting proposal known as Encoded Multipath Streaming (EMS). We demonstrate that Tetrys consistently outperforms FEC in both uniform and burst losses with EMS scheme. We also propose a modification of the standard EMS algorithm that greatly improves the performance in terms of packet recovery. Finally, we analyze different spreading policies of the Tetrys redundancy traffic between available paths and observe that the longer propagation delay path should be preferably used to carry repair packets.

  7. A Unique Perspective on Data Coding and Decoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yan Wang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a loss-less data compression coding method is proposed, and a detailed description of each of its steps follows. Using the Calgary Corpus and Wikipedia data as the experimental samples and compared with existing algorithms, like PAQ or PPMstr, the new coding method could not only compress the source data, but also further re-compress the data produced by the other compression algorithms. The final files are smaller, and by comparison with the original compression ratio, at least 1% redundancy could be eliminated. The new method is simple and easy to realize. Its theoretical foundation is currently under study. The corresponding Matlab source code is provided in  the Appendix.

  8. Perfect Z2Z4-linear codes in Steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Rifà, H; Ronquillo, L

    2010-01-01

    Steganography is an information hiding application which aims to hide secret data imperceptibly into a commonly used media. Unfortunately, the theoretical hiding asymptotical capacity of steganographic systems is not attained by algorithms developed so far. In this paper, we describe a novel coding method based on Z2Z4-linear codes that conforms to +/-1-steganography, that is secret data is embedded into a cover message by distorting each symbol by one unit at most. This method solves some problems encountered by the most efficient methods known today, based on ternary Hamming codes. Finally, the performance of this new technique is compared with that of the mentioned methods and with the well-known theoretical upper bound.

  9. Lossless Image Compression Based on Multiple-Tables Arithmetic Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rung-Ching Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to present a lossless image compression method based on multiple-tables arithmetic coding (MTAC method to encode a gray-level image f. First, the MTAC method employs a median edge detector (MED to reduce the entropy rate of f. The gray levels of two adjacent pixels in an image are usually similar. A base-switching transformation approach is then used to reduce the spatial redundancy of the image. The gray levels of some pixels in an image are more common than those of others. Finally, the arithmetic encoding method is applied to reduce the coding redundancy of the image. To promote high performance of the arithmetic encoding method, the MTAC method first classifies the data and then encodes each cluster of data using a distinct code table. The experimental results show that, in most cases, the MTAC method provides a higher efficiency in use of storage space than the lossless JPEG2000 does.

  10. Nonterminals and codings in defining variations of OL-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    1974-01-01

    The use of nonterminals versus the use of codings in variations of OL-systems is studied. It is shown that the use of nonterminals produces a comparatively low generative capacity in deterministic systems while it produces a comparatively high generative capacity in nondeterministic systems. Fina....... Finally it is proved that the family of context-free languages is contained in the family generated by codings on propagating OL-systems with a finite set of axioms, which was one of the open problems in [10]. All the results in this paper can be found in [71] and [72].......The use of nonterminals versus the use of codings in variations of OL-systems is studied. It is shown that the use of nonterminals produces a comparatively low generative capacity in deterministic systems while it produces a comparatively high generative capacity in nondeterministic systems...

  11. Source Coding in Networks with Covariance Distortion Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Adel; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2016-01-01

    -distortion function (RDF). We then study the special cases and applications of this result. We show that two well-studied source coding problems, i.e. remote vector Gaussian Wyner-Ziv problems with mean-squared error and mutual information constraints are in fact special cases of our results. Finally, we apply our......We consider a source coding problem with a network scenario in mind, and formulate it as a remote vector Gaussian Wyner-Ziv problem under covariance matrix distortions. We define a notion of minimum for two positive-definite matrices based on which we derive an explicit formula for the rate...... results to a joint source coding and denoising problem. We consider a network with a centralized topology and a given weighted sum-rate constraint, where the received signals at the center are to be fused to maximize the output SNR while enforcing no linear distortion. We show that one can design...

  12. A large scale code resolution service network in the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haining; Zhang, Hongli; Fang, Binxing; Yu, Xiangzhan

    2012-11-07

    In the Internet of Things a code resolution service provides a discovery mechanism for a requester to obtain the information resources associated with a particular product code immediately. In large scale application scenarios a code resolution service faces some serious issues involving heterogeneity, big data and data ownership. A code resolution service network is required to address these issues. Firstly, a list of requirements for the network architecture and code resolution services is proposed. Secondly, in order to eliminate code resolution conflicts and code resolution overloads, a code structure is presented to create a uniform namespace for code resolution records. Thirdly, we propose a loosely coupled distributed network consisting of heterogeneous, independent; collaborating code resolution services and a SkipNet based code resolution service named SkipNet-OCRS, which not only inherits DHT’s advantages, but also supports administrative control and autonomy. For the external behaviors of SkipNet-OCRS, a novel external behavior mode named QRRA mode is proposed to enhance security and reduce requester complexity. For the internal behaviors of SkipNet-OCRS, an improved query algorithm is proposed to increase query efficiency. It is analyzed that integrating SkipNet-OCRS into our resolution service network can meet our proposed requirements. Finally, simulation experiments verify the excellent performance of SkipNet-OCRS.

  13. A Large Scale Code Resolution Service Network in the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangzhan Yu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Internet of Things a code resolution service provides a discovery mechanism for a requester to obtain the information resources associated with a particular product code immediately. In large scale application scenarios a code resolution service faces some serious issues involving heterogeneity, big data and data ownership. A code resolution service network is required to address these issues. Firstly, a list of requirements for the network architecture and code resolution services is proposed. Secondly, in order to eliminate code resolution conflicts and code resolution overloads, a code structure is presented to create a uniform namespace for code resolution records. Thirdly, we propose a loosely coupled distributed network consisting of heterogeneous, independent; collaborating code resolution services and a SkipNet based code resolution service named SkipNet-OCRS, which not only inherits DHT’s advantages, but also supports administrative control and autonomy. For the external behaviors of SkipNet-OCRS, a novel external behavior mode named QRRA mode is proposed to enhance security and reduce requester complexity. For the internal behaviors of SkipNet-OCRS, an improved query algorithm is proposed to increase query efficiency. It is analyzed that integrating SkipNet-OCRS into our resolution service network can meet our proposed requirements. Finally, simulation experiments verify the excellent performance of SkipNet-OCRS.

  14. Multiple Schemes for Mobile Payment Authentication Using QR Code and Visual Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available QR code (quick response code is used due to its beneficial properties, especially in the mobile payment field. However, there exists an inevitable risk in the transaction process. It is not easily perceived that the attacker tampers with or replaces the QR code that contains merchant’s beneficiary account. Thus, it is of great urgency to conduct authentication of QR code. In this study, we propose a novel mechanism based on visual cryptography scheme (VCS and aesthetic QR code, which contains three primary schemes for different concealment levels. The main steps of these schemes are as follows. Firstly, one original QR code is split into two shadows using VC multiple rules; secondly, the two shadows are embedded into the same background image, respectively, and the embedded results are fused with the same carrier QR code, respectively, using XOR mechanism of RS and QR code error correction mechanism. Finally, the two aesthetic QR codes can be stacked precisely and the original QR code is restored according to the defined VCS. Experiments corresponding to three proposed schemes are conducted and demonstrate the feasibility and security of the mobile payment authentication, the significant improvement of the concealment for the shadows in QR code, and the diversity of mobile payment authentication.

  15. Huffman-based code compression techniques for embedded processors

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2010-09-01

    The size of embedded software is increasing at a rapid pace. It is often challenging and time consuming to fit an amount of required software functionality within a given hardware resource budget. Code compression is a means to alleviate the problem by providing substantial savings in terms of code size. In this article we introduce a novel and efficient hardware-supported compression technique that is based on Huffman Coding. Our technique reduces the size of the generated decoding table, which takes a large portion of the memory. It combines our previous techniques, Instruction Splitting Technique and Instruction Re-encoding Technique into new one called Combined Compression Technique to improve the final compression ratio by taking advantage of both previous techniques. The instruction Splitting Technique is instruction set architecture (ISA)-independent. It splits the instructions into portions of varying size (called patterns) before Huffman coding is applied. This technique improves the final compression ratio by more than 20% compared to other known schemes based on Huffman Coding. The average compression ratios achieved using this technique are 48% and 50% for ARM and MIPS, respectively. The Instruction Re-encoding Technique is ISA-dependent. It investigates the benefits of reencoding unused bits (we call them reencodable bits) in the instruction format for a specific application to improve the compression ratio. Reencoding those bits can reduce the size of decoding tables by up to 40%. Using this technique, we improve the final compression ratios in comparison to the first technique to 46% and 45% for ARM and MIPS, respectively (including all overhead that incurs). The Combined Compression Technique improves the compression ratio to 45% and 42% for ARM and MIPS, respectively. In our compression technique, we have conducted evaluations using a representative set of applications and we have applied each technique to two major embedded processor architectures

  16. An Interactive Concatenated Turbo Coding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Tang, Heng; Lin, Shu; Fossorier, Marc

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a concatenated turbo coding system in which a Reed-Solomon outer code is concatenated with a binary turbo inner code. In the proposed system, the outer code decoder and the inner turbo code decoder interact to achieve both good bit error and frame error performances. The outer code decoder helps the inner turbo code decoder to terminate its decoding iteration while the inner turbo code decoder provides soft-output information to the outer code decoder to carry out a reliability-based soft- decision decoding. In the case that the outer code decoding fails, the outer code decoder instructs the inner code decoder to continue its decoding iterations until the outer code decoding is successful or a preset maximum number of decoding iterations is reached. This interaction between outer and inner code decoders reduces decoding delay. Also presented in the paper are an effective criterion for stopping the iteration process of the inner code decoder and a new reliability-based decoding algorithm for nonbinary codes.

  17. Type Ⅱ codes over finite rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOUGHERTY; Steven; T

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we generalize the concept of Type Ⅱ codes to arbitrary finite rings. We focus on Type Ⅱ codes over finite chain rings and use the Chinese Remainder Theorem on these codes to study Type Ⅱ codes over principal ideal rings.

  18. SPARSE SEQUENCE CONSTRUCTION OF LDPC CODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This letter proposes a novel and simple construction of regular Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes using sparse binary sequences. It utilizes the cyclic cross correlation function of sparse sequences to generate codes with girth8. The new codes perform well using the sumproduct decoding. Low encodingcomplexity can also be achieved due to the inherent quasi-cyclic structure of the codes.

  19. TOCAR: a code to interface FOURACES - CARNAVAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panini, G.C.; Vaccari, M.

    1981-08-01

    The TOCAR code, written in FORTRAN-IV for IBM-370 computers, is an interface between the output of the FOURACES code and the CARNAVAL binary format for the multigroup neutron cross-sections, scattering matrices and related quantities. Besides the description of the code and the how to use, the report contains the code listing.

  20. The Minimum Distance of Graph Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    We study codes constructed from graphs where the code symbols are associated with the edges and the symbols connected to a given vertex are restricted to be codewords in a component code. In particular we treat such codes from bipartite expander graphs coming from Euclidean planes and other...